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Sample records for total body electron

  1. SU-E-T-357: Electronic Compensation Technique to Deliver Total Body Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, T; Wang, I; Podgorsak, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient’s immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has conventionally been used to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Methods: Treatment plans utilizing electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two, specifically weighted, pair of opposed fields. One pair of open, large fields (collimator=45°), to encompass the patient’s entire anatomy, and one pair of smaller fields (collimator=0°) focused only on the thicker midsection of the patient. The optimal fluence for each one of the smaller fields was calculated at a patient specific penetration depth. Irregular surface compensators provide a more uniform dose distribution within the smaller opposed fields. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In one case, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 195.8% to 165.3% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the region of electronic compensation. The mean body doses calculated from the DVH were also reduced from the non-compensated 120.6% to 112.7% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more accurate delivery of the prescription dose. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not substantially increase the beam on time while it can significantly reduce the compensator

  2. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  3. A reviewed technique for total body electron therapy using a Varian Clinac 2100C/D high dose rate treatment beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; Xuereb, E.M.A.; Last, V.; Hunt, P.B.; Wilfert, A.

    1996-01-01

    Our (Royal North Shore Hospital) most recent linear accelerator acquisition is a Varian Clinac 2100C/D which has a high dose rate (approximately 25Gy per minute at 1 metre) total body electron option. We investigated the physical characteristics of the electron beam to develop a suitable method of treatment for total body electron therapy. The useful electron beam width is defined as 80cm above and below the reference height. Measurements of the electron dose received from the two angled electron beams showed a critical dependence on the gantry angles. The treatment protocol uses ten different patient angles, fractionated into directly opposing fields and treated seuqentially each day. A full cycle of treatment is completed in five days. (author)

  4. Total body irradiation: current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  5. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  6. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  7. Dosimetric analysis for photon and electron beams in Whole body irradiation; Analisis dosimetrico para haces de fotones y electrones en irradiacion corporal total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado G, M. [Posgrado. Fisica Medica Radiologica. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota. Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia. Instituto Regional de Cancer de la Orinoquia. Hospital Regional de Villavicencio, Meta (Colombia)

    1998-12-31

    To initiate the Whole body irradiation as an alternative for the treatment of the hematological diseases, leukemia and assistant for the osseous marrow transplantation, it may be taken account the application of International Protocols about control and quality assurance. It is established the intercomparison by the different dosimetric methods: cylindrical ionization chambers and parallel plane, radiographic emulsion film, semiconductor diodes (Mosfet transistors) and TLD-100 thermoluminescent crystals, obtained measurements for 140 x 140 cm{sup 2} fields and large distances 340 cm respect conventional fields in Radiotherapy. The in vitro dosimetry was realized at the Universal Anthropomorphic puppet Alderson Rando basically with the cylindrical crystals (1 mm diameter) of TLD-100 lithium fluoride. It was obtained the dose value with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} cylindrical ionization chamber and the Farmer electrometer for Whole body irradiation (ICT) with photons for electrons and were obtained values with the Markus plane parallel camera. Knowing the dose rate value to the source-surface distance DFS= 80 cm, it was calibrated the crystals with the reference radiation beam of {sup 60} Co for obtaining the response curve: Dose vs. Tl lecture. It was characterized the 10 % of the total population for 300 crystals for applying the statistics corresponding. The luminescence curve obtained of Gaussian form was considered satisfactory by its stability during the pre-anneal lecture and anneal process, getting the main peak lecture at 300 Centigrade according to assigned parameters at lecture equipment TLD Harshaw model 4500. The results indicate the functional dependence with the distance DFS= 340 cm for the following depth PPD, the relations TMR and TPR, the TAR is not calculated by the increment of the dispersion in air. The penumbra increment indicates an increase of the radiation field respect of luminous field. The dispersion angle q{sub 1} respect at the field central axis

  8. Electronic Falling Body Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an analog electronic simulator for the motion of an object projected horizontally in a vertical acceleration field. The device features adjustable values for the horizontal speeds and "gravity." Trajectories are displayed on an oscilloscope. (Author/CP)

  9. Total Body Opacification 'Technique Neonatal Adrenal Haemorrhage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-12-11

    Dec 11, 1971 ... A case is reported illustrating the possible usefulness of total body opacification in the diagnosis of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage. To derive maximum benefit from this principle, the routine use of an early film coupled with high dosage is urged whenever an intravenous pyelogram is performed for ...

  10. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  11. Contribution of backscattered electrons to the total electron yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown experimentally that under energetic electron bombardment the backscattered electrons from solid targets contribute significantly (∼ 80%) to the observed total electron yield, even for targets of high backscattering coefficients. It is further found that for tungsten ( = 74) with a backscattering coefficient of about 0.50 ...

  12. Measurement of total body radioactivity in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naversten, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of whole-body radioactivity in man using uncollimated NaI(Tl) detectors have been studied. Geometrical effects and photon attenuation effects due to the different shapes of humans as well as due to varying in-vivo radioactivity distributions have been evaluated particularly for scanning-bed geometries and the chair geometry. Theoretically it is shown that the attenuation effects are generally dominating, for full-energy-peak pulse-range methods. For the application in radiation protection a cheap and simple chair-geometry unit has been constructed and used at various places distantly from the home-laboratory, for studies of body activity of Cs-137 in northern Sweden. High body activities were found particularly in reindeer-breeding Lapps. The elimination rate of Cs-137 in man was studied in the stationary whole-body counter in Lund as well as with the field-system. For the study of the performances at low and high photon energies clinical applications of methods for gastro-intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 (Co-57; 122 keV) and total body potassium determination (K-40; 1.46 MeV, K-42; 1.52 MeV) have been evaluated. Theoretical and experimental results as well as experiences of applications in radiation protection and medicine show that the scanning-bed geometry effectively evens out redistributional effects. For optimum results, however, scatter-energy pulse-ranges rather than full-energy-peak ranges should be used. (Auth.)

  13. Total Dose Survivability of Hubble Electronic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Haskins, D. N.; Lum, G.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    A total dose analysis for exposure of electronic parts at the box level is presented for the Hubble Space Telescope. This was done using solid angle sectoring/3-dimensional ray trace and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Results are discussed in terms of parts that are potential total dose concerns.

  14. Total body irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advani, S.H.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Nair, C.N.; Ramakrishnan, G.

    1983-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI), given as 10 rad daily for five days a week for a total dose of 150 rad has been used in an attempt to control the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thirteen patients with CML received fractionated TBI leading to rapid and good control of WBC count without any adverse reaction. The chronic phase of CML could also be controlled with TBI, even in three patients who were resistant to busulfan. Following TBI, WBC count remained under control for a period of 32 weeks as compared to 40 weeks following vusulfan alone. Repeat TBI was also well tolerated with good response. It appears that TBI is an effective and safe therapy for controlling the chronic phase of CML

  15. Total body photography for skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengel, Lynn T; Petroni, Gina R; Judge, Joshua; Chen, David; Acton, Scott T; Schroen, Anneke T; Slingluff, Craig L

    2015-11-01

    Total body photography may aid in melanoma screening but is not widely applied due to time and cost. We hypothesized that a near-simultaneous automated skin photo-acquisition system would be acceptable to patients and could rapidly obtain total body images that enable visualization of pigmented skin lesions. From February to May 2009, a study of 20 volunteers was performed at the University of Virginia to test a prototype 16-camera imaging booth built by the research team and to guide development of special purpose software. For each participant, images were obtained before and after marking 10 lesions (five "easy" and five "difficult"), and images were evaluated to estimate visualization rates. Imaging logistical challenges were scored by the operator, and participant opinion was assessed by questionnaire. Average time for image capture was three minutes (range 2-5). All 55 "easy" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 100%, 90% CI 95-100%), and 54/55 "difficult" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 98%, 90% CI 92-100%). Operators and patients graded the imaging process favorably, with challenges identified regarding lighting and positioning. Rapid-acquisition automated skin photography is feasible with a low-cost system, with excellent lesion visualization and participant acceptance. These data provide a basis for employing this method in clinical melanoma screening. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  17. Total body irradiation: technical and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Touboul, E.; Rio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) has an established role in many preparative regimens used before marrow transplantation (BMT) in the treatment of hematological malignancies in children and adults. Better choice in TBI techniques and dosimetry have permitted better homogeneity of dose, and therefore a significant sparing of critical tissues. Advances in treatments over the past 20 years have greatly improved survival; therefore, the evaluation of early and late complications with a sufficient follow-up, according to different conditioning regimens is important. In this article, we review and compare different TBI techniques and dosimetry, and their influence on the distribution and homogeneity of dose, and the possible relationship to the risk of complications. We also describe the acute and late effects of TBI in children and adults appearing in the first month post-BMT as veno-occlusive disease, interstitial pneumonitis, or after 3 months, i.e., endocrinal late effects and growth in children, cataracts, neurological and bone or other complications, secondary tumors and alteration in the quality of life. The responsibility of TBI in the increased rate of certain complications is difficult to assess from chemotherapy or allograft side effects (chronic graft vs. host disease) or from other associated medical treatments, such as long term steroid therapy. (authors)

  18. Total body irradiation: what schedule(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why a whole-body irradiation is still an essential step before a bone marrow graft. He presents irradiation protocols for acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. 14 refs

  19. Comparison of three techniques for skin total irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Delano V.S.; Bardella, Lucia H.; Rosa, Luiz A.R. da

    2011-01-01

    This paper compared three techniques of skin total irradiation with electrons: 1) horizontal positioning, 2) vertical positioning - rotatory technique and 3) vertical positioning - six fields technique. For that, a anthropomorphic phantom was positioned according to the recommendation for each technique and was i radiated at the linear accelerator by using the 6 MeV electrons. Radiochromic films were positioned on the surface in various regions of the phantom for measurement of absorbed dose. A ionization chamber was positioned inside of equivalent issue plates for dose evaluation due to the photons produced by electron stopping. The technique 2 and 3 have shown too similar in the results and number or discrepant points (8 and 10 respectively) of prescription lower than the technique 1 (22 points). The total body dose of photons of the 1, 2 and 3 techniques was 2.2%, 5.3% and 5.2% respectively

  20. Total Skin Electron Irradiation: Evaluation of Dose Uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Y.; Arican, Z.; Bar-Deroma, R.; Kuten, A.

    2002-01-01

    Total Skin Electron Beam Irradiation (TSEI) is one of the most sophisticated treatment techniques of modern radiation oncology practice. TSEI is used in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides (MF), and Kaposi sarcoma. The objective of TSEI is to uniformly deliver a specified dose over the entire skin surface down to a particular depth. However, considerable technical and dosimetric difficulties exist in achieving this goal due to patient and treatment machine factors. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements are usually performed to evaluate dose distribution throughout the body. This paper presents the in vivo dosimetric data of 67 treatments on 58 patients with MF, treated with TSEI

  1. Lying-on position of total skin electron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming; Leung, Stephen Wan; Wang Chongjong; Chui Chenshou

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A technique for whole-body electron therapy with the patient in a lying position has been developed. This technique allows Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET) for those patients who were previously unable to be treated in a conventional standing position. Methods and Materials: This study was carried out on a Varian 2100C linear accelerator with a 6 MeV high dose rate electron beam. The collimator was open to a width of 36 x 36 cm. There were two main procedures, with six dual-field techniques: 1) two static AP/PA vertical dual fields (VDF): the patient laid on the floor transversely under the collimator when the gantry was in a vertical position. A 0.6 cm acrylic board was placed 15 cm away from the patient, then the gantry was rotated 25 deg. clockwise and counterclockwise to treat the patient in the supine and prone positions, respectively. 2) Four oblique junction fields (OJF): the patient laid on the floor in a prone and supine position parallel to the wave guide at (227 - body thickness x tan 60 deg. ) cm away from the vertical axis of the gantry, then the gantry was rotated 60 deg. toward the patient. A 0.6 cm acrylic board was placed 15 cm away from the patient perpendicular to the beam. The patient was move along the field central axis. It allowed the patient's body to be within the 160 cm effective treatment profile. When the patient's body axis move 5 deg. toward the lateral side of the field central axis, we could obtain a better dose distribution in the vertex of the scalp and the soles of the feet. The angle of the VDF was measured by chamber detectors to obtain the effective treatment profile. Likewise, the optimal profile for the OJF was determined by the same procedures. The Rando phantom was used to measure the superficial dose of the body. Results: The dimension of effective treatment profile for the VDF was 188 x 72 cm at 87% dose level. For the OJF, we had to move the patient along the field central axis to obtain the effective

  2. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  3. A technique for pediatric total skin electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Qinan; Hrycushko, Brian A; Dugas, Joseph P; Hager, Frederick H; Solberg, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special radiotherapy technique which has generally been used for treating adult patients with mycosis fungoides. Recently, two infants presented with leukemia cutis isolated to the skin requiring TSEI. This work discusses the commissioning and quality assurance (QA) methods for implementing a modified Stanford technique using a rotating harness system to position sedated pediatric patients treated with electrons to the total skin. Commissioning of pediatric TSEI consisted of absolute calibration, measurement of dosimetric parameters, and subsequent verification in a pediatric patient sized cylindrical phantom using radiographic film and optically stimulated luminance (OSL) dosimeters. The depth of dose penetration under TSEI treatment condition was evaluated using radiographic film sandwiched in the phantom and demonstrated a 2 cm penetration depth with the maximum dose located at the phantom surface. Dosimetry measurements on the cylindrical phantom and in-vivo measurements from the patients suggested that, the factor relating the skin and calibration point doses (i.e., the B-factor) was larger for the pediatric TSEI treatments as compared to adult TSEI treatments. Custom made equipment, including a rotating plate and harness, was fabricated and added to a standard total body irradiation stand and tested to facilitate patient setup under sedated condition. A pediatric TSEI QA program, consisting of daily output, energy, flatness, and symmetry measurements as well as in-vivo dosimetry verification for the first cycle was developed. With a long interval between pediatric TSEI cases, absolute dosimetry was also repeated as part of the QA program. In-vivo dosimetry for the first two infants showed that a dose of ± 10% of the prescription dose can be achieved over the entire patient body. Though pediatric leukemia cutis and the subsequent need for TSEI are rare, the ability to commission the technique on a modified TBI stand

  4. Contribution of backscattered electrons to the total electron yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hunger and Kuchler [21] have also made a theoretical study of this variation in the range of 4–40 keV. The curve shown in the figure is the prediction of their theoretical calculations which is found to be in a good agreement with our experimental data. For studying the behavior of electrons penetrating a solid target, there are ...

  5. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  6. Development of predictive equations for total body water using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study aimed to derive predictive equations for total body water determinations with bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements in a population of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive Zulu women. Design: Cross-sectional data from within an ongoing prospective study ...

  7. Development of predictive equations for total body water using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-02

    Feb 2, 2012 ... Objectives: The study aimed to derive predictive equations for total body water determinations with bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements in a population of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive Zulu women. Design: Cross-sectional data from within an ongoing ...

  8. Dose characteristics of total-skin electron-beam irradiation with six-dual electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae

    1998-01-01

    To obtain the uniform dose at limited depth to entire surface of the body, the dose characteristics of degraded electron beam of the large target-skin distance and the dose distribution of the six-dual electron fields were investigated. The experimental dose distributions included the depth dose curve, spatial dose and attenuated electron beam were determined with 300 cm of Target-Skin Distance (TSD) and full collimator size (35x35 cm 2 on TSD 100 cm) in 4 MeV electron beam energy. Actual collimated field size of 105 cmx105 cm at the distance of 300 cm could include entire hemibody. A patient was standing on step board with hands up and holding the pole to stabilize his/her positions for the six-dual fields technique. As a scatter-degrader, 0.5 cm of acrylic plate was inserted at 20 cm from the body surface on the electron beam path to induce ray scattering and to increase the skin dose. The Full Width at Half Maximum(FWHM) of dose profile was 130 cm in large field of 105x105 cm 2 . The width of 100±10% of the resultant dose from two adjacent fields which were separated at 25 cm from field edge for obtaining the dose uniformity was extended to 186 cm. The depth of maximum dose lies at 5 mm and the 80% depth dose lies between 7 and 8 mm for the degraded electron beam by using the 0.5 cm thickness of acrylic absorber. Total skin electron beam irradiation (TSEBI) was carried out using the six dual fields has been developed at Stanford University. The dose distribution in TSEBI showed relatively uniform around the flat region of skin except the protruding and deeply curvatured portion of the body, which showed excess of dose at the former and less dose at the latter. The percent depth dose, profile curves and superimposed dose distribution were investigated using the degraded using the degraded electron beam through the beam absorber. The dose distribution obtained by experiments of TSEBI showed within±10% difference excepts the protruding area of skin which needs a

  9. Total body potassium calibrations for normal and obese subjects in two types of whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.; Hesp, R.; Mackenzie, J.

    1979-01-01

    A 42 K calibration technique has been used to compare determinations of total body potassium (TBK) over a wide range of body weights (50.6 to 119.1 kg). Measurements were made using a unique type of liquid scintillation whole-body counter and a conventional NaI whole-body counter. The standard error of an estimate of a TBK of 140 g was in the range 3.0 to 3.4% for both counters. The accuracy of calibration of both counters was shown to provide a sound basis for clinical applications of TBK measurements over a wide range of body weights. (U.K.)

  10. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  11. Integral bounds for N-body total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, T.A.; Bolle, D.

    1979-01-01

    We study the behavior of the total cross sections in the three- and N-body scattering problem. Working within the framework of the time-dependent two-Hilbert space scattering theory, we give a simple derivation of integral bounds for the total cross section for all processes initiated by the collision of two clusters. By combining the optical theorem with a trace identity derived by Jauch, Sinha, and Misra, we find, roughly speaking, that if the local pairwise interaction falls off faster than r -3 , then sigma/sub tot/(E) must decrease faster than E/sup -1/2/ at high energy. This conclusion is unchanged if one introduces a class of well-behaved three-body interactions

  12. Development of total-skin electron therapy at two energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.S.; Heck, R.J.; Fessenden, P.; Karzmark, C.J.; Rust, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Total-Skin Electron Therapy (TSET) modalities have been developed at two energies on a Varian Clinac 1800. The physical criteria for the beams were determined mainly from the requirement of continuing the Stanford treatment technique, which was 12 Total-Skin Electron Therapy portals combined in six pairs. The penetration of the lower energy mode matches that previously obtained at Stanford on the Varian Clinac 10, (about 4 mm for the 80% isodose contour in the 12-field treatment). The penetration of the higher energy mode is about 8 mm at the 80% contour. The Total-Skin Electron Therapy modes necessarily use electrons produced by the two standard electron-beam modes of lowest energy, nominally 6 and 9 MeV. Measurements to verify the beam specifications were carried out with diodes, a variety of ionization chambers, and a specially constructed circular phantom for film dosimetry. Initially, the penetration of the Total-Skin Electron Therapy beams was too large to match our criteria, so two methods of reducing it were explored: (a) the energies of the electron beams produced by the machine were reduced (which also reduced the energies of the corresponding standard electron modes) and (b) a large polymethylmethacrylate degrader (2.4 m X 1.2 m) 1 cm thick was placed just in front of the patient plane. Acceptable Total-Skin Electron Therapy beams could be produced by either method and the latter was finally used. The use of the standard dose monitoring system for the Total-Skin Electron Therapy modes considerably simplifies the daily treatment delivery as well as the implementation. However, the need for reasonable dose rates at the treatment plane (3.5 meters beyond the isocenter) requires dose rates of 24 Gy/min at the isocenter. Nevertheless, it is possible to use the internal dose monitor provided the problems associated with high dose rates are addressed

  13. Appraisal of ANN and ANFIS for Predicting Vertical Total Electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Positional accuracy in the usage of GPS receiver is one of the major challenges in GPS observations. The propagation of the GPS signals are interfered by free electrons which are the massive particles in the ionosphere region and results in delays in the transmission of signals to the Earth. Therefore, the total electron ...

  14. Blood changes in humans following total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T.; Jacobson, L.O.; Schwartz, S.; Nickson, J.J.

    1947-06-02

    A major problem encountered in the Manhattan Project was the protection of workers against damage resulting from acute or chronic exposure to external radiation. The problem of how to detect evidence of damage following exposure to total body radiation led to this study. These studies were conducted between January, 1942 and November, 1945. Three groups of persons were employed in this study. The first group of eight individuals harboring incurable neoplasms which was not extensive enough to influence general health, these patients were treated with 400 KV x-radiation while sitting in a wooden chair, doses were 27, 60, and 120r. Three persons having generalized illnesses chronic in nature were given total body radiation using 200 KV X-rays in multiple exposures totaling 100, 300, and 500r. A third group of normal volunteers from personnel of the Metallurgical Laboratory were treated with 200 KV x-rays in three divided doses totaling 21 r. Changes in peripheral blood in the fourteen individuals is reported. In group 1 the most persistent abnormality noted was a diminution in the number of lymphocytes after completion of the treatment. In group 2 a depression in the lymphocytes was also the most marked single change. In group 3 no alterations in peripheral blood was observed.

  15. From Talking Heads to Communicating Bodies: Cybersemiotics and Total Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Nedergaard Thomsen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Current linguistics is biased towards considering as object of scientific study only verbal language, i.e., ordinary language whose basic entities are words, sentences, and texts. By having this focus, the crucial non-verbal semiotic contributions from acts of bodily communication are left out of consideration. On the face of it, this is a strange situation, because, phenomenologically, when observing a communicating dyad, what appears to the senses is a multimodal semiotic display–the interactants produce acts of total communication, the linguistic part of which has in fact to be disentangled from the integral semiotic behavior. That a human being should in the first place be conceptualized as a ‘talking head’, rather than a ‘communicating body’, stems from at least four historically interrelated fountains: ancient Greek philosophy with its emphasis on logos as meaning both rational mind and verbal language/speech as well as with its rejection of rhetoric (including body language; Cartesian dualistic rationalism where the body was the animal, mechanistic part of a human being, unworthy for the Geisteswissenschaften; Saussure’s formal structuralism with its defocusing of the individual’s performance, parole, and its high focus on societal langue; and Chomskyan linguistics with its neglect of actual, also bodily, performance, and its total focus on an ideal mental grammatical computational competence. With the recent philosophy (‘in the flesh’ of the ‘embodied mind’, time has now come for integrating the (linguistic head with the (other part of the communicating body and seeing communication as total communication of the whole body. This means that the communicating mind is no longer restricted to its ‘rational’ aspects but has to be conceived full-scale as integrating also all kinds of ‘irrational’ factors, like emotions and motivations. Another, no less important, implication of the above is that an individual

  16. Radiation nephritis following total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide in preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstein, J.; Andreoli, S.P.; Provisor, A.J.; Yum, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two children prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide developed hypertension, microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, diminished renal function, and anemia six months after transplantation. Light microscopy of the kidneys revealed mesangial expansion, glomerular capillary wall thickening, and lumenal thrombosis. Electron microscopy demonstrated widening of the subendothelial space due to the deposition of amorphous fluffy material. In one patient, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed glomerular capillary wall deposition of fibrin and immunoglobulins. The clinical and histologic findings support the diagnosis of radiation nephritis. Patients prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide should be followed closely after transplantation for the development of hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency

  17. New Approach to Total Dose Specification for Spacecraft Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to total dose specification for spacecraft electronics. It is shown to have a significant impact. A new approach is developed for total dose requirements that replaces the radiation design margin concept with failure probability during a mission.

  18. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD).

  19. Renin secretion and total body sodium: Pathways of integrative control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Damkjaer, Mads

    2009-01-01

    Abstract 1. We review mechanisms of sodium balance operating at constant mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), i.e., conditions where MABP does not provide the primary signal to the kidney. 2. Relative constancy of body fluids requires accurate regulation of total body sodium (TBS). Normally, plenty...... of sodium is ingested, and balance achieved by control of renal excretion driven by multiple central nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal tubular mechanisms. Subtle changes in sodium balance are associated with parallel changes in extracellular volume (due to fast and precise osmoregulation......) proximal tubular reabsorption involving glomerulo-tubular balance (GTB) and neurohumoral control, (iii) macula densa mechanisms influencing TGF and renin secretion, and (iv) distal tubular reabsorption dominated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). 4. The review focuses on the interactive...

  20. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  1. Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A; Chiari, L; Trainotti, E; GarcIa, G; Blanco, F; Brunger, M J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ∼260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.

  2. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    Total body water (TBW) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was directly compared with deuterium-isotope dilution in a total of 58 subjects. First, sex-specific and group equations were developed by multiple regression analysis in (10 each) obese and nonobese men and women. Height/resistive impedance was the most significant variable used to predict deuterium-dilution space (D2O-TBW) and, combined with weight, yielded R = 0.99 and SE of estimate = 1.75 L. Equations predicted D2O-TBW equally well for obese and nonobese subjects. Second, the equations were prospectively tested in a heterogeneous group of 6 males and 12 females. Sex-specific equations predicted D2O-TBW with good correlation coefficients (0.96 and 0.93), total error (2.34 and 2.89 L), and a small difference between mean predicted and measured D2O-TBW (-1.4 +/- 2.05 and -0.48 +/- 2.83 L). BIA predicts D2O-TBW more accurately than weight, height, and/or age. A larger population is required to validate the applicability of our equations.

  3. A new method of body habitus correction for total body potassium measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hehir, S [University Hospital Birmingham Foundation NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Green, S [University Hospital Birmingham Foundation NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beddoe, A H [University Hospital Birmingham Foundation NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-07

    This paper describes an accurate and time-efficient method for the determination of total body potassium via a combination of measurements in the Birmingham whole body counter and the use of the Monte Carlo n-particle (MCNP) simulation code. In developing this method, MCNP has also been used to derive values for some components of the total measurement uncertainty which are difficult to quantify experimentally. A method is proposed for MCNP-assessed body habitus corrections based on a simple generic anthropomorphic model, scaled for individual height and weight. The use of this model increases patient comfort by reducing the need for comprehensive anthropomorphic measurements. The analysis shows that the total uncertainty in potassium weight determination by this whole body counting methodology for water-filled phantoms with a known amount of potassium is 2.7% (SD). The uncertainty in the method of body habitus correction (applicable also to phantom-based methods) is 1.5% (SD). It is concluded that this new strategy provides a sufficiently accurate model for routine clinical use.

  4. Formulae for the secondary electron yield and total stopping power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8−10 were compared with the values measured experimentally and it was concluded that the formula to estimate S0.8−10 was universal for metals. Keywords. Secondary electron yield; total stopping power; metal. PACS Nos 79.20.Hx; 81.90.

  5. The trend of ionospheric total electron content near the equator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) data measured simultaneously by analyzing dual-frequency signals of the Global Position System (GPS) in two northern Nigeria equatorial stations: Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (ABUZ) with geographic latitude (11.16° N) and Longitude(7.65° E) and Birnin Kebbi Polytechnic ...

  6. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water. (orig.)

  7. Hepatic, renal, and total body galactose elimination in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Tygstrup, N

    1993-01-01

    Galactose elimination capacity is used as a quantitative measure of liver function on the assumption that galactose elimination outside the liver is negligible or easily corrected for. The relationship between hepatic and extrahepatic removal of galactose was studied in anesthetized pigs during...... quasi-steady-state conditions by continuous infusion of galactose. The hepatic removal approximated a constant [maximal velocity = 585 +/- 41 mumol/min, Michaelis constant (Km) = 0.24 +/- 0.07 mmol/l, mean +/- SE, n = 20]. The renal removal was less than the amount filtered, showing maximal tubular...... reabsorption (Tm 178 +/- 3.0 mumol/min, Km 3.8 +/- 0.9 mmol/l, n = 20). Metabolic conversion of galactose in the kidney was not demonstrable. At all concentrations studied (0.4-5.8 mmol/l), total galactose elimination from the body exceeded the sum of hepatic and renal elimination by approximately 100 mumol...

  8. Rapid computer prediction of total body water in fluid overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloerb, P.R.; Palaskas, C.L.; Mintun, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Using computer analysis of the early plasma arterial disappearance curve of tritiated water (HTO), we sought the fewest points and earliest times needed to predict the final volume of dilution, total body water (TBW). In ten anesthetized adult female dogs weighing 19.1 +/- 0.5 kg, with bilateral ureteral ligation, 500 muC HTO were given IV. Arterial blood samples were taken until equilibrium (3 hours), when the approximate equivalent of extracellular fluid (ECF), 4,000 ml of lactated Ringer's solution, was given IV within 1 hour. The next day, in the second phase of the study, 1,000 muC of HTO were given IV and arterial blood samples were taken at intervals up to equilibrium (5 hours). TBW at 3 hours after the first HTO infusion was 63.3 +/- 1.2% body weight. Using a curve-fitting Fortran program (CFIT), the arterial plasma HTO concentrations were fitted to one or two exponentials. Although initial TBW could be predicted from arterial plasma concentrations of HTO during 20 minutes after injection in normally hydrated dogs, values during 60 minutes were required for accurate prediction of TBW after infusion of 4 L of fluid. TBW in normal and fluid-loaded animals was predicted within 2.3 +/- 0.6% of the final HTO equilibrium

  9. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: ► Characterization of a silicon diode dosimetry system. ► Application of the diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. ► Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  10. Biochemical and hematological indicators in model of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.; Luchetta, P.; Longoni, H.; Sorrentino, M.; Robison, A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures a study was carried out in 20 patients undergoing therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI). The following parameters were evaluated: a) Oxidative stress indicators: erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), lipo peroxyde levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity (TAA). b) Haematological indicators: reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. Non significant changes in SOD and CAT activity were observed. Significant higher TBARS levels were found in patients with unfavorable post-BTM course without any significant correlation with TAA. RMI decreased early and dropped to zero in most of the patients and rose several days prior to reticulocyte, neutrophils and platelets counts. A significant decrease in absolute counts of all lymphocyte subpopulations was observed during TBI, particularly for B lymphocytes. A subpopulation of natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+/ CD 56 +) showed a relative higher radioresistance. Cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased after TBI. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental over exposure d patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia. The implications of the different radiosensitivities within the NK subsets remains unanswered. (author) [es

  11. Practical implications of backscatter from outside the patient on the dose distribution during total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, J.; Rijnders, A.; Vanuytsel, L.; Zhang, H.-Z.

    1988-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) sometimes requires the set-up of the patient very close to the wall of the treatment room in order to obtain sufficiently large irradiation fields. Under these conditions, backscattered electrons can become clinically important. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the dose contribution to the patient from these electrons. Measurements were performed both in experimental conditions and on patients during their TBI treatment. It is concluded that, with the patient close to the wall, backscattered electrons constitute a significant (up to 20% of the dose obtained under electronic equilibrium at the exit port of the beam) radiation dose which can (under certain conditions) influence measurements of exit dose leading to an overestimation of the midline dose and contribute a suuperficial irradiation of the patient without therapeutic benefit. This problem can be solved by interposing a 2 cm thick low-Z absorber between wall and patient. 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  12. Continuum effects in electron-helium total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Ratnavelu, K.; Weigold, A.M.

    1988-06-01

    It is shown that total cross sections for the excitation of target states with large spectroscopic factors may be calculated accurately by representing the states by their leading independent-particle configurations. With this approximation coupled channels calculations agree only qualitatively with experimental total cross sections for the first five states of helium. R-matrix calculations using configuration interaction show better qualitative agreement. The complex polarisation potential for continuum excitations is described for two-electron atoms. When this is included in a coupled-channels optical calculation quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained for most states at 30, 50 and 100eV

  13. Are trends in total electron content (TEC) really positive?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2013), s. 3831-3835 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Long-term trends * total electron content Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50261/abstract

  14. Long-term trends in the total electron content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Urbář, Jaroslav; Kozubek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 16 (2017), s. 8186-8172 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03909S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : total electron content * long-term trend * solar control Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL075063/full

  15. Endocrine dysfunction after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Titlbach, O.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Kubel, M.; Helbig, W.; Leipzig Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Data regarding changes of endocrine parameters after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are described. Endocrine glands are usually resistant to irradiation under morphological aspects. But new methods of determination and sensitive tests were developed in the last few years. Now it is possible to detect already small functional changes. Endocrine studies in the course of the disease were followed serially in 16 patients with TBI and BMT. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with a high-dose, short-term chemotherapy. Reactions of the endocrine system showed a defined temporary order. Changes of ACTH and cortisol were in the beginning. The pituitary-adrenal cortex system responds in a different way. The pituitary-thyroid system develops a short-term 'low-T 3 -syndrome' reflecting the extreme stress of the organism. At the same time we obtained an increase of thyroxine. Testosterone and luteotropic hormone, the sexual steroids showed levels representing a primary gonadal insufficiency. The studies in the posttransplant period yielded a return to the normal range at most of the hormonal levels with the exception of the sexual steroids. Sterility is one of the late effects of TBI. A tendency towards hypothyroidism could be noticed in some cases being only subclinical forms. Reasons and possible therapy are discussed. (author)

  16. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy.

  17. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah

    1999-01-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy

  18. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  19. Electron tomography based on a total variation minimization reconstruction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goris, B., E-mail: bart.goris@ua.ac.be [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van den Broek, W. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Batenburg, K.J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Heidari Mezerji, H.; Bals, S. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-02-15

    The 3D reconstruction of a tilt series for electron tomography is mostly carried out using the weighted backprojection (WBP) algorithm or using one of the iterative algorithms such as the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). However, it is known that these reconstruction algorithms cannot compensate for the missing wedge. Here, we apply a new reconstruction algorithm for electron tomography, which is based on compressive sensing. This is a field in image processing specialized in finding a sparse solution or a solution with a sparse gradient to a set of ill-posed linear equations. Therefore, it can be applied to electron tomography where the reconstructed objects often have a sparse gradient at the nanoscale. Using a combination of different simulated and experimental datasets, it is shown that missing wedge artefacts are reduced in the final reconstruction. Moreover, it seems that the reconstructed datasets have a higher fidelity and are easier to segment in comparison to reconstructions obtained by more conventional iterative algorithms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A reconstruction algorithm for electron tomography is investigated based on total variation minimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Missing wedge artefacts are reduced by this algorithm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reconstruction is easier to segment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More reliable quantitative information can be obtained.

  20. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  1. Modelling of Ionospheric Irregularities and Total Electron Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Total electron content changes 559, 1980. associated with equatorial irregularity plumes, Yeh, K.C., H. Soicher, C.H. Liu, and E. Bonelli , Paper...and GONZALES V. H. 1960 J. geophys. Res. 65, 3209. .,*’_*, YEn K. C., SOICHER H., Liu C. H. 1979a Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 473. and BONELLI E.1,*,E Y K...and J. Aarons (1980), Studies of equatorial ir- Yeh. K. C., H. Soicher. C. H. Liu, and E. Bonelli (1979b). lono- regularity patches using SIRIO VHF

  2. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  4. Total electron scattering cross section of Fluorocarbons at intermediate electron energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana, Prasanga; Villela, Gilberto; Ariyasinghe, Wickramasinghe

    2008-10-01

    Total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) have been measured using the linear transmission technique for impact energies 0.10 -- 4.00 keV. These TCS are compared to existing experimental and theoretical TCS in the literature. Based on the present measurements, an empirical formula is developed to predict the TCS of fluorocarbons as a function of incident electron energy.

  5. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  6. Ionospheric total electron content: Spatial patterns of variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, J. L.; Meier, R. R.; Picone, J. M.; Sassi, F.; Emmert, J. T.; Richards, P. G.

    2016-10-01

    The distinctive spatial patterns of the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) response to solar, seasonal, diurnal, and geomagnetic influences are determined across the globe using a new statistical model constructed from 2-hourly TEC observations from 1998 to 2015. The model combines representations of the physical solar EUV photon and geomagnetic activity drivers with solar-modulated sinusoidal parameterizations of four seasonal cycles and solar-modulated and seasonally modulated parameterizations of three diurnal cycles. The average absolute residual of the data-model differences is 2.1 total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) (9%) and the root-mean-square error is 3.5 TECU (15%). Solar and geomagnetic variability, the semiannual oscillation and the diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations all impact TEC most at low magnetic latitudes where TEC itself maximizes, with differing degrees of longitudinal inhomogeneity. In contrast, the annual oscillation manifests primarily in the Southern Hemisphere with maximum amplitude over midlatitude South America, extending to higher southern latitudes in the vicinity of the Weddell Sea. Nighttime TEC levels in the vicinity of the Weddell Sea exceed daytime levels every year in Southern Hemisphere summer as a consequence of the modulation of the diurnal oscillations by the seasonal oscillations. The anomaly, which is present at all phases of the solar cycle, commences sooner and ends later under solar minimum conditions. The model minus data residuals maximize at tropical magnetic latitudes in four geographical regions similar to the ionosphere pattern generated by lower atmospheric meteorology. Enhanced residuals at northern midlatitudes during winter are consistent with an influence of atmospheric gravity waves.

  7. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  8. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  9. Gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Zurcher, C.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures for total and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs are described. The selective procedure removed only Gram negative aerobic bacteria, yeast and fungi. Dogs receiving total decontamination were less susceptible to the GI syndrome following total body irradiation (TBI) than

  10. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  11. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor

  12. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor.

  13. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, J. F., E-mail: fernando.lucero@hoperadiotherapy.com.gt [Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia (Costa Rica); Hope International, Guatemala (Guatemala); Rojas, J. I., E-mail: isaac.rojas@siglo21.cr [Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI, San José (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient’s entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  14. Total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous lymphomas and leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisce, L.Z.; Chu, F.C.H.; Lee, H.S.; Filippa, D.; Kempin, S.; Coleman, M.

    1982-01-01

    Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEB) was used in the treatment of 33 patients with lymphoma and 13 patients with leukemia involving extensive segments of the skin surface. Twenty-two of 23 had lesions as a primary manifestation of lymphoma (primary cutaneous lymphoma-PCL) and 11 developed cutaneous lesions following disseminated nodal lymphoma (secondary cutaneous lymphoma-SCL). A once weekly fractionation scheme was employed to irradiate the entire skin surface with 3.5 to 4 MeV electron beam from a 6 MeV linear accelerator. During each weekly session, 400 rad were delivered to the entire skin and a complete course consisted of 4-6 consecutive weekly sessions. The majority of patients have been previously treated elsewhere for various periods and all patients have been at risk for a median of 12 months, range from 12-117 months following TSEB. Striking predominance of the diffuse pattern (76%) was demonstrated in both the PCL and SCL. There was extracutaneous involvement in 63% (13/22) of the PCL, nodal or visceral at onset of TSEB; median follow-up was 24 months, range 6-117 months; 20/22 (90%) of all patients obtained prompt relief of symptoms and complete regression of cutaneous lesions. Duration of cutaneous remission ranged from 6-96 months, median 18 months; in general, duration was adversly influenced by the presence of visceral involvement at onset of TSEB. Although cutaneous response among the patients with SCL and leukemia was equally good, many of these patients were treated for palliation because of rapid progression of their disease. Once weekly treatments were highly effective, well-tolerated and no untoward immediate or late effects have been noted in the bone marrow or normal skin irradiated

  15. Radiographic analysis of partial or total vertebral body resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, C.G.; Hammer, G.H.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Hugus, J.; Weinstein, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    Partial and total vertebrectomies are used in the treatment of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the spine. Serial radiographic studies are crucial in the follow-up of patients with vertebrectomies. This paper presents 33 cases and illustrates radiographic examples of both successful and complicated vertebrectomies, including radiographic signs of local tumor recurrence, loosening, migration or fracture of the hardware or methylmethacrylate, bone graft failure, and progressive spinal instability

  16. Analysis of Total Electron Content and Electron Density Profile during Different Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, N. P.; Rana, B.; Adhikari, B.

    2017-12-01

    Total Electron content (TEC) and electron density are the key parameters in the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio communication system. Detail study of the TEC and electron density variations has been carried out during geomagnetic storms, with longitude and latitude, for four different locations: (13˚N -17˚N, 88˚E -98˚E), (30˚N-50˚N, 120˚W -95˚W), (29˚S-26˚S, 167˚W-163˚W,) and (60˚S-45˚S, 120˚W-105˚W) using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations. In order to find the geomagnetic activity, the solar wind parameters such as north-south component of inter planetary magnetic field (Bz), plasma drift velocity (Vsw), flow pressure (nPa), AE, Dst and Kp indices were obtained from Operating Mission as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) web system. The data for geomagnetic indices have been correlated with the TEC and electron density for four different events of geomagnetic storms on 6 April 2008, 27 March 2008, 4 September 2008, and 11 October 2008. The result illustrates that the observed TEC and electron density profile significantly vary with longitudes and latitudes. This study illustrates that the values of TEC and the vertical electron density profile are influenced by the solar wind parameters associated with solar activities. The peak values of electron density and TEC increase as the geomagnetic storms become stronger. Similarly, the electron density profile varies with altitudes, which peaks around the altitude range of about 250- 350 km, depending on the strength of geomagnetic storms. The results clearly show that the peak electron density shifted to higher altitude (from about 250 km to 350 km) as the geomagnetic disturbances becomes stronger.

  17. Improved estimation of Mars ionosphere total electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartacci, M.; Sánchez-Cano, B.; Orosei, R.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Witasse, O.; Cantini, F.; Rossi, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    We describe an improved method to estimate the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the Mars ionosphere from the echoes recorded by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) (Picardi et al., 2005; Orosei et al., 2015) onboard Mars Express in its subsurface sounding mode. In particular, we demonstrate that this method solves the issue of the former algorithm described at (Cartacci et al., 2013), which produced an overestimation of TEC estimates on the day side. The MARSIS signal is affected by a phase distortion introduced by the Mars ionosphere that produces a variation of the signal shape and a delay in its travel time. The new TEC estimation is achieved correlating the parameters obtained through the correction of the aforementioned effects. In detail, the knowledge of the quadratic term of the phase distortion estimated by the Contrast Method (Cartacci et al., 2013), together with the linear term (i.e. the extra time delay), estimated through a radar signal simulator, allows to develop a new algorithm particularly well suited to estimate the TEC for solar zenith angles (SZA) lower than 95° The new algorithm for the dayside has been validated with independent data from MARSIS in its Active Ionospheric Sounding (AIS) operational mode, with comparisons with other previous algorithms based on MARSIS subsurface data, with modeling and with modeling ionospheric distortion TEC reconstruction.

  18. Inversion of the total cross sections for electron-molecule and electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun, D.R.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Inverse scattering theory has been applied to construct the interaction potentials from total cross sections as a function of energy for electrons scattered off of atoms and molecules. The underlying potentials are assumed to be real and energy independent and are evaluated using the Eikonal approximation and with real phase shifts determined from the total cross sections. The inversion potentials have been determined using either a high energy limit approximation or by using a fixed energy inversion method at select energies. These procedures have been used to analyse e - - CH 4 , e - - SiH 4 , e - -Kr and e - -Xe scattering data in particular. 14 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Integral elastic, electronic-state, ionization, and total cross sections for electron scattering with furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Costa, R. F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, 29075-910, Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-04-14

    We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20–250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91, 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron–furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.

  20. Many-body approach to electronic excitations concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The many-body-theoretical basis and applications of theoretical spectroscopy of condensed matter, e.g. crystals, nanosystems, and molecules are unified in one advanced text for readers from graduate students to active researchers in the field. The theory is developed from first principles including fully the electron-electron interaction and spin interactions. It is based on the many-body perturbation theory, a quantum-field-theoretical description, and Green's functions. The important expressions for ground states as well as electronic single-particle and pair excitations are explained. Based on single-particle and two-particle Green's functions, the Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations are derived. They are applied to calculate spectral and response functions. Important spectra are those which can be measured using photoemission/inverse photoemission, optical spectroscopy, and electron energy loss/inelastic X-ray spectroscopy. Important approximations are derived and discussed in the light of selected computa...

  1. Myeloproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urowitz, M.B.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total body irradiation administered in two sittings, 300 to 400 rads to each half of the body. All four patients had taken antimetabolites prior to receiving total body irradiation, and two continued to use them after total body irradiation. Two patients had taken alkylating agents before, and one had used them after total body irradiation. All patients showed clinical improvement. However, in two patients myeloproliferative disorders developed: a myelodysplastic preleukemia at 40 months after total body irradiation in one and acute myelogenous leukemia at 25 months in the other. Total body irradiation differs from total nodal irradiation in the total dose of irradiation (300 to 400 rads versus 2,000 to 3,000), and in the duration of the therapy (two sittings versus treatment over several weeks to months). Furthermore, the patients in the total body irradiation study frequently used cytotoxic drugs before and/or after irradiation, whereas in one total nodal irradiation study, azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day or less) was permitted, but no other cytotoxic agents were allowed. Rheumatologists may therefore face a binding decision when deciding to treat a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with either a cytotoxic drug or irradiation

  2. Indications for total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy of mycosis fungoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Haddad, E.; Marinello, G.; Marin, L.; Mazeron, J.J.; Ganem, G.

    1987-01-01

    From 1977 to 1984, we treated 34 patients with mycosis fungoides and 9 patients with B cutaneous lymphomas. Eighteen patients with mycosis fungoides were treated with total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) and had a minimum follow-up of 15 months (range 15 months to 7 years). The lowest electron energy of the linear accelerator was 8 MeV therefore we placed a plexiglas screen between the patient and the machine; the resulting electron energy was 4 MeV. The total dose was 30 Gy delivered in 12 fractions over 40 days. There were 8 males and 10 females. The median age was 48 years (ranging from 13 to 78 years). All patients were staged as follows: Stage A = superficial lesions covering less than 50% of the body surface; Stage B = superficial lesions covering more than 50% of the body surface; Stage C = tumors involving the skin, lymph nodes and/or visceral organs. Five patients with Stage A (5/5) and 5 patients with Stage B (5/5) had a complete remission, 1 stage A patient relapsed 6 months after completion of treatment. All the Stage B patients recurred between 3 and 15 months. The recurrences were localized to the skin and were well controlled with topical nitrogen mustard or puvatherapy. Among the Stage C patients, 3 did not respond to treatment and died of their disease; the remaining 5 patients achieved complete remission but they all relapsed from 2 to 9 months following completion of treatment. The median follow-up was 32 months and the average time for relapse was 6.5 months. All relapses except one (15 months) occurred within the first year. We feel that total skin electron irradiation is indicated in Stage A and B patients. However, we feel Stage C patients should receive TSEI for palliative purposes only

  3. Formulae for the secondary electron yield and total stopping power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on the range–energy relationship, the characteristics of secondary electron emis- sion, some relationship between the secondary electron yield δ and experimental results, the universal formulae for δ0.8−2 (the subscript indicates that the energy range of primary energy at the surface Wpo is from 0.8 keV to 2 ...

  4. Long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC) have very little been studied. Lean et al. (2011; J. Geophys. Res., 116, A00H04, doi:10.1029/2010JA016378) studied trends in TEC globally based on JPL maps for 1995-2010. However, their trends appear to be too positive, which is not plausible taking into account the trends in other ionospheric parameters. Therefore they prefer the less positive trends calculated under the assumption of the same level of solar activity in solar cycle minima 22/23 and 23/24. However, as it is now clear, this is not a correct assumption. Lastovicka (2013; J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118, 3831-3835, doi:10.1002/jgra.50261) selected a region around Florence, Italy, as a region with available historical TEC data based on Faraday rotation measurements and remarkably larger than average trends in TEC by Lean et al. (2011). Historical data from Florence provide no trend in TEC. However, foF2 from Juliusruh provide slight negative trends for 1976-1996 but no trends for 1995-2010. Thus the question of reality of trends by Lean et al. (2011) remained open. Here we use TEC from GIM and JPL data for two European regions with high Lean's trends, regions around Florence and around Prague, using 10-14 LT medians, 1998-2015, yearly average values. A classical approach is applied. First a model of solar activity dependence of TEC is constructed separately for each region from all data. Then model data are subtracted from experimental data and analysis is made with residuals. This analysis shows that early data (1998-2001) are by several TECU lower than they should be according to solar activity, the year 2002 is intermediate and in 2003-2015 the data fit well a weak or rather no trend of TEC. The change in TEC data does not seem to be jump-like, it lasted at least a year, if not longer. Thus the positive TEC trends reported by Lean et al. (2011) appear to be affected by data problem; real trends are evidently less positive if any.

  5. Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, M.L. van

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects: In this thesis, cataract formation and renal dysfunction as late effects of high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning before hematological stem cell

  6. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  7. Comparison of three techniques for skin total irradiation with electrons; Comparacao de tres tecnicas de irradiacao total da pele com eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: dbatista@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bardella, Lucia H. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz A.R. da, E-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper compared three techniques of skin total irradiation with electrons: 1) horizontal positioning, 2) vertical positioning - rotatory technique and 3) vertical positioning - six fields technique. For that, a anthropomorphic phantom was positioned according to the recommendation for each technique and was i radiated at the linear accelerator by using the 6 MeV electrons. Radiochromic films were positioned on the surface in various regions of the phantom for measurement of absorbed dose. A ionization chamber was positioned inside of equivalent issue plates for dose evaluation due to the photons produced by electron stopping. The technique 2 and 3 have shown too similar in the results and number or discrepant points (8 and 10 respectively) of prescription lower than the technique 1 (22 points). The total body dose of photons of the 1, 2 and 3 techniques was 2.2%, 5.3% and 5.2% respectively

  8. Total skin electron beam therapy in mycosis fungoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashima, Hiromi; Yamashita, Shigeru; Ishino, Yohichi; Suenaga, Yoshinori

    1988-01-01

    The studies using phantoms confirmed that the reduction of electron beam energy and minimization of X-ray contamination could be achieved when electron beam was interposed by an acrylic plate placed 20 cm anterior to a patient. Four patients of mycosis fungoides were treated with 8 MeV electron beam of a linear accelerator at UOEH Hospital from October 1981 to December 1986. Two of them were treated with this technique by placing 2 cm thick acrylic plate anterior to the patients and satisfactory results were obtained. Cutaneous lesions subsided remarkably with the dosage of 2000 cGy given in 2 months. Leucopenia due to bone marrow suppression was mild and the patients tolerated the treatment well. (author)

  9. Total-body cutaneous examination, total-body photography, and dermoscopy in the care of a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum and multiple melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W Harris; Wang, Steven Q; Cognetta, Armand B

    2009-08-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a defect in DNA repair and subsequent increased frequency of cutaneous malignant neoplasms, including melanoma. In patients with XP, patient and family education and aggressive UV radiation protection are the primary means of skin cancer prevention. An important secondary measure in decreasing morbidity and mortality in these patients involves early detection of skin cancers, particularly melanomas. We describe a 39-year-old woman with XP who developed 38 primary melanomas along with 6 squamous cell carcinomas and 70 basal cell carcinomas over a 23-year period. During this time, a 3-fold management approach of total-body cutaneous examination, total-body photography, and dermoscopy was used in the care of the patient. The thickest melanoma had a Breslow thickness of 1.07 mm, and the mean Breslow thickness of her detected melanomas was 0.18 mm. The ratio of benign to malignant biopsied suspicious melanocytic lesions during 23 years of follow-up was 0.9:1. All melanomas were treated using wide local excision, and she had no evidence of local or in-transit metastases of any of her malignant neoplasms at the most recent follow-up examination. Conclusion Monthly follow-up using total-body cutaneous examinations, total-body photography, and dermoscopy is an important 3-fold secondary management technique for this unique patient, allowing early detection of her melanomas.

  10. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus – a bioelectrical impedance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-01-01

    Background Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. Methods In 2007-9, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Conclusions Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. PMID:24726825

  11. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus - a bioelectrical impedance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. In 2007-2009, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  13. Body of Knowledge for Silicon Carbide Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Kristen; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Wide band gap semiconductors, such as silicon carbide (SiC), have emerged as very promising materials for future electronic components due to the tremendous advantages they offer in terms of power capability, extreme temperature tolerance, and high frequency operation. This report documents some issues pertaining to SiC technology and its application in the area of power electronics, in particular those geared for space missions. It also serves as a body of knowledge (BOK) in reference to the development and status of this technology obtained via literature and industry survey as well as providing a listing of the major manufacturers and their capabilities. Finally, issues relevant to the reliability of SiC-based electronic parts are addressed and limitations affecting the full utilization of this technology are identified.

  14. Gigapixel photography for skin cancer surveillance: a novel alternative to total-body photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikailov, Anar; Blechman, Adam

    2013-11-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the use of cutaneous imaging in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for early detection and treatment of melanoma. In the last 2 decades, total-body photography (TBP) has been widely used in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for active skin cancer surveillance with proven clinical utility; however, the groundbreaking image detail provided by gigapixel photography (GP) could improve dermatologists' ability to monitor suspicious lesions and therefore could serve a critical role in supplementing traditional total-body skin examinations for skin cancer surveillance. Although it has been successfully implemented in other fields, future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of GP in dermatology.

  15. Total body irradiation as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihiko

    1987-01-01

    The history of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation is surprisingly old. Following the success of Thomas et al. in the 1970s, bone marrow transplantation appeared to be the sole curative treatment modality for high-risk leukemia. A supralethal dose of total body irradiation was widely accepted as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation. In this paper, I described the present status of bone marrow transplantation for leukemia patients in Japan based on the IVth national survey. Since interstitial pneumonitis was one of the most life threatening complications after bone marrow transplantation, I mentioned the dose, dose-rate and fraction of total body irradiation in more detail. In addition, I dealt with some problems of the total body irradiation, such as dose prescription, compensating contour as well as inhomogeneity, and shielding for the highrisk organs. (author) 82 refs

  16. Validity of total and segmental impedance measurements for prediction of body composition across ethnic population groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.R.M.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schouten, F.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Anthropometric parameters were measured in addition to impedance (100 kHz) of the total body, arms and legs. Impedance indexes were calculated as height2/impedance. Arm length (span) and leg length (sitting height), wrist and knee width were measured from which body build indices were

  17. Total-Body PET: Maximizing Sensitivity to Create New Opportunities for Clinical Research and Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R; Jones, Terry; Karp, Joel S; Qi, Jinyi; Moses, William W; Badawi, Ramsey D

    2018-01-01

    PET is widely considered the most sensitive technique available for noninvasively studying physiology, metabolism, and molecular pathways in the living human being. However, the utility of PET, being a photon-deficient modality, remains constrained by factors including low signal-to-noise ratio, long imaging times, and concerns about radiation dose. Two developments offer the potential to dramatically increase the effective sensitivity of PET. First by increasing the geometric coverage to encompass the entire body, sensitivity can be increased by a factor of about 40 for total-body imaging or a factor of about 4-5 for imaging a single organ such as the brain or heart. The world's first total-body PET/CT scanner is currently under construction to demonstrate how this step change in sensitivity affects the way PET is used both in clinical research and in patient care. Second, there is the future prospect of significant improvements in timing resolution that could lead to further effective sensitivity gains. When combined with total-body PET, this could produce overall sensitivity gains of more than 2 orders of magnitude compared with existing state-of-the-art systems. In this article, we discuss the benefits of increasing body coverage, describe our efforts to develop a first-generation total-body PET/CT scanner, discuss selected application areas for total-body PET, and project the impact of further improvements in time-of-flight PET. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  18. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  19. Moderate Intensity Resistance Training Significantly Elevates Testosterone following Upper Body and Lower Body Bouts When Total Volume is Held Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rietjens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is unknown whether resistance training intensity or total volume of work affects the acute testosterone response to a greater extent. Purpose: Therefore, the circulating testosterone response was investigated following four resistance training protocols where total volume of work was held constant: moderate intensity (70% 1RM upper body (bench press, bent barbell row, and military press, moderate intensity lower body (squat and deadlift, high intensity (90% 1RM upper body, high intensity lower body. Methods: Total volume of work performed by each participant between protocols was maintained by adjusting the number of sets and or repetitions performed. Ten healthy, resistance trained men volunteered, and performed exercise protocols on separate days in a counterbalanced order. Capillary blood was obtained via finger stick at baseline (pre, immediately following the exercise session (post, and 1h post for the determination of testosterone concentration. Data were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA and significance was accepted at p≤ 0.05. Results: Both moderate intensity resistance protocols (upper and lower body significantly increased testosterone concentration (p=0.026, and p=0.024 respectively, whereas the high intensity protocols elevated testosterone but failed to achieve significance (upper p=0.272, lower p=0.658. No difference was noted in post session testosterone concentration between upper and lower body protocols for either moderate (p=0.248 or high intensity (p=0.990. Conclusion: This may be useful for novice resistance trained individuals because it provides evidence that moderate intensity is sufficient to increase testosterone compared to high intensity protocols that could be associated with a greater risk of injury. Keywords: hormone response, equal total work, high intensity protocol

  20. Total electron count variability and stratospheric ozone effects on solar backscatter and LWIR emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John S.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2017-05-01

    The development of an accurate ionospheric Total Electron Count (TEC) model is of critical importance to high frequency (HF) radio propagation and satellite communications. However, the TEC is highly variable and is continually influenced by geomagnetic storms, extreme UV radiation, and planetary waves. Being able to capture this variability is essential to improve current TEC models. The growing body of data involving ionospheric fluctuations and stratospheric variations has revealed a correlation. In particular, there is a marked and persistent association between increases in stratospheric ozone and variability of the TEC. The spectral properties of ozone show that it is a greenhouse gas that alters long wave emissions from Earth and interacts with the UV spectrum coming from the sun. This study uses the Laser Environment Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) radiative transfer and atmospheric characterization code to model the effects of changes in stratospheric ozone on solar backscatter and longwave (LWIR) terrestrial emissions and infer TEC and TEC variability.

  1. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.A. [Medical Physics and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jane.rogers@university-b.wmids.nhs.uk; Blake-James, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Green, S.; Beddoe, A.H. [Medical Physics and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-07

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of {sup 40}K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their {sup 40}K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing. (author)

  2. Quantitation of the degree of osteoporosis by measure of total-body calcium employing neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Wallach, S.; Aloia, J.; Ellis, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two techniques for measuring the amount of Ca in the total skeleton were employed: total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) and the determination of the mineral content of a bone of the appendicular skeleton (absorptiometric measurement of the radius, BMC). (U.S.)

  3. Comparison of total and segmental body composition using DXA and multifrequency bioimpedance in collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R; Snarr, Ronald L; Leatherwood, Matthew D; Chamberlain, Nik A; Redding, Melvenia L; Flatt, Andrew A; Moon, Jordan R; Williford, Henry N

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the agreement between multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring body fat percentage (BF%), fat-free mass (FFM), and total body and segmental lean soft tissue (LST) in collegiate female athletes. Forty-five female athletes (age = 21.2 ± 2.0 years, height = 166.1 ± 7.1 cm, weight = 62.6 ± 9.9 kg) participated in this study. Variables measured through BIA and DXA were as follows: BF%, FFM, and LST of the arms (ARMS(LST)), the legs (LEGS(LST)), the trunk (TRUNK(LST)), and the total body (TOTAL(LST)). Compared with the DXA, the InBody 720 provided significantly lower values for BF% (-3.3%, p InBody 720-DXA) for ARMS(LST) (0.05 kg), TRUNK(LST) (0.14 kg), LEGS(LST) (-0.4 kg), and TOTAL(LST) (-0.21 kg). The limits of agreement were ±0.79 kg for ARMS(LST), ±2.62 kg for LEGS(LST), ±3.18 kg for TRUNK(LST), and ±4.23 kg for TOTAL(LST). This study found discrepancies in BF% and FFM between the 2 devices. However, the InBody 720 and DXA appeared to provide excellent agreement for measuring total body and segmental LST. Therefore, the InBody 720 may be a rapid noninvasive method to assess LST in female athletes when DXA is not available.

  4. The role of Tl-201 total body scintigraphy in follow up of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Delprat, C.C.; Marcuse, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of the procedure T1-201 total body scintigraphy was performed in 294 patients (449 studies) after total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. Results were correlated with I-131-scintigraphy and tumor-marker levels (Tgb or Calcitonin/CEA). T1-201 total body scintigraphy was negative in 196 patients with no evidence of disease. T1-201-scintigraphy correctly detected tumor localizations in 24 of 30 patients with I-131-positive metastases. In 28 patients T2-201 total body scintigraphy revealed metastases which did not concentrate I-131. Histology/cytology confirmed thyroid carcinoma metastases in 16 patients and other pathology in 5 cases. 9 of 18 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (I-131-negative) had elevated Calcitonin/CEA-levels. The T1-201 scintigram was positive in 8 of these patients. Comparison of T1-201, I-131 and tumor markers showed that only combined use of these parameters provide complete reliability. The authors conclude that T1-201 total body scintigraphy is useful in follow up of thyroid carcinoma, especially when a discrepancy of the other parameters exists and particularly in medullary carcinoma. In long term follow up of patients who are unsuspected of disease after successful therapy for thyroid carcinoma one can rely on T1-201 total body scintigraphy in combination with tumor marker assays

  5. Printed soft-electronics for remote body monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantysalo, Matti; Vuorinen, Tiina; Jeihani, Vala; Vehkaoja, Antti

    2017-08-01

    Wearable electronics has emerged into the consumer markets over the past few years. Wrist worn and textile integrated devices are the most common apparatuses for unobtrusive monitoring in sports and wellness sectors. Disposable patches and bandages, however, represent the new era of wearable electronics. Soft and stretchable electronics is the enabling technology of this paradigm shift. It can conform to temporary transfer tattoo and deform with the skin without detachment or fracture. In this paper, we focus on screen-printed soft-electronics for remote body monitoring. We will present a fabrication process of a skin conformable electrode bandage designed for long-term outpatient electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring. The soft bandage is designed to be attached to the patient chest and miniaturized data collection device is connected to the bandage via Micro-USB connector. The fabricated bandage is tested in short exercise as well as continued long-term (72 hours) monitoring during normal daily activities. The attained quality of the measured ECG signals is fully satisfactory for rhythm-based cardiac analysis also during moderate-intensity exercise. After pre-processing, the signals could be used also for more profound morphological analysis of ECG wave shapes.

  6. SU-E-T-522: Investigation of Underdosage of Total Body Irradiation with Bilateral Irradiation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T; Eldib, A; Hossain, M; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patient in-vivo measurements report lower readings than those predicted from TMR-based treatment planning on TBI patient knees and ankles where rice was placed to fill the gap between patient’s legs. This study is to understand and correct the under dosage of Total Body Irradiation(TBI) with rice tissue equivalent bolus placement at TBI treatment patient setup. Methods: Bilateral TBI scheme was investigated with rice bags bolus placing between patient’s two legs acting as missing tissue. In-house TMR based treatment planning system was commissioned with measurements under TBI condition at 10MV, i.e. source-to-reference distance 383.4cm with 40×40cm field size with 1cm thickness Lucite. Predictions of patient specific dose points are reported at different sites with 200cGy prescription at patient umbilicus point. Solid water and rice bag phantoms are used at TBI conditions for the attenuation factor verification and CT scanned to verify the CT number and electron density. Results: We found that the rice bag bolus overall density is 11% lower than the water; however, the attenuation factor of rice bags could become 15% lower than that of water at TBI condition. This overestimate of rice bag electron density could cause the lack of lateral scatter and the lack of backscatter. This could Result in an overestimate of dose at in-vivo dosimeter measurement points with TMR-based treatment planning systems. Observations of patient specific optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters(OSLDs) were used to confirm this overestimation. Measurements of setups with increasing the rice bag filled patient leg separation were performed to demonstrate eliminating the overdose issue. Conclusion: Rice bolus has a lower electron density than water does(11%) but results in 15% lower in attenuation factor at TBI condition. This effect was observed in patient delivery with OSLD measurements and can be corrected by increasing the filling rice bolus thickness with 15% longer of

  7. Total skin electron therapy as treatment for epitheliotropic lymphoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Kubicek, Lyndsay; Lu, Bo; Craft, William; Conway, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is an uncommon cutaneous neoplasm in dogs. Treatment options are limited. Total skin electron therapy (TSET) has been suggested as a possible therapy for canine MF. To describe the use of TSET as palliative treatment for MF in a dog. An adult dog, previously diagnosed with nonepidermolytic ichthyosis, was presented with generalized erythroderma, alopecia and erosions. Histopathology revealed a densely cellular, well-demarcated, unencapsulated infiltrate extending from the epidermis to the mid-dermis compatible with MF. The infiltrate exhibited epitheliotropism multifocally for the epidermis, infundibula and adnexa. Due to a lack of response to chemotherapy, TSET was elected. Six megavoltage electrons were delivered using a 21EX Varian linear accelerator. A dose of 6 Gy was delivered to the skin surface and a 100 cm skin to surface distance was used for dog setup. The treatment time for the cranial half treatment was 3 h. The treatment was divided in two sessions (cranial and caudal halves of the body) 15 days apart. Clinical and histopathological complete remission was achieved and the dog was kept in remission with no additional treatments for 19 months before relapse and development of Sézary syndrome. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case reporting the use of TSET for medically refractory canine MF with post treatment follow-up. This case suggests that the use of TSET may be an effective palliative treatment for canine MF. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Spontaneous resolution of posterior ankle joint loose bodies after total ankle replacement: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond P; Cheng, Sally H S

    2017-06-01

    Late stage ankle osteoarthritis often presents with debilitating pain. It is common to find osteophytes and loose body formation around the joint. Total ankle arthroplasty can preserve joint mobility and pain relieve for such patient. However, when trying to remove the osteophytes and loose bodies at the posterior ankle joint, there is risk of damaging posterior structures such as the neurovascular bundle during the procedure. We are presenting a case where the posterior loose bodies remained untouched during the operation, and patient showed spontaneous resolution of the lesions with time. Patient enjoyed good function outcome after the surgery. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO 3 was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm

  10. Total Body Photography as an Aid to Skin Self-examination: A Patient's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, Lisanne J; Bergman, Wilma; Kukutsch, Nicole A

    2016-02-01

    Skin self-examination can help patients who are at high risk for developing melanoma to become more involved in their own surveillance and treatment. This study examined the use of total body photography as an aid to skin self-examination from the patients' perspective. A total of 179 individuals at high risk for developing melanoma who had undergone total body photography (60.5% response rate) completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing the frequency of skin self-examination, perceived usefulness of total body photography, and a variety of potential demographic, clinical and psychological factors. Only approximately half of the participants indicated skin self-examination as useful and 78.9% preferred clinical skin examination by a specialist. Finding total body photography useful was associated with having received instructions on how to perform skin self-examination, the use of a (hand)mirror, and confidence to detect changing moles. These findings allow us to develop strategies to further improve patients' self-screening behaviours.

  11. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  12. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R.J.; Ellis, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized reference phantom. Prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) provides the only direct measure of total body nitrogen (TBN), an index of the body's lean tissue mass. In PGNA systems, body size influences neutron flux attenuation, induced gamma signal distribution, and counting efficiency. Thus, calibration based on a single-sized phantom could result in inaccurate TBN values. We used Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP-5; Los Alamos National Laboratory) in order to map a system's response to the range of body weights (65-160 kg) and body fat distributions (25-60%) in obese humans. Calibration curves were constructed to derive body-size correction factors relative to a standard reference phantom, providing customized adjustments to account for differences in body habitus of obese adults. The use of MCNP-generated calibration curves should allow for a better estimate of the true changes in lean tissue mass that many occur during intervention programs focused only on weight loss. (author)

  13. Bone mineral density comparison of total body, lumbar and thoracic: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffat, Sheikh Kashif; Shaikh, Abdul Basit; Sarim, Muhammad; Syed, Akhter Raza

    2015-04-01

    To analyse the behaviour of bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, lumbar and thoracic spine, and compare it between different age-groups, ethnicity and gender as a secondary analysis of already published data of NHANES. The study was done and compared data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey which was done from 1999 to 2006. It comprised bone mineral density data of 26,215 subjects of age 8 years and over. The sample was divided into 10 age groups, 3 ethnicities and gender groups. All subjects had bodyweights not exceeding 300lb, and height not greater than 6'5''. Female subjects were non-pregnant. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total subjects, 7712 (29.41%) were Mexican Americans, 11236 (42.86%) were non-Hispanic whites and 7267 (27.73%) were non-Hispanic blacks. There were 13291 (50.69%) males, and each ethnic group also had approximately 50% males. The bone mineral density of non-Hispanic blacks was higher than the other two groups, whereas males of all ethnic groups and races had higher density then females of the same group. Bone mineral density of total body, lumbar and thoracic was significantly different. After 50 years of age, total body, lumbar and thoracic bone mineral density decreased in females but lumbar slightly increased in males, whereas thoracic remained stable and total body decreased. The bone mineral density of male and blacks was higher than female and non-black races in total body, lumbar and thoracic spine. The thoracic BMD was lower and might predict early fracture risk.

  14. SU-F-T-83: Infant Total Skin Electron Therapy Using Five Fields Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H; Howlin, T; Massey, V [University of Kansas Hospital, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We were presented with a 9 month old boy with Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) involving the skin. The plan was to treat the entire skin using 6 MeV electrons with the infant under complete anesthesia. The purpose of this work is to commission the 6 MeV electron beam and to develop a technique that can be used to deliver total skin dose to infants with minimal patient immobilization. Methods: A baby mannequin phantom that mimics the child’s length was used to determine the best technique to treat the infant. The 76 cm long phantom was placed on the floor. The phantom was placed in four unique immobilization devices to simulate four different treatment positions (anterior, posterior, left lateral and right lateral). Radiochromic films were used to determine beam profile in both axial and radial directions, and percent depth dose (PDD). Absolute calibration of the machine output at 214 cm distance was measured using an Exradin A11 parallel-plate ion chamber. A 1.0 cm plexiglass scatter plate was inserted in the collimator. Mosfet dosimeters were used for dose verification for phantom and and patient. Results: At 214 cm source to surface distance (SSD) using gantry angle of + 20o from vertical beam flatness is + 10% in the radial direction over a region of 70 cm and + 4% in the axial direction over 60 cm. A five field arrangement was determined to optimally deliver the desired dose with > 90% uniformity. The fifth field was used to boost the head vertex. Conclusion: It is possible to treat sedated infants with total skin dose using five positions. Four positions were enough to cover the body and the fifth position boosts the vertex of the head. All fractions can be reproduced accurately daily because of the patient’s stable immobilization.

  15. SU-F-T-83: Infant Total Skin Electron Therapy Using Five Fields Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H; Howlin, T; Massey, V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We were presented with a 9 month old boy with Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) involving the skin. The plan was to treat the entire skin using 6 MeV electrons with the infant under complete anesthesia. The purpose of this work is to commission the 6 MeV electron beam and to develop a technique that can be used to deliver total skin dose to infants with minimal patient immobilization. Methods: A baby mannequin phantom that mimics the child’s length was used to determine the best technique to treat the infant. The 76 cm long phantom was placed on the floor. The phantom was placed in four unique immobilization devices to simulate four different treatment positions (anterior, posterior, left lateral and right lateral). Radiochromic films were used to determine beam profile in both axial and radial directions, and percent depth dose (PDD). Absolute calibration of the machine output at 214 cm distance was measured using an Exradin A11 parallel-plate ion chamber. A 1.0 cm plexiglass scatter plate was inserted in the collimator. Mosfet dosimeters were used for dose verification for phantom and and patient. Results: At 214 cm source to surface distance (SSD) using gantry angle of + 20o from vertical beam flatness is + 10% in the radial direction over a region of 70 cm and + 4% in the axial direction over 60 cm. A five field arrangement was determined to optimally deliver the desired dose with > 90% uniformity. The fifth field was used to boost the head vertex. Conclusion: It is possible to treat sedated infants with total skin dose using five positions. Four positions were enough to cover the body and the fifth position boosts the vertex of the head. All fractions can be reproduced accurately daily because of the patient’s stable immobilization.

  16. Post-laryngectomy localization of I-131 at tracheostomy site on a total body scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, G.A.; Schulz, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    A post-thyroidectomy, post-I-131-therapy patient had a laryngectomy and neck dissection for recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. A subsequent I-131 total body scan revealed persistent anterior neck activity, which disappeared upon removal of the tracheostomy tube and dressings

  17. A Large Rice Body-Containing Cyst Mimicking Infection following Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Bayoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Soft tissue mass following total hip arthroplasty raises several differential diagnoses not limited to infection, hematoma, wear debris, malignancy, and bursitis. Rice body formation in the hip region is an uncommon process denoting a chronic inflammation. We report here the second case of its kind in the medical literature of a wide symptomatic rice-like body cyst complicating a total hip arthroplasty. Case Presentation. This is the case of an 82-year-old white female, presenting with a warm, red, and inflated groin five years after revision of right total hip arthroplasty. Surgical intervention reveals a large well circumscribed cyst containing well-organized rice-like bodies. This eventuality was never reported in differential diagnosis of hip periprosthetic soft tissue masses before. Conclusion. This case report helps widening the array of the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a slow growing soft tissue mass following total hip arthroplasty, making rice-like bodies cyst a valid one to consider.

  18. Cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation: degree of visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Mourits, Maarten P.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The data from 93 patients who received TBI in 1 or 2 fractions as a part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow

  19. Dosimetry for total body irradiation of rhesus monkeys with 300 kV X- rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, J.; Wagemaker, G.; Broerse, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain more accurate information on the dose distribution in rhesus monkeys for total body irradiation with orthovoltage X-rays. Materials and methods: Dose measurements were performed with an ionization chamber inside homogeneous cylindrical and rectangular phantoms of various

  20. Radiation exposure before and after the introductionof a dedicated total-body CT protocolin multitrauma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierink, J. C.; Saltzherr, T. P.; Wirtz, M. R.; Streekstra, G. J.; Beenen, L. F. M.; Goslings, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Total-body CT (TBCT) scanning in trauma patients is being increasingly used in trauma assessment. One of the major disadvantages of CT scanning is the amount of radiation exposure involved. The aim of this study was to assess the number of radiological investigations and their associated radiation

  1. Modelling and validation for total body irradiation using a 3D planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Madhav; Bezak, Eva; Nicolls, Ralph; Byas, Kurt; Nixon, Rogr

    2001-01-01

    Pinnacle treatment planning system has been successfully commissioned for total body irradiation and will be used for patient treatments in near future. The actual dose delivered to patients will be monitored with TLDs and diode array and the agreement with the prescribed dose will be further investigated

  2. Total body topical 5-fluorouracil for extensive non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, Serge; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Sanders, Cornelis J.

    Background Topical 5-fluorouracil 5% cream is one of the treatment modalities for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). There is a lack of suitable therapies to treat patients with extensive NMSC. In this paper we report two patients with extensive NMSC treated by total body application of topical

  3. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects; Tecnica de irradiacion corporal total: aspectos fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia. Obispo Oro 425. Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  4. Electron swarm method as a tool to investigate multi-body electron attachment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szamrej, I.; Forys, M.

    1989-01-01

    The electron swarm method has been used for the investigation of multi-body thermal electron attachment process. Ethylene, carbon dioxide and their mixtures were used as carrier gases. The rate constant for the reaction of thermal electrons with SF/sub 6/ has been measured and found to be (2.5 +- 0.2) x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 3/center dotmol/sup -1/center dots/sup -1/. The mechanism and kinetics of thermal electron capture by N/sub 2/O was investigated in the mixtures with C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/. A mechanism involving neutral van der Waals molecules (N/sub 2/Ocenter dotCO/sub 2/) has been proposed and the rate constants calculated to be 1.9 x 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 3/center dotmol/sup -1/center dots/sup -1/ for the formation of (N/sub 2/Ocenter dotCO/sub 2/) and 1.8 x 10/sup 30/ cm/sup 6/center dotmol/sup -2/center dots/sup -1/ for the three-body reaction with CO/sub 2/ as a stabilizing agent.

  5. Analysis of the body mass index and leg profiles of Asian women after total leg sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Chou; Chen, Chien-Hao; Lin, Chan-Yi; Ho, Li-Yung

    2009-08-01

    In addition to the conventional methods used to improve leg contours, total leg sculpture, including liposuction, selective neurectomy, and transilluminated powered phlebectomy, provides a one-time solution of leg contour problems, which is a major aesthetic concern among Asian women. The authors present the postoperative results of total leg sculpture and determine any significance and correlation between the leg variables and body mass index by statistical analysis. Thirty female patients who underwent total leg sculpture between 2005 and 2008 were included in the study, and prospective analysis of the patients' data was performed during a follow-up period of 1 year. Local measurement variables and body mass index were recorded, and the correlation between them was determined by Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. A paired t test was used to compare the postoperative outcomes. Subjectively, all patient results were satisfactory. There were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative measurements for all variables for total leg sculpture. Body mass index was strongly correlated with all leg indexes, and there was a significant positive correlation between the index and variables related to the buttocks and upper thigh. The satisfactory postoperative leg variables were buttocks circumference (87.85 cm), thigh circumference (T60, 44.20 cm), maximal calf circumference (32.24 cm), and calf ratio (0.78). Each preoperative body mass index increment represents a 0.3 percent circumference improvement around the buttocks after surgery. No obvious morbidities or long-term hospital stays were noted. Total leg sculpture provides a combined aesthetic solution for improving limb contours with minimal morbidity. Patients with larger body mass index values exhibit better aesthetic improvement than those with smaller values.

  6. Skeletal and total body volumes of human fetuses: assessment of reference data by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, Pierre M.; Buenerd, Annie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To define reference data for skeletal and total body volumes of normal human fetuses. Materials and methods: Spiral CT was used to assess the skeletal and total body volumes of 31 normal human stillborn infants with gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) ranging from 14 to 41.5 weeks and 22 to 3,760 g, respectively. CT scans (slice thickness 2.7 mm, pitch 0.7) were performed within the first 24 h after delivery. Precise bone and soft-tissue windows were defined from analysis of the density along the diaphysis of the fetal long bones and from the measurement of a phantom that mimics soft tissues. Lengths and volumes were obtained from 3D reconstructions. The femur lengths measured from CT images (FLct) were compared with those provided by US studies (FLus). Results: Significant correlations (r>0.9) were found between BW, measured volumes of the entire skeleton or head, long-bone lengths, biparietal diameter and GA. Strong linear correlations (r>0.98) were observed between FLct and FLus. Conclusions: Skeletal and total body volume values obtained using spiral CT were significantly correlated with fetal biometric measurements. These data could complement those obtained in obstetric investigations with US. (orig.)

  7. Nutritional consequences of total gastrectomy: the relationship between mode of reconstruction, postprandial symptoms, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miholic, J; Meyer, H J; Müller, M J; Weimann, A; Pichlmayr, R

    1990-09-01

    Body composition, postprandial symptoms, and social performance were assessed in 41 patients who were free of tumors 16 to 63 months (median, 41 months) after total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy (n = 15) or jejunal interposition (n = 26). There were no significant differences with respect to age, sex, initial tumor stage, interval since operation, and premorbid weight/height2 (body mass index). The lowest postoperative body mass index (BMI) was 72% +/- 3% of the preillness BMI in patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction and 79% +/- 2% in patients with jejunal interposition (p less than 0.05). At the time of the study the relative BMI was 88% +/- 2% of the preillness BMI in patients with jejunal interposition but only 81% +/- 3% in patients with the Roux-en-Y reconstruction (p less than 0.01). Muscle mass and lean body mass estimated from anthropometric and bioelectric impedance measurements were correlated with sex (p = 0.0001) and with the mode of reconstruction (p = 0.02) independently, which was confirmed by multiple linear regression. The postprandial symptoms were not significantly associated with changes in body composition except for an inverse relationship between Sigstad's dumping score and the extracellular mass/body cell mass ratio (r = 0.553; p = 0.0002). Of the patients under 60 years of age, 10 of 15 patients with jejunal interposition and two of eight patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction were back at work (p = 0.057). The persons who had resumed their work had a significantly higher relative BMI (90% +/- 2% vs 82% +/- 3%), lean body mass (53 +/- 3 kg vs 46 +/- 3 kg), and muscle mass (25 +/- 2 kg vs 21 +/- 1 kg) than persons in early retirement. We concluded that preserving the duodenal transit should be a main objective of gastric replacement after total gastrectomy.

  8. Modeling of the Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Observations during the 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Barua, S.; Gachancipa, J. N.; Deshpande, K.; Herrera, J. A.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Su, Y.; Gyuk, G.; Bust, G. S.; Hampton, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of free electrons in the ionosphere can cause fluctuations in incoming electromagnetic waves, such as those from the different Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The behavior of the ionosphere depends on time and location, and it is highly influenced by solar activity. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a total solar eclipse on the local ionosphere in terms of ionospheric scintillations, and on the global ionosphere in terms of TEC (Total Electron Content). The studied eclipse occurred on 21 August 2017 across the continental United States. During the eclipse, we expected to see a decrease in the scintillation strength, as well as in the TEC values. As a broader impact part of our recently funded NSF proposal, we temporarily deployed two GNSS receivers on the eclipse's totality path. One GNSS receiver was placed in Clemson, SC. This is a multi-frequency GNSS receiver (NovAtel GPStation-6) capable of measuring high and low rate scintillation data as well as TEC values from four different GNSS systems. We had the receiver operating before, during, and after the solar eclipse to enable the comparison between eclipse and non-eclipse periods. A twin receiver collected data at Daytona Beach, FL during the same time, where an 85% partial solar eclipse was observed. Additionally, we set up a ground receiver onsite in the path of totality in Perryville, Missouri, from which the Adler Planetarium of Chicago launched a high-altitude balloon to capture a 360-degree video of the eclipse from the stratosphere. By analyzing the collected data, this study looks at the effects of partial and total solar eclipse periods on high rate GNSS scintillation data at mid-latitudes, which had not been explored in detail. This study also explores the impact of solar eclipses on signals from different satellite constellations (GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo). Throughout the eclipse, the scintillation values did not appear to have dramatic changes

  9. Measurement of total-body cobalt-57 vitamin B12 absorption with a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, J.A.; Slingerland, D.W.; Burrows, B.A.; Miller, A.

    1985-01-01

    Previously described techniques for the measurement of the absorption of [ 57 Co]vitamin B 12 by total-body counting have required an iron room equipped with scanning or multiple detectors. The present study uses simplifying modifications which make the technique more available and include the use of static geometry, the measurement of body thickness to correct for attenuation, a simple formula to convert the capsule-in-air count to a 100% absorption count, and finally the use of an adequately shielded gamma camera obviating the need of an iron room

  10. The use of Total Body In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (TBIVNAA) in balance studies in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.A.; Lindsay, R.L.; Anderson, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the investigation of animals subject to alteration in diet or other metabolic experiments, the measurements of change in body calcium, phosphorus, sodium and nitrogen are of considerable interest. However, conventional balance studies are tedious and subject to both random and cumulative error, necessitating as they do accurate estimates of dietary intake and faecal and urinary output. The object of the present study was to determine the usefulness of total body in vivo neutron activation analysis, used at the beginning and end of the experimental period, as an alternative to conventional balance techniques. (orig.) [de

  11. A comparative study of total electron scattering cross sections of plasma processing gasses at intermediate electron energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana, Prasanga; Villela, Gilberto; Ariyasinghe, Wickramasinghe

    2008-11-01

    A comparison is made between the total electron cross sections (TCS) of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), Hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) available in the literature and those recently measured in this laboratory using the linear transmission technique. The present measurements are about 0-20% higher than those in the literature. An empirical formula developed to predict the TCS of plasma processing gases, as a function of incident electron energy, will be presented.

  12. Fabrication of total-contact burn masks by use of human body topography and computer-aided design and manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitestone, J J; Richard, R L; Slemker, T C; Ause-Ellias, K L; Miller, S F

    1995-01-01

    Total-contact burn masks are used to treat scar tissue hypertrophy of the face. The mask should conform very closely to the contours of the face and provide evenly distributed pressure. The mask is worn continually throughout wound maturation. Lack of fit because of an inability to obtain exact facial contours by use of an alginate material diminishes the effectiveness of the mask. A multidisciplinary team representing physical therapy, CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing), biomedical engineering, and prosthetics has advanced the method of developing total-contact burn masks by use of human body electronic imaging, computer graphics, and numerically controlled milling processes. High-resolution surface scanning and CAD/CAM have been used successfully to accurately fabricate three such masks. The methodology and preliminary results from use of these state-of-the-art techniques are described in this article.

  13. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat.......001) and age (r = -0.21, P changes in body fat and fat distribution are more dependent on age than on menopause, but we cannot exclude a separate effect of the menopause. Changes in fat-free mass, including a postmenopausal decline in both soft lean tissue mass...... distribution correlated with age (r = 0.12-0.21, P menopause (YSM). Lean tissue mass, on the other hand, decreased with YSM (r = -0.17, P

  14. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  15. A comparison of two total contact cast constructs with variable body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Kelly; McGuire, James; Meyr, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence implicating obesity as having a negative effect on the development and treatment of diabetic foot disease. The aim of this study was to increase the body of knowledge on the effects of obesity on foot function, specifically as it relates to peak plantar pressures in the total contact cast (TCC). Our investigational objectives were to compare the effect of two different TCC designs on mean peak plantar pressures, and to evaluate the efficacy of two TCC constructs with increasing body mass. The primary outcome measure was mean peak plantar pressure in the heel, midfoot, forefoot and first metatarsal as measured with an in-shoe pressure measurement system. The variables were patient weight (from 'normal' body mass index (BMI) to 'overweight', 'obese' and 'morbidly obese') and the TCC construct (with both a standard and alternate cast design). The standard TCC is considered the gold standard for off-loading of the diabetic foot. The alternate TCC was designed to use the essential offloading component of the traditional TCC, namely the total contact leg section, with use of an open cell polyurethane foam to transfer load from the foot to the lower leg, thereby offloading the foot by suspending it within a padded fiberglass walking cast. We did not observe statistically significant differences in mean peak plantar pressures in any plantar foot anatomic area or with any body mass between the two TCC designs. Based on the results, we concluded that the alternate TCC design provides another viable TCC construct option for practitioners working with the neuropathic foot. This investigation also provides specific data on changes that occur in peak plantar pressures with use of the total contact cast and variable BMIs. none.

  16. Total-body photography in skin cancer screening: the clinical utility of standardized imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexandra; Meyerle, Jon H

    2017-05-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality from both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Total-body skin examinations (TBSEs) may improve early detection of malignant melanomas (MMs) but are controversial due to the poor quality of data available to establish a mortality benefit from skin cancer screening. Total-body photography (TBP) promises to provide a way forward by lowering the costs of dermatologic screening while simultaneously leveraging technology to increase patient access to dermatologic care. Standardized TBP also offers the ability for dermatologists to work synergistically with modern computer technology involving algorithms capable of analyzing high-quality images to flag concerning lesions that may require closer evaluation. On a population level, inexpensive TBP has the potential to increase access to skin cancer screening and it has several specific applications in a military population. The utility of standardized TBP is reviewed in the context of skin cancer screening and teledermatology.

  17. Measurement of total body calcium in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzi, I.; Thompson, K.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, the evaluation of therapies for osteoporosis has been limited by the lack of a suitable quantitative end point. The introduction of the technique of in vivo total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) has made possible the precise and accurate measurement of total body calcium (TBCa). Since almost 99 percent of TBCa is in the skeleton, TBNAA gives a direct measurement of skeletal mass. Thus, changes in skeletal mass serve as an objective criterion in the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy in osteoporosis. Studies performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere have reported the use of calcitonin (CT) in the treatment of primary osteoporosis and related conditions in a limited number of patients. The physiological effects of CT as an inhibitor of bone resorption has been the rationale of its use. The results of a randomized, controlled, 2 year therapeutical trial of CT in a group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women are presented in this report

  18. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  19. Quasi-total-body exposure to an oxygen-ozone mixture in a sauna cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, V; Borrelli, E; Valacchi, G; Luzzi, E

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of quasi-total-body exposure of healthy volunteers to either an oxygen-ozone mixture (O(2)-O(3)) or to oxygen (O(2)) alone during a short period in a sauna cabin. The subjects underwent both an experimental and a control examination, separated by a 3.5-month interval. Body mass, blood pressure, body temperature changes, electrocardiograms, venous blood gas and haemocytometric analyses, total antioxidant status and plasma levels of protein thiol groups, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), plasma cytokine, hepatic enzymes and creatine were determined before, immediately after the 20-min period in the cabin and then 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h afterwards. We observed statistically significant variations of body temperature, venous partial pressure of O(2) values, TBARS and plasma levels of interleukin 8, particularly after O(2)-O(3) exposure. The increase in TBARS plasma levels concomitant with protein oxidation has been tentatively interpreted as being attributable to the transcutaneous passage of some reactive O(2) species, which should be considered if this approach is to be used as a biological response modifier. However, in the present study no adverse effects were noted after one session.

  20. Estimation of extracellular and total body water by multiple-frequency bioelectrical-impedance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, K.R.; Burastero, S.; Chun, A.; Coronel, P.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Wang, J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-07-01

    This study evaluated a new technology of bioelectrical-impedance (BI) measurement that makes use of multiple frequencies (5, 50, and 100 kHz) for estimation of extracellular and total body water. In 36 healthy males, resistance and reactance at three frequencies were compared with extra-cellular water (ECW) and total body water (TBW) determined by isotope dilution. ECW was best predicted by resistance measured at 5 kHz, corrected for height and weight (R = 0.930, SEE = 1.94 L) whereas TBW was best predicted by resistance at 100 kHZ and weight (R = 0.947, SEE = 2.64 L). Cross-validation analysis on two randomly selected subsets (n = 18 each) indicated that the prediction equations were reproducible and valid. Thus, BI at dual frequencies is valid for determination of body-water compartments and may be useful in the nutritional assessment of patients in whom body water and hydration is of clinical concern.

  1. Effect of dietary protein quality on the resistance of rats to total body radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.; Pageau, R.

    1983-01-01

    Young rats have been fed four defined-formula diets before and after #betta#-irradiation (700 rd [7.0 Gy], 75 rd/min [750 mGy], 80 cm from the source, total body). Animals eating a diet containing lactalbumin hydrolyzate (20 g/100 g diet) exhibited less anorexia and weight loss following #betta#-rays than a corresponding group eating casein hydrolyzate (20 g/100 g diet). (orig.) [de

  2. Radiophosphate visualization of the foreign body reaction to wear debris from total knee prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthall, L.

    1987-05-01

    Three patients with total knee arthroplasties, in which the tibial and patellar articulating surfaces consisted of a polyethylene-carbon fiber composite, demonstrated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) deposition in the intraarticular space, whereas, the gallium-67 citrate images were normal. This was shown to be due to a synovial giant cell foreign body reaction to particulate carbon fiber debris in one patient who required surgical revision of the prosthesis.

  3. The physiology and biochemistry of total body immobilization in animals: A compendium of research. [bibliographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchak, K. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Major studies that describe the physiological and biochemical mechanisms which operate during total body restraint (confinement in cages for example) are presented. The metabolism and behavior of various animals used in medical research (dogs, monkeys, rats, fowl) was investigated and wherever possible a detailed annotation for each study is provided under the subheadings: (a) purposes, (b) procedures and methods, (c) results, and (d) conclusions. Selected references are also included.

  4. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients.

  5. Radiological protection in a patient during a total body irradiation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez O, J. O.; Hinojosa G, J.; Gomez M, E.; Balam de la Vega, J. A.; Deheza V, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    A technique used in the Service of Radiotherapy of the Cancer Center of the American British Cowdray Medical Center (ABC) for the bone marrow transplantation, is the total body irradiation. It is known that the dose calculation, for this irradiation type, is old, since the dosimetric calculation is carried out by hand and they exist infinity of techniques for the patients irradiation and different forms of protecting organs of risk, as well as a great uncertainty in the given dose. In the Cancer Center of the ABC Medical Center, was carried out an irradiation procedure to total body with the following methodology: Computerized tomography of the patient total body (two vacuum mattresses in the following positions: dorsal and lateral decubitus), where is combined the two treatment techniques anterior-posterior and bilateral, skin delineate and reference volumes, dose calculation with the planning system Xi O of CMS, dose determination using an ionization chamber and a lung phantom IMRT Thorax Phantom of the mark CIRS and dosimetry in vivo. In this work is presented the used treatment technique, the results, statistics and the actualization of the patient clinical state. (Author)

  6. Observations on total-body calcium in humans with bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Ranicar, A.S.O.; Joplin, G.F.; Evans, I.M.A.; Vlotides, J.; Paolillo, M.

    1979-01-01

    Total-body calcium was measured in-vivo by neutron activation in a number of patients suffering from metabolic abnormalities which affect the skeleton. In general, less than 2% of total calcium resides in tissue other than bone allowing calcium mass to be directly related to skeletal mass. The conditions studied were (i) Paget's disease, treated with synthetic human calcitonin, (ii) osteoporosis, treated variously with calcium and phosphate supplements and 1,25 hydroxycholecalciferol, and (iii) Cushing's disease treated by pituitary implant of 198 Au or 90 Y seeds. The neutron beam used in these studies was produced by bombarding a beryllium target with deuterons accelerated in a cyclotron. The mean neutron energy was 7.5 MeV and patients received a total dose of 1 rem in about 30 s, a bilateral irradiation being employed. Measurements were made at approximately yearly intervals, the maximum period of study being about four and a half years. The precision of the method was estimated to be +-3% (SE) and a correction was applied for changes in body weight. In most patients, total calcium remained stable. However, in the Paget's patients, there was an indication of a slow upward trend while the osteoporotics (both treated and untreated) showed on average no change. Most of the patients with Cushing's disease showed no recovery of skeletal mass. Absolute calibration indicated that mean total body calcium in the Paget's patients was close to a predicted normal while that for the osteoporotic and Cushing's patients was 20-25% below this. (author)

  7. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  8. The modified total body rotation test: a rapid, reliable assessment of physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziano, Damian C; Signorile, Joseph F; Mow, Sara; Davidson, Erin E; Ouslander, Joseph G; Roos, Bernard A

    2010-10-01

    To describe a quick, modified measure of total body rotation with performance rankings for elderly persons and to highlight the importance of total body rotational ability for overall physical performance. Scores were collected during the same testing session and were compared with other measures using a Pearson correlation. Community-based senior centers. One hundred forty-five participants aged 79.6±7.2 were recruited using flyers distributed at health fairs, senior centers, and lifelong learning programs. The modified total body rotation test (MTBR), the back-scratch test, the modified sit-and-reach test, the 30-second chair-stand test, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the short version of the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance Test. The MBTR significantly correlated to all standard measures of physical performance. Norms are reported for all participants, and reliability analyses were conducted using data from 18 participants. Data were divided into quintiles to create cutoffs for physical performance rankings that can be used when reporting results to the general public. Many evaluations measure isolated components of physical performance, but few examine whole body movements that allow all components necessary for independence and function to work in harmony as needed considering the task and the individual's movement strategy. The current study offers the MTBR as a quick, easy, and cost-effective evaluation method to quantify the degree of impairment or injury and the rate of improvement with treatment or training. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Use of an electron reflector to improve dose uniformity at the vertex during total skin electron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The vertex of the scalp is always tangentially irradiated during total skin electron therapy (TSET). This study was conducted to determine the dose distribution at the vertex for a commonly used irradiation technique and to evaluate the use of an electron reflector, positioned above the head, as a means of improving the dose uniformity. Methods and Materials: Phantoms, simulating the head of a patient, were irradiated using our standard procedure for TSET. The technique is a six-field irradiation using dual angled electron beams at a treatment distance of 3.6 meters. Vertex dosimetry was performed using ionization methods and film. Measurements were made for an unmodified 6 MeV electron beam and for a 4 MeV beam obtained by placing an acrylic scattering plate in the beam line. Studies were performed to examine the effect of electron scattering on vertex dose when a lead reflector, 50 x 50 cm in area, was positioned above the phantom. Results: The surface dose at the vertex, in the absence of the reflector, was found to be less than 40% of the prescribed skin dose. Use of the lead reflector increased this value to 73% for the 6 MeV beam and 99% for the degraded 4 MeV beam. Significant improvements in depth dose were also observed. The dose enhancement is not strongly dependent on reflector distance or angulation since the reflector acts as a large source of broadly scattered electrons. Conclusion: The vertex may be significantly underdosed using standard techniques for total skin electron therapy. Use of an electron reflector improves the dose uniformity at the vertex and may reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental irradiation

  10. Totally necrotic choroidal and ciliary body melanomas: associations with prognosis, episcleritis, and scleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshari, A; Cheeseman, E W; McLean, I W

    2001-02-01

    To report associations between prognosis, total tumor necrosis, scleritis, and episcleritis in choroidal and ciliary body melanomas. In this retrospective observational histopathologic study, 157 totally necrotic melanomas and 177 melanomas that were not totally necrotic of choroidal and ciliary body were retrieved from the Registry of Ophthalmic Pathology. The eyes were examined for the histologic evidence of inflammatory cells within the sclera and episcleral tissues. Contingency table, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed. In the survival analyses, only deaths with metastatic melanoma were considered as events in the statistical analysis. Among the totally necrotic melanomas, 118 of 157 (75.1%) had both episcleritis and scleritis; two of 157 (1.3%) had scleritis only; 29 of 157 (18.5%) had episcleritis only; and eight of 157 (5.1%) had neither episcleritis nor scleritis. Among the non-necrotic melanomas, 23 of 177 (12.9%) had both episcleritis and scleritis; eight of 177 (4.5%) had scleritis only; 71 of 177 (40.1%) had episcleritis only; and 75 of 177 (42.3%) had neither episcleritis nor scleritis. Cox regression indicated that total necrosis and scleritis were prognostically significant (P episcleritis were statistically significantly associated with total tumor necrosis. There was a higher incidence of episcleritis than scleritis in both the necrotic and non-necrotic tumor types. Associations with patient outcome were identified for necrosis and scleritis. However, these associations were statistically insignificant when the prognostic effect of tumor size was also considered in a multivariate model.

  11. Body hair scores and total hair diameters in healthy women in the Kirikkale Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagsoz, Nevin; Kamaci, Mansur; Orbak, Zerrin

    2004-06-30

    It was aimed to determine the normal hair scores of women of Kirikkale region according to the Ferriman- Gallwey scale and to investigate the relationship between the hair shaft diameter and hair scores. Hair scores were calculated in 204 healthy women, and hair shaft diameters were measured from the hair samples collected from 60 patients. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance and blood androgen levels were determined. Neutral, hormonal and total hair scores were 2.1 1.4, 3.1 2.7 and 5.2 3.6, respectively. The average total hair diameter and hormonal hair diameter were 191.93 90.49 m and 121.8 75.9 m respectively. The correlation between total hair diameter and total hair score was statistically significant (r=0.704 p 0.001). Also, the correlation between hormonal hair diameter and hormonal hair score was statistically significant (r=0.724 p 0.001). While hair scores and diameters show meaningful positive correlation with androgen levels, they show negative correlation with age. In our population, 95% value of total hair score was 11, and for the hormonal score, it was 9. Hair diameters increase with hair score, regardless of total or hormonal of hair scores. Hair scores and hair diameters may be affected by blood androgens in healthy women.

  12. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-21

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18 F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  14. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-01

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  15. Calculations of the Total Number of Electrons Along a Ray Path Extending from the Transmitter to the Receiver

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is the total number of electrons in a column of unit cross section extending from the transmitter to the receiver. TEC is...

  16. Acute tolerance of hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation; Akuttoleranz bei der hyperfraktionierten akzelerierten Ganzkoerperbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latz, D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Schraube, P. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Wannenmacher, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie

    1996-12-01

    Background: Acute side effects of total body irradiation lead to intense molestations of the patients. Therefore, it is desirable to take measures to reduce these side effects. In a retrospective study the frequency on acute side effects of a hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation was assessed and compared to frequencies of other exposure schedules published in the literature. Additionally the influence of ondansetron on the frequency of nausea and vormiting was investigated. Patients and Method: From 1989 to 1992, 76 patients (47 male, 29 female; median age 38 years) underwent total body irradiation before autologeous bone marrow transplantation. They received 3 daily doses of 1.20 Gy each every 4 h on 4 successive days to a total dose of 14,40 Gy. Thirty-nine patients received 3x8 mg (daily, intravenous or per os) ondansetron during the whole course of irradiation. Results: The most relevant side effects were nausea and vomiting. Patients, who did not receive ondansetron (n=37) showed a nausea and emesis rate of 73%. With ondansetron (n=39) nausea and emesis were reduced to 38%. Also the grade of severity of these side effects was reduced. Conclusions: Ondansetron proved to be an effective medicament for relieving nausea and vormiting during total body irradiation. The results obtained are in concordance with those published in the literature. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die Akutnebenwirkungen der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung fuehren zu starken Belastungen der Patienten. Massnahmen zur Reduktion dieser Nebenwirkungen sind daher notwendig. In einer retrospektiven Analyse wurde die Haeufigkeit von Akutnebenwirkungen bei einer hyperfraktionierten akzelerierten Granzkoerperbestrahlung untersucht und mit den Auftretenshaeufigkeiten anderer in der Literatur aufgefuehrter Fraktionierungsschemata verglichen. Zusaetzlich wurde der Einfluss des Serotoninantagonisten Ondansetron auf die Haeufigkeit von Uebelkeit und Erbrechen untersucht. Patienten und Methode

  17. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  18. High-dose melphalan total body irradiation with bone marrow transplantation for refractory malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, G.; Jagannath, S.; Dicke, K.A.; Nebraska Univ., Omaha

    1986-01-01

    Nineteen adult patients with relapsed disease, 15 of them having hematologic malignancies, were treated with high-dose melphalan (100 mg/m 2 -140 mg/m 2 ) divided over 2 consecutive days followed by a rest period of 4 days before receiving total body irradiation, 850 rad administered in five fractionated doses over 3 days. Subsequently 11 patients received autologous, seven allogeneic and one syngeneic, bone marrow transplantation. All patients had severe myelosuppression and the major extramedullary toxicity was mucositis. There were three early deaths, two related to septicemia and one to graft-versus-host disease with associated cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. All patients were heavily pretreated, and 16 were demonstrating progressive disease on alternative salvage therapies at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Two of the 16 evaluable patients (12.5%) achieved complete remissions, and 10 (63%) achieved partial remissions for a total response rate of 75%. One patient is a long-term disease-free survivor (over 1 yr). The combination of melphalan, an alternative alkylating agent to cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation are associated with moderate gastrointestinal toxicity in heavily pretreated adult patients. (author)

  19. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  20. Ionization of molecules by electron impact: Differential and total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezkallah, Z.; Houamer, S.; Dal Cappello, C.; Charpentier, I.; Roy, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The first Born approximation is applied to calculate differential and total ionization cross sections of a set of small molecules, namely, HF, H 2 O, NH 3 and CH 4 by electron impact. The molecular targets are described by single center molecular orbitals consisting of linear combinations of atomic orbitals (MO-LCAO). First, we have considered electron momentum spectroscopy experiments to check the accuracy of the wave functions. The triply, doubly, singly differential and total cross sections are then evaluated in a systematic way for a variety of kinematics. The results are discussed and compared with experiments.

  1. Ionization of molecules by electron impact: Differential and total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezkallah, Z. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Departement de physique, Faculte des sciences, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Houamer, S., E-mail: hosalim@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Departement de physique, Faculte des sciences, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Dal Cappello, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Institut de Physique, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Charpentier, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz UMR 7554, ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 1 (France); Roy, A.C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)

    2011-12-01

    The first Born approximation is applied to calculate differential and total ionization cross sections of a set of small molecules, namely, HF, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by electron impact. The molecular targets are described by single center molecular orbitals consisting of linear combinations of atomic orbitals (MO-LCAO). First, we have considered electron momentum spectroscopy experiments to check the accuracy of the wave functions. The triply, doubly, singly differential and total cross sections are then evaluated in a systematic way for a variety of kinematics. The results are discussed and compared with experiments.

  2. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal toxicity in children undergoing total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esiashvili, Natia; Chiang, K.-Y.; Hasselle, Michael D.; Bryant, Cynthia; Riffenburgh, Robert H.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Contribution of total body irradiation (TBI) to renal toxicity in children undergoing the bone marrow transplant (BMT) remains controversial. We report our institutional retrospective study that evaluates the frequency of acute and chronic renal dysfunction in children after using total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens. Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2003, 60 children with hematological malignancies underwent TBI as part of a conditioning regimen before allogeneic BMT. Patients received 4-14 Gy at 1.75-2 Gy/fraction in six-eight fractions. Lung shielding was used in all patients to limit lung dose to less than 10 Gy; renal shielding was not utilized. All patients had baseline renal function assessment and renal dysfunction post-BM was mainly evaluated on the basis of persistent serum creatinine elevation at acute (0-90 days) and chronic (>90 days) intervals after completion of BMT. Results: Acute renal dysfunction (ARD) was documented in 27 patients (45%); the majority had concurrent diagnosis of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other potential causes (sepsis, antibiotic). The risk for delayed renal dysfunction (DRD) at 1 year approached 25% for surviving patients. The ARD was strongly linked with the risk of the DRD. There was no statistically significant relationship between ARD, DRD and underlying diagnosis, GVHD, VOD or TBI doses with both univariate and multivariate analyses. The younger age (<5 years) had significantly increased risk for the development of ARD (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Our analysis validates high incidence of renal dysfunction in the pediatric BMT population. In contrast to other reports we did not find total body irradiation dose to be a risk factor for renal dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to assess risk factors and interventions for this serious toxicity in children following allogeneic BM

  4. Total energy expenditure and body composition in two free-living sympatric lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in Madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. Free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta and brown lemurs (Eulemur sp. of southern Madagascar have different socio-ecological characteristics which allow a test of these theories: Both gregarious primates have a phytophagous diet but different circadian activity rhythms, degree of arboreality, social systems, and slightly different body size. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Daily total energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the field with the doubly labeled water procedure. High body fat content was observed at the end of the rainy season, which supports the notion that individuals need to attain a sufficient physical condition prior to the long dry season. However, ring-tailed lemurs exhibited lower water flux rates and energy expenditure than brown lemurs after controlling for body mass differences. The difference was interpreted to reflect higher efficiency for coping with seasonally low quality foods and water scarcity. Daily energy expenditure of both species was much less than the field metabolic rates predicted by various scaling relationships found across mammals. DISCUSSION: We argue that low energy output in these species is mainly accounted for by low basal metabolic rate and reflects adaptation to harsh, unpredictable environments. The absence of observed sex differences in body weight, fat content, and daily energy expenditure converge with earlier investigations of physical activity levels in ring-tailed lemurs to suggest the absence of a relationship

  5. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip......-joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...

  6. Total body irradiation for pediatric patients of hematological malignancies. Fraction and oral-pharyngeal mucosal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Kashiwado, Kozo; Ueno, Toshihiro; Nakashige, Aya; Toda, Hiroyuki; Mori, Masaki; Hamamoto, Kazuko [Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Twenty one pediatric patients of hematological malignancies received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using total body irradiation (TBI). We discussed its acute toxicity. Especially in children, reduction of acute toxicity is important to keep the quality of treatment. Our routine TBI schedule was 12 Gy/4 frac.. But in one patient who recently treated by 13.6 Gy/8 frac., oral-pharyngeal mucosal reaction was apparently mild. So we changed the routine treatment schedule of TBI from 12 Gy/4 frac. to 12.6 Gy/6 frac.. (author)

  7. An Acute Transverse Myelitis Attack after Total Body Irradiation: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Keklik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation (TBI combined with chemotherapy is widely used as a pretreatment regimen of bone marrow transplantation (BMT in hematologic disorders. Late complications related to TBI as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been revealed. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is a neurological syndrome characterized by disorder of motor, sensorial, and autonomic nerves, and tracts at medulla spinalis, which is resulted from involvement of spinal cord. In this paper, we presented an ATM attack developed after TBI in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL as it is a rarely seen case.

  8. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body ?-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to ?-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10?mGy/day; moderate, 50?mGy/day; high,...

  9. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  10. Many-body effects in low dimensional electron liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asgari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available  This review article is about the role of electron-electron interactions in low dimensional systems and its transport properties in nano-structures. It begins with a review of the pair-distribution function theory of electron liquid systems taking into account the electron-electron interactions. We extend the theory for highly correlated system such two- and one-dimensional electron liquids. We then review the microscopic theory of the local-field factors and calculate the quasiparticle properties in two-dimension electron liquid and compare our results with those measured by recent experiments. The physics of two-dimension bilayer structures are revised and are immediately applied to the study of charged Coulomb drag effects in a bilayer electron-electron system and results are compared with experimental data. As a final application, the Luttinger theory is discussed and we compare our recent calculations with those obtained from quantum Monte Carlo simulation for one dimensional electron liquid.

  11. Core body temperature control by total liquid ventilation using a virtual lung temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Vandamme, Jonathan; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herve

    2014-12-01

    In total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are filled with a breathable liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) while a liquid ventilator ensures proper gas exchange by renewal of a tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Given the rapid changes in core body temperature generated by TLV using the lung has a heat exchanger, it is crucial to have accurate and reliable core body temperature monitoring and control. This study presents the design of a virtual lung temperature sensor to control core temperature. In the first step, the virtual sensor, using expired PFC to estimate lung temperature noninvasively, was validated both in vitro and in vivo. The virtual lung temperature was then used to rapidly and automatically control core temperature. Experimentations were performed using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator with a feedback controller to modulate inspired PFC temperature thereby controlling lung temperature. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on seven newborn lambs instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, pulmonary artery, oesophagus, right ear drum, and rectum. After stabilization in conventional mechanical ventilation, TLV was initiated with fast hypothermia induction, followed by slow posthypothermic rewarming for 1 h, then by fast rewarming to normothermia and finally a second fast hypothermia induction phase. Results showed that the virtual lung temperature was able to provide an accurate estimation of systemic arterial temperature. Results also demonstrate that TLV can precisely control core body temperature and can be favorably compared to extracorporeal circulation in terms of speed.

  12. In pediatric leukemia, dose evaluation according to the type of compensators in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Busan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are the pre-treatment method of a stem cell transplantations of the childhood leukemia. in this study, we evaluate the Quantitative human body dose prior to the treatment. The MCNPX simulation program evaluated by changing the material of the tissue compensators with imitation material of pediatric exposure in a virtual space. As a result, first, the average skin dose with the material of the tissue compensators of Plexiglass tissue compensators is 74.60 mGy/min, Al is 73.96 mGy/min, Cu is 72.26 mGy/min and Pb 67.90 mGy/min respectively. Second, regardless of the tissue compensators material that organ dose were thyroid, gentile, digestive system, brain, lungs, kidneys higher in order. Finally, the ideal distance between body compensator and the patient were 50 cm aparting each other. In conclusion, tissue compensators Al, Cu, Pb are able to replace of the currently used in Plexiglass materials.

  13. Total body retention of orally administered 47Ca in primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallette, L.E.; Sode, J.E.; Marx, S.J.; Georges, L.P.; Aurbach, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    Using a whole-body radiation detector, the total-body retention of 47 Ca 7 days after oral administration of the isotope to patients with various disorders of calcium metabolism was measured. The percent retention of 47 Ca given with 90 mg of unlabeled (carrier) calcium varied with the calcium metabolic status as follows: normals (n = 14), 33--43 percent (mean 38); primary hyperparathyroidism (n = 28), 32--74 percent (mean 52); idiopathic hypercalciuria (n = 9), 34--49 percent (mean 42); and hypercalcemia of other etiology (n = 3), 23--26 percent (mean 25). Almost half (13/28) of those with hyperparathyroidism showed a retention above 55 percent, distinguishing them from subjects with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Retention of 47 Ca correlated poorly with clinical measures of severity of hyperparathyroidism. When isotope was diluted with a smaller amount of carrier calcium (20 mg), retention was increased in normals (n = 5) to 46--54 percent (mean 50) and in hyperparathyroidism (n = 5) to 64--87 percent (mean 73). After surgical cure of hyperparathyroidism retention of isotope returned toward normal in 5 of 7 subjects. Whole-body retention of orally administered 47 Ca may prove useful in detecting hyperparathyroidism in subjects with mild hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. (U.S.)

  14. Formation of a large rice body-containing cyst following total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issack Paul S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several well-described causes of a painful mass following total hip arthroplasty including polyethylene and metal wear debris, infection, expanding hematoma, dislocation, and synovial cysts. In addition to causing pain, these lesions, when large enough, may cause neurologic and vascular compromise. Rapid growth of the mass may clinically and radiographically resemble a sarcoma. Here, we report a case of a large painful hip mass which developed after total hip arthroplasty. The well-circumscribed mass was overlying and extending into the hip joint containing thousands of highly organized fibrin-containing “rice bodies”. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a large, highly organized (rice-body-containing cyst complicating total hip arthroplasty. Case presentation A 55-year old Caucasian woman developed a large, slowly enlarging, painful hip mass 2 1/2 years after primary total hip arthroplasty. Clinically and radiographically, the lesion resembled a soft tissue sarcoma. Surgical removal identified a well-circumscribed mass extending into the hip joint containing thousands of highly organized fibrin-containing “rice bodies”. Conclusion Identification and excision of this “pseudotumor” following hip arthroplasty is important for obtaining a definitive diagnosis, ruling out malignancy or infection and relieving any potential compression on surrounding neurovascular structures.

  15. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Poedenphant, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the descriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD spine ) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMC forearm ) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMD spine and BMC forearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMD spine or BMC forearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures. BMC forearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMD spine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMD spine or BMC forearm , whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements. (author)

  16. Correlation of radial bone mineral content with total body calcium in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA), and also by an absorptiometric technique applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius). In the present study the results of these two techniques are compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. It is apparent that there is good correlation between total body calcium (TBCa) and bone mineral content (BMC) in all groups studied. The correlation in the normal contrast group was 0.944 as compared to 0.919 for the renal patients and 0.892 for patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis. In order to measure the relative deficit in TBCa in individual patients from the absolute Ca measurement, it is necessary to normalize the data for sex, age, and skeletal size. For this purpose, an empirically derived relationship was used to predict the normal skeletal Ca in each subject, based on weight, height, sex, and age. The measured TBCa divided by the predicted TBCa is referred to as the calcium ratio. This ratio is useful in expressing the relative deficit of Ca in individual renal patients. In similar manner, BMC data were normalized, with the same relationship used to obtain BMC ratios. The normalization procedures allow both the TBCa and BMC measurements to be used to quantitate the Ca deficit in individual patients with renal insufficiency

  17. Clinical analysis of hematopoiesis reconstruction after total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Tong; Gao Hong; Sun Baojing; Chen Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical outcome of total body irradiation in hematopoiesis reconstruction after autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: 35 patients received autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT group) and 35 patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT group) were enrolled in this study. And their hematopoiesis reconstruction were observed and analyzed. Results: The recovery time of ANC were 14 and 16 d, respectively, and the recovery time of PLT were 23 and 27 d, respectively, the difference were not significant (P>0.05) in ASCT group and Allo-HSCT group. But for both group, hematopoiesis reconstruction were faster in peripheral blood stem cell transplant than those in bone marrow transplant (P<0.05). The recovery time of PLT with the patients of total body irradiation dose ≥ 10 Gy were longer than those of < 10 Gy. Conclusions: At the same doses, the clinical outcome of hematopoiesis reconstruction of ASCT is similar to that of Allo-HSCT. But the recovery time in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is faster than that in bone marrow transplant. The recovery time of PLT has relation with the irradiation dose. (authors)

  18. A new model for estimating total body water from bioelectrical resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, S. F.; Kear, K. T.

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of total body water (T) from bioelectrical resistance (R) is commonly done by stepwise regression models with height squared over R, H(exp 2)/R, age, sex, and weight (W). Polynomials of H(exp 2)/R have not been included in these models. We examined the validity of a model with third order polynomials and W. Methods: T was measured with oxygen-18 labled water in 27 subjects. R at 50 kHz was obtained from electrodes placed on the hand and foot while subjects were in the supine position. A stepwise regression equation was developed with 13 subjects (age 31.5 plus or minus 6.2 years, T 38.2 plus or minus 6.6 L, W 65.2 plus or minus 12.0 kg). Correlations, standard error of estimates and mean differences were computed between T and estimated T's from the new (N) model and other models. Evaluations were completed with the remaining 14 subjects (age 32.4 plus or minus 6.3 years, T 40.3 plus or minus 8 L, W 70.2 plus or minus 12.3 kg) and two of its subgroups (high and low) Results: A regression equation was developed from the model. The only significant mean difference was between T and one of the earlier models. Conclusion: Third order polynomials in regression models may increase the accuracy of estimating total body water. Evaluating the model with a larger population is needed.

  19. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation: early results in leukemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, B.; Hopfan, S.; Kim, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation following cytoreduction with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide has previously been shown to be of value in treating refractory leukemias. Major problems, however, have been fatal interstitial pneumonitis and leukemic relapse. In an attempt to minimize these problems, we initiated a new hyperfractionated regimen for total body irradiation, with partial lung sparing. From May 1979 through July 1980, we treated 48 leukemia patients according to this regimen, varying in age from 1.5 to 42 years old (mean age: 18 y). Analysis in September 1980, with follow-up from 2 to 16 months, showed that we have a significantly reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis compared with single dose (1000 rad) irradiation (33 vs 70%), as well as decreased deaths attributable to interstitial pneumonitis (23 vs 50%). This is reflected in the survival curves, with loss of the early drop in survival previously observed with single dose irradiation. One year actuarial survival was 65% for acute lymphocytic leukemia (n = 16) and 72% for actue non-lymphocytic leukemia (n = 29). This compares with only 17% for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia patients (n = 12) on our previous single dose regimen. Age was also found to be an important parameter for both survival and interstitial pneumonitis

  20. Recent Total Ionizing Dose Results and Displacement Damage Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Irwin, Tim L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert A.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Hawkins, Donald K.; Flanigan, Ryan J.; Cox, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, hybrid devices, Analog-to- Digital Converters (ADCs), and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), among others. T

  1. Confidence Level Based Approach to Total Dose Specification for Spacecraft Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Phan, A.; McClure, S. S.; Ladbury, R. L.; Pellish, J. A.; Campola, M. J.; Label, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    A confidence level based approach to total dose radiation hardness assurance is presented for spacecraft electronics. It is applicable to both ionizing and displacement damage dose. Results are compared to the traditional approach that uses radiation design margin and advantages of the new approach are discussed.

  2. Total cross section for hadron production by electron-positron annihilation at ADONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Paternoster, G.; Tortora, L.; Troya, U.; Bemporad, C.; Brosco, G.; Calvetti, M.; Costantini, F.; Giannini, G.R.; Lariccia, P.; Pisa Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The total cross section for electron-positron annihilation into three or more hadrons has been measured for centre of mass energies between 1.4 and 2.0 GeV. The data were obtained at ADONE by the B anti B experiment. (orig.)

  3. Prediction of swine carcass composition by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, A D; Bidner, T D; Matthews, J O; Southern, L L; Page, T G; Persica, M A; Sanders, M B; Monlezun, C J

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine prediction equations that used readings for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) in the model for estimation of total fat-free lean and total fat weight in the pork carcass. Ultrasound measurements of live hogs were used to select 32 gilts that represented a range in weight, muscling, and fatness. The TOBEC readings were recorded on warm carcass sides, chilled carcass sides, and the untrimmed ham from the left carcass side. Physical dissection and chemical analyses determined fat-free lean and fat weight of the carcass. All of the ham tissues were analyzed separately from the remainder of the carcass tissues to incorporate ham measurements for prediction of total fat-free lean and total fat weight in the entire carcass. Prediction equations were developed using stepwise regression procedures. An equation that used a warm carcass TOBEC reading in the model was determined to be the best warm TOBEC equation (R2 = 0.91; root mean square error = 0.81). A three-variable equation that used chilled carcass TOBEC reading, chilled carcass temperature, and carcass length in the model was determined to be the best chilled TOBEC equation (R2 = 0.93; root mean square error = 0.73). A four-variable equation that included chilled carcass side weight, untrimmed ham TOBEC reading, ham temperature, and fat thickness beneath the butt face of the ham in the model was determined to be the best equation overall (R2 = 0.95; root mean square error = 0.65). The TOBEC and the fat-free lean weight of the ham are excellent predictors of total carcass fat-free lean weight.

  4. Differential and total excitation cross sections in the collision of protons with He atoms at intermediate and high energies under a three body formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fathi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  A three-body model is devised to study differential and total cross sections for the excitation of helium atom under impact of energetic protons. The actual process is a four body one but in the present model the process is simplified into a three-body one. In this model, an electron of helium atom is assumed to be inactive and only one electron of the atom is active. Therefore, the active electron is assumed to be in an atomic state with a potential of the nucleus, T, being screened by the inactive electron, e, and, thus, an effective charge of Ze. As a result, the ground state, 11S, or the excited states, 21S and 21P, wave function of the active electron is deduced from similar hydrogenic wave functions assuming effective charge, Ze for the combined nucleus (T+e. In this three-body model, the Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace formalism for excitation channel is used to calculate the transition amplitude. In the first order approximation, electronic and nuclear interaction is assumed in the collision to be A(1e= and A(1n=, respectively. Here, A(1, Txy, |i> and |f> are the first order transition amplitude, the transition matrix for the interaction between particles x and y, the initial state and the final state, respectively. The transition matrix for the first order electronic interaction implemented into A(1e is approximated as the corresponding two-body interaction, Vxy. In order to calculate first order nuclear amplitude A(1n, the near-the-shell form of transition matrix TPT is used. Calculations are performed in the energy range of 50 keV up to 1MeV. The results are then compared with those of theoretical and experimental works in the literature.

  5. Augmentation Improves Human Cadaveric Vertebral Body Compression Mechanics For Lumbar Total Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathon H.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Maurer, Philip M.; Erbe, Erik M.; Entrekin, Dean; Balderston, Richard A.; Bertagnoli, Rudolf; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric biomechanical study. Objectives Quantify the effects of vertebral body augmentation on biomechanics under axial compression by a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. Summary of Background Data TDR is a surgical alternative to lumbar spinal fusion to treat degenerative disc disease. Osteoporosis in the adjacent vertebrae to the interposed TDR may lead to implant subsidence or vertebral body fracture. Vertebral augmentation is used to treat osteoporotic compression fracture. The study sought to evaluate whether vertebral augmentation improves biomechanics under TDR axial loading. Methods Forty-five L1-L5 lumbar vertebral body segments with intact posterior elements were used. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed to determine bone density, block randomizing specimens by bone density into augmentation and control groups. A semi-constrained keeled lumbar disc replacement device was implanted providing 50% endplate coverage. Vertebral augmentation of 17.6 ± 0.9% vertebral volume fill with Cortoss was performed on augmentation group. All segments underwent axial compression at a rate of 0.2 mm/s to 6mm. Results The load-displacement response for all specimens was non-linear. Subfailure mechanical properties with augmentation were significantly different from control; in all cases the augmented group was 2× higher than control. At failure, the maximum load and stiffness with augmentation was not significantly different from control. The maximum apparent stress and modulus with augmentation were 2× and 1.3× greater than control, respectively. The subfailure stress and apparent modulus with augmentation was moderately correlated with bone density while the control subfailure properties were not. The augmented maximum stress was not correlated with bone density, while the control was weakly correlated. The maximum apparent modulus was moderately correlated with bone density for both the augmented and control groups

  6. Room scatter effects in Total Skin Electron Irradiation: Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevelsky, Alexander; Borzov, Egor; Daniel, Shahar; Bar-Deroma, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Total Skin Electron Irradiation (TSEI) is a complex technique which usually involves the use of large electron fields and the dual-field approach. In this situation, many electrons scattered from the treatment room floor are produced. However, no investigations of the effect of scattered electrons in TSEI treatments have been reported. The purpose of this work was to study the contribution of floor scattered electrons to skin dose during TSEI treatment using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. All MC simulations were performed with the EGSnrc code. Influence of beam energy, dual-field angle, and floor material on the contribution of floor scatter was investigated. Spectrum of the scattered electrons was calculated. Measurements of dose profile were performed in order to verify MC calculations. Floor scatter dependency on the floor material was observed (at 20 cm from the floor, scatter contribution was about 21%, 18%, 15%, and 12% for iron, concrete, PVC, and water, respectively). Although total dose profiles exhibited slight variation as functions of beam energy and dual-field angle, no dependence of the floor scatter contribution on the beam energy or dual-field angle was found. The spectrum of the scattered electrons was almost uniform between a few hundred KeV to 4 MeV, and then decreased linearly to 6 MeV. For the TSEI technique, dose contribution due to the electrons scattered from the room floor may be clinically significant and should be taken into account during design and commissioning phases. MC calculations can be used for this task. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  8. In vivo prompt gamma activation analysis facility for total body nitrogen and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Solis, Jose; Revilla, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) is a technique that could have medical applications, like determination of body's contents of protein and heavy metals in vivo. The in vivo PGNAA facility, contains a neutron source (Cf-252) with safety device, a compartment for animal irradiation, and a gamma rays detecting system based on the NaI(Tl) detector with an analytical software. The prompt gamma rays were emitted after 10 -15 s of the interaction, so they don't produce radioactive waste, and have a characteristics energy for each element, i.e. a strong peak at 2.24 MeV is observed for H. The facility has been used with laboratory mice. Water-filled phantom placed in the neutron beam was used to system calibration. Three study groups of 5 mice each one were selected and were feed with a different diet and the total body nitrogen (TBN) of the mice was monitored with the facility. The diet produced a different TBN for each group. Some mice drunk diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, so the presence of Cd was detected in the mouse. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm. The total dose (neutron and gamma dose was measured from TLDs and simulated by MNCP-4B in the sample compartment during the irradiation time (5 minutes) is less than 2.5 mSv. This total dose is low than the dose from other analytical radiological techniques (25 a 50 mSv). (author)

  9. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemben Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.

  10. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Lubree, H.G.; Rege, S.S.; Bhat, D.S.; Raut, K.N.; Panchanadikar, A.S.; Joglekar, C.B.; Naik, S.S.; Shetty, P.; Yudkin, J.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    We studied cardiovascular risk factors in 30 to 50 year old Indian men in three geographical locations (rural, urban slums and urban middle class) in relation to their body fat. A total of 1,222 subjects, selected by stratified random sampling were screened: 39 reported diabetic or hypertensive. Of the remaining subjects 600 were randomly selected for further testing. This is a report 441 men studied (149 rural, 142 slums, 150 urban middle class). The mean age of these men was 38 y rural, 38 y urban slums, 41 y urban middle class, mean BMI 21.0 kg/m 2 , 22.3 kg/m 2 and 24.3 kg/m 2 respectively, mean body fat percent by bio-impedance 20.4%, 22.5% and 30.4% and by Deuterated water was 19.9%, 21.6% and 27.2% respectively. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (WHO 1985) showed no diabetes in rural subjects, while 4% urban slum dwellers and 10 in urban middle class were diabetic; 9% rural men had IGT, compared to 12% in urban slums and 20% in urban middle class. Hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Bg) was present in 2% rural men, 4% in urban slums and in 10% men in urban middle class. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration was 148 mg% in rural, 53 mg% in urban slums and 64 mg% in urban middle class, mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 82 mg%, 95 mg% and 108 mg% respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were strongly related to measures of obesity (body fat % and waist hip ratio). On multivariate analysis 2h plasma glucose (OGTT) concentration and blood pressure were additionally related to geographical location (urban middle class>slums>rural). Our results suggest that urbanisation increases the risk of glucose intolerance and hypertension independent of the body fat percent or its central distribution. This suggests there may he additional environmental factors in the urban environment increasing the risk of diabetes over and above the effect of body fat. (author)

  11. Total yield of channeling radiation from relativistic electrons in thin Si and W crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdrashitov, S.V.; Bogdanov, O.V.; Dabagov, S.B.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Tukhfatullin, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation dependences of channeling radiation total yield from relativistic 155–855 MeV electrons at both 〈1 0 0〉 axial and (1 0 0) planar channeling in thin silicon and tungsten crystals are studied by means of computer simulations. The model as well as computer code developed allows getting the quantitative results for orientation dependence of channeling radiation that can be used for crystal alignment in channeling experiments and/or for diagnostics of initial angular divergence of electron beam

  12. Total body bone mineral density changes in healthy Japanese children as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osamura, Toshio; Ono, Kunihiko; Funaki, Hidenori; Fujita, Hiromi; Kidowaki, Takuro; Kiyosawa, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Ryuzo (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Hanayasu, Hajime; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    1993-10-01

    For 68 healthy children (38 male and 30 female) ranging in age from 1 to 16 years, we measured the bone mineral density (BMD) of different regions (skull, upper extremities, ribs, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lower extremities) and the total body BMD using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; QDR-1000/W, Hologic Co.). The total body BMD increased linearly with age for both sexes (male: r=0.9501, female: r=0.9715; p<0.0001). The increase was more prominent in boys compared to girls. There was also a positive correlation between the ratio of total body bone mineral content to lean body mass and age, although total body BMD showed a stronger correlation with age. Furthermore, the total body BMD correlated highly with body height and weight. There were positive correlations between the BMD of different regions and age. Specifically, the BMD of the lower extremities correlated strongly with age. In addition, the BMD of the skull increased at the highest rate. Considering convenience, accuracy and precision, measurement time, radiation exposure dose and the strong correlation with age, measurement of the total body BMD by DEXA is thought to be an effective method of quantifying bone mineral, useful in the evaluation of bone metabolism kinetics in children. (author).

  13. Simulation of non-equilibrium many body electrons in RTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Rezvani

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available   We inspected the exact solution of double barrier quantum well. The choice of proper boundary conditions has been taken into account. We eveluated the mechanism of resonant in this device. The density correlation matrix was calculated by using the exact solution of the time-dependent generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the presence of electron-electron interaction. The result shows that there is no correlation dependence among the electrons at the equilibrium between contact regions. After biasing, we have calculated the density correlation matrix in the transient and steady state. The results of our calculations show the oscillatory plasmon current in the state of transient, while in the steaby state the correlation among the phase of electrons observed to be oscillatory in the whole region of the device.

  14. Total dissociation cross section of CF4 and other fluoroalkanes for electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, H.F.; Inokuti, M.

    1982-01-01

    Various techniques from the field of surface science have allowed the development of a method for measuring the total absolute cross section for electron-impact-induced dissociation of a number of molecules. The technique is particularly reliable for the fluoroalkanes such as CF 4 , CF 3 H, C 2 F 6 , and C 3 F 8 . The total dissociation cross section for CF 4 has been measured for energies between threshold (approx.12.5 eV) and 600 eV. The magnitude of the cross section at its maximum is 5.5 x 10 -16 cm 2 . Less extensive data are presented for CF 3 H, C 2 F 6 , and C 3 F 8 . Their cross sections at the maxima are 5.8 x 10 -16 cm 2 , 8.6 x 10 -16 cm 2 , and 1.18 x 10 -15 cm 2 , respectively. Arguments are presented which suggest that the total dissociation cross section for each of these gases is equal to the sum of the cross sections for excitation to all electronic and ionic states, i.e., the total cross section for electronic excitation. The results are discussed from the point of view of the Bethe theory. It is concluded that the Bethe asymptotic behavior is not yet attained in the energy range of these measurements

  15. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; McNeill, J.; Karolis, C.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Travis, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD 50 's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  16. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45 0 above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented

  17. Abscopal regression in lymphoma: a mechanism in common with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, G.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The hospital records of 895 patients presenting to this centre with a diagnosis of Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been reviewed. In the records of 26 patients there was evidence for or against the occurrence of abscopal regression with radiotherapy. Attention is drawn to inevitable inaccuracy in a retrospective study of this type. Evidence of abscopal regression was seen in the records of 10 patients, four with Hodgkin's and six with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It appears to be associated with a more favourable prognosis in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is suggested that this phenomenon is elicitable in more patients than is commonly recognised, and that together with response to low dose total body irradiation, could be explained by radiation damage to normal lymphocytes. (author)

  18. The effect of total-body γ-irradiation on pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.; Desai, R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effects of total-body 60 Coγ radiation (200 to 2000 rad) on the common pigeon (Columba livia) has indicated a LD 50/30 of 950 +- 50 rad. There were no deaths before 6 days and the peak frequency in average deaths occurred 9 days after irradiation. Most of the birds showed small changes in activity or behaviour in the first five days. A histopathological study was made of femoral bone marrow from irradiated (1000 rad) pigeons sacrificed 1 to 18 days post-irradiation. Slight aplasia was observed on the first day after irradiation, moderately marked on the third day and extensive on the fourth and fifth days. At the end of the second week regeneration was observed as the primitive lymphocyte-like cells were differentiating into granulocytes and erythrocytes. (UK)

  19. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  20. Pilot production of the wedge filter for the TBI (total body irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Ikuo; Maruyama, Yasushi; Nako, Yasunobu; Tonari, Ayako; Kusuda, Junko; Takayama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is performed by various methods, such as a long SSD method and a translational couch method. For patient safety in carrying out TBI, the patient should be placed on the supine position and prone position near the floor. TBI is performed from 2 opposite ports (AP/PA) with a linear accelerator (10 MV X-ray). We experimented with a wedge filter for TBI created by us, which makes dose distribution to a floor uniform. The wedge filter, made of iron alloy, was attached to the linear accelerator. In designing the wedge filter, thickness of the lead-made wedge filter can be calculated numerically from the ratio of linear attenuation coefficient of iron alloy and lead. In measuring the dose profile for a phantom of 20 cm thick, dose homogeneity less than 10% was proved by the wedge filter for TBI. (author)

  1. Cytogenetic studies on recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants after fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, N.; Goedde-Salz, E.; Loeffler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Cytogenetic findings from the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) of nine consecutive patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute or chronic myelogenous leukaemia are reported. After a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) given in five or six fractions of 2 Gy, persistence of host cells was detected in four out of seven cases with permanent engraftment. While one of these patients relapsed 4 months after host cells had been found in BM and PB, the other patients stayed relapse-free 124, 257 and 347 d after grafting. Before transplantation, the leukaemic cells in all three cases carried unique cytogenetic abnormalities giving the opportunity to distinguish the leukaemic population from chromosomally non-aberrant cells thought to represent residual normal host cells. As the persisting host cells after BMT lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities, it is suggested that they were members of residual normal clones not involved in the leukaemic process. (author)

  2. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z. W.; Yao, S. Y.; Zhang, T. N.; Zhu, Z. H.; Hu, Z. K.; Lu, X.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p < 0.05, between the two sets of data from the standard and the Plexiglas one. In addition, the absolute difference had a positive correlation with the varied depth of the detector in the Plexiglas phantom. Comparing the data of clinical treatment, the differences were all <1 % among the prescription doses and the validation data collected from the self-design water phantom. However, the differences collected from the Plexiglas phantom were increasing gradually from +0.77 to +2.30 % along with increasing body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom. (authors)

  3. Comparison of EUV Brightness With Line-of-Sight Total Electron Content in the Earth's Plasmasphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, D. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Hajj, G.; Mannucci, T.; Sandel, B.

    2007-05-01

    Total electron content (TEC) data, obtained from radio signals sent between the Jason-1 satellite in low-Earth- orbit (LEO) and global positioning system (GPS) satellites, are inverted using tomography to infer electron density in Jason-1's orbital plane. We then construct column density traces along the lines of sight of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) image of the He+ population of the plasmasphere, taken by NASA's IMAGE spacecraft. In this way, we produce column integrated electron density (TEC) values aligned with IMAGE's lines of sight. Since singly-ionized helium in the plasmasphere is optically thin, the radiance of an EUV image pixel is proportional to the column-integrated density of He+ ions along the line of sight. Hence, a TEC measurement gives us a column-integrated electron density, while an EUV image brightness value is proportional to a column-integrated He+ density. By comparing the radial brightness profile from an EUV image to the line-of-sight TEC in Jason's orbital plane, we can gain insight into the behavior of He+ and electron density in the plasmasphere. Future comparisons between TEC and EUV data could lead to an improved, three-dimensional, empirical model of plasmaspheric electron density, and a better understanding of IMAGE EUV images themselves.

  4. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amory Koch

    Full Text Available Acute radiation sickness (ARS following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1, which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated, 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors. In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies.

  5. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Celbis, Osman [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Malatya (Turkey); Harma, Ahmet [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya (Turkey); Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Anatomy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 {+-} 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 {+-} 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 {+-} 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 {+-} 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  6. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Celbis, Osman; Harma, Ahmet; Alicioglu, Banu

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 ± 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 ± 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 ± 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 ± 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  7. Total body fat, pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Yudkin, J.S.; Shetty, P.S.; Kurpad, A.

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing epidemic of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in Indians. We postulate that increased susceptibility of the urban Indians to insulin resistance is a result of a tendency to increased fat deposition from the time of intrauterine life (thrifty phenotype), exaggerated in the urban environment by a positive energy balance. The pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the inflammatory cells as well by the adipose tissue could aggravate insulin resistance and endothelial damage and therefore, increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the previously proposed glucose fatty acid cycle mechanism. In a preliminary study, we propose to make detailed measurements of the proposed mechanisms in a selected population from 3 geographical locations in and near the city of Pune, India and also validate simple 'epidemiologic' measurements of body composition with 'reference' measurements. One hundred men (30 to 50y) each from the three geographical locations (rural, urban slum-dwellers and urban middle class in Pune) will be studied for: (i) Body composition: Anthropometric and bioimpedance measurement of total body fat (to be calibrated against deuterated water in 30 subjects from each location), and muscle mass by anthropometry and urinary creatinine excretion; (ii) Body fat distribution by subscapular- triceps ratio, waist-hip ratio; (iii) Metabolic: Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance variables (insulin, lipids, NEFA) and leptin; (iv) Endothelial markers: e-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF); (v) Inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines: C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF- α); (vi) Energy Balance: Assessment of nutritional intake (calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, n3 and n6 fatty acids) and physical activity by a questionnaire. Insulin resistance variables, endothelial markers, cytokines and obesity parameters will be compared in the 3

  8. First Results from the GPS Compact Total Electron Content Sensor (CTECS) on the PSSC2 Nanosat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R. L.; Straus, P. R.; Hinkley, D.; Brubaker, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Compact Total Electron Content Sensor (CTECS) is a GPS radio occultation instrument designed for cubesat platforms that utilizes a COTS receiver, modified firmware, and a custom designed antenna. CTECS was placed on the Pico Satellite Solar Cell Testbed 2 (PSSC2) nanosat that was installed on the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135). PSSC2 was successfully released from the shuttle on 20 July 2011. After approximately 2-4 weeks of spacecraft checkout and attitude adjustments, CTECS will be powered on and begin its mission to obtain ionospheric measurements of the total electron content and scintillation. This presentation describes the CTECS instrument, presents ground test data, initial on-orbit data, as well as future flight opportunities.

  9. Effect of Hand Positioning on DXA Total and Regional Bone and Body Composition Parameters, Precision Error, and Least Significant Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Shane; Oldroyd, Brian; Hind, Karen

    2017-04-25

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measurements are performed in both clinical and research settings for estimations of total and regional fat mass, lean tissue mass, and bone mineral content. Subject positioning influences precision and positioning instructions vary between manufacturers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of hand position and scan mode on regional and total body bone and body composition parameters and determine protocol-specific body composition precision errors. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (men; mean age: 27.1 ± 12.1 yr) received 4 consecutive total body GE-Lunar iDXA (enCORE v 15.0) scans with re-positioning, and scan mode was dependent on body size. Twenty-three subjects received scans in standard mode and 15 received scans in thick scan modes. Two scans per subject were conducted with subject hands prone and 2 with hands mid-prone. The precision error (root mean squared standard deviation; percentage coefficient of variation) and least significant change for each protocol were determined using the International Society for Clinical Densitometry calculator. Hands placed in the mid-prone position increased arm bone mineral density (BMD) (standard mode: 0.185 g*cm -2 , thick mode: 0.265 g*cm -2 ; p total body BMD (standard mode: 0.051 g*cm -2 , thick mode: 0.069 g*cm -2 ; p total body BMD Z-score (standard mode: 0.5. thick mode: 0.7; p total body (p total body assessments should ensure that subject positioning is fully described. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calibration of whole-body counters for transuranic radionuclides by using total-body donations to the United States Transuranium Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Durbin, P.W.; McInroy, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    One of the many benefits of the whole-body donation programme of the United States Transuranium Registry is the calibration of whole-body counters by measuring a donated body containing radioactivity before radiochemical analysis of the body occurs. These measurements have provided the best existing calibration factors for measuring 241 Am and 239 Pu in the skeleton of living people. In one case where the body contained an easily measurable quantity of 241 Am, the 241 Am content was found to be the same for identical bones on the right and left sides of the body. The bones from the right side of the body and every other vertebrae were radiochemically analysed and the bones from the left side were reserved. These latter have a known quantity of naturally distributed 241 Am based on the analysis of bones from the right side. These reserved bones are being incorporated into tissue equivalent body parts for future calibrations and interlaboratory comparisons. The measurements on the total body and the reserved bones have already been very useful in determining the contribution of skeletal activity to that of lung measurements and determining a calibration factor for measuring 239 Pu deposited in the skeleton. In the future it is planned to periodically make in vivo measurements on those people participating in the total-body donation programme so that calibration factors can be obtained for lung and liver content after subsequent analysis of these tissues. (author)

  11. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  12. Dosimetry and verification of 60Co total body irradiation with human phantom and semiconductor diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdi Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Body Irradiation (TBI is a form of radiotherapy used for patients prior to bone marrow or stem cell transplant to destroy any undetectable cancer cells. The dosimetry characteristics of a 60 Co unit for TBI were studied and a simple method for the calculation of the prescribed dose for TBI is presented. Dose homogeneity was verified in a human phantom. Dose measurements were made in water phantom (30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , using farmer ionization chamber (0.6 cc, TM30010, PTW and a parallel plate ionization chamber (TM23343, PTW. Point dose measurements for AP/PA irradiation were measured in a human phantom using silicon diodes (T60010L, PTW. The lung dose was measured with an ionization chamber (0.3 cc, TM31013. The validity of the proposed algorithm was checked at TBI distance using the human phantom. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was within 3.5%. The dose delivered to the mid-lobe of the lung was 14.14 Gy and it has been reduced to 8.16 Gy by applying the proper shield. Dose homogeneity was within ±7% for all measured points. The results indicate that a good agreement between the total prescribed and calculated midplane doses can be achieved using this method. Therefore, it could be possible to use calculated data for TBI treatments.

  13. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F.; Raymondi, Carlo

    1991-01-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Total body irradiation in the bone marrow transplantation in leukemia:an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatero, A.; Martin de Vidales, C.; Pinar, B.; Marin, A.; Cerezo, L.; Dominguez, P.; Perez, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate long-term survival and morbidity of fractioned total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneicbone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukemia. From June 1985 to May 1992, 94 patients with acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), were treated with high dose cyclophosphamide(CY) and fractionated TBI to a total dose of 12 Gy in six fractions prior to allogeneic BMT. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 53% +-6 and 48%+- respectively for patients with standard risk disease (first remission of acute leukemia and first chronic phase of CML), and 24%+-7 and 21%+-6 for patients with more advanced disease (p=3D0.01). The incidence of interstitial pneumonitis (IP), venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and grade=3D>II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were respectively 15%, 29% and 51%. Fractionated TBI combined with high dose CY before allogeneic BMT for leukemia is an effective treatment in prolonging relapse-free survival witha low incidence of lung toxicity. (Author) 13 refs

  15. Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms and solids for protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshiaki.

    1990-12-01

    Based on a wave packet theory (Phys. Rev. A40, 2188(1989); Phys. Stat. Sol. (B)156,49(1989)), partial and total electronic cross sections of target elements in atomic and solid phases with atomic number Z ranging from 2 (He) to 92 (U) are tabulated shell by shell for protons with velocity v from 0.2V 0 to 2OV 0 (V 0 =2.18 x 10 8 cm/s). (author)

  16. Total cross section measurements for electron scattering on methane between 1 and 50 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Taihua; Ye Ruiying; Yang Yong

    1996-01-01

    The absolute electron scattering total cross sections (TCS) for methane have been measured with a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer for incident energies from 1 to 50 eV. The TOF spectrometer and experimental procedures are briefly described. The experimental results are presented together with associated errors. The results are compared with other experimental data and they are found to be in excellent agreement

  17. Top layer's thickness dependence on total electron-yield X-ray standing-wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Takeo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Banse, Takanori; Hatano, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    A Mo single-layer film with a stepwise thickness distribution was fabricated on the same Mo/Si reflection multilayer film. Total electron-yield X-ray standing-wave (TEY-XSW) spectra of the aperiodic multilayer were measured with reflection spectra. The peak positions of the standing waves in the TEY-XSW spectra changed as the film thickness of the top Mo-layer increased

  18. Use of TLD-100 to verify a dosimetric method for total electron skin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa, F.; Sosa, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A clinical dosimetric method for generating a homogeneous field of radiation around of patients under treatment of total skin electron irradiation and its verification using thermoluminescent dosimetry is presented. The irradiations were performed utilizing a 6 MeV electron beam generated by a Varian Clinac 21EX linear accelerator installed in the oncology unit of the IMSS-Tl hospital in Leon. Levels of radiation for diverse adjustment performed in the treatment planning system of the lineal accelerator and registered to different treatment distances using a computerized water phantom system were studied. A large batch of TLD-100 chips calibrated in terms of air-kerma rate to the standard treatment distance and positioned in an anthropomorphic Alderson Random Phantom was used. Dose verification and comparison with the measurements made with the computerized system were analyzed. A single field electron beam for treatment of total skin irradiation was implemented. Preliminary results indicate that the levels of dose homogeneities were larger than 90% for distances up to 3.0 m. The results suggest that the method developed is a reliable for delivering an electron beam with significantly homogeneity for these treatments. Analyses and results of both thermoluminescent and computerized dosimetric system calibrations are also presented. (Author)

  19. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  20. The Influence of Body Mass Index and Hip Anatomy on Direct Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Weilin; Zhu, Libo; Ma, Jinzhong; Lu, Haiming; Wang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) and hip anatomy on direct anterior approach (DAA) total hip replacement. The study is a retrospective analysis of 124 cases of DAA total hip replacement from 2009 to 2012. The BMI, the ratio of the greater trochanter (GT) and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) bilaterally (GT/ASIS), and the vertical distance between the ASIS and GT (AGVD) were obtained from medical records. All cases were categorized into three groups (43, 49, and 32 cases in each group, respectively) based on BMI (BMI 25) or divided into two groups based on GT/ASIS (≤1.17 or >1.17) or AGVD (≤86 or >86 mm). Operating time, intraoperative bleeding, and surgical complications were compared between different groups. A longer average operating time, more intraoperative bleeding, and a higher rate of complications were observed in the group with the highest BMI. The complications included a case of intraoperative femur fracture, a wound hematoma, and a lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injury. The group with higher GT/ASIS had a shorter average operating time, less bleeding, and a lower complication rate than the group with lower GT/ASIS. Moreover, the group with higher AGVD showed a shorter average operating time, less bleeding, and a lower complication rate compared with the group with lower AGVD. Our study suggests that lower BMI and larger GT/ASIS and AGVD are associated with a shorter operating time, less bleeding, and a lower complication rate in DAA total hip replacement. These findings are valuable for clinicians to make the appropriate choice of surgery types for different individuals. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Total cross section for chloroflouromethanes and CClx radicals by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model to find total CS for freons and CCl x by e − impact is employed. ► Complex optical potential formalism is used to find total inelastic and elastic CS. ► Result shows very good agreement with previous data wherever available. ► Maiden attempt to find cross section for the CCl x radicals. -- Abstract: We report here the total cross section for chloroflouromethanes namely CCl 3 F (Freon 11), CCl 2 F 2 (Freon 12), CClF 3 (Freon 13), CCl 4 and CCl x (x = 1–3), radicals by electron impact 50 to 5000 eV. The total inelastic and elastic cross sections are obtained employing a complex optical potential formalism and solving the Schrödinger equation through partial wave analysis. The total cross section is obtained as the sum of total inelastic and elastic cross sections. The results obtained are compared with the existing experimental and theoretical data, wherever available. The present result shows reasonable agreement with previous data. For the CCl x radicals, we have predicted the total cross sections for the first time. The data reported here has immense interest to atmospheric and technological plasma modelling

  2. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the ability of DXA to measure total body composition before and after weight loss and the composition of the lost body mass. DESIGN: Cross sectional and follow-up study of body composition before and after a weight loss of 10.6 +/- 6.8 kg. SUBJECTS: 31 obese subjects...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  3. Development of Anthropometry-Based Equations for the Estimation of the Total Body Water in Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Woo; Kim, Gyeong A; Lim, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun Young; Park, Geun Ho; Song, Joon Ho

    2005-01-01

    For developing race-specific anthropometry-based total body water (TBW) equations, we measured TBW using bioelectrical impedance analysis (TBWBIA) in 2,943 healthy Korean adults. Among them, 2,223 were used as a reference group. Two equations (TBWK1 and TBWK2) were developed based on age, sex, height, and body weight. The adjusted R2 was 0.908 for TBWK1 and 0.910 for TBWK2. The remaining 720 subjects were used for the validation of our results. Watson (TBWW) and Hume-Weyers (TBWH) formulas were also used. In men, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWH, followed by TBWK1, TBWK2 and TBWW. TBWK1 and TBWK2 showed the lower root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean prediction errors (ME) than TBWW and TBWH. On the Bland-Altman plot, the correlations between the differences and means were smaller for TBWK2 than for TBWK1. On the contrary, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1, and TBWH in females. RMSE was smallest in TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1 and TBWH. ME was closest to zero for TBWK2, followed by TBWK1, TBWW and TBWH. The correlation coefficients between the means and differences were highest in TBWW, and lowest in TBWK2. In conclusion, TBWK2 provides better accuracy with a smaller bias than the TBWW or TBWH in males. TBWK2 shows a similar accuracy, but with a smaller bias than TBWW in females. PMID:15953867

  4. Translating bed total body irradiation lung shielding and dose optimization using asymmetric MLC apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahbaz; Brown, Derek; Ahmed, Saad B. S.; Kakakhel, Muhammad B.; Muhammad, Wazir

    2016-01-01

    A revised translating bed total body irradiation (TBI) technique is developed for shielding organs at risk (lungs) to tolerance dose limits, and optimizing dose distribution in three dimensions (3D) using an asymmetrically‐adjusted, dynamic multileaf collimator. We present a dosimetric comparison of this technique with a previously developed symmetric MLC‐based TBI technique. An anthropomorphic RANDO phantom is CT scanned with 3 mm slice thickness. Radiological depths (RD) are calculated on individual CT slices along the divergent ray lines. Asymmetric MLC apertures are defined every 9 mm over the phantom length in the craniocaudal direction. Individual asymmetric MLC leaf positions are optimized based on RD values of all slices for uniform dose distributions. Dose calculations are performed in the Eclipse treatment planning system over these optimized MLC apertures. Dose uniformity along midline of the RANDO phantom is within the confidence limit (CL) of 2.1% (with a confidence probability p=0.065). The issue of over‐ and underdose at the interfaces that is observed when symmetric MLC apertures are used is reduced from more than ±4% to less than ±1.5% with asymmetric MLC apertures. Lungs are shielded by 20%, 30%, and 40% of the prescribed dose by adjusting the MLC apertures. Dose‐volume histogram analysis confirms that the revised technique provides effective lung shielding, as well as a homogeneous dose coverage to the whole body. The asymmetric technique also reduces hot and cold spots at lung‐tissue interfaces compared to previous symmetric MLC‐based TBI technique. MLC‐based shielding of OARs eliminates the need to fabricate and setup cumbersome patient‐specific physical blocks. PACS number(s): 87.55.‐x, 87.55.de, 87.55.D‐ PMID:27074477

  5. Total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation; some aspects of fifty year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocheva, L

    2004-01-01

    There has been a remarkable growth in the use of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in the past 30 years. The rapid expansion of BMT reflects its increasingly important role in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases of the hemopoietic system. The first BMT in human patients was performed after conditioning with total body irradiation (TBI). As an important part of BMT protocols, TBI has an established role in many preparative regimens used before BMT in the treatment of hematological diseases. Historically, TBI schedules varied during the last 30-year period with regard to different radiation source used, treatment technique, beam modifiers, actually delivered total dose, dose rate, and fractionation schedule. The aim of this review article is to discuss the 50- year experience in the field of TBI, as well as radiobiological, technical and dosimetric requirements and especially effects of total dose, dose rate and fractionation schedules on the prognosis of transplanted patients. The radiobiological and radio-oncological requirements demand special TBI treatment techniques quite different from usual radiotherapy. The technique needed depends extremely on the prescribed values of treatment parameters and on the local technical possibilities. TBI dosimetry has to account for the physical situation of treatment with very large field sizes at extended distances and should be performed under TBI conditions close to the real treatment situation. The effects of total dose, dose rate, fractionation schedule on the leukemia cell killing, immunosuppression, and sparing of normal tissues are considered in detail. Their effects on overall survival, leukemia recurrence, acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD), late radiation-induced injuries to normal tissues or organs as well as incidence of interstitial pneumonitis, renal dysfunction and cataract development are analyzed. The definition of currently used TBI procedures is so different in different

  6. Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System for a Total Site Utility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manso Cortes, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System (EMS) of a Total Site Utility System as proposed under the scope of the Efenis project. The Efenis project has been funded by the European Commission via the seventh framework programme (EC FP7) with the aim to improve...... process integration by applying novel methods of total site targeting. 16 different international partners, including 10 academic institutions and 6 industrial companies, have been participating in this project. A model of the EMS system is presented with the aim to integrate it on a Total Site Utility...... System in order to achieve a reliable implementation capable of accomplishing the mission of the Efenis project. The results also provide the design, implementation and deployment of a modular security system that helps to provide the security controls recommended during the analysis....

  7. The carcinogenic risk of high dose total body irradiation in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bartstra, R.W.; Bekkum, D.W. van; Hage, M.H. van der; Zurcher, C.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Hollander, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    High dose total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is increasingly used for the treatment of haematological malignancies. With the increasing success of this treatment and its current introduction for treating refractory autoimmune diseases the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is of growing concern. Studies on turnout induction in non-human primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. Since the early sixties, studies have been performed on acute effects in Rhesus monkeys and the protective action of bone marrow transplantation after irradiation with X-rays (average total body dose 6.8 Gy) and fission neutrons (average dose 3.4 Gy). Of those monkeys, which were irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow, 20 animals in the X-irradiated group and nine animals in the neutron group survived more than 3 years. A group of 21 non-irradiated Rhesus monkeys of a comparable age distribution served as controls. All animals were regularly screened for the occurrence of neoplasms. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At post-irradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of tumours was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with one or more malignant tumours. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumours in the control group, in seven out of the 21 animals, appeared at much older a-e compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the tumours was diverse with a preponderance of renal carcinoma, sarcomas among which osteosarcormas, and malignant glomus tumours in the irradiated groups. When corrected for competing risks, the carcinogenic risk of TBI in the Rhesus monkeys is similar to that derived from the studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The increase of the risk by a

  8. Impact of dietary vitamin A interventions on total body stores in Thai lactating women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasanwisut, E.; West, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem among pregnant and lactating women in developing countries. This proposed study will be a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of consuming provitamin A-rich foods in one prepared, on-site meal per weekday for 3 months on total body vitamin A stores and other aspects of vitamin A status in marginally nourished lactating women in rural Northeast Thailand. Approximately 400 lactating women, 2-18 months post-partum, will be screened in the population for marginal vitamin A status by a tier of indicators beginning from low intake or history of night blindness or impaired dark adaptability followed by low serum retinol. Assuming a prevalence of low serum retinol of ∼20%, 90 women will be identified and recruited, matched by serum retinol and month post-partum and randomized in a block fashion into three groups to receive daily cooked (fat-added) meal and snack with (1) dark green leafy and yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, (2) beta-carotene- enriched rice chips and (3) non-enriched rice chips. Groups 1 and 2 will receive ∼3.6 mg of beta-carotene per day. Prior to and following the intervention hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated by isotopic dilution techniques and other indicators of vitamin A status. In addition, serum C-reactive protein and maternal anthropometry will be measured. Food consumption data based on 24-hour recall for 3 randomized days will be collected every 2 weeks to assess routine intakes of vitamin A, fat and other nutrients. Morbidity will be monitored on a weekly basis throughout the study. Between-group comparisons will provide a basis for (1) estimating the adequacy of local diets to improve or maintain total body stores of vitamin A in women during lactation and (2) assessing the validity and responsiveness of widely used measures of vitamin A status in this high-risk group

  9. Bronchial neuroendocrine elements in late post-radiation stage in humans after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilmane, M.; Luts, A.; Sundler, F.; Kjoerell, U.; Forsgren, S.

    1998-01-01

    It is not known how long-term total body irradiation affects the neuroendocrine cells (Nc) and peptidergic innervation in the bronchial wall. This study examined, by immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques, the distribution of NC and neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres in the large bronchi of Chernobyl nuclear accident cleanup workers displaying pulmonary fibrosis and metaplastic epithelium. Bronchial mucous and submucous layers from 16 Chernobyl patients and 6 control subjects were examined by conventional light microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques for determination of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), chromogranin A, chromogranin A and B (CAB), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calcitonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), helospectin I, neuropeptide Y (NPY), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), serotonin (5-hydroxyltryptamine, 5-HT), and substance P (SP). Additionally, bronchial biopsies from 6 Chernobyl cleanup workers and 3 control patients were examined by RIA for VIP and NPY/peptideYY-Ievels. The Chernobyl patients were examined 10 years after exposure during the cleanup works in the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. PGP immunoreactive nerve fibres appeared to be more frequent in the bronchial wall after long term irradiation as compared with controls. However, no specific alterations in the amounts of NPY-, PACAP-, helospectin-, SP- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were seen in bronchi of control and Chernobyl patients. 5-HT -immunoreactive NC appeared to be more numerous in normal bronchial epithelium adjacent to metaplastic epithelium, in which numerous CAB- immunoreactive NC were seen in Chernobyl patients. RIA for VIP and NPY/PYY showed individual variations in the levels of these peptides in the bronchial tissue. In two cases (one Chernobyl patient and one control patient) there was a high concentration of VIP in parallel with a high concentration of NPY

  10. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  11. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  12. Effects of total-body digital photography on cancer worry in patients with atypical mole syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Molly S; King, Sallyann M C; Rice, Zakiya P; DeLong, Laura K; Seidler, Anne M; Veledar, Emir; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Chen, Suephy C

    2015-02-01

    Cancer worry about developing melanoma in at-risk patients may affect one's quality of life and adherence to screening. Little is known about melanoma-related worry in patients with atypical mole syndrome (AMS). To quantify levels and elucidate predictors of worry related to developing melanoma in patients with AMS and to determine whether total-body digital photography (TBDP) in pigmented lesion clinics (PLCs) reduces worry. In this pretest-posttest study, patients with AMS from PLCs at 2 academic medical centers were recruited from June 1, 2005, through October 31, 2008, to answer questions about cancer worry before and after undergoing TBDP. Questionnaires used included the new melanoma and recurrent melanoma Revised Impact of Event Scale (RIES), the Melanoma Worry Scale (MWS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Life Orientation Test. All patients underwent TBDP. Changes in the MWS and new melanoma RIES scores. A total of 138 patients completed baseline questionnaires; 108 patients (78.3%) completed questionnaires after TBDP. Baseline levels of worry were low and reduced further after TBDP. In patients with a personal history of melanoma, worry was reduced on all scales. In patients without a personal history of melanoma, only the new melanoma RIES score was significantly decreased. Predictors of baseline MWS scores include female sex, personal history of melanoma, and higher Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, adjusted for demographics, family history of melanoma, and Life Orientation Test scores. Adjusted predictors of the baseline new melanoma RIES score were similar but also included lower educational level and did not include sex. Patients with AMS have low levels of melanoma-related worry, which is similar to data from other populations at high risk of cancers. We found that TBDP is a clinically useful tool that can be used in PLCs to help decrease worry about developing melanoma in at-risk patients.

  13. Retrospective, monocentric analysis of late effects after total body irradiation (TBI) in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, Tobias [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Paracelsus Clinic Osnabrueck (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kreuziger, David Christoph; Ernst, Iris; Elsayed, Hassan; Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) is a standard treatment modality within the multidisciplinary approach for allogeneous stem cell or bone marrow transplantation. However, surviving patients are at risk for developing a variety of late sequelae. This analysis aimed to retrospectively characterize late effects after TBI in adults treated in a single center. Patients and Methods: Patients {>=} 18 years treated with fractionated TBI (4-12 Gy) between 1996 and 2008 were included in this study. Treatment data were collected retrospectively from the treating departments. Late effects were evaluated using the clinic charts and/or were obtained from the general practitioners using a standardized questionnaire. Analyses were performed by calculation of the cumulative incidences using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test. Results: A total of 308 patients {>=} 18 years were treated including a TBI of whom 78 patients were excluded from further analysis due to death within less than 1 year after TBI. Patients suffered from leukemia in most cases. Late toxicity follow-up was available in 120 patients (mean age 46.1 years; range, 18-70 years) after a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 12-96 months). The cumulative incidences (CI) at 3 years were 28% for pulmonary event, 8% for pulmonary toxicity, 25% for kidney toxicity, 8% for cataract, 17% for bone toxicity, and 10% for secondary malignancy. The CI of bone toxicity was higher in female than in male patients (p = 0.019). Conclusion: Late effects after TBI in the context of allogeneous stem cell or bone marrow transplantation can frequently be observed. Regular follow-up examinations are advised for the early registration and treatment of adverse effects. (orig.)

  14. In vivo induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes by therapeutic fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.; Magdelenat, H.; Barbaroux, C.; Chaillet, M.-P.; Dubray, B.; Fourquet, A.; Cosset, J.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Girinsky, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have been reported as an in vitro apoptosis initiating stimulus in human lymphocytes. As the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiations and chemotherapeutic agents appears to be dependent on the efficacy of cell death induction, the manipulation of apoptosis initiation might be used as a means to suppress some pathological process. In the present study the in vivo induction of γ-ray mediated programmed cell death in humans is reported. The in vivo induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by ionizing radiations was investigated in 33 patients after each of two sessions (2 Gy and 4 Gy) of fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as part of their conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplantation. PBL committed to apoptosis were scored before irradiation (S1), 4 h (S2) and 24 h after 2 Gy (S3, 14-17 h after the second 2 Gy fraction). Nuclear morphology and chromatin-DNA were analysed by fluorescence microscopy immediately after blood sample withdrawal (I) and after 24 h in cell culture medium (II). (author)

  15. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  16. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  17. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated.

  18. Marrow transplantation for leukemia following fractionated total body irradiation. A comparative trial of methotrexate and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irle, C.; Deeg, H.J.; Buckner, C.D.; Swedish Hospital Medical Center, Seattle, WA; Veterans Administration Hospital, Seattle, WA; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-six patients, 30-47 yr of age, with leukemia in relapse received allogeneic marrow transplants from HLA-identical siblings. All patients were treated with cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and 7 daily fractions of 2.25 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) for seven consecutive days. Nine patients (16%) are currently alive, free of disease, 324-845 days from transplantation. Actuarial relapse and survival rates at 2 yr were 56% and 9.5% respectively. These data were not remarkably different from those in previous studies using 10 Gy of TBI administered as a single dose. Thirty patients were randomized to receive methotrexate (MTX) and 26 to receive cyclosporine (CSP) as postgrafting prophylaxis for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Probability of developing significant acute GVHD by day 100 post-transplant was 71% for patients in the MTX group and 45% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Probability of relapse was 37% for patients in the MTX group and 70% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Transplant-related deaths were more frequent in the MTX group and leukemic deaths more frequent in the CSP group although this may have been related to an uneven distribution of high-risk patients. Long term disease-free survival was comparable. (author)

  19. Fundamental and clinical studies on cancer control with total or upper half body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Myojin, Miyako; Watabe, Nobuyuki

    1997-09-01

    The tumor control effects of total body irradiation (TBI) for tumor bearing mice and human tumor were investigated fundamentally and clinically. TBI is usually used in tissue transplantation experiment in order to prevent rejective response for transplanted tissues by immunological reaction. This kind of suppressive effect of immunological response by TBI is considered as to be caused even if very small dose of TBI. However, there are only a few data concerning the effect of low dose of TBI, and TBI of low dose level is concluded to bring about the same effect as in high dose level by back extrapolation from the data of high dose level. In present paper, firstly the effects of TBI for tumor control in murine squamous carcinoma are reported, and secondly the results of clinical trial in malignant lymphoma are demonstrated. In fundamental studies, TBI of low doses (10-15 cGy) suggests potentiating effect in cell killing in combination of TBI of 10 cGy and local irradiation given at 12 hours after TBI though TBI of 10 cGy is not able to detect any cell killing effect. TBI of 10 cGy or 15 cGy also stands for suppressive effect of distant metastasis (lung metastasis). In clinical studies, malignant lymphoma (non-Hodgikin`s lymphoma) is selected as the first disease of clinical trial, and the results are seemed to be prospective method to overcome cancers with radiotherapy, though the trial is not phase III clinical trial. (author)

  20. Design studies related to an in vivo neutron activation analysis facility for measuring total body nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, I E; Chettle, D R; Green, S; Scott, M C

    1992-08-01

    Design studies relating to an in vivo prompt capture neutron activation analysis facility measuring total body nitrogen are presented. The basis of the design is a beryllium-graphite neutron collimator and reflector configuration for (alpha, n) type radionuclide neutron sources (238PuBe or 241AmBe), so as to reflect leaking, or out-scattered, neutrons towards the subject. This improves the ratio of thermal neutron flux to dose and the spatial distribution of thermal flux achieved with these sources, whilst retaining their advantage of long half-lives as compared to 252Cf based systems. The common problem of high count-rate at the detector, and therefore high nitrogen region of interest background due to pile-up, is decreased by using a set of smaller (5.1 cm diameter x 10.2 cm long) NaI(Tl) detectors instead of large ones. The facility described presents a relative error of nitrogen measurement of 3.6% and a nitrogen to background ratio of 2.3 for 0.45 mSv skin dose (assuming ten 5.1 cm x 10.2 cm NaI(Tl) detectors).

  1. Comparison of total body water estimates from O-18 and bioelectrical response prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Inners, L. Daniel; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Klein, Peter D.; Wong, William W.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Identification of an indirect, rapid means to measure total body water (TBW) during space flight may aid in quantifying hydration status and assist in countermeasure development. Bioelectrical response testing and hydrostatic weighing were performed on 27 subjects who ingested O-18, a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen, to measure true TBW. TBW estimates from three bioelectrical response prediction equations and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared to TBW measured from O-18. A repeated measures MANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett's Test indicated a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between TBW estimates from two of the three bioelectrical response prediction equations and O-18. TBW estimates from FFM and the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation yielded results that were similar to those given by O-18. Strong correlations existed between each prediction method and O-18; however, standard errors, identified through regression analyses, were higher for the bioelectrical response prediction equations compared to those derived from FFM. These findings suggest (1) the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation may provide a valid measure of TBW, (2) other TBW prediction equations need to be identified that have variability similar to that of FFM, and (3) bioelectrical estimates of TBW may prove valuable in quantifying hydration status during space flight.

  2. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

  3. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  4. Reduction in nevus biopsies in patients monitored by total body photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Amanda; Strazzulla, Lauren; March, Jordon; Boucher, Kenneth M; Nelson, Kelly C; Kim, Caroline C; Grossman, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Total body photography (TBP) can facilitate identification of new and changing lesions. By confirming that particular nevi are stable, TBP may reduce nevus biopsies. We sought to determine the number and rate of nevus biopsies before and after TBP, and the factors associated with increased biopsy rate during monitoring by TBP. We reviewed records of all patients in 2 pigmented lesion clinics (PLCs) who received TBP and had 2 or more follow-up visits over a period of 2 years or longer. Before PLCs and TBP, the mean number of nevus biopsies per patient was 5.92 (589 patients) at a mean rate of 1.62 per year (160 patients). After TBP in PLCs, the same patients averaged 1.56 biopsies at a mean rate of 0.34 per year (P family history of melanoma, but not nevus number. Some information was not available for some patients. Patients at risk for melanoma experienced a 3.8-fold reduction in nevus biopsies after TBP. Younger male patients with family history of melanoma had higher biopsy rates after TBP. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Fruehauf, Stefan; Wildermuth, Susanne; Kampen, Michael van; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of chronic radiation effects on the healthy adult brain using neuropsychological testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. Methods and Materials: 58 patients (43 ± 10 yr) undergoing hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (TBI, 14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy in 4 days) before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. Twenty-one recurrence-free long-term survivors were re-examined 6-36 months (median 27 months) after completion of TBI. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence, attention, and memory using normative, standardized psychometric tests. Mood status was controlled, as well. Test results are given as IQ scores (population mean 100) or percentiles for attention and memory (population mean 50). Results: The 21 patients showed normal baseline test results of IQ (101 ± 13) and attention (53 ± 28), with memory test scores below average (35 ± 21). Test results of IQ (98 ± 17), attention (58 ± 27), and memory (43 ± 28) showed no signs of clinically measurable radiation damage to higher CNS (central nervous system) functions during the follow-up. The mood status was improved. Conclusion: The investigation of CNS toxicity after hyperfractionated TBI showed no deterioration of test results in adult recurrence-free patients with tumor-free CNS. The median follow-up of 27 months will be extended.

  6. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI

  7. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  8. Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Ki Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Choo; Kim, Dong Jip [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    Between July 1987 and December 1992, we treated 22 patients with chromic myelogenous leukemia; 14 in the chronic phase and 8 with more advanced disease. All were received with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after a total body irradiation (TBI) cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen. Patients were non-randomly assigned to either 1200 cGy/6 fractions/3 days (6 patients) or 1320 cGy/8 fractions/4 days (16 patients) by dose of TBI. Of the 22 patients, 8 were prepared with cyclophosphamide alone, 14 were conditioned with additional adriamycin or daunorubicin. To prevent graft versus host disease, cyclosporine was given either alone or in conjunction with methotrexate. The actuarial survival and leukemic-free survival at four years were 58.5% and 41.2%, respectively, and the relapse rate was 36% among 22 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients in chronic phase and more advanced phase (76% vs 33%, p=0.05). The relapse rate of patients receiving splenectomy was higher than that of patients receiving splenic irradiation (50% vs 0%, p=0.04). We conclude that the probability of cure is highest if transplantation is performed while the patient remains in the chronic phase.

  9. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver; Martus, Peter; Arnold, Renate

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  11. Spatial distribution of total electron content in the Arctic region of Russia from GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalova, Natalya; Romanova, Elena; Katashevtseva, Darya; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary results of studying the spatial distribution of the total electron content (TEC) in the Arctic region of Russia are presented. The study is based on double frequency phase data obtained at four high-latitude GPS stations (LOVJ, Murmansk; NRIL, Norilsk; TIXI, Tiksi; BILB, Bilibino) on May 4-6, 2013 at 04:00-10:00 UT. On some receiver - GPS satellite rays northward of the stations, we have detected sharp TEC decreases or increases which argue for existence of a low electron density region (ionization trough) in the ionosphere. As found from the analysis of displacement of receiver' satellite rays, the ionization trough was located at latitudes of 72-84° N and longitudes of 0-200° E. The obtained results are consistent with numerical simulation data.

  12. Nation-wide anthropometric survey data in Japan to determine dimensions of total-body phantom for Reference Japanese Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, Masami

    1990-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation dose in Japanese population accurately, a Reference Japanese Man, whose stature and body weight are 170cm and 60kg respectively, is indispensable. The MIRD 5 total-body phantom has only 8 dimensions, i.e. total head height, head length, head breadth, trunk length, trunk breadth, leg length, and breadth and depth of a leg model at its lower end. Based on Japanese anthropometric data, the dimensions were determined and its mathematical descriptions were given. In Japan, annual statistical data of stature, body weight, chest circumference and sitting height for all Japan by sex and age are published. But other nation-wide survey data necessary for determining dimensions of total-body phantom of Reference Japanese Man, are unavailable. Much more national anthropometric data of every kind necessary for defining phantoms must be compiled. (author)

  13. Total skin high-dose-rate electron therapy dosimetry using TG-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossman, Michael S.; Sharma, Subhash C.

    2004-01-01

    An approach to dosimetry for total skin electron therapy (TSET) is discussed using the currently accepted TG-51 high-energy calibration protocol. The methodology incorporates water phantom data for absolute calibration and plastic phantom data for efficient reference dosimetry. The scheme is simplified to include the high-dose-rate mode conversion and provides support for its use, as it becomes more available on newer linear accelerators. Using a 6-field, modified Stanford technique, one may follow the process for accurate determination of absorbed dose

  14. Effect of BCNU combined with total body irradiation or cyclophosphamide on survival of dogs after autologous marrow grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, A.H.G.; English, D.

    1979-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either: (1) 750 rad total body irradiation; (2) BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg IV 48 hours prior to 750 rad total body irradiation; or (3) BCNU 4 mg/kg IV plus cyclophosphamide 30 mg/kg IV. Results showed that of 11 dogs who received 750 rad total body irradiation and did not receive cryopreserved autologous bone marrow cells, none survived, compared to an 88% survival (31 of 35 dogs) after 750 rad total body irradiation if the dogs received stored autologous bone marrow cells. However, when the dogs were treated with BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg prior to 750 rad total body irradiation the survival rate, despite infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, dropped to 25% (3 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 2 mg/kg, and 17% (2 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 4 mg/kg. This effect did not seem to be due to direct serum inhibition of hemopoietic cell proliferation since serum obtained at various intervals after BCNU administrations failed to inhibit CFU growth in vitro. The dogs died from hemorrhage and infection; at autopsy there was hemorrhagic pneumonitis and intestinal ulcerations with petechial hemorrhages, suggesting that the combination of BCNU and total body irradiation may have synergistic toxicity on the canine gastro-intestinal tract. When BCNU was combined with cyclophosphamide, reversal of marrow toxicity occurred in 54% (6 of 11 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells compared to no survival (0 of 8 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells. Thus while autologous bone marrow grafts are useful for reversal of marrow toxicity due to many therapeutic protocols, such grafts alone may not provide protection against toxicity due to the combination of high dosage BCNU and total body irradiation

  15. Differential and total cross sections for the ionization of water molecule by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houamer, S.; Dal Cappello, C.; Mansouri, A.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented to calculate multiply differential and total cross sections of the ionization of H 2 O molecule in the vapour phase. The wave function of the target is described by molecular orbitals consisting of a linear combination of slater type atomic orbitals centered on the heaviest atom which is the oxygen atom in this case. The calculations are carried out in the first Born approximation where the projectile is described by a plane wave while the ejected electron is described by a coulomb wave taking into account its interaction with the residual ion. The spherical average over the Euler solid angle due to the randomly oriented gaseous target molecule is carried out analytically using the rotation matrix properties. The differential and total cross sections are thus evaluated without any special difficulty and compared with experiments and distorted wave calculations. Fair agreements are observed

  16. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: Implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Janelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these ''sequential'' techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Methods: Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. Results: The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than ±10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times

  17. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A

    2010-11-01

    Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these "sequential" techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than +/- 10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times. However, the EUD was

  18. Individual contributions of visceral fat and total body fat to subclinical atherosclerosis: The NEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Karin B; den Heijer, Martin; Smit, Johannes W A; Widya, Ralph L; Lamb, Hildo J; de Roos, Albert; Jukema, J Wouter; Rosendaal, Frits R; de Mutsert, Renée

    2015-08-01

    Both overall and abdominal adiposity are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat (TBF) are strongly correlated and previous studies did not make this distinction. We aimed to distinguish individual contributions of TBF, VAT, and the ratio of VAT to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) to subclinical atherosclerosis in men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, we assessed VAT and SAT with magnetic resonance imaging, TBF with bio-electrical impendence analysis, and carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) with ultrasound. We performed linear regression analyses of standardized values of TBF, VAT, VAT/SAT with cIMT. We adjusted the models for confounding factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity), and either for VAT or TBF. This analysis included 2451 participants, 53% men with mean (SD) cIMT of 615 (91)μm. After adjustment for confounding factors, the difference in cIMT (95% CI) per SD in VAT was 14 (8,21)μm in men and 18 (13,24)μm in women. After adjustment for TBF, this attenuated to 5 (-3,13)μm in men and 13 (5,20)μm in women. In the full model, differences in cIMT (95% CI) per SD of TBF were 14 (6,22)μm in men and 8 (0,16)μm in women, and per SD of VAT/SAT were 7 (-1,15)μm and 9 (3,16)μm respectively. In this population-based study, VAT contributed beyond overall adiposity to subclinical atherosclerosis, particularly in women. This implies a specific role of VAT in the early development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurobehavioral toxicity of total body irradiation: a follow-up in long-term survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peper, Martin; Steinvorth, Sarah; Schraube, Peter; Fruehauf, Stefan; Haas, Rainer; Kimmig, Bernhard N.; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a routine treatment of hematological malignancy. A retrospective and a prospective group study of long-term cerebral side effects was performed, with a special emphasis on neurobehavioral toxicity effects. Methods and Materials: Twenty disease-free patients treated with hyperfractionated TBI (14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy, 4 days), 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and autologous BMT (mean age 38 years, range 17-52 years; age at TBI 35 years, 16-50 years; follow-up time 32 months, 9-65 months) participated in a neuropsychological, neuroradiological, and neurological examination. Data were compared to 14 patients who were investigated prior to TBI. Eleven patients with renal insufficiencies matched for sex and age (38 years, 20-52 years) served as controls. In a longitudinal approach, neuropsychological follow-up data were assessed in 12 long-term survivors (45 years, 23-59 years; follow-up time 8.8 years, 7-10.8 years; time since diagnosis 10.1 years, 7.5-14.2 years). Results: No evidence of neurological deficits was found in post-TBI patients except one case of peripheral movement disorder of unknown origin. Some patients showed moderate brain atrophy. Neuropsychological assessment showed a subtle reduction of memory performance of about one standard deviation. Cognitive decline in individual patients appeared to be associated with pretreatment (brain irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate). Ten-years post disease onset, survivors without pretreatment showed behavioral improvement up to the premorbid level. Conclusion: The incidence of long-term neurobehavioral toxicity was very low for the present TBI/BMT regimen

  20. One hundred patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and allogeneic marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.; Buckner, C.D.; Banaji, M.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred patients, 54 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and 46 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), considered to be in the end stages of their disease, after combination chemotherapy were treated by marrow transplantation. All patients were given a marrow graft from an HLA-identical sibling after receiving 1000-rad total body irradiation (TBI). One group of 43 patients was given cyclophosphamide (CY), 60 mg/kg on each of 2 days, 5 and 4 days before TBI. In a second group of 31 patients, additional chemotherapy was given before CY and TBI. In a third group of 19 patients, BCNU was given before CY and TBI. A fourth group of 7 patients received other chemotherapy regimens before TBI. Six patients died 3 to 17 days after marrow infusion without evidence of engraftment. Ninety-four patients were engrafted rejected and only one patient rejected the graft. Thirteen patients are alive with a marrow graft, on no maintenance antileukemic therapy, and without recurrent leukemia 1--4 1 / 2 yr after transplantation. Three have chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The relapse rate appeared to be relatively constant over the first 2 yr and was extremely low after that time. Neither survival nor leukemic relapse appeared to be influenced by the type of leukemia nor by the preparative chemotherapy regimen given before TBI. Patients in fair clinical condition at the time of transplantation showed significantly longer survival times than patients in poor condition (p = 0.001). This observation, coupled with the observation that some patients may be cured of their disease, indicates that marrow transplantation should now be undertaken earlier in the management of patients with acute leukemia who have an HLA-matched sibling marrow donor

  1. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Richard; Polishchuk, Alexei; DuBois, Steven; Hawkins, Randall; Lee, Stephanie W.; Bagatell, Rochelle; Shusterman, Suzanne; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Diller, Lisa; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Matthay, Katherine K.; London, Wendy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  2. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Richard [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Polishchuk, Alexei [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); DuBois, Steven [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hawkins, Randall [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, Stephanie W. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bagatell, Rochelle [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shusterman, Suzanne [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hill-Kayser, Christine [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Al-Sayegh, Hasan [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Diller, Lisa [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haas-Kogan, Daphne A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Matthay, Katherine K. [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); London, Wendy B. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  3. Cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation degree of visual impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten P.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Methods and Materials: The data from 93 patients who received TBI in 1 or 2 fractions as a part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation were analyzed with respect to the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation. The probability to develop severe visual impairment (SVI) was determined for all patients, and the degree of visual impairment was assessed for 56 patients with stabilized cataract, using three categories: no, mild, or severe. Results: For all 93 patients, the probability of developing a cataract causing SVI was 0.44. For allogeneic patients, it was 0.33 without and 0.71 with steroid treatment (p<0.001). All SVI-free probability curves reached a plateau distinct from the cataract-free curves. Apparently, cataracts developing late in the follow-up period rarely cause SVI. Of the patients with stabilized cataract, 32% had no visual impairment, 16% had mild, and 52% severe impairment. No or mild visual impairment was present in 61% of all patients with stable cataract and no steroid treatment compared with only 13% of the patients treated with steroids (p=0.035). Conclusion: SVI occurs in only some of the patients (52%) with stable cataract after TBI for bone marrow transplantation in 1 or 2 fractions. Steroid treatment markedly increases the probability of developing visual problems as result of a cataract after TBI

  4. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO 4 ). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses

  5. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver [Charite University Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Martus, Peter [University Tuebingen, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Tuebingen (Germany); Arnold, Renate [Charite University Medicine, Campus CVK, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  6. Use of an Electron Beam Melting Manufactured Titanium Collared Cementless Femoral Stem to Resist Subsidence After Canine Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, William D; Doyle, Nancy D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a collared electron beam melting (EBM)-manufactured titanium cementless femoral stem on implant subsidence after total hip replacement (THR). Prospective study Dogs (n = 26); 33 THR. Records were maintained on the first 110 consecutive THR using an EBM collared femoral stem. Radiographs on the first 33 THR that had 6-months follow-up were evaluated for implant subsidence. These results were compared to 27 dogs with subsidence after THR with a Co Cr collarless stem. Dogs that had EBM collared stem THR had a mean body weight of 35.4 kg, body condition score (BCS) of 6.21, and mean canal flare index (CFI) of 1.56. EBM stem sizes used (number implanted) were #7 (13), #8 (10), #9 (8), and #10 (2). Subsidence of collared stems did not occur if the collar was in contact with cortical bone during surgery. Subsidence of 1-3 mm occurred closing a gap between the collar and bone if contact was not made during surgery, but subsidence stopped once contact was made. No major complications directly related to the EBM collared stem were encountered. A collar on a cementless femoral stem in contact with cortical bone resists subsidence. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. A Photogrammetrically Based Model for Predicting Total Body Mass Centroid Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan J.; Depauw, Karen P.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical 18-link model of the human body was designed as a sex-generalized predictor of segmental inertial parameters. Body measurements of 40 male and female subjects from 6 to 35 years of age were used. The results were similar to those reported in other studies and the photogrammetric procedure was found to be facilitative. (Authors/JN)

  8. Monte carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  9. Measuring GNSS ionospheric total electron content at Concordia, and application to L-band radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the project BIS - Bipolar Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Monitoring, the ISACCO-DMC0 and ISACCO-DMC1 permanent monitoring stations were installed in 2008. The principal scope of the stations is to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC and to monitor the ionospheric scintillations, using high-sampling-frequency global positioning system (GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM receivers. The disturbances that the ionosphere can induce on the electromagnetic signals emitted by the Global Navigation Satellite System constellations are due to the presence of electron density anomalies in the ionosphere, which are particularly frequent at high latitudes, where the upper atmosphere is highly sensitive to perturbations coming from outer space. With the development of present and future low-frequency space-borne microwave missions (e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity [SMOS], Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active Passive missions, there is an increasing need to estimate the effects of the ionosphere on the propagation of electromagnetic waves that affects satellite measurements. As an example, how the TEC data collected at Concordia station are useful for the calibration of the European Space Agency SMOS data within the framework of an experiment promoted by the European Space Agency (known as DOMEX will be discussed. The present report shows the ability of the GISTM station to monitor ionospheric scintillation and TEC, which indicates that only the use of continuous GPS measurements can provide accurate information on TEC variability, which is necessary for continuous calibration of satellite data.

  10. Patient selection for incus body coupling of a totally implantable middle ear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, Hans Peter; Baumann, Joachim W; Reischl, Gabriele; Plinkert, Peter; Zimmermann, Rainer; Mauz, Paul S; Limberger, Annette; Maassen, Marcus M

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate audiologic selection criteria for incus body coupling (IBC) of a totally implantable middle ear implant (TI-MEI) for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The protocol is specified in the Investigational Device Exemption of a Food and Drug Administration-approved multicenter clinical trial. The prospective study compared pre- and postoperative hearing levels using each patient as their own control. In addition, an implant on/off comparison was made. All patients had a follow-up interval of at least 6 months. Audiologic assessment tests included speech discrimination in quiet as the primary efficacy variable and pure-tone audiometry (aided thresholds), gain, speech recognition in noise and subject satisfaction using standardized questionnaires and visual analog scales (VASs) as secondary efficacy variables. The study group of patients (n = 13) was divided into 3 subgroups based on their pure-tone and speech discrimination scores: Group A consisted of 6 patients, Group B 9 patients and Group C of all 13 patients. All patients suffered from long-standing bilateral moderate to severe SNHL. Five patients were dissatisfied hearing aid (HA) users and eight subjects could not wear HAs. All patients were implanted with a TI-MEI which was coupled to the incus body. The amplification level of the device was set postoperatively using inductive digital fitting based on "most comfortable loudness" specifications. The implant produced median improvements from 30% (optimally fit bilateral HAs; n = 5) and 50% (HA non-users; n = 8) to 70% word recognition at 60 dB SPL. Average word recognition scores at 60, 80 and 90 dB SPL in Groups A and B showed increases from 42% (interquartile range +27%, -12%) to 93.5% (+3%, -5%) and 92.5% (+3%, -7%), respectively. In the presence of background noise, the sentence recognition threshold ranged from -2 to 1 dB signal-to-noise ratio. Maximum amplification was 50 dB at 3 kHz and 55 dB at 4 kHz. In Groups A and B, VASs

  11. Total skin electron therapy treatment verification: Monte Carlo simulation and beam characteristics of large non-standard electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavon, Ester Carrasco; Sanchez-Doblado, Francisco; Leal, Antonio; Capote, Roberto; Lagares, Juan Ignacio; Perucha, Maria; Arrans, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Total skin electron therapy (TSET) is a complex technique which requires non-standard measurements and dosimetric procedures. This paper investigates an essential first step towards TSET Monte Carlo (MC) verification. The non-standard 6 MeV 40 x 40 cm 2 electron beam at a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm as well as its horizontal projection behind a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) screen to SSD = 380 cm were evaluated. The EGS4 OMEGA-BEAM code package running on a Linux home made 47 PCs cluster was used for the MC simulations. Percentage depth-dose curves and profiles were calculated and measured experimentally for the 40 x 40 cm 2 field at both SSD = 100 cm and patient surface SSD = 380 cm. The output factor (OF) between the reference 40 x 40 cm 2 open field and its horizontal projection as TSET beam at SSD = 380 cm was also measured for comparison with MC results. The accuracy of the simulated beam was validated by the good agreement to within 2% between measured relative dose distributions, including the beam characteristic parameters (R 50 , R 80 , R 100 , R p , E 0 ) and the MC calculated results. The energy spectrum, fluence and angular distribution at different stages of the beam (at SSD = 100 cm, at SSD = 364.2 cm, behind the PMMA beam spoiler screen and at treatment surface SSD = 380 cm) were derived from MC simulations. Results showed a final decrease in mean energy of almost 56% from the exit window to the treatment surface. A broader angular distribution (FWHM of the angular distribution increased from 13deg at SSD 100 cm to more than 30deg at the treatment surface) was fully attributable to the PMMA beam spoiler screen. OF calculations and measurements agreed to less than 1%. The effect of changing the electron energy cut-off from 0.7 MeV to 0.521 MeV and air density fluctuations in the bunker which could affect the MC results were shown to have a negligible impact on the beam fluence distributions. Results proved the applicability of using MC

  12. Toxicities of total-body irradiation for pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Rachel H.; Wong, Garrett B.; Kramer, Joel H.; Wara, Diane W.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Crittenden, Mary R.; Swift, Patrick S.; Cowan, Morton J.; Wara, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and late effects, including cognitive function, of total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy for bone marrow transplant (BMT) in children with immunodeficiency or hematologic disorders. Methods and Materials: At UCSF, 15 children with immunodeficiency disorders and 58 children with leukemia received chemoradiotherapy between July 1982 and November 1993 and were evaluated for toxicity. Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) received 7 Gy TBI while leukemia patients received 12 Gy TBI. Results: Eight immunodeficient patients (53%) are alive at 4 months to 11 years posttransplant. Acute toxicity was limited and treatment well tolerated. Most patients developed mild nausea and vomiting, skin rash, or erythema. Transient fever/chills, oral mucositis, and alopecia were noted in approximately 50% of patients. Seventy-three percent of patients demonstrated acute liver dysfunction, but only four (27%) developed veno-occlusive disease. All children had decreased growth velocity but normal growth hormone levels. Other endocrinologic evaluations including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and thyroid hormones were normal. Only one evaluable girl had delayed puberty with late onset of secondary sexual characteristics. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated an intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction between the baseline and 1 year post-BMT, with some recovery at 3 years. Only one patient developed a clinically significant cataract. Thirteen percent of patients had chronic interstitial lung disease. Four children developed exostosis. Only 1 of the 15 children developed a second malignancy (acute myelogenous leukemia) at age 5, 51 months posttransplant for SCID. For patients with leukemia, similar toxicities were observed. Twenty-nine percent disease-free survival was noted with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years. Twenty-two percent had chronic interstitial lung disease and two patients were diagnosed with cataracts

  13. Monitoring of total body water to examine the progress of acclimatization of runners at varying altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Semerád

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our pilot study was to find out if total body water (TBW changes could objectively modify the course of adaptation during training for elite runners at different altitudes. The aim of this pilot study is to summarize the indication of the progress of acclimatization at high altitudes (1000–2700 meters above sea level during alpine conditioning. In three training camps at various altitudes the TBW of elite runners (F = 3, M = 1; n = 4; age 23 } 0.9 was monitored, in order to check the progress of acclimatization. We used BIA measurement methods (Bodystat 1500 at different high altitude running camps at the Czech Republic, Morocco and Ethiopia. Changes in TBW were used to check the progress of acclimatization. We discovered that the retention peaks of TBW corresponded with critical days (p ≤ 0.04; Cohen’s d. The highest measured increases of TBW at an altitude of 1000 m were for runner 1, 1.7 litres and for runner 2, 2.1 litres with retention peaks for both occurring on the 5th day. At an altitude of 1770 m runner 1 reached an increase of TBW of 6.3 litres, with a retention peak on the 11th day, and runner 3 had an increase of 5.1 litres with a peak on the 8th day. In the acclimatization phase we found two critical periods, from the 4th–6th day, and after the 10th–12th day. For runner 4 in altitude 2700m who completed the camp at a higher altitude, the situation is more complicated because there were fluctuations of the content of TBW in the range of 1.25 litres, with the highest depression on the 5th and then again an unsettled rise and reaching a maximum on the 12th, when she nearly returned to the initial value. Detected retention peaks reflected different levels of altitude (5th–12th days.We can conclude that the measuring of changes in TBW during camps at higher altitudes may be one of the biomarkers during acclimatization to altitude.

  14. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  15. Estimation of the dose distribution within, and total dose to, the body of an acutely overexposed person

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.P. de; Feather, J.I.; Oude, A. de; Language, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    In a case of accidental overexposure of a person, it is important to obtain a reliable value of the whole body dose as well as of the dose distribution within the body. Any follow-up treatment based only on the clinical effects as and when they appear, may result in insufficient or even erroneous therapy. In this respect knowledge of total dose and its distribution within the body may be a valuable aid in deciding on the follow-up treatment, taking into account the latent nature of the clinical effects. The calculated whole body dose and its distribution within the body of a person overexposed to a 192 Ir radiography source, are compared to experimentally determined values. In both cases the calculated values prove to be of sufficient accuracy to serve as an aid in decisions on the follow-up treatment. (author)

  16. Longitudinal measurements of total body water and body composition in healthy volunteers by online breath deuterium measurement and other near-subject methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engel, B.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Diskin, A. M.; Davis, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2005), s. 99-106 ISSN 1479-456X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : total body water * deuterium isotope dilution * FA-MS * bio-impendance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Bioimpedance index for measurement of total body water in severely malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Workeneh, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    . SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children with SAM (mid-arm circumference nutritional oedema) admitted to Jimma University Hospital were included. Tetrapolar-whole-body impedance (Z), resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were measured at 50 and 200 k...

  18. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Urban and migrant Indians are experiencing a rapidly escalating epidemic of diabetes and CHD. This may be related to high body fat percentage in Indians and its central distribution which have been shown to be detrimental for metabolism

  19. The relationship of total body composition with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Valer'evich Klimontov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimTo determine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and total body composition in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.Materials and MethodsThe study included 78 women, from 50 to 70 years of age (median 63 years. Twenty women had normal body mass index (BMI, 29 ones were overweight and 29 had obesity. The body composition and BMD was studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsWomen with normal BMD had higher BMI, total and truncal fat mass, as well lean mass as compared to women with osteoporosis and osteopenia (all p <0.05. Patients with osteoporosis had a lower fat mass at the hips, compared with those with normal BMD. Total and truncal fat mass, as well as lean mass were positively correlated with BMD in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, femoral neck and radius. In multivariate regression analysis fat mass was an independent predictor for total BMD, after adjusting for age, BMI, duration of menopause, HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate and other total body composition parameters.ConclusionsIn postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women BMI and fat mass is associated positively with BMD.

  20. Plasma effects in three-body recombination of high-Z bare ions with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajek, M.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of plasma effects on three-body recombination of bare ions with electrons in cold plasma in the electron cooler is discussed in context of recombination ''enhancement'' observed in storage ring experiments. We show that for high-Z bare ions and low electron temperatures and densities the cooler plasma becomes ''nonideal'', leading to the enhancement of the three-body recombination rates. This effect is described in terms of the Debye screening length within the ''rigid shift'' approximation. We demonstrate, that in cold (T∼1-10 K) anisotropic plasma the screening effect substantially enhances the three-body recombination rates for very high n-states. The relaxation of high Rydberg states below the field ionization cut-off, set in storage ring experiments, is discussed. The calculations are confronted with the experimental results obtained in storage ring experiments. (orig.)

  1. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Andre C. [Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  2. Low-dose (10-Gy) total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments...... is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over ... or a very good partial response rate (skin involvement with patches or plaques) documented in 57% of the patients. Median duration of overall cutaneous response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. CONCLUSIONS...

  3. Characterization of GPS total electron content (GPS-TEC in Antarctica from 2004 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The vertical total electron content (VTEC obtained from 2004 to 2011 at Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Station (62.1°S, 58.4°W is analyzed to study the mean diurnal, seasonal and annual variations. The maximum daytime VTEC had an annual variation that decreased from 2004 to 2008, and then starting to increase in 2009, which followed the variation of the solar activity. The daily VTEC shows good linear correlation with solar radiation intensity, which is also dependent on the solar zenithal angle. The mean diurnal VTEC shows a semiannual variation, with larger peaks in equinoxes for all years; no winter anomaly was observed, and in summer, there was no clear diurnal variation. The semiannual variation of the VTEC is also modulated by solar activity, with larger VTEC peaks when the solar activity was higher.

  4. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  5. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Walker, Jacqueline L; Stevenson, Richard D; Davies, Peter S W

    2013-08-01

    Body composition assessment is an essential component of nutritional evaluation in children with cerebral palsy. This study aimed to validate bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy and determine best electrode placement in unilateral impairment. 55 young children with cerebral palsy across all functional ability levels were included. Height/length was measured or estimated from knee height. Total body water was estimated using a Bodystat 1500MDD and three equations, and measured using the gold standard, deuterium dilution technique. Comparisons were made using Bland Altman analysis. For children with bilateral impairment, the Fjeld equation estimated total body water with the least bias (limits of agreement): 0.0 L (-1.4 L to 1.5 L); the Pencharz equation produced the greatest: 2.7 L (0.6 L-4.8 L). For children with unilateral impairment, differences between measured and estimated total body water were lowest on the unimpaired side using the Fjeld equation 0.1 L (-1.5 L to 1.6 L)) and greatest for the Pencharz equation. The ability of bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water depends on the equation chosen. The Fjeld equation was the most accurate for the group, however, individual results varied by up to 18%. A population specific equation was developed and may enhance the accuracy of estimates. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: ACTRN12611000616976. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Free-running circadian rhythms of muscle strength, reaction time, and body temperature in totally blind people

    OpenAIRE

    Squarcini, Camila Fabiana Rossi; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira [UNESP; Lopes, Cleide; Benedito-silva, Ana AmÉlia; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Cornelissen-guillaume, Germaine; Matarazzo, Carolina; Garcia, Danilo; Silva, Maria Stella Peccin; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Marco TÚlio

    2013-01-01

    Light is the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms. In the absence of light, as for totally blind people, some variables, such as body temperature, have an endogenous period that is longer than 24 h and tend to be free running. However, the circadian rhythm of muscle strength and reaction time in totally blind people has not been defined in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the period of the endogenous circadian rhythm of the isometric and isokinetic contraction s...

  7. Association of bioavailable, free, and total testosterone with insulin resistance: influence of sex hormone-binding globulin and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Elaine C; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Boyko, Edward J

    2004-04-01

    Previous reports of an association between low testosterone levels and diabetes risk were often confounded by covariation of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone measurements. Measurements of bioavailable and free testosterone, more reliable indexes of biologically active testosterone, were examined for their associations with markers of insulin resistance and body fat measures in 221 middle-aged nondiabetic men. Bioavailable and free testosterone were calculated from the concentrations of total testosterone, SHBG, and albumin, and they were not significantly correlated with SHBG (r = 0.07-0.1). In contrast, total testosterone correlated significantly with SHBG (r = 0.63). We evaluated the relationship between these measures of circulating testosterone and markers for insulin resistance (i.e., fasting insulin, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) as well as total body fat (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]) and abdominal fat distribution (assessed by single-slice computed tomography [CT]). Bioavailable, free, and total testosterone and SHBG all correlated significantly with fasting insulin (age-adjusted r = -0.15 [P = 0.03], -0.14 [P = 0.03], -0.32 [P fat measures (r = -0.17 [P = 0.008] to -0.44 [P testosterone were significantly associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.20 [P = 0.003] to -0.21 [P = 0.002]). In multivariate analysis, bioavailable or free testosterone was significantly and inversely associated with insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA-IR, but this was not independent of total body or abdominal fat. SHBG was a significant determinant of insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA-IR, independent of body fat. The associations between total testosterone and insulin resistance were confounded by SHBG. The inverse association between testosterone and insulin resistance, independent of SHBG, was mediated through body fat.

  8. Using Three-Body Recombination to Extract Electron Temperatures of Ultracold Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Rolston, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    Three-body recombination, an important collisional process in plasmas, increases dramatically at low electron temperatures, with an accepted scaling of T e -9/2 . We measure three-body recombination in an ultracold neutral xenon plasma by detecting recombination-created Rydberg atoms using a microwave-ionization technique. With the accepted theory (expected to be applicable for weakly coupled plasmas) and our measured rates, we extract the plasma temperatures, which are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements early in the plasma lifetime. The resulting electron temperatures indicate that the plasma continues to cool to temperatures below 1 K

  9. X-ray microanalysis of electron-dense bodies in Cladosporium resinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, G.; Griffiths, A.J.; Hann, A.O.C.

    1986-01-01

    One of the structural changes which occur in Cladosporium resinae during growth on hydrocarbons is the formation of electron-dense bodies. In this paper we report the results of X-ray microanalysis and X-ray mapping, which have shown that these bodies are associated with high concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. Such accumulation of these elements is probably a reflection of the low growth rates which appear to be characteristic of growth of C. resinae on hydrocarbons. (Auth.)

  10. Clouds and troughs of total electron content detected with the ionospheric weather index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara

    2016-07-01

    The ionospheric weather W index has been developed with the different thresholds of change in the F2 layer peak electron density NmF2 (proportional to foF2 critical frequency) or total electron content TEC relative their quiet reference for quantifying the ionosphere variability. The thresholds of DTEC=log(TEC/TECq) are selected for the positive and negative logarithm of TEC ratio to the quiet reference median, TECq, at any given location on the Earth. The global W-index maps are produced from Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content, GIM-TEC, and provided online at http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/ and http://www.iololab.org/. Based on W-index maps, Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms are produced available for the users. The second generation of the ionospheric weather indices, designated V index, is recently introduced and applied for the retrospective study of GIM-TEC variability during 1999-2015. Using sliding-window statistical analysis, moving daily-hourly TEC median TECq for 15 preceding days with estimated variance bounds are obtained at cells of GIM-TEC. The ionosphere variability index, V, is expressed in terms of ΔTEC deviation from the median normalized by the standard deviation STD. V index segmentation is introduced from Vn=-4 in step of 1 to Vp=4 specifying TEC storm if an instant TEC is outside of TECq+-1STD. The global maps of V index allow distinguish the clouds of enhanced TEC (positive storm signatures) and troughs of TEC depletion (negative storm signatures) as compared to the background quiet reference TECq map. It is found that the large-scale TEC clouds and troughs are observed in space all over the world constituting up to 20-50 percent of cells of GIM-TEC. The time variation of these plasma patches is partly following to geomagnetic SSC storm onset. As concerns the interplanetary and the solar wind, SW, sources of the ionospheric storms the TEC storms are observed both with IMF and SW precursors and

  11. Many-body theory of electron-positron interaction in metallic lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowiak, H. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych

    1997-10-01

    Development of hypernetted-chain approach to the electronic structure of simple metals offers the possibility to perform many-body calculations of the electron-positron interaction in these materials. A theory of this interaction is proposed and applied to lithium. It leads to nonlinear three-dimensions integro-differential equation for the enhancement amplitude. This equation is solved for two cases in which it reduces to one dimension. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs.

  12. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  13. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on methane production, total body oxygen consumption, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) w...

  14. Influence of physical activity on the metabolism and the total body content of sodium and potassium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J.K.; Yasumura, A.; Aloia, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise (EX) and immobilization (IMB) on the absorption, excretion and total body content of sodium (TBNa) and potassium (TBK). Female Sprague Dawley rats 5 weeks old were divided into four groups: EX; Control (CON); EX with pair feeding to the level equal to the CON (EX-P); IMB by sciatica denervation. The nutritional balance study data was taken 5 weeks into the experimental period and the animals were sacrificed after 5 additional weeks of experimentation. The carcasses were kept frozen and used for total body composition by neutron activation. The results of the total body composition show that EX resulted in an increase, IMB resulted in a decrease, of the TBNa and TBK. There was no significant difference in TBNa of TBK, between the EX and the EX-P groups even though, the food intake was higher in the EX group. The results of the nutritional balance study confirmed the results of the total body composition

  15. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  16. Growth hormone (GH) secretion and response to GH therapy after total body irradiation and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation during childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Oostdijk, W.; Geskus, R. B.; Stokvis-Brantsma, W. H.; Vossen, J. M.; Wit, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    In January 1997 we introduced a protocol for the treatment with GH of children with impaired growth after unfractionated total body irradiation (TBI). This study is an evaluation of that protocol. Between January 1997 and July 2005, 66 patients (48 male) treated for haematological malignancies had

  17. Comparison of refractometer and biuret methods for total protein measurement in body cavity fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeanne W.; O'Neill, Sharron L.

    2001-01-01

    Most hand-held medical refractometers have internal scales that limit protein measurement to results >/=2.5 g/dL. Tables for conversion of refraction (r) to protein concentration for values as low as 0.1 g/dL were published in the 1960s, but their accuracy for use on body fluids has not been established. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of body cavity fluid protein determination by refractometry. We compared the protein concentration of 25 body cavity fluids as determined by 2 Goldberg type hand-held refractometers with results obtained by the biuret method. Published charts converting refraction (r) to protein concentration were used to determine protein concentration in samples with protein /=0.6 g/dL, the lowest concentration of the biuret method's standard curve. Twenty-one peritoneal fluid, 2 pleural fluid and 2 pericardial fluid samples from 16 horses, 5 cattle, 3 dogs, 2 llamas and 1 cat were tested. The results obtained by the two refractometers were closely and linearly related to biuret results (P0.977. Based on this study, the range for quantification of body cavity fluid protein concentration by refractometry can be extended below 2.5 g/dL, allowing for quantitative assessment of most clinical samples.

  18. Precision of total and regional body fat estimates from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, L A; Ozemek, C; Williams, K L; Byun, W

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the precision of both total %fat and all the regional %fat measures acquired from both the Lunar Prodigy and Lunar iDXA software. Cross-sectional study. University-based research laboratory. The sample consisted of 300 individual test records from men and women who had volunteered to participate in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer (DXA) technician precision training studies. Subjects ranged in age from 20-84 years and in body mass index from 15.7-52.0 kg.m-2. A total of 27 different technicians performed three total body scan measurements on 10-15 different subjects. The Lunar Prodigy and Lunar iDXA were used for 253 and 47 precision training evaluations, respectively. The regions of interest (ROI) were automatically determined by the enCORE software (autoROI) for total body, android, gynoid, trunk, legs, and arms regions and the region %fat data were used for analyses. The CV for total body %fat was 1.9% and 0.9% for the Prodigy and iDXA, respectively. CV's for %fat measures at regional sites ranged from 1.2-4.4% for the Prodigy measures and 0.9-2.4% for the iDXA measures. The ICC for both devices ranged from 0.990 to 0.999. Monitoring the status of body composition changes with age is gaining more clinical acceptance. Thus, it is important that practitioners use measures that are both precise and accurate. The findings from the current study add support that DXA measurements can be used with a high level of confidence for serial testing of patients.

  19. Characterization of unconventional electron fields for the treatment of mycosis fungoides using the total skin irradiation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M. A. Pagnan, E-mail: miguelangel.pagnan@hotmail.com; Mitsoura, E., E-mail: meleni@uaemex.mx [Medical Physics Graduate Programme, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan esquina Jesús Carranza Colonia Moderna de la Cruz, C.P. 50180, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Oviedo, J.O. Hernández [The American British Cowdray Medical Center, Centro de Cáncer, Calle Sur 136, no. 116, Colonia las Américas, C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Vázquez, D. R. Ruesga, E-mail: druesga@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de México Dr. Eduardo Liceaga, Dr. Balmis 148, Colonia Doctores, C.P. 06726, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mycosis fungoides is a cutaneous lymphoma that accounts for 2–3% of all lymphomas. Several clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of TSEBT (Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy) in patients with mycosis fungoides. It is important to develop this technique and make it available to a larger number of patients in Mexico. Because large fields for electron TSEBT are required in order to cover the entire body of the patient, beam characterization at conventional treatment distances is not sufficient and a calibration distance of 500cm or higher is required. Materials and methods: Calibration of radiochromic Gafchromic® EBT2 film (RCF) for electrons was performed in a solid water phantom (Scanditronix Wellhöfer) at a depth of 1.4cm and a Source Axis Distance (SAD) of 100cm. A polynomial fit was applied to the calibration curve, in order to obtain the equation relating dose response with optical density. The spatial distribution is obtained in terms of percentage of the dose, placing 3×3cm samples of RCF on the acrylic screen, which is placed in front of the patient in order to obtain maximum absorbed dose on the skin, covering an area of 200×100cm{sup 2}. The Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curve was obtained placing RCF samples at depths of 0, 1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9cm in the solid water phantom, irradiated with an ELEKTA SINERGY Linear Accelerator electron beam, with an energy of 6 MeV, at a Source Skin Distance (SSD) of 500cm, with 1000MU = 100Gy, with a cone of 40×40cm and gantry angle of 90°. The RCFs were scanned on a flatbed scanner (EPSON EXPRESSION 10000 XL) and the images were processed with the ImageJ program using a region of interest (ROI) of 1×1cm{sup 2}. Results: The relative spatial dose distribution and the percentage depth dose for a SSD of 500±0.5cm, over an area of 200×100cm{sup 2} was obtained, resulting to an effective maximum dose depth (Z{sub ref}) for electrons of 1.4±0.05cm. Using the same experimental data

  20. The total body length and body weight examination among gabus Sentani fish population, Oxyeleotris heterodon, Weber 1907 (Pisces: Eleotridae) of Sentani lake, Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyani, E. D.; Abinawanto, Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    The gabus Sentani fish lived in the Sentani Lake, Papua, since million years ago. Nowadays, the population of those species is getting extinct because of the overexploitation, whereas the culture effort of this species has not been developed, yet. The purpose of the study was to examine the total body length and body weight collected from some villages surrounding Sentani Lake such as Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village. The body weight average of gabus fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 373.53 g, 426.86 g, and 118.34 g respectively. While the total body length average of gabus Sentani fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 279.30 mm, 223.30 mm and 222.06 mm, respectively. The growth model was W = 0.021067L3.086 with R2 value was 35.8 %, and r value was 0.598. Gabus Sentani fish, Oxyeleotris heterodon (Weber 1907) exhibited positive allometric (b > 3).

  1. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  2. BioElectronic Tongue for the quantification of total polyphenol content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Céspedes, Francisco; del Valle, Manel

    2012-09-15

    This work reports the application of a BioElectronic Tongue (BioET) in the estimation of polyphenol content in wine. The approach used an array of enzyme biosensors capable of giving a wide and complete response of the analyzed species, plus a chemometric processing tool able to interpret the chemical signals and extract meaningful data from the complex readings. In our case, the proposed BioET was formed by an array of four voltammetric enzymatic biosensors based on epoxy-graphite composites, one blank electrode and the other three bulk-modified with tyrosinase and laccase on one side, and copper nanoparticles on the other; these modifiers were used in order to incorporate differentiated or catalytic response to different polyphenols present in wine and aimed to the determination of its total polyphenol content value. The obtained voltammetric responses were pre-processed employing the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT); this was used to compress the relevant information whereas the obtained coefficients fed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model that accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. For comparison purposes, obtained polyphenol content was compared against the one assessed by two different reference methods: Folin-Ciocalteu and UV polyphenol index (I(280)); good prediction ability was attained with correlation coefficients higher than 0.949 when comparing against reference methods. Qualitative discrimination of individual polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by means of Principal Component Analysis which allowed the discrimination of the individual polyphenols under study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous lymphoma : Minimal risk of acute toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kai; Elsayad, Khaled; Moustakis, Christos; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is attracting increased interest for the effective palliative treatment of primary cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma (pCTCL). In this study, we compared toxicity profiles following various radiation doses. We reviewed the records of 60 patients who underwent TSEBT for pCTCL between 2000 and 2016 at the University Hospital of Munster. The treatment characteristics of the radiotherapy (RT) regimens and adverse events (AEs) were then analyzed and compared. In total, 67 courses of TSEBT were administered to 60 patients. Of these patients, 34 (51%) received a standard dose with a median surface dose of 30 Gy and 33 patients (49%) received a low dose with the median surface dose of 12 Gy (7 salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were administered to 5 patients). After a median follow-up of 15 months, the overall AE rate was 100%, including 38 patients (57%) with grade 2 and 7 (10%) with grade 3 AEs. Patients treated with low-dose TSEBT had significantly fewer grade 2 AEs than those with conventional dose regimens (33 vs. 79%, P dose regimen compared to those with the conventional dose regimens (6 vs. 15%, P = 0.78). Multiple/salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were not associated with an increased risk of acute AEs. Low-dose TSEBT regimens are associated with significantly fewer grade 2 acute toxicities compared with conventional doses of TSEBT. Repeated/Salvage low-dose TSEBT, however, appears to be tolerable and can even be applied safely in patients with cutaneous relapses.

  4. Absolute quantitative total-body small-animal SPECT with focusing pinholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chao; Have, Frans van der; Vastenhouw, Brendan; Beekman, Freek J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Paans, Anne M.J.

    2010-01-01

    In pinhole SPECT, attenuation of the photon flux on trajectories between source and pinholes affects quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. Previously we introduced iterative methods that compensate for image degrading effects of detector and pinhole blurring, pinhole sensitivity and scatter for multi-pinhole SPECT. The aim of this paper is (1) to investigate the accuracy of the Chang algorithm in rodents and (2) to present a practical Chang-based method using body outline contours obtained with optical cameras. Here we develop and experimentally validate a practical method for attenuation correction based on a Chang first-order method. This approach has the advantage that it is employed after, and therefore independently from, iterative reconstruction. Therefore, no new system matrix has to be calculated for each specific animal. Experiments with phantoms and animals were performed with a high-resolution focusing multi-pinhole SPECT system (U-SPECT-II, MILabs, The Netherlands). This SPECT system provides three additional optical camera images of the animal for each SPECT scan from which the animal contour can be estimated. Phantom experiments demonstrated that an average quantification error of -18.7% was reduced to -1.7% when both window-based scatter correction and Chang correction based on the body outline from optical images were applied. Without scatter and attenuation correction, quantification errors in a sacrificed rat containing sources with known activity ranged from -23.6 to -9.3%. These errors were reduced to values between -6.3 and +4.3% (with an average magnitude of 2.1%) after applying scatter and Chang attenuation correction. We conclude that the modified Chang correction based on body contour combined with window-based scatter correction is a practical method for obtaining small-animal SPECT images with high quantitative accuracy. (orig.)

  5. Ionospheric earthquake effects detection based on Total Electron Content (TEC) GPS Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi, Bambang; Muslim, Buldan; Eka Sakya, Andi; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Sulastri; Murjaya, Jaya

    2018-03-01

    Advances in science and technology showed that ground-based GPS receiver was able to detect ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) disturbances caused by various natural phenomena such as earthquakes. One study of Tohoku (Japan) earthquake, March 11, 2011, magnitude M 9.0 showed TEC fluctuations observed from GPS observation network spread around the disaster area. This paper discussed the ionospheric earthquake effects detection using TEC GPS data. The case studies taken were Kebumen earthquake, January 25, 2014, magnitude M 6.2, Sumba earthquake, February 12, 2016, M 6.2 and Halmahera earthquake, February 17, 2016, M 6.1. TEC-GIM (Global Ionosphere Map) correlation methods for 31 days were used to monitor TEC anomaly in ionosphere. To ensure the geomagnetic disturbances due to solar activity, we also compare with Dst index in the same time window. The results showed anomalous ratio of correlation coefficient deviation to its standard deviation upon occurrences of Kebumen and Sumba earthquake, but not detected a similar anomaly for the Halmahera earthquake. It was needed a continous monitoring of TEC GPS data to detect the earthquake effects in ionosphere. This study giving hope in strengthening the earthquake effect early warning system using TEC GPS data. The method development of continuous TEC GPS observation derived from GPS observation network that already exists in Indonesia is needed to support earthquake effects early warning systems.

  6. Response of lightning energy and total electron content with sprites over Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Yusop, N.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the response of the lightning energy with the total electron content (TEC) derived from GPS over Antarctic Peninsula during St Patrick’s geomagnetic storm. During this event, sprite as one of the mesospheric transient luminous events (TLEs) associated with positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning discharges can be generated. In this work, GPS and lightning data for the period from 14 to 20 March 2015 is analyzed. Geomagnetic activity and electric field data are also processed to relate the geomagnetic storm and lightning. Results show that during St Patrick’s geomagnetic storm, the lighting energy was produced up to ∼257 kJ. The ionospheric TEC was obtained 60 TECU, 38 TECU and 78 TECU between 18:00 and 21:00 UT for OHI3, PALV and ROTH stations, respectively. The peak of lightning energy was observed 14 hours after peaked of TEC. Sprite possibly generated through the electrical coupling process between the top cloud, middle and upper atmosphere with the DC electric field found to be ∼10 mVm-1 which leading to the sprite generation after the return strokes on 18 March 2015.

  7. Unbiased total electron content (UTEC), their fluctuations, and correlation with seismic activity over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Pierre-Richard; Hughes, John

    2018-02-01

    Earthquakes are among the most dangerous events that occur on earth and many scientists have been investigating the underlying processes that take place before earthquakes occur. These investigations are fueling efforts towards developing both single and multiple parameter earthquake forecasting methods based on earthquake precursors. One potential earthquake precursor parameter that has received significant attention within the last few years is the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). Despite its growing popularity as an earthquake precursor, TEC has been under great scrutiny because of the underlying biases associated with the process of acquiring and processing TEC data. Future work in the field will need to demonstrate our ability to acquire TEC data with the least amount of biases possible thereby preserving the integrity of the data. This paper describes a process for removing biases using raw TEC data from the standard Rinex files obtained from any global positioning satellites system. The process is based on developing an unbiased TEC (UTEC) data and model that can be more adaptable to serving as a precursor signal for earthquake forecasting. The model was used during the days and hours leading to the earthquake off the coast of Tohoku, Japan on March 11, 2011 with interesting results. The model takes advantage of the large amount of data available from the GPS Earth Observation Network of Japan to display near real-time UTEC data as the earthquake approaches and for a period of time after the earthquake occurred.

  8. Utilization of thermoluminescent dosimetry in total skin electron beam radiotherapy of mycosis fungoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolak, John A.; Cundiff, Jackson H.; Ha, Chul S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to discuss the utilization of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) in total skin electron beam (TSEB) radiotherapy to: (a) compare patient dose distributions for similar techniques on different machines, (b) confirm beam calibration and monitor unit calculations, (c) provide data for making clinical decisions, and (d) study reasons for variations in individual dose readings. Methods and Materials: We report dosimetric results for 72 cases of mycosis fungoides, using similar irradiation techniques on two different linear accelerators. All patients were treated using a modified Stanford 6-field technique. In vivo TLD was done on all patients, and the data for all patients treated on both machines was collected into a database for analysis. Means and standard deviations (SDs) were computed for all locations. Scatter plots of doses vs. height, weight, and obesity index were generated, and correlation coefficients with these variables were computed. Results: The TLD results show that our current TSEB implementation is dosimetrically equivalent to the previous implementation, and that our beam calibration technique and monitor unit calculation is accurate. Correlations with obesity index were significant at several sites. Individual TLD results allow us to customize the boost treatment for each patient, in addition to revealing patient positioning problems and/or systematic variations in dose caused by patient variability. The data agree well with previously published TLD results for similar TSEB techniques. Conclusion: TLD is an important part of the treatment planning and quality assurance programs for TSEB, and routine use of TLD measurements for TSEB is recommended

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance image reconstruction with total variation and curvelets regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Sylvain; Frapart, Yves-Michel; Kerebel, Maud

    2017-11-01

    Spatial electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a recent method to localize and characterize free radicals in vivo or in vitro, leading to applications in material and biomedical sciences. To improve the quality of the reconstruction obtained by EPRI, a variational method is proposed to inverse the image formation model. It is based on a least-square data-fidelity term and the total variation and Besov seminorm for the regularization term. To fully comprehend the Besov seminorm, an implementation using the curvelet transform and the L 1 norm enforcing the sparsity is proposed. It allows our model to reconstruct both image where acquisition information are missing and image with details in textured areas, thus opening possibilities to reduce acquisition times. To implement the minimization problem using the algorithm developed by Chambolle and Pock, a thorough analysis of the direct model is undertaken and the latter is inverted while avoiding the use of filtered backprojection (FBP) and of non-uniform Fourier transform. Numerical experiments are carried out on simulated data, where the proposed model outperforms both visually and quantitatively the classical model using deconvolution and FBP. Improved reconstructions on real data, acquired on an irradiated distal phalanx, were successfully obtained.

  10. Observations in equatorial anomaly region of total electron content enhancements and depletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A GSV 4004A GPS receiver has been operational near the crest of the equatorial anomaly at Udaipur, India for some time now. The receiver provides the line-of-sight total electron content (TEC, the phase and amplitude scintillation index, σφ and S4, respectively. This paper presents the first results on the nighttime TEC depletions associated with the equatorial spread F in the Indian zone. The TEC depletions are found to be very well correlated with the increased S4 index. A new feature of low-latitude TEC is also reported, concerning the observation of isolated and localized TEC enhancements in the nighttime low-latitude ionosphere. The TEC enhancements are not correlated with the S4 index. The TEC enhancements have also been observed along with the TEC depletions. The TEC enhancements have been interpreted as the manifestation of the plasma density enhancements reported by Le et al. (2003.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities

  11. Mapping the total electron content over Malaysia using Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, S.; Abdullah, M.; Bouya, Z.; Musa, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere over Malaysia is unique because of her location which is in close proximity to the geomagnetic equator and is in the equatorial regions. In this region, the magnetic field is horizontally oriented from south to north and field aligned direction is in the meridional plane (ExB) which becomes the source of equatorial ionospheric anomaly occurrence such as plasma bubble, fountain effects and others. Until today, there is no model that has been developed over Malaysia to study the ionosphere. Due to that, the main objective of this paper is to develop a new technique for mapping the total electron content (TEC) from GPS measurements. Data by myRTKnet network of GPS receiver over Malaysia were used in this study. A new methodology, based on modified spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA), was developed to estimate diurnal vertical TEC over the region using GPS observations. The SCHA model is based on longitudinal expansion in Fourier series and fractional Legendre co-latitudinal functions over a spherical cap-like region. The TEC map with spatial resolution of 0.15 ° x 0.15 ° in latitude and longitude with the time resolution of 30 seconds are derived. TEC maps from the SCHA model were compared with the global ionospheric map and other regional models. Result shows that during low solar activity, SCHA model had a better mapping with the accuracy of less than 1 TECU compared to other regional models.

  12. High Total Ionizing Dose and Temperature Effects on Micro- and Nano-electronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Martinez, M.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Raine, M.; Richard, N.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Goiffon, V.; Magnan, P.; Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the vulnerability of several micro- and nano-electronic technologies to a mixed harsh environment including high total ionizing dose at MGy levels and high temperature. Such operating conditions have been revealed recently for several applications like new security systems in existing or future nuclear power plants, fusion experiments, or deep space missions. In this work, the competing effects already reported in literature of ionizing radiations and temperature are characterized in elementary devices made of MOS transistors from several technologies. First, devices are irradiated using a radiation laboratory X-ray source up to MGy dose levels at room temperature. Devices are grounded during irradiation to simulate a circuit which waits for a wake up signal, representing most of the lifetime of an integrated circuit operating in a harsh environment. Devices are then annealed at several temperatures to discuss the post-irradiation behavior and to determine whether an elevated temperature is an issue or not for circuit function in mixed harsh environments. (authors)

  13. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Céspedes, Francisco; Capdevila, Josefina; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Valle, Manel del

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. ► It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. ► Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. ► Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. ► Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin–Ciocalteau method and I 280 index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I 280 ) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L −1 gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  14. Finding multiscale connectivity in our geospace observational system: Network analysis of total electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Malik, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    We present the first complex network theory-based analysis of high-latitude total electron content (TEC) data, including dependencies on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle and hemisphere. We examine several network measures to quantify the spatiotemporal correlation patterns in the TEC data for winter and summer months in 2016. We find that significant structure exists in the correlation patterns, distinguishing the dayside and nightside ionosphere, and specific features in the high latitudes such as the polar cap and auroral oval, including the cusp and ionospheric foot points of magnetospheric boundary layers. These features vary with the IMF, exhibiting a strong dependence on the north-south direction and generally larger variations during the winter months in both hemispheres. Our exploratory results suggest that network analysis of TEC data can be used to study characteristic ionospheric spatial scales at high latitudes, thereby extending the utility of these data. We explore mesoscale and large scale (greater than tens of kilometers and greater than hundreds of kilometers, respectively) as a function of winter/summer season, hemisphere, and IMF direction and conclude that the relative importance of different ionospheric scales is not a constant relationship. Together with an identification of important areas of future work, our findings provide a foundation for the application of network analysis techniques to ionospheric TEC. Our results suggest that network analysis can reveal new physical connections in the ionospheric system.

  15. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  16. SU-F-T-82: Dosimetric Evaluation of a Shield Used for Hemi-Body Skin Electron Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, C; Singh, A; AlDahlawi, I; Wang, I; Podgorsak, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We had several mycosis fungoides patients with a limited disease to about half of the skin surface. A custom-made plywood shield was used to protect the non-targeted skin region with our total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) technique. We report a dosimetric evaluation for our “hemi-body” skin electron irradiation technique. Methods: The technique is similar to our clinical total skin electron irradiation (TSEI), performed with a six-pair dual field (Stanford technique) at an extended source-to-skin distance (SSD) of 377 cm, with the addition of a plywood shield placed 50 cm from the patient. The shield is made of three layers of standard 5/8″ thick plywood (total thickness of 4.75 cm) that are clamped securely on an adjustable-height stand. Gafchromic EBT3 films were used in assessing the shield’s transmission factor and the extend of the dose penumbra region. To verify the dose delivered for hemi-body skin radiation in a real patient treatment, in-vivo dosimetry using Gafchromic EBT3 films were performed. Film pieces were taped on the patient skin to measure the dose received during the first two fractions, placed on the forehead and upper body (shielded region); and also at the level of pelvic area, left thigh, and left ankle. Results: The shield transmission factor was found to be 10%, and the width of the penumbra (80-to-20% dose fall-off) was about 12 cm. In-vivo dosimetry of a real case confirmed the expected shielded area dose. Conclusion: Hemi-Body skin electron irradiation at an extended SSD is feasible with the addition of a plywood shield at a distance from patient skin. The penumbra dose region and the shield’s transmission factor should be evaluated prior to clinical use. We have treated several hemi-body skin patients with our custom-made plywood shield, the current patient measurements are representative of these for other patients as well.

  17. SU-F-T-82: Dosimetric Evaluation of a Shield Used for Hemi-Body Skin Electron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivers, C; Singh, A [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); AlDahlawi, I; Wang, I; Podgorsak, M [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We had several mycosis fungoides patients with a limited disease to about half of the skin surface. A custom-made plywood shield was used to protect the non-targeted skin region with our total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) technique. We report a dosimetric evaluation for our “hemi-body” skin electron irradiation technique. Methods: The technique is similar to our clinical total skin electron irradiation (TSEI), performed with a six-pair dual field (Stanford technique) at an extended source-to-skin distance (SSD) of 377 cm, with the addition of a plywood shield placed 50 cm from the patient. The shield is made of three layers of standard 5/8″ thick plywood (total thickness of 4.75 cm) that are clamped securely on an adjustable-height stand. Gafchromic EBT3 films were used in assessing the shield’s transmission factor and the extend of the dose penumbra region. To verify the dose delivered for hemi-body skin radiation in a real patient treatment, in-vivo dosimetry using Gafchromic EBT3 films were performed. Film pieces were taped on the patient skin to measure the dose received during the first two fractions, placed on the forehead and upper body (shielded region); and also at the level of pelvic area, left thigh, and left ankle. Results: The shield transmission factor was found to be 10%, and the width of the penumbra (80-to-20% dose fall-off) was about 12 cm. In-vivo dosimetry of a real case confirmed the expected shielded area dose. Conclusion: Hemi-Body skin electron irradiation at an extended SSD is feasible with the addition of a plywood shield at a distance from patient skin. The penumbra dose region and the shield’s transmission factor should be evaluated prior to clinical use. We have treated several hemi-body skin patients with our custom-made plywood shield, the current patient measurements are representative of these for other patients as well.

  18. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu...

  19. A Multi-Stage Ultra-Endurance Run over 1,200 KM Leads to a Continuous Accumulation of Total Body Water

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Schulze, Ingo; Kohler, Götz

    2008-01-01

    We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the 'Deutschlandlauf' 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean +/- SD, 43.8 +/- 6.2 years, 73.8 +/- 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 +/- 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 +/- 1.8 kg.m(-2)). Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body wat...

  20. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  1. Timing of Captopril Administration Determines Radiation Protection or Radiation Sensitization in a Murine Model of Total Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Hematology and Stem Cells. High-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as the result of a nuclear accident , terrorist event, or as a clinical therapy for cancer...critical to understand the effects of these drugs on radiation-induced hematopoietic injury because radiotherapy is a common therapeutic modality for...Herodin F, Drouet M. Cytokine-based treatment of accidentally irradi- ated victims and new approaches. Exp Hematol. 2005;33:1071–1080. 10. Stroth U

  2. Prospective neurodevelopmental studies of two children treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleita, T.; Tesler, A.; Feig, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Five-year neurodevelopmental studies of two infants with acute leukemia are presented. Both patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI). Neither patient was treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Their outcome is remarkable for normal development of intelligence, language, perception, and motor coordination. These results suggest that TBI and BMT should be considered in future therapeutic studies of infants with acute leukemia, who are at great risk for failure of conventional therapy

  3. Treatment verification and in vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation using thermoluminescent and semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the characterization of thermoluminescent and semiconductor detectors and their applications in treatment verification and in vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation (TBI) technique. Dose measurements of TBI treatment simulation performed with thermoluminescent detectors inserted in the holes of a “Rando anthropomorphic phantom” showed agreement with the prescribed dose. For regions of the upper and lower chest where thermoluminescent detectors received higher doses it was recommended the use of compensating dose in clinic. The results of in vivo entrance dose measurements for three patients are presented. The maximum percentual deviation between the measurements and the prescribed dose was 3.6%, which is consistent with the action level recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), i.e., ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system and of a semiconductor dosimetric system for performing treatment verification and in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques demonstrated the value of these methods and the applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: • Characterization of a semiconductor dosimetric system. • Characterization of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system. • Application of the TLDs for treatment verification in total body irradiation treatments. • Application of semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. • Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  4. Total Skin Electron Beam for Primary Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayad, Khaled; Kriz, Jan; Moustakis, Christos; Scobioala, Sergiu; Reinartz, Gabriele; Haverkamp, Uwe; Willich, Normann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Weishaupt, Carsten [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Stadler, Rudolf [Department of Dermatology, Johannes-Wesling-Klinikum Minden, Minden (Germany); Sunderkötter, Cord [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor, E-mail: Hans.Eich@ukmuenster.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Recent trials with low-dose total skin electron beam (TSEB) therapy demonstrated encouraging results for treating primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (PCTCL). In this study, we assessed the feasibility of different radiation doses and estimated survival rates of different pathologic entities and stages. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 45 patients with PCTCL undergoing TSEB therapy between 2000 and 2015. Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and toxicity were assessed. Results: A total of 49 courses of TSEB therapy were administered to the 45 patients. There were 26 pathologically confirmed cases of mycosis fungoides (MF) lymphoma, 10 cases of Sézary syndrome (SS), and 9 non-MF/SS PCTCL patients. In the MF patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 92% (50% complete remission [CR]), 70% ORR in SS patients (50% CR), and 89% ORR in non-MF/SS patients (78% CR). The ORR for MF/SS patients treated with conventional dose (30-36 Gy) regimens was 92% (63% CR) and 75% (25% CR) for low-dose (<30-Gy) regimens (P=.09). In MF patients, the overall survival (OS) was 77 months with conventional dose regimens versus 14 months with low-dose regimens (P=.553). In SS patients, the median OS was 48 versus 16 months (P=.219), respectively. Median event-free survival (EFS) for MF in conventional dose patients versus low-dose patients was 15 versus 8 months, respectively (P=.264) and 19 versus 3 months for SS patients (P=.457). Low-dose regimens had shorter treatment time (P=.009) and lower grade 2 adverse events (P=.043). A second TSEB course was administered in 4 MF patients with 100% ORR. There is a possible prognostic impact of supplemental/boost radiation (P<.001); adjuvant treatment (P<.001) and radiation tolerability (P=.021) were detected. Conclusions: TSEB therapy is an efficacious treatment modality in the treatment of several forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. There is a nonsignificant trend to higher and longer clinical benefit

  5. Whole body electron therapy using the Philips SL75/10 linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelzweig, Y.; Yudelev, M.; Tatcher, M.

    1980-01-01

    Electrons produced by accelerators are always accompanied by Bremsstrahlung radiation generated by electron interactions with the accelerator exit window, monitor ionization chamber, collimator, etc. The ratio of the Bremsstrahlung x-rays to electrons depends on the design of the accelerator, beam energy and adjustment, and the treatment set-up. For the electron mode of the Philips SL75/10 linac, x-rays normally constitute 1-2% of the beam at a distance of 1 meter. While this is acceptable for conventional treatments when electrons are used for whole-body irradiation, the x-ray contamination can become excessive because of the degrading effects of the large treatment distances or scattering foils required to produce large fields. A whole body electron treatment method for the SL75/10 linac, with emphasis on the means employed to minimize the x-ray dose to the patient, is described. Measurements of the properties of the electro; beams and their x-ray components were made with the aid of a thin parallel plate ionization chamber, thermoluminescent dosimeters and films in various phantoms. From analysis of the results of the measurements a practical method for treating patients was developed. The method is based on multiple adjacent beams of 4 Mev electrons applied while the patient lies on the treatment couch at a distance of 150cm from the source. The method satisfies the clinical requirements with regard to the depth and uniformity of electron dose and the level of x-ray contamination. It is not necessary to modify the linac or to use any special devices when giving the treatment. (author)

  6. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceto, Xavier [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gutierrez, Juan Manuel [Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cespedes, Francisco [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Capdevila, Josefina; Minguez, Santiago [Estacio de Viticultura i Enologia, INCAVI, Vilafranca del Penedes (Spain); Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Valle, Manel del, E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.cat [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin-Ciocalteau method and I{sub 280} index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I{sub 280}) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L{sup -1} gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  7. Empirical models of Total Electron Content based on functional fitting over Taiwan during geomagnetic quiet condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kakinami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirical models of Total Electron Content (TEC based on functional fitting over Taiwan (120° E, 24° N have been constructed using data of the Global Positioning System (GPS from 1998 to 2007 during geomagnetically quiet condition (Dst>−30 nT. The models provide TEC as functions of local time (LT, day of year (DOY and the solar activity (F, which are represented by 1–162 days mean of F10.7 and EUV. Other models based on median values have been also constructed and compared with the models based on the functional fitting. Under same values of F parameter, the models based on the functional fitting show better accuracy than those based on the median values in all cases. The functional fitting model using daily EUV is the most accurate with 9.2 TECu of root mean square error (RMS than the 15-days running median with 10.4 TECu RMS and the model of International Reference Ionosphere 2007 (IRI2007 with 14.7 TECu RMS. IRI2007 overestimates TEC when the solar activity is low, and underestimates TEC when the solar activity is high. Though average of 81 days centered running mean of F10.7 and daily F10.7 is often used as indicator of EUV, our result suggests that average of F10.7 mean from 1 to 54 day prior and current day is better than the average of 81 days centered running mean for reproduction of TEC. This paper is for the first time comparing the median based model with the functional fitting model. Results indicate the functional fitting model yielding a better performance than the median based one. Meanwhile we find that the EUV radiation is essential to derive an optimal TEC.

  8. Treatment of mycosis fungoides with total skin electron beam: response and relapse by ethnicity and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Ginette A; Alhariri, Jihad; Klein, Rhonda Q; Wilson, Lynn D

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether clinical response to total skin electron beam (TSEB) and relapse after TSEB differs by ethnicity and sex. Retrospective chart review of 77 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF), treated with TSEB in 2002 to 2008 at Yale University School of Medicine, Departments of Dermatology and Therapeutic Radiology. Women had better odds of response to TSEB than men (OR=6.4; 95% CI, 1.45-28.5; P=0.01). No significant difference was observed in response to TSEB between white and black patients (OR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.16-2.91; P=0.62). When stratified by race and sex, in comparison with black females, all other groups had lower odds of complete response (CR) to TSEB: black males (OR=0.39; 95% CI, 0.002-0.70; P=0.03), white females (OR=0.24; 95% CI, 0.02-2.53; P=0.24), and white males (OR=0.06; 95% CI, 0.006-0.60; P=0.02). Clinical CR was significantly predicted by the duration of symptoms (OR=0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; P=0.01); and nearly significant by clinical stage; stage III to stage I (OR=0.17; 95% CI, 0.02-1.02; P=0.07). Adjuvant treatment, previous treatment, and time from diagnosis to treatment have no significant effect on CR to TSEB. There was no statistically significant association between relapse after treatment and race, sex, clinical stage, or symptom duration. The odds of achieving a CR to TSEB decrease when diagnosis of MF is delayed and when patients present with advanced-stage disease. Women with MF were more likely to have a CR to treatment, and this response was even more significant in black women.

  9. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  10. SU-G-TeP1-13: Reclined Total Skin Electron Treatment Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, D; Gerbi, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe a new reclined technique for treatment of weakened patients that require total skin electron irradiation. Methods: This technique is a modification of a previously published reclined technique differing in that all six patient positions are treated with the gantry angled 60° from vertically down. The patient is located at a treatment distance of 330 cm SSD along the CA of the beam. The 3/8′ thick Lexan beam spoiler is placed 25 cm from the most proximal surface of the patient for all patient treatment positions. To produce a flat, uniform field of ∼190 cm length, the patient was moved longitudinally by an experimentally determined distance. Kodak EDR2 and EBT3 Radiochromic film were placed around the periphery of the phantom, and OSLs were placed every 30° around the phantom periphery to determine output and surface dose uniformity. A piece of Kodak EDR2 was sandwiched between the two slabs of the 30 cm diameter phantom to determine beam penetration. Results: Field uniformity shifting the patient ±75 cm was ±5% over a treatment span of 190 cm. The dose variation around the periphery of the 30 cm diameter phantom varied by <±5% with the maximum values observed at the 0°-300°, 60° locations with the minimum values at the 30°-330°, 60° locations. Results obtained using Kodak EDR2, EBT3 Radiochromic film, and OSLs agreed to within ±5%. Conclusion: This technique provides a very efficient and convenient means by which to treat the entire skin surface of patients incapable of standing for treatment. It provides a treatment field that is both large and uniform enough for adults along with a convenient way to treat four of the six patient treatment positions. The beam spoiler lies to the side of the patient allowing easy access for patient positioning.

  11. Revisiting Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Mycosis Fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Cameron, E-mail: cameronh@stanford.edu [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Young, James; Navi, Daniel [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Riaz, Nadeem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Lingala, Bharathi; Kim, Youn [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Hoppe, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a highly effective treatment for mycosis fungoides (MF). The standard course consists of 30 to 36 Gy delivered over an 8- to 10-week period. This regimen is time intensive and associated with significant treatment-related toxicities including erythema, desquamation, anhydrosis, alopecia, and xerosis. The aim of this study was to identify a lower dose alternative while retaining a favorable efficacy profile. Methods and Materials: One hundred two MF patients were identified who had been treated with an initial course of low-dose TSEBT (5-<30 Gy) between 1958 and 1995. Patients had a T stage classification of T2 (generalized patch/plaque, n = 51), T3 (tumor, n = 29), and T4 (erythrodermic, n = 22). Those with extracutaneous disease were excluded. Results: Overall response (OR) rates (>50% improvement) were 90% among patients with T2 to T4 disease receiving 5 to <10 Gy (n = 19). In comparison, OR rates between the 10 to <20 Gy and 20 to <30 Gy subgroups were 98% and 97%, respectively. There was no significant difference in median progression free survival (PFS) in T2 and T3 patients when stratified by dose group, and PFS in each was comparable to that of the standard dose. Conclusions: OR rates associated with low-dose TSEBT in the ranges of 10 to <20 Gy and 20 to <30 Gy are comparable to that of the standard dose ({>=} 30 Gy). Efficacy measures including OS, PFS, and RFS are also favorable. Given that the efficacy profile is similar between 10 and <20 Gy and 20 and <30 Gy, the utility of TSEBT within the lower dose range of 10 to <20 Gy merits further investigation, especially in the context of combined modality treatment.

  12. Low energy electron emission in a pure three body collision: C{sup 6+}+H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, L.C. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Richard, P. [J. R. Macdonald Lab., Physics Dept., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Gulyas, L. [Inst. of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Science (ATOMKI), Debreccen (Hungary); Rudd, M.E. [Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1999-07-01

    We have investigated the energy and angular distributions of the low energy electron emission in a pure three-body ion-atom collision involving atomic hydrogen as target. The double differential ionization cross sections have been measured for C{sup 6+}+H ({nu} = 6-10 a.u.). The CDW-EIS calculations provide an excellent agreement with the data except some discrepancies in the backward angles. These observations clearly show that the two center mechanism plays a major role in emission of low energy electrons. (orig.)

  13. Percutaneous recanalization of chronic total occlusions: wherein lies the body of proof?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburino, Corrado; Capranzano, Piera; Capodanno, Davide; Dangas, George; Zimarino, Marco; Bass, Theodore A; Mehran, Roxana; Antoniucci, David; Colombo, Antonio; La Manna, Alessio; Di Salvo, Maria E; Stone, Gregg W

    2013-02-01

    Although interventional technology and skills have markedly advanced, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions remains challenging. Indeed, CTO PCI is technically complex, carries the potential for a relatively high likelihood of failure and acute complications, and requires specifically skilled operators and a demanding use of resources. In addition, controversy persists surrounding appropriate indications for attempting CTO revascularization. Finally, there is a wide uncertainty on the actual benefits achieved with successful CTO recanalization. A growing number of studies have reported procedural results and/or assessed functional effects and long-term clinical outcomes of CTO PCI. We therefore sought to review and critically appraise the evidence base for procedural outcomes and potential clinical benefits of CTO PCI. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The association of change in physical activity and body weight in the regulation of total energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, C; Hill, J O; Peters, J C; Soriano-Maldonado, A; Blair, S N

    2017-03-01

    The limited success in addressing the current obesity epidemic reflects the insufficient understanding of the regulation of energy balance. The present study examines the longitudinal association of body weight with physical activity (PA), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and total daily energy intake (TDEI). A total of 195 adults (52% male) between 21 and 35 years of age with no intention for weight loss were followed over a 2-year period. Body weight, fat mass and fat-free mass were measured every 3 months. Participants were stratified into three groups based on change in body weight using a 5% cutpoint. TDEE and time spent in different PA intensities were determined via a multisensor device at each measurement time. TDEI was calculated based on change in body composition and TDEE. At 2-year follow-up, 57% of the participants maintained weight, 14% lost weight and 29% gained weight. Average weight change was -6.9±3.4 and 7.1±3.6 kg in the weight-loss and weight-gain groups, respectively. Average TDEE and TDEI did not change significantly in any weight change group (P>0.16). Moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, increased significantly in the weight-loss group (35±49 min/day; Pweight-gain group (-35±46 min/day; Pweight and PA to maintain a stable TDEE and allow for a stable TDEI over time. Sufficient PA levels, therefore, are an important contributor to weight loss maintenance.

  15. Total and single differential cross sections for the electron impact ionization of the ground state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.S.C.; Choudhury, K.B.; Singh, M.B.; Deb, N.C.; Mukherjee, S.C.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Total cross sections (TCS) and single differential cross sections (SDCS) have been computed for the single ionization of the ground state of helium by electron impact in a distorted wave formalism which takes into account the effects of the initial and final channel distortions. The present TCS and SDCS results are in fair agreement with the measured values and other theoretical predictions for the incident electron energy E i > 150 eV. (orig.)

  16. Dosimetric analysis for photon and electron beams in Whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado G, M.

    1998-01-01

    To initiate the Whole body irradiation as an alternative for the treatment of the hematological diseases, leukemia and assistant for the osseous marrow transplantation, it may be taken account the application of International Protocols about control and quality assurance. It is established the intercomparison by the different dosimetric methods: cylindrical ionization chambers and parallel plane, radiographic emulsion film, semiconductor diodes (Mosfet transistors) and TLD-100 thermoluminescent crystals, obtained measurements for 140 x 140 cm 2 fields and large distances 340 cm respect conventional fields in Radiotherapy. The in vitro dosimetry was realized at the Universal Anthropomorphic puppet Alderson Rando basically with the cylindrical crystals (1 mm diameter) of TLD-100 lithium fluoride. It was obtained the dose value with a 0.6 cm 3 cylindrical ionization chamber and the Farmer electrometer for Whole body irradiation (ICT) with photons for electrons and were obtained values with the Markus plane parallel camera. Knowing the dose rate value to the source-surface distance DFS= 80 cm, it was calibrated the crystals with the reference radiation beam of 60 Co for obtaining the response curve: Dose vs. Tl lecture. It was characterized the 10 % of the total population for 300 crystals for applying the statistics corresponding. The luminescence curve obtained of Gaussian form was considered satisfactory by its stability during the pre-anneal lecture and anneal process, getting the main peak lecture at 300 Centigrade according to assigned parameters at lecture equipment TLD Harshaw model 4500. The results indicate the functional dependence with the distance DFS= 340 cm for the following depth PPD, the relations TMR and TPR, the TAR is not calculated by the increment of the dispersion in air. The penumbra increment indicates an increase of the radiation field respect of luminous field. The dispersion angle q 1 respect at the field central axis was determined and was

  17. The association of pre-operative body pain diagram scores with pain outcomes following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, A J; Selzer, F; Losina, E; Usiskin, I; Collins, J E; Lee, Y C; Band, P; Dalury, D F; Iorio, R; Kindsfater, K; Katz, J N

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 20% of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) recipients have suboptimal pain relief. We evaluated the association between pre-surgical widespread body pain and incomplete pain relief following TKA. This prospective analysis included 241 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing unilateral TKA who completed questionnaires preoperatively and up to 12 months post-operatively. Questionnaires included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scale and a body pain diagram. We derived the number of non-index painful body regions from the diagram. We used Poisson regression to determine the association between painful body regions identified preoperatively and both WOMAC pain at follow-up and improvement in pain as defined by the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Mean subject age was 66 years (SD 9), and 61% were females. Adjusting for age, sex, co-morbid conditions, baseline pain, pain catastrophizing, and mental health, we found that more widespread body pain was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting 12-month WOMAC pain score >15 (relative risk [RR] per painful body region 1.39, 95% CI 1.18-1.63) and a greater likelihood of failing to achieve the MCID (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16-1.86).). Pain catastrophizing was an independent predictor of persistent pain and failure to improve by the MCID (RR 3.57, 95% CI 1.73-7.31). Pre-operative widespread pain was associated with greater pain at 12-months and failure to reach the MCID. Widespread pain as captured by the pain diagram, along with the pain catastrophizing score, may help identify persons with suboptimal TKA outcome. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  19. Features of annual and semiannual variations derived from the global ionospheric maps of total electron content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we use the NASA-JPL global ionospheric maps of total electron content (TEC, firstly to construct TEC maps (TEC vs. magnetic local time MLT, and magnetic latitude MLAT in the interval from 1999 to 2005. These TEC maps were, in turn, used to estimate the annual-to-mean amplitude ratio, A1, and the semiannual-to-mean amplitude ratio, A2, as well as the latitudinal symmetrical and asymmetrical parts, A' and A" of A1. Thus, we investigated in detail the TEC climatology from maps of these indices, with an emphasis on the quantitative presentation for local time and latitudinal changes in the seasonal, annual and semiannual anomalies of the ionospheric TEC. Then we took the TEC value at 14:00 LT to examine various anomalies at a global scale following the same procedure. Results reveal similar features appearing in NmF2, such as that the seasonal anomaly is more significant in the near-pole regions than in the far-pole regions and the reverse is true for the semiannual anomaly; the winter anomaly has least a chance to be observed at the South America and South Pacific areas. The most impressive feature is that the equinoctial asymmetry is most prominent at the East Asian and South Australian areas. Through the analysis of the TIMED GUVI columnar [O/N2] data, we have investigated to what extent the seasonal, annual and semiannual variations can be explained by their counterparts in [O/N2]. Results revealed that the [O/N2] variation is a major contributor to the daytime winter anomaly of TEC, and it also contributes to some of the semiannual and annual anomalies. The contribution to the anomalies unexplained by the [O/N2] data could possibly be due to the dynamics associated with thermospheric winds and electric fields.

  20. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  1. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous lymphoma. Minimal risk of acute toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Kai; Elsayad, Khaled; Moustakis, Christos; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is attracting increased interest for the effective palliative treatment of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (pCTCL). In this study, we compared toxicity profiles following various radiation doses. We reviewed the records of 60 patients who underwent TSEBT for pCTCL between 2000 and 2016 at the University Hospital of Munster. The treatment characteristics of the radiotherapy (RT) regimens and adverse events (AEs) were then analyzed and compared. In total, 67 courses of TSEBT were administered to 60 patients. Of these patients, 34 (51%) received a standard dose with a median surface dose of 30 Gy and 33 patients (49%) received a low dose with the median surface dose of 12 Gy (7 salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were administered to 5 patients). After a median follow-up of 15 months, the overall AE rate was 100%, including 38 patients (57%) with grade 2 and 7 (10%) with grade 3 AEs. Patients treated with low-dose TSEBT had significantly fewer grade 2 AEs than those with conventional dose regimens (33 vs. 79%, P < 0.001). A lower grade 3 AE rate was also observed in patients who had received the low-dose regimen compared to those with the conventional dose regimens (6 vs. 15%, P = 0.78). Multiple/salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were not associated with an increased risk of acute AEs. Low-dose TSEBT regimens are associated with significantly fewer grade 2 acute toxicities compared with conventional doses of TSEBT. Repeated/Salvage low-dose TSEBT, however, appears to be tolerable and can even be applied safely in patients with cutaneous relapses. (orig.) [German] Eine niedrigdosierte Ganzhautelektronenbestrahlung (TSEBT) wird vermehrt zur effektiven palliativen Behandlung von Patienten mit primaer kutanen T-Zell-Lymphomen (pCTCL) eingesetzt. In dieser Studie vergleichen wir die Toxizitaetsprofile verschiedener Dosiskonzepte. Untersucht wurden 60 zwischen 2000 und 2016 am Universitaetsklinikum Muenster mittels TSEBT

  3. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  4. The improved DGR analytical model of electron density height profile and total electron content in the ionosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Radicella, S. M.; Zhang, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Tests of the analytical model of the electron density profile originally proposed by G, Di Giovanni and S.M. Radicella (DGR model) have shown the need to introduce improvements in order to obtain a model able to reproduce the ionosphere in a larger spectrum of geophysical and time conditions. The present paper reviews the steps toward such progress and presents the final formulation of the model. It gives also a brief re- view of tests of the improved model done by different authors.

  5. Success Stories in Radiotherapy Development Projects: Optimizing Total Body Irradiation for Bone Marrow Transplants in Bulgaria. Chapter 28.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, E.; Gocheva-Petkova, L.

    2017-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of cancer patients in Bulgaria receive bone marrow transplants as treatment for haematological malignancies such as leukaemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, or for solid tumours such as neuroblastoma, one of the more common cancers in infancy. To undergo a bone marrow transplant, patients must first go through a preparatory process that conditions the body for the transplant. This involves a special radiotherapy technique called total body irradiation (TBI). TBI helps to make space for the transplanted marrow, destroys any malignant cells that may be left in the bone marrow after chemotherapy and suppresses the immune system to help prevent rejection of the transplant. To avoid complications, patients must also receive irradiated cellular blood components during the preparatory process. The IAEA assisted medical professionals in Bulgaria in optimizing bone marrow transplants by providing the equipment and building the capabilities necessary to carry out TBI. The IAEA also offered very specialized radiotherapy training to the medical staff, including blood irradiation.

  6. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Chevalier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  7. Phonon black-body radiation limit for heat dissipation in electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleeh, J; Mateos, J; Íñiguez-de-la-Torre, I; Wadefalk, N; Nilsson, P A; Grahn, J; Minnich, A J

    2015-02-01

    Thermal dissipation at the active region of electronic devices is a fundamental process of considerable importance. Inadequate heat dissipation can lead to prohibitively large temperature rises that degrade performance, and intensive efforts are under way to mitigate this self-heating. At room temperature, thermal resistance is due to scattering, often by defects and interfaces in the active region, that impedes the transport of phonons. Here, we demonstrate that heat dissipation in widely used cryogenic electronic devices instead occurs by phonon black-body radiation with the complete absence of scattering, leading to large self-heating at cryogenic temperatures and setting a key limit on the noise floor. Our result has important implications for the many fields that require ultralow-noise electronic devices.

  8. Many-body theory of electron-positron interaction in metallic lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowiak, H.; Boronski, E.; Banach, G. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych

    1997-12-31

    The development of the partial density amplitude approach to the electronic structure of simple metals offers the possibility to perform direct many-body calculations of the electron-positron interaction in these materials. A theory of this interaction based on the hypernetted-chain formalism is proposed and applied to lithium. It leads to a nonlinear three-dimensional integro-differential equation for the enhancement amplitude. This equation is solved for two cases in which it reduces to one dimension. The relation between the results obtained in this way for the annihilation rate and the predictions of the local density approximation and other approaches is studied. The role of core electrons in the interaction is explained. (orig.) 8 refs.

  9. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, G.; Chevalier, G.; Sinatra, S.T.; Oschman, J.L.; Sokal, K.; Sokal, P.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and un wellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits including better sleep and reduced pain from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance

  10. The effect of body mass index on the risk of post-operative complications during the 6 months following total hip replacement or total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, G; Judge, A; Prieto-Alhambra, D; de Vries, F; Arden, N K; Cooper, C

    2014-07-01

    To assess the effect of obesity on 6-month post-operative complications following total knee (TKR) or hip (THR) replacement. Data for patients undergoing first THR or TKR between 1995 and 2011 was taken from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Logistic regression was used to assess whether body mass index (BMI) was associated with 6-month post-operative complications [deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, respiratory infection, anaemia, wound infection, urinary tract infection or death] after controlling for the effects of age, gender, smoking, drinking, socio-economic status (SES), co-morbidities and medications. 31,817 THR patients and 32,485 TKR patients were identified for inclusion. Increasing BMI was associated with a significantly higher risk of wound infections, from 1.6% to 3.5% in THR patients (adjusted P universal denial of surgery based on BMI is unwarranted. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple courses of high-dose total skin electron beam therapy in the management of mycosis fungoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Mark; Hoppe, Richard T.; Knox, Susan J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis was undertaken to determine the indications for, the efficacy of, and the long-term complications of two courses of total skin electron beam therapy for mycosis fungoides. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of mycosis fungoides treated in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Stanford University Medical Center between 1968 and 1990 was performed. All patients received two courses of high-dose electron beam therapy to the skin. The mean dose for the total skin treatment for the first course was 32.6 Gy and 23.4 Gy for the second course of treatment. Results: Following the first course of total skin electron beam therapy, 11 of 15 had a complete response, with a mean duration of 11.6 months. All patients received adjuvant therapies between the first and second courses of high-dose total skin electron beam therapy. The mean interval between the first and the second courses of therapy was 41.3 months. Patients were restaged prior to commencement of their second course of high-dose total skin electron beam therapy, resulting in upstaging in six. The second course of therapy resulted in six complete responses and nine partial responses. Twelve of these patients have since died, 1 is lost to follow-up, and 2 are living with disease. The long-term side effects in the two living patients include pigmentation changes, alopecia, and diffuse xerosis. Conclusion: Delivery of two courses of total skin electron beam therapy is technically feasible, tolerable, and efficacious. The dose to the total skin was reduced for the second course of therapy in all cases. The criteria used to screen patients included initial good response to total skin electron treatment, long disease-free interval, exhaustion of other therapeutic modalities, and generalized skin involvement at relapse. Long-term toxicities were mild in severity and generally consisted of generalized xerosis, scattered

  12. Etoposide in combination with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation or busulfan as conditioning for marrow transplantation in adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, T.R.; Ortlieb, M.; Tefft, M.C.; Torrisi, J.; Cahill, R.; Deeg, H.J. (Georgetown Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States)); Peters, C.; Gadner, H. (St. Anna' s Kinderspital, Wien (Austria)); Urban, C. (Univ. Children' s Hospital, Graz (Austria))

    1994-04-30

    In an attempt to intensify conditioning therapy for bone marrow transplantation of hematologic malignancies, a retrospective three center evaluation of escalating doses of etoposide added to cyclophosphamide and either total body irradiation or busulfan was undertaken. Seventy-six patients who received etoposide (25-65 mg/kg) added to cyclophosphamide (60-120 mg/kg) and either total body irradiation (12.0-13.2 Gy) or busulfan (12-16 mg/kg) were evaluable for toxicity. Fifty-one of the evaluable patients received allogeneic transplants, while twenty-six received autologous transplants. A comparative analysis of toxicities according to conditioning regimen, donor source and etoposide dose was made. Similar toxicities were observed among the treatment groups with the exception of more frequent skin (p = 0.03) and life threatening hepatic toxicities (p = 0.01) in the busulfan treated patients. Life threatening or fatal toxicities were not influenced by donor source, either when analyzed by treatment group or etoposide dose. Etoposide at a dose of 60-65 mg/kg in combination with TBI and cyclophosphamide was associated with a significantly increased incidence of life threatening or fatal toxicities compared with a combination using a dose of 25-50 mg/kg (15 of 24 vs. 5 of 20; p = 0.013). The maximally tolerated dose of etoposide in combination with busulfan and cyclophosphamide cannot be definitively established in this analysis in part due to the heterogeneity of the patient population and treatment schemes. Although toxicities with bone marrow transplant preparative regimens containing etoposide in combination with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation or busulfan were frequently severe, treatment related mortality risk was believed to be acceptably low. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Pulmonary complications of bone marrow transplantation: a comparison of total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide to busulfan and cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartsell, William F.; Czyzewski, E. Ann; Ghalie, Richard; Kaizer, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the acute and long-term pulmonary toxicities of total body irradiation and busulfan in bone marrow transplantation. Methods and Materials: From March 1984 through February 1991, 144 patients received high-dose therapy with cyclophosphamide plus either total body irradiation (TBI-CY) or busulfan (BU-CY) followed by bone marrow rescue. Treatment protocols were based on disease type. Cyclophosphamide dose was 120-200 mg/kg, given in 2-4 days. Total body irradiation was given as 12 Gy in four fractions over 4 days, or 14.4 Gy in eight fractions over 4 days. Busulfan dose was 16 mg/kg given over 4 days. Results: Seventy-nine patients were treated with TBI-CY and 65 patients with BU-CY. More patients in the TBI group had allogeneic transplants (40 vs. 18). Pulmonary events occurred in 48 patients, 19 in BU-CY and 29 in TBI-CY. Of the 58 patients with allogeneic transplants, 21 (36%) developed chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), and 10 of those patients developed pulmonary complications (including 2 with obliterative bronchitis and 1 with asthma). Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) occurred in 14 patients, 12 in the TBI-CY group and 2 in the BU-CY group. Cytomegalovirus and pneumocystis infections were associated with IP in 11 of those patients. Fatal idiopathic IP occurred in one patient in each of the TBI-CY and BU-CY groups. Multivariate analysis showed that only chronic GVHD and prior bleomycin use were significant predictors of interstitial pneumonitis; no difference was seen between TBI-CY and BU-CY. Conclusions: Pulmonary complications were most commonly associated with GVHD and prior bleomycin use. The incidence of cytomegalovirus or pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis was greater in the patients receiving the TBI regimen; fatal pulmonary complications were not significantly different between TBI and nonTBI regimens

  14. The Association of Omentin Levels in Non-Diabetic Postmenopausal Women with Bone Mineral Density and Total Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozlu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Positive relation between body mass and bone mineral density (BMD is thought to be due to weight bearing effect. However, adipose tissue derived adipokines may have important effects on bone. Obese women have decreased levels of omentin in circulation which is related with adverse metabolic events. The hypothesis was that performed in this study, we aimed to study the association of omentin levels with body composition and BMD in non-diabetic postmenopausal women.Methods: Postmenopausal women aged 40 to 70 years, scheduled for BMD testing were prospectively evaluated. Patients with known diabetes, chronic renal failure, chronic liver disease, malabsorption, inflammatory bowel disease, <40 and >70 years of age were excluded. BMD and body composition were measured by DXA (GE-Lunar DPX pro. Fasting blood samples were obtained for analysis of complete blood count, glucose, creatinine, lipid profile and omentin. Statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS version 18 for windows. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.   Results: Mean age of the patients in the osteoporosis group was higher than that of the control group (59.1±7.6 vs 53.3±5.7, p<0.05. Mean omentin level was higher in osteoporosis group than in osteopenia and control groups (479.7±141.6 vs 342.3±173.6 and 346.8±127.2, p<0.05. Total body fat mass, muscle mass and the T score of lumbar spine had a negative correlation with omentin levels (r=-0.252, -0.276, -0.344, p<0.05.Conclusions: Body composition does not seem to effect omentin levels. Women with a lower BMI have increased omentin levels. Higher omentin levels are associated with lower T scores at the lumbar spine.

  15. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  16. Determination of lead in clay enameled by X-ray fluorescence technique in Total reflection and by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarazua O, G.; Carapia M, L.

    2000-01-01

    This work has the objective of determining lead free in the glazed commercial stewing pans using the X-ray fluorescence technique in Total reflection (FRX) and the observation and semiquantitative determination of lead by Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). (Author)

  17. Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms for a singly charged helium ion, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, T.; Nishikori, M.; Yamato, N.

    1991-08-01

    Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms with Z (55 ≤ Z ≤ 92) for a He + ion are tabulated as the second part of NIFS-DATA-11 (1991) on the basis of the wave-packet theory. (author)

  18. Total Hadron Cross Section, New Particles, and Muon Electron Events in e{sup +}e{sup -} Annihilation at SPEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.

    1976-01-01

    The review of total hadron electroproduction cross sections, the new states, and the muon--electron events includes large amount of information on hadron structure, nine states with width ranging from 10's of keV to many MeV, the principal decay modes and quantum numbers of some of the states, and limits on charm particle production. 13 references. (JFP)

  19. Incidence of interstitial pneumonia after hyperfractionated total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow/stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Schraube, P.; Wenz, F.; Flentje, M.; Kalle, K. von; Haas, R.; Hunstein, W.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Interstitial pneumonia (IP) is a severe complication after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with incidence rates between 10 % and 40 % in different series. It is a polyetiologic disease that occurs depending on age, graft vs. host disease (GvHD), CMV-status, total body irradiation (TBI) and immunosuppressive therapy after BMT. The effects of fractionation and dose rate are not entirely clear. This study evaluates the incidence of lethal IP after hyperfractionated TBI for autologous BMT or stem cell transplantation. Materials and Methods Between 1982 and 1992, 182 patients (60 % male, 40 % female) were treated with hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) before autologous bone marrow transplantation. Main indications were leukemias and lymphomas (53 % AML, 21 % ALL, 22 % NHL, 4 % others) Median age was 30 ys (15 - 55 ys). A total dose of 14.4 Gy was applied using lung blocks (12 fractions of 1.2 Gy in 4 days, dose rate 7-18 cGy/min, lung dose 9 - 9.5 Gy). TBI was followed by cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg). 72 % were treated with bone marrow transplantation, 28 % were treated with stem cell transplantation. Interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed clinically, radiologically and by autopsy. Results 4 patients died most likely of interstitial pneumonia. For another 12 patients interstitial pneumonia was not the most likely cause of death but could not be excluded. Thus, the incidence of lethal IP was at least 2.2 % but certainly below 8.8 %. Conclusion Lethal interstitial pneumonia is a rare complication after total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow transplantation in this large, homogeously treated series. In the autologous setting, total doses of 14.4 Gy can be applied with a low risk for developing interstitial pneumonia if hyperfractionation and lung blocks are used. This falls in line with data from series with identical twins or t-cell depleted marrow and smaller, less homogeneous autologous transplant studies. Thus

  20. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children determined by a paired isotope dilution technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body ...

  1. Biogeographic ancestry is associated with higher total body adiposity among African-American females: the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonesekera, Sunali D; Fang, Shona C; Piccolo, Rebecca S; Florez, Jose C; McKinlay, John B

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables. We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%), and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58). We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women.

  2. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-07

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  3. Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steeg, B.; Juha, Libor; Feldhaus, J.; Jacobi, S.; Sobierajski, R.; Michaelsen, C.; Andrejczuk, A.; Krzywinski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 5 (2004), s. 657-659 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : free-electron laser * amorphous carbon * radiation damage Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.308, year: 2004

  4. Efficient k⋅p method for the calculation of total energy and electronic density of states

    OpenAIRE

    Iannuzzi, Marcella; Parrinello, Michele

    2001-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating the electronic structure in large systems with a fully converged BZ sampling is presented. The method is based on a k.p-like approximation developed in the framework of the density functional perturbation theory. The reliability and efficiency of the method are demostrated in test calculations on Ar and Si supercells

  5. Measurement of total calcium in neurons by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian

    2013-11-20

    In this article the tools, techniques, and instruments appropriate for quantitative measurements of intracellular elemental content using the technique known as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are described. Intramitochondrial calcium is a particular focus because of the critical role that mitochondrial calcium overload plays in neurodegenerative diseases. The method is based on the analysis of X-rays generated in an electron microscope (EM) by interaction of an electron beam with the specimen. In order to maintain the native distribution of diffusible elements in electron microscopy specimens, EPMA requires "cryofixation" of tissue followed by the preparation of ultrathin cryosections. Rapid freezing of cultured cells or organotypic slice cultures is carried out by plunge freezing in liquid ethane or by slam freezing against a cold metal block, respectively. Cryosections nominally 80 nm thick are cut dry with a diamond knife at ca. -160 °C, mounted on carbon/pioloform-coated copper grids, and cryotransferred into a cryo-EM using a specialized cryospecimen holder. After visual survey and location mapping at ≤-160 °C and low electron dose, frozen-hydrated cryosections are freeze-dried at -100 °C for ~30 min. Organelle-level images of dried cryosections are recorded, also at low dose, by means of a slow-scan CCD camera and subcellular regions of interest selected for analysis. X-rays emitted from ROIs by a stationary, focused, high-intensity electron probe are collected by an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, processed by associated electronics, and presented as an X-ray spectrum, that is, a plot of X-ray intensity vs. energy. Additional software facilitates: 1) identification of elemental components by their "characteristic" peak energies and fingerprint; and 2) quantitative analysis by extraction of peak areas/background. This paper concludes with two examples that illustrate typical EPMA applications, one in which mitochondrial calcium analysis

  6. Assessment of total vascular resistance and total body water in normotensive women during the first trimester of pregnancy. A key for the prevention of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiralongo, G M; Lo Presti, D; Pisani, I; Gagliardi, G; Scala, R L; Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B; Andreoli, A; Valensise, H

    2015-04-01

    Maternal cardiovascular system adapts to pregnancy, thanks to complex physiological mechanisms that involve cardiac output, total vascular resistance and water body distribution. Abnormalities of these adaptive mechanisms are connected with hypertensive disorders. To identify patients at a high risk of developing hypertensive complications of pregnancy during the first trimester of pregnancy, through the use of non-invasive methods such as USCOM (Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor) and Bioimpedance. We enrolled 120 healthy normotensive women during the first trimester of pregnancy obtaining all measurements with the USCOM system and Bioimpedance. 20 patients were excluded for a bad USCOM signal. The remaining patients (n = 100) were retrospectively divided into two groups: Group A (n = 75) TVR1200 dynes s cm(-5). No statistically significant difference was identified in terms of water distribution, Fat Free Mass, Systolic/Diastolic Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Hematocrit, Flow Time Corrected and Water Balance Index between the two groups. In contrast, higher values of the Cardiac Output, Stroke Volume, Fat Mass and Inotropy Index have been highlighted in the Group A. Moreover, in the Group A we found a better maternal-neonatal outcome and a lower incidence of hypertensive complications. High TVR during the first weeks of gestation may be an early marker of cardiovascular maladaptation more than the evaluation of water distribution and, in particular, with respect to the single blood pressure assessment. Moreover lower values of Inotropy Index could be an indicative of the worst cardiac performance. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole body retention of 99mTc-diphosphonate. Relation to bio-chemical indices of bone turnover and to total body calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Johansen, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body retention (WBR) and urinary excretion (UE) of 99m Te-diphosphonate were determined in 161 healthy adults and the results were compared to accepted biochemical markers of bone turnover. WBR was corrected for total body bone mineral (TBBM) and UE from forearm bone mineral content (BMC). Both uncorrected and corrected retention measurements were highly significantly correlated to the biochemical markers (P<0.001), but the r values were low (0.22-0.64). All bone turnover variables demonstrated considerably higher levels of bone turnover in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (P<0.001), whereas the variables were unchanged with age in men. The correction of WBR for TBBM and UE for BMC increased the validity of the retention methods and the two calculations gave exactly the same results on a group basis, both demonstrating significantly higher bone turnover in women than in men in each age group (P<0.05-P<0.001). All the turnover variables were measured in a group of perimenopausal women (n=33). The data clearly demonstrated that bone turnover is menopause dependent, whereas age in itself is of minor significance. (orig.)

  8. In vivo dosimetry with semiconducting diodes for dose verification in total-body irradiation. A 10-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramm, U.; Licher, J.; Moog, J.; Scherf, C.; Kara, E.; Boettcher, H.D.; Roedel, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Center of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Mose, S. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Center of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Schwarzwald-Baar Hospital, Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Background and purpose: for total-body irradiation (TBI) using the translation method, dose distribution cannot be computed with computer-assisted three-dimensional planning systems. Therefore, dose distribution has to be primarily estimated based on CT scans (beam-zone method) which is followed by in vivo measurements to ascertain a homogeneous dose delivery. The aim of this study was to clinically establish semiconductor probes as a simple and fast method to obtain an online verification of the dose at relevant points. Patients and methods: in 110 consecutively irradiated TBI patients (12.6 Gy, 2 x 1.8 Gy/day), six semiconductor probes were attached to the body surface at dose-relevant points (eye/head, neck, lung, navel). The mid-body point of the abdomen was defined as dose reference point. The speed of translation was optimized to definitively reach the prescribed dose in this point. Based on the entrance and exit doses, the mid-body doses at the other points were computed. The dose homogeneity in the entire target volume was determined comparing all measured data with the dose at the reference point. Results: after calibration of the semiconductor probes under treatment conditions the dose in selected points and the dose homogeneity in the target volume could be quantitatively specified. In the TBI patients, conformity of calculated and measured doses in the given points was achieved with small deviations of adequate accuracy. The data of 80% of the patients are within an uncertainty of {+-} 5%. Conclusion: during TBI using the translation method, dose distribution and dose homogeneity can be easily controlled in selected points by means of semiconductor probes. Semiconductor probes are recommended for further use in the physical evaluation of TBI. (orig.)

  9. Accuracy of an eight-point tactile-electrode impedance method in the assessment of total body water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, G; Malavolti, M; Severi, S; Poli, M; Mussi, C; Fantuzzi, A L; Battistini, N

    2002-11-01

    To establish the accuracy of an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance method in the assessment of total body water (TBW). Transversal study. University department. Fifty healthy subjects (25 men and 25 women) with a mean (s.d.) age of 40 (12) y. TBW measured by deuterium oxide dilution; resistance (R) of arms, trunk and legs measured at frequencies of 5, 50, 250 and 500 kHz with an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance-meter (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). An algorithm for the prediction of TBW from the whole-body resistance index at 500 kHz (height (2)/R(500) where R is the sum of the segmental resistances of arms, trunk and legs) was developed in a randomly chosen subsample of 35 subjects. This algorithm had an adjusted coefficient of determination (r2(adj)) of 0.81 (P<0.0001) and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.6 l (9%). Cross-validation of the predictive algorithm in the remaining 15 subjects gave an r2(adj) of 0.87 (P<0.0001) and an RMSE of 3.0 l (8%). The precision of eight-polar BIA, determined by measuring R three times a day for five consecutive days in a fasting subject, was < or =2.8% for all segments and frequencies. Eight-polar BIA is a precise method that offers accurate estimates of TBW in healthy subjects. This promising method should undergo further studies of precision and its accuracy in assessing extracellular water and appendicular body composition should be determined. Modena and Reggio Emilia University.

  10. Indirect prediction of total body water content in healthy adult Beagles by single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguiyan-Colliard, Laurence; Daumas, Caroline; Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Cardot, Philippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Priymenko, Nathalie; Nguyen, Patrick; Roux, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    To develop equations for prediction of total body water (TBW) content in unsedated dogs by combining impedance (resistance and reactance) and morphological variables and to compare the results of those equations with TBW content determined by deuterium dilution (TBW(d)). 26 healthy adult Beagles. TBW content was determined directly by deuterium dilution and indirectly with equations developed from measurements obtained by use of a portable bioelectric impedance device and morphological variables including body length, height, weight, and thoracic and abdominal circumferences. Impedance and morphological data from 16 of the 26 dogs were used to determine coefficients for the following 2 equations: TBW(1) = -0.019 (BL(2)/R) + -0.199 (RC + AC) + 0.996 W + 0.081 H + 12.31; and TBW(2) = 0.048 (BL(2)/R) + -0.144 (RC + AC) + 0.777 W + 0.066 H + 0.031 X + 7.47, where AC is abdominal circumference, H is height, BL is body length, R is resistance, RC is rib cage circumference, W is body weight, and × is reactance. Results for TBW(1) (R(2)(1) = 0.843) and TBW(2) (R(2)(2) = 0.816) were highly correlated with the TBW(d). When the equations were validated with data from the remaining 10 dogs, the respective mean differences between TBW(d) and TBW(1) and TBW(2) were 0.17 and 0.11 L, which equated to a nonsignificant underestimation of TBW content by 2.4% and 1.6%, respectively. Results indicated that impedance and morphological data can be used to accurately estimate TBW content in adult Beagles. This method of estimating TBW content is less expensive and easier to perform than is measurement of TBW(d), making it appealing for daily use in veterinary practice.

  11. In vivo dosimetry with semiconducting diodes for dose verification in total-body irradiation. A 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Ulla; Licher, Jörg; Moog, Jussi; Scherf, Christian; Kara, Eugen; Böttcher, Heinz-Dietrich; Rödel, Claus; Mose, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    For total-body irradiation (TBI) using the translation method, dose distribution cannot be computed with computer-assisted three-dimensional planning systems. Therefore, dose distribution has to be primarily estimated based on CT scans (beam-zone method) which is followed by in vivo measurements to ascertain a homogeneous dose delivery. The aim of this study was to clinically establish semiconductor probes as a simple and fast method to obtain an online verification of the dose at relevant points. In 110 consecutively irradiated TBI patients (12.6 Gy, 2 x 1.8 Gy/day), six semiconductor probes were attached to the body surface at dose-relevant points (eye/head, neck, lung, navel). The mid-body point of the abdomen was defined as dose reference point. The speed of translation was optimized to definitively reach the prescribed dose in this point. Based on the entrance and exit doses, the mid-body doses at the other points were computed. The dose homogeneity in the entire target volume was determined comparing all measured data with the dose at the reference point. After calibration of the semiconductor probes under treatment conditions the dose in selected points and the dose homogeneity in the target volume could be quantitatively specified. In the TBI patients, conformity of calculated and measured doses in the given points was achieved with small deviations of adequate accuracy. The data of 80% of the patients are within an uncertainty of +/- 5%. During TBI using the translation method, dose distribution and dose homogeneity can be easily controlled in selected points by means of semiconductor probes. Semiconductor probes are recommended for further use in the physical evaluation of TBI.

  12. Fast method for in-flight estimation of total dose from protons and electrons using RADE Minstrument on JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Xiao, Hualin

    2017-04-01

    The primary concern of the ESA JUICE mission to Jupiter is the harsh particle radiation environment. Ionizing particles introduce radiation damage by total dose effects, displacement damages or single events effects. Therefore, both the total ionizing dose and the displacement damage equivalent fluence must be assessed to alert spacecraft and its payload as well as to quantify radiation levels for the entire mission lifetime. We present a concept and implementations steps for simplified method used to compute in flight a dose rate and total dose caused by protons. We also provide refinement of the method previously developed for electrons. The dose rates values are given for predefined active volumes located behind layers of materials with known thickness. Both methods are based on the electron and proton flux measurements provided by the Electron and Proton Detectors inside the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) located on-board of JUICE. The trade-off between method accuracy and programming limitations for in-flight computations are discussed. More comprehensive and precise dose rate computations based on detailed analysis of all stack detectors will be made during off-line data processing. It will utilize full spectral unfolding from all RADEM detector subsystems.

  13. Variation of Radiation Belt Content Indices and total electron energy During Magnetic Storms Based On Van Allen Probe Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Xie, L.; Chen, L.; Pu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the variability of the RBC indices and total electron energy for varying energies within outer belt during 42 isolate magnetic storms based on the electron flux data from MagEIS and REPT onboard Van Allen Probe-A spacecraft. Van Allan Probes travel throughout the entire radiation belt twice during each orbit, providing an excellent opportunity to measure the electron's pitch angle distributions near the magnetic equatorial plane which is essential to calculate the RBC index accurately. Instead of assuming an isotropic electron pitch angle distribution which is widely used in previous studies, we develop a new and reliable technique to infer the equatorial pitch angle distributions based on the off-equator measurements. The statistic results show that the total electron energy in outer belt increase in 80% storms and has a positive correlation with median value of AE during recovery phase and minimum -Dst. The possibility of observing RBC depletion increase at high energies. The upper limit energy of RBC enhancement has a positive correlation with median value of AE and Vsw during recovery phase and a negative correlation with median value of Nsw during storm, which is consist of the balance of acceleration by chorus waves and loss by EMIC waves.

  14. Low-energy and very-low energy total cross sections for electron collisions with N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Masashi; Kishino, Takaya; Okumura, Takuma; Kobayashi, Naomasa; Sayama, Atsushi; Mori, Yuma; Hosaka, Kouichi; Odagiri, Takeshi; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Absolute grand total cross sections for electron scattering from N2 are obtained in the energy range from 20 eV down to 5 meV with very narrow electron energy width of 9 meV using the threshold-photoelectron source. Total cross sections obtained in the present study are compared with the previous experimentally obtained results. At the very-low energy region below 50 meV, the present total cross sections are somewhat smaller than those reported by the Aarhus group [S.V. Hoffmann et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4157 (2002)], which has been the only experimental work that provided the total cross sections in the very-low energy region. The energy positions of the peaks in the total cross sections due to the 2Πg shape resonance are obtained with higher accuracy, due to the improved uncertainty of the energy position in the present measurement compared to the previous works. The resonance structure in the total cross sections due to the Feshbach resonances of N2 at around 11.5 eV are also observed. Analysis of the resonant structure was carried out in order to determine the values of resonance width of Feshbach resonances of N2. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  15. A prospective, open-label study of low-dose total skin electron beam therapy in mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Specht, Lena; Skovgaard, Gunhild L

    2008-01-01

    causes and did not complete treatment. Acute side effects included desquamation, xerosis, and erythema of the skin. No severe side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy can induce complete and partial responses in Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides; however, the duration......PURPOSE: To determine the effect of low-dose (4 Gy) total skin electron beam therapy as a second-line treatment of Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides in a prospective, open-label study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients (6 men, 4 women, average age 68.7 years [range, 55-82 years......]) with histopathologically confirmed mycosis fungoides T2-T4 N0-N1 M0 who did not achieve complete remission or relapsed within 4 months after treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet-A were included. Treatment consisted of low-dose total skin electron beam therapy administered at a total skin dose of 4 Gy given in 4...

  16. One-Body Potential Theory of Molecules and Solids Modified Semiempirically for Electron Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2010-08-01

    The study of Cordero, March and Alonso (CMA) for four spherical atoms, Be,Ne,Mg and Ar, semiempirically fine-tunes the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground-state electron density by inserting the experimentally determined ionization potentials. The present Letter, first of all, relates this approach to the very recent work of Bartlett 'towards an exact correlated orbital theory for electrons'. Both methods relax the requirement of standard DFT that a one-body potential shall generate the exact ground-state density, though both work with high quality approximations. Unlike DFT, the CMA theory uses a modified HF non-local potential. It is finally stressed that this potential generates also an idempotent Dirac density matrix. The CMA approach is thereby demonstrated to relate, albeit approximately, to the DFT exchange-correlation potential. (author)

  17. Many-body electronic structure calculations of Eu-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, M.; Frauenheim, T.; da Rosa, A. L.

    2016-03-01

    The formation energies and electronic structure of europium-doped zinc oxide has been determined using DFT and many-body G W methods. In the absence of intrisic defects, we find that the europium-f states are located in the ZnO band gap with europium possessing a formal charge of 2+. On the other hand, the presence of intrinsic defects in ZnO allows intraband f -f transitions otherwise forbidden in atomic europium. This result corroborates with recently observed photoluminescence in the visible red region S. Geburt et al. [Nano Lett. 14, 4523 (2014), 10.1021/nl5015553].

  18. Spin-wave excitations and electron-magnon scattering from many-body perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Christoph; Müller, Mathias C. T. D.; Blügel, Stefan

    We study the spin excitations and the electron-magnon scattering in bulk Fe, Co, and Ni within the framework of many-body perturbation theory as implemented in the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave method. Starting from the GW approximation we obtain a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the magnetic susceptibility treating single-particle Stoner excitations and magnons on the same footing. Due to approximations used in the numerical scheme, the acoustic magnon dispersion exhibits a small but finite gap at Γ. We analyze this violation of the Goldstone theorem and present an approach that implements the magnetic susceptibility using a renormalized Green function instead of the non-interacting one, leading to a substantial improvement of the Goldstone-mode condition. Finally, we employ the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation to construct a self-energy that describes the scattering of electrons and magnons. The resulting renormalized band structures exhibit strong lifetime effects close to the Fermi energy. We also see kinks in the electronic bands, which we attribute to electron scattering with spatially extended spin waves.

  19. Effect of Body Weight on Cefazolin and Vancomycin Trabecular Bone Concentrations in Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharareh, Behnam; Sutherland, Christina; Pourmand, Deeba; Molina, Nathan; Nicolau, David P; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2016-02-01

    Effective use of prophylactic antibiotics decreases the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the viability of weight-based dosing protocols for cefazolin and vancomycin to determine if appropriate minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) are met. Trabecular bone was harvested from discarded bone samples from 34 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). The cefazolin and vancomycin concentrations were determined in the trabecular bone using high-performance liquid chromatography. No difference was noted in bone concentration with respect to patient weight for cefazolin. Regarding vancomycin, a substantial difference was noted in trabecular bone concentrations with respect to patient weight with lower body mass index (BMI) achieving greater concentrations. Using the current weight-based protocol of antibiotic prophylaxis, 84% and 87% of patients receiving vancomycin and cefazolin, respectively, achieved bone concentrations above the MIC. Our assessment of trabecular concentration of cefazolin during TJA did not show any differences with respect to patient weight. However, vancomycin concentrations did show a difference with respect to BMI but this may be the result of the specific weight-based dosing protocol of vancomycin. Whereas the majority of cases were able to achieve adequate antibiotic concentrations in bone, further studies may be required to determine if increasing the pre-operative dosage of antibiotics is mandated given the findings of this pilot study.

  20. Total cross section for Z0 production in electron proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.; Wallet, J.C.

    1982-07-01

    We present an exact calculation of the total cross section σsub(tot) of the Z 0 production in e - +p → e - +Z 0 +X processes. We find a total cross section σsub(tot) approximately 1.0 10 - 36 cm 2 for an energy in the center of mass of 300 GeV and a Z 0 mass of 90 GeV, which is quite a measurable result in some e - proton collider experiments, like HERA or SPS/LEP

  1. The Association of Serum Total Peptide YY (PYY) with Obesity and Body Fat Measures in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Farrell; Ji, Yunqi; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2014-01-01

    PYY is an appetite suppressing hormone. Low circulating PYY has been linked to greater BMI. However data is controversial and this association has not been verified in large human populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fasting serum total PYY is associated with obesity status and/or adiposity at the population level. A total of 2094 subjects (Male-523, Female-1571) participated in this investigation. Total PYY was measured in fasting serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Obesity status (NW-normal-weight, OW-overweight and OB-obese) was determined by the Bray Criteria according to body fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and the WHO criteria according to BMI. One-way ANOVA and multiple regression was used to assess the adiposity-specific association between PYY and the following; weight, BMI, waist-circumference, hip-circumference, waist-hip ratio, percent body fat (%BF), trunk fat (%TF), android fat (%AF) and gynoid fat (%GF). PYY was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB groups defined by neither %BF nor BMI for both men and women. However among women, fasting PYY was positively associated with adiposity measures. Women with the highest (Top 33%) waist-circumference, %BF and %TF had significantly higher PYY (10.5%, 8.3% and 9.2% respectively) than women with the lowest (Bottom 33%). Age, smoking, medication use and menopause were all positively associated with PYY levels in women but not in men. To our knowledge this is the largest population based study, with the most comprehensive analysis and measures of confounding factors, to explore the relationship of circulating PYY with obesity. Contrary to initial findings in the literature we discovered that PYY was positively associated with body fat measures (waist-circumference, %BF and %TF) in women. Although the effect size of the positive association of PYY with obesity in women is small, and potentially negligible, it may in fact represent a protective

  2. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity.

  3. Deciphering the relationship among phosphate dynamics, electron-dense body and lipid accumulation in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ota, S.; Yoshihara, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Takeshita, T.; Hirata, A.; Konomi, M.; Oshima, K.; Hattori, M.; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, MAY 16 (2016), s. 25731 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : electron-dense body * lipid accumulation * Parachlorella kessleri Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  4. Total electron content measurements at Gauhati using 140 MHz ATS-6 transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, T.R.; Singh, L.; Minakshi Devi; Barbara, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of 140 MHz transmissions from geostationary satellite ATS-6 (0 0 N, 35 0 E) have been recorded at Gauhati (26.16 0 N; 91.75 0 E) for the period Nov. 1975 to Aug. 1976. The calibration technique for geostationary satellite Faraday rotation measurements suggested by Checcacci and Giorgeo has been improved and generalized. It is then utilized to remove the n ambiguity in Faraday rotation values and also to estimate the correct value of diurnal minimum Faraday rotation angle so that the recorded Faraday rotation values can be converted into electron content values. Typical diurnal variation curves have been obtained for all the months except for equinoxes when the satellite transmission was off very often due to ecliptic conditions and hence no complete diurnal curves could be obtained for these months. It has been found that though December and January behave like typical winter months, the month of November is more like an equinoctial month. Similarly, though June and July behave like typical summer months, the month of May is more or less similar to equinoxes. The characteristic features of the diurnal and seasonal behaviour of the electron content have been discussed. (author)

  5. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Wishart, Connie; Hills, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW) measured using single-frequency (SF) and multi-frequency (MF) modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H) dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz) and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF) and intra-cellular fluid (ICF) values differed significantly (p impedance. PMID:24803099

  6. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P.; Warhol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow 59 Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author)

  7. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Warhol, M. (Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Yeap, B. (Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow {sup 59}Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author).

  8. Total body irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in acute leukemia: A cooperative study from the TBI Subcommittee in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Masaoka, T.; Shibata, H.

    1986-01-01

    By means of national survey, records of 78 acute leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from September 1975 through September 1983 were collected from 14 participating institutions in Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Subcommittee in Japan. Patients were classified into 37 of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and 41 of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). One-year survivals were 51% and 33% in ALL and ANLL patients, respectively. Uninfected patients in remission had significantly better survival than infected ones and/or in relapse. Overall incidence of interstitial pneumonia was 43%. Rejection and relapse were encountered in 26% of patients. Concerning cause of death, interstitial pneumonia was the most frequent cause (44%). Uni- and multivariate analyses strongly suggested that favorable prognostic factors were remission, uninfection, preparation of low-dose-rate fractionated TBI and cyclophosphamide, and mild graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) for acute leukemia patient treated with allogeneic BMT. (orig.) [de

  9. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  10. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  11. The Basel experience with total body irradiation for conditioning patients with acute leukemia for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, B.; Cornu, P.; Nissen, C.; Gratwohl, A.; Sartorius, J.

    1979-01-01

    We are reporting our experience with 13 patients suffering from end stage acute leukemia that were prepared for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by combined chemotherapy followed by high dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI). Only one patient became a long term survivor. Of the evaluable 12 patients, 6 died of interstitial pneumonia, 4 of GvH and 1 of recurrent leukemia. We conclude that adding combined chemotherapy to the standard conditioning program with Cy and TBI probably increases the risk of developing fatal interstitial pneumonia without eliminating the risk of recurrent leukemia. We suggest that allogenic marrow grafts should be performed earlier in the course of refractory acute leukemias, because in patients with end stage disease its chances of being curative are small

  12. Biogeographic ancestry is associated with higher total body adiposity among African-American females: the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunali D Goonesekera

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey.We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI, percent body fat (PBF, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables.We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%, and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58. We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: <0.002 with a substantially greater association in women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: <0.003 with inverse associations among participants with higher Healthy Eating Scores. No associations were observed between BGA and changes in adiposity over time.Findings support that West-African ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women.

  13. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  14. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kagawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW measured using single-frequency (SF and multi-frequency (MF modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF and intra-cellular fluid (ICF values differed significantly (p < 0.01 between the different postures in both groups. In addition, while estimated TBW in adult males using the MF mode was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the result from the dilution technique, TBW estimated using the SF mode and prediction equation was significantly (p < 0.01 lower in boys. Measurement posture may not affect estimation of TBW in boys and adult males, however, body fluid shifts may still occur. In addition, technical factors, including selection of prediction equation, may be important when TBW is estimated from measured impedance.

  15. The Antioxidant Tempol Reduces Carcinogenesis and Enhances Survival in Mice when Administered After Non-Lethal Total Body Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James B.; Anver, Miriam R.; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Figueroa, Maria; Thetford, Angela; Krishna, Murali C.; Albert, Paul S.; Cook, John A.

    2012-01-01

    There is significant interest in the development of agents that can ameliorate radiation damage after exposure to radiation has occurred. Here we report that chronic supplementation of the antioxidant Tempol in the diet of mice can reduce body weight without toxicity, decrease cancer, and extend survival when administered after non-lethal total body radiation (TBI). These effects were apparent in two different strains of mice (C3H, CBA) exposed to TBI (3 Gy). Notably, delaying administration of the Tempol diet 1 month after TBI could also enhance survival. Tempol reduced the incidence of hematopoietic neoplasms (lymphomas) in both strains; whereas, both the onset and incidence of non-hematopoietic neoplasms were reduced in CBA mice. These results encourage further study of Tempol as a chemopreventive, to reduce the incidence of radiation-induced second malignancies after a course of definitive radiation therapy. Tempol may also find applications to reduce the risk of cancers in populations exposed to non-lethal radiation due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks. PMID:22805306

  16. Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) measured using neuropsychological testing of attention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Hacke, Werner; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute normal tissue damage of low irradiation doses to the healthy, adult central nervous system (CNS) using neuropsychological testing of attention functions. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological testing (IQ, attention [modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine]) was used to examine 40 patients (43 ± 10 years) before and immediately after the first fraction (1.2 Gy) of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) at the University of Heidelberg. The patients received antiemetic premedication. Test results are given as mean percentiles ± standard deviation, with 50 ± 34 being normal. Thirty-eight control patients (53 ± 15 years) were studied to quantify the influence of hospitalization, stress, and repeated testing. Results: The patients showed normal baseline test results (IQ = 101 ± 14, attention = 54 ± 28) and no decrease in test results after 1.2 Gy TBI. Attention functions improved (66 ± 25) corresponding to a practice effect of repeated testing that was seen in the control group, although alternate versions of the tests were used (IQ = 104 ± 10, attention before = 42 ± 29, attention after = 52 ± 31). Conclusion: Our data show no deterioration of neuropsychologic test results acutely after 1.2 Gy whole body exposure in adult patients without CNS disease receiving antiemetic medication

  17. Circulating interleukin-18 as a biomarker of total-body radiation exposure in mice, minipigs, and nonhuman primates (NHP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cam T Ha

    Full Text Available We aim to develop a rapid, easy-to-use, inexpensive and accurate radiation dose-assessment assay that tests easily obtained samples (e.g., blood to triage and track radiological casualties, and to evaluate the radioprotective and therapeutic effects of radiation countermeasures. In the present study, we evaluated the interleukin (IL-1 family of cytokines, IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33, as well as their secondary cytokines' expression and secretion in CD2F1 mouse bone marrow (BM, spleen, thymus and serum in response to γ-radiation from sublethal to lethal doses (5, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 12 Gy at different time points using the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting, and cytokine antibody array. Our data identified increases of IL-1β, IL-18, and/or IL-33 in mouse thymus, spleen and BM cells after total-body irradiation (TBI. However, levels of these cytokines varied in different tissues. Interestingly, IL-18 but not IL-1β or IL-33 increased significantly (2.5-24 fold and stably in mouse serum from day 1 after TBI up to 13 days in a radiation dose-dependent manner. We further confirmed our finding in total-body γ-irradiated nonhuman primates (NHPs and minipigs, and demonstrated that radiation significantly enhanced IL-18 in serum from NHPs 2-4 days post-irradiation and in minipig plasma 1-3 days post-irradiation. Finally, we compared circulating IL-18 with the well known hematological radiation biomarkers lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in blood of mouse, minipigs and NHPs and demonstrated close correlations between these biomarkers in response to radiation. Our results suggest that the elevated levels of circulating IL-18 after radiation proportionally reflect radiation dose and severity of radiation injury and may be used both as a potential biomarker for triage and also to track casualties after radiological accidents as well as for therapeutic radiation exposure.

  18. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without total body irradiation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu YS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yanshun Mu,* Maoquan Qin,* Bin Wang, Sidan Li, Guanghua Zhu, Xuan Zhou, Jun Yang, Kai Wang, Wei Lin, Huyong Zheng Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Hematology Oncology Center, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a promising method for therapy of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. However, less availability of matched donors limited its wide application. Recently, haploidentical HSCT has become a great resource. Here, we have retrospectively reported our experience of 20 pediatric patients with acute leukemia who underwent haploidentical HSCT without total body irradiation (TBI myeloablative regimen in our center from November 2007 to June 2014. All the patients attained successful HSCT engraftment in terms of myeloid and platelet recovery. Thirteen patients developed grade I–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (a-GVHD. The incidence of grade I–II a-GVHD, grade III–IV a-GVHD, and chronic GVHD (c-GVHD was 45%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. The mean myeloid and platelet recovery time was 13.20±2.41 and 19.10±8.37 days. The median follow-up time was 43.95±29.26 months. During the follow-up, three patients died. The overall survival (OS rate was 85%. The present study indicated that haploidentical HSCT without TBI myeloablative regimen significantly improved the OS rate of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. Keywords: haploidentical, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, myeloablative regimen, total body irradiation, acute leukemia, pediatric

  19. Energy Harvesting from the Animal/Human Body for Self-Powered Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-21

    Living subjects (i.e., humans and animals) have abundant sources of energy in chemical, thermal, and mechanical forms. The use of these energies presents a viable way to overcome the battery capacity limitation that constrains the long-term operation of wearable/implantable devices. The intersection of novel materials and fabrication techniques offers boundless possibilities for the benefit of human health and well-being via various types of energy harvesters. This review summarizes the existing approaches that have been demonstrated to harvest energy from the bodies of living subjects for self-powered electronics. We present material choices, device layouts, and operation principles of these energy harvesters with a focus on in vivo applications. We discuss a broad range of energy harvesters placed in or on various body parts of human and animal models. We conclude with an outlook of future research in which the integration of various energy harvesters with advanced electronics can provide a new platform for the development of novel technologies for disease diagnostics, treatment, and prevention.

  20. Electronic structure, total energies, and STM images of clean and oxygen-covered Al(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Joachim; Hammer, Bjørk; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1995-01-01

    A set of density-functional calculations for clean and O-covered Al(111) are presented. At low O coverages the potential energy surface (PES) of chemisorbed O is investigated. The PES indicates large barriers (0.8 eV) against O diffusion and a large corrugation of the equilibrium O height over...... the Al(111) while only a moderate energy gain (5 eV per atom) is found upon Oz dissociation over the surface. The possible existence of ''hot'' O adatoms after O-2 dissociation is discussed on the basis of the presented PES and existing dynamical simulations on model potentials. At high O coverages...... an attractive O-O interaction is identified together with an enhancement in the dipole moment induced per O atom. Finally, Tersoff-Hamann-type scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) topographs are derived based on the calculated one-electron wave functions and spectra. For the clean Al(111) a theoretical STM...

  1. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8-13 years from the "Jump-In: Building Better Bones" study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2-2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p<0.001) to all bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p<0.001) greater in the lowest compared to the middle and highest tertiles of TBFM. Although TBFM is correlated with femur and tibia vBMD, periosteal circumference, and

  2. Detection and Classification of Human Body Odor Using an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerakiat Kerdcharoen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-nose has been designed and equipped with software that can detect and classify human armpit body odor. An array of metal oxide sensors was used for detecting volatile organic compounds. The measurement circuit employs a voltage divider resistor to measure the sensitivity of each sensor. This E-nose was controlled by in-house developed software through a portable USB data acquisition card with a principle component analysis (PCA algorithm implemented for pattern recognition and classification. Because gas sensor sensitivity in the detection of armpit odor samples is affected by humidity, we propose a new method and algorithms combining hardware/software for the correction of the humidity noise. After the humidity correction, the E-nose showed the capability of detecting human body odor and distinguishing the body odors from two persons in a relative manner. The E-nose is still able to recognize people, even after application of deodorant. In conclusion, this is the first report of the application of an E-nose for armpit odor recognition.

  3. Transmission electron microscopic observation of body cuticle structures of phoretic and parasitic stages of Parasitaphelenchinae nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Ekino

    Full Text Available Using transmission electron microscopy, we examined the body cuticle ultrastructures of phoretic and parasitic stages of the parasitaphelenchid nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, B. conicaudatus, B. luxuriosae, B. rainulfi; an unidentified Bursaphelenchus species, and an unidentified Parasitaphelenchus species. Nematode body cuticles usually consist of three zones, a cortical zone, a median zone, and a basal zone. The phoretic stages of Bursaphelenchus spp., isolated from the tracheal systems of longhorn beetles or the elytra of bark beetles, have a thick and radially striated basal zone. In contrast, the parasitic stage of Parasitaphelenchus sp., isolated from bark beetle hemocoel, has no radial striations in the basal zone. This difference probably reflects the peculiar ecological characteristics of the phoretic stage. A well-developed basal radially striated zone, composed of very closely linked proteins, is the zone closest to the body wall muscle. Therefore, the striation is necessary for the phoretic species to be able to seek, enter, and depart from host/carrier insects, but is not essential for internal parasites in parasitaphelenchid nematodes. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from near-full-length small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences suggest that the cuticle structures of parasitic species have apomorphic characters, e.g., lack of striation in the basal zone, concurrent with the evolution of insect parasitism from a phoretic life history.

  4. Long-term renal toxicity in children following fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, Johanna; Meyer, Andreas; Fruehauf, Joerg; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael; Sykora, Karl-Walter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the incidence and time course of renal dysfunction in children (≤ 16 years) following total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Patients and methods: between 1986 and 2003, 92 children (median age, 11 years; range, 3-16 years) underwent TBI before allogeneic SCT. 43 of them had a minimum follow-up of 12 months (median, 51 months; range, 12-186 months) and were included into this analysis. Conditioning regimen included chemotherapy and fractionated TBI with 12 Gy (n = 26) or 11.1 Gy (n = 17). In one patient, renal dose was limited to 10 Gy by customized renal shielding due to known nephropathy prior to SCt. Renal dysfunction was defined as an increase of serum creatinine > 1.25 times the upper limit of age-dependent normal. Results: twelve children (28%) experienced an episode of renal dysfunction after a median of 2 months (range, 1-10 months) following SCT. In all but one patient renal dysfunction was transient and resolved after a median of 8 months (range, 3-16 months). One single patient developed persistent renal dysfunction with onset at 10 months after SCT. None of these patients required dialysis. The actuarial 3-year freedom from persistent renal toxicity for children surviving > 12 months after SCt was 97.3%. Conclusion: the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction after fractionated TBI with total doses ≤ 12 Gy was very low in this analysis. (orig.)

  5. Long-term renal toxicity in children following fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, Johanna; Meyer, Andreas; Fruehauf, Joerg; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Sykora, Karl-Walter [Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the incidence and time course of renal dysfunction in children ({<=} 16 years) following total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Patients and methods: between 1986 and 2003, 92 children (median age, 11 years; range, 3-16 years) underwent TBI before allogeneic SCT. 43 of them had a minimum follow-up of 12 months (median, 51 months; range, 12-186 months) and were included into this analysis. Conditioning regimen included chemotherapy and fractionated TBI with 12 Gy (n = 26) or 11.1 Gy (n = 17). In one patient, renal dose was limited to 10 Gy by customized renal shielding due to known nephropathy prior to SCt. Renal dysfunction was defined as an increase of serum creatinine > 1.25 times the upper limit of age-dependent normal. Results: twelve children (28%) experienced an episode of renal dysfunction after a median of 2 months (range, 1-10 months) following SCT. In all but one patient renal dysfunction was transient and resolved after a median of 8 months (range, 3-16 months). One single patient developed persistent renal dysfunction with onset at 10 months after SCT. None of these patients required dialysis. The actuarial 3-year freedom from persistent renal toxicity for children surviving > 12 months after SCt was 97.3%. Conclusion: the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction after fractionated TBI with total doses {<=} 12 Gy was very low in this analysis. (orig.)

  6. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection

  7. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  8. The association of total and central body fat with pain, fatigue and the impact of fibromyalgia in women; role of physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, V; Castro-Piñero, J; Soriano-Maldonado, A; Álvarez-Gallardo, I C; Estévez-López, F; Delgado-Fernández, M; Carbonell-Baeza, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between estimates of total and central body fat with fibromyalgia pain, fatigue and overall impact has not been fully described. We aimed to assess the individual and combined association of body fat (total and central) with pain, fatigue and the overall impact in fibromyalgia women; and to study the possible mediation role of physical fitness in these associations. A total of 486 fibromyalgia women with a mean (standard deviation) age of 52.2 (8.0) years participated. Pain was measured with self-reported measures and algometry, whereas fatigue with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. The impact of fibromyalgia was measured with the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) total score. Total and central body fat were assessed by means of bioelectrical impedance and waist circumference, respectively. The Functional Senior Fitness Test battery and the handgrip strength test were used to assess physical fitness. Total and central body fat were positively associated with pain- and fatigue-related measures and the FIQR total score (β from 0.10 to 0.25; all, p pain (FIQR and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey), general and physical-related fatigue and FIQR total score (all, overall p pain, general fatigue, physical fatigue and reduced activity, and largely mediated (80%) the association of central body fat with the FIQR total score. Physical fitness might potentially explain the association between obesity and fibromyalgia symptoms. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. Legacy effects of short-term intentional weight loss on total body and thigh composition in overweight and obese older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelo, E A; Beavers, D P; Lyles, M F; Marsh, A P; Nicklas, B J; Beavers, K M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Weight regain following intentional weight loss may negatively impact body composition, accelerating fat regain and increasing risk of physical disability. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term changes in whole body and thigh composition in obese older adults who intentionally lost and then partially regained weight to obese older adults who remained weight stable. Subjects/Methods: This pilot study analyzed total body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and thigh...

  10. Global navigation satellite system detection of preseismic ionospheric total electron content anomalies for strong magnitude (Mw>6) Himalayan earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gopal; Champati ray, Prashant Kumar; Mohanty, Sarada; Gautam, Param Kirti Rao; Kannaujiya, Suresh

    2017-10-01

    Electron content in the ionosphere is very sensitive to temporary disturbances of the Earth's magnetosphere (geomagnetic storm), solar flares, and seismic activities. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based total electron content (TEC) measurement has emerged as an important technique for computations of earthquake precursor signals. We examined the pre-earthquake signatures for eight strong magnitude (Mw>6: 6.1 to 7.8) earthquakes with the aid of GNSS-based TEC measurement in the tectonically active Himalayan region using International GNSS Service (IGS) stations as well as local GNSS-based continuously operating reference stations (CORS). The results indicate very significant ionospheric anomalies in the vertical total electron content (vTEC) a few days before the main shock for all of the events. Geomagnetic activities were also studied during the TEC observation window to ascertain their role in ionospheric perturbations. It was also inferred that TEC variation due to low magnitude events could also be monitored if the epicenter lies closer to the GNSS or IGS station. Therefore, the study has confirmed TEC anomalies before major Himalayan earthquakes, thereby making it imperative to set up a much denser network of IGS/CORS for real-time data analysis and forewarning.

  11. Influence of body mass index (BMI on functional improvements at 3 years following total knee replacement: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of patients presenting for total knee replacement who are classified as obese is increasing. The functional benefits of performing TKR in these patients are unclear. AIM: To assess the influence pre-operative body mass index has upon knee specific function, general health status and patient satisfaction at 3 years following total knee replacement. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative cohort study using prospectively collected data from an institutional arthroplasty register. METHODS: 1367 patients were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Medical Outcomes Trust Short Form-36 (SF-36 scores supplemented by a validated measure of satisfaction pre-operatively and subsequently at 1,2 and 3 year post-operatively. Comparisons were made by dividing the cohort into 4 groups based on body mass index (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 (n = 253;>25.0-30.0 kg/m(2 (n = 559;>30.0-35.0 kg/m(2 (n = 373;>35.0 kg/m(2 (n = 182. RESULTS: Despite lower pre-operative, 1 and 3 year WOMAC and SF-36 scores patients with the highest BMIs >35.0 kg/m(2 experienced similar improvements to patients with a 'normal' BMI (18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 at 1 year (Difference in WOMAC improvement = 0.0 (95%CI -5.2 to 5.2, p = 1.00 and this improvement was sustained at up to 3 years (Difference in 1 year to 3 year improvement = 2.2 (95%CI: -2.1 to 6.5, p = 1.00. This effect was also observed for the SF-36 mental and physical component scores. Despite equivalent functional improvements levels of satisfaction in the >35.0 kg/m(2 group were lower than for any other BMI group (>35.0 kg/m(2 = 84.6% satisfied versus 18.5-5.0 kg/m(2 = 93.3% satisfied,p = 0.01 as was the proportion of patients who stated they would have the operation again (>35.0 kg/m(2 = 69.6% versus 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 = 82.2%,p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Obese and morbidly obese patients gain as much functional benefit from

  12. Electronic and optical properties of phosphorene-like arsenic phosphorus: a many-body study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Huabing; Guo, Jiyuan

    2018-03-01

    By employing density functional and many-body perturbation theories, we explore the geometrics, quasiparticle band structure, and optical response of two-dimensional arsenic phosphorus (α-AsxP1-x). Calculations indicate that the α-AsxP1-x exhibits excellent stability at high temperature. The quasi-particle bandgap of α-AsxP1-x is highly tunable in a broad range of 1.54-2.14 eV depending on the composition. The optical absorption of α-AsxP1-x can cover the visible and ultraviolet regions, and is highly anisotropic. More interestingly, it is tunable to optical absorption of α-AsxP1-x when the composition continuously increased. Also, they have sizable exciton binding energies. These findings suggest that α-AsxP1-x holds great potentials for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.

  13. Evaluation of false alarm on the total body contamination monitor (personnel monitor PM 50 I) at RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryawati, S.; Akhmad, Y.R.; Nugroho, L.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of false alarm on the total body contamination monitor PM 50 I by sensitivity testing, measurements of the room background, shoes covers and personal lab clothes at MPR-GAS on operation and shutdown condition have been made. Evaluation to the alarm setting limit value also is carried out. On the condition of reactor was not operated the false alarm as an indication happened contamination came from many materials like shoes covers which have a high electrostaticity and dirty condition, therefore it produces a high background counting upper to it contamination limit value. this case happened because there was low background counting of the measurement object and the contamination monitor had i high sensitivity, so the background counting of the measurement object gives a contribution for the total counting. On the high power condition of thr reactor operation, the background counting of the room was high, so the contamination limit value shall be changed to the higher value to follow up on the average background counting. This case caused the sensitivity of the detector decreased so the background counting of the measuring object was not give a significance contribution counting value of the total counting measurement value. The observation of the alarm setting limit value in reactor condition was not operated, based to sensitivity testing, observation of the background counting the room, of contamination measurement of the many contaminated material show that the sensitivity of the detector was exactly good, so that the alarm setting limit value in the shut down reactor condition was optimally operated using the old setting made by supplier or setting value in first commissioning. These setting value are as following : 50 cps for the case detector (detector Nr.1) until to the hand detector (detector Nr.10), 75 cps for the foot detectors (detector Nr.11) and the head detector (detector Nr.12). Alarm setting limit value for 25 MWth power reactor operation

  14. Radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract in Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandini, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Ganesh Sanjeev; D'sa, Prima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract against radiation induced damage.The effect of 100 mg of hydroalcoholic extract of Tamarindus indica pod was studied in Swiss albino mice exposed to 6 Gy whole body electron beam radiation. Treatment of mice with extract for 15 days before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the untreated irradiated group. The irradiated animals showed an elevation in lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Radiation induced mice has shown micronucleus in the bone marrow cells. Treatment of mice with Tamarindus indica pod extract before irradiation caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. It also showed a reduction in the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicate that the radioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica pod extract may be due to free radical scavenging attributed as a result of increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  15. Effect of Body Mass Index and Psychosocial Traits on Total Knee Replacement Costs in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waimann, Christian A; Fernandez-Mazarambroz, Rodrigo J; Cantor, Scott B; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Barbo, Andrea G; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Lin, Heather; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2016-08-01

    Clinical and psychosocial attributes are associated with clinical outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), but their relationship with TKR-related costs is less clear. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of clinical and psychosocial attributes on TKR costs. We conducted a 6-month prospective cohort study of patients with knee OA who underwent TKR. We examined baseline demographic, clinical [body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities], and psychosocial attributes (social support, locus of control, coping, depression, anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy); baseline and 6-month OA clinical outcomes [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function]; and 6-month direct and indirect TKR-related costs. Multiple regression was performed to identify determinants of TKR-related costs. We included 212 patients; 66% were women, 71% were white, and the mean age was 65.2 years. The mean baseline WOMAC pain score was 55 (SD 19) and WOMAC function score was 54 (SD 20). Mean total TKR-related costs were US$30,831 (SD $9893). Multivariate regression analyses showed that increasing BMI and anxiety levels and decreasing levels of positive social interactions were associated with increased costs. A lower cost scenario with a lower range of normal BMI (19.5), highest positive social interaction, and no anxiety predicted TKR costs to be $22,247. Predicted costs in obese patients (BMI 36) with lowest positive social interaction and highest anxiety were $58,447. Increased baseline BMI, anxiety, and poor social support lead to higher TKR-related costs in patients with knee OA. Preoperative interventions targeting these factors may reduce TKR-related costs, and therefore be cost-effective.

  16. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristei, Cynthia; Carotti, Alessandra; Palazzari, Elisa; Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo; Lancellotta, Valentina; Palumbo, Isabella; Falzetti, Franca; Aversa, Franco; Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  17. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristei, Cynthia, E-mail: cynthia.aristei@unipg.it [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Carotti, Alessandra [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Palazzari, Elisa [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo [Radiation Oncology Division, Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Lancellotta, Valentina [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Palumbo, Isabella [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Falzetti, Franca [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Aversa, Franco [Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Parma General Hospital and University, Parma (Italy); Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  18. Captopril and Losartan for Mitigation of Renal Injury Caused by Single-Dose Total-Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E.; Cohen, Eric P.; Fish, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) can be used to mitigate radiation-induced renal injury. However, for a variety of reasons, these previous results are not directly applicable to the development of agents for the mitigation of injuries caused by terrorism-related radiation exposure. As part of an effort to develop an animal model that would fit the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) “Animal Efficacy Rule”, we designed new studies which used an FDA-approved ACEI (captopril) or an FDA-approved ARB (losartan, Cozaar®) started 10 days after a single total-body irradiation (TBI) at drug doses that are equivalent (on a g/m2/day basis) to the doses prescribed to humans. Captopril and losartan were equally effective as mitigators, with DMFs of 1.23 and 1.21, respectively, for delaying renal failure. These studies show that radiation nephropathy in a realistic rodent model can be mitigated with relevant doses of FDA-approved agents. This lays the necessary groundwork for pivotal rodent studies under the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule and provides an outline of how the FDA-required large-animal studies could be designed. PMID:21175344

  19. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego; Bunin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  20. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-01

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  1. Finding the origin of pulmonary emboli with a total-body magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langevelde, Kirsten; Šrámek, Alexandr; Vincken, Patrice W.J.; van Rooden, Jan-Kees; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is considered to originate from embolization of a deep-vein thrombosis, resulting in two manifestations of one disease: venous thrombosis. However, in up to 50% of patients with pulmonary embolism no deep-vein thrombosis is found with ultrasonography. An explanation for this low proportion is currently lacking. Other imaging modalities may increase the yield of detection of deep-vein thrombosis in the calf or in the abdominal region. Alternatively, not all pulmonary emboli may originate from deep-vein thromboses in the extremities. We searched for the origin of pulmonary emboli, by performing total-body magnetic resonance imaging-scans to visualize thrombi. Ninety-nine patients with a first pulmonary embolism confirmed by computed tomography underwent a magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging-scan, a validated technique using endogenous contrast. Additionally, acquired and genetic risk factors were assessed. No thrombus was found in 55 patients, whereas a thrombus was identified in 44 patients. The commonest thrombus location was the lower leg; 12 patients had isolated calf vein thrombosis and five had isolated superficial vein thrombosis. A peripheral thrombus was found by magnetic resonance imaging in less than half of patients with pulmonary embolism. We propose several hypotheses to explain the absence of thrombi, such as a cardiac thrombus origin or embolization of the whole deep-vein thrombus. The possibility that pulmonary embolism arises de novo in the lungs, due to local inflammation-driven coagulation, needs to be considered. PMID:22801962

  2. The effect of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence on growth and endocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiper, A.D.; Stanhope, R.; Lau, T.; Grant, D.B.; Blacklock, H.; Chessells, J.M.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen children with acute leukaemia and myeloproliferative disorders were investigated for growth and endocrine dysfunction. All had undergone bone marrow transplantation prepared with cyclophosphamide and single fraction total body irradiation (900-1000 cGy) between 1.5 and 3.8 (mean 2.2) years previously. The majority exhibited growth failure, of multiple aetiology. Ten patients, of whom eight had had previous prophylactic cranial irradiation, had evidence of growth hormone deficiency based on reduced growth hormone reponse to insulin induced hypoglycaemia. Three had evidence of hypothalamic damage. Gonadal failure was common. All four girls of adolescent age (10.6-14.1 years) had ovarian failure requiring sex steroid replacement. Of eight boys of adolescent age (12.3-18.3 years), two had testicular failure requiring sex steroid supplements. Both had had previous testicular irradiation. Five others had compensated gonadal failure; one had normal Leydig cell function. Abnormalities of the TSH response to TRH occurred in 10 patients but only three had overt hypothyroidism. Unlike growth hormone deficiency, gonadal and thyroid dysfunction showed no correlation with previous cranial radiotherapy. (author)

  3. The modifying effect of ibuprofen on total body irradiation-induced elevation of oxidative reactions in male hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokmeci, D.; Akpolat, M.; Aydogdu, N.; Uzal, C.; Turan, N.F.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays an important role in curative and palliative treatments of malignant diseases. Because of the lipid component in the membrane, lipid peroxidation has been reported to be particularly susceptible to radiation damage. However, lipid peroxidation is reversed by cellular defense mechanisms, and the use of various antioxidants involved in these mechanisms have recently been suggested to be beneficial. It is known that ibuprofen has antioxidative and/or free radical scavenging activities. Our purpose is to examine the antioxidant capacity of ibuprofen in hamsters undergoing total body irradiation (TBI). Ibuprofen was given by gavage at dose of 10 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. After this period, animals were exposed to TBI 60 Co gamma irradiation with a single dose of 8 Gy. After 24 h radiation exposure, the hamsters were killed and samples were taken from blood. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased significantly after radiation exposure, and ibuprofen diminished the amounts of TBARS. Significant protection of the radiation-induced changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was also recorded in the blood of ibuprofen-treated and -irradiated hamsters. These results suggest that ibuprofen with its antioxidant capacity could play a modulatory role against cellular damage effected by free radicals induced by TBI. (author)

  4. Total projectile electron loss cross sections of U^{28+} ions in collisions with gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beam lifetimes of stored U^{28+} ions with kinetic energies of 30 and 50  MeV/u, respectively, were measured in the experimental storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas target station of the experimental storage ring, it was possible to obtain total projectile electron loss cross sections for collisions with several gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton from the beam lifetime data. The resulting experimental cross sections are compared to predictions by two theoretical approaches, namely the CTMC method and a combination of the DEPOSIT code and the RICODE program.

  5. The structure of the latidudinal total electron content (T.E.C.). Gradients over mid-latitude stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keroub, I.H.

    1976-01-01

    New results concerning the day gradients of Total Electron Contents (T.E.C.) in Haifa region were obtained by the method specific for the determination of TEC in the transverse zone. The latitudinal gradients thus obtained agree with the results obtained by topside sounding (Alouette 1 satellite). A quantitative explanation of the results yielded by the classical counting method is presented. Il implies that all day TEC data obtained by the counting methods in stations situated at middle geomagnetic latitudes such as Haifa, must be corrected

  6. Total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a nationwide cohort study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Lise M; Kamstrup, Maria Rørbæk; Petersen, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Background. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective palliative treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). In the present study we reviewed the clinical response to TSEBT in Danish patients with CTCL. Material and methods. This retrospective study included 35 patients with CTCL......, the present study confirms that high-dose TSEBT is an effective, but generally not a curative therapy in the management of CTCL. High-dose treatment yielded significantly better results than low-dose treatment with 4 Gy. TSEBT offers significant palliation in most patients when other skin-directed or systemic...

  7. The effect of body mass index on the risk of post-operative complications during the 6 months following total hip replacement or total knee replacement surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallace, G; Judge, A; Prieto-Alhambra, D; de Vries, F; Arden, N K; Cooper, C

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of obesity on 6-month post-operative complications following total knee (TKR) or hip (THR) replacement. DESIGN: Data for patients undergoing first THR or TKR between 1995 and 2011 was taken from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Logistic regression was used to

  8. A Multi-Stage Ultra-Endurance Run over 1,200 KM Leads to a Continuous Accumulation of Total Body Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Schulze, Ingo; Kohler, Götz

    2008-01-01

    We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra- endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the 'Deutschlandlauf' 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean ± SD, 43.8 ± 6.2 years, 73.8 ± 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 ± 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 ± 1.8 kg·m(-2)). Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body water were determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the anthropometric method before the race and after each stage. In addition, urinary specific gravity was measured in order to quantify hydration status. Fat mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis) decreased by 3.9 kg (p runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance event over 1,200 km, with 17 consecutive stages, showed a cumulative increase in percent total body water, a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in fat mass, depending upon the method used. We presume that the eccentric component of running leads to damage of skeletal muscle, leading to rhabdomyolysis, with impaired renal function. Key pointsUltra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance run over 1,200 km in 17 consecutive stages suffered a decrease in fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and an increase in total body water, whereas overall body mass showed no change.

  9. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  10. Data Assimilation of Ground-Based GPS and Radio Occultation Total Electron Content for Global Ionospheric Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. Y.; Matsuo, T.; Liu, J. Y.; Lin, C. H.; Huba, J. D.; Tsai, H. F.; Chen, C. Y.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an approach based on the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter to assimilate the total electron content observed from ground-based GPS receivers and space-based radio occultation instrumentations (such as FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) and FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7/C2)) into the International Reference Ionosphere. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) show that the data assimilation procedure consisting of the forecast and the measurement update steps can better improve the accuracy of the data assimilation analysis than the assimilation procedure using the measurement update alone. Compared with F3/C, the denser F7/C2 occultation observations can improve the analysis accuracy significantly as suggested by OSSEs. The real data assimilation results are further validated with global ionosphere maps, the global ground-based GPS measurements, and the ionospheric F2 peak height and electron density sounded by ionosondes. Both the OSSEs and validation results confirm that a number of improvements to the data assimilation procedure presented in this paper can indeed be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional ionospheric electron density adequately.

  11. Global Three-Dimensional Ionospheric Data Assimilation Model Using Ground-based GPS and Radio Occultation Total Electron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann-Yenq Liu, Tiger; Lin, Chi-Yen; Matsuo, Tomoko; Lin, Charles C. H.; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Chen, Chao-Yen

    2017-04-01

    An ionospheric data assimilation approach presented here is based on the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter with International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) as the background model and designed to assimilate the total electron content (TEC) observed from ground-based GPS receivers and space-based radio occultation (RO) of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) or FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7/C2). The Kalman filter consists of the forecast step according to Gauss-Markov process and measurement update step. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) show that the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter procedure can increase the accuracy of the data assimilation analysis over the procedure consisting of the measurement update step alone. Moreover, in comparing to F3/C, the dense F7/C2 RO observation can further increase the model accuracy significantly. Validating the data assimilation results with the vertical TEC in Global Ionosphere Maps and that derived from ground-based GPS measurements, as well as the ionospheric F2-peak height and electron density sounded by ionosondes is also carried out. Both the OSSE results and the observation validations confirm that the developed data assimilation model can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional electron density in the ionosphere satisfactorily.

  12. Colossal Magnetoresistive Manganite Based Fast Bolometric X-ray Sensors for Total Energy Measurements of Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, G J; Kolagani, R M; Adhikari, S; Mundle, R M; Cox, D W; Davidson III, A L; Liang, Y; Drury, O B; Hau-Riege, S P; Gardner, C; Ables, E; Bionta, R M; Friedrich, S

    2008-12-17

    Bolometric detectors based on epitaxial thin films of rare earth perovskite manganites have been proposed as total energy monitors for X-ray pulses at the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. We demonstrate such a detector scheme based on epitaxial thin films of the perovskite manganese oxide material Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub x0.33}MnO{sub 3}, grown by pulsed laser deposition on buffered silicon substrates. The substrate and sensor materials are chosen to meet the conflicting requirements of radiation hardness, sensitivity, speed and linearity over a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude. The key challenge in the material development is the integration of the sensor material with Si. Si is required to withstand the free electron laser pulse impact and to achieve a readout speed three orders of magnitude faster than conventional cryoradiometers for compatibility with the Linac Coherent Light Source pulse rate. We discuss sensor material development and the photoresponse of prototype devices. This Linac Coherent Light Source total energy monitor represents the first practical application of manganite materials as bolometric sensors.

  13. Is the decrease of the total electron energy density a covalence indicator in hydrogen and halogen bonds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelina, Emilio L; Duarte, Darío J R; Peruchena, Nélida M

    2013-05-01

    In this work, halogen bonding (XB) and hydrogen bonding (HB) complexes were studied with the aim of analyzing the variation of the total electronic energy density H(r b ) with the interaction strengthening. The calculations were performed at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level of approximation. To explain the nature of such interactions, the atoms in molecules theory (AIM) in conjunction with reduced variational space self-consistent field (RVS) energy decomposition analysis were carried out. Based on the local virial theorem, an equation to decompose the total electronic energy density H(r b ) in two energy densities, (-G(r b )) and 1/4∇(2)ρ(r b ), was derived. These energy densities were linked with the RVS interaction energy components. Through the connection between both decomposition schemes, it was possible to conclude that the decrease in H(r b ) with the interaction strengthening observed in the HB as well as the XB complexes, is mainly due to the increase in the attractive electrostatic part of the interaction energy and in lesser extent to the increase in its covalent character, as is commonly considered.

  14. Electron-impact total ionization cross sections of CF4, C2F6, and C3F8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, H.; Huo, W.M.; Ali, M.A.; Kim, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental electron-impact total ionization cross sections of CF 4 , C 2 F 6 , and C 3 F 8 are presented. The experimental cross sections have been measured as a function of incident electron energy T from threshold to 3 keV. A parallel plate condenser type apparatus was used. The molecular polarizability for C 3 F 8 was empirically estimated to be α=10.6 ampersand hthinsp;Angstrom 3 ±0.8 ampersand hthinsp;Angstrom 3 . Theoretical cross sections calculated from the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) method, which combines a modified form of the Mott cross section and the Bethe cross section, are compared with the experimental cross sections. The BEB cross sections calculated from correlated molecular wave functions with theoretical estimates for multiple ionization are about 10% higher than the experimental data at the peak for CF 4 , while they are in excellent agreement with the experimental data for C 2 F 6 and C 3 F 8 . Our analysis shows that the BEB theory implicitly includes part of neutral dissociation, such as CF 4 →CF 3 +F, and hence tends to be an upper limit to the total ionization cross section. We found that the difference between our best theory for CF 4 and the present experimental cross section exhibits a remarkable similarity to the shape of the recently measured cross section for neutral dissociation, though there is no a priori reason for the similarity. Owing to the large number of bound electrons, the correlation included in our wave functions for C 2 F 6 and C 3 F 8 is more limited than for CF 4 . Hence, we believe that for these two molecules the calculated cross sections are lower than the true BEB values, in spite of the apparent excellent agreement between the theory and the experiment. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  15. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaodan [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuqi [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Lei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Honghai [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Shaobo [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); An, Lei [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Yao, Chengfang, E-mail: yaocf9941@163.com [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3{sup +}, CD8{sup +}, and CD4{sup +} T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4{sup +} T cells was delayed more than that of CD8{sup +} T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the

  16. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Li; An, Lei; Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3 + , CD8 + , and CD4 + T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4 + T cells was delayed more than that of CD8 + T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the proliferation of Th1 and

  17. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Y; Hicsonmez, A; Uluoglu, C; Guney, H Z; Ozel Turkcu, U; Take, G; Yucel, B; Caglar, G; Bilgihan, A; Erdogan, D; Nalca Andrieu, M; Kurtman, C; Zengil, H

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB) or abdominopelvic (AP) irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g) in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset) or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset). Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively) to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05) and TB (P < 0.05) irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05) or evening (P < 0.05) decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  19. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guney

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB or abdominopelvic (AP irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset. Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05 and TB (P < 0.05 irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05 or evening (P < 0.05 decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05. Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  20. Estimation of total body water and extracellular water with bioimpedance in athletes: A need for athlete-specific prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Júdice, Pedro B; Magalhães, João P; Minderico, Cláudia S; Fields, David A; Lukaski, Henry C; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2016-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations can predict total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) in non-athletic healthy populations. This study aimed: a) to develop BIA-based models for TBW and ECW prediction based on dilution methods in a sample of national level athletes; and b) to validate the new models with a cross-validation approach in a separate cohort using dilution methods as criterion. Two hundred and eight highly trained athletes (21.3 ± 5.0 years) were evaluated during their respective competitive seasons. Athletes were randomly split into development (n = 139) and validation groups (n = 69). The criterion method for TBW was deuterium dilution and for ECW was bromide dilution, where ICW was the respective difference between both. Resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were obtained with a phase-sensitive 50 kHz BIA device and used for the estimation of TBW and ECW. Athletic BIA-based models were developed for TBW and ECW [TBW = 0.286 + 0.195*S(2)/R + 0.385*Wt + 5.086*Sex; ECW = 1.579 + 0.055*S(2)/R + 0.127*Wt + 0.006*S(2)/Xc + 0.932*Sex, where sex is 0 if female or 1 if male, Wt is weight (kg), S is stature (cm), and R and Xc are in ohm (Ω)]. Cross validation revealed R(2) of 0.91 for TBW and R(2) 0.70 for ECW and no mean bias. The new equations can be considered valid, with no observed bias, thus affording practical means to quantify TBW and ECW in national level athletes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, H. [German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST) Secretary, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S. [DRST Datacenter, DRK Bloodbank Center Ulm (Germany); Faul, C. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT {proportional_to}10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, {proportional_to}80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, {proportional_to}35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  2. A bridge from bioimpedance spectroscopy to 50 kHz bioimpedance analysis: application to total body water measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, H; Jaffrin, M Y

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for extrapolating the total body water (TBW) resistance R t50 from the resistance measured at 50 kHz (R 50 ). A DXA examination and impedance measurements were carried out in a 1st group of 57 healthy volunteers with a Xitron 4200 multifrequency impedancemeter, in order to determine their values of R t50 by comparison with resistances extrapolated at an infinite frequency by the Xitron (R ∞ ). TBW volumes were calculated using our modified BIS method (Jaffrin et al 2006 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44 873–82) from R ∞ , R t50 and from the fat-free mass measured by DXA, assuming a hydration rate of 73.2%. The same protocol and calculations were also carried out on a 2nd group of 21 subjects for independent validation. Data of the 1st group showed that values of R t50 , not significantly different from those of R ∞ , could be obtained by dividing R 50 by 1.231 in men and by 1.224 in women. Applying this method to the 2nd group yielded also values of R t50 not significantly different from R ∞ . TBW volumes V t50 obtained from R t50 were not significantly different from those of our modified BIS method V tn , or from TBW volumes obtained from DXA in both groups. A comparison with three BIA methods of TBW determination showed that our new method gave results in better agreement with TBW from DXA and from our modified BIS method

  3. Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsen, T; Salvesen, S; Berntsen, S; Hetlelid, K J; Stea, T H; Lohne-Seiler, H; Rohde, G; Haraldstad, K; Raastad, T; Køpp, U; Haugeberg, G; Mansoor, M A; Bastani, N E; Blomhoff, R; Stølevik, S B; Seynnes, O R; Paulsen, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on changes in muscle mass (lean mass and muscle thickness) and strength during 12 weeks of strength training in elderly men. Thirty-four elderly males (60-81 years) were randomized to either an antioxidant group (500 mg of vitamin C and 117.5 mg vitamin E before and after training) or a placebo group following the same strength training program (three sessions per week). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle thickness by ultrasound imaging. Muscle strength was measured as one-repetition maximum (1RM). Total lean mass increased by 3.9% (95% confidence intervals: 3.0, 5.2) and 1.4% (0, 5.4) in the placebo and antioxidant groups, respectively, revealing larger gains in the placebo group (P = 0.04). Similarly, the thickness of m. rectus femoris increased more in the placebo group [16.2% (12.8, 24.1)] than in the antioxidant group [10.9% (9.8, 13.5); P = 0.01]. Increases of lean mass in trunk and arms, and muscle thickness of elbow flexors, did not differ significantly between groups. With no group differences, 1RM improved in the range of 15-21% (P strength training in elderly men. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dedicated dental volumetric and total body multislice computed tomography: a comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strocchi, Sabina; Colli, Vittoria; Novario, Raffaele; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Giorgianni, Andrea; Macchi, Aldo; Fugazzola, Carlo; Conte, Leopoldo

    2007-03-01

    Aim of this work is to compare the performances of a Xoran Technologies i-CAT Cone Beam CT for dental applications with those of a standard total body multislice CT (Toshiba Aquilion 64 multislice) used for dental examinations. Image quality and doses to patients have been compared for the three main i-CAT protocols, the Toshiba standard protocol and a Toshiba modified protocol. Images of two phantoms have been acquired: a standard CT quality control phantom and an Alderson Rando ® anthropomorphic phantom. Image noise, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and geometric accuracy have been considered. Clinical image quality was assessed. Effective dose and doses to main head and neck organs were evaluated by means of thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) placed in the anthropomorphic phantom. A Quality Index (QI), defined as the ratio of squared CNR to effective dose, has been evaluated. The evaluated effective doses range from 0.06 mSv (i-CAT 10 s protocol) to 2.37 mSv (Toshiba standard protocol). The Toshiba modified protocol (halved tube current, higher pitch value) imparts lower effective dose (0.99 mSv). The conventional CT device provides lower image noise and better SNR, but clinical effectiveness similar to that of dedicated dental CT (comparable CNR and clinical judgment). Consequently, QI values are much higher for this second CT scanner. No geometric distortion has been observed with both devices. As a conclusion, dental volumetric CT supplies adequate image quality to clinical purposes, at doses that are really lower than those imparted by a conventional CT device.

  5. Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ≤ 200 cells μL, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells μL. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/μL and 1830 cells/μL, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ≤ 2250 cells/μL produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/μL, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/μL, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

  6. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C.; Ottinger, H.; Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S.; Faul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT ∝10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, ∝80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, ∝35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  7. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI, which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI.

  8. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  9. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R......) was also insignificant. Three BIA equations from the literature, which were not specific for the degree of obesity in the present study group, predicted changes in FFM (from 0.5 + 3.6 to 2.4 +/- 4.4kg, p > 0.05) that were comparable with those estimated by the reference methods. Eight equations from...

  10. A MULTI-STAGE ULTRA-ENDURANCE RUN OVER 1,200 KM LEADS TO A CONTINUOUS ACCUMULATION OF TOTAL BODY WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra- endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the 'Deutschlandlauf' 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean ± SD, 43.8 ± 6.2 years, 73.8 ± 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 ± 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 ± 1.8 kg·m-2. Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body water were determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the anthropometric method before the race and after each stage. In addition, urinary specific gravity was measured in order to quantify hydration status. Fat mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis decreased by 3.9 kg (p < 0.05, skeletal muscle mass (anthropometric method decreased by 2.0 kg (p < 0.05 whereas percent total body water increased by 6.1 % (p < 0.05 by the end of the race. Ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance event over 1,200 km, with 17 consecutive stages, showed a cumulative increase in percent total body water, a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in fat mass, depending upon the method used. We presume that the eccentric component of running leads to damage of skeletal muscle, leading to rhabdomyolysis, with impaired renal function

  11. Evaluation of extreme ionospheric total electron content gradient associated with plasma bubbles for GNSS Ground-Based Augmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2017-08-01

    Associated with plasma bubbles, extreme spatial gradients in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) were observed on 8 April 2008 at Ishigaki (24.3°N, 124.2°E, +19.6° magnetic latitude), Japan. The largest gradient was 3.38 TECU km-1 (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), which is equivalent to an ionospheric delay gradient of 540 mm km-1 at the GPS L1 frequency (1.57542 GHz). This value is confirmed by using multiple estimating methods. The observed value exceeds the maximum ionospheric gradient that has ever been observed (412 mm km-1 or 2.59 TECU km-1) to be associated with a severe magnetic storm. It also exceeds the assumed maximum value (500 mm km-1 or 3.08 TECU km-1) which was used to validate the draft international standard for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) to support Category II/III approaches and landings. The steepest part of this extreme gradient had a scale size of 5.3 km, and the front-normal velocities were estimated to be 71 m s-1 with a wavefront-normal direction of east-northeastward. The total width of the transition region from outside to inside the plasma bubble was estimated to be 35.3 km. The gradient of relatively small spatial scale size may fall between an aircraft and a GBAS ground subsystem and may be undetectable by both aircraft and ground.

  12. Total skin electron beam therapy as palliative treatment for cutaneous manifestations of advanced, therapy-refractory cutaneous lymphoma and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauswald, Henrik; Zwicker, Felix; Rochet, Nathalie; Uhl, Matthias; Hensley, Frank; Debus, Jürgen; Herfarth, Klaus; Bischof, Marc

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively access the outcome and toxicity of a total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) in patients with cutaneous lymphoma (CL) or leukemia. Treatment results of 25 patients (median age 63 years; 5 female, 20 male) with cutaneous manifestations of advanced and therapy-refractory CL (n = 21; T-cell lymphomas n = 18, B-cell lymphomas n = 3) stage IIB-IV or leukemia (n = 4; AML n = 2, CLL n = 1, PDC n = 1) treated between 1993 and 2010 were reviewed. All patients were symptomatic. The median total dose was 29Gy, applied in 29 fractions of median 1 Gy each. The median follow-up was 10 months. Palliation was achieved in 23 patients (92%). A clinical complete response was documented in 13 (52%) and a partial response in 10 patients (40%). The median time to skin progression was 5 months (range 1–18 months) and the actuarial one-year progression-free survival 35%. The median overall survival (OS) after the initiation of TSEBT was 10 months (range 1–46 months) and the actuarial one-year OS 45%. TSEBT related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in all patients during the treatment period. An acute grade 3 epitheliolysis developed in eight patients (32%). Long-term adverse events as a hyperpigmentation of the skin (grade 1 or 2) were documented in 19 patients (76%), and a hypohidrosis in seven patients (28%). For palliation of symptomatic cutaneous manifestations of advanced cutaneous lymphoma or leukemia, total skin electron beam therapy is an efficient and well tolerated considerable treatment option

  13. Comparison of the Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometers for Assessing Total and Regional Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shannon A; Petri, Robert M; Hunter, Heather L; Raju, Dheeraj; Gower, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the agreement of the Lunar Prodigy with the newer Lunar iDXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer for determining total body and regional (arms, legs, trunk) bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM), lean tissue mass (LTM), total body mass, and percent fat. Ninety-two healthy adult males (n = 36) and females (n = 56) were scanned consecutively on the iDXA and the Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers. For iDXA, relative to Prodigy, paired t tests indicated significantly lower estimates for total body and regional BMD and BMC (p Prodigy for total body and regional BMD estimates (p Prodigy, investigators should be aware that certain total body and regional estimates are significantly different. The greatest percent differences were observed for arm BMD, FM, and percent fat. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sede...

  15. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  16. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, H.

    2007-05-01

    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f xc from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the propagation

  17. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, H.

    2007-05-15

    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f{sub xc} from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the

  18. Total-body irradiation and host reconstitution with stored autologous marrow: an experimental model for the induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness in large mammals. [Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Dicke, K.; Santos, G.

    1979-03-01

    These results point to the capacity of suprelethal total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow replacement to produce in the host a time-dependent privileged phase of immunologic reactivity during which exposure to alloantigens is more likely to produce unresponsiveness, rather than sensitization. The mechanisms implicated in the mediation of this phenomenon are not clear. Regardless of hypothetical interpretations, however, the current growing interest in total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow replacement in clinical medicine, and the ease with which this approach appears to produce allogenic unresponsiveness in large mammals, raise the possibility that this method may constitute a highly promising approach to the facilitation of survival of vital transplanted organs in man. This possibility is further supported by the long-term record of the world's longest surviving renal allograft recipient, whose preoperative preparation consisted of total-body irradiation 24 hr before a kidney transplant.

  19. Prospective randomized comparison of single-dose versus hyperfractionated total-body irradiation in patients with hematologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.; Benhamou, E.; Bourhis, J.H.; Dhermain, F.; Guillot-Valls, D.; Ganansia, V.; Luboinski, M.; Perez, A.; Cosset, J.M.; Socie, G.; Baume, D.; Bouaouina, N.; Briot, E.; Baudre, A.; Bridier, A.; Pico, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of the two irradiation modes are similar, but the hyperfractionated irradiation seems superior in term of global and specific survival. The incidence rates of pneumopathies are not different between the two groups but the incidence rate of the liver vein-occlusive illness is superior in the group treated by non fractionated whole body irradiation. The cost of the hyperfractionated whole body irradiation is superior to this one of the non fractionated whole body irradiation around a thousand dollars. (N.C.)

  20. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on methane production, total body oxygen consumption, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Brake, D W; Brown-Brandl, T M; Artegoitia, V M; Freetly, H C

    2017-07-01

    An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) were individually fed at ad libitum intake and used in a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, day, and treatment × day. Dry matter intake did not differ between the treatments ( = 0.89), but was greater on d 0 than any other day ( consumption was not different between treatments ( = 0.79), but was different across day ( cattle fed ZH than control ( < 0.01), and also different across day ( < 0.01), being greater on d 7, 21, and 28 than d 3 or 21. Methane production (L/kg of DMI) was greater for steers fed the control vs. the ZH diet ( < 0.01), and it also differed by day ( < 0.01), being greater on d 21 and 28 than d 0, 3, 7, and 14. Nonesterified fatty acids were not different across treatments ( = 0.82), and there was no effect of treatment on β-hydroxybutyrate concentration ( = 0.45). Whole blood glucose concentrations were not affected by feeding ZH in this experiment ( = 0.76); however, lactate concentrations were reduced by feeding ZH ( = 0.03). Additionally, there was no treatment effect on ɑ-amino-N, blood glutamate, or glutamine ( ≥ 0.16). Plasma NH was not affected by ZH ( = 0.07), but plasma urea nitrogen was reduced by ZH ( < 0.01). Urinary creatinine was increased by steers receiving ZH ( = 0.01), and urine 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) concentrations were normalized to creatinine, the 3-MH:creatinine ratio decreased from d 0 to d 3 in steers fed ZH, and remained less than control steers until d 28. These data provide insight into how β-agonists alter nutrient partitioning and improve the efficiency of tissue accretion, mainly through decreased muscle protein turnover and altering the catabolic fuel for

  1. Cataract-free interval and severity of cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation: influence of treatment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine prospectively the cataract-free interval (latency time) after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and to assess accurately the final severity of the cataract. Methods and Materials: Ninety-three of the patients who received TBI as a part of their conditioning regimen for BMT between 1982 and 1995 were followed with respect to cataract formation. Included were only patients who had a follow-up period of at least 23 months. TBI was applied in one fraction of 8 Gy or two fractions of 5 or 6 Gy. Cataract-free period was assessed and in 56 patients, who could be followed until stabilization of the cataract had occurred, final severity of the cataract was determined using a classification system. With respect to final severity, two groups were analyzed: subclinical low-grade cataract and high-grade cataract. Cataract-free period and final severity were determined with respect to type of transplantation, TBI dose, and posttransplant variables such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and steroid treatment. Results: Cataract incidence of the analyzed patients was 89%. Median time to develop a cataract was 58 months for autologous transplanted patients. For allogeneic transplanted patients treated or not treated with steroids, median times were 33 and 46 months, respectively. Final severity was not significantly different for autologous or allogeneic patients. In allogeneic patients, however, final severity was significantly different for patients who had or had not been treated with steroids for GVHD: 93% versus 35% high-grade cataract, respectively. Final severity was also different for patients receiving 1 x 8 or 2 x 5 Gy TBI, from patients receiving 2 x 6 Gy as conditioning therapy: 33% versus 79% high-grade cataract, respectively. The group of patients receiving 2 x 6 Gy comprised, however, more patients with steroid treatment for GVHD. So the high percentage of high-grade cataract in the 2 x 6 Gy group might also

  2. Utility of cranial boost in addition to total body irradiation in the treatment of high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Brian M.; Wechsler, Daniel; Braun, Thomas M.; Levine, John; Herman, Joseph; Yanik, Gregory; Hutchinson, Raymond; Pierce, Lori J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) as part of a conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is an important component in the management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that has relapsed or has other certain high-risk features. Controversy exists, however, as to whether a cranial boost in addition to TBI is necessary to prevent central nervous system (CNS) recurrences in these high-risk cases. Previous national trials have included a cranial boost in the absence of data to justify its use. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess risk of CNS recurrence in ALL patients treated with TBI, to identify subsets of these high-risk patients at an increased or decreased risk of CNS recurrence after TBI, and to investigate whether regimens with higher doses of cranial irradiation further reduce the risk of CNS recurrence. Methods and Materials: Charts of 67 consecutively treated patients with ALL who received TBI before HSCT were reviewed. Data including patient demographics, clinical features at presentation, conditioning regimen, donor source, use of a cranial boost, remission stage at transplant, histologic subtype, cytogenetics, and extramedullary site of presentation were retrospectively collected and correlated with the risk of subsequent CNS recurrence. Results: At the time of analysis, 30 (45%) patients were alive with no evidence of disease, 8 (12%) were alive with recurrence of leukemia, 7 (10.5%) had recurrent ALL but with successful salvage, 7 (11%) died subsequent to recurrence, 14 (21%) died from complications related to HCST, and 1 patient was lost to follow-up (1.5%). Of the patients who recurred after HSCT, the relapses were hematologic in 13 (57%), CNS with or without simultaneous marrow involvement in 3 (13%), and other sites in 7 (30%). Forty-one (61%) patients did not receive an extracranial boost of irradiation with TBI. Two of these patients (4.9%) suffered CNS failures compared with 1 of 26 (3.8%) who received a

  3. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenggang; Ge, Bilin; Chen, Ru; Zhu, Xiangdong; Mi, Lan; Ma, Jiong; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Fengyun; Fei, Yiyan

    2018-02-09

    Total internal reflection (TIR) is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane) is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD) in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm² with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  4. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection (TIR is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm2 with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  5. Behavior of the ionosphere total electronic content in Sao Jose dos Campos during magnetic storms in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, E.R. de; Abdu, M.A.; Kantor, I.J.

    1983-07-01

    Faraday rotation data from 1980, obtained with a polarimeter at Sao Jose dos Campos (23 0 S, 46 0 W), were analyzed during periods occurring magnetic storms. In order to select these periods, the magnetic index Dst was used. It was observed that during magnetic storms preceeded by a few calm days, an increase in the Total Electron Content (TEC) is observed during the storm main phase, relative to the mean of the magnetic calm days (positive phase). Afterwards, during the storms recovery phase, a decrease was registered relative to the average (negative phase). This TEC behaviour, observed at low latitudes storms, is typical of the behaviour over medium latitudes. But, when several storms occur with few intervening days between them, the positive phase seems to prevail. This indicates an inibition of the source of the negative phase. This work discusses the possible origins of the positive and negative phases. (Author) [pt

  6. Prediction of total viable counts on chilled pork using an electronic nose combined with support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danfeng; Wang, Xichang; Liu, Taiang; Liu, Yuan

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the total viable counts (TVC) in chilled pork using an electronic nose (EN) together with support vector machine (SVM). EN and bacteriological measurements were performed on pork samples stored at 4 °C for up to 10 days. Bacterial numbers on pork were determined by plate counts on agar. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to cluster EN measurements. The model for the correlation between EN signal responses and bacterial numbers was constructed by using the SVM, combined with partial least squares (PLS). Correlation coefficients for training and validation were 0.94 and 0.88, respectively, which suggested that the EN system could be used as a simple and rapid technique for the prediction of bacteria numbers in pork. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Joint estimation of vertical total electron content (VTEC) and satellite differential code biases (SDCBs) using low-cost receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baocheng; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Min

    2018-04-01

    Vertical total electron content (VTEC) parameters estimated using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data are of great interest for ionosphere sensing. Satellite differential code biases (SDCBs) account for one source of error which, if left uncorrected, can deteriorate performance of positioning, timing and other applications. The customary approach to estimate VTEC along with SDCBs from dual-frequency GNSS data, hereinafter referred to as DF approach, consists of two sequential steps. The first step seeks to retrieve ionospheric observables through the carrier-to-code leveling technique. This observable, related to the slant total electron content (STEC) along the satellite-receiver line-of-sight, is biased also by the SDCBs and the receiver differential code biases (RDCBs). By means of thin-layer ionospheric model, in the second step one is able to isolate the VTEC, the SDCBs and the RDCBs from the ionospheric observables. In this work, we present a single-frequency (SF) approach, enabling the joint estimation of VTEC and SDCBs using low-cost receivers; this approach is also based on two steps and it differs from the DF approach only in the first step, where we turn to the precise point positioning technique to retrieve from the single-frequency GNSS data the ionospheric observables, interpreted as the combination of the STEC, the SDCBs and the biased receiver clocks at the pivot epoch. Our numerical analyses clarify how SF approach performs when being applied to GPS L1 data collected by a single receiver under both calm and disturbed ionospheric conditions. The daily time series of zenith VTEC estimates has an accuracy ranging from a few tenths of a TEC unit (TECU) to approximately 2 TECU. For 73-96% of GPS satellites in view, the daily estimates of SDCBs do not deviate, in absolute value, more than 1 ns from their ground truth values published by the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe.

  8. Successful treatment of skin infiltration in childhood hematological malignancies with total skin electron beam therapy. A report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Masahito; Shikano, Takaaki; Ueno, Norihiro; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tono-oka, Tatsuhito; Matsumoto, Takahide.

    1988-07-01

    Two children with cutaneous lymphoma and leukemia who were treated with total skin electron beam therapy (TSEB) are described here. Patient 1. A 7-year-old boy was admitted because of a mass over the bilateral parotis and anemia. The white blood cell count on admission was 5,000/ul. Bone marrow examination revealed 70 per cent monoblasts (M5a type by FAB classification). Complete remission was obtained following the regimen of daunomycin, cytosine arabinoside, 6-mercaptopurine and prednisolone. He was again admitted because of a skin nodule on the left thigh 19 months after initial diagnosis. A biopsy of the skin nodule demonstrated monoblastic infiltration. He received 20 Grays (Gy) to the left thigh and this led to resolution of the skin nodule. At that time, other skin nodules appeared on the right upper and lower extremities. He was treated with TSEB. Daily doses of 1 Gy were given twice a week with a 4 MeV electron beam and a total dose of 10 Gy was administered over a period of 4 weeks. Although he again had a isolated skin relapse on the right shoulder, he remained in remission for 6 years after completing TSEB. Patient 2. A 6-year-old boy was admitted because of multiple skin lesions. Physical examination revealed 22 discrete, indurated skin nodules. a biopsy of a skin nodule demonstrated lymphoblast infiltration, confirming the diagnosis of B cell cutaneous lymphoma (stage IV). He was treated with CHOP (consisting of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisolone). After two courses of CHOP therapy, he was treated with TSEB using the same technique described above. To date, the patient remains in remission 5 years after initial diagnosis.

  9. Performance of GPS slant total electron content and IRI-Plas-STEC for days with ionospheric disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feza Arikan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Electron Content (TEC is an important observable parameter of the ionosphere which forms the main source of error for space based navigation and positioning systems. Since the deployment of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, cost-effective estimation of TEC between the earth based receiver and Global Positioning System (GPS satellites became the major means of investigation of local and regional disturbance for earthquake precursor and augmentation system studies. International Reference Ionosphere (IRI extended to plasmasphere (IRI-Plas is the most developed ionospheric and plasmaspheric climatic model that provides hourly, monthly median of electron density distribution globally. Recently, IONOLAB group (www.ionolab.org has presented a new online space weather service that can compute slant TEC (STEC on a desired ray path for a given date and time using IRI-Plas model (IRI-Plas-STEC. In this study, the performance of the model based STEC is compared with GPS-STEC computed according to the estimation method developed by the IONOLAB group and includes the receiver bias as IONOLAB-BIAS (IONOLAB-STEC. Using Symmetric Kullback–Leibler Distance (SKLD, Cross Correlation (CC coefficient and the metric norm (L2N to compare IRI-Plas-STEC and IONOLAB-STEC for the month of October 2011 over the Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN-Active, it has been observed that SKLD provides a good indicator of disturbance for both earthquakes and geomagnetic storms.

  10. Total body fat percentage and body mass index and the association with lower extremity injuries in children: a 2.5-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jespersen, E.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Holst, R.; Klakk, H.; Heidemann, M.; Rexen, C.T.; Franz, C.; Wedderkopp, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight youths are generally recognised as being at increased risk of sustaining lower extremity injuries in sports. However, previous studies are inconclusive and choices for measuring overweight are manifold. Objective To examine two different measures of overweight, body mass index

  11. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethy...

  12. Three-dimensional statistical reduction of the N -body Schrödinger equation for electrons with pairwise Coulomb interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreshkov, Boyan D.

    2008-09-01

    Based on a second-quantized representation of the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian of a system of N electrons with pairwise Coulomb interactions, we demonstrate the exact statistical reduction of the N -body problem to a three-dimensional Schrödinger equation for the motion of a single active electron with all other N-1 electrons acting as spectators. As a by-product, three-dimensional Schrödinger equations for the ground and excited states of two-electron atoms and ions are derived and the dynamical role of Pauli’s exclusion principle is established. The classical limit ℏ→0 of the quantal all-electron equations is examined, and the Thomas-Fermi equation including the Amaldi correction is obtained.

  13. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  14. Comparison of temporal fluctuations in the total electron content estimates from EISCAT and GPS along the same line of sight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Forte

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of space weather events on satellite-based technologies (e.g. satellite navigation and precise positioning is typically quantified on the basis of the total electron content (TEC and temporal fluctuations associated with it. GNSS (global navigation satellite systems TEC measurements are integrated over a long distance and thus may include contributions from different regions of the ionised atmosphere which may prevent the resolution of the mechanisms ultimately responsible for given observations. The purpose of the experiment presented here was to compare TEC estimates from EISCAT and GPS measurements. The EISCAT measurements were obtained along the same line of sight of a given GPS satellite observed from Tromsø. The present analyses focussed on the comparison of temporal fluctuations in the TEC between aligned GPS and EISCAT measurements. A reasonably good agreement was found between temporal fluctuations in TEC observed by EISCAT and those observed by a co-located GPS ionospheric monitor along the same line of sight, indicating a contribution from structures at E and F altitudes mainly to the total TEC in the presence of ionisation enhancements possibly caused by particle precipitation in the nighttime sector. The experiment suggests the great potential in the measurements to be performed by the future EISCAT_3D system, limited only in the localised geographic region to be covered.

  15. Fabrication of Cryogenic Manganite Bolometers to Measure the Total Energy at the LCLS Free Electron X-ray Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, O B; Yong, G J; Kolagani, R M; Liang, Y; Gardner, C; Ables, E; Fong, K W; Bionta, R M; Friedrich, S

    2008-06-14

    We are developing cryogenic bolometers to measure the total energy of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser that is currently being built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. LCLS will produce ultrashort {approx}200 fs X-ray laser pulses with {approx}10{sup 13} photons at 0.8 keV up to {approx}10{sup 12} photons at 8 keV per pulse at a repeat interval as short as 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. Our bolometer consists of a 375 {micro}m thick Si absorber and a Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} sensor operated at its metal-insulator transition. It will measure the total energy of each pulse with a precision of <1%, and is designed to meet the conflicting requirements of radiation hardness, sensitivity, linearity over a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude, and readout speed compatible with the LCLS pulse rate. Here we discuss bolometer design and fabrication, and the photoresponse of prototype devices to pulsed optical lasers.

  16. Development and daily use of an electronic oncological patient record for the total management of cancer patients: 7 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligioni, E; Berloffa, F; Caffo, O; Tonazzolli, G; Ambrosini, G; Valduga, F; Eccher, C; Ferro, A; Forti, S

    2009-02-01

    We describe our experience with an electronic oncological patient record (EOPR) for the total management of cancer patients. The web-based EOPR was developed on the basis of a user-centred design including user education and training, followed by continuous assistance; user acceptance was monitored by means of three questionnaires administered after 2 weeks, 6 months and 6 years. The EOPR has been used daily for all in-ward, day hospital and ambulatory clinical activities since July 2000. The most widely appreciated functions are its rapid multipoint access, the self-updated summary of the patients' clinical course, the management of the entire therapeutic programme synchronised with working agendas and oncological teleconsultation. Security and privacy are assured by means of the separate storage of clinical and demographic data, with access protected by login and a password. The questionnaires highlighted appreciation of rapid data retrieval and exchange and the perception of improved quality of care, but also revealed a sense of additional work and a negative impact on doctor-patient relationships. Our EOPR has proved to be effective in the total management of cancer patients. Its user-centred design and flexible web technology have been key factors in its successful implementation and daily use.

  17. Determination of total mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for different shielding materials used in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida J, A. T. [FUNDACENTRO, Centro Regional de Minas Gerais, Brazilian Institute for Safety and Health at Work, Belo Horizonte, 30180-100 Minas Gerais (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S. [Center of Development of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Santos, M. A. P., E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Regional Center for Nuclear Science / CNEN, 50.740-540 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In this paper, the interaction of X-rays with some shielding materials has been studied for materials containing different amounts of barite and aggregates. The total mass attenuation coefficient (μ{sub t}) for three shielding materials has been calculated by using WinXCOM program in the energy range from RQR qualities (RQR-4, RQR-6, RQR-9, and RQR-10). They were: cream barite (density 2.99 g/cm{sup 3} collected in the State of Sao Paulo), purple barite (density 2.95 g/cm{sup 3} collected in the State of Bahia) and white barite (density 3.10 g/cm{sup 3} collected in the State of Paraiba). The chemical analysis was carried out by an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer model EDX-720, through dispersive energy. The six elements of the higher concentration found in the sample and analyzed by Spectrophotometry of Energy Dispersive X-ray for the samples were Ba(60.9% - white barite), Ca(17,92% - cream barite), Ce(3,60% - white barite), Fe(17,16% - purple barite), S(12,11% - white barite) and Si(29,61% - purple barite). Also, the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) and the effective electron density (N{sub eff}) were calculated using the values of the total mass attenuation coefficient. The dependence of these parameters on the incident photon energy and the chemical composition has been examined. (Author)

  18. Electron dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure of the skin from uniformly deposited activity on the body surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors have been calculated for external exposure of the skin from electrons emitted by sources that are deposited uniformly on the body surface. The dose-rate factors are obtained from electron scaled point kernels developed by Berger. The dose-rate factors are calculated at depths of 4, 8, and 40 mg cm-2 below the body surface as recommended by Whitton, and at a depth of 7 mg cm-2 as recommended in ICRP Publication 26 (ICRP77). The dependence of the dose-rate factors at selected depths on the energy of the emitted electrons is displayed. The dose-rate factors for selected radionuclides of potential importance in radiological assessments are tabulated

  19. Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides: A Review of Conventional and Low-Dose Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Chhabra, Arpit M; Kharod, Shivam; Marwaha, Gaurav

    2016-12-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most prevalent subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which is characterized by the proliferation of CD4 + T cells. While often an indolent disease, most patients eventually develop progression from isolated patches to tumors and finally nodal or visceral involvement. Treatment choice is largely based on disease burden, though prognostic factors such as disease stage, patient age, and extracutaneous involvement must be taken into consideration. Radiotherapy represents one of the most effective therapeutic modalities in the treatment of MF. Lymphocytes are exquisitely radiosensitive, and excellent responses are observed even with low doses of radiation. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a special technique that allows for the homogenous irradiation of the entire skin. There are well-documented radiation dose-response relationships for achieving a complete response. As such, TSEBT doses ≥ 30 Gy comprise the current standard of care. Although highly effective, most patients experience recurrent disease even after conventional-dose (≥ 30 Gy) TSEBT. In addition, toxicity is cumulatively dose dependent, and there is reluctance to administer multiple courses of conventional-dose TSEBT. Consequently, there has been renewed interest in determining the utility of TSEBT at lower total (≤ 30 Gy) doses. Advantages of low-total-dose (with standard dose per fraction) TSEBT include a shortened treatment course, the potential to minimize the risk of adverse events, and the opportunity to allow for retreatment in cases of disease recurrence. This comprehensive review compares the impact of different TSEBT dosing schemes on clinical outcomes of MF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the Lunar DPX-L and Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers for assessing total and regional body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Derek M; Landy, Niamh M; Potter, Eva; Nagy, Tim R; Gower, Barbara A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement of the Lunar DPX-L with the newer Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DXA) for determining total-body and regional (arms, legs, trunk) bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM), lean tissue mass (LTM), total body mass (BM) and percent fat. A total of 106 apparently healthy males (n=34) and females (n=72) between the ages of 8-72 years were scanned consecutively on the DPX-L (software version 1.35) and Prodigy DXA (enCORE v. 3.6 software). Paired t-tests indicated significantly higher measures by Prodigy for BM (percent difference= 1.1%) and