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Sample records for toscana virus epidemiology

  1. Toscana virus isolated from sandflies, Morocco.

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    Es-sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Anga, Latifa; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2015-04-03

    To investigate the transmission of phleboviruses, a total of 7,057 sandflies were collected in well-known foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis and were identified to species level according to morphological characters.Collected sandflies were tested by Nested PCR for the presence of Phleboviruses and subsequently by viral isolation on Vero cells. The corresponding products were sequenced. Toscana virus was isolated, for the first time, from 5 pools of sandflies.Hence, Toscana virus should be considered a potential risk that threatens public health and clinicians should be aware of the role of Toscana virus in cases of meningitis and encephalitis in Morocco.

  2. Epidemiologic relationship between Toscana virus infection and Leishmania infantum due to common exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus sandfly vector.

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    Bichaud, Laurence; Souris, Marc; Mary, Charles; Ninove, Laëtitia; Thirion, Laurence; Piarroux, Raphaël P; Piarroux, Renaud; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2011-09-01

    Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus), an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmaniosis and phleboviral infections. To identify a possible link, we investigated the presence and distribution of antibodies against these two microorganisms (i) in individuals and (ii) at a spatial level in the city of Marseille (south-eastern France). Five hundred sera were selected randomly in the biobank of the Department of Parasitology of the Public Hospitals of Marseille. All sera were previously tested for IgG against Leishmania by Western Blotting, and TOSV IgG were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The seropositivity rates were 21.4% for TOSV and 28% for Leishmania. Statistical analysis demonstrated that seropositivity for one pathogen was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other pathogen. This result provided the first robust evidence for the existence of an epidemiological relationship between Leishmania infantum and TOSV. Addresses of tested patients were geolocalized and integrated into Geographical Information System software, in order to test spatial relationship between the two pathogens. Spatial analysis did not allow to identify (i) specific patterns for the spatial distribution of positive serological results for TOSV or Leishmania, and (ii) a spatial relationship between Leishmania and TOSV positive serological results. This may reflect the fact that the sample studied was not powerful enough to demonstrate either a spatial clustering or co-location, i.e. that the actual risk exposure area is smaller than the mean of distance between

  3. Epidemiologic relationship between Toscana virus infection and Leishmania infantum due to common exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus sandfly vector.

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    Laurence Bichaud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus, an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmaniosis and phleboviral infections. To identify a possible link, we investigated the presence and distribution of antibodies against these two microorganisms (i in individuals and (ii at a spatial level in the city of Marseille (south-eastern France. Five hundred sera were selected randomly in the biobank of the Department of Parasitology of the Public Hospitals of Marseille. All sera were previously tested for IgG against Leishmania by Western Blotting, and TOSV IgG were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The seropositivity rates were 21.4% for TOSV and 28% for Leishmania. Statistical analysis demonstrated that seropositivity for one pathogen was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other pathogen. This result provided the first robust evidence for the existence of an epidemiological relationship between Leishmania infantum and TOSV. Addresses of tested patients were geolocalized and integrated into Geographical Information System software, in order to test spatial relationship between the two pathogens. Spatial analysis did not allow to identify (i specific patterns for the spatial distribution of positive serological results for TOSV or Leishmania, and (ii a spatial relationship between Leishmania and TOSV positive serological results. This may reflect the fact that the sample studied was not powerful enough to demonstrate either a spatial clustering or co-location, i.e. that the actual risk exposure area is smaller than the mean of

  4. Seroprevalence of Toscana virus infection in Tunisia.

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    Fezaa, Ons; Bahri, Olfa; Alaya Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Triki, Henda; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV) by an ELISA test and to determine the extent of its circulation in Tunisia. An indirect ELISA test was performed to detect anti-TOSV IgG. The results were compared to those of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The survey tested 494 healthy people from various regions of Tunisia by ELISA for anti-TOSV IgG; 47 people (9.5%) were found to be positive. Seroprevalence varied by bioclimatic region and gender. Two hundred and twelve samples, randomly chosen from the same selected population and tested with ELISA, were retested using an IFA for IgG antibodies. An 85% concordance between the IFA and ELISA was obtained (kappa=0.650). These serological data confirm the circulation of TOSV in different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia where the vector sand flies are found. The detection of IgG against TOSV suggests that the diagnosis of TOSV infection is often neglected, as this virus often causes asymptomatic infections, with only a few patients developing severe illnesses involving neurological manifestations. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence of an autochthonous Toscana virus strain in Croatia.

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    Punda-Polić, Volga; Mohar, Bojana; Duh, Darja; Bradarić, Nikola; Korva, Miša; Fajs, Luka; Saksida, Ana; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2012-09-01

    Phleboviruses are large and widespread group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropods and they have been reported to circulate in endemic regions of Mediterranean Basin, including Croatia. To investigate the role of Toscana virus, as a cause of the aseptic meningitis, in summer months in Croatia. Samples from 30 patients with aseptic meningitis were retrospectively tested by serology and RT-PCR for TOSV. TOSV RNA was detected in 2/30 and TOSV IgM antibodies were found in 4/30 of patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S segments suggests that TOSV from Croatia represents an autochthonous strain. The study has confirmed the role of TOSV as an agent that causes aseptic meningitis in Croatia, therefore it should be considered by physicians when encountering meningitis or febrile illness among indigenous population or travellers during the summer months. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Toscana Virus Infection by Binding to Heparan Sulphate

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    Agostina Pietrantoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin.

  7. Complete Coding Sequences of Three Toscana Virus Strains Isolated from Sandflies in France.

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    Baklouti, Amal; Leparc Goffard, Isabelle; Piorkowski, Geraldine; Coutard, Bruno; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2016-02-11

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the sandfly fever Naples virus species within the genus Phlebovirus. We report here the complete coding sequences of three TOSV strains belonging to lineage B and isolated from sandflies trapped in the Southeast of France between 2009 and 2013. Copyright © 2016 Baklouti et al.

  8. Meningoencephalitis due to Toscana virus in a French traveler returning from central Italy.

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    Epelboin, Loïc; Hausfater, Pierre; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Riou, Bruno; Zeller, Hervé; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by sand flies of Phlebotomus species that has been recognized as an agent associated with acute meningitis and encephalitis around the Mediterranean. We report the first imported case of meningoencephalitis due to TOSV in a traveler returning from Central Italy to France.

  9. High Rates of Neutralizing Antibodies to Toscana and Sandfly Fever Sicilian Viruses in Livestock, Kosovo.

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    Ayhan, Nazli; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Taraku, Arber; Bërxholi, Kristaq; Charrel, Rémi N

    2017-06-01

    Toscana and sandfly fever Sicilian viruses (TOSV and SFSV, respectively), both transmitted by sand flies, are prominent human pathogens in the Old World. Of 1,086 serum samples collected from cattle and sheep during 2013 in various regions of Kosovo (Balkan Peninsula), 4.7% and 53.4% had neutralizing antibodies against TOSV and SFSV, respectively.

  10. A Snapshot Avian Surveillance Reveals West Nile Virus and Evidence of Wild Birds Participating in Toscana Virus Circulation.

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    Hacioglu, Sabri; Dincer, Ender; Isler, Cafer Tayer; Karapinar, Zeynep; Ataseven, Veysel Soydal; Ozkul, Aykut; Ergunay, Koray

    2017-10-01

    Birds are involved in the epidemiology of several vector-borne viruses, as amplification hosts for viruses, dissemination vehicles for the vectors, and sources of emerging strains in cross-species transmission. Turkey provides diverse habitats for a variety of wild birds and is located along major bird migration routes. This study was undertaken to provide a cross-sectional screening of avian specimens for a spectrum of vector-borne viruses. The specimens were collected in Hatay province, in the Mediterranean coast of the Anatolian peninsula, located in the convergence zone of the known migration routes. Generic PCR assays were used for the detection of members of Nairovirus, Flavivirus, and Phlebovirus genera of Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae families. The circulating viruses were characterized via sequencing and selected specimens were inoculated onto Vero cell lines for virus isolation. Specimens from 72 wild birds belonging in 8 orders and 14 species were collected. A total of 158 specimens that comprise 32 sera (20.3%) from 7 species and 126 tissues (79.7%) from 14 species were screened. Eight specimens (8/158, 5%), obtained from 4 individuals (4/72, 5.5%), were positive. West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 1 sequences were characterized in the spleen, heart, and kidney tissues from a lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), which distinctly clustered from sequences previously identified in Turkey. Toscana virus (TOSV) genotype A and B sequences were identified in brain and kidney tissues from a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus), a great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), and a black stork (Ciconia nigra), without successful virus isolation. Partial amino acid sequences of the viral nucleocapsid protein revealed previously unreported substitutions. This study documents the involvement of avians in WNV dispersion in Anatolia as well in TOSV life cycle.

  11. A recombinant Toscana virus nucleoprotein in a diagnostic immunoblot test system.

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    Schwarz, T F; Gilch, S; Schätzl, H M

    1998-01-01

    Sandfly fever, a vector-borne disease endemic in the Mediterranean region, is caused by Toscana virus (TOS). The disease is increasingly important as a travel-related infection. Serological diagnosis is currently dependent on viral antigens derived from TOS-infected cell cultures. In this study, we report the cloning and expression of the TOS nucleoprotein (N) in Escherichia coli and evaluation of the recombinant (r) TOS N protein as an antigen for immunoblot assays. The TOS N gene was amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the bacterial expression vector pTrcHis-A. Sera with known TOS antibody status were used to evaluate the immunoblot assay. The expressed rTOS N protein was purified and used as antigen for immunoblots. By recombinant immunoblot, the TOS antibody status (IgM and/or IgG) of the test panel was correctly identified. No cross-reactivity was detected. The rTOS N protein is useful as an antigen for immunoblot assays, and will enable more laboratories to perform TOS antibody diagnosis.

  12. Detection and identification of Toscana and other phleboviruses by RT-nested-PCR assays with degenerated primers.

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    Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Echevarría, José-Manuel; Hernández, Lourdes; Estévez, Domingo; Navarro-Marí, José-María; Tenorio, Antonio

    2003-09-01

    Phleboviruses are a large and widespread group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropods. Toscana virus is one of the principal agents that causes meningitis in humans during the summer in Italy and, possibly, in other Mediterranean countries. Rift Valley Fever virus can cause serious illness in both animals and humans, leading to high morbidity and mortality, and is considered to be a potential agent for epizootics and human epidemics. Since information on this group of viruses is still scant, reliable laboratory tools for diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance must be developed, in order to ascertain their real impact on Public Health. Sequence data obtained from Spanish isolates of Toscana virus and other phleboviruses confirmed that natural genome variability may hamper the diagnosis of these agents by molecular methods, so this must be borne in mind when developing reliable assays. In view of the above, a novel and useful protocol has been developed for the detection and specific identification of every member of the phlebovirus genus present in a sample, including Toscana virus, based on a generic RT-nested-PCR, followed by sequencing of the amplified fragment. A change in this method also allowed specific direct detection and identification of wild isolates of Toscana virus of different geographical origin, using newly designed primers. Testing clinical samples with these assays confirmed the role of Toscana virus as an agent that causes acute aseptic meningitis in the central region of Spain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Co-circulation of Toscana virus and Punique virus in northern Tunisia: a microneutralisation-based seroprevalence study.

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    Sonia Sakhria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV and Punique virus (PUNV was previously demonstrated. In contrast to TOSV, a prominent human pathogen, there is no data supporting that PUNV is capable to infect and cause disease to humans. We studied the respective involvement of TOSV and PUNV in human infections in northern Tunisia through a seroprevalence study. METHODS: The presence of TOSV and PUNV neutralising antibodies (NT-Ab was tested in human sera collected from 5 districts of the governorate of Bizerte, and the titres of NT-Ab were estimated by microneutralisation (MN assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,273 sera were processed. TOSV and PUNV NT-Ab were detected in 522 (41% and 111 sera (8.72% respectively. TOSV seroprevalence varied from 17.2% to 59.4% depending on the district. Analysis of TOSV geometric mean titre values demonstrated a constant increase according to the age. The vast majority of sera containing NT-Ab were found to be more reactive toward TOSV than PUNV. Indeed, past infections with PUNV and TOSV were undisputable for 5 and 414 sera, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PUNV may be capable to infect humans but at a low rate. TOSV is responsible for the vast majority of human infections by sand fly-borne phleboviruses in northern Tunisia. TOSV must be considered by physician and tested in diagnostic laboratories for patients with meningitis and unexplained fever in northern Tunisia.

  14. Toscana virus meningitis case in Switzerland: an example of the ezVIR bioinformatics pipeline utility for the identification of emerging viruses.

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    Cordey, S; Bel, M; Petty, T J; Docquier, M; Sacco, L; Turin, L; Cherpillod, P; Emonet, S; Louis-Simonet, M; Zdobnov, E M; Ambrosioni, J; Kaiser, L

    2015-04-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) represents a frequent cause of viral meningitis in the Mediterranean Basin that remains neglected in neighbouring countries. We report a documented TOSV meningitis case in a traveller returning from Tuscany to Switzerland. While routine serological and PCR assays could not discriminate between TOSV and Sandfly fever Naples virus infection, a high-throughput sequencing performed directly on the cerebrospinal fluid specimen and analysed with the ezVIR pipeline provided an unequivocal viral diagnostic. TOSV could be unequivocally considered as the aetiological agent, proving the potential of ezVIR to improve standard diagnostics in cases of infection with uncommon or emerging viruses. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serological association between Leishmania infantum and sand fly fever Sicilian (but not Toscana) virus in sheltered dogs from southern Portugal.

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    Maia, Carla; Alwassouf, Sulaf; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Ayhan, Nazli; Pereira, André; Charrel, Remi N; Campino, Lenea

    2017-03-13

    Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal. Seventy-six (13.1%) out of 581 dogs were seropositive for L. infantum, 327 (56.3%) for SFSV and 36 (6.2%) for TOSV. Six dogs were co-exposed with L. infantum and TOSV, 51 with L. infantum and SFSV and 25 with TOSV and SFSV. One dog had antibodies to the three pathogens. Leishmania infantum seroprevalence was significantly higher in pure breed dogs than in mongrels and in dogs with clinical signs while SFSV positivity was significantly higher in males, in pure and cross-breed dogs than in mongrels and in those not treated with insecticides. Seroprevalence for both viruses was significantly higher in dogs over than 7 years-old than in those aged 1-7. A significant association was observed between the presence of antibodies to L. infantum and SFSV. The presence of antibodies to several phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in dogs, reinforces the need to implement efficient prophylactic measures to prevent infection among vertebrate hosts including humans. The results also indicate that dogs are good sentinels for assessing human exposure to TOSV and SFSV. Further studies must be performed to elucidate the role of dogs in the dynamics of transmission and if they can play a role as amplifying or reservoir hosts in the natural cycle of these viruses. Public and animal health impacts of these phleboviruses in Portugal should be addressed via serological and virological studies on both phlebotomine sand flies and vertebrate hosts, especially on humans.

  16. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

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    Varani, Stefania; Gelsomino, Francesco; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi; Mastroianni, Antonio; Briganti, Elisabetta; Ortolani, Patrizia; Albertini, Francesco; Calzetti, Carlo; Prati, Francesca; Cenni, Patrizia; Castellani, Gastone; Morini, Silvia; Rossini, Giada; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS) cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS. PMID:26569288

  17. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

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    Stefania Varani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  18. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

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    Gilberto Vaughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission.

  19. Epidemiology of Zika virus, 1947–2007

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    Posen, H Joshua; Keystone, Jay S; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Morris, Shaun K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since 1947, Zika virus has been identified sporadically in humans in Africa and Asia; however, clinically consequential Zika virus disease had not been documented prior to the current outbreak in the Americas. Considering 6 decades have passed since the first identification of the virus, it is perhaps unexpected that Zika virus was recognised only recently as capable of causing disease epidemics. Substantial work on understanding the epidemiology of Zika virus has been conducted since the virus' first outbreak in 2007 in Micronesia; however, there has been little study of the earlier data on Zika virus. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to identify evidence of Zika virus infection in humans from 1947 to 2007. Data extracted included seroprevalence of Zika virus infection, age distributions of positive test results and serologic test modalities used. Country-level and age-specific seroprevalence was calculated. Estimates of seroprevalence by different serologic test modalities were compared. Results 12 026 citations were retrieved by the literature search, and 76 articles were included in this review. Evidence of Zika virus infection in humans was found in 29 countries in Africa, 8 countries in Asia and 1 country in Europe. Country-level seroprevalence of Zika virus infection ranged from 0.4% to 53.3%. Seroprevalence of Zika virus infection was found to increase across the lifespan; 15–40% of reproductive-age individuals may have been previously infected. No significant difference was found between estimates of seroprevalence by different serologic test modalities. Discussion Zika virus has likely been endemic for decades in certain regions of the world; however, the majority of reproductive-age individuals have likely not been infected. Historical evidence of Zika virus infection exists regardless of the serologic test modality used. PMID:28588942

  20. Cinema ed enogastronomia nel portale turistico della Regione Toscana

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    Corinto, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Il presente lavoro tratta il caso della Regione Toscana che dal 2005 ha affidato alla Fondazione Sistema Toscana la missione di coordinare strategicamente le attività di promozione territoriale, tra cui le attività della film commission e del portale web dedicato al turismo. Lo scopo è quello di analizzare il modello di promozione degli itinerari enogastronomici e cinematografici come presentato dal portale turistico toscano. L'analisi dimostra che la scoperta dell'enogastronomia regionale è ...

  1. Serological and molecular detection of Toscana and other Phleboviruses in patients and sandflies in Tunisia.

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    Fezaa, Ons; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Savellini, Gianni Gori; Ammari, Lamia; Hogga, Nahed; Triki, Henda; Cusi, Maria Grazia; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-11-15

    Our aim is to detect the infection by Toscana virus (TOSV) and other Phleboviruses in the sera and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningitis in Tunisia. We examined various species of phlebotomus present in Tunisia to determine whether or not a direct relationship exists between cases of meningitis and the viruses circulating in the insect vectors. Patients with the meningeal syndrome were tested for anti-TOSV IgM and IgG using an indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and for the presence of TOSV and other Phleboviruses using a RT-PCR test. Of 263 patients were tested using ELISA of which 12.16% (n = 32/263) were IgM positive for anti TOSV. Of these 32 patients, 78% (n = 25/32) were IgG positive. 12.86% (n = 18/140) of the CSF samples tested by RT-PCR were positive for the Toscana virus. This study confirms, for the first time, that TOSV is involved in a neurological disorder in North Africa. The incidence of this involvement in Tunisia conforms with observations made in other Mediterranean countries. Moreover, for the first time, a molecular approach was used to detect SFSV in a Tunisian patient displaying neurological symptoms.

  2. [Several issues on the epidemiology of Zika virus disease].

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    Lu, Guiyang; Su, Yingying; Wang, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus belongs to Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus. In response to the current cluster of congenital malformations (microcephaly) and other neurological complications (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) that could be linked to Zika virus infection, WHO declares that Zika virus is of global public health importance. Data sources were from peer review articles and WHO documents. The sources of Zika virus infection would include patients, people with asymptomatic infections and primates. The infectious period of Zika virus remains unclear. However, according to the period that RNA of Zika virus can be positively detected in blood, saliva, urine or semen, we can presume that the communicable period may last for 2 months or even longer. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Presumptive vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission have been reported. More evidence indicated the existence of a cause-effect relationship between Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly/Guillain-Barre syndrome. Strategies include successful control the amount of mosquitoes and minimize the contacts between mosquitoes and human beings could effectively prevent the Zika virus transmission. Other preventive measures as cutting off vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission should also be adopted. The epidemiology of Zika virus remains uncertain which calls for further research.

  3. Epidemiology and pathogesis of human immunodifiency virus(HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiology and pathogesis of human immunodifiency virus(HIV) related heart disease: A review. MU Sani, BN Okeahialam. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 14(3) 2005: 255-260. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African ...

  4. Molecular Epidemiology Of Chikungunya Virus In Vellore District ...

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    Objective: The present study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Vellore district and also to identify the most susceptible sex and age group to CHIKV infection. Methods: About 100 positive blood samples were collected from various localities Vellore, Katpadi, ...

  5. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in selected countries

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    Bruggmann, P; Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo; Moreno, C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained...

  6. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus among local chickens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major constraints to poultry in most developing countries. It is a highly contagious and fatal disease caused by a virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. In other to evaluate the evidence of ND among village chicken, an epidemiological survey was carried out between September and ...

  7. Epidemiological patterns of human immunodeficiency virus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no doubt that the greatest health problem threatening the human race these times is the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The greatest burden of this scourge is in sub-saharan African. This has undoubtedly increased the incidence of opportunistic infection like herpes simplex virus infection. This study investigated the ...

  8. Hepatitis A virus infection - shifting epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, W.Z.; Hussain, A.B.; Hussain, T.; Anwar, M.; Ghani, E.; Asad-Ullah

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the Study: To determine the age distribution in HAV infection and seasonal variations in the prevalence of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration: The study was carried out on the patients reporting at Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, for determination of hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibody, from July 2003 to June 2004. Patients and Methods: Altogether 626 patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus infection were referred to AFIP Rawalpindi for this test. Blood samples were collected and sera were separated and transferred to plastic aliquots that were stored at -20 deg. C in a retrievable fashion until utilized in testing. The testing for ant-HAY IgM was carried out with the help of a commercial Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using reagent kits of Dias Orin (Germany) for HAV IgM antibodies. Results: The HAV IgM positive rate was 40.57% (252/626). Those tested included the sporadic cases as well as the patients from outbreak in two schools of Nowshera cantonment. The age of patients testing positive for HAV IgM, ranged from 03 to 27 years. There was a statistically significant seasonal difference in rate of positivity in different months of the calendar year. An outbreak of HAV infection was seen in the children of two neighboring schools of a cantonment, in which 44 children in different classes developed clinical jaundice. Conclusion: HAV infection occurs in a significant proportion of young people with a clinical suspicion of HAV infection. There is a changing trend of developing hepatitis a in the age beyond 18 years and in outbreaks, which was not there in our patients previously due to universal immunity found against HAV by the age of 18. It was because of chances of consumption of polluted food. (author)

  9. The Changing Epidemiology of Kunjin Virus in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses, with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks of disease in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North America. A strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), is endemic in northern Australia and infection with this virus is generally asymptomatic. However in early 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis in horses occurred in south-eastern Australia, resulting in mortality in approximately 10%–15% of infected horses. A WNV-like virus (WNVNSW2011) was isolated and found to be most closely related to the indigenous WNVKUN, rather than other exotic WNV strains. Furthermore, at least two amino acid changes associated with increased virulence of the North American New York 99 strain (WNVNY99) compared to the prototype WNVKUN were present in the WNVNSW2011 sequence. This review summarizes our current understanding of WNVKUN and how the epidemiology and ecology of this virus has changed. Analysis of virulence determinants of contemporary WNVKUN isolates will provide clues on where virulent strains have emerged in Australia. A better understanding of the changing ecology and epidemiology associated with the emergence of virulent strains is essential to prepare for future outbreaks of WNV disease in Australia. PMID:24287851

  10. Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-30

    to conduct the proposed field investigations. I. Office of the President 2. Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife 3. Ministry of Research, Science and...KEMRI - The Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife - The Ministry of Health - The Ministry of Research Science and Technology The Office of the President made...1 " EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EPIZOOTICLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUSES IN KENYA ANNUAL REPORT 0PETER M. TUKEI In 00 NMAY 30, 1988

  11. Chikungunya virus; Review of Epidemiology and Outbreak in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tousif Raza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is mosquito-borne, alpha virus. It causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. CHIKV has spread to 22 countries including Pakistan resulting in hundreds of thousands of death across the world. International travel stands out as one of the major risk factors for rapid global spread of the disease. CHIKV can be highly debilitating and large epidemic have severe economic consequences. Reemergence of CHIKV is serious public health concern. In the past 10 years, after decades of infrequent, specific outbreaks, the virus has caused major epidemic outbreaks in Africa, Asia, the India Ocean, and more recently the Caribbean and Americas. Chikungunya virus represents a substantial health burden to affected population, with symptoms that include severe joint and muscle pain, rashes, and fever, as well as prolonged periods of disability in some patients. Entry of virus into tissues causes infiltration of innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells and adaptive immune cells. Macrophages bearing the replicating virus, in turn, secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1B, TNF-a, IL-17. Together, this pro-inflammatory milieu induces osteoclastogenesis, bone loss, and erosion. Understanding the mechanisms of host immune responses is essential for the development of diagnosis, treatments and vaccines. Viral culture and isolation from blood cells of infected patients are the Gold standards for diagnosis. Early diagnosis of CHIKV is possible by nucleic acid detection techniques. Thus there is urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathology, prevention and treatment of this disease. In this article, we have provided and update on Chikungunya virus with its recent epidemiology, molecular virology and antiviral therapies and vaccines.

  12. Globalization and the Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2018-03-02

    Increased economic interdependence, social integration, and other aspects of globalization are contributing to significant changes in hepatitis A epidemiology. Globally, the incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is decreasing, the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) is increasing, and the proportion of symptomatic cases is increasing as the average age at infection increases. In low-income countries, HAV remains endemic but improved water and sanitation systems are reducing transmission rates among young children. In high-income countries, most adults remain susceptible to HAV and foodborne outbreaks are becoming more frequent. Middle-income countries have diverse epidemiological profiles, and they play important roles in the global spread of HAV through international trade and travel. Future changes in the epidemiology of hepatitis A will be heavily influenced by globalization processes. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Hepatitis A virus infection: Epidemiology and genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Báez Triana, Paula Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus infection is a global public health problem. The virus has a wide range of distribution and it is the main cause of acute hepatitis transmitted by the enteric route in Latin America. The viral particle is stable under environmental conditions and conserves its infectivity for several weeks, enabling its transmission by contaminated water and food. Worldwide, different epidemiological patterns have been identified, which may change over time by modification of social and economic variables in the population such as vaccination and the improvement of hygiene and primary health conditions. This leaves new populations susceptible to infection. In Latin America the circulation of genotype I and subgenotypes A and B has been described, but more research is needed to provide the knowledge needed to manage the prevention and control plans for the worldwide reduction of the prevalence of infection. For this paper, a literature review was performed on the SciELO, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases under the search terms "Hepatitis A", "Epidemiology," "Seroprevalence" and "Infection." From the results obtained, only papers published in English and Spanish to describe epidemiological and molecular studies of interest in Latin America were included.

  14. Zika virus epidemiology: from Uganda to world pandemic, an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Rivera-Molina, A; Pérez-Pavajeau, C; Ossa-Ospina, I; Santos-García, C; Rojas-Anaya, M C; de-la-Torre, A

    2018-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology. The first isolation occurred in Uganda in 1947. Since then, important outbreaks were documented globally. Consequently, an emergent public health problem arose from a rapidly increasing incidence and its association with the development of neurological diseases such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Key factors in the successful containment of outbreaks include surveillance of mosquitos in the neighbourhood, an early mosquito control treatment, an assertive information campaign, and the involvement of the local population and healthcare workers. As such, while ZIKV seems to be spreading globally in a similar manner to other arboviruses, such as Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, it can also be rapidly contained due to the pre-existing availability of necessary resources and regulatory tools as control measures. This review aims to provide a description of those characteristics of ZIKV infection that may be useful in the construction of effective outbreak control strategies.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Italy during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Magurano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In view of the goal of measles elimination, it is of great importance to assess the circulation of wild-type measles virus (MV. Genetic analysis is indispensable to understand the epidemiology of measles. A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2008, with over 4000 cases reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system introduced in 2007, 37% of which were laboratory confirmed. METHODS. Urine and saliva samples were collected during 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of measles sequences was performed in order to understand the epidemiological situation of wild-type (MV circulation in that period. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Data showed predominant circulation of the genotype D4. Genotypes A, D8, D9 and H1 were also detected in a small number of samples, probably representing imported cases.

  16. [Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, José Manuel; Fogeda, Marta; Avellón, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The general features of the epidemiology and ecology of hepatitis E virus in Spain are already known after 20 years of investigations. Genotype 3 strains, mainly from sub-genotype 3f, circulated among swine livestock and certain wild mammals, and would be sporadically transmitted to humans through direct contact with the reservoirs or by consumption of foods derived from them. Bivalve shellfish contaminated by hepatitis E virus from sewage could also play a role in transmission. Although the interpretation of results from seroprevalence studies in low endemic settings is still controversial, antibody to hepatitis E virus displays an overall prevalence less than 10% among the population of Spain, increasing significantly with age. From the, approximately, 150 cases of acute hepatitis E recorded in the international literature, males older than 40 years, suffering a mild, locally acquired disease predominate. In addition, hepatitis E might be more frequent in the North of the country than in other regions. Although the disease does not usually have a great clinical relevance, the occasional finding of cases of fulminant hepatitis, and of ribavirin-resistant, chronic hepatitis E virus infections among the immunocompromised would recommend the surveillance of the infection by the public health authority and a better implementation of specific diagnostic procedures in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of hepatitis A and E virus infection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, F J; Mendes Clemente, C; Silva, L C da

    2005-03-01

    This review has the objective to discuss the epidemiological aspects of the enterically transmitted hepatitis A and E in Brazil. The prevalence of hepatitis A varies greatly in different Brazilian regions, from 56% in South and Southeast to 93% in North region (Manaus, Amazon). Such differences are also found in different socioeconomic levels among age groups. A significantly higher prevalence was seen in the low socioeconomic group between 1-30 years. This difference is most striking in the first 10 years of age (23.5% vs 60.0%, high/middle vs low, respectively). Despite the improvements in sanitary conditions, hepatitis A is still endemic and outbreaks may occur. As an increasing proportion of the population is becoming susceptible to hepatitis A virus infection and as adult individuals may present more severe forms of the disease, the authors conclude that the implement of hepatitis A vaccination should be considered. Some Brazilian data have shown that the genotype found in our country were IA and IB. Isolates from this study were closely related genetically (or even identical) to isolates originating in other South American countries and overseas, providing firm evidence for epidemiological links between persons who travel to endemic areas. In spite of favorable environmental conditions, outbreaks of hepatitis E have never been reported in Brazil. Nevertheless, reports have demonstrated the evidence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in some Brazilian regions. The seroprevalence of IgG anti-hepatitis E virus among normal populations shows positivities of 6.1% in gold-miners, 3.3% in general population, 2.0-7.5% in blood donors, 1.0% in pregnant women, and 4.5% in children, with no differences among regions. In populations at risk the prevalence of anti-hepatits E virus varies greatly. Among patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis 2.1% was detected in the Southeast to 29% in the Northeast, in 10.6% of acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis relatives in

  18. Zika virus: History, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Byung-Hak; Yun, Sang-Im; Woolley, Michael; Lee, Young-Min

    2017-07-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is now causing an unprecedented large-scale outbreak in the Americas. Historically, ZIKV spread eastward from equatorial Africa and Asia to the Pacific Islands during the late 2000s to early 2010s, invaded the Caribbean and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infection generally causes no symptoms or only a mild self-limiting illness, it has recently been linked to a rising number of severe neurological diseases, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because of the continuous geographic expansion of both the virus and its mosquito vectors, ZIKV poses a serious threat to public health around the globe. However, there are no vaccines or antiviral therapies available against this pathogen. This review summarizes a fast-growing body of literature on the history, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical presentation of ZIKV and highlights the urgent need for the development of efficient control strategies for this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology of gastroenteritis viruses in Japan: Prevalence, seasonality, and outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprachum, Aksara; Khamrin, Pattara; Maneekarn, Niwat; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Acute gastroenteritis has been recognized as one of the most common diseases in humans and continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. Several groups of viruses have been reported as the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis, including rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, human astrovirus, adenovirus, and an increasing number of others which have been reported more recently. The epidemiology, prevalence, seasonality, and outbreaks of these viruses have been reviewed in a number of studies conducted in Japan over three decades. Rotavirus and norovirus were the two most common viruses detected almost equally in children under 5 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Like many other countries, the main rotavirus strains circulating in pediatric patients in Japan are G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], and G9P[8]. Norovirus GII.4 was involved in most outbreaks in Japan and found to be associated with the emergence of new variants Sydney_2012. The classic human astrovirus, MLB, and VA clades astroviruses were also commonly found in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. The sapovirus and adenovirus have been identified as the minor viral causative agents for acute gastroenteritis in Japan. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chikungunya virus: epidemiology, replication, disease mechanisms, and prospective intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laurie A.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2017-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a reemerging arbovirus, causes a crippling musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in humans characterized by fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, rash, and headache. CHIKV is transmitted by Aedes species of mosquitoes and is capable of an epidemic, urban transmission cycle with high rates of infection. Since 2004, CHIKV has spread to new areas, causing disease on a global scale, and the potential for CHIKV epidemics remains high. Although CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease and significant economic burden in affected areas, no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies are available. In this Review, we describe CHIKV epidemiology, replication cycle, pathogenesis and host immune responses, and prospects for effective vaccines and highlight important questions for future research. PMID:28248203

  1. Contrasting landscape epidemiology of two sympatric rabies virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Heather D; Gregory, Andrew J; Davis, Rolan; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Wisely, Samantha M

    2010-07-01

    Viral strain evolution and disease emergence are influenced by anthropogenic change to the environment. We investigated viral characteristics, host ecology, and landscape features in the rabies-striped skunk disease system of the central Great Plains to determine how these factors interact to influence disease emergence. We amplified portions of the N and G genes of rabies viral RNA from 269 samples extracted from striped skunk brains throughout the distribution of two different rabies strains for which striped skunks were the reservoir. Because the distribution of these two strains overlapped on the landscape and were present in the same host population, we could evaluate how viral properties influenced epidemiological patterns in the area of sympatry. We found that South Central Skunk rabies (SCSK) exhibited intense purifying selection and high infectivity, which are both characteristics of an epizootic virus. Conversely, North Central Skunk rabies (NCSK) exhibited relaxed purifying selection and comparatively lower infectivity, suggesting the presence of an enzootic virus. The host population in the area of sympatry was highly admixed, and skunks among allopatric and sympatric areas had similar effective population sizes. Spatial analysis indicated that landscape features had minimal influence on NCSK movement across the landscape, but those same features were partial barriers to the spread of SCSK. We conclude that NCSK and SCSK have different epidemiological properties that interact differently with both host and landscape features to influence rabies spread in the central Great Plains. We suggest a holistic approach for future studies of emerging infectious diseases that includes studies of viral properties, host characteristics, and spatial features.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N J; Samuel, A R

    2003-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infections and long term effects on the condition and productivity of the many animal species it affects. Countries which have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. In the last 15 years there have been significant advances in the understanding of FMD epidemiology. These have largely been due to the application of the molecular biological techniques of polymerase chain-reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing. In the World Reference Laboratory for FMD (Pirbright, UK), a large sequence database has been built up. This database has been used to aid in the global tracing of virus movements. It has been possible to genetically group many FMDV's based on their geographic origin and this has led to their being referred to as topotypes. The implications of this are that inter-regional spread of viruses can often be easily recognised and any evolutionary changes which subsequently occur can be monitored. Using these techniques, for the first time, we have been able to unequivocally show the recent pandemic spread of a FMDV type O strain through the whole of Asia and into Africa and Europe. This type of surveillance will become increasingly important as further globalisation of markets occurs. An increased understanding of how FMDV strains move between geographic regions will play a pivotal role in the development of future disease control strategies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Zika virus infection: epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Santos, Flavia Barreto Dos; Sequeira, Patricia Carvalho

    2016-10-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus previously believed to cause only a mild and self-limiting illness. Recently, it has emerged as a new public health threat that caused a large outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013-2014 and since 2015 an explosive outbreak in Brazil, with an increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) and neurological complications, mainly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Since then, it has spread through the Americas. On 1 February 2016, the WHO declared the ZIKV epidemic in Brazil a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. We reviewed the epidemiology of ZIKV infection, clinical presentations and diagnosis. We highlighted the clinical features and nonvector borne transmission of the virus. Association between ZIKV infection and severe foetal outcomes, including microcephaly and other birth defects; increased rate of GBS and other neurological complications due to the ongoing ZIKV outbreak; increased evidence to date of ZIKV being the only arbovirus linked to sexual transmission; the challenge of ZIKV diagnosis; and the need for a specific point-of care test in epidemic scenarios. The findings illustrate the emergence of a viral disease with the identification of new associated disorders, new modes of transmission, including maternal-foetal and sexual transmission.

  4. Emerging Trends in Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Cristina; Silvestri, Caterina; Voller, Fabio

    2017-09-28

    Although a vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been available since 1982, the prevalence of adults with chronic HBV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia is still estimated at 5-10%. A high rate of chronic infections is also found in the Amazon and the southern parts of eastern and central Europe. In the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, the prevalence is 2-5%. Less than 1% of the population of Western Europe and North America is chronically infected. Given the high prevalence of infections (such as hepatitis) among inmates, prison is considered a reservoir for facilitating such infections. Based on these premises, this current review examines and discusses emerging trends in the epidemiology of HBV infection, with particular attention to HBV infection in prison. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence in prisoners in west and central Africa is very high (23.5%). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has highlighted the importance of HBV blood screening and subsequent anti-HBV vaccination in the prison population. The vaccination was recommended for all inmates, representing an opportunity to prevent HBV infection in a high-risk population. In these subjects, an accelerated hepatitis B immunisation schedule may result in rapid seroconversion for early short-term protection. Therefore, it is necessary to seek collaboration among public health officials, clinicians and correctional authorities to implement a vaccination programme.

  5. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in The Netherlands and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahné, S.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis resulted from a decade of studying the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Netherlands, England and Wales and at a European level, starting in 2003. The studies aimed to improve the knowledge of the local epidemiology of HBV and to assess the effectiveness of HBV

  6. Epidemiological features and trends of Ebola virus disease in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligui Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a World Health Organization report, the epidemiological features of Ebola virus disease (EVD have changed significantly in West Africa. In this study, the new epidemiological features and prevalence trends for EVD in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are described. It was predicted that the Ebola outbreak would end in June 2015.

  7. Multiple Introductions of Zika Virus into the United States Revealed Through Genomic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Multiple introductions of Zika virus into the United States revealed through genomic epidemiology Nathan D Grubaugh1*, Jason T Ladner2,*, Moritz UG...042 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently causing an... virus case data Weekly reports of international travel-associated Zika fever cases in Florida and ZIKV infected cases acquired in Florida were obtained

  8. Cinema ed enogastronomia nel portale turistico della Regione Toscana / Cinema and enogastronomy in the tourism portal of the Toscana Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Corinto

    2016-05-01

    The paper analyzes the case study of the Tuscan Region which in 2007 has charged the Sistema Toscana Foundation to strategically control all the territorial marketing activities, even including those of the regional film commission and the promotional tourist web site. The aim is to analyze the specific promotional model for enogastronomy and film tourism, as in the peculiar combination of the Tuscan case. The findings are that enongatronomy and tourism have been promoted in combination but only referring to 'minor' tuscan destinations, different from the crowded regional capital or other cultural sites. This choice has been determined by the strategic market positioning of the entire regional tourism supply, effectively integrating local vocations in the web communications. The task of the Foundation in promoting the whole territory and even the minor destinations must be considered as substantially successful, mainly because it has increased the visibility of the Tuscan region by conveniently using all the old and new media tools.

  9. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease, as well as hepatocellular cancer. Persons at risk of acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are also at risk of acquisition of infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ...

  10. Changing epidemiology of hepatitis A virus in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arankalle V

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vidya Arankalle,1 Monjori Mitra,2 Sheila Bhave,3 Apurba Ghosh,2 Sundaram Balasubramanian,4 Suparna Chatterjee,5 Jaydeep Choudhury,6 Amarjeet Chitkara,7 Ganesh Kadhe,8 Amey Mane,8 Sucheta Roy81Department of Virology, National Institute of Virology, Pashan, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Department of Pediatrics, KEM Hospital and Research Center, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 4Department of Pediatrics, Kanchi Kamkodi Child Trust Hospital (KKCTH, Nungambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; 5Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (IPGMER and Seth Sukhlal Karnani Memorial (SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 6Department of Pediatrics, Sri Aurobindo Seva Kendra (EEDF Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 7Department of Pediatrics, Sarvodaya Childcare, Pitampura, Delhi, India; 8Medical Affairs Department, Wockhardt Ltd, Mumbai, Maharashtra, IndiaAbstract: Previous studies from India have observed an increased incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection in the adult and adolescent population compared with children, indicating a shift in epidemiology of HAV. However, no HAV seroprevalence study has been conducted in India over the past decade. This prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 928 children (aged 18 months to 10 years, to estimate the age-related seroprevalence of HAV across different regions of India. The present study also evaluated the impact of various factors such as age, socioeconomic class (SEC, education, source of drinking water, and excreta disposal on HAV seroprevalence. Overall, 348 (37.5% children were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies. Seroprevalence of HAV in the 6- to 10-year age group (50.3% was higher (P=0.000 than in the 18-month to 6-year age group (30.3%. SEC and educational status of the parents were significantly associated with HAV seropositivity (P=0.000 for both

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Kadun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes among blood donors and outpatients attendees positive for antibody to HCV (anti-HCV). Justification: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to be a major disease burden on the world and Man is the only known natural host of Hepatitis C ...

  12. Oropouche Virus: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Molecular Aspects of a Neglected Orthobunyavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando; de Souza, William Marciel; Pinheiro, Francisco de Paula; Figueiredo, Mário Luiz; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    AbstractOropouche virus (OROV) is an important cause of arboviral illness in Latin American countries, more specifically in the Amazon region of Brazil, Venezuela and Peru, as well as in other countries such as Panama. In the past decades, the clinical, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of OROV have been published and provide the basis for a better understanding of this important human pathogen. Here, we describe the milestones in a comprehensive review of OROV epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular biology, including a description of the first isolation of the virus, the outbreaks during the past six decades, clinical aspects of OROV infection, diagnostic methods, genome and genetic traits, evolution, and viral dispersal.

  13. Phylodynamic analysis of the emergence and epidemiological impact of transmissible defective dengue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ruian; Aaskov, John; Holmes, Edward C; Lloyd-Smith, James O

    2013-02-01

    Intra-host sequence data from RNA viruses have revealed the ubiquity of defective viruses in natural viral populations, sometimes at surprisingly high frequency. Although defective viruses have long been known to laboratory virologists, their relevance in clinical and epidemiological settings has not been established. The discovery of long-term transmission of a defective lineage of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) in Myanmar, first seen in 2001, raised important questions about the emergence of transmissible defective viruses and their role in viral epidemiology. By combining phylogenetic analyses and dynamical modeling, we investigate how evolutionary and ecological processes at the intra-host and inter-host scales shaped the emergence and spread of the defective DENV-1 lineage. We show that this lineage of defective viruses emerged between June 1998 and February 2001, and that the defective virus was transmitted primarily through co-transmission with the functional virus to uninfected individuals. We provide evidence that, surprisingly, this co-transmission route has a higher transmission potential than transmission of functional dengue viruses alone. Consequently, we predict that the defective lineage should increase overall incidence of dengue infection, which could account for the historically high dengue incidence reported in Myanmar in 2001-2002. Our results show the unappreciated potential for defective viruses to impact the epidemiology of human pathogens, possibly by modifying the virulence-transmissibility trade-off, or to emerge as circulating infections in their own right. They also demonstrate that interactions between viral variants, such as complementation, can open new pathways to viral emergence.

  14. Microbiological and physicochemical profile of traditional Salsiccia toscana during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Preziuso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution during refrigerated storage of the main microbiological and physicochemical parameters of a traditional Italian fresh sausage, salsiccia toscana. The following parameters were analyzed at Days 0, 6 and 9 of storage: total aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcaceae, yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes; pH, Aw, moisture, protein, total lipids, ash, fatty acid composition, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances, colour measurement. The results revealed a statistically significant increase in the main microbiological parameters between Days 0 and 9 of refrigerated storage, with total bacterial counts exceeding 107 CFU/g after nine days and Brochothrix thermosphacta representing the main spoilage microorganism. Among physicochemical parameters, discolouration was noted during the time of storage, with a significantly paler colour on the surface of sausages with casings after nine days of storage. Considering that the initial bacterial counts were higher than 105 CFU/g for Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonadaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, and that the product is traditionally purchased loose without any packaging, it is fundamental to improve the good manufacturing practices, particularly measures to control processing temperatures.

  15. Arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by Phlebotomine sandflies in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaquit, J; Grandadam, M; Fouque, F; Andry, P E; Peyrefitte, C

    2010-03-11

    Phlebotomine sandflies are known to transmit leishmaniases, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. These sandfly-borne viruses are mainly the Phlebovirus, the Vesiculovirus and the Orbivirus. Some of these viruses are associated with outbreaks or human cases in the Mediterranean Europe. In this paper, the viruses transmitted by Phlebotomine sandflies in Europe (Toscana virus, Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus) are reviewed and their medical importance, geographical distribution, epidemiology and potential spreading discussed. Data on vertebrate reservoirs is sparse for sandfly fever viruses. The factor currently known to limit the spread of diseases is mainly the distribution areas of potential vectors. The distribution areas of the disease may not be restricted to the areas where they have been recorded but could be as wide as those of their vectors, that is to say Larroussius and P. papatasi mainly but not exclusively. Consequently, field work in form of viral isolation from sandflies and possible reservoirs as well as laboratory work to establish vectorial competence of colonised sandflies need to be encouraged in a near future, and epidemiological surveillance should be undertaken throughout the European Union.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus during the 2009-2010 season in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaks, Reinis; Ribakova, Irina; Gardovska, Dace; Kazaks, Andris

    2013-05-01

    For the first time, we studied molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized children in Latvia. During the study period, ten unique group A and three group B strains were identified and assigned to a single genotype within each group-GA2 for group A and BA-IV for group B.

  17. Epidemiology of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma and Its Association with Epstein Barr Virus in Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xin; Nolte, Ilja; Gao, Zifen; Vos, Hans; Hepkema, Bouke; Poppema, Sibrand; van den Berg, Anke; Diepstra, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and its association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) varies significantly with age, sex, ethnicity and geographic location. This is the first report on epidemiological features of cHL patients from Northern regions of China. These features

  18. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in select countries-volume 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaroufi, A.; Vince, A.; Himatt, S. M.; Mohamed, R.; Fung, J.; Opare-Sem, O.; Workneh, A.; Njouom, R.; Al Ghazzawi, I.; Abdulla, M.; Kaliaskarova, K. S.; Owusu-Ofori, S.; Abdelmageed, M. K.; Adda, D.; Akin, O.; Al Baqali, A.; Al Dweik, N.; Al Ejji, K.; Al Kaabi, S.; Al Naamani, K.; Al Qamish, J.; Al Sadadi, M.; Al Salman, J.; AlBadri, M.; Al-Busafi, S. A.; Al-Romaihi, H. E.; Ampofo, W.; Antonov, K.; Anyaike, C.; Arome, F.; Bane, A.; Blach, S.; Borodo, M. M.; Brandon, S. M.; Bright, B.; Butt, M. T.; Cardenas, I.; Chan, H. L. Y.; Chen, C. J.; Chen, D. S.; Chen, P. J.; Chien, R. N.; Chuang, W. L.; Cuellar, D.; Derbala, M.; Elbardiny, A. A.; Estes, C.; Farag, E.; Gamkrelidze, I.; Garcia, V.; Genov, J.; Ghandour, Z.; Ghuloom, M.; Gomez, B.; Gunter, J.; Habeeb, J.; Hajelssedig, O.; Hamoudi, W.; Hrstic, I.; Hu, C. C.; Huang, C. F.; Hui, Y. T.; Jahis, R.; Jelev, D.; John, A. K.; Kamel, Y.; Kao, J. H.; Khamis, J.; Khattabi, H.; Khoudri, I.; Konysbekova, A.; Kotzev, I.; Lai, M. S.; Lao, W. C.; Layden, J.; Lee, M. H.; Lesi, O.; Li, M.; Lo, A.; Loo, C. K.; Lukšić, B.; Malu, A. O.; Mateva, L.; Mitova, R.; Morović, M.; Murphy, K.; Mustapha, B.; Nde, H.; Nersesov, A.; Ngige, E.; Njoya, O.; Nonković, D.; Obekpa, S.; Oguche, S.; Okolo, E. E.; Omede, O.; Omuemu, C.; Ondoa, P.; Phillips, R. O.; Prokopenko, Y. N.; Razavi, H.; Razavi-Shearer, D.; Redae, B.; Reic, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Rios, C.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, L. R.; Sanad, S. J.; Schmelzer, J. D.; Sharma, M.; Simonova, M.; Su, T. H.; Sultan, K.; Tan, S. S.; Tchernev, K.; Tsang, O. T. Y.; Tsang, S.; Tzeuton, C.; Ugoeze, S.; Uzochukwu, B.; Vi, R.; Wani, H. U.; Wong, V. W. S.; Yacoub, R.; Yesmembetov, K. I.; Youbi, M.; Yuen, M. F.; Razavi-Shearer, K.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the introduction of newer, more efficacious treatment options, there is a pressing need for policy makers and public health officials to develop or adapt national hepatitis C virus (HCV) control strategies to the changing epidemiological landscape. To do so, detailed, country-specific data

  19. VIRUS OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA. EPIDEMIOLOGY, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PREVENTION OF PAPILLOMA VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Narvskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The information reflected modern knowledge about virus of human papilloma (VHP and pathogenesis of papilloma viral infection is presented in the lecture. The actual problems of epidemiology, laboratory diagnostics and prevention of VHP associated damage of cervical epithelium have been described.

  20. Can Machines Learn Respiratory Virus Epidemiology?: A Comparative Study of Likelihood-Free Methods for the Estimation of Epidemiological Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Tessmer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To estimate and predict the transmission dynamics of respiratory viruses, the estimation of the basic reproduction number, R0, is essential. Recently, approximate Bayesian computation methods have been used as likelihood free methods to estimate epidemiological model parameters, particularly R0. In this paper, we explore various machine learning approaches, the multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and long-short term memory, to learn and estimate the parameters. Further, we compare the accuracy of the estimates and time requirements for machine learning and the approximate Bayesian computation methods on both simulated and real-world epidemiological data from outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1pdm09, mumps, and measles. We find that the machine learning approaches can be verified and tested faster than the approximate Bayesian computation method, but that the approximate Bayesian computation method is more robust across different datasets.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of human rabies viruses in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Kobayashi, Yuji; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted by rabid animals to humans. Rabies is prevalent in all continents, with over 60% of human deaths occurring in Asia. Sri Lanka is a rabies-endemic country. This study shows that rabies afflicted more older individuals than children in Sri Lanka between 2008 and 2010. This novel finding indicates that older people in Sri Lanka should be more aware of the risk of rabies. Phylogenetic analyses of the rabies N and G genes showed that the Sri Lankan rabies viruses are distinct and probably originated from a single clone. The G-L noncoding region is highly diverse, and is suitable for the analysis of virus evolution within a country. A phylogenetic analysis of this region showed high diversity in the currently circulating Sri Lankan rabies viruses, which can be divided into seven clades. Some clades are unique to a specific geographic region, whereas others occur at multiple locations. This indicates that the movement of dogs, the main rabies-transmitting animal in Sri Lanka, is restricted in some areas but less limited in others. These data may help to formulate a more efficient rabies control program in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To review the incidence, outcomes and risk factors associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in South African children. Design. Review of published literature and laboratory records. Methods. Review of the published literature. Articles listed on MEDLINE with 'South African' or 'children' and ...

  3. Epidemiologic Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Tibet, China, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Li, Kun; Luo, Houqiang; Lan, Yanfang; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Lihong; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Zhu, Suolangsi; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Chamba, Yangzom; Li, Jia Kui

    2017-06-01

    We investigated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) prevalence in high-altitude regions of Tibet, China, by using standard assays to test mosquitoes, pigs, and humans. Results confirmed that JEV has spread to these areas. Disease prevention and control strategies should be used along with surveillance to limit spread of JEV in high-altitude regions of Tibet.

  4. The epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus infection in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciofi degli Atti Marta L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological importance of varicella and zoster and the availability of an efficacious and safe vaccine have led to an important international debate regarding the suitability of mass vaccination. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of varicella and zoster in Italy and to determine whether there have been changes with respect to observations provided by an analogous study conducted 8 years ago, in order to define the most appropriate vaccination strategy. Methods A number of data sources were evaluated, a cross-sectional population-based seroprevalence study was conducted on samples collected in 2004, and the results were compared with data obtained in 1996. Results The data from active and passive surveillance systems confirm that varicella is a widespread infectious disease which mainly affects children. VZV seroprevalence did not substantially differ from that found in the previous study. The sero-epidemiological profile in Italy is different from that in other European countries. In particular, the percentage of susceptible adolescents is at least nearly twice as high as in other European countries and in the age group 20–39 yrs, approximately 9% of individuals are susceptible to VZV. Conclusion The results of this study can contribute to evaluating the options for varicella vaccination. It is possible that in a few years, in all Italian Regions, there will exist the conditions necessary for implementing a mass vaccination campaign and that the large-scale availability of MMRV tetravalent vaccines will facilitate mass vaccination.

  5. Genetic characterization, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic relationships of insect-specific viruses in the taxon Negevirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marcio R T; Contreras-Gutierrez, María Angélica; Guzman, Hilda; Martins, Livia C; Barbirato, Mayla Feitoza; Savit, Chelsea; Balta, Victoria; Uribe, Sandra; Vivero, Rafael; Suaza, Juan David; Oliveira, Hamilton; Nunes Neto, Joaquin P; Carvalho, Valeria L; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Cardoso, Jedson F; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santo; da Silva Lemos, Poliana; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Fish, Durland; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

    2017-04-01

    The recently described taxon Negevirus is comprised of a diverse group of insect-specific viruses isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies. In this study, a comprehensive genetic characterization, molecular, epidemiological and evolutionary analyses were conducted on nearly full-length sequences of 91 new negevirus isolates obtained in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Panama, USA and Nepal. We demonstrated that these arthropod restricted viruses are clustered in two major phylogenetic groups with origins related to three plant virus genera (Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunevirus). Molecular analyses demonstrated that specific host correlations are not present with most negeviruses; instead, high genetic variability, wide host-range, and cross-species transmission were noted. The data presented here also revealed the existence of five novel insect-specific viruses falling into two arthropod-restrictive virus taxa, previously proposed as distinct genera, designated Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus. Our results provide a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology, evolution, taxonomy and stability of this group of insect-restricted viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of Varicella zoster virus : from epidemiology to prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, David

    2008-01-01

    The Varicella zoster virus is a human pathogen which causes Varicella after primary infection and herpes zoster after secondary reactivation. Both disease manifestations can occur at any age; however, Varicella is seen more commonly in children whilst herpes zoster is mainly observed in the elderly. Although uncommon, disease complications secondary to Varicella may be severe and life-threatening especially at the extremes of age, during pregnancy and in the immunocompromised. Attenuated Vari...

  8. An Update on Ebola Virus Epidemiology and Experimental Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sahiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ebola Virus Disease (EVD, formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a re-emerging zoonotic disease that has caused periodic outbreaks since the first reported outbreak in 1976. In 2014, in West Africa, the largest outbreak of ebolavirus in history emerged, affecting close to 30,000 people; more than 10,000 of these individuals died. This virus, which causes fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, has the highest mortality rate (25–90% among the viral hemorrhagic fever diseases. Ebolavirus is transmitted through the blood and body fluids of infected animals and humans, as well as through contaminated materials. The virus is often spread in the hospital setting, and it is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent. Accordingly, diagnostic procedures and infected patient care should be performed at the highest safety levels. The potential therapies and vaccines against EVD have continued developing or been used in emergency situations during last outbreak. Some of these include the cAd3 and rVSV-Ebola vaccines and new treatment modalities, such as passive immunization, brincidofovir, and ZMapp. Although these trials have shown different levels of success, there are no standardized treatments or vaccines that have been approved for humans. Such prevention is the only way to reduce human infection and the spread of outbreaks and is primarily based on personal protection measures and raising awareness of the risk factors. [Dis Mol Med 2016; 4(4.000: 43-50

  9. Epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Young; Lee, Chang Hong

    2011-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. The recognition of the problem led to a worldwide effort to reduce transmission of HBV through routine infant vaccination. HBV infection is the most common cause of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. After hepatitis B vaccine era, seroprevalence of hepatits B surface antigen is decreasing, particularly in children. Hepatitis B vaccine is remarkably safe and shows high immunogenicity. Universal childhood immunization with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine in the first year of life is a highly effective method for prevention and control of hepatitis B.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection during pregnancy in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paschale, Massimo; Ceriani, Cristina; Romanò, Luisa; Cerulli, Teresa; Cagnin, Debora; Cavallari, Serena; Ndayake, Joseph; Zaongo, Dieudonné; Diombo, Kouma; Priuli, Gianbattista; Viganò, Paolo; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the cause of enterically transmitted non-A, non-C hepatitis (an infection that is particularly severe during pregnancy) in tropical and subtropical countries. As there are no published data concerning the prevalence of HEV antibodies in Benin, their presence was investigated in pregnant women undergoing routine HIV screening in a rural area in northern Benin and in pregnant women with acute non-A, non-C hepatitis. A total of 278 serum samples were collected from asymptomatic pregnant women in 2011 were tested for HEV and hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies, and the HEV IgM-positive samples were further tested for HEV-RNA. A further seven samples of pregnant women with acute non-A, non-C hepatitis collected during episodes of acute hepatitis in 2005 were also analysed. Of the 278 samples collected in 2011, 16.19% were positive for HEV IgG and 1.44% for HEV IgM (none positive for HEV-RNA), and 99.64% were positive for total HAV antibodies (none positive for HAV IgM). Six of the seven samples collected in 2005 were positive for HEV IgG and IgM, and two were also positive for HEV-RNA. The circulation of HEV infection is significant among pregnant women in Benin, in whom the consequences may be fatal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Klein, Marina B

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will give an update on the prevalence of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, and describe recent trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The focus is mainly on patients followed in clinics in high-income countries and their heterogeneity in terms...... of risk factors and clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: In countries that have introduced comprehensive preventive strategies for injection drug users, the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection has declined. Compared with HIV monoinfected patients, the mortality among HCV-coinfected patients remains markedly...... Europe where AIDS remains the dominant cause of death. In North America, the incidence of end-stage liver disease has not decreased despite improvements in HIV care. HCV treatment seems to have had little effect thus far on mortality at the population level. SUMMARY: Despite a decreasing prevalence...

  13. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY FEATURES OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE REPUBLIC SAKHA (YAKUTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Semenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO data about 3% of population are infected by hepatitic C virus (HCV worldwide. Chronic hepatitis C is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, thus it becoming one of the global public health problems. Clinical manifestations are varied and depend mainly of the virus biological properties and its interaction with the host immune system. Determination of virus genotype and subtype is important for a better understanding of the epidemiological and virological features of the disease. The prevalence genotypes hepatitis C virus is varies in different geographical regions of the world. The data about HCV genotypes distribution in some Russian Federation regions are very limited, especially about HCV genotypes prevalence in Siberia, Far East and some rural regions. One of such regions is Yakutia. In our study we identified genetic variants of HCV in chronic hepatitis C patients with moderate and high viral load from Yakutia by direct sequencing of HCV RNA NS5B region. Based on phylogenetic analysis we found the prevalent genotype 1 (88.3%, than genotype 2 (6.7% and 3 (3.2% among HCV patients with moderate and high viral load. Our results on the prevalence of subtype 1b are consistent with the data on the connection between this subtype with high levels of viremia, greater duration and severity of liver disease, as well as the development of chronic hepatits C in patients infected by HCV subtype 1b, compared with those infected with other subtypes of hepatitis virus C. The similarity of some Yakutian isolates with isolates from the United States, Brazil and Ireland was found. We discuss HCV subtype 2a isolates identified origin from isolates found in China. First in the territory of the Russian Federation HCV subtype 3g was identified, presumably imported from South Asia. Interconnected use of molecular, virological, demographic and epidemiological methods and information to monitor the infections will contribute to

  14. [Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García O, Maritza; Olea N, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    In Chile, the first cases of AIDS were reported 23 years ago, and since then, through December 2006, 17.235 persons have been notified with HIV infection or AIDS1. To the year 2005, there have been 5.288 fatal cases of AIDS. The last available data indicates that notification rates for AIDS and HIV infection in 2006 were 2.5 and 4.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, respectively, and mortality rate for AIDS in 2005 was 2.4 per 100.000 inhabitants. Trend analysis shows a decline in the notification rate among men, both for HIV infection and AIDS, which could be a real decrease or a sub notification bias. In Chile, like in other countries of the region, variations in the epidemiologic pattern were observed considering age group, gender, educational level and geographic distribution of the population. Currently, the Chilean Ministry of Health has implemented both a surveillance and monitoring system on line, in order to improve the quality and opportunity of the information, therefore providing an important tool to HIV infection/AIDS prevention and control strategies.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS HTLV VIRUS INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is Epidemiologia e fatores de risco da infecção do vírus HTLV em gestantes important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  16. [Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Peru and Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos Moscol, Milagros

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C infection is a global burden disease. Its relationship to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma has been demonstrated, and at the current moment in USA and Europe is one of the major causes for liver transplantation. In Latin America, seroprevalence for HCV is between 1-2%. Risk groups are well-known: persons that have received blood products, drug addicts, health-workers, sexual workers, convicts, those with tattoo or piercing, as well as newborns from women positive for HCV. Genotype 1 is the more prevalent (> 80%) in Latinamerica, although genotypes 2, 3 and 4 have been found. In Peru, prevalence is low, around 1%, being found more frequently in the jungle region. Risk groups demonstrated in Perú are persons that received transfusion, patients in hemodyalisis, health-workers (in special those that work with blood products), and drugaddicts especially those with cocaine aspiration. Genotype 1 is the more prevalent, although few studies have been done. It is urgent to do more epidemiological studies related to this infection to know the real situation of this disease and its consequences in order to establish better health strategies.

  17. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor R Gaunt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV and human metapneumovirus (HMPV are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F protein, and the extremely diverse attachment (G glycoprotein. Both viruses comprise two genetic groups, A and B. Circulation frequencies of the two genetic groups fluctuate for both viruses, giving rise to frequently observed switching of the predominantly circulating group. Nucleotide sequence data for the F and G gene regions of HRSV and HMPV variants from the UK, The Netherlands, Bangkok and data available from Genbank were used to identify clades of both viruses. Several contemporary circulating clades of HRSV and HMPV were identified by phylogenetic reconstructions. The molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of clades were modelled in parallel. Times of origin were determined and positively selected sites were identified. Sustained circulation of contemporary clades of both viruses for decades and their global dissemination demonstrated that switching of the predominant genetic group did not arise through the emergence of novel lineages each respiratory season, but through the fluctuating circulation frequencies of pre-existing lineages which undergo proliferative and eclipse phases. An abundance of sites were identified as positively selected within the G protein but not the F protein of both viruses. For HRSV, these were discordant with previously identified residues under selection, suggesting the virus can evade immune responses by generating diversity at multiple sites within linear epitopes. For both viruses, different sites were identified as positively selected between genetic groups.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology and Phylogenetic Analyses of Influenza B Virus in Thailand during 2010 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewawong, Nipaporn; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Korkong, Sumeth; Vichiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Influenza B virus remains a major contributor to the seasonal influenza outbreak and its prevalence has increased worldwide. We investigated the epidemiology and analyzed the full genome sequences of influenza B virus strains in Thailand between 2010 and 2014. Samples from the upper respiratory tract were collected from patients diagnosed with influenza like-illness. All samples were screened for influenza A/B viruses by one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR. The whole genome of 53 influenza B isolates were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. From 14,418 respiratory samples collected during 2010 to 2014, a total of 3,050 tested positive for influenza virus. Approximately 3.27% (471/14,418) were influenza B virus samples. Fifty three isolates of influenza B virus were randomly chosen for detailed whole genome analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed clusters in Victoria clades 1A, 1B, 3, 5 and Yamagata clades 2 and 3. Both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages were found to co-circulate during this time. The NA sequences of all isolates belonged to lineage II and consisted of viruses from both HA Victoria and Yamagata lineages, reflecting possible reassortment of the HA and NA genes. No significant changes were seen in the NA protein. The phylogenetic trees generated through the analysis of the PB1 and PB2 genes closely resembled that of the HA gene, while trees generated from the analysis of the PA, NP, and M genes showed similar topology. The NS gene exhibited the pattern of genetic reassortment distinct from those of the PA, NP or M genes. Thus, antigenic drift and genetic reassortment among the influenza B virus strains were observed in the isolates examined. Our findings indicate that the co-circulation of two distinct lineages of influenza B viruses and the limitation of cross-protection of the current vaccine formulation provide support for quadrivalent influenza vaccine in this region. PMID:25602617

  19. Long-Term Shedding of Influenza Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Nosocomial Epidemiology in Patients with Hematological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lehners, Nicola; Tabatabai, Julia; Prifert, Christiane; Wedde, Marianne; Puthenparambil, Joe; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Biere, Barbara; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Egerer, Gerlinde; Schnitzler, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are a cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but can be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the duration of viral shedding in hematological patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from hematological patients were screened for influenza, parainfluenza and RSV o...

  20. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Bangladeshi General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17

  1. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rodolfo H; Mbayed, Viviana A; Pineiro Y Leone, Flavia G

    2005-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an etiological agent of acute and chronic liver disease existing throughout the world. The high genetic variability of HBV is reflected by eight genotypes (A to H), each one with a particular geographical prevalence. The global pattern of HBV genotypes is associated with the distribution of human populations among the different continents and may reflect the patterns of human migrations. Genotypes F and H are considered indigenous to Latin America. The most prevalent genetic group of Central and South America, genotype F, is subdivided into two subtypes and five clusters associated with defined geographic areas. Genotype H has been described in Mexico and Central America. This pattern provides a tool to reconstruct the initial immigration of ancestral Amerindians from Asia and their further spread through Central and South America. Other HBV genotypes found in different Latin American countries may reflect migration from other geographical areas into the region. Genotypes A and D are the signature of the European colonization that started in the sixteenth century, including slave trade from Africa. Genotypes B and C indicate the arrival of people from Southeast Asia. The impact of HBV genotypes on the natural course of HBV infection and response to treatment has been studied recently and controversial results have been obtained. The majority of the current information concerns with genotypes B and C. In contrast, very few data are available on the Latin American HBV genotypes F and H. It has been reported that liver failure and death may be more frequent in patients infected with genotype F. More studies are needed to assess the association between H13V genotypes and clinical course of infection, especially in Latin America.

  2. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Laboratory-Confirmed Autochthonous Cases of Zika Virus Disease in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Corona, Maria Eugenia; De la Garza Barroso, Ana Lucía; Rodriguez Martínez, Jose Cruz; Luna Guzmán, Norma Irene; Ruiz Matus, Cuitláhuac; Díaz Quiñonez, José Alberto; Lopez Martinez, Irma; Kuri Morales, Pablo A

    2016-04-15

    Since 2014, autochthonous circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was detected (Easter Island, Chile). In May 2015, Brazil confirmed autochthonous --transmission and in October of that year Colombia reported their first  cases. Now more than 52 countries have reported cases, including Mexico. To deal with this contingency in Mexico, several surveillance systems, in addition to systems for vector-borne diseases were strengthened with the participation of all health institutions. Also, the Ministry of Health defined an Action Plan against ZIKV for the whole country. We analyzed 93 autochthonous cases of ZIKV disease identified by Epidemiological Surveillance System for Zika Virus in Mexico. All autochthonous cases confirmed by laboratory since November 25, 2015 to February 19, 2016 were included. A description of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 93 cases of ZIKV disease are presenting and, we describe the Action Plan against this public health emergency.  The distribution of cases by sex was 61 men and 32 women; mean age was 35 years old (S.D. 15, range 6-90). The main clinical features in the 93 cases were fever (96.6%), rash (93.3%), non-purulent conjunctivitis (88.8%), headache (85.4%), and myalgia (84.3%). No deaths were reported. The ZIKV epidemic poses new challenges to public health systems. The information provided for basic, clinical, and epidemiological research, in addition to the data derived from epidemiological surveillance is essential. However, there are still many unanswered questions regarding mechanisms of transmission, complications, and impact of this virus.

  3. Molecular epidemiology and biological properties of avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 and H9N2

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin, Rokshana

    2015-01-01

    Rokshana Parvin Molecular epidemiology and biological properties of avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 and H9N2 Institute of Virology Submitted in November 2014 Pages 106, Figures 7, Table 1, References 339, Publications 4 Keywords: Avian Influenza Virus, H5N1, H9N2, Reassortment, Mutation, Replication and Growth kinetics Introduction Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are the major cause of significant disease outbreaks with high morbidity and mortality worldwide in ...

  4. Outbreak of Zika virus infection in Singapore: an epidemiological, entomological, virological, and clinical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus infection was detected in Singapore in August, 2016. We report the first comprehensive analysis of a national response to an outbreak of Zika virus infection in Asia. In the first phase of the outbreak, patients with suspected Zika virus infection were isolated in two national referral hospitals until their serum tested negative for the virus. Enhanced vector control and community engagement measures were deployed in disease clusters, including stepped-up mosquito larvicide and adulticide use, community participation in source reduction (destruction of mosquito breeding sites), and work with the local media to promote awareness of the outbreak. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients with confirmed Zika virus infection during the first phase. In the second phase, admission into hospitals for isolation was stopped but vector control efforts continued. Mosquitoes were captured from areas with Zika disease clusters to assess which species were present, their breeding numbers, and to test for Zika virus. Mosquito virus strains were compared with human strains through phylogenetic analysis after full genome sequencing. Reproductive numbers and inferred dates of strain diversification were estimated through Bayesian analyses. From Aug 27 to Nov 30, 2016, 455 cases of Zika virus infection were confirmed in Singapore. Of 163 patients with confirmed Zika virus infection who presented to national referral hospitals during the first phase of the outbreak, Zika virus was detected in the blood samples of 97 (60%) patients and the urine samples of 157 (96%) patients. There were 15 disease clusters, 12 of which had high Aedes aegypti breeding percentages. Captured mosquitoes were pooled into 517 pools for Zika virus screening; nine abdomen pools (2%) were positive for Zika virus, of which seven head and thorax pools were Zika-virus positive. In the phylogenetic analysis, all mosquito sequences clustered within the outbreak lineage

  5. Microcephaly and Zika virus: a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the current outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Magda Lahorgue; Carlini, Celia Regina; Marinowic, Daniel; Neto, Felipe Kalil; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Scotta, Marcelo Comerlato; Zanella, Pedro Luis Ávila; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review the literature available regarding the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil and its possible association with microcephaly cases. Experts from Instituto do Cérebro do Rio Grande do Sul performed a critical (nonsystematic) literature review regarding different aspects of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, such as transmission, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and its possible association with the increase of microcephaly reports. The PubMed search using the key word "Zika virus" in February 2016 yielded 151 articles. The manuscripts were reviewed, as well as all publications/guidelines from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC - United States). Epidemiological data suggest a temporal association between the increased number of microcephaly notifications in Brazil and outbreak of Zika virus, primarily in the Brazil's Northeast. It has been previously documented that many different viruses might cause congenital acquired microcephaly. Still there is no consensus on the best curve to measure cephalic circumference, specifically in preterm neonates. Conflicting opinions regarding the diagnosis of microcephaly (below 2 or 3 standard deviations) that should be used for the notifications were also found in the literature. The development of diagnostic techniques that confirm a cause-effect association and studies regarding the physiopathology of the central nervous system impairment should be prioritized. It is also necessary to strictly define the criteria for the diagnosis of microcephaly to identify cases that should undergo an etiological investigation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of Chikungunya virus: An updating review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, causing a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash. In this review, we summarized a series of articles published from 2013 to 2016 concerning CHIKV epidemiology, phylogeny, vaccine and therapies, to give an update of our most recent article written in 2014 (Lo Presti et al.,2014). CHIKV infection was first reported in 1952 from Makonde plateaus and since this time caused many outbreaks worldwide, involving the Indian Ocean region, African countries, American continent and Italy. CHIKV infection is still underestimated and it is normally associated with clinical symptoms overlapping with dengue virus, recurring epidemics and mutations within the viral genome. These characteristics promote the geographical spread and the inability to control vector-mediated transmission of the virus. For these reasons, the majority of studies were aimed to describe outbreaks and to enhance knowledge on CHIKV biology, pathogenesis, infection treatment, and prevention. In this review, 16 studies on CHIKV phylogenetic and phylodinamics were considered, during the years 2013-2016. Phylogenetic and phylodinamic analysis are useful tools to investigate how the genealogy of a pathogen population is influenced by pathogen's demographic history, host immunological milieu and environmental/ecological factors. Phylogenetic tools were revealed important to reconstruct the geographic spread of CHIKV during the epidemics wave and to have information on the circulating strains of the virus, that are important for the prediction and control of the epidemics, as well as for vaccines and antiviral drugs development. In conclusion, this updating review can give a critical appraisal of the epidemiology, therapeutic and phylogenesis of CHIKV, reinforcing the need to monitor the geographic spread of virus and vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of duck hepatitis a virus types 1 and 3 in China, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X; Zhu, D; Cheng, A; Wang, M; Chen, S; Jia, R; Liu, M; Sun, K; Zhao, X; Yang, Q; Wu, Y; Chen, X

    2018-02-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is the most common aetiologic agent of duck virus hepatitis (DVH), causing substantial economic losses in the duck industry worldwide. In China, officially approved DHAV-1 live-attenuated vaccines have been used widely to vaccinate breeder ducks since 2013. However, following the reports of DVH outbreaks, it has become necessary to assess the epidemiological situation of this virus in China. We conducted molecular epidemiological analyses of 32 DHAV field isolates while analysing the samples from ducks suspected of having hepatitis collected from commercial duck farms in China between May 2010 and December 2015. Considerable changes were observed in the epidemiology of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in China over time. A higher number of DHAV-1 strains were isolated during 2010-2012, coinciding with the widespread use of officially approved DHAV-1 live vaccine strains beginning in 2013. In contrast, a higher rate of DHAV-3 causing DHAV infections was observed between 2013 and 2015. Phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length VP1 gene were performed on these field isolates and using reference strains available in GenBank. DHAV-1 field isolates were evaluated in two groups: one group closely related to prototype strains and circulating in China between 2010 and 2012 and another group exhibiting genetic and serological differences from prototype strains. All DHAV-3 strains isolated in this study were grouped as monophyletic, which has become the predominant viral type, particularly in Shandong and Sichuan provinces, since 2013. In conclusion, these data provide updated information on the genetic and serological diversity of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and our findings may serve as a foundation for the prevention of, and vaccine development for, DHAV in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Epidemiology and vaccine of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongbo; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Shan; Chen, Jianfei; Feng, Li

    2016-03-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an intestinal infectious disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); manifestations of the disease are diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. Starting from the end of 2010, a PED outbreak occurred in several pig-producing provinces in southern China. Subsequently, the disease spread throughout the country and caused enormous economic losses to the pork industry. Accumulating studies demonstrated that new PEDV variants that appeared in China were responsible for the PED outbreak. In the current mini-review, we summarize PEDV epidemiology and vaccination in China.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifer, I; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D

    2010-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) has caused significant economic losses in industrialized pig production, and is still present in some European countries. Recent CSF outbreaks in Europe were mainly associated with strains of genogroup 2 (subgroup 2.3). Although there are extensive datasets regarding 2.......3 strains, there is very little information available on longer fragments or whole classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomes. Furthermore, there are no detailed analyses of the molecular epidemiology of CSFV wild boar isolates available. Nevertheless, complete genome sequences are supportive...

  11. How Chikungunya Virus Virology Affects Its Epidemiology and Transmission: Implications for Influencing Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Ann M

    2016-12-15

    Chikungunya virus has been causing a series of ongoing epidemics around the globe for the past 12 years. During that time, estimates indicate that >4 million cases occurred worldwide. Despite the magnitude of these outbreaks and the broad interest in understanding the virus and disease, significant gaps still exist in our knowledge base. An in-depth understanding of the basic virological elements that can affect the epidemiology of the agent is critical for future development of control and treatment products. This work describes how knowledge of various viral genetic and structural elements has begun to advance the development of vaccines and therapeutics and suggests that further knowledge is needed to provide additional options. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Microcephaly and Zika virus: a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the current outbreak in Brazil,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to critically review the literature available regarding the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil and its possible association with microcephaly cases. Sources: Experts from Instituto do Cérebro do Rio Grande do Sul performed a critical (nonsystematic literature review regarding different aspects of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, such as transmission, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and its possible association with the increase of microcephaly reports. The PubMed search using the key word “Zika virus” in February 2016 yielded 151 articles. The manuscripts were reviewed, as well as all publications/guidelines from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC – United States. Summary of findings: Epidemiological data suggest a temporal association between the increased number of microcephaly notifications in Brazil and outbreak of Zika virus, primarily in the Brazil's Northeast. It has been previously documented that many different viruses might cause congenital acquired microcephaly. Still there is no consensus on the best curve to measure cephalic circumference, specifically in preterm neonates. Conflicting opinions regarding the diagnosis of microcephaly (below 2 or 3 standard deviations that should be used for the notifications were also found in the literature. Conclusion: The development of diagnostic techniques that confirm a cause–effect association and studies regarding the physiopathology of the central nervous system impairment should be prioritized. It is also necessary to strictly define the criteria for the diagnosis of microcephaly to identify cases that should undergo an etiological investigation.

  13. Epidemiology and molecular characterisation of duck hepatitis A virus from different duck breeds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Ahmed M; Selim, Abdullah A; Moursi, Mohamed K; Nasef, Soad A; Abdelwhab, E M

    2015-06-12

    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is an acute highly contagious disease of ducklings caused by three distinct serotypes of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the RNA family Picornaviridae, where serotype 1 is the most widespread serotype worldwide. To date, little if any is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV outside Asia. The current study describes surveillance on DHV in 46 commercial duck farms in Egypt with a history of high mortality in young ducklings from 3 to 15 day-old from 2012 to 2014. Clinical samples were examined by generic RT-PCR assays followed by partial sequence analysis of the 5'UTR, VP1 and 3D genes of the vaccine strain and 15 field viruses. The overall positive rate was 37% (n=17/46). All duck breeds (Pekin, Muscovy, Mallard and Green Winged) were susceptible to the disease with mortality ranged from 15% to 96.7%. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Egyptian strains cluster in the DHAV serotype 1 with Asian viruses and distinguishable from the vaccine strains. So far, this is the first report on the genetic characterisation of DHAV in Egypt. This study may be useful to better understand the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of avian influenza H5N1 virus in Egypt and its zoonotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Hamed Ghoneim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiology of avian influenza H5N1 virus in domestic poultry and its zoonotic potential in Egypt. Methods: Tracheal swabs were collected from two hundred and forty three domestic poultry (chickens, ducks and geese from commercial farms and backyards, and thirty two blood samples from unvaccinated chickens. Fifty two throat swabs and twenty blood samples were collected from persons who are in contact with diseased and/or infected birds. Tracheal and throat swabs were examined for the presence of avian influenza virus H5N1 genome by real-time RT-PCR whereas blood samples were tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of avian influenza virus H5 antibodies. Results: The overall prevalence of H5N1 in the examined birds was 5.3% while the prevalence rates among different poultry species were 9%, 4.7% and 0% for ducks, chicken and geese respectively. Moreover, we detected H5 antibodies in 12.5% of the examined backyard chickens. All examined humans were negative for both viral RNA and antibodies. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the broad circulation of H5N1 virus among poultry in Egypt whereas it still has a limited zoonotic potential so far.

  15. Assessing the Potential Role of Pigs in the Epidemiology of Ebola Virus in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherstone, C; Smith, E; Ochungo, P; Roesel, K; Grace, D

    2017-04-01

    Uganda has experienced 4 Ebola outbreaks since the discovery of the virus. Recent epidemiological work has shown pigs are hosts for Ebola viruses. Due to their high reproduction rates, rapid weight gain, potential to provide quick financial returns and rising demand for pork, pig production in Uganda has undergone massive expansion. The combination of pork sector growth supported by development programmes and Ebola virus risk prompted a foresight exercise using desk, interview and spatial methods. The study found that the lack of serological evidence for specific reservoir species, the number of human index cases unable to account for their source of infection, domestic pig habitat overlap with potential Ebola virus zoonotic host environments, reported interactions at the human-pig-wildlife interface that could support transmission, fever in pigs as a commonly reported problem by pig farmers and temporal correlation of outbreaks with peak pork consumption periods warrants further research into potential zoonotic transmission in Uganda from pigs. © 2015 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Modeling the Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus: Insights into understanding its epidemiology in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Christy; McKay, John; Blattman, Joseph; Holechek, Susan

    2015-03-01

    The lymphocytic choriomenigitis virus (LCMV) is a rodent-spread virus commonly recognized as causing neurological disease that exhibits asymptomatic pathology. The virus is a pathogen normally carried among rodents that can be transmitted to humans by direct or indirect contact with the virus in excretions and secretions from rodents and can cause aseptic meningitis and other conditions in humans. We consider an epidemiological system within rodent populations modeled by a system of ordinary differential equations that captures the dynamics of the diseases transmission and present our findings. The asymptotic nature of the pathogen plays a large role in its spread within a given population, which has motivated us to expand upon an existing SIRC model (Holechek et al in preparation) that accounts for susceptible-, infected-, recovered-, and carrier-mice on the basis of their gender. We are interested in observing and determining the conditions under which the carrier population will reach a disease free equilibrium, and we focus our investigation on the sensitivity of our model to gender, pregnancy related infection, and reproduction rate conditions.

  17. Epidemiology of influenza virus types and subtypes in South Africa, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam L; Hellferscee, Orienka; Pretorius, Marthi; Treurnicht, Florette; Walaza, Sibongile; Madhi, Shabir; Groome, Michelle; Dawood, Halima; Variava, Ebrahim; Kahn, Kathleen; Wolter, Nicole; von Gottberg, Anne; Tempia, Stefano; Venter, Marietjie; Cohen, Cheryl

    2014-07-01

    To determine clinical and epidemiologic differences between influenza caused by different virus types and subtypes, we identified patients and tested specimens. Patients were children and adults hospitalized with confirmed influenza and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) identified through active, prospective, hospital-based surveillance from 2009-2012 in South Africa. Respiratory specimens were tested, typed, and subtyped for influenza virus by PCR. Of 16,005 SARI patients tested, 1,239 (8%) were positive for influenza virus. Patient age and co-infections varied according to virus type and subtype, but disease severity did not. Case-patients with influenza B were more likely than patients with influenza A to be HIV infected. A higher proportion of case-patients infected during the first wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic were 5-24 years of age (19%) than were patients infected during the second wave (9%). Although clinical differences exist, treatment recommendations do not differ according to subtype; prevention through vaccination is recommended.

  18. No evidence for involvement of sheep in the epidemiology of cattle virulent epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedmi, M; Levi, S; Galon, N; Bomborov, V; Yadin, H; Batten, C; Klement, E

    2011-03-24

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is an Orbivirus. While not previously considered as an important disease in cattle, several EHDV serotypes (EHDV-6 and 7) have recently been implicated in disease outbreaks. The involvement of sheep in the epidemiology of EHDV is still not understood. In this study we compared the prevalence of antibodies to EHDV and bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep to their prevalence in cattle after an outbreak of EHDV that occurred in Israel during 2006. Sixty-six sheep and lambs scattered in seven herds were compared to 114 cows and calves scattered in 13 dairy cattle herds, matched to the sheep herds by location. While antibody prevalence to EHDV was high in cattle (35.2% within the outbreak zone) no evidence of exposure to EHDV was found in sheep (p<0.0001). Antibodies to BTV were apparent in both cattle and sheep though in the former it was significantly higher (63.2%, 16.7% respectively, p<0.0001), suggesting higher exposure of cattle to biting Culicoides midges. Taken together, these results imply that sheep have a negligible role in the epidemiology of EHDV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of human West Nile virus disease in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B

    2013-10-29

    Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002-2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002-2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source.

  20. Hepatitis B virus in the Maghreb region: from epidemiology to prospective research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Pineau, Pascal; Benjelloun, Soumaya

    2013-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents an important health problem in the Maghreb countries, Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia, but no detailed synthesis of its epidemiology is available. In this review, we systematically searched for data about HBV in the Maghreb in peer-reviewed databases and included in our analysis works written in English and French, as well as institutional reports and regional conference meeting abstracts. We estimated national and regional prevalence of chronic HBV infection. In addition, we discuss molecular features of the viral strains circulating in the region. Data analysis suggests that in the Maghreb region HBs antigen carriage concerns 1.8-4.9% of the population for an estimated number of 2.7 million persons. Genotype D, subtype D7, is predominant and mutations in the precore region of HBV genome are highly prevalent. This epidemiological situation requires obviously widespread active interventions for prevention and control. In addition, anti-hepatitis B vaccination programme should be applied with the utmost discipline in the five countries considered in this present review. This systematic review will, hopefully, increase knowledge at disposal of Public Health authorities, enabling better resource allocation and healthcare delivery. The present synthesis intends to stimulate policies aiming at preventing the spread of HBV, keeping in mind that eradication of the virus from Maghrebi populations should be the ultimate objective of Public Health authorities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Nomikou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment 'reassortment' represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV, a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses.

  2. Clinical And Epidemiological Aspects Of Hepatitis B Virus And Hepatitis C Virus In Fortaleza-Ceara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelly Castelo Branco Brito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral hepatitis is among the main problems that affect public health globally. The knowledge of the clinical and epidemiological situation of hepatitis B and hepatitis C is necessary for the establishment of prevention and control strategies together with individuals and communities in vulnerable situations. Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the population affected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C from 2007 to 2014, in Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil. Methodology: Descriptive, retrospective study involving data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System, with analysis of gender, age, race, illicit drug use, sex partnerships, tattoo/piercing, transfusion, dialysis and transplantation. Chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis of the variables. Results: It was reported 779 cases of hepatitis B and 756 of hepatitis C. Regarding the HBV, 69.7% were male, 77.5% of brown color, and a median age of 36 years. Regarding risk factors, there was highlight for sexual practice and number of sex partners (p = 0.001, blood transfusion (p = 0.011 and use of tattoo/piercing (p = 0.011. As for HCV, 57.7% were male and the mean age was 46 years. As for risk factors, the injecting drug use (p = 0.001, the presence of three or more partners (p = 0.001 and the use of tattoo/piercing (p = 0.021 stood out. Regardless of gender, age or race and drug use, transfusions and age over 40 years increased the risk for hepatitis. There were still high percentages of missing data in several variables. Conclusion: This study contributes to alert the Brazilian health authorities on the importance of these infections and the need to expand and strengthen current health policies, and allows reflection on control strategies for hepatitis. Keywords: Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Risk factors.

  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarovoi, Petru; Rimis, Constantin; Spinu, Constantin; Isac, Maria

    2008-06-01

    The Republic of Moldova is considered a high endemic country with hepatitis B virus infection having a prevalence of AgHBs of 8% and higher. This paper describes the epidemic process and changes in the acute hepatitis B incidence in Moldova from 1966 until 2006. The objective was to evaluate the prophylactic measures that have led to the decline in the epidemic process of this infection. Epidemiological analysis of the surveillance data on acute hepatitis B incidence in the Republic of Moldova was conducted. The data were obtained from the national reporting system of infectious diseases. In the course of hepatitis B virus infection evolution in the Republic of Moldova, the epidemic process had both increasing and decreasing phases; however, starting in 1989 the incidence of this infection decreased from 66.4 to 7.5 per 100,000 population in 2006. The decrease of the incidence has been most significant in children under 15 years, dropping from 80.8 to 2.0 per 100,000 population in the mentioned period. Data collected in the Republic of Moldova shows that vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection may be a very efficient preventive measure and may have a positive impact on reducing the morbidity of this infection.

  4. Epidemiological and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Viruses in Malaysia, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Kim Tien; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Pang, Yong Kek; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages remained poorly understood in the tropical Southeast Asia region, despite causing seasonal outbreaks worldwide. From 2012-2014, nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from outpatients experiencing acute upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened for influenza viruses using a multiplex RT-PCR assay. Among 2,010/3,935 (51.1%) patients infected with at least one respiratory virus, 287 (14.3%) and 183 (9.1%) samples were tested positive for influenza A and B viruses, respectively. Influenza-positive cases correlate significantly with meteorological factors-total amount of rainfall, relative humidity, number of rain days, ground temperature and particulate matter (PM10). Phylogenetic reconstruction of haemagglutinin (HA) gene from 168 influenza B viruses grouped them into Yamagata Clade 3 (65, 38.7%), Yamagata Clade 2 (48, 28.6%) and Victoria Clade 1 (55, 32.7%). With neuraminidase (NA) phylogeny, 30 intra-clade (29 within Yamagata Clade 3, 1 within Victoria Clade 1) and 1 inter-clade (Yamagata Clade 2-HA/Yamagata Clade 3-NA) reassortants were identified. Study of virus temporal dynamics revealed a lineage shift from Victoria to Yamagata (2012-2013), and a clade shift from Yamagata Clade 2 to Clade 3 (2013-2014). Yamagata Clade 3 predominating in 2014 consisted of intra-clade reassortants that were closely related to a recent WHO vaccine candidate strain (B/Phuket/3073/2013), with the reassortment event occurred approximately 2 years ago based on Bayesian molecular clock estimation. Malaysian Victoria Clade 1 viruses carried H274Y substitution in the active site of neuraminidase, which confers resistance to oseltamivir. Statistical analyses on clinical and demographic data showed Yamagata-infected patients were older and more likely to experience headache while Victoria-infected patients were more likely to experience nasal congestion and sore

  5. Long-Term Shedding of Influenza Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Nosocomial Epidemiology in Patients with Hematological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifert, Christiane; Wedde, Marianne; Puthenparambil, Joe; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Biere, Barbara; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Egerer, Gerlinde; Schnitzler, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are a cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but can be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the duration of viral shedding in hematological patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from hematological patients were screened for influenza, parainfluenza and RSV on admission as well as on development of respiratory symptoms. Consecutive swabs were collected until viral clearance. Out of 672 tested patients, a total of 111 patients (17%) were infected with one of the investigated viral agents: 40 with influenza, 13 with parainfluenza and 64 with RSV; six patients had influenza/RSV or parainfluenza/RSV co-infections. The majority of infected patients (n = 75/111) underwent stem cell transplantation (42 autologous, 48 allogeneic, 15 autologous and allogeneic). LRTI was observed in 48 patients, of whom 15 patients developed severe LRTI, and 13 patients with respiratory tract infection died. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a variety of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), influenza B, parainfluenza 3 and RSV A, B viruses. RSV A was detected in 54 patients, RSV B in ten patients. The newly emerging RSV A genotype ON1 predominated in the study cohort and was found in 48 (75%) of 64 RSV-infected patients. Furthermore, two distinct clusters were detected for RSV A genotype ON1, identical RSV G gene sequences in these patients are consistent with nosocomial transmission. Long-term viral shedding for more than 30 days was significantly associated with prior allogeneic transplantation (p = 0.01) and was most pronounced in patients with RSV infection (n = 16) with a median duration of viral shedding for 80 days (range 35–334 days). Long-term shedding of respiratory viruses might be a catalyzer of nosocomial transmission and must be considered for

  6. Long-Term Shedding of Influenza Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Nosocomial Epidemiology in Patients with Hematological Disorders.

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    Nicola Lehners

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses are a cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI, but can be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and the duration of viral shedding in hematological patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from hematological patients were screened for influenza, parainfluenza and RSV on admission as well as on development of respiratory symptoms. Consecutive swabs were collected until viral clearance. Out of 672 tested patients, a total of 111 patients (17% were infected with one of the investigated viral agents: 40 with influenza, 13 with parainfluenza and 64 with RSV; six patients had influenza/RSV or parainfluenza/RSV co-infections. The majority of infected patients (n = 75/111 underwent stem cell transplantation (42 autologous, 48 allogeneic, 15 autologous and allogeneic. LRTI was observed in 48 patients, of whom 15 patients developed severe LRTI, and 13 patients with respiratory tract infection died. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a variety of influenza A(H1N1pdm09, A(H3N2, influenza B, parainfluenza 3 and RSV A, B viruses. RSV A was detected in 54 patients, RSV B in ten patients. The newly emerging RSV A genotype ON1 predominated in the study cohort and was found in 48 (75% of 64 RSV-infected patients. Furthermore, two distinct clusters were detected for RSV A genotype ON1, identical RSV G gene sequences in these patients are consistent with nosocomial transmission. Long-term viral shedding for more than 30 days was significantly associated with prior allogeneic transplantation (p = 0.01 and was most pronounced in patients with RSV infection (n = 16 with a median duration of viral shedding for 80 days (range 35-334 days. Long-term shedding of respiratory viruses might be a catalyzer of nosocomial transmission and must be considered for

  7. Analysis of infection epidemiological distemper virus, dogs in the municipality of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Érica Chaves Lúcio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Distemper is caused by a Morbillivirus and has worldwide distribution, the dog being the major reservoir for this virus. Transmission occurs by aerosols and the virus can be excreted at the end of the acute phase. It is a disease with no predilection for race, age or sex; however the literature suggests that puppies are most affected. In this study were analyzed serum samples from pet dogs in the city districts and neighborhoods of Garanhuns Boa Vista, Cohab 1, Cohab 2, Magano and center during the period from August to December 2012. Samples were collected from dogs older than three months, not vaccinated against distemper. To produce the maps of geographical distribution of animals were collected coordinates for each home visit. Of the samples analyzed, 90.38% were positive, and 28.72% had high antibody concentration, 47.88% and 23.40% average concentration or low. By analyzing the distribution by districts observed a higher prevalence of infection in neighborhoods with Cohab 2 100.00% and Cohab 1 with 96.00%; Boa Vista with 93.10%; Magano with 78.26%; center with 50.00%. This study did not identify any variable associated with infection related to sex and 100.0% of the animals, including positive and negative, were not castrated. It was shown that 75.0% of the animals had never been taken to the veterinarian, and of these, 94.8% were positive, a fact that may be related to higher seropositivity in these animals. The results of this study show that the canine distemper virus is widespread in the canine population of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, highlights the importance of epidemiological studies to characterize the real situation of infection by this virus in canine populations, in order to reduce damage to animal health caused by this agent.

  8. Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention

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    Barucca Valentina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex virus infections occur in women of reproductive age, the risk of maternal transmission of the virus to the foetus or neonate has become a major health concern. On these purposes the Authors of this review looked for the medical literature and pertinent publications to define the status of art regarding the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the therapy and the prevention of HSV in pregnant women and neonate. Special emphasis is placed upon the importance of genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and on the its prevention to avoid neonatal HSV infections.

  9. Epidemiologic patterns of Ross River virus disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001-2011.

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    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001-December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China.

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    Su, Shuo; Bi, Yuhai; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C; Gao, George F; Li, Shoujun

    2015-09-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. An updated nation-wide epidemiological survey of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Ura, Asami; Hirata, Momoko; Sakuma, Masato; Sakata, Yoshimi; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2010-08-01

    An updated nation-wide epidemiological survey of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection was conducted in Japan. Blood samples were collected from 1,770 outdoor accessing cats from March to October 2008. Serologically, 410 cats (23.2%) were positive for anti-FIV antibody. Proviral DNA of the FIV env V3-V5 region isolated from 348 cases could be phylogenetically analyzed. The present study disclosed a geographic distribution of four subtypes (A, B, C and D) of FIV in Japan. Even though an FIV vaccine was introduced in Japan, we do not currently know whether this vaccine is effective against all strains of FIV in Japan or not. Therefore, close attention still has to be paid to epidemic and genotypic trends of FIV.

  12. Mumps Epidemiology and Mumps Virus Genotypes Circulating in Mainland China during 2013-2015.

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    Aili Cui

    Full Text Available With the implementation of mumps virus (MuV vaccination in the expanded program on immunization (EPI in mainland China since 2008, the incidence of mumps has decreased, and the natural epidemic pattern of mumps has slightly changed during 2013-2015. The two epidemic peaks (April-July and November-December became less obvious than those observed from 2004 to 2012. Children and adolescents younger than 15, particularly in the five-to-nine-year-old age group, remain the target group and should be the focus of high-quality immunization activities in mainland China. However, it was also found that the incidence and reported cases of mumps decreased in each age group during 2013-2015, particularly in the five-to-nine-year-old and ten-to-fourteen-year-old age groups. The proportion of mumps cases among adults in some provinces also increased. Unlike the changes in the epidemiological characteristics of mumps affected by vaccination, the data of MuV virology surveillance indicated that most of the MuV transmission chains have not yet been effectively interrupted, and MuV remains a natural epidemic pattern in mainland China. In the MuV virology surveillance, 194 MuV strains during 2013-2015 were isolated from 10 of 31 provinces in mainland China. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the small hydrophobic (SH gene, both genotype F (99.0% and G (1.0% were identified, and genotype F was still the predominant genotype continuously circulating in mainland China. Representative genotype F and G strains isolated in China from 1995 to 2012 were selected for further analysis. The results indicated that there were multiple transmission chains within genotype F, with no obvious geographical or time differences. The high genetic diversity of genotype F strains could be a result of the continuous transmission and evolution of the MuV in mainland China. Genotype G was also detected in four provinces in mainland China. Because of the limited epidemiological data, it

  13. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus in client-owned cats in New Zealand

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    Claire Luckman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives were to collect baseline data on the occurrence, testing and vaccination practices, and clinical outcomes of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV in New Zealand Methods A cross-sectional survey of 423 veterinary practices in New Zealand was performed to collect data on FeLV and FIV testing and vaccination during the 2015 calendar year. Clinical records from 572 cats tested using a point-of-care ELISA at a first-opinion veterinary practice between 7 April 2010 and 23 June 2016 were also obtained and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to identify risk factors for test positivity. Survival times were estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods. Results The survey was completed by 112 clinics (26.4% of which 72 performed in-house testing. Of the 2125 tests performed, 56 (2.6% were positive for FeLV and 393 (18.5% were positive for FIV. Fewer than 1% of cats were vaccinated for FeLV, with veterinarians citing low perceived prevalence as the primary reason for not vaccinating. Being male compared with being female and having clinical evidence of immunosuppression were significant risk factors for both FeLV and FIV test positivity. The median survival times of FeLV and FIV test-positive cats were 10 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 0–16 and 650 days (95% CI 431–993, respectively. Conclusions and relevance Testing and vaccination for FeLV and FIV in New Zealand appears targeted towards high-risk animals, which may bias prevalence estimates. Baseline data should be monitored for changes in FeLV epidemiology now commercial vaccines are no longer available.

  14. Molecular epidemiology and environmental contamination during an outbreak of parainfluenza virus 3 in a haematology ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Jin, C E; Sung, H; Koo, B; Park, J; Kim, S-M; Kim, J Y; Chong, Y P; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Kim, Y S; Woo, J H; Lee, J-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, K-H; Shin, Y; Kim, S-H

    2017-12-01

    Although fomites or contaminated surfaces have been considered as transmission routes, the role of environmental contamination by human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) in healthcare settings is not established. To describe an hPIV-3 nosocomial outbreak and the results of environmental sampling to elucidate the source of nosocomial transmission and the role of environmental contamination. During an hPIV-3 outbreak between May and June 2016, environmental surfaces in contact with clustered patients were swabbed and respiratory specimens used from infected patients and epidemiologically unlinked controls. The epidemiologic relatedness of hPIV-3 strains was investigated by sequencing of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes. Of 19 hPIV-3-infected patients, eight were haematopoietic stem cell recipients and one was a healthcare worker. In addition, four had upper and 12 had lower respiratory tract infections. Of the 19 patients, six (32%) were community-onset infections (symptom onset within environmental swabs up to 12 days after negative respiratory polymerase chain reaction conversion. At least one-third of a peak season nosocomial hPIV-3 outbreak originated from nosocomial transmission, with multiple importations of hPIV-3 from the community, providing experimental evidence for extensive environmental hPIV-3 contamination. Direct contact with the contaminated surfaces and fomites or indirect transmission from infected healthcare workers could be responsible for nosocomial transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus-associated pediatric lymphomas from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabay, Paola; Preciado, María Victoria

    More than 90% of the population is infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which has sophisticatedly evolved to survive silently in B cells for the life of infected individuals. However, if the virus-host balance is disturbed, latent EBV infection could be associated with several lymphomas. The age at primary infection varies substantially worldwide, and exposure to EBV is likely to be due to socioeconomic factors. In Argentina, EBV infection is mostly subclinical and 90% of patients are seropositive by the age of 3 years; therefore, its epidemiological characteristics resemble those of an underdeveloped or developing population. EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in young adults from developed populations has been attributed to delayed primary EBV infection as suggested by the association with recent mononucleosis development. EBV-associated Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma in children from Argentina display frequencies similar to those observed in developed countries, whereas EBV presence in pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is slightly increased compared to those populations. However, EBV presence is statistically associated particularly with patients < 10 years of age in all three entities. Therefore, a relationship between low age of EBV seroconversion and B-cell lymphoma development risk could be suggested in children from Argentina. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Distinguishing epidemiological features of the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Espinel, Zelde; Espinola, Maria; Rechkemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease epidemic was notable for its scope, scale, and complexity. This briefing presents a series of distinguishing epidemiological features that set this outbreak apart. Compared to one concurrent and 23 previous outbreaks of the disease over 40 years, this was the only occurrence of Ebola virus disease involving multiple nations and qualifying as a pandemic. Across multiple measures of magnitude, the 2013-2016 outbreak was accurately described using superlatives: largest and deadliest in terms of numbers of cases and fatalities; longest in duration; and most widely dispersed geographically, with outbreak-associated cases occurring in 10 nations. In contrast, the case-fatality rate was much lower for the 2013-2016 outbreak compared to the other 24 outbreaks. A population of particular interest for ongoing monitoring and public health surveillance is comprised of more than 17,000 "survivors," Ebola patients who successfully recovered from their illness. The daunting challenges posed by this outbreak were met by an intensive international public health response. The near-exponential rate of increase of incident Ebola cases during mid-2014 was successfully slowed, reversed, and finally halted through the application of multiple disease containment and intervention strategies.

  17. Distinguishing epidemiological features of the 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Espinel, Zelde; Espinola, Maria; Rechkemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease epidemic was notable for its scope, scale, and complexity. This briefing presents a series of distinguishing epidemiological features that set this outbreak apart. Compared to one concurrent and 23 previous outbreaks of the disease over 40 years, this was the only occurrence of Ebola virus disease involving multiple nations and qualifying as a pandemic. Across multiple measures of magnitude, the 2013–2016 outbreak was accurately described using superlatives: largest and deadliest in terms of numbers of cases and fatalities; longest in duration; and most widely dispersed geographically, with outbreak-associated cases occurring in 10 nations. In contrast, the case-fatality rate was much lower for the 2013–2016 outbreak compared to the other 24 outbreaks. A population of particular interest for ongoing monitoring and public health surveillance is comprised of more than 17,000 “survivors,” Ebola patients who successfully recovered from their illness. The daunting challenges posed by this outbreak were met by an intensive international public health response. The near-exponential rate of increase of incident Ebola cases during mid-2014 was successfully slowed, reversed, and finally halted through the application of multiple disease containment and intervention strategies. PMID:28229017

  18. Epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus-associated pediatric lymphomas from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Chabay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of the population is infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, which has sophisticatedly evolved to survive silently in B cells for the life of infected individuals. However, if the virus-host balance is disturbed, latent EBV infection could be associated with several lymphomas. The age at primary infection varies substantially worldwide, and exposure to EBV is likely to be due to socioeconomic factors. In Argentina, EBV infection is mostly subclinical and 90% of patients are seropositive by the age of 3 years; therefore, its epidemiological characteristics resemble those of an underdeveloped or developing population. EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL in young adults from developed populations has been attributed to delayed primary EBV infection as suggested by the association with recent mononucleosis development. EBV-associated Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma in children from Argentina display frequencies similar to those observed in developed countries, whereas EBV presence in pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is slightly increased compared to those populations. However, EBV presence is statistically associated particularly with patients < 10 years of age in all three entities. Therefore, a relationship between low age of EBV seroconversion and B-cell lymphoma development risk could be suggested in children from Argentina.

  19. The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, Phillipe; Drummer, Heidi E; Richards, Jack S; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Beeson, James G

    2016-08-03

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has newly emerged as a significant global threat, especially to pregnancy. Recent major outbreaks in the Pacific and in Central and South America have been associated with an increased incidence of microcephaly and other abnormalities of the central nervous system in neonates. The causal link between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is now strongly supported. Over 2 billion people live in regions conducive to ZIKV transmission, with ~4 million infections in the Americas predicted for 2016. Given the scale of the current pandemic and the serious and long-term consequences of infection during pregnancy, the impact of ZIKV on health services and affected communities could be enormous. This further highlights the need for a rapid global public health and research response to ZIKV to limit and prevent its impact through the development of therapeutics, vaccines, and improved diagnostics. Here we review the epidemiology of ZIKV; the threat to pregnancy; the clinical consequences and broader impact of ZIKV infections; and the virus biology underpinning new interventions, diagnostics, and insights into the mechanisms of disease.

  20. Molecular epidemiology and evolution in an outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria Alma; Gosalbes, María José; González, Francisco; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-04-01

    In order to establish the transmission pathway for two outbreak patients affected by fulminant hepatitis B (FHB) following a shared period of hospitalization, we sequenced the complete genomes of the hepatitis B viruses (HBV) isolated from them as well as from the suspected common source and 11 additional controls. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of these sequences revealed that the two FHB patients were indeed infected by a common source and that the fatal development of the disease did not appear to be associated with any mutation previously reported to be related to FHB. These data have also allowed us to estimate the extent and distribution of genetic variability along the genomes of HBV genotype D samples from the same source population. As a result of these analyses, we provide an improved statistical method to individualize the assignment of each suspected patient and the source of an outbreak and information on which genome region to analyze in the molecular epidemiological assessment of hepatitis B virus transmission cases.

  1. Cardiac pathology and molecular epidemiology by avian leukosis viruses in Japan.

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    Sayuri Nakamura

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, are associated with cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, but a causal relationship remains to be established. We encountered unusual cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and mitosis in Japanese native fowls infected with subgroup A of the avian leukosis viruses (ALVs-A, which belong to the genus Alpharetrovirus of the family Retroviridae and mainly induce lymphoid neoplasm in chickens. The affected hearts were evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, viral isolation, viral genome sequencing and experimental infection. There was non-suppurative myocarditis in eighteen fowls and seven of them had abnormal cardiomyocytes, which were distributed predominantly in the left ventricular wall and showed hypertrophic cytoplasm and atypical large nuclei. Nuclear chains and mitosis were frequently noted in these cardiomyocytes and immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen supported the enhancement of mitotic activity. ALVs were isolated from all affected cases and phylogenic analysis of envSU genes showed that the isolates were mainly classified into two different clusters, suggesting viral genome diversity. In ovo experimental infection with two of the isolates was demonstrated to cause myocarditis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy similar to those in the naturally occurring lesions and cardiac hamartoma (rhabdomyoma in a shorter period of time (at 70 days of age than expected. These results indicate that ALVs cause myocarditis as well as cardiomyocyte abnormality in chickens, implying a pathogenetic mechanism different from insertional mutagenesis and the existence of retrovirus-induced heart disorder.

  2. Cardiac pathology and molecular epidemiology by avian leukosis viruses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sayuri; Ochiai, Kenji; Ochi, Akihiro; Yabushita, Hiroki; Abe, Asumi; Kishi, Sayaka; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, are associated with cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, but a causal relationship remains to be established. We encountered unusual cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and mitosis in Japanese native fowls infected with subgroup A of the avian leukosis viruses (ALVs-A), which belong to the genus Alpharetrovirus of the family Retroviridae and mainly induce lymphoid neoplasm in chickens. The affected hearts were evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, viral isolation, viral genome sequencing and experimental infection. There was non-suppurative myocarditis in eighteen fowls and seven of them had abnormal cardiomyocytes, which were distributed predominantly in the left ventricular wall and showed hypertrophic cytoplasm and atypical large nuclei. Nuclear chains and mitosis were frequently noted in these cardiomyocytes and immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen supported the enhancement of mitotic activity. ALVs were isolated from all affected cases and phylogenic analysis of envSU genes showed that the isolates were mainly classified into two different clusters, suggesting viral genome diversity. In ovo experimental infection with two of the isolates was demonstrated to cause myocarditis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy similar to those in the naturally occurring lesions and cardiac hamartoma (rhabdomyoma) in a shorter period of time (at 70 days of age) than expected. These results indicate that ALVs cause myocarditis as well as cardiomyocyte abnormality in chickens, implying a pathogenetic mechanism different from insertional mutagenesis and the existence of retrovirus-induced heart disorder.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of feline immunodeficiency virus in the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Jessica J; Rodrigo, Allen G

    2009-01-01

    Studying the evolutionary mechanisms of feline immunodeficiency virus in the domestic cat (Felis catus), FIVFca, provides a good comparison to other lentiviruses, such as HIV and FIVPco in the cougar (Puma concolor). We review the current epidemiological and evolutionary findings of FIVFca,. In addition to the five accepted FIVFca, subtypes, several recent phylogenetic studies have found strains that form separate clades, indicative of novel subtypes. In New Zealand cats, these strains of unknown subtype have been found to be involved in complex patterns of intergenic recombination, and whole genome sequences are required to resolve these. Evidence of recombination events has been documented with the highest levels in the env gene, the region involved in host cell receptor recognition. Several cases of FIVFca, multiple infection, both inter- and intra-subtype, have been reported. The findings of both unknown subtypes and relatively high levels of recombination suggest the need for further testing of the current vaccine. Limited studies on the evolutionary rate of FIVFca, document a value twice to three times that of FIV in the cougar, a result suggesting the different levels of co-adaptation between the viruses and their respective hosts. We studied the tissue distribution of FIVFca, in feral domestic cats, finding the first case of FIV compartmentalisation, a phenomenon well-documented in HIV-1 patients. PMID:19896220

  4. Genetic diversity and epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.G; Meyers, T.R.; Burton, T.O.; Kurath, G.

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from Alaska were analyzed using the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. RPA analyses, utilizing 4 probes, N5, N3 (N gene), GF (G gene), and NV (NV gene), determined that the haplotypes of all 3 genes demonstrated a consistent spatial pattern. Virus isolates belonging to the most common haplotype groups were distributed throughout Alaska, whereas isolates in small haplotype groups were obtained from only 1 site (hatchery, lake, etc.). The temporal pattern of the GF haplotypes suggested a 'genetic acclimation' of the G gene, possibly due to positive selection on the glycoprotein. A pairwise comparison of the sequence data determined that the maximum nucleotide diversity of the isolates was 2.75% (10 mismatches) for the NV gene, and 1.99% (6 mismatches) for a 301 base pair region of the G gene, indicating that the genetic diversity of IHNV within Alaska is notably lower than in the more southern portions of the IHNV North American range. Phylogenetic analysis of representative Alaskan sequences and sequences of 12 previously characterized IHNV strains from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California (USA) and British Columbia (Canada) distinguished the isolates into clusters that correlated with geographic origin and indicated that the Alaskan and British Columbia isolates may have a common viral ancestral lineage. Comparisons of multiple isolates from the same site provided epidemiological insights into viral transmission patterns and indicated that viral evolution, viral introduction, and genetic stasis were the mechanisms involved with IHN virus population dynamics in Alaska. The examples of genetic stasis and the overall low sequence heterogeneity of the Alaskan isolates suggested that they are evolutionarily constrained. This study establishes a baseline of genetic fingerprint patterns and sequence groups representing the genetic diversity of Alaskan IHNV isolates. This

  5. Epidemiology of rubella virus cases in the pre-vaccination era of Ethiopia, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Gallagher, Kathleen; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; Assefa, Esete; HaileMariam, Yoseph; HaileGiorgis, Yonas; Ketema, Hiwot; Shiferaw, Dejenie; Bekele, Ayenachew; Jima, Daddi; Kebede, Amha

    2016-11-18

    Rubella is a common mild rash illness caused by rubella virus. The majority of infections occur in children and young adults. The infection is the cause of a serious birth defect known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) when a woman acquires infection early in pregnancy. Ethiopia has not yet established rubella virus surveillance and has not yet introduced rubella vaccine into the routine immunization program. We characterize the epidemiology of laboratory confirmed rubella virus cases collected through measles surveillance from 2009 to 2015 to better understand the burden of the disease in the country. A descriptive analysis was made to characterize rubella cases reported through the national measles case based surveillance system. The measles case definition was used to capture potential rubella cases. A suspected measles case was a person with generalized rash and fever with cough, or coryza or conjunctivitis. Those cases whose sera were negative for measles IgM antibodies were tested for rubella IgM antibody. A confirmed rubella case was a person who tested positive for rubella IgM. Only laboratory confirmed rubella cases were analyzed in this article. Between 2009 and 2015, a total of 28,284 serum/plasma samples were collected and tested for measles IgM antibody and 11,151 (39.4%) were found positive. A total of 17,066 measles IgM negative or indeterminate samples were tested for rubella virus IgM and 2615 (15.3%) were found positive during the same period. Of 2615 confirmed rubella cases, 52.2% were females. The age of confirmed cases ranged from one month to 42 years with a mean age of 7.3 years. Three-fourth of all confirmed rubella cases were aged less than 10 years. The number of laboratory confirmed rubella cases linearly increased from 83 in 2009 to 856 in 2013 but dropped to 222 and 319 in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Higher number of cases occurred in the hot dry season (January through June) and in the central and western part of Ethiopia with

  6. Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, J P; Jeremiah, S C; Obiero, H M; Maruthi, M N; Ndyetabula, I; Okao-Okuja, G; Bouwmeester, H; Bigirimana, S; Tata-Hangy, W; Gashaka, G; Mkamilo, G; Alicai, T; Lava Kumar, P

    2011-08-01

    The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous 'front'. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported from Uganda and other parts of East Africa that had been hitherto unaffected by the disease. Recent survey data reveal several significant contrasts between the regional epidemiology of these two pandemics: (i) severe CMD radiates out from an initial centre of origin, whilst CBSD seems to be spreading from independent 'hot-spots'; (ii) the severe CMD pandemic has arisen from recombination and synergy between virus species, whilst the CBSD pandemic seems to be a 'new encounter' situation between host and pathogen; (iii) CMD pandemic spread has been tightly linked with the appearance of super-abundant Bemisia tabaci whitefly vector populations, in contrast to CBSD, where outbreaks have occurred 3-12 years after whitefly population increases; (iv) the CMGs causing CMD are transmitted in a persistent manner, whilst the two cassava brown streak viruses appear to be semi-persistently transmitted; and (v) different patterns of symptom expression mean that phytosanitary measures could be implemented easily for CMD but have limited effectiveness, whereas similar measures are difficult to apply for CBSD but are potentially very effective. An important similarity between the pandemics is that the viruses occurring in pandemic-affected areas are also found elsewhere, indicating that contrary to earlier published conclusions, the viruses per se are unlikely to be the key factors driving the two pandemics. A diagrammatic representation illustrates the temporal relationship between B. tabaci abundance and changing incidences of both CMD and CBSD in the Great Lakes region

  7. Molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses in three provinces of Lao PDR, 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay-Vanier, Josée; Klitting, Raphaëlle; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Baronti, Cécile; Sibounheuang, Bountoy; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Thongpaseuth, Soulignasack; Mayxay, Mayfong; Phommasone, Koukeo; Douangdala, Phouvieng; Inthalath, Saythong; Souvannasing, Phouthalavanh; Newton, Paul N.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Few data on dengue epidemiology are available for Lao PDR. Here, we provide information on the complexity of dengue epidemiology in the country, demonstrating dynamic circulation that varies over space and time, according to serotype. We recruited 1,912 consenting patients presenting with WHO dengue criteria at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane (central Laos), between 2006 and 2010. Between 2008 and 2010, 1,413 patients with undifferentiated fever were also recruited at Luang Namtha (LNT) Provincial Hospital (northern Laos) and 555 at Salavan (SV) Provincial Hospital (southern Laos). We report significant variations in Dengue virus (DENV) circulation between the three sites. Peaks of DENV infection were observed in the rainy seasons, although 11% of confirmed cases in the provinces and 4.6% in the capital were detected during the dry and cool seasons (between December and February). Four DENV serotypes were detected among the 867 RT-PCR positive patients: 76.9% DENV-1, 9.6% DENV-2, 7.7% DENV-4 and 5.3% DENV-3. DENV-1 was the predominant serotype throughout the study except in LNT in 2008 and 2009 when it was DENV-2. Before July 2009, DENV-2 was not detected in SV and only rarely detected in Vientiane. DENV-3 and DENV-4 were commonly detected in Vientiane, before 2008 for DENV-4 and after 2009 for DENV-3. The phylogenetic analyses of DENV envelope sequences suggest concurrent multiple introductions of new strains as well as active DENV circulation throughout Laos and with neighboring countries. It is therefore of great importance to develop and strengthen a year-round nation-wide surveillance network in order to collect data that would allow anticipation of public health issues caused by the occurrence of large dengue outbreaks. PMID:29377886

  8. The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in the Maghreb region: systematic review and meta-analyses.

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    Fatima A Fadlalla

    Full Text Available To systematically review and synthesize available epidemiological data on hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence and incidence in the Maghreb region and to estimate the country-specific population-level HCV prevalence.We conducted a systematic review of HCV antibody prevalence and incidence in the Maghreb countries as outlined by the PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analyses were conducted using DerSimonian-Laird random-effect models with inverse variance weighting to pool HCV prevalence estimates among general population groups.We identified 133 HCV prevalence measures and two HCV incidence measures. Among high risk groups, HCV prevalence ranged between 22% and 94% among people who inject drugs, 20% and 76% among dialysis patients, and 2% and 51% among hemophiliacs. Among intermediate-risk groups, considerable but widely variable HCV prevalence was found. Most common risk factors cited across studies were the duration of dialysis, number of transfusions, and having a history of surgery or dental work. The national HCV prevalence in Algeria was estimated at 0.3% (95%CI: 0.1-0.5, Libya 1.2% (95%CI: 1.1-1.3, Mauritania 1.1% (95%CI: 0-2.3, Morocco 0.8% (95%CI: 0.5-1.2, and Tunisia 0.6% (95%CI: 0.5-0.8.HCV prevalence in the Maghreb region of the Middle East and North Africa is comparable to that in developed countries of about 1%. HCV exposures appear often to be linked to medical care and are suggestive of ongoing transmission in such settings. Injecting drug use appears also to be a major, though not dominant, contributor to HCV transmission. Further research is needed to draw a more thorough understanding of HCV epidemiology, especially in the countries with limited number of studies. HCV prevention policy and programming in these countries should focus on the settings of exposure.

  9. Tracking the molecular epidemiology of Brazilian Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda M F; Vidigal, Pedro M P; Myrrha, Luciana W; Fietto, Juliana L R; Silva, Abelardo; Almeida, Márcia R

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Genome segment A encodes the capsid protein (VP2), while segment B encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1). In the present study, we trace the molecular epidemiology of IBDV in Brazil by analyzing 29 isolates collected in the major regions of poultry production. To genetically characterize the isolates, phylogenetic and population dynamic analyses were conducted using 68 VP1 (2634 nt) and 102 VP2 (1356 nt) coding sequences from IBDV isolates from different regions of the world. Furthermore, the evolution of IBDV was analyzed by characterizing the selective forces that operated during the diversification of viral isolates. We show that IBDV isolates were introduced into Brazil mainly from the Netherlands and the USA. These introductions were associated with all Brazilian poultry production regions analyzed in this work. In addition, we show that the evolution of IBDV has been shaped by a combination of very low recombination rates and relatively high rates of nucleotide substitution (2.988×10(-4) for VP1 and 3.2937×10(-4) for VP2), which themselves are a function of purifying selection operating on VP1 and VP2. Furthermore, our extended Bayesian skyline plot suggests that the increase in the effective population size of isolates of IBDV is consistent with its epidemiological history, with a large increase during the emergence of acute outbreaks of IBD in the 1980s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses in three provinces of Lao PDR, 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josée Castonguay-Vanier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few data on dengue epidemiology are available for Lao PDR. Here, we provide information on the complexity of dengue epidemiology in the country, demonstrating dynamic circulation that varies over space and time, according to serotype. We recruited 1,912 consenting patients presenting with WHO dengue criteria at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane (central Laos, between 2006 and 2010. Between 2008 and 2010, 1,413 patients with undifferentiated fever were also recruited at Luang Namtha (LNT Provincial Hospital (northern Laos and 555 at Salavan (SV Provincial Hospital (southern Laos. We report significant variations in Dengue virus (DENV circulation between the three sites. Peaks of DENV infection were observed in the rainy seasons, although 11% of confirmed cases in the provinces and 4.6% in the capital were detected during the dry and cool seasons (between December and February. Four DENV serotypes were detected among the 867 RT-PCR positive patients: 76.9% DENV-1, 9.6% DENV-2, 7.7% DENV-4 and 5.3% DENV-3. DENV-1 was the predominant serotype throughout the study except in LNT in 2008 and 2009 when it was DENV-2. Before July 2009, DENV-2 was not detected in SV and only rarely detected in Vientiane. DENV-3 and DENV-4 were commonly detected in Vientiane, before 2008 for DENV-4 and after 2009 for DENV-3. The phylogenetic analyses of DENV envelope sequences suggest concurrent multiple introductions of new strains as well as active DENV circulation throughout Laos and with neighboring countries. It is therefore of great importance to develop and strengthen a year-round nation-wide surveillance network in order to collect data that would allow anticipation of public health issues caused by the occurrence of large dengue outbreaks.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics and response to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulot, D; Bourcier, V; Grando, V; Deny, P; Baazia, Y; Fontaine, H; Bailly, F; Castera, L; De Ledinghen, V; Marcellin, P; Poupon, R; Bourlière, M; Zarski, J P; Roudot-Thoraval, F

    2007-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) infection is progressing in Europe, where epidemiology and sustained virological response (SVR) seem to be different than in the Middle East. We analysed epidemiological features and SVR rates in a retrospective study of 1532 HCV-4-infected patients, including 1056 patients infected in France, 227 immigrants infected in Egypt and 249 in sub-Saharan Africa. SVR rates were assessed in 242 naive patients of the 1532, who received peginterferon plus ribavirin for 48 weeks. HCV subtype 4a or 4d was the most common among patients infected in France, where the predominant route of transmission was intravenous drug abuse. The 4a subtype was largely predominant (93%) among patients infected in Egypt, where transmission was mostly because of parenteral treatment for schistosomiasis. More than seven different subtypes and no predominant route of infection were found in patients infected in sub-Saharan Africa. Liver fibrosis was significantly less severe in patients infected in France and Africa than in patients infected in Egypt. SVR rates were higher in patients infected in Egypt, compared with those infected in France or Africa (54.9%, 40.3% and 32.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). An overall better response was observed in patients infected with the 4a subtype. In multivariate analysis, two factors were associated independently with SVR: the Egyptian origin of transmission and the absence of severe fibrosis. In conclusion, the distribution of HCV-4 subtypes varies with the geographical origin of transmission and affects the SVR following antiviral treatment.

  12. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatitis B virus in a group of migrants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Umbertina; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Equestre, Michele; Cella, Eleonora; Pisani, Giulio; Giovanetti, Marta; Bruni, Roberto; Tritarelli, Elena; Amicosante, Massimo; Grifoni, Alba; Scarcella, Carmelo; El-Hamad, Issa; Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; Angeletti, Silvia; Silvia, Angeletti; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2015-07-25

    Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is widespread and it is considered a major health problem worldwide. The global distribution of HBV varies significantly between countries and between regions of the world. Among the many factors contributing to the changing epidemiology of viral hepatitis, the movement of people within and between countries is a potentially important one. In Italy, the number of migrant individuals has been increasing during the past 25 years. HBV genotype D has been found throughout the world, although its highest prevalence is in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East and southern Asia. We describe the molecular epidemiology of HBV in a chronically infected population of migrants (living in Italy), by using the phylogenetic analysis. HBV-DNA was amplified and sequenced from 43 HBV chronically infected patients. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis were performed using both maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. Of the 43 HBV S gene isolates from migrants, 25 (58.1 %) were classified as D genotype. Maximum Likelihood analysis showed an intermixing between Moldavian and foreigners sequences mostly respect to Italian ones. Italian sequences clustered mostly together in a main clade separately from all others. The estimation of the time of the tree's root gave a mean value of 17 years ago, suggesting the origin of the tree back to 1992 year. The skyline plot showed that the number of infections softly increased until the early 2005s, after which reached a plateau. Comparing phylogenetic data to the migrants date of arrival in Italy, it should be possible that migrants arrived in Italy yet infected from their country of origin. In conclusion, this is the first paper where phylogenetic analysis and genetic evolution has been used to characterize HBV sub genotypes D1 circulation in a selected and homogenous group of migrants coming from a restricted area of Balkans and to approximately define the period of infection besides the migration date.

  13. Enfermedad por el virus del Chikungunya: historia y epidemiología

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    Jorge Acosta-Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El 9 de diciembre de 2013 la Organización Panamericana de la Salud emitió una alerta epidemiológica debido a la detección de los primeros casos autóctonos de fiebre del Chikun-gunya en el continente americano; desde entonces este se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública. El primer reporte de un brote por el virus del Chikungunya se presentó en 1952-1953 en Tanzania. Las experiencias en epidemias en otros países han centrado la atención en que la presentación clínica no siempre tiene un comportamiento similar. Hasta 2005 todos los reportes mencionaban la presentación de la enfermedad como benigna y con cuadros clínicos bastantes similares, sin embargo, la aparición de epidemias después de ese año en las Islas Reunión y en la India describieron la presencia de cuadros graves, atípicos y un aumento de la mortalidad relacionados con la enfermedad. La región de las Américas debe prepararse para esta nueva epidemia. Esto hace necesario mejorar los conocimientos sobre la enfermedad; y un primer abordaje es a través de una descripción de la historia y epidemiología de la enfermedad por el virus del Chikungunya en el mundo.

  14. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of the four human parainfluenza virus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Kuan; Liu, Qian; Chen, De-Hui; Liang, Huan-Xi; Chen, Xiao-Kai; Huang, Wen-Bo; Qin, Sheng; Yang, Zi-Feng; Zhou, Rong

    2013-01-23

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are important causes of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). To analyse epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the four types of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), patients with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) were studied in Guangzhou, southern China. Throat swabs (n=4755) were collected and tested from children and adults with ARTI over a 26-month period, and 4447 of 4755 (93.5%) patients' clinical presentations were recorded for further analysis. Of 4755 patients tested, 178 (3.7%) were positive for HPIV. Ninety-nine (2.1%) samples were positive for HPIV-3, 58 (1.2%) for HPIV-1, 19 (0.4%) for HPIV-2 and 8 (0.2%) for HPIV-4. 160/178 (88.9%) HPIV-positive samples were from paediatric patients younger than 5 years old, but no infant under one month of age was HPIV positive. Seasonal peaks of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 occurred as autumn turned to winter and summer turned to autumn. HPIV-2 and HPIV-4 were detected less frequently, and their frequency of isolation increased when the frequency of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 declined. HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and more "hoarseness" (p=0.015), "abnormal pulmonary breathing sound" (ptypes was "Expectoration" (ptypes also testing positive for other respiratory pathogens. However, no significant differences were seen in clinical presentation between patients solely infected with HPIV and patients co-infected with HPIV and other respiratory pathogens. HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and similar clinical manifestations were found in the patients with four different types of HPIVs. The study suggested pathogenic activity of HPIV in gastrointestinal illness. The clinical presentation of HPIV infection may differ by patient age.

  15. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of the four human parainfluenza virus types

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    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs are important causes of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI. To analyse epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the four types of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs, patients with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI were studied in Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=4755 were collected and tested from children and adults with ARTI over a 26-month period, and 4447 of 4755 (93.5% patients’ clinical presentations were recorded for further analysis. Results Of 4755 patients tested, 178 (3.7% were positive for HPIV. Ninety-nine (2.1% samples were positive for HPIV-3, 58 (1.2% for HPIV-1, 19 (0.4% for HPIV-2 and 8 (0.2% for HPIV-4. 160/178 (88.9% HPIV-positive samples were from paediatric patients younger than 5 years old, but no infant under one month of age was HPIV positive. Seasonal peaks of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 occurred as autumn turned to winter and summer turned to autumn. HPIV-2 and HPIV-4 were detected less frequently, and their frequency of isolation increased when the frequency of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 declined. HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and more “hoarseness” (p=0.015, “abnormal pulmonary breathing sound” (p Conclusions HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and similar clinical manifestations were found in the patients with four different types of HPIVs. The study suggested pathogenic activity of HPIV in gastrointestinal illness. The clinical presentation of HPIV infection may differ by patient age.

  16. Molecular epidemiology and phylodynamics of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein in northern Taiwan.

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    Hsin Chi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The glycoprotein (G protein and fusion protein (F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV both show genetic variability, but few studies have examined the F protein gene. This study aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology and phylodynamics of the F protein gene in clinical RSV strains isolated in northern Taiwan from 2000-2011. METHODS: RSV isolates from children presenting with acute respiratory symptoms between July 2000 and June 2011 were typed based on F protein gene sequences. Phylogeny construction and evaluation were performed using the neighbor-joining (NJ and maximum likelihood (ML methods. Phylodynamic patterns in RSV F protein genes were analyzed using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework. Selection pressure on the F protein gene was detected using the Datamonkey website interface. RESULTS: From a total of 325 clinical RSV strains studied, phylogenetic analysis showed that 83 subgroup A strains (RSV-A could be further divided into three clusters, whereas 58 subgroup B strains (RSV-B had no significant clustering. Three amino acids were observed to differ between RSV-A and -B (positions 111, 113, and 114 in CTL HLA-B*57- and HLA-A*01-restricted epitopes. One positive selection site was observed in RSV-B, while none was observed in RSV-A. The evolution rate of the virus had very little change before 2000, then slowed down between 2000 and 2005, and evolved significantly faster after 2005. The dominant subtypes of RSV-A in each epidemic were replaced by different subtypes in the subsequent epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: Before 2004, RSV-A infections were involved in several small epidemics and only very limited numbers of strains evolved and re-emerged in subsequent years. After 2005, the circulating RSV-A strains were different from those of the previous years and continued evolving through 2010. Phylodynamic pattern showed the evolutionary divergence of RSV increased significantly in the recent 5

  17. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. [Feeding pattern of Rift Valley Fever virus vectors in Senegal. Implications in the disease epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Y; Diallo, D; Dia, I; Diallo, M

    2006-10-01

    During the rainy season 2003, an entomological survey was undertaken in the Sahelian bioclimatic zone of the Ferlo area in northern Senegal, in order to evaluate the degree of interaction between Rift valley fever (RVF) virus vectors and domestic animals and to determine the role of natural vertebrate hosts in the transmission and maintenance cycle. The study of vector-host contact was carried out under bed net traps using man, cow, sheep, chicken as bait whereas the RVFV vectors-vertebrate host interactions were studied through the analysis by an ELISA technique of the origin of the blood meals from naturally engorged females collected by aspiration. Blood meals sources were determined using a set of eight antibodies. Overall, the different known RVFV vectors (Culex poicilipes, Aedes vexans and Aedes ochraceus) were opportunistic although the bovine-baited net was, as far the more effective trap with 53.6% of collected mosquitoes. It was followed by the sheep-baited net (16.7%), man-baited net (12.6%) and chicken-baited net (11.6%). The more effectiveness of the bovine-baited net confirms the degree of implication of this host in RVF epidemiology. The study of vector-hosts interactions in nature showed that among the 1,112 mosquito blood meals tested, 701 were identified of which 693 were from Aedes vexans. The percentage of non-reacting blood meal was 36.7% whereas 16.9 % of the blood meals were taken at least on two vertebrate hosts. Overall, 53.2% of the blood meals from Ae. vexans were taken on equine, 18.6% on bovines, 7.1% on sheep and 0.6% on human. No blood meal was taken on rodent. The greatest diversity was observed in August. These host feedings patterns show that although equine is known to play a minor role in RVF epidemiology a thorough attention should be made to this host with regard to the percentage of blood meals taken in this host. The low percentage of blood meals taken on human could probably explain the low human infection rate observed up

  19. The Epidemiology, Virology and Clinical Findings of Dengue Virus Infections in a Cohort of Indonesian Adults in Western Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Herman; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Nurhayati; de Mast, Quirijn; Rudiman, Irani F; Widjaja, Susana; Antonjaya, Ungke; Novriani, Harli; Susanto, Nugroho H; Jusuf, Hadi; van der Ven, Andre; Beckett, Charmagne G; Blair, Patrick J; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Porter, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Dengue has emerged as one of the most important infectious diseases in the last five decades. Evidence indicates the expansion of dengue virus endemic areas and consequently the exponential increase of dengue virus infections across the subtropics. The clinical manifestations of dengue virus infection include sudden fever, rash, headache, myalgia and in more serious cases, spontaneous bleeding. These manifestations occur in children as well as in adults. Defining the epidemiology of dengue in a given area is critical to understanding the disease and devising effective public health strategies. Here, we report the results from a prospective cohort study of 4380 adults in West Java, Indonesia, from 2000-2004 and 2006-2009. A total of 2167 febrile episodes were documented and dengue virus infections were confirmed by RT-PCR or serology in 268 cases (12.4%). The proportion ranged from 7.6 to 41.8% each year. The overall incidence rate of symptomatic dengue virus infections was 17.3 cases/1,000 person years and between September 2006 and April 2008 asymptomatic infections were 2.6 times more frequent than symptomatic infections. According to the 1997 WHO classification guidelines, there were 210 dengue fever cases, 53 dengue hemorrhagic fever cases (including one dengue shock syndrome case) and five unclassified cases. Evidence for sequential dengue virus infections was seen in six subjects. All four dengue virus serotypes circulated most years. Inapparent dengue virus infections were predominantly associated with DENV-4 infections. Dengue virus was responsible for a significant percentage of febrile illnesses in an adult population in West Java, Indonesia, and this percentage varied from year to year. The observed incidence rate during the study period was 43 times higher than the reported national or provincial rates during the same time period. A wide range of clinical severity was observed with most infections resulting in asymptomatic disease. The circulation of

  20. Epidemiological investigation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in salt water net-pen reared Atlantic salmon in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Sophie; Ribble, Carl S.; Stephen, Craig; Anderson, Eric; Kurath, Gael; Kent, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiological study of infectious hematopoietic necrosis viral disease (IHN) in farmed Atlantic salmon in British Columbia was conducted to better understand the management of this disease. The study consisted of a descriptive retrospective investigation of 18 IHN outbreaks on farms between 1992 and 1996, and a prospective surveillance program for the viral disease, after an area management plan was implemented to reduce the viral load around farms and farm-to-farm spread of the virus.

  1. Evaluation of the technological quality of natural pork casings used for manufacture of Toscana sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Lucini, Michelle Aparecida; Fariña, Luciana Oliveira de; Falconi, abiana André; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade de seis (6) diferentes fornecedores de envoltórios naturais suínos, utilizados para a elaboração de linguiça Toscana em um frigorífico localizado na região oeste do Paraná. As amostras foram codificadas como fornecedor 01, 02, 03, 04, 05 e 06, onde, com exceção do fornecedor 02, os demais foram de procedência nacional. As análises tecnológicas executadas nos envoltórios naturais foram a determinação da metragem, número de furos, número de fios ...

  2. Hepatitis E virus infection in Europe: surveillance and descriptive epidemiology of confirmed cases, 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, Esther J; Couturier, Elisabeth; Faber, Mirko; Said, Bengü; Ijaz, Samreen; Tavoschi, Lara; Takkinen, Johanna; Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2017-06-29

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an under-recognised cause of acute hepatitis in high-income countries. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of testing, diagnosis, surveillance activities, and data on confirmed cases in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). A semi-structured survey was developed and sent to 31 EU/EEA countries in February 2016, 30 responded. Twenty of these countries reported that they have specific surveillance systems for HEV infection. Applied specific case definition for HEV infection varied widely across countries. The number of reported cases has increased from 514 cases per year in 2005 to 5,617 in 2015, with most infections being locally acquired. This increase could not be explained by additional countries implementing surveillance for HEV infections over time. Hospitalisations increased from less than 100 in 2005 to more than 1,100 in 2015 and 28 fatal cases were reported over the study period. EU/EEA countries are at different stages in their surveillance, testing schemes and policy response to the emergence of HEV infection in humans. The available data demonstrated a Europe-wide increase in cases. Standardised case definitions and testing policies would allow a better understanding of the epidemiology of HEV as an emerging cause of liver-related morbidity. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of hepatitis C virus infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Thompson, Nicola D; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States; the prevalence in maintenance hemodialysis patients substantially exceeds that in the general population. In hemodialysis patients, HCV infection has been associated with increased occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. Injection drug use and receipt of blood transfusions before 1992 has accounted for most prevalent HCV infections in the United States. However, HCV transmission among patients undergoing hemodialysis has been documented frequently. Outbreak investigations have implicated lapses in infection control practices as the cause of HCV infections. Preventing these infections is an emerging priority for renal care providers, public health agencies, and regulators. Adherence to recommended infection control practices is effective in preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis facilities. In addition, adoption of routine screening to facilitate the detection of incident HCV infections and hemodialysis-related transmission is an essential component of patient safety and infection prevention efforts. This article describes the current epidemiology of HCV infection in US maintenance hemodialysis patients and prevention practices to decrease its incidence and transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects of Influenza H5N1 Viruses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, Ghazi; Webby, Richard J.; Ducatez, Mariette F.; El Shesheny, Rabeh A.; Kandeil, Ahmed M.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Mostafa, Ahmed; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2011-01-01

    With 119 confirmed cases between March 2006 and December 2010, Egypt ranks second among countries reporting human H5N1 influenza virus infections. In 2009–2010, Egypt reported 68 new human cases and became the new epicenter for H5N1 infections. We conducted an epidemiological and molecular analysis in order to better understand the situation in Egypt. The onset of new cases peaked annually during the winter and spring months, with majority of cases reported in the Nile Delta region. Most cases were less than 18 years old (62%) and females (60%). The overall case-fatality rate was 34% and significantly increased by age. There was a significant difference between the case-fatality rates among females and males. We observed a significant drop (p = 0.004) in case fatality rate in 2009 (10%) as compared to higher rates (36%–56%) in other years. Hospitalization within 2 or 3 days after onset of symptoms significantly decreased mortality. Molecular analysis showed that variations do occur among viruses isolated from birds as well as from humans in Egypt, and these mutations were especially noted in 2009 viruses. As the epidemiological profile of Egyptian cases differs from other countries, there is an urgent need to conduct prospective studies to enhance our understanding of incidence, prevalence, and determinants of virulence of human infections with avian H5N1 influenza viruses. PMID:21445292

  5. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Mexico from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Nelson, Martha I; Cobián Güemes, Ana Georgina; López-Martínez, Irma; Cruz-Ortiz, Natividad; Iguala-Vidales, Miguel; García, Elvia Rodríguez; Barrera-Badillo, Gisela; Díaz-Quiñonez, Jose Alberto; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F; Isa, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, nineteen influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 2003 and 2012 were studied. Our findings show that different human A/H3N2 viral lineages co-circulate within a same season and can also persist locally in between different influenza seasons, increasing the chance for genetic reassortment events. A novel minor cluster was also identified, named here as Korea, that circulated worldwide during 2003. Frequently, phylogenetic characterization did not correlate with the determined antigenic identity, supporting the need for the use of molecular evolutionary tools additionally to antigenic data for the surveillance and characterization of viral diversity during each flu season. This work represents the first long-term molecular epidemiology study of influenza A/H3N2 viruses in Mexico based on the complete genomic sequences and contributes to the monitoring of evolutionary trends of A/H3N2 influenza viruses within North and Central America.

  6. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects.

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    Patrícia Brasil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV and Chikungunya (CHIKV and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult.The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9% were tested and 119 (45.4% were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype.This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364 and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119. We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO. However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added to the PAHO case definition, while fever could be given less

  7. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Siqueira, André Machado; Wakimoto, Mayumi; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Aline; Quintana, Marcel de Souza Borges; de Mendonça, Marco Cesar Lima; Lupi, Otilia; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Romero, Carolina; Zogbi, Heruza; Bressan, Clarisse da Silveira; Alves, Simone Sampaio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Methodology / Principal Findings The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9%) were tested and 119 (45.4%) were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype. Conclusions / Significance This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364) and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119). We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added

  8. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Switzerland: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Wandeler, Gilles; Owczarek, Marta; Gorgievski-Hrisoho, Meri; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Semmo, Nasser; Zürcher, Samuel

    2015-10-30

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects up to 7% of the European population. Specific HBV genotypes are associated with rapid progression to end-stage liver disease and sub-optimal interferon treatment responses. Although the geographic distribution of HBV genotypes differs between regions, it has not been studied in Switzerland, which lies at the crossroads of Europe. In a retrospective analysis of 465 HBV samples collected between 2002 and 2013, we evaluated the HBV genotype distribution and phylogenetic determinants, as well as the prevalence of serological evidence of hepatitis delta, hepatitis C and HIV infections in Switzerland. Baseline characteristics of patients were compared across their region of origin using Fisher's exact test and ANOVA, and risk factors for HBeAg positivity were assessed using logistic regression. The Swiss native population represented 15.7% of HBV-infected patients living in Switzerland. In the overall population, genotype D was most prevalent (58.3%), whereas genotype A (58.9%) was the predominant genotype among the Swiss native population. The prevalence of patients with anti-HDV antibodies was 4.4%. Patients of Swiss origin were most likely to be HBeAg-positive (38.1%). HBV genotypes of patients living in Switzerland but sharing the same original region of origin were consistent with their place of birth. The molecular epidemiology of HBV infection in Switzerland is driven by migration patterns and not by the genotype distribution of the native population. The prevalence of positive anti-HDV antibodies in our cohort was very low.

  9. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8%) in Sudan. National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  10. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    Full Text Available To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%, 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9% and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%, respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4% in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients, pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2% in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men, pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9% in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8% in Sudan.National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  11. Epidemiological features of human immunodeficiency virus infection in rural area of western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkar, V E; Redkar, S V

    1999-03-01

    To investigate epidemiological features of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection first time in rural areas of Western India, Maharashtra. Cross-sectional prospective study with relevant investigations of 290 patients, 181 males and 109 females of age group up to 60 years, screened by two methods, Tridot or Combiads and Eliza test. Criteria were repeated respiratory infections, pulmonary tuberculosis with recurrence or relapse in spite of adequate multidrug therapy (MDT), chronic skin infections, venereal diseases, pyrexia of unknown origin, weight loss, generalised lymphadenopathy and wives of all HIV positive persons. 51 persons were found HIV +ve (17.5% prevalence rate), 57% of the wives of HIV +ve were infected. 42% of the patients of tuberculosis with recurrence or repeated respiratory infection and 50% of patients presenting only with weight loss more than 10% of body weight were positive. Heterosexual transmission was predominant, middle income group, male dominance and age group between 21 to 40 was infected most. The most common superinfection in 28 acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS) cases was Mycobacterium tuberculosis (100%) responded to MDT but after recurrence there was progressive failure of response to therapy. Five patients of AIDS had scabies which failed to respond. Out of 9 AIDS patients, 5 had chronic amoebic dysentry which also did not respond. Retinal examination showed cotton wool feather shaped spots in four AIDS cases and in one asymptomatic HIV +ve person. These spots went on increasing as diseases progressed. Time interval between detection of AIDS patients and death was short (12 to 18 months). HIV infection is spreading in rural area of Western India so rapidly that it will seriously jeopardize primary health care. Non-responding infections like scabies and amoebic dysentry may be presenting symptoms in AIDS in additions to resistant tuberculosis.

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Methods Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. Results We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%–1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%–1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%–2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%–0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%–28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%–4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%–0.8%) in Sudan. Conclusion National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown. PMID:26900839

  13. Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Guangdong province of southern China.

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    Song Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 in Guangdong has been documented for more than a decade, the molecular characteristics of such a regional HIV-1 epidemic remained unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By sequencing of HIV-1 pol/env genes and phylogenetic analysis, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study in a representative subset (n  = 200 of the 508 HIV-1-seropositive individuals followed up at the center for HIV/AIDS care and treatment of Guangzhou Hospital of Infectious Diseases. Of 157 samples (54.1% heterosexual acquired adults, 20.4% needle-sharing drug users, 5.7% receivers of blood transfusion, 1.3% men who have sex with men, and 18.5% remained unknown with successful sequencing for both pol and env genes, 105 (66.9% HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE and 24 (15.3% CRF07_BC, 9 (5.7% B', 5 (3.2% CRF08_BC, 5 (3.2% B, 1 (0.6% C, 3 (1.9% CRF02_AG, and 5 (3.2% inter-region recombinants were identified within pol/env sequences. Thirteen (8.3% samples (3 naïves, 6 and 5 received with antiretroviral treatment [ART] 1-21 weeks and ≥24 weeks respectively showed mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors. Among 63 ART-naïve patients, 3 (4.8% showed single or multiple drug resistant mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed 8 small clusters (2-3 sequences/cluster with only 17 (10.8% sequences involved. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that sexual transmission with dominant CRF01_AE strain is a major risk for current HIV-1 outbreak in the Guangdong's general population. The transmission with drug-resistant variants is starting to emerge in this region.

  14. Epidemiological Investigations of Four Cowpox Virus Outbreaks in Alpaca Herds, Germany

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    Almut Prkno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Four cowpox virus (CPXV outbreaks occurred in unrelated alpaca herds in Eastern Germany during 2012–2017. All incidents were initially noticed due to severe, generalized, and finally lethal CPXV infections, which were confirmed by testing of tissue and serum samples. As CPXV-infection has been described in South American camelids (SACs only three times, all four herds were investigated to gain a deeper understanding of CPXV epidemiology in alpacas. The different herds were investigated twice, and various samples (serum, swab samples, and crusts of suspicious pox lesions, feces were taken to identify additionally infected animals. Serum was used to detect CPXV-specific antibodies by performing an indirect immunofluorescence assay (iIFA; swab samples, crusts, and feces were used for detection of CPXV-specific DNA in a real-time PCR. In total, 28 out of 107 animals could be identified as affected by CPXV, by iIFA and/or PCR. Herd seroprevalence ranged from 16.1% to 81.2%. To investigate the potential source of infection, wild small mammals were trapped around all alpaca herds. In two herds, CPXV-specific antibodies were found in the local rodent population. In the third herd, CPXV could be isolated from a common vole (Microtus arvalis found drowned in a water bucket used to water the alpacas. Full genome sequencing and comparison with the genome of a CPXV from an alpaca from the same herd reveal 99.997% identity, providing further evidence that the common vole is a reservoir host and infection source of CPXV. Only in the remaining fourth herd, none of the trapped rodents were found to be CPXV-infected. Rodents, as ubiquitous reservoir hosts, in combination with increasingly popular alpacas, as susceptible species, suggest an enhanced risk of future zoonotic infections.

  15. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of 2 subgroups of hepatitis B virus genotype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Henry L Y; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tse, Chi-Hang; Ng, Eddie Y T; Au, Thomas C C; Yuen, Lilly; Bartholomeusz, Angeline; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Lee, Kin-Hong; Locarnini, Stephen; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2005-06-15

    We aimed to investigate the characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C subgroups in Hong Kong and their relationship with HBV genotype C in other parts of Asia. Full-genome nucleotide sequences of 49 HBV genotype C isolates from Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B were compared with the sequences of 69 HBV genotype C isolates and 12 non-genotype C isolates in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the subgroups of HBV genotype C on the basis of >4% heterogeneity of the entire HBV genome. HBV in 80% of patients in Hong Kong belonged to a subgroup predominantly found in Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, and southern China) designated as HBV genotype "Cs," and HBV in the remaining 20% of patients belonged to another subgroup, predominantly found in the Far East (Korea, Japan, and northern China), designated as HBV genotype "Ce." Overall, the mean+/-SD nucleotide sequence difference between HBV genotype Cs and HBV genotype Ce was 4.2%+/-0.3%. When HBV genotype Cs and HBV genotype Ce were compared among patients in Hong Kong, HBV genotype Cs was associated with a higher tendency to develop basal core promoter mutations (80% vs. 50%; P=.14), a higher prevalence of C at nucleotide 1858 (95% vs. 0%; P<.001), and a lower prevalence of precore stop codon mutations (5% vs. 50%; P=.002). HBV genotype C can be differentiated into 2 subgroups--namely, genotype Ce and genotype Cs--that have different epidemiological distributions and virological characteristics.

  16. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of influenza A and B viruses during winter 2013-2014 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qiongxuan; Gao, Yan; Chen, Meifang; Guo, Xiaolin; Yang, Xia; Wei, Lai

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and evolution of influenza viruses from patients infected during the 2013-2014 influenza season in Beijing. A phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences of influenza A and B viruses from 18 patients (6 A(H1N1)pdm09, 4 H3N2, and 8 influenza B virus) was performed. Among the influenza A viruses, A(H1N1)pdm09 was the dominant subtype, whereas the B/Yamagata lineage was predominant for influenza B. The influenza B HA and NA strains in Beijing were dominated by reassortants derived from the Yamagata lineage and the Victoria lineage, respectively. All six A(H1N1)pdm09 strains fell into the 6B genetic group with amino acid substitutions D97N, S185T, K163Q, and A256T; the four H3N2 strains fell into genetic group 3C.3 with substitutions T128A, R142G, N145S, and V186G, and the eight influenza B strains were categorized into subgroup 3.1 and harbored an N217S mutation. Two new mutations (K180Q and G187E at the Sa and Ca antigenic sites of the H1 segment, respectively), which were not detected during the preceding influenza season, were identified. Mutations N131K, S165I, N181Y, and D212N in HA of influenza B mapped to the 120-loop, 150-loop, 160-loop, and 190-helix, respectively. Our results reveal the molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic characteristics of influenza viruses within a single geographic location and can have implications for vaccination selection in northern China.

  17. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  18. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, Eleanor R.; Jansen, Rogier R.; Poovorawan, Yong; Templeton, Kate E.; Toms, Geoffrey L.; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F) protein, and the extremely diverse

  19. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, E.R.; Jansen, R.R.; Poovorawan, Y.; Templeton, K.E.; Toms, G.L.; Simmonds, P.

    2011-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F) protein, and the extremely diverse

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Watson, Simon; Langat, Pinky; M. Reid, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data...

  1. The Changing Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection: The Associated Effects on the Incidence of Ocular Herpes

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    Abedi Kiasari, B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with a worldwide distribution has been reported in all human populations, resulting in a clinical spectrum of infections. Although HSV type 2 (HSV-2 is known as the most common cause of genital herpes, an increasing number of cases with genital herpes are caused by HSV-1. The present study aimed to discuss the changes in the epidemiology of HSV-1 infection including the decline in the general incidence of HSV-1 infection in childhood and the increased rate of genital herpes, caused by HSV-1. Moreover, changes in the epidemiology of ocular herpes, i.e., the reduced rate of primary ocular herpes in children and increased incidence of ocular HSV infection in adults, were discussed.

  2. Knowledge and attitude towards Ebola and Marburg virus diseases in Uganda using quantitative and participatory epidemiology techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakarahuka, Luke; Skjerve, Eystein; Nabadda, Daisy; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Mumba, Chisoni; Mwiine, Frank N; Lutwama, Julius J; Balinandi, Stephen; Shoemaker, Trevor; Kankya, Clovice

    2017-09-01

    Uganda has reported five (5) Ebola virus disease outbreaks and three (3) Marburg virus disease outbreaks from 2000 to 2016. Peoples' knowledge and attitude towards Ebola and Marburg virus disease impact on control and prevention measures especially during outbreaks. We describe knowledge and attitude towards Ebola and Marburg virus outbreaks in two affected communities in Uganda to inform future outbreak responses and help in the design of health education and communication messages. The study was a community survey done in Luweero, Ibanda and Kamwenge districts that have experienced outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg virus diseases. Quantitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire and triangulated with qualitative participatory epidemiology techniques to gain a communities' knowledge and attitude towards Ebola and Marburg virus disease. Out of 740 respondents, 48.5% (359/740) were categorized as being knowledgeable about Ebola and Marburg virus diseases, whereas 60.5% (448/740) were having a positive attitude towards control and prevention of Ebola and Marburg virus diseases. The mean knowledge and attitude percentage scores were 54.3 (SD = 23.5, 95%CI = 52.6-56.0) and 69.9 (SD = 16.9, 95%CI = 68.9-71.1) respectively. People educated beyond primary school were more likely to be knowledgeable about Ebola and Marburg virus disease than those who did not attain any formal education (OR = 3.6, 95%CI = 2.1-6.1). Qualitative data revealed that communities describe Ebola and Marburg virus diseases as very severe diseases with no cure and they believe the diseases spread so fast. Respondents reported fear and stigma suffered by survivors, their families and the broader community due to these diseases. Communities in Uganda affected by filovirus outbreaks have moderate knowledge about these diseases and have a positive attitude towards practices to prevent and control Ebola and Marburg viral diseases. The public health sector should enhance this community

  3. The Epidemiology, Virology and Clinical Findings of Dengue Virus Infections in a Cohort of Indonesian Adults in Western Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Herman; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Nurhayati; de Mast, Quirijn; Rudiman, Irani F.; Widjaja, Susana; Antonjaya, Ungke; Novriani, Harli; Susanto, Nugroho H.; Jusuf, Hadi; van der Ven, Andre; Beckett, Charmagne G.; Blair, Patrick J.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Williams, Maya; Porter, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue has emerged as one of the most important infectious diseases in the last five decades. Evidence indicates the expansion of dengue virus endemic areas and consequently the exponential increase of dengue virus infections across the subtropics. The clinical manifestations of dengue virus infection include sudden fever, rash, headache, myalgia and in more serious cases, spontaneous bleeding. These manifestations occur in children as well as in adults. Defining the epidemiology of dengue in a given area is critical to understanding the disease and devising effective public health strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the results from a prospective cohort study of 4380 adults in West Java, Indonesia, from 2000–2004 and 2006–2009. A total of 2167 febrile episodes were documented and dengue virus infections were confirmed by RT-PCR or serology in 268 cases (12.4%). The proportion ranged from 7.6 to 41.8% each year. The overall incidence rate of symptomatic dengue virus infections was 17.3 cases/1,000 person years and between September 2006 and April 2008 asymptomatic infections were 2.6 times more frequent than symptomatic infections. According to the 1997 WHO classification guidelines, there were 210 dengue fever cases, 53 dengue hemorrhagic fever cases (including one dengue shock syndrome case) and five unclassified cases. Evidence for sequential dengue virus infections was seen in six subjects. All four dengue virus serotypes circulated most years. Inapparent dengue virus infections were predominantly associated with DENV-4 infections. Conclusions/Significance Dengue virus was responsible for a significant percentage of febrile illnesses in an adult population in West Java, Indonesia, and this percentage varied from year to year. The observed incidence rate during the study period was 43 times higher than the reported national or provincial rates during the same time period. A wide range of clinical severity was observed with

  4. Ebola virus disease outbreak; the role of field epidemiology training programme in the fight against the epidemic, Liberia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Donewell, Bangure; Godbless, Lucas; Shabani, Sasita; Maeda, Justin; Temba, Herilinda; Malibiche, Theophil C; Berhanu, Naod

    2015-01-01

    The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to supporting Ministries of Health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. The goal for the establishment of FETP and FELTP was and still is to produce highly competent multi-disciplinary public health professionals who would assume influential posts in the public health structures and tackle emerging and re-emerging communicable and non-communicable diseases. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, African Union Support for the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa (ASEOWA) supported FETP graduates from Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania for the investigation and control of the EVD outbreak in Liberia. The graduates were posted in different counties in Liberia where they lead teams of other experts conduct EVD outbreak investigations, Infection Control and Prevention trainings among health workers and communities, Strengthening integrated disease surveillance, developing Standard Operating Procedures for infection control and case notification in the Liberian setting as well as building capacity of local surveillance officers' conduct outbreak investigation and contact tracing. The team was also responsible for EVD data management at the different Counties in Liberia. The FETP graduates have been instrumental in the earlier successes registered in various counties in Liberia

  5. Epidemiological survey on pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Kurdistan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrasiabian, S; Mohsenpour, B; Bagheri, K H; Barari, M; Ghaderi, E; Hashemi, R; Garibi, F

    2014-04-03

    This study evaluated the epidemiology of suspected cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in 2009-2010 in Kurdistan province, a frontier province of the Islamic Republic of Iran. A questionnaire covering demographic characteristics, clinical presentation and outcome, and history of exposure and travel was completed by patients attending health centres and hospitals in the province. Nasal and throat swabs were analysed by RT-PCR. A total of 1059 suspected cases were assessed; H1N1 influenza A was confirmed in 157 (14.8%). The highest proportion of confirmed cases was 30.0%, among children aged Kurdistan.

  6. Epidemiological characteristics and societal burden of varicella zoster virus in the Netherlands

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    Pierik Jorien GJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella and herpes zoster are both caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV infection or reactivation and may lead to complications associated with a (severe societal burden. Because the epidemiology of VZV-related diseases in the Netherlands remains largely unknown or incomplete, the main objective of this study was to study the primary care incidence, associated complications and health care resource use. Methods We investigated the incidence of VZV complications in the Dutch general practitioner (GP practices and pharmacies in a retrospective population-based cohort study (2004–2008 based on longitudinal GP data including free text fields, hospital referral and discharge letters from approximately 165,000 patients. Results The average annual incidence of varicella GP-consultations was 51.5 per 10,000 (95% CI 44.4-58.7 overall; 465.5 per 10,000 for 0–1 year-olds; 610.8 per 10,000 for 1–4 year-olds; 153.5 per 10,000 for 5–9 year-olds; 8,3 per 10,000 for >10 year olds. When only ICPC coded diagnoses were analyzed the incidence was 27% lower. The proportion of complications among varicella patients was 34.9%. Most frequently complications were upper respiratory tract infections. Almost half of the varicella patients received medication. The referral rate based on GP consultations was 1.7%. The average annual incidence of herpes zoster GP-consultations was 47.5 per 10,000 (95% CI 40.6-54.4. The incidence increased with age; 32.8 per 10,000 for 65 year olds. When estimating herpes zoster incidence only on ICPC coded information, the incidence was 28% lower. The complication rate of herpes zoster was 32.9%. Post herpetic neuralgia was seen most often. Of patients diagnosed with herpes zoster 67.8% received medication. The referral rate based on GP consultations was 3.5%. Conclusions For varicella the highest incidence of GP-consultations was found in 1–4 year-olds, for herpes zoster in the >65 years olds

  7. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air

  8. An epidemiological model of virus transmission in salmonid fishes of the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Paige F. B.; Breyta, Rachel; Brito, Ilana L.; Kurath, Gael; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic epidemiological model informed by records of viral presence and genotypes to evaluate potential transmission routes maintaining a viral pathogen in economically and culturally important anadromous fish populations. In the Columbia River Basin, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes severe disease, predominantly in juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and less frequently in Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Mortality events following IHNV infection can be devastating for individual hatchery programs. Despite reports of high local mortality and extensive surveillance efforts, there are questions about how viral transmission is maintained. Modeling this system offers important insights into disease transmission in natural aquatic systems, as well as about the data requirements for generating accurate estimates about transmission routes and infection probabilities. We simulated six scenarios in which testing rates and the relative importance of different transmission routes varied. The simulations demonstrated that the model accurately identified routes of transmission and inferred infection probabilities accurately when there was testing of all cohort-sites. When testing records were incomplete, the model accurately inferred which transmission routes exposed particular cohort-sites but generated biased infection probabilities given exposure. After validating the model and generating guidelines for result interpretation, we applied the model to data from 14 annual cohorts (2000–2013) at 24 focal sites in a sub-region of the Columbia River Basin, the lower Columbia River (LCR), to quantify the relative importance of potential transmission routes in this focal sub-region. We demonstrate that exposure to IHNV via the return migration of adult fish is an important route for maintaining IHNV in the LCR sub-region, and the probability of infection following this exposure was relatively high at 0.16. Although only 1% of

  9. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos I Stilianakis

    Full Text Available Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008 of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association, relative humidity (negative association and air temperature (positive association over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides

  10. El enigma de las montañas reales: propuesta narrativa de David Toscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kasperska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to reflect on some features of David Toscana’s novel Los puentes de Königsberg. In this contribution by the Northern Mexican writer there are unusual parallelisms between different realities of the cities of Monterrey (Mexico and Königsberg (East Prussia, which become the basis of the structure of the novel. In this framework the author situates certain eccentric characters, providing them with a “double life”, a real Mexican one and an imaginary East-Prussian one, in order to contrast the cities and validate the superiority of Königsberg, the actual protagonist of the novel. Toscana uses selected criteria, such as scientific and cultural contributions by the cities, their different historical fates, and the moral attitudes of their inhabitants towards discrimination, war crimes and gender violence, which implies a severe critique of Monterrey’s society. The set of parallelisms between the cities is totally convincing as a fictional structure and emphasizes the most prominent quality of Toscana’s analysed prose.

  11. The molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses associated with asthma attacks: A single-center observational study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Takeshi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Kurai, Daisuke; Ishii, Haruyuki; Takizawa, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    Few reports have described the significance of viral respiratory infections (VRIs) in exacerbation of asthma in adult patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the profiles of VRIs in adult patients with asthma along with their molecular epidemiology.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Kyorin University Hospital from August 2012 to May 2015. To identify respiratory pathogens in inpatients and outpatients suffering from asthma attacks, RT-PCR/sequencing/phylogenetic analysis methods were applied alongside conventional microbiological methods. Phylogenetic and pairwise distance analyses of 10 viruses were performed.A total of 106 asthma attack patients enrolled in this study in both inpatient (n = 49) and outpatient (n = 57) settings. The total 106 respiratory samples were obtained from nasopharyngeal swab (n = 68) or sputum (n = 38). Among these, patients with virus alone (n = 39), virus and bacterial (n = 5), and bacterial alone (n = 5) were identified. The ratio of virus-positive patients in inpatient or outpatient to the total cases were 31.1% (n = 33) and 10.4% (n = 11), respectively. The frequency of virus-positive patients was significantly higher in inpatients (75.3%, n = 33) than in outpatients (19.3%, n = 11). Major VRIs included human rhinovirus (HRV) (n = 24), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (n = 9), influenza virus (Inf-V) (n = 8), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 3) infections with seasonal variations. HRV-A and HRV-C were the most commonly detected viruses, with wide genetic divergence on phylogenetic analysis.Asthmatic exacerbations in adults are highly associated with VRIs such as HRV-A or HRV-C, hMPV, RSV, and Inf-V infections with seasonal variations and genetic divergence, but similar frequencies of VRIs occurred in asthma attack patients throughout the seasons.

  12. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  13. Landscape epidemiology and machine learning: A geospatial approach to modeling West Nile virus risk in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean Gregory

    The complex interactions between human health and the physical landscape and environment have been recognized, if not fully understood, since the ancient Greeks. Landscape epidemiology, sometimes called spatial epidemiology, is a sub-discipline of medical geography that uses environmental conditions as explanatory variables in the study of disease or other health phenomena. This theory suggests that pathogenic organisms (whether germs or larger vector and host species) are subject to environmental conditions that can be observed on the landscape, and by identifying where such organisms are likely to exist, areas at greatest risk of the disease can be derived. Machine learning is a sub-discipline of artificial intelligence that can be used to create predictive models from large and complex datasets. West Nile virus (WNV) is a relatively new infectious disease in the United States, and has a fairly well-understood transmission cycle that is believed to be highly dependent on environmental conditions. This study takes a geospatial approach to the study of WNV risk, using both landscape epidemiology and machine learning techniques. A combination of remotely sensed and in situ variables are used to predict WNV incidence with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.86. A novel method of mitigating the small numbers problem is also tested and ultimately discarded. Finally a consistent spatial pattern of model errors is identified, indicating the chosen variables are capable of predicting WNV disease risk across most of the United States, but are inadequate in the northern Great Plains region of the US.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of novel swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV from Gwalior, India, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Jyoti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1pandemic virus is a newly emergent human influenza A virus that is closely related to a number of currently circulating pig viruses in the 'classic North American' and 'Eurasian' swine influenza virus lineages and thus referred as S-OIV. Since the first reports of the virus in humans in April 2009, H1N1 virus has spread to 168 countries and overseas territories. India also witnessed severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity and mortality in different parts starting from May 2009. Findings The suspected swine flu outbreak from Gwalior India during October- December 2009 was confirmed through S-OIV HA gene specific RT-LAMP and real time RT-PCR. Positive samples through CDC real time and Lamp assay were further processed for isolation of the virus. Full HA gene sequencing of the H1N1 isolates of Gwalior, India revealed 99% homology with California and other circulating novel swine flu viruses. Three major changes were observed at nucleotide level, while two major amino acid shifts were observed at the position C9W and I30M corresponding to the ORF with prototype strain. The HA gene sequence phylogeny revealed the circulation of two genetically distinct lineages belonging to Clade VII and Clade I of S-OIV. Conclusions Our findings also supported the earlier report about circulation of mixed genogroups of S-OIV in India. Therefore continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of this newly emergent virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country.

  15. Pandemic Influenza Virus 2009 H1N1 and Adenovirus in a High Risk Population of Young Adults: Epidemiology, Comparison of Clinical Presentations, and Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-08

    Pandemic Influenza Virus 2009 H1N1 and Adenovirus in a High Risk Population of Young Adults: Epidemiology, Comparison of Clinical Presentations, and... H1N1 influenza virus (2009 H1N1 ) emerged worldwide, causing morbidity and mortality that disproportionately affected young adults. Upper respiratory...adenovirus and 2009 H1N1 were prospectively collected. Results: 375 trainees with URI enrolled and were tested for both adenovirus and 2009 H1N1 by

  16. An Integrative Analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Carriers in Vietnam Achieved Through Targeted Surveillance and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Pauszek, S J; Ludi, A; Huston, C L; Pacheco, J M; Le, V T; Nguyen, P T; Bui, H H; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen, T; Nguyen, T T; Ngo, L T; Do, D H; Rodriguez, L; Arzt, J

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major constraint to transboundary trade in animal products, yet much of its natural ecology and epidemiology in endemic regions is still poorly understood. To address this gap, a multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic FMD in Vietnam. Within the study space, it was found that 22.3% of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with FMD virus (FMDV), of which 10.8% were persistent, asymptomatic carriers (2.4% of the total population). Descriptive data collected from targeted surveillance and a farm questionnaire showed a significantly lower prevalence of FMDV infection for dairy farms. In contrast, farms of intermediate size and/or history of infection in 2010 were at increased risk of FMD exposure. At the individual animal level, buffalo had the highest exposure risk (over cattle), and there was spatial heterogeneity in exposure risk at the commune level. Conversely, carrier prevalence was higher for beef cattle, suggesting lower susceptibility of buffalo to persistent FMDV infection. To characterize virus strains currently circulating in Vietnam, partial FMDV genomic (VP1) sequences from carrier animals collected between 2012 and 2013 (N = 27) and from FMDV outbreaks between 2009 and 2013 (N = 79) were compared by phylogenetic analysis. Sequence analysis suggested that within the study period, there were two apparent novel introductions of serotype A viruses and that the dominant lineage of serotype O in Vietnam shifted from SEA/Mya-98 to ME-SA/PanAsia. FMDV strains shared close ancestors with FMDV from other South-East Asian countries indicating substantial transboundary movement of the predominant circulating strains. Close genetic relationships were observed between carrier and outbreak viruses, which may suggest that asymptomatic carriers of FMDV contribute to regional disease persistence. Multiple viral sequences obtained from carrier cattle

  17. SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION IN CITIES OF INDONESIA

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    Soegeng Soegijanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue Virus Infektion is major public health problem in Indonesia. Aedesaegypti is widespread in both urban and rural areas, where multiple virus Serotype are circulating. On 2013 outbreak ofdengue virus infection occur in East Java. Therefore study seroepidemiology in Bangkalan and Lombok had been done. Aim:to find a mutated strain ofDengue Virus in 4 cities ofIndonesia. Method: On 2011 and 2012 seroepidemiology study had been done in Dr. Soetomo Surabaya and Soerya Sidoarjo Hospital; and on 2013 study had been done in Surabaya, Bangkalan and Lombok Hospital . Diagnosis ofDengue Virus Infection was based on Criteri WHO - 2009. Virus isolation in Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Bangkalan and Lombok had been done. Result:a total of349 isolate were obtained from dengue patients sera collected in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, 2011–2012 showed that Den V1 (182, Den V2 (20 Den V4 (1 were found in Surabaya on 2011 and Den V 1 (79 , Den V 2 (7 were found in Surabaya on 2012; Den V1 (40, Den V 2 (3 were found in Sidoarjo on 2011 and Den V 1 (17 were found in Sidoarjo on 2012; Virus isolation in Surabaya on 2013, January: 237 serum sample were collected, found Den V 1 (8, Den V 3 (2 and Den V 4 (5. And PCR stereotyping of isolated viruses in Madura found Den V 1 (1 and Den V 4 (23. In Lombok found Den V 4 (4.It is possible to shift predominant strain in Surabaya , Genotype or Serotype shift might increase the number ofdengue patients. Conclusion: there were shift predominant strain in Surabaya especially Den V 1. Therefore to continuous surveillance ofcirculating viruses is required to predict the risk ofDHF and DF

  18. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Mexico from 2003 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Escalera-Zamudio

    Full Text Available In this work, nineteen influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 2003 and 2012 were studied. Our findings show that different human A/H3N2 viral lineages co-circulate within a same season and can also persist locally in between different influenza seasons, increasing the chance for genetic reassortment events. A novel minor cluster was also identified, named here as Korea, that circulated worldwide during 2003. Frequently, phylogenetic characterization did not correlate with the determined antigenic identity, supporting the need for the use of molecular evolutionary tools additionally to antigenic data for the surveillance and characterization of viral diversity during each flu season. This work represents the first long-term molecular epidemiology study of influenza A/H3N2 viruses in Mexico based on the complete genomic sequences and contributes to the monitoring of evolutionary trends of A/H3N2 influenza viruses within North and Central America.

  19. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Pathogenesis of H7N9 Influenza Viruses in Five Epidemic Waves since 2013 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shuo; Gu, Min; Liu, Di; Cui, Jie; Gao, George F; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-09-01

    H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern. In this review, we summarize and compare the different waves of H7N9 regarding their epidemiology, pathogenesis, evolution, and characteristic features, and speculate on factors behind the recent increase in the number of human cases and sudden outbreaks in chickens. The continuous evolution of the virus poses a long-term threat to public health and the poultry industry, and thus it is imperative to strengthen prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham J

    2018-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is responsible for one of the most economically important infectious diseases of livestock. The virus spreads very easily and continues to affect many countries (mainly in Africa and Asia). The risks associated with the introduction of FMDV result in major...... frequently arise (e.g. with modified antigenicity). Using nucleotide sequencing technologies, this rapid evolution of the viral genome can be followed. This allows the tracing of virus transmission pathways within an outbreak of disease if (near) full-length genome sequences can be generated. Furthermore...

  1. El último lector de David Toscana o la lectura como revelación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Aurora Sánchez Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La ectura, vista como proceso o como producto, no es sino un entrecruce de subjetividades, un ir hacia el otro y lo otro. Como desplazamiento, encuentro y revelación, la lectura es la única vía a través de la cual el texto emerge más allá de su materialidad. Ya lo dijo Wolfgang Iser: “un texto sólo despierta a la vida cuando es leído” (Iser, 1993: 99-100. Desde la metaliteratura, los dobleces y complejidades del acto de leer han sido motivo de reflexión y exploración, aunque probablemente menos que los vinculados particularmente a los problemas de la escritura literaria. Desde la posición de autorreferencialidad, el lenguaje artístico observa el universo extraordinario que se despliega en la producción y recepción del mensaje literario. En este texto se busca examinar la lectura como eje temático de la novela El último lector (Anagrama, 2004a,1 del escritor regiomontano David Toscana (1961. Asomarse a la propuesta metaliteraria de uno de los exponentes más distinguidos de la narrativa mexicana actual permite un acercamiento a diversas cuestiones asociadas al acto de leer, por ejemplo, el placer estético, los tipos de lectores, la novela como género literario, el paso de la realidad a la ficción, la impostación, así como la relación entre vida y literatura, por señalar algunos. Sobre todo, se está al alcance de una visión de mundo fincada en cierta medida en la asunción de la lectura como descubrimiento y revelación.

  2. A molecular epidemiological study targeting the glycoprotein gene of rabies virus isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Sheng-Li; Yan, Jia-Xin; Xu, Ge-Lin; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Ming, Ping-Gang; Liu, Sheng-Ya; Wu, Jie; Ming, He-Tian; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Xiao, Qi-You; Dong, Guan-Mu; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2007-03-01

    A group of 31 rabies viruses (RABVs), recovered primarily from dogs, one deer and one human case, were collected from various areas in China between 1989 and 2006. Complete G gene sequences determined for these isolates indicated identities of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of >or=87% and 93.8%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of these and some additional Chinese isolates clearly supported the placement of all Chinese viruses in Lyssavirus genotype 1 and divided all Chinese isolates between four distinct groups (I-IV). Several variants identified within the most commonly encountered group I were distributed according to their geographical origins. A comparison of representative Chinese viruses with other isolates retrieved world-wide indicated a close evolutionary relationship between China group I and II viruses and those of Indonesia while China group III viruses formed an outlying branch to variants from Malaysia and Thailand. China group IV viruses were closely related to several vaccine strains. The predicted glycoprotein sequences of these RABVs variants are presented and discussed with respect to the utility of the anti-rabies biologicals currently employed in China.

  3. Epidemiology of parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 infections based on virus isolation between 2002 and 2011 in Yamagata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Katsumi; Abiko, Chieko; Aoki, Yoko; Ikeda, Tatsuya; Itagaki, Tsutomu; Katsushima, Fumio; Katsushima, Yuriko; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Noda, Masahiro; Kimura, Hirokazu; Ahiko, Tadayuki

    2012-12-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs), 305 human parainfluenza virus types 1 (HPIV1), 154 HPIV2 and 574 HPIV3 strains were isolated from 16,962 nasopharyngeal swabs obtained between 2002 and 2011 at pediatric clinics in Yamagata, Japan. The total isolation frequency for HPIV1-3 was 6.1%. Unlike HPIV1 infections, HPIV3 showed clear seasonality with yearly outbreaks in the spring-summer season. HPIV2 tended to appear biannually in autumn-winter. Although no reliable techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of these infections have been established, the present results suggest that HPIV1-3 are an important causative agent of ARIs in children. © 2012 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Variation in risk and outcomes of Epstein-Barr virus-associated breast cancer by epidemiologic characteristics and virus detection strategies: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Sally L; Canchola, Alison J; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Longacre, Teri A; Gulley, Margaret L

    2017-04-01

    A relationship of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and breast cancer etiology and outcome may have clinical utility and potential to enhance understanding of tumor biology. Research to date has yielded variable results, likely reflecting differing virus detection assays and unaddressed epidemiologic heterogeneity across studies. Applying our novel, five-target assay detection strategy in an exploratory study, we examined demographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics, and overall survival, associated with EBV positivity in breast adenocarcinomas from 59 non-Hispanic white and 68 Hispanic women sampled by age (<50, 50+) and stage (localized, regional/remote) and examined associations based on single assay targets. EBV was localized only to lymphocytes. Nevertheless, viral prevalence, although low, varied across patient subgroups. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for EBV positivity were lower for younger Hispanic than white women (p interaction  = 0.05), and marginally higher for larger [OR (95% confidence intervals) 1.03 (1.00-1.05) per mm increase] and right-sided [2.8 (0.97-7.8)] tumors. In whites, ORs were marginally higher for larger tumors [1.04 (1.00-1.07)] and marginally lower for age 50+ [0.24 (0.06-1.03)]; in Hispanics, ORs were higher for ER negative [5.6 (1.1-30.5)], and marginally higher for right-sided, tumors [5.8 (0.94-36.2)]. Survival was suggestively poorer for EBV-positive than EBV-negative tumors in older women with localized disease. EBV associations differed across single assay targets, indicating variation in prior findings likely due to assay performance. The differing EBV associations by age and race/ethnicity suggest a non-random role of EBV in breast cancer and support further study using multi-target assays, relevant epidemiologic design, and a larger study sample.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of J-subgroup avian leukosis virus isolated from meat-type chickens in South China between 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) caused high mortality rate associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, which resulted in major economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. To assess the status of ALV-J infection in meat-type chickens in south China, molecular epidemiology of A...

  6. Ecology and Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Transmission in the Republic of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    studies presented in this report. INSTITUT FRANCAIS de RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIOUE vour le DEVELOPPEMENT en COOPERATION -(OMRSTOM) Camicas, Jean-Louis...Chapman, Louisa E. Epidemiology Office, DVD , CID Fisher-Hoch, S. P. YALE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL of MEDICINE Keyes, Linda E. Laboratoire de Virologie

  7. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Implications for Honey Bee Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Ping; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Corona, Miguel; Chen, Wei Ping; Li, Cong Jun; Spivak, Marla; Visscher, P. Kirk; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Boncristiani, Humberto; Zhao, Yan; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Delaplane, Keith; Solter, Leellen; Drummond, Francis; Kramer, Matthew; Lipkin, W. Ian; Palacios, Gustavo; Hamilton, Michele C.; Smith, Barton; Huang, Shao Kang; Zheng, Huo Qing; Li, Ji Lian; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Ai Fen; Wu, Li You; Zhou, Ji Zhong; Lee, Myeong-L.; Teixeira, Erica W.; Li, Zhi Guo; Evans, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV–host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide. PMID:25079600

  8. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis K Byarugaba

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of complete influenza virus genomes is deepening our understanding of influenza evolutionary dynamics and facilitating the selection of vaccine strains. However, only one complete African influenza virus sequence is available in the public domain. Here we present a complete genome analysis of 59 influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from humans in Uganda during the 2008 and 2009 season. Isolates were recovered from hospital-based sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illnesses and their whole genome sequenced. The viruses circulating during these two seasons clearly differed from each other phylogenetically. They showed a slow evolution away from the 2009/10 recommended vaccine strain (A/Brisbane/10/07, instead clustering with the 2010/11 recommended vaccine strain (A/Perth/16/09 in the A/Victoria/208/09 clade, as observed in other global regions. All of the isolates carried the adamantane resistance marker S31N in the M2 gene and carried several markers of enhanced transmission; as expected, none carried any marker of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. The hemagglutinin gene of the 2009 isolates differed from that of the 2008 isolates in antigenic sites A, B, D, and to a lesser extent, C and E indicating evidence of an early phylogenetic shift from the 2008 to 2009 viruses. The internal genes of the 2009 isolates were similar to those of one 2008 isolate, A/Uganda/MUWRP-050/2008. Another 2008 isolate had a truncated PB1-F2 protein. Whole genome sequencing can enhance surveillance of future seasonal changes in the viral genome which is crucial to ensure that selected vaccine strains are protective against the strains circulating in Eastern Africa. This data provides an important baseline for this surveillance. Overall the influenza virus activity in Uganda appears to mirror that observed in other regions of the southern hemisphere.

  9. Detection of hepatitis A, B, and C virus-specific antibodies using oral fluid for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Luciane A; Villar, Livia M; de Paula, Vanessa S; de Almeida, Adilson J; Gaspar, Ana Maria C

    2006-03-01

    In this report, we examine the adaptability of commercially available serological kits to detect antibodies markers for viral hepatitis in oral fluid samples. We also assessed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C virus-specific antibodies, and related risk factors for these infectious diseases through sensitivity of the tests in saliva samples to evaluate if oralfluid can be an alternative tool to substitute serum in diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis and in epidemiological studies. One hundred and ten paired serum and saliva specimens from suspect patients of having acute hepatitis were collected to detect antibodies to hepatitis A (total and IgM), hepatitis B (anti-HBs, total anti-HBc and IgM anti-HBc), and hepatitis C (anti-HCV) using commercially available enzyme-linked immunossorbent assay (EIA). In relation to serum samples, oral fluid assay sensitivity and specificity were as follows: 87 and 100% for total anti-HAV, 79 and 100% for anti-HAVIgM, 6 and 95% for anti-HBs, 13 and 100%for total anti-HBc, 100 and 100% for anti-HBc IgM, and 75 and 100% for anti-HCV The consistency observed between antibodies tests in saliva and expected risk factors for hepatitis A and C suggests that the saliva method could replace serum in epidemiological studies for hepatitis A and C.

  10. Zika virus: Epidemiology, current phobia and preparedness for upcoming mass gatherings, with examples from World Olympics and Pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis

    2016-01-01

    To describe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming Mass Gathering (MG) events. Electronic databases of PubMed, WHO, CDC, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Google, and Cochrane library were extensively searched for ZIKV. Articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant articles were utilized. ZIKV is an emerging Flavivirus which was first isolated from Uganda in 1947. It is transmitted mainly through bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Sexual, perinatal and blood-borne transmissions are implicated. ZIKV is incriminated to cause microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The spiky spread of ZIKV and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries which host big MGs with endogenous ZIKV circulation. This put millions of international travelers and local inhabitants at risk of acquiring ZIKV, especially in absence of vaccine until now. Brazil Olympic and Paralympics Games, and Muslims Hajj in Saudi Arabia are important upcoming MGs. Regarding Brazil, swiftly epidemic of ZIKV causes phobia and provokes claims and counter-claims about possible postponing or cancellation of such events. Intensifying ZIKV epidemiological surveillance (sentinel, syndromic, environmental, laboratory and electronic), and conduction of educational programs are required. Controlling Aedes vector (chemically & biologically) is essential. Multidisciplinary cooperation is required to win the war against ZIKV.

  11. Avian influenza: Eco-epidemiological aspects of the virus in its natural hosts, the migratory waterfowls Influenza aviar: Aspectos ecoepidemiológicos del virus en su hospedero natural, las aves acuáticas migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARICELA MONTALVO-CORRAL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses produce mainly respiratory and intestinal diseases. Their relevance in the generation of pandemic strains has led to a large amount of research to understand their distribution in nature, as well as the relations that become established for the effective transmission among different hosts. Waterfowl have been recognized as their natural reservoir and they play an important role in the propagation and generation of the diversity of these viruses. The emergence of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential among the human population (H5N1 of avian origin or recombinant H1N1 with avian segments point our lack of information on many aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of these viruses in their natural hosts to enable the implementation of more effective prevention and control measures. In this review, we attempt to make a critical essay on the current state of knowledge on the biotic and abiotic factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of the influenza A viruses in wild birds.Los virus influenza ocasionan enfermedades respiratorias e intestinales. Su importancia en la generación de cepas pandémicas ha conducido a la realización de intensa investigación científica para entender y conocer su distribución en la naturaleza, así como las relaciones que se establecen para la transmisión efectiva entre diferentes hospederos. Las aves acuáticas principalmente del orden Anseriformes, se han reconocido como el reservorio de estos virus y tienen una participación crucial en la propagación y generación de diversidad de estos virus. La emergencia de nuevos virus influenza con potencial pandémico entre la población humana (H5N1 de origen aviar y el actual virus pandémico H1N1 que presenta segmentos aviares, resalta la falta de información sobre muchos aspectos de la ecología y epidemiología de estos virus en sus hospederos naturales, que permitan la implementación de medidas más efectivas de prevenci

  12. Ultra-violet radiation is responsible for the differences in global epidemiology of chickenpox and the evolution of varicella-zoster virus as man migrated out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Philip S

    2011-04-23

    Of the eight human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and zoster, has a unique epidemiology. Primary infection is much less common in children in the tropics compared with temperate areas. This results in increased adult susceptibility causing outbreaks, for example in health-care workers migrating from tropical to temperate countries. The recent demonstration that there are different genotypes of varicella-zoster virus and their geographic segregation into tropical and temperate areas suggests a distinct, yet previously unconsidered climatic factor may be responsible for both the clinical and molecular epidemiological features of this virus infection. Unlike other human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus does not require intimate contact for infection to occur indicating that transmission may be interrupted by a geographically restricted climatic factor. The factor with the largest difference between tropical and temperate zones is ultra-violet radiation. This could reduce the infectiousness of chickenpox cases by inactivating virus in vesicles, before or after rupture. This would explain decreased transmissibility in the tropics and why the peak chickenpox incidence in temperate zones occurs during winter and spring, when ultra-violet radiation is at its lowest. The evolution of geographically restricted genotypes is also explained by ultra-violet radiation driving natural selection of different virus genotypes with varying degrees of resistance to inactivation, tropical genotypes being the most resistant. Consequently, temperate viruses should be more sensitive to its effects. This is supported by the observation that temperate genotypes are found in the tropics only in specific circumstances, namely where ultra-violet radiation has either been excluded or significantly reduced in intensity. The hypothesis is testable by exposing different virus genotypes to ultra-violet radiation and quantifying virus survival by plaque forming

  13. Ultra-violet radiation is responsible for the differences in global epidemiology of chickenpox and the evolution of varicella-zoster virus as man migrated out of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Philip S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the eight human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and zoster, has a unique epidemiology. Primary infection is much less common in children in the tropics compared with temperate areas. This results in increased adult susceptibility causing outbreaks, for example in health-care workers migrating from tropical to temperate countries. The recent demonstration that there are different genotypes of varicella-zoster virus and their geographic segregation into tropical and temperate areas suggests a distinct, yet previously unconsidered climatic factor may be responsible for both the clinical and molecular epidemiological features of this virus infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Unlike other human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus does not require intimate contact for infection to occur indicating that transmission may be interrupted by a geographically restricted climatic factor. The factor with the largest difference between tropical and temperate zones is ultra-violet radiation. This could reduce the infectiousness of chickenpox cases by inactivating virus in vesicles, before or after rupture. This would explain decreased transmissibility in the tropics and why the peak chickenpox incidence in temperate zones occurs during winter and spring, when ultra-violet radiation is at its lowest. The evolution of geographically restricted genotypes is also explained by ultra-violet radiation driving natural selection of different virus genotypes with varying degrees of resistance to inactivation, tropical genotypes being the most resistant. Consequently, temperate viruses should be more sensitive to its effects. This is supported by the observation that temperate genotypes are found in the tropics only in specific circumstances, namely where ultra-violet radiation has either been excluded or significantly reduced in intensity. Testing the Hypothesis The hypothesis is testable by exposing

  14. Epidemiology of ryegrass mosaic virus in South Africa. | S.N. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and seasonal occurrence of ryegrass mosaic virus in South Africa was determined. Italian ryegrass plants were collected from eight different research stations twice during the growing season in 1990 and 1991. Samples were tested for the presence of RMV by means of symptomology, electron microscopy, ...

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Autochthonous Dengue Virus Strains Circulating in Mexico ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Osorio, Pilar; Vaughan, Gilberto; Ramírez-González, Jose Ernesto; Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Ruíz-Tovar, Karina; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra Yolanda; Ruíz-Pacheco, Juan Alberto; Vázquez-Pichardo, Mauricio; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Cázares, Fernando; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important arthropod-borne viral infection in humans. Here, the genetic relatedness among autochthonous DENV Mexican isolates was assessed. Phylogenetic and median-joining network analyses showed that viral strains recovered from different geographic locations are genetically related and relatively homogeneous, exhibiting limited nucleotide diversity.

  16. BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ON CATTLE HERDS OF CAMPECHE STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Alberto Encalada Mena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High seroprevalence in Yucatan and proximity to the state of Campeche make it necessary to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (VRSB in the state of Campeche, Mexico. Thus the objective of the present work was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV of the state of Campeche, Mexico. The sampled of 36 cattle herds (842 sera were analyzed by indirect ELISA kit, in the 11 municipalities of Campeche. A survey to obtain risk factors (sex, age of animals, number of animals grazing density, management system, presence of sheep on the farm and access to the roadside was applied and calculated X2 for each variable considered. Of the total number of samples analyzed (842, 273 were positive (32.47%. The prevalence ranges found ranged from 0% to 84%, so in 9 of the herds there were no positive samples, indicating a 75% (27/36 of dispersion of this virus. X2 analysis indicated that all variables were significant and are risk factors regarding with respect to the variable seroprevalence of BRSV. The results indicate a wide circulation of BRSV and we suggest implement recommendations that will enable a lower spread of this virus in the cattle population.

  17. Distribution, cultivar susceptibility, and epidemiology of Apium virus Y on celery in coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apium virus Y (ApVY) is a potyvirus that was recently found to cause crop loss to celery (Apium graveolens) in California. Symptoms on leaves vary greatly and consist of general chlorosis, chlorotic or necrotic line patterns, chlorotic blotches and mottling, necrotic lesions, ringspots, and distorte...

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  19. Incidence of respiratory viruses in a pediatric population: molecular and epidemiological aspects

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    Anna Di Taranto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory infections are not well defined and the etiology is often unknown. Material and method: four hundred fortynine subjectrs were enrolled in the study; in all patientes there was a suspect of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. At admission, a nasopharyngeal swab was made. A multiplex PCR was performed after extraction and reverse transcription of viral RNA. The amplified fragments were revealed by using an electrophoresis separation. Results: Two hundred and four patients (45.4% were hospitalized for infection of the upper respiratory tract, 141 (31.4% for lower respiratory infection and the remaining (23% for other symptoms. One hundred fiftyseven (35% patients were positive for human influenza A (H1N1 subtype and 184 for other respiratory viruses,of which 59 (32% gave a positive for respiratory syncytial virus, 42 (23% for rhinovirus, 31 (17% for parainfluenza virus, 12 (6.5% for coronavirus, 28 (15% for adenovirus and 6 (3% for influenza B (3% and 6 (3% for metapneumovirus. The M1 gene sequence of influenza A H1N1 strains from 12 patients had a high identity with that of the reference virus. Conclusion: Furthermore H1N1 and RSV were the main causative agents of acute respiratory infection. A molecular approach provides an accurate and rapid aetiological diagnosis of viral respiratory infections. The molecolar features in the M1 gene suggested that the H1N1 influenza strains circulating in Apulia region had a conserved genetic make up.

  20. [Epidemiology and human rights: Zika virus outlook and reproductive rights in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Ángeles, Manuel G; Martínez-Ramos, Ericay Berenice; López-Hernández, Olga

    2017-01-01

    With this article we review the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic. We also look back over the last scientific evidence relating ZIKV to microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Finally, we also address the challenges in terms of reproductive rights in Latin America.

  1. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of Peste des petits ruminants virus in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Mohammed Z.; Haider, Najmul; Gurley, Emily S.

    2018-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible sheep and goats. Adequate knowledge of the diversity of circulating strains of PPR virus will help livestock authorities choose appropriate vaccines. The objec...

  2. Epidemiology of viruses causing chronic hepatitis among populations from the Amazon Basin and related ecosystems

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    Echevarría José M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On the last twenty years, viral hepatitis has emerged as a serious problem in almost all the Amerindian communities studied in the Amazon Basin and in other Amazon-related ecological systems from the North and Center of South America. Studies performed on communities from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela have shown a high endemicity of the hepatitis B virus (HBV infection all over the region, which is frequently associated to a high prevalence of infection by hepatitis D virus among the chronic HBV carriers. Circulation of both agents responds mainly to horizontal virus transmission during childhood through mechanisms that are not fully understood. By contrast, infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV, which is present in all the urban areas of South America, is still very uncommon among them. At the moment, there is not data enough to evaluate properly the true incidence that such endemicity may have on the health of the populations affected. Since viral transmission might be operated by mechanisms that could not be acting in other areas of the World, it seems essential to investigate such mechanisms and to prevent the introduction of HCV into these populations, which consequences for health could be very serious.

  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in China: results from the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey, 2005-2006.

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    Zhiyuan Jia

    Full Text Available In China, hepatitis E virus (HEV is prevalent and causes disease, but its epidemiological profile is not well understood. We used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect total antibodies to hepatitis E virus in 15,862 serum samples collected during the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey. The results were analyzed to calculate estimates of HEV seroprevalence and to examine the effects of some putative risk factors. The seroprevalence of HEV in the general Chinese population during the period from 2005 through 2006 was 23.46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.41%-28.50%. The farming population, the age group of 15-60 year olds, and those living in the Midwest or Mideast region and in Xinjiang province had the highest seroprevalence estimates. The prevalence of HEV is high in China. The seroprevalence rate of HEV shows an unbalanced distribution among areas with different geographic location and economic development levels. The characteristics of the distribution associated may be due to the route of HEV transmission (via contaminated water or animal reservoirs. Within the same region, the seroprevalence of HEV is generally increased with age.

  4. Patho-epidemiological study on Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus infection in commercial vaccinated layer farms

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    J. H. Khorajiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried out to study the patho-epidemiological aspects of Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in commercial layer in and around Anand, Gujarat. As the outbreaks have reported in vaccinated flocks, it was felt necessary to study the disease with respect to its changing pathogenicity and relevant aspects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of patho-epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND by information collected from different layer farms suffering from the disease in relation to incidence pattern and mortality, duration of mortality, susceptible age, and loss due to production performance. Clinical signs were recorded based on observations. During postmortem, gross lesions were also recorded. For histopathological examination visceral organs according to lesions were collected in 10% formalin and processed slide stained by hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. Cultivation of virus was done in embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF eggs of 9-11 days and isolation of virus was done for haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and to identify pathotype of virus by intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test to determine the virulence of virus. The Genotype-XIII NDV was confirmed by F gene sequence and whole genome sequence. Results: During the study mortality due to ND was recorded in 13 layer flocks in spite of routine vaccination, which usually contain Genotype-II strain of virus. The mortality was observed as high as above 50% with an average of 21.21%. The susceptible age for disease was found to be 6-14 weeks. The duration of mortality observed was 23 days. The disease resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, feed intake and drop in egg production. Majority of the outbreaks appeared during extremely hot months of April to June. Greenish diarrhoea was frequently seen in birds that survived early in infection. Mortality continued for 2

  5. Molecular Epidemiology and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin Perglione, Cecilia; Golemba, Marcelo D; Torres, Carolina; Barrandeguy, Maria

    2016-10-16

    Equine influenza virus (EIV) is considered the most important respiratory pathogen of horses as outbreaks of the disease lead to substantial economic losses. The H3N8 EIV has caused respiratory disease in horses across the world, including South American countries. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the complete haemagglutinin gene of the H3N8 EIV detected in South America since 1963 were analyzed. Phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent analyses were carried out to study the origin, the time of the most recent common ancestors (tMRCA), the demographic and the phylogeographic patterns of the H3N8 EIV. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the H3N8 EIV detected in South America grouped in 5 well-supported monophyletic clades, each associated with strains of different origins. The tMRCA estimated for each group suggested that the virus was circulating in North America at least one year before its effective circulation in the South American population. Phylogenetic and coalescent analyses revealed a polyphyletic behavior of the viruses causing the outbreaks in South America between 1963 and 2012, possibly due to the introduction of at least 4 different EIVs through the international movement of horses. In addition, phylodynamic analysis suggested South America as the starting point of the spread of the H3N8 EIV in 1963 and showed migration links from the United States to South America in the subsequent EIV irruptions. Further, an increase in the relative genetic diversity was observed between 2006 and 2007 and a subsequent decline since 2009, probably due to the co-circulation of different lineages and as a result of the incorporation of the Florida clade 2 strain in vaccines, respectively. The observed data highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance and the implementation of appropriate quarantine procedures to prevent outbreaks of the disease.

  6. Epidemiological & clinical profile of influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus infections during 2015 epidemic in Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus emerged in 2009 and caused pandemic with high morbidity and mortality in India and worldwide. The number of H1N1-positive cases varied in different years in Rajasthan. The objective of the study was to present the epidemiological profile of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus cases in Rajasthan from January to March 2015. Methods: A retrospective descriptive, record-based analysis of suspected and confirmed cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus infection in Rajasthan, India, from January to March 2015 was performed. Testing was done as per the Centers for Disease Control guidelines at nine laboratories approved by the Government of Rajasthan. Data were analyzed in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical presentation and outcome. Results: Among 18,187 tested cases, 6203 (34.10% were positive. Death occurred in 378 cases, with six per cent case fatality rate. Maximum number of cases (n=2801 and deaths (n=101 were from Jaipur zone. The highest number of cases, 47.60 per cent (2953/6203 and deaths, 52.11 per cent (197/378 were in the age group of 26-50 yr; 52.64 per cent (199/378 of deaths occurred in females. The highest number (63.5% of deaths was from urban areas. Associated risk factors were observed in 59.44 per cent of the death cases, pregnancy being the predominant predisposing factor. In 61.92 per cent of patients, death occurred within three days of hospitalization. Interpretation & conclusions: H1N1 epidemic caused high morbidity and mortality in early 2015, particularly in the younger and middle-aged population and pregnant women in Rajasthan State of India. The study highlights the regular surveillance of influenza like illness, early diagnosis and timely initiation of therapy in suspected cases.

  7. Epidemiological & clinical profile of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infections during 2015 epidemic in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bharti; Singh, Ruchi; Sharma, Pratibha; Meena, Deepa; Gupta, Jyoti; Atreya, Aditya; Meena, B R

    2016-12-01

    Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus emerged in 2009 and caused pandemic with high morbidity and mortality in India and worldwide. The number of H1N1-positive cases varied in different years in Rajasthan. The objective of the study was to present the epidemiological profile of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus cases in Rajasthan from January to March 2015. A retrospective descriptive, record-based analysis of suspected and confirmed cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in Rajasthan, India, from January to March 2015 was performed. Testing was done as per the Centers for Disease Control guidelines at nine laboratories approved by the Government of Rajasthan. Data were analyzed in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical presentation and outcome. Among 18,187 tested cases, 6203 (34.10%) were positive. Death occurred in 378 cases, with six per cent case fatality rate. Maximum number of cases (n=2801) and deaths (n=101) were from Jaipur zone. The highest number of cases, 47.60 per cent (2953/6203) and deaths, 52.11 per cent (197/378) were in the age group of 26-50 yr; 52.64 per cent (199/378) of deaths occurred in females. The highest number (63.5%) of deaths was from urban areas. Associated risk factors were observed in 59.44 per cent of the death cases, pregnancy being the predominant predisposing factor. In 61.92 per cent of patients, death occurred within three days of hospitalization. H1N1 epidemic caused high morbidity and mortality in early 2015, particularly in the younger and middle-aged population and pregnant women in Rajasthan State of India. The study highlights the regular surveillance of influenza like illness, early diagnosis and timely initiation of therapy in suspected cases.

  8. Tecniche costruttive e forme di potere nella Toscana sud-occidentale (secc. VIII-XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi, Giovanna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells about the analysis of the building techniques of elevations inferred from data obtained in extensive projects of archaeological research executed in western Tuscany's rural field from half '90s of last century to present. The text looks over the changes from wooden building trade related to the first high rise habitants in VIIth-VIIIth century, until the pattern settlements in the second half of VIIIth and XIth centuries, characterized by the first use of masonry and the presence of expert master builders. The more complex organization of the building workshops for castles of the XIth and XIIth centuries in relation with the liege lord's rising politic abusive authority is explained in the following part. The subsequent formation of new suburbs between the XIIIth and the XIV centuries is characterized by a different way of use of building techniques, often founded over pre-existing castles, linked to local council, up to the political and economical influence of Pisa in this territory.Nell’articolo si tratta l’analisi delle tecniche murarie desunta da dati provenienti da ampi progetti di indagine archeologica svolti in ambito rurale nella Toscana occidentale dalla metà degli anni Novanta dello scorso secolo ad oggi. Nel testo si esaminano i cambiamenti dei modi di edificare a partire dall’edilizia in legno dei primi abitati di altura di VII-VIII secolo, sino agli insediamenti più strutturati di seconda metà VIII e IX secolo, caratterizzati da un primo uso della pietra e dalla presenza di maestranze specializzate. In seguito si analizza la più complessa organizzazione del cantiere propria della costruzione dei castelli di XI e XII secolo in rapporto ai poteri politici ed economici delle nascenti signorie territoriali. Un differente uso delle tecniche costruttive caratterizza la successiva formazione di nuovi borghi tra XIII e XIV secolo, spesso impiantati sui preesistenti castelli, legati ai locali organismi comunali

  9. Molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotype 1 isolated in 2006 from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cêtre-Sossah, C; Madani, H; Sailleau, C; Nomikou, K; Sadaoui, H; Zientara, S; Maan, S; Maan, N; Mertens, P; Albina, E

    2011-12-01

    This study reports on an outbreak of disease that occurred in central Algeria during July 2006. Sheep in the affected area presented clinical signs typical of bluetongue (BT) disease. A total of 5245 sheep in the affected region were considered to be susceptible, with 263 cases and thirty-six deaths. Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 1 was isolated and identified as the causative agent. Segments 2, 7 and 10 of this virus were sequenced and compared with other isolates from Morocco, Italy, Portugal and France showing that they all belong to a 'western' BTV group/topotype and collectively represent a western Mediterranean lineage of BTV-1. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E W; Yuhki, N; Packer, C; O'Brien, S J

    1994-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. A lion lentivirus (FIV-Ple) was isolated by infection of lion lymphocytes in vitro. Seroconversion was documented in two Serengeti lions, and discordance of mother-cub serological status argues against maternal transmission (in favor of horizontal spread) as a major route of infection among lions. A phylogenetic analysis of cloned FIV-Ple pol gene sequences from 27 lions from four African populations (from the Serengeti reserve, Ngorongoro Crater, Lake Manyara, and Kruger Park) revealed remarkably high intra- and interindividual genetic diversity at the sequence level. Three FIV-Ple phylogenetic clusters or clades were resolved with phenetic, parsimony, and likelihood analytical procedures. The three clades, which occurred not only together in the same population but throughout Africa, were as divergent from each other as were homologous pol sequences of lentivirus isolated from distinct feline species, i.e., puma and domestic cat. The FIV-Ple clades, however, were more closely related to each other than to other feline lentiviruses (monophyletic for lion species), suggesting that the ancestors of FIV-Ple evolved in allopatric (geographically isolated) lion populations that converged recently. To date, there is no clear evidence of FIV-Ple-associated pathology, raising the possibility of a historic genetic accommodation of the lion lentivirus and its host leading to a coevolved host-parasite symbiosis (or commensalism) in the population similar to that hypothesized for endemic

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with t...

  12. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in children in the province of Van, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Demiören, Kaan; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus is an etiological agent of hepatitis which is transmitted enterically and may lead to water-born outbreaks. Although it is mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route, it is estimated that many cases are associated with zoonotic transmission in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the childhood age group in the province of Van and to demonstrate the relationship between seroprevalence and demographic properties, residential house/region, water supply used at home, dealing with livestock and history of surgery. In this study, hepatitis E virus IgG antibody was studied by ELISA method in children aged between 2 months and 18 years between June 2014 and September 2014 in the province of Van. A total of 408 children and adolescents were enrolled in the study. Hepatitis E IgG was found to be positive in 4.2% of the subjects. 179 (43.8%) of the subjects were female and 229 (56.2%) were male. The mean age was 123 months±56.6 months (minimum 2 months, maximum 214 months). When the seropositivity rates were compared by age groups and gender, no difference was found. No correlation was found between hepatitis E seropositivity and the variables of residence, dealing with livestock and water resources. No correlation was found between anti-hepatits E virus seropositivity and parental education level, number of cohabitants and history of surgery. In our study, hepatitis E virus seropositivity was found to be lower compared to the mean seropositivity in Turkey. Hepatitis E infection does not constitute a serious problem in children in the province of Van in accordance with the results reported from different parts of our country. Livestock dealing and usage of well water are not considered risk factors for Hepatitis E infection.

  13. Hepatitis C virus: molecular and epidemiological evidence of male-to-female transmission

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    Norma de Paula Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is general consensus that hepatitis C virus is efficiently transmitted by the parenteral route, whereas data on viral transmission by sexual or non-sexual intrafamilial contact are conflicting. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission of hepatitis C virus in nine heterosexual couples. RESULT: The mean age of the couples was 43.7 years. When interviewed, all of the women denied the presence of risk factors for acquisition of the infection, whereas the cause of infection in the nine husbands could be attributed to blood transfusions in two of them (22.2%, use of intravenous and inhaled drugs in six (66.7%, acupuncture in one (11.1%, and tattooing in one (11.1%. All men and none of the women reported sexual relations with sex professionals. The mean homology score (Non Structural 5b-hepatitis C virus was 98.4%. Among the nine couples with matching subtypes, one (11.1% was infected with subtype 1a, three (33.3% with subtype 1b, and five (55.5% with subtype 3a. Shared personal hygiene items showed a much higher correlation with the possible route of transmission and were better supported by the sequence homology data than the other associated risk factors. Three (33.3% couples shared toothbrushes, seven (77.8% shared razor blades, eight (88.8% shared nail clippers, and six (66.7% shared manicure cutters. CONCLUSION: Sharing of personal hygiene items was a confounding factor in the discussion of sexual hepatitis C virus transmission and the hypothesis of male-to-female transmission was supported in this study

  14. Ebola Virus Epidemiology, Transmission, and Evolution during Seven Months in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel J; Dudas, Gytis; Wohl, Shirlee; Goba, Augustine; Whitmer, Shannon L M; Andersen, Kristian G; Sealfon, Rachel S; Ladner, Jason T; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Matranga, Christian B; Winnicki, Sarah M; Qu, James; Gire, Stephen K; Gladden-Young, Adrianne; Jalloh, Simbirie; Nosamiefan, Dolo; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Moses, Lina M; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Lin, Aaron E; Schaffner, Stephen F; Bird, Brian; Towner, Jonathan; Mamoh, Mambu; Gbakie, Michael; Kanneh, Lansana; Kargbo, David; Massally, James L B; Kamara, Fatima K; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Jalloh, Abdul A; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Erickson, Bobbie R; Sealy, Tara; Blau, Dianna; Paddock, Christopher; Brault, Aaron; Amman, Brian; Basile, Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica; Bergeron, Eric; Campbell, Shelley; Chakrabarti, Ayan; Dodd, Kimberly; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; Klena, John; McMullan, Laura; Morgan, Laura; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna; Sanchez, Angela; Wang, David; Jungreis, Irwin; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher; Kislyuk, Andrey; Lin, Michael F; Chapman, Sinead; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Matthews, Ashley; Bochicchio, James; Hensley, Lisa E; Kuhn, Jens H; Nusbaum, Chad; Schieffelin, John S; Birren, Bruce W; Forget, Marc; Nichol, Stuart T; Palacios, Gustavo F; Ndiaye, Daouda; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Kargbo, Brima; Holmes, Edward C; Bedford, Trevor; Gnirke, Andreas; Ströher, Ute; Rambaut, Andrew; Garry, Robert F; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2015-06-18

    The 2013-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic is caused by the Makona variant of Ebola virus (EBOV). Early in the epidemic, genome sequencing provided insights into virus evolution and transmission and offered important information for outbreak response. Here, we analyze sequences from 232 patients sampled over 7 months in Sierra Leone, along with 86 previously released genomes from earlier in the epidemic. We confirm sustained human-to-human transmission within Sierra Leone and find no evidence for import or export of EBOV across national borders after its initial introduction. Using high-depth replicate sequencing, we observe both host-to-host transmission and recurrent emergence of intrahost genetic variants. We trace the increasing impact of purifying selection in suppressing the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations over time. Finally, we note changes in the mucin-like domain of EBOV glycoprotein that merit further investigation. These findings clarify the movement of EBOV within the region and describe viral evolution during prolonged human-to-human transmission. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus from commercial and native chickens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, S-C; Lin, H-L; Liu, P-C; Huang, H-J; Lee, M-S; Lien, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-L

    2018-04-25

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs). In this study, CAV DNA was detected in 72 of 137 flocks collected during 2010-2015. Among the PCR-positive samples, the coding regions of 51 CAVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed that, although most of Taiwanese CAVs belonged to genotypes II and III, some isolates were clustered into a novel genotype (genotype IV). Moreover, a Taiwanese isolate in this novel genotype IV appeared to be derived from a recombination event between genotypes II and III viruses. Five Taiwanese CAV isolates were highly similar to the vaccine strains, 26P4 or Del-Ros. Taken together, these results indicate that the sequences of CAVs in Taiwan are variable, and inter-genotypic recombination had occurred between viruses of different genotypes. Moreover, vaccine-like strains might induce clinical signs of CIA in chickens. Our findings could be useful for understanding the evolution of CAVs and development of a better control strategy for CIA. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies reveal evidence of multiple past recombination events between infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    Full Text Available In contrast to the RNA viruses, the genome of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have been considered to be relatively stable. Intra-specific recombination has been proposed as an important, but underestimated, driving force in herpesvirus evolution. Recently, two distinct field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV have been shown to have arisen from independent recombination events between different commercial ILTV vaccines. In this study we sequenced the genomes of additional ILTV strains and also utilized other recently updated complete genome sequences of ILTV to confirm the existence of a number of ILTV recombinants in nature. Multiple recombination events were detected in the unique long and repeat regions of the genome, but not in the unique short region. Most recombinants contained a pair of crossover points between two distinct lineages of ILTV, corresponding to the European origin and the Australian origin vaccine strains of ILTV. These results suggest that there are two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV and that these commonly recombine in the field.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajs, Luka; Jakupi, Xhevat; Ahmeti, Salih; Humolli, Isme; Dedushaj, Isuf; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic agent that causes severe, life-threatening disease, with a case fatality rate of 10-50%. It is the most widespread tick-borne virus in the world, with cases reported in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. CCHFV is a genetically diverse virus. Its genetic diversity is often correlated to its geographical origin. Genetic variability of CCHFV was determined within few endemic areas, however limited data is available for Kosovo. Furthermore, there is little information about the spatiotemporal genetic changes of CCHFV in endemic areas. Kosovo is an important endemic area for CCHFV. Cases were reported each year and the case-fatality rate is significantly higher compared to nearby regions. In this study, we wanted to examine the genetic variability of CCHFV obtained directly from CCHF-confirmed patients, hospitalized in Kosovo from 1991 to 2013. We sequenced partial S segment CCHFV nucleotide sequences from 89 patients. Our results show that several viral variants are present in Kosovo and that the genetic diversity is high in relation to the studied area. We also show that variants are mostly uniformly distributed throughout Kosovo and that limited evolutionary changes have occurred in 22 years. Our results also suggest the presence of a new distinct lineage within the European CCHF phylogenetic clade. Our study provide the largest number of CCHFV nucleotide sequences from patients in 22 year span in one endemic area.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Kosovo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Fajs

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a zoonotic agent that causes severe, life-threatening disease, with a case fatality rate of 10-50%. It is the most widespread tick-borne virus in the world, with cases reported in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. CCHFV is a genetically diverse virus. Its genetic diversity is often correlated to its geographical origin. Genetic variability of CCHFV was determined within few endemic areas, however limited data is available for Kosovo. Furthermore, there is little information about the spatiotemporal genetic changes of CCHFV in endemic areas. Kosovo is an important endemic area for CCHFV. Cases were reported each year and the case-fatality rate is significantly higher compared to nearby regions. In this study, we wanted to examine the genetic variability of CCHFV obtained directly from CCHF-confirmed patients, hospitalized in Kosovo from 1991 to 2013. We sequenced partial S segment CCHFV nucleotide sequences from 89 patients. Our results show that several viral variants are present in Kosovo and that the genetic diversity is high in relation to the studied area. We also show that variants are mostly uniformly distributed throughout Kosovo and that limited evolutionary changes have occurred in 22 years. Our results also suggest the presence of a new distinct lineage within the European CCHF phylogenetic clade. Our study provide the largest number of CCHFV nucleotide sequences from patients in 22 year span in one endemic area.

  19. The impact of antigenic drift of influenza A virus on human herd immunity: Sero-epidemiological study of H1N1 in healthy Thai population in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yuta; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Bai, Guirong; Li, Yonggang; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Jampangern, Wipawee; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2010-07-26

    To examine the effect of the antigenic drift of H1N1 influenza viruses on herd immunity, neutralization antibodies from 744 sera from Thai healthy volunteers in 2008-2009, who had not been vaccinated for at least the last 5 years, were investigated by microneutralization (MN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Significantly higher MN titers were observed for the H1N1 Thai isolate in 2006 than in 2008. The results indicate that the antigenically drifted virus effectively escaped herd immunity. Since the low neutralization activity of herd immunity against drifted viruses is an important factor for viruses to spread efficiently, continuous sero-epidemiological study is required for public health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Zika virus disease, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in Colombia: epidemiological situation during 21 months of the Zika virus outbreak, 2015-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Nelson; Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael; Mattar, Salim; Caicedo-Castro, Isaac; Arrieta, German

    2017-01-01

    The Zika virus disease (ZVD) has had a huge impact on public health in Colombia for the numbers of people affected and the presentation of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly cases associated to ZVD. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out, we analyze the epidemiological situation of ZVD and its association with microcephaly and GBS during a 21-month period, from October 2015 to June 2017. The variables studied were: (i) ZVD cases, (ii) ZVD cases in pregnant women, (iii) laboratory-confirmed ZVD in pregnant women, (iv) ZVD cases associated with microcephaly, (v) laboratory-confirmed ZVD associated with microcephaly, and (vi) ZVD associated to GBS cases. Average number of cases, attack rates (AR) and proportions were also calculated. The studied variables were plotted by epidemiological weeks and months. The distribution of ZVD cases in Colombia was mapped across the time using Kernel density estimator and QGIS software; we adopted Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) and the Gaussian Kernel to estimate the number of Guillain Barre cases given the number of ZVD cases. One hundred eight thousand eighty-seven ZVD cases had been reported in Colombia, including 19,963 (18.5%) in pregnant women, 710 (0.66%) associated with microcephaly (AR, 4.87 cases per 10,000 live births) and 453 (0.42%) ZVD associated to GBS cases (AR, 41.9 GBS cases per 10,000 ZVD cases). It appears the cases of GBS increased in parallel with the cases of ZVD, cases of microcephaly appeared 5 months after recognition of the outbreak. The kernel density map shows that throughout the study period, the states most affected by the Zika outbreak in Colombia were mainly San Andrés and Providencia islands, Casanare, Norte de Santander, Arauca and Huila. The KRR shows that there is no proportional relationship between the number of GBS and ZVD cases. During the cross validation, the RMSE achieved for the second order polynomial kernel, the linear kernel, the sigmoid kernel, and the Gaussian

  1. Potential Impact of Sexual Transmission on Ebola Virus Epidemiology: Sierra Leone as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Abbate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD 6 months after onset of symptoms has been recently documented, and Ebola virus RNA has been detected in semen of survivors up to 9 months after onset of symptoms. As countries affected by the 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa, by far the largest to date, are declared free of Ebola virus disease (EVD, it remains unclear what threat is posed by rare sexual transmission events that could arise from survivors.We devised a compartmental mathematical model that includes sexual transmission from convalescent survivors: a SEICR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-convalescent-recovered transmission model. We fitted the model to weekly incidence of EVD cases from the 2014-2015 epidemic in Sierra Leone. Sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations showed that a 0.1% per sex act transmission probability and a 3-month convalescent period (the two key unknown parameters of sexual transmission create very few additional cases, but would extend the epidemic by 83 days [95% CI: 68-98 days] (p < 0.0001 on average. Strikingly, a 6-month convalescent period extended the average epidemic by 540 days (95% CI: 508-572 days, doubling the current length, despite an insignificant rise in the number of new cases generated.Our results show that reductions in the per sex act transmission probability via abstinence and condom use should reduce the number of sporadic sexual transmission events, but will not significantly reduce the epidemic size and may only minimally shorten the length of time the public health community must maintain response preparedness. While the number of infectious survivors is expected to greatly decline over the coming months, our results show that transmission events may still be expected for quite some time as each event results in a new potential cluster of non-sexual transmission. Precise measurement of the convalescent period is thus important for planning ongoing surveillance efforts.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus over three consecutive seasons in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaks, Reinis; Ribakova, Irina; Gardovska, Dace; Kazaks, Andris

    2014-11-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections caused by the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) represent an immense burden of the disease, especially in young children. This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary history of HRSV strains isolated in the Children's Clinical University Hospital (Riga, Latvia) over three consecutive HRSV seasons. Of 207 samples from children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections, 88 (42.5%) tested positive for HRSV by RT-PCR. The seasonal activity started and peaked later than the average for the Northern hemisphere. Patients with HRSV lower respiratory tract infection were significantly younger than patients not infected with HRSV. HRSV-A viruses predominated for two consecutive seasons and were followed by an HRSV-B dominant season. Phylogenetic analysis based on glycoprotein G gene partial sequences revealed that viruses of both groups belonged to the worldwide dominant genotypes NA1 (HRSV-A) and BA-IV (HRSV-B). High diversity of this gene was driven only partially by selection pressure, as only two positively selected sites were identified in each group. Two of the HRSV-A isolates in this study contained a 72-nt duplication in the C-terminal end of the G gene (genotype ON1) that was first described in Canada in the 2010-2011 season. Initial spatial and temporal dynamics of this novel genotype were reconstructed by discrete phylogeographic analysis. Fifteen years after acquiring comparable 60-nt duplication in the G gene, genotype BA lineages have replaced all other HRSV-B strains. However, the population size of genotype ON1 plateaued soon and even decreased slightly before the beginning of the 2012-2013 season. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza viruses circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011.

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    Srey Viseth Horm

    Full Text Available The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011.Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009-2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade.In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for influenza treatment and chemoprophylaxis in Cambodia

  4. Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza Viruses Circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sovann; Heng, Seng; Vong, Sirenda; Kitsutani, Paul; Ieng, Vannra; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; Sar, Borann; Chea, Nora; Sokhal, Buth; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Horwood, Paul F.; Timmermans, Ans; Hurt, Aeron; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Ung, Sam An; Asgari, Nima; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Touch, Sok; Komadina, Naomi; Buchy, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009–2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. Conclusions/Significance In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for

  5. Hepatitis C virus infection epidemiology among people who inject drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Grady, Bart

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment options are improving and may enhance prevention; however access for PWID may be poor. The availability in the literature of information on seven main topic areas (incidence, chronicity...... January 2000 and 31 December 2012, with a search strategy of general keywords regarding viral hepatitis, substance abuse and geographic scope, as well as topic-specific keywords. Additional articles were found through structured email consultations with a large European expert network. Data availability...

  6. Il Geoportale del Comune di Magliano in Toscana il webGIS e la generazione automatica dei CDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bartoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, web GIS on urban issues has played a key role in modernizing many Italian Public Authorities. In line with these important technological changes, the municipality of Magliano in Toscana (GR has developed a mapping platform (Geoportal providing important services for citizens. The main application of Geoportal is the WebGIS interface which allows people to consult and search government resources (the Urban Structure Plan and maps (Regional Technical Cartography and Cadastre online. Linked to this geographical interface, an application has been developed that allows authorized users to create Town Planning Certificates (CDU automatically. Through simple web screens with guided forms, users can print off a highly accurate document quickly, thereby improving the efficiency of council offices by reducing processing times.

  7. Epidemiological, Clinical and Antiretroviral Susceptibility Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subtypes B and Non-B in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Kledoaldo; de Souza Leal, Élcio; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; de Medeiros, Luzidalva Barbosa; da Silva, Sirleide Pereira; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 diversity causes important differences in the virus' biological properties and their interactions with hosts, such as cell tropism, responses to antiretroviral therapy, drug-resistance, and disease progression. We evaluated the interrelationship of phylogenetic inference with epidemiological and laboratory data for HIV-1 isolates circulating in Pernambuco, Northeast Region-Brazil. A total of 168 HIV-1 pol sequences were analysed, 64 were obtained from 2002-2003, and 104, from 2007-2009. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioural data were obtained from medical records. Laboratory testing enabled the determination of recent HIV-1 infections and co-infections with HBV, HCV, HTLV, or syphilis. Surveillance drug-resistance mutation analysis and antiretroviral susceptibility profiling were performed using HIV Drug-Resistance Database. HIV-1 non-B was associated with female, lower education, lower viral loads, and higher T cell counts mean. Frequencies of co-infection HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-syphilis were 27.8% (95% CI: 19.8-37.7), 1.04% (95% CI: 0.05-5.00) and 14.7% (95% CI: 8.6-23.0), respectively. Drug-resistant mutations rate was 2.98% (95% CI: 1.10-6.47). HIV-HBV subtype B co-infection was associated with men who have sex with men (MSM), higher education, higher viral loads and males. HIV-syphilis subtype non-B co-infection was associated with MSM status, lower T cell counts and males. Data showed the importance of molecular characterisations of the HIV-1 epidemic and its relation with epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the population, as well as its association with other infectious diseases, so they can effort to improve preventive measures for health services and more information about the progress and effects of the epidemic in Northeastern-Brazil.

  8. Bridging the data gaps in the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Malaysia using multi-parameter evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott A; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Dahlui, Maznah; Naning, Herlianna; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-11-07

    Collecting adequate information on key epidemiological indicators is a prerequisite to informing a public health response to reduce the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Malaysia. Our goal was to overcome the acute data shortage typical of low/middle income countries using statistical modelling to estimate the national HCV prevalence and the distribution over transmission pathways as of the end of 2009. Multi-parameter evidence synthesis methods were applied to combine all available relevant data sources - both direct and indirect - that inform the epidemiological parameters of interest. An estimated 454,000 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 392,000 to 535,000) HCV antibody-positive individuals were living in Malaysia in 2009; this represents 2.5% (95% CrI: 2.2-3.0%) of the population aged 15-64 years. Among males of Malay ethnicity, for 77% (95% CrI: 69-85%) the route of probable transmission was active or a previous history of injecting drugs. The corresponding proportions were smaller for male Chinese and Indian/other ethnic groups (40% and 71%, respectively). The estimated prevalence in females of all ethnicities was 1% (95% CrI: 0.6 to 1.4%); 92% (95% CrI: 88 to 95%) of infections were attributable to non-drug injecting routes of transmission. The prevalent number of persons living with HCV infection in Malaysia is estimated to be very high. Low/middle income countries often lack a comprehensive evidence base; however, evidence synthesis methods can assist in filling the data gaps required for the development of effective policy to address the future public health and economic burden due to HCV.

  9. Epidemiología de la infección cervical por virus Papiloma humano en Ushuaia: Argentina Cervical infection epidemiology of human papillomavirus in Ushuaia: Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Sijvarger

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El virus Papiloma humano (HPV es un factor necesario para el desarrollo del cáncer cervical. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer la epidemiología de dicha infección en Ushuaia, Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Se realizó un estudio de caso-control de 132 cepillados endocervicales. La detección y tipificación del genoma viral fue realizada por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, con posterior análisis de polimorfismos de fragmentos de restricción o hibridación. La prevalencia general de la infección fue 41%, correspondiendo 26% a los controles y 71% a los casos. El grupo etario con mayor prevalencia de HPV fue el de 14 a 24 años. Los tipos virales más frecuentes en la población infectada fueron HPV16 (23%, HPV18 (11% y HPV33/35 (8% cada uno, resultando infectados con tipos virales de alto riesgo el 30% de las muestras, 16% de los controles y 60% de los casos. El trabajo aporta los primeros datos sobre los tipos virales predominantes en Ushuaia. Los resultados demostraron una prevalencia menor que en regiones con alta incidencia de cáncer cervical, siendo el HPV16 el más frecuente. La información obtenida permitiría estimar la efectividad de las vacunas en vías de aprobación, en la población estudiada.Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is decisive in the causation of cervical cancer. In order to evaluate the epidemiology of HPV infection in Ushuaia, Province of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 132 endocervical cytobrushes from preneoplastic and neoplastic cases and controls were studied. Detection and typing of the viral genome was performed by polymerase chain reaction, combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay or hybridization. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 41% in the population examined, with a frequency of 26% in the controls and 71% in the cases under study. The 14-24 age group showed the highest HPV prevalence. The most common viral types in the infected

  10. Molecular detection, epidemiology, and genetic characterization of novel European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cook, Frank R; Felicetti, Michela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Coppola, Giacomo; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    The application of molecular diagnostic techniques along with nucleotide sequence determination to permit contemporary phylogenetic analysis of European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has not been widely reported. As a result, of extensive testing instigated following the 2006 outbreak of equine infectious anemia in Italy, 24 farms with a history of exposure to this disease were included in this study. New PCR-based methods were developed, which, especially in the case of DNA preparations from peripheral blood cells, showed excellent correlation with OIE-approved agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests for identifying EIAV-infected animals. In contrast, the OIE-recommended oligonucleotide primers for EIAV failed to react with any of the Italian isolates. Similar results were also obtained with samples from four Romanian farms. In addition, for the first time complete characterization of gag genes from five Italian isolates and one Romanian isolate has been achieved, along with acquisition of extensive sequence information (86% of the total gag gene) from four additional EIAV isolates (one Italian and three Romanian). Furthermore, in another 23 cases we accomplished partial characterization of gag gene sequences in the region encoding the viral matrix protein. Analysis of this information suggested that most Italian isolates were geographically restricted, somewhat reminiscent of the "clades" described for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Collectively this represents the most comprehensive genetic study of European EIAV isolates conducted to date.

  11. Genomic epidemiology reveals multiple introductions of Zika virus into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubaugh, Nathan D.; Ladner, Jason T.; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Dudas, Gytis; Tan, Amanda L.; Gangavarapu, Karthik; Wiley, Michael R.; White, Stephen; Thézé, Julien; Magnani, Diogo M.; Prieto, Karla; Reyes, Daniel; Bingham, Andrea M.; Paul, Lauren M.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Oliveira, Glenn; Pronty, Darryl; Barcellona, Carolyn M.; Metsky, Hayden C.; Baniecki, Mary Lynn; Barnes, Kayla G.; Chak, Bridget; Freije, Catherine A.; Gladden-Young, Adrianne; Gnirke, Andreas; Luo, Cynthia; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Matranga, Christian B.; Park, Daniel J.; Qu, James; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher; West, Kendra L.; Winnicki, Sarah M.; Wohl, Shirlee; Yozwiak, Nathan L.; Quick, Joshua; Fauver, Joseph R.; Khan, Kamran; Brent, Shannon E.; Reiner, Robert C.; Lichtenberger, Paola N.; Ricciardi, Michael J.; Bailey, Varian K.; Watkins, David I.; Cone, Marshall R.; Kopp, Edgar W.; Hogan, Kelly N.; Cannons, Andrew C.; Jean, Reynald; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Garry, Robert F.; Loman, Nicholas J.; Faria, Nuno R.; Porcelli, Mario C.; Vasquez, Chalmers; Nagle, Elyse R.; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Stanek, Danielle; Rambaut, Andrew; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Gillis, Leah D.; Michael, Scott F.; Bedford, Trevor; Pybus, Oliver G.; Isern, Sharon; Palacios, Gustavo; Andersen, Kristian G.

    2017-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an unprecedented epidemic linked to severe congenital abnormalities. In July 2016, mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission was reported in the continental United States; since then, hundreds of locally acquired infections have been reported in Florida. To gain insights into the timing, source, and likely route(s) of ZIKV introduction, we tracked the virus from its first detection in Florida by sequencing ZIKV genomes from infected patients and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We show that at least 4 introductions, but potentially as many as 40, contributed to the outbreak in Florida and that local transmission is likely to have started in the spring of 2016—several months before its initial detection. By analysing surveillance and genetic data, we show that ZIKV moved among transmission zones in Miami. Our analyses show that most introductions were linked to the Caribbean, a finding corroborated by the high incidence rates and traffic volumes from the region into the Miami area. Our study provides an understanding of how ZIKV initiates transmission in new regions.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of a hepatitis C virus outbreak in a hemodialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria Alma; Gosalbes, María José; Blasco, David; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed a hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission case in the hemodialysis unit of a private clinic by sequencing two genome regions of virus isolates from a number of patients attending this unit and some external controls. The analysis of 337 nucleotides (nt) in the NS5B region did not provide enough resolution to ascertain which patients were actually involved in the outbreak and the potential source. Nevertheless, this region allowed the exclusion of several patients as putative sources of the transmission case based on their genotypes and phylogenetic relationships. On the other hand, the analysis of several 472-nt-long clone sequences per sample in a more rapidly evolving region of the HCV genome, coding for the envelope proteins and encompassing hypervariable region 1, allowed us to establish the existence of at least two independent transmission events involving two different source patients and three recipients. The direction of the transmissions was further corroborated by different measures of genetic variability within and among samples.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ling Su

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV. Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI, providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy.

  14. Molecular and epidemiological profiles of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Krarup, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    patients (22%) were infected with subtypes 4h, 4k, 4l, 4n, 4o, or 4Unclassified. Three epidemiological profiles were identified: (1) patients infected with HCV by intravenous drug use were infected solely with subtype 4d. They were all of European origin, and 15 of the 16 patients were ethnic Danes....... No single transmission event could be confirmed, but the pairwise nucleotide identity within the patients of Danish origin was relatively high (~95%), suggesting a recent introduction into Denmark. (2) The 21 patients infected with subtype 4a all came from Northern Africa, Egypt, Pakistan, or the Middle...... East. (3) Patients from Southern Africa dominated among patients infected with subtype 4r (10 of 12 patients). This study demonstrates that HCV genotype 4d has been introduced in and spread among Danish intravenous drug users. The remaining subtypes show restricted distribution, infecting almost...

  15. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and Delta virus strains that spread in the Mediterranean North East Coast of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubi, Lamia; Brichler, Ségolène; Mansour, Wael; Le Gal, Frédéric; Hammami, Walid; Sadraoui, Amel; Ben Mami, Nabil; Msaddek, Azouz; Cheikh, Imed; Triki, Henda; Gordien, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Tunisia is classified as an area of middle endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, however little is known about hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. This study aimed to address the prevalence of HDV infection, to identify possible risks factors, and to analyze the genetic diversity of HDV strains that are spreading in Tunisia. A retrospective large-scale study including 1615 HBsAg positive patients, native of the North East coast of Tunisia, recruited from Gastroenterology departments, was conducted. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnical, clinical and biological data were recorded. HBV and HDV serological analyses and DNA and RNA viral load quantification were performed. Genotyping of HBV and HDV strains was performed using nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analyses. The study population included 819 (50.7%) men and 796 (49.3%) women; aged 12-90 years (mean age 41±13 years). A very low prevalence of HDV infection, 2% was observed. No risk factor, except a history of hospitalization for surgery was found. All HDV strains belonged to genotype 1, with a wide distribution within the HDV-1 group. They all share the African amino acid marker, a serine at position 202 of the large Delta protein. HBV genotypes were distributed as follows: HBV/D1 (56.8%), HBV/D7 (40.9%), and HBV/A2 (2.3%). Tunisia is a low endemic region for HDV infection, due to an efficient policy of HBV infection control. HDV-1 is the sole genotype found, with a high diversity within this group. Further studies are ongoing in order to better characterize and manage the HBV/HDV-infected patients according to the genetic variability of the viral strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the epidemiological and economic consequences of control scenarios for bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Mars, M H; van Duijn, L; van Schaik, G

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important endemic infection. However, no information was available on whether it would be economically beneficial to implement a national control program in the Netherlands. Therefore, a stochastic simulation model was developed in which control scenarios were added to compare the epidemiological and economic consequences of BVDV control in Dutch dairy herds in the next 10 yr. In the epidemiological part of the model, herds could be classified as susceptible, infectious, recovered, or vaccinated. The outputs of the epidemiological module served as input for the economic module. Net costs that could be attributed to bovine viral diarrhea consisted of production losses, costs for testing, and culling persistently infected cattle in the present voluntary Dutch BVDV control program and costs for vaccination. Four different control scenarios were simulated, involving testing and culling of persistently infected (based on serum or ear-notch testing), and monitoring BVDV statuses and vaccination and were derived from BVDV control programs that are currently executed in Europe. The costs and benefits of BVDV control in the current situation and in each of the simulated control scenarios were evaluated assuming an annual discount rate of 2%. The model estimated a mean BVDV herd prevalence of 18.0% in 2014 and showed a slightly decreasing prevalence over time. The outputs seemed realistic for the present situation in the Netherlands when compared with actual survey data. The average annual net costs associated with bovine viral diarrhea were estimated at €27.8 million for the dairy industry. Two control scenarios were beneficial in controlling BVDV during the study period (between 2015 and 2025). In the scenario where tracing and removing of PI animals and monitoring of the subsequent status was obligatory, the benefit to cost (B/C) ratio was 1.5 (€1.5 benefit for each invested euro). In the scenario in which the BVDV status of

  17. Epidemiology and Synergistic Hepatopathology of Malaria and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Idris Abdullahi; Yakubu, Sa'adatu; Mustapha, Jelili Olaide

    2017-01-01

    Malaria and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are very common causes of human suffering with overlapping global geographic distributions. With the growing incidence of HCV infections in malaria-endemic zones and malaria in areas with exceptionally high HCV prevalence, coinfections and syndemism of both pathogens are likely to occur. However, studies of malaria and HCV coinfections are very rare despite the fact that liver-stage plasmodiasis and hepatitis C develop in hepatocytes which may synergistically interact. The fact that both pathogens share similar entry molecules or receptors in early invasive steps of hepatocytes further makes hepatopathologic investigations of coinfected hosts greatly important. This review sought to emphasize the public health significance of malaria/HCV coinfections and elucidate the mechanisms of pathogens' entrance and invasion of susceptible host to improve on existing or develop antiplasmodial drugs and hepatitis C therapeutics that can intervene at appropriate stages of pathogens' life cycles.

  18. A Decade of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Epidemiology and Prophylaxis: Translating Evidence into Everyday Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco A Paes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a common infection in infancy, with nearly all children affected by two years of age. Approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all children are hospitalized with lower respiratory tract disease, of which 50% to 90% have bronchiolitis and 5% to 40% have pneumonia. Morbidity and mortality are highest in children with nosocomial infection and in those with underlying medical illnesses such as cardiac and chronic lung disease. Aboriginal children residing in remote northern regions are specifically considered to be at high risk for hospitalization due to RSV infection. Thorough hand washing and health education are the principal strategies in primary prevention. In the absence of a vaccine, palivizumab prophylaxis is currently the best intervention to reduce the burden of illness and RSV-related hospitalization in high-risk children. Health care professionals should provide palivizumab prophylaxis cost effectively in accordance with recommendations issued by pediatric societies and national advisory bodies.

  19. Phylogeography and Molecular Epidemiology of an Epidemic Strain of Dengue Virus Type 1 in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocwieja, Karen E.; Fernando, Anira N.; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Tennekoon, Rashika N.; Tippalagama, Rashmi; Krishnananthasivam, Shivankari; Premawansa, Gayani; Premawansa, Sunil; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, a severe epidemic of dengue disease occurred in Sri Lanka, with higher mortality and morbidity than any previously recorded epidemic in the country. It corresponded to a shift to dengue virus 1 as the major disease-causing serotype in Sri Lanka. Dengue disease reached epidemic levels in the next 3 years. We report phylogenetic evidence that the 2009 epidemic DENV-1 strain continued to circulate within the population and caused severe disease in the epidemic of 2012. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses suggest that the 2009 Sri Lankan epidemic DENV-1 strain may have traveled directly or indirectly from Thailand through China to Sri Lanka, and after spreading within the Sri Lankan population, it traveled to Pakistan and Singapore. Our findings delineate the dissemination route of a virulent DENV-1 strain in Asia. Understanding such routes will be of particular importance to global control efforts. PMID:24799375

  20. Hepatitis A virus epidemiology in Turkey as universal childhood vaccination begins: seroprevalence and endemicity by region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Tayfur; Köroğlu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Özbek, Ahmet; Terzi, Hüseyin A; Altındiş, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive examination of current distribution of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence and endemicity in Turkey and the possible links between HAV endemicity and socioeconomic development. We performed a systematic search in online resources published between January 2000 and August 2015. The 22 provinces were able to be assigned a hepatitis A endemicity level based on this systematic review. The incidence rates for symptomatic hepatitis A infection are higher in the eastern part of Turkey than in the western and central region. These differences in socioeconomic indicators by region suggest the likelihood of lower seroprevalence rates in the western parts of the country and higher rates in the eastern region. Turkey's current policy of recommending hepatitis A immunization for all children without contraindications is an appropriate one and is likely to remain the best option for at least the next decade or two.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. T. Barrett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99 genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02 genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype. Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999–2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America.

  2. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of West Nile virus in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian R; McMullen, Allison R; Swetnam, Daniele M; Barrett, Alan D T

    2013-10-16

    West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99) genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02) genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype). Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999-2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America.

  3. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients.

  4. Epidemiological studies on dengue virus type 3 in Playa municipality, Havana, Cuba, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Maria G; Alvarez, Angel; Vazquez, Susana; Alvarez, Mayling; Rosario, Delfina; Pelaez, Otto; Cruz, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Rosmari; Pavon, Alequis; Gonzalez, Annia; Morier, Luis; Ruiz, Dydie; Kouri, Gustavo; Halstead, Scott B

    2012-03-01

    Recognizing the uniqueness of secondary dengue virus (DENV)-1/3 dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) cases at an interval of 24 years, we sought to estimate DENV infections as well as the ratios between mild disease and DHF/DSS by DENV infection sequence in Playa District (Havana, Cuba) during the 2001-2002 outbreak of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3). A retrospective seroepidemiological study was conducted in 2003 in Playa District. Blood samples were collected from a 1% random sample of residents and were studied for the prevalence of dengue neutralizing antibodies. DENV-3 was found to have infected 7.2% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.0-8.4%) of susceptible individuals (the entire cohort), the majority of whom experienced silent infections. Virtually every individual who had a secondary infection in the sequence DENV-1 then DENV-3 became ill, with a ratio of severe to mild cases of 1:35 (95% CI 1:67-1:23). Secondary infections in the sequence DENV-2/3 were less pathogenic than DENV-1/3. Mild disease accompanying secondary DENV2/3 occurred at a ratio of 1:4.49 infections (95% CI 1:5.77-1:3.42) secondary infections. The results obtained highlight the role of the infecting serotype and also the sequence of the viral infection in the clinical outcome of a dengue infection. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  6. Epidemiology of human parechovirus, Aichi virus and salivirus in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cyril C Y; Lo, Kin-Land; Que, Tak-Lun; Lee, Rodney A; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P

    2014-10-18

    Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. In addition, no report on the circulation of these viruses in Hong Kong is available. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of HPeV, AiV and SalV in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong. Fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis were subject to detection of HPeV, AiV and SalV by RT-PCR using consensus primers targeted to their 5'UTRs. Positive samples were subject to capsid and/or 3CD region analysis for genotype determination. The epidemiology of HPeV, AiV and SalV infections was analyzed. Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers targeted to 5'UTR of HPeV, AiV and SalV, viruses were detected in 55 samples, with 50 positive for HPeV only, 3 positive for AiV only, 1 positive for both HPeV and AiV, and 1 positive for both HPeV and SalV. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 gene of the 33 HPeV strains revealed the presence of genotypes of HPeV- 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, among which HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype circulating in our population. The peak activity of HPeV infection was in fall. Of the 3 children with AiV infection, the 3 AiV strains were found to belong to genotype A based on the phylogenetic analysis of their partial VP1 and 3CD regions. The genotype of a SalV strain detected in this study could not be determined. Co-detection of different pathogens was observed in 24 samples (43.6%) of 55 fecal samples positive for HPeV, AiV and SalV. HPeV, AiV and SalV were detected in fecal samples of hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong, with the former having the highest prevalence. HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype among HPeVs, while genotype A was the predominant genotype among AiVs in this study.

  7. Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Kei; Eckmanns, Tim; Kamara, Kande-Bure O’Bai; Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone experienced intense transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from May 2014 to November 2015 during which a total of 8,704 confirmed cases and over 3,589 confirmed deaths were reported. Our field observation showed many issues in the EVD data management system, which may have contributed to the magnitude and long duration of the outbreak. In this perspective article, we explain the key issues with EVD data management in the field, and the resulting obstacles in analyzing key epidemiological indicators during the outbreak response work. Our observation showed that, during the latter part of the EVD outbreak, surveillance and data management improved at all levels in the country as compared to the earlier stage. We identified incomplete filling and late arrival of the case investigation forms at data management centers, difficulties in detecting double entries and merging identified double entries in the database, and lack of clear process of how death of confirmed cases in holding, treatment, and community care centers are reported to the data centers as some of challenges to effective data management. Furthermore, there was no consolidated database that captured and linked all data sources in a structured way. We propose development of a new application tool easily adaptable to new occurrences, regular data harmonization meetings between national and district data management teams, and establishment of a data quality audit system to assure good quality data as ways to improve EVD data management during future outbreaks. PMID:27551675

  8. Not all cows are epidemiologically equal: quantifying the risks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) transmission through cattle movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M Carolyn; Humphry, Roger W; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-10-17

    Many economically important cattle diseases spread between herds through livestock movements. Traditionally, most transmission models have assumed that all purchased cattle carry the same risk of generating outbreaks in the destination herd. Using data on bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Scotland as a case example, this study provides empirical and theoretical evidence that the risk of disease transmission varies substantially based on the animal and herd demographic characteristics at the time of purchase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that purchasing pregnant heifers and open cows sold with a calf at foot were associated with an increased risk of beef herds being seropositive for BVDV. Based on the results from a dynamic within-herd simulation model, these findings may be partly explained by the age-related probability of animals being persistently infected with BVDV as well as the herd demographic structure at the time of animal introductions. There was also evidence that an epidemiologically important network statistic, "betweenness centrality" (a measure frequently associated with the potential for herds to acquire and transmit disease), was significantly higher for herds that supplied these particular types of replacement beef cattle. The trends for dairy herds were not as clear, although there was some evidence that open heifers and open lactating cows were associated with an increased risk of BVDV. Overall, these findings have important implications for developing simulation models that more accurately reflect the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases.

  9. Spatial epidemiological analysis of bovine encephalomyelitis outbreaks caused by Akabane virus infection in western Japan in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Yoko; Moriguchi, Sachiko; Yanase, Tohru; Ishikura, Youji; Abe, Shigeki; Higashi, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hajime; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Kobayashi, Sota; Murai, Kiyokazu; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Akabane disease, which is distributed in temperate and tropical regions in the world, is a vector-borne disease of ruminants caused by the Akabane virus, transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2011, outbreaks of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis occurred in the Shimane Prefecture in western Japan. In this study, a spatial epidemiological analysis was conducted to understand environmental factors associated with the spread of Akabane disease. By applying a conditional autoregressive model, the relationship between infection and environmental variables was explored. The results showed that the dominance of farmlands and the presence of infected farms within a 3-km radius had a significant effect on infection. This result implies that land use, which would relate with the vector habitat, and the presence of neighboring infected farms as a source of infection may have influenced the spread of the disease in this region. These findings provide basic insights into the spread of Akabane disease and useful suggestions for developing a surveillance program and preventive measures against the disease.

  10. [Clinical and epidemiological differences between Bordetella pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants: a matched case control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Sánchez, Francisco; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Sánchez-Forte, Miguel; López-Sánchez, María Ángeles; González-Jiménez, Yolanda; Azor-Martínez, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    An increase in cases of pertussis, mainly in young infants, has been reported in the last few years. The clinical presentation of this disease is very similar to that produced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which makes the diagnosis difficult. To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics between Bordetella pertussis and RSV infections in infants admitted to hospital. An analytical matched case-control study was conducted during the period 2008-2011. Cases were defined as infants admitted with pertussis confirmed by PCR in nasopharyngeal aspirate. Each case was matched by age, sex and date of admission to two controls defined as patients with RSV infection detected by immunochromatography in nasal aspirate. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data were compared. Seventy eight patients (26 cases of pertussis and 52 controls RSV+) were included. Sociodemographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Cases had more days of symptoms prior to admission, longer hospital stays, and increased frequency of epidemic family environment. Apnoea and cyanosis were more frequent. Cases of pertussis were more likely to have apnoea, cyanosis, and lymphocytosis while RSV infections had more frequent fever, vomiting and respiratory distress. The clinical presentations of pertussis and RSV infection are similar, but there are some characteristics that can help to distinguish between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. The epidemiology of dengue virus infection among urban, jungle, and rural populations in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, C G; Phillips, I A; Callahan, J D; Griebenow, W F; Hyams, K C; Wu, S J; Watts, D M

    1996-10-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of dengue fever in Peru occurred during 1990 in Iquitos, a city of approximately 300,000 residents in the Amazon region. Because of the apparent establishment of endemic transmission of this mosquito-borne viral disease following the outbreak, epidemiologic studies were initiated in 1992. Blood specimens and data on demographic, environmental, and medical history factors were collected from volunteers in an urban sector of Iquitos, in a rural area on the outskirts of Iquitos, and in three nearby jungle communities. A follow-up blood specimen was obtained approximately one year later from a sample of subjects. Sera were tested for dengue IgG antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and specificity was verified using a plaque-reduction neutralization test. Dengue antibody prevalence was 66% in the urban population, 26% in the rural population, and 32-67% in the three jungle areas. A significant association was found between age and antibody prevalence, with a steady increase in prevalence from 18% among subjects less than five years of age to greater than 90% for subjects more than 50 years old. Increased antibody prevalence also was associated with urban and jungle residence and with a piped source of household drinking water. Seroconversions were documented in four of five surveyed communities. These results indicate that dengue virus transmission continues in and around Iquitos and suggest that transmission also occurred prior to the 1990 epidemic.

  12. Surveillance of Dengue Fever Virus: A Review of Epidemiological Models and Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, Vanessa; Ramsey, Rebecca; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever affects over a 100 million people annually hence is one of the world's most important vector-borne diseases. The transmission area of this disease continues to expand due to many direct and indirect factors linked to urban sprawl, increased travel and global warming. Current preventative measures include mosquito control programs, yet due to the complex nature of the disease and the increased importation risk along with the lack of efficient prophylactic measures, successful disease control and elimination is not realistic in the foreseeable future. Epidemiological models attempt to predict future outbreaks using information on the risk factors of the disease. Through a systematic literature review, this paper aims at analyzing the different modeling methods and their outputs in terms of acting as an early warning system. We found that many previous studies have not sufficiently accounted for the spatio-temporal features of the disease in the modeling process. Yet with advances in technology, the ability to incorporate such information as well as the socio-environmental aspect allowed for its use as an early warning system, albeit limited geographically to a local scale. PMID:22629476

  13. [Hepatitis E virus epidemiology in adult population in Edirne province, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Alper; Tansel, Ozlem; Kunduracilar, Hakan; Tokuç, Burcu; Yuluğkural, Zerrin; Yüksel, Pelin

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) clinical presentations range from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis which is frequently seen in pregnant women. Epidemics due to HEV mostly originate from contaminated water and the virus is transmitted by fecal oral way. Its frequency is closely related to the socioeconomical status of the community. The aim of this first community-based study performed in Edirne province (located at Trace region of Turkey) was to determine the seroprevalence of HEV and the risk factors in the city center. Five hundred eighty two people (273 men, 309 women) over age 15 years, representing the population of Edirne city center were included in the study. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were investigated in the serum samples by ELISA method. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in a total of 14 cases (11 women, 3 men) and HEV infection prevalence was found to be 2.4%. The mean age of seropositive people was 50.86 +/- 16.76 years while it was 40.7 +/- 16.9 years in seronegative people (p = 0.027). This result was attributed to the better water supply and sanitation conditions in Edirne province in comparison to other parts of Turkey and shift of HEV seropositivity in older ages. No statistically significant difference was detected between seropositive and seronegative cases in terms of socioeconomical conditions, both groups being in high socioeconomical level. The analysis of the risk factors revealed that the rate of people living in houses built with materials other than reinforced concrete (p = 0.044), dealing with stockbreeding (p = 0.046) and consuming fruits and vegetables without proper washing (p = 0.015) were significantly higher in the seropositive group. No statistically significant difference was detected for the other risk factors such as the number of household, presence of city water supply and sewage system in the house, location of the water closet outside house, lack of hand-washing habits, sharing utensils, consumption of raw vegetables

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia: when one became many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Holmes, Edward C

    2014-02-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16-year period (1995-2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared with those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 rereleases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia -4.0 (3.3-4.7) × 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year - was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 re-releases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia – 4.0 (3.3 – 4.7) × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year – was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. PMID:24251353

  16. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May-June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia. © F. Wasfi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  17. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus in Mar del Plata city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbini, Luciana; Elizalde, Mercedes; Torres, Carolina; Campos, Rodolfo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the current molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of HBV in Mar del Plata, an important Argentinean touristic city. The phylogenetic analysis of 29 HBV DNA positive serum samples showed that F1b was the predominant subgenotype (sgt, 62.1%), followed by sgt A2 (13.8%) and sgt F4, gt D and gt G (6.9% each). Among anti-HBc IgM positive samples, 75.0% were sgt F1b, followed by sgt F4 (12.5%), sgt A2 (6.25%) and sgt D (6.25%). Three recombinant full length genomes were found: two G/F1b (some of the first gt G detected in Argentina) and one F4/D2. The circulation of clinical important mutations in the city was described. Mutations at the HBsAg were detected in 34.5% of the analyzed samples, associated with laboratory diagnosis and antiviral treatment failures, immune escape and hepatocellular carcinoma. Most of the samples presented wild type BCP/PC sequences. Coalescence analysis for the most prevalent sgt F1b estimated that the diversification mainly occured during mid '90s and the tMRCA was estimated in 1987. Finally, the high presence of the autochthonous sgt F1b, associated with the anti-HBc IgM positive infection and its present-day diversification process, shows the strong impact of internal human migratory movements into the current population of Mar del Plata. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses and genotyping of rotavirus A, adenovirus and astrovirus among children under 5 years old in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekana-Douki, Sonia Etenna; Kombila-Koumavor, Claudine; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix; Leroy, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of enteric viruses causing gastroenteritis, and the circulating stains, in Gabonese children under five years old who visited health centers between March 2010 and June 2011. Stool specimens were collected and sent for analysis to CIRMF (Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville). Stools were screened for six enteric viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus I and II, sapovirus, human astrovirus) by means of a multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Rotavirus A, Adenovirus and Astrovirus were genotyped. Among the 317 specimens analyzed, 193 (60.9%) were positive for at least one enteric virus. Rotavirus A (RVA) (27.1%) was the most frequently detected virus, followed by human Adenovirus (HAdV) (19.6%), Norovirus II (NoVs-II) (13.9%), Norovirus I (NoVs-I) (9.1%), Sapovirus (SaV) (9.5%) and human Astrovirus (HAstV) (6.3%). One-third of the 193 positive samples contained more than one virus. The most common Rotavirus A genotype was G6P[6]. Various HAdV serotypes were found. HAstV-1 was identified. These findings improve our knowledge of circulating enteric viruses in Gabon. The emergence of unusual G6P[6] strain of rotavirus A, predominant, suggested a particular epidemiological surveillance of circulating rotavirus strains during the introduction of vaccination in Gabon. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Hantavirus del nuevo mundo: Ecología y epidemiología de un virus emergente en latinoamérica The New-World Hantaviruses: Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Puerta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus son un grupo de patógenos emergentes (familia Bunyaviridae; género Hantavirus identificados como agentes etiológicos de la Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal (FHSR en Europa y Asia y el Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en las Américas. La FHSR está relacionada con roedores de las subfamilias Murinae y Arvicolinae y el SCPH con roedores de las subfamilias Sigmodontinae y Arvicolinae. Desde la identificación del SCPH en los EE.UU. en 1993, muchos casos de SCPH y un número cada vez mayor de hantavirus y sus roedores reservorios han sido identificados en Centro y Sud América. Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado diferencias notables en las seroprevalencias de anticuerpos en humanos y roedores reservorios que oscilan entre el 1% y más del 40%. Hasta ahora han sido notificados en toda América más de 1500 casos de SCPH y aproximadamente más de 15 variantes de hantavirus genética y serológicamente distintos asociados a roedores sigmodontinos. Las formas clínicas leves-autolimitadas, moderadas y graves de la enfermedad, los antecedentes de transmisión persona a persona y una incidencia mayor de manifestaciones clínicas extrapulmonares que se diferencian de la enfermedad clásica descrita por primera vez en EE.UU., son aspectos importantes sobre la epidemiología de los hantavirus y el SCPH en Latinoamérica; sin embargo, la historia completa de los hantavirus está aún por escribirse, debido a la naturaleza dinámica de estos virus y sus patologías, y a la complejidad de los factores que intervienen en su aparición, establecimiento y diseminación en poblaciones humanas y animales. Latinoamérica continúa representando la porción del continente con una oportunidad única y desafiante para el estudio de la relación de los hantavirus con sus huéspedes reservorios naturales y las interacciones virus-roedor-humano. Probablemente más hantavirus podrían ser descritos en el futuro, y ser

  20. [An epidemiological and immunological study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the southern area of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervero, M; Medina Asensio, J; Rubio, R; Costa, J R

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics and immunological parameters are characterized in different groups of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients infected by HIV, and the prognostic markers of survival in patients diagnosed of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was carried out in 312 patients from June 1984 to March 1989. The most common risk group was intravenous drug addicts (IVDA) 80.9%. We observed that during the last years there was an increase in the number of cases of heterosexual transmission. Through follow up, 17.6% of patients developed acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). The incidence rate for AIDS was higher amongst homosexuals than IVDA (35.4/14.6). Esophageal candidiasis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis were the AIDS indicators most frequently encountered. Once the study period was over, with a follow up of 19.3 +/- 3.4 months, the probability of survival after 12 months was 70 +/- 0.07% and after 24 months was 42% +/- 0.09%. The risk group (homosexuals), the appearance of a neoplasia as the first diagnosis of AIDS, and the immunological parameters (CD3 less than 500, CD4 less than 400, CD4/CD8 ratio less than 0.5 and total lymphocyte count of less than 1700 were the markers with worst prognosis which correlated with survival rates (p less than 0.01). We confirmed that when comparing immunologic parameters amongst HIV infection groups, IgA levels were higher (p less than 0.05); the total number of lymphocytes, the number of helper lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio were lower (p less than 0.01) in IV and AIDS group with respect to group II and III, in patients with AIDS with respect to group IV-non-AIDS and in those who died with relation to AIDS.

  1. Epidemiological knowledge on human immunodeficiency virus infection as a basic for programme of prophylactic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azovtseva, Olga Vladimirovna; Arkhipov, George Sergeyevich

    2015-03-01

    An epidemic situation on human immunodeficiency virus infection can be stopped and even compelled to step back, if adequate and comprehensive prophylactic measures are performed in the proper time. Prophylactic measures should be, directed on those groups, who are at high risk for becoming infected or who are carriers of HIV as the top priority. The epidemic situation in HIV infection in the northwestern region of Russia has been analyzed. The ways of the spread of HIV infection among the infected persons, residents of the St. Petersburg region, Kaliningrad, Novgorod, and Murmansk, have been studied. The infection is transmitted mainly through sexual contacts, both homosexual and heterosexual. High migration activity of HIV-infected persons, homo- and heterosexuals, has been established and a great number of unknown (casual) sexual contacts among them noted. The results of these observations may be useful in the prognostication of the epidemic situation in HIV infection not only in the northwestern region, but also beyond its boundaries, and later in the optimization of screening. The pandemic of HIV infection causes enormous economic damage, destabilizes the socio-political situation in many countries of the world, and hinders the achievement of aims for the development of millennium, both in the area of health protection and in other spheres. In Novgorod region an epidemic situation on HIV infection is estimated as one of most strained one. The basic indexes and tempos of their growth in a region are higher in relation to average federal data. But it can be stopped and even compelled to step back.

  2. Epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in a high-prevalence population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M A; Sizemore, L A; Rickles, M; Cooper, K C; Buecker, C M; Mullins, H L; Hofmeister, M G; Abara, W E; Foster, M A; Asher, A K; Schaffner, W; Dunn, J R; Jones, T F; Wester, C

    2018-03-01

    To understand increasing rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tennessee, we conducted testing, risk factor analysis and a nested case-control study among persons who use drugs. During June-October 2016, HCV testing with risk factor assessment was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, family planning clinics and an addiction treatment facility in eastern Tennessee; data were analysed by using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case-control study was conducted to assess drug-using risks and behaviours among persons who reported intranasal or injection drug use (IDU). Of 4753 persons tested, 397 (8.4%) were HCV-antibody positive. HCV infection was significantly associated with a history of both intranasal and IDU (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 35.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.1-51.9), IDU alone (aOR 52.7, CI 25.3-109.9), intranasal drug use alone (aOR 2.6, CI 1.8-3.9) and incarceration (aOR 2.7, CI 2.0-3.8). By 4 October 2016, 574 persons with a reported history of drug use; 63 (11%) were interviewed further. Of 31 persons who used both intranasal and injection drugs, 26 (84%) reported previous intranasal drug use, occurring 1-18 years (median 5.5 years) before their first IDU. Our findings provide evidence that reported IDU, intranasal drug use and incarceration are independent indicators of risk for past or present HCV infection in the study population.

  3. Epidemiology of dengue virus in Iquitos, Peru 1999 to 2005: interepidemic and epidemic patterns of transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Morrison

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive, longitudinal field studies that monitor both disease and vector populations for dengue viruses are urgently needed as a pre-requisite for developing locally adaptable prevention programs or to appropriately test and license new vaccines.We report the results from such a study spanning 5 years in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru where DENV infection was monitored serologically among approximately 2,400 members of a neighborhood-based cohort and through school-based absenteeism surveillance for active febrile illness among a subset of this cohort. At baseline, 80% of the study population had DENV antibodies, seroprevalence increased with age, and significant geographic variation was observed, with neighborhood-specific age-adjusted rates ranging from 67.1 to 89.9%. During the first 15 months, when DENV-1 and DENV-2 were co-circulating, population-based incidence rates ranged from 2-3 infections/100 person-years (p-years. The introduction of DENV-3 during the last half of 2001 was characterized by 3 distinct periods: amplification over at least 5-6 months, replacement of previously circulating serotypes, and epidemic transmission when incidence peaked at 89 infections/100 p-years.Neighborhood-specific baseline seroprevalence rates were not predictive of geographic incidence patterns prior to the DENV-3 introduction, but were closely mirrored during the invasion of this serotype. Transmission varied geographically, with peak incidence occurring at different times among the 8 geographic zones in approximately 16 km(2 of the city. The lag from novel serotype introduction to epidemic transmission and knowledge of spatially explicit areas of elevated risk should be considered for more effective application of limited resources for dengue prevention.

  4. The phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneine, W

    1996-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences from 29 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) strains from endemic and nonendemic populations led to the proposition of three HTLV-IIa phylogroups (A-I, A-II, and A-III) and four HTLV-IIb phylogroups (B-I, B-II, B-III, B-IV). B-I and B-II represented sequences from U.S. and European intravenous drug users, and B-IV included Amerindian sequences from the Guaymi and Wayuu. Interestingly, sequences from an African Pygmy and Seminole and Pueblo Indians and other non-India U.S. samples clustered together in B-III. Similarly, sequences from the Kayapo Indians from Brazil, a Brazilian blood donor, a Cameroonian, and a Ghanaian prostitute clustered together in A-II. Sequences from non-Indian U.S./European samples and a Pueblo Indian formed A-III. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was developed to identify rapidly the prevalence of the A and B phylogroups in 246 HTLV-II samples. The RFLP results suggest that A-III and B-II may represent cosmopolitan subtypes because of global distribution in urban areas. In contrast, B-IV and A-II infections were restricted primarily to Central and South America. The phylogenetic data suggest a possible Amerindian origin for B-III, A-II, and A-III infections in non-Indians and an evolution into A and B subtypes that preceded population migrations to the Americas.

  5. Laboratory Validation of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Will K; Szymczak, Mitchell Scott; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Miller, Myrna M

    2015-12-01

    Sandfly fever group viruses in the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae) are widely distributed across the globe and are a cause of disease in military troops and indigenous peoples. We assessed the laboratory sensitivity and specificity of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay, a rapid dipstick assay designed to detect sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV) and Toscana virus (TOSV) against a panel of phleboviruses. The assay detected SFNV and TOSV, as well as other phleboviruses including Aguacate, Anahanga, Arumowot, Chagres, and Punta Toro viruses. It did not detect sandfly fever Sicilian, Heartland, Rio Grande, or Rift Valley fever viruses. It did not produce false positive results in the presence of uninfected sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis) or Cache Valley virus, a distantly related bunyavirus. Results from this laboratory evaluation suggest that this assay may be used as a rapid field-deployable assay to detect sand flies infected with TOSV and SFNV, as well as an assortment of other phleboviruses.

  6. Integrating patient and whole-genome sequencing data to provide insights into the epidemiology of seasonal influenza A(H3N2) viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Emily J; Harvey, William T; Wilkie, Gavin S; Shepherd, Samantha J; MacLean, Alasdair R; Murcia, Pablo R; Gunson, Rory N

    2018-01-01

    Genetic surveillance of seasonal influenza is largely focused on sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene. Consequently, our understanding of the contribution of the remaining seven gene segments to the evolution and epidemiological dynamics of seasonal influenza is relatively limited. The increased availability of next-generation sequencing technologies allows rapid and economic whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of influenza virus. Here, 150 influenza A(H3N2) positive clinical specimens with linked epidemiological data, from the 2014/15 season in Scotland, were sequenced directly using both Sanger sequencing of the HA1 region and WGS using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequences generated by the two methods were highly correlated, and WGS provided on average >90 % whole genome coverage. As reported in other European countries during 2014/15, all strains belonged to genetic group 3C, with subgroup 3C.2a predominating. Multiple inter-subgroup reassortants were identified, including three 3C.3 viruses descended from a single reassortment event, which had persisted in the population. Cases of severe acute respiratory illness were significantly clustered on phylogenies of multiple gene segments indicating potential genetic factors warranting further investigation. Severe cases were also more likely to be associated with reassortant viruses and to occur later in the season. These results suggest that WGS provides an opportunity to develop our understanding of the relationship between the influenza genome and disease severity and the epidemiological consequences of within-subtype reassortment. Therefore, increased levels of WGS, linked to clinical and epidemiological data, could improve influenza surveillance.

  7. A review of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray TJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Timothy J Gray,1 Cameron E Webb2,31Department of Infectious Diseases, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical Entomology, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Pathology West - Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia; 3Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America and Europe in recent years has raised the concerns of local authorities and highlighted that mosquito-borne disease is not restricted to tropical regions of the world. WNV is maintained in enzootic cycles involving, primarily, Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian hosts, with epizootic spread to mammals, including horses and humans. Human infection results in symptomatic illness in approximately one-fifth of cases and neuroinvasive disease in less than 1% of infected persons. The most consistently recognized risk factor for neuroinvasive disease is older age, although diabetes mellitus, alcohol excess, and a history of cancer may also increase risk. Despite the increasing public health concern, the current WNV treatments are inadequate. Current evidence supporting the use of ribavirin, interferon α, and WNV-specific immunoglobulin are reviewed. Nucleic acid detection has been an important diagnostic development, which is particularly important for the protection of the donated blood supply. While effective WNV vaccines are widely available for horses, no human vaccine has been registered. Uncertainty surrounds the magnitude of future risk posed by WNV, and predictive models are limited by the heterogeneity of environmental, vector, and host factors, even in neighboring regions. However, recent history has demonstrated that for regions where suitable mosquito vectors and reservoir hosts are present, there will be a risk of major epidemics. Given the potential for these outbreaks to

  8. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau.

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    Carla van Tienen

    Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.

  9. Health and epidemiological approaches of Trypanosoma evansi and equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses at southern Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Daniela R; Jansen, Ana M; Abreu, Urbano G P; Macedo, Gabriel C; Silva, Antônia R S; Mazur, Carlos; Andrade, Gisele B; Herrera, Heitor M

    2016-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Senegal after Four Consecutive Years of Surveillance, 2012–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, El Hadj Abdel Kader; Kiori, Davy E.; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Sy, Sara; Goudiaby, Debora; Richard, Vincent; Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains poorly defined in Africa. To address this, we carried out a descriptive and retrospective pilot study, with a focus on the epidemiology of RSV in Senegal after 4 years of surveillance. Methodology and Results From January 2012 to October 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients. Viral detection was performed using RV16 kit enabling direct subtyping of RSV-A and B. For the molecular characterization of HRSV, the second hypervariable region of the Glycoprotein (G) gene was targeted for sequencing. We enrolled 5338 patients with 2803 children younger than five years of age (52.5%). 610 (11.4%) were positive for RSV infection: 276 (45.2%) were group A infections, 334 (54.8%) were group B infections and 21 (3.4%) were A/B co-infections. RSV detection rate is significantly higher (P Senegal clustered with strains that were previously assigned NA1 and novel ON1 genotype sequences. RSV-B sequences from Senegal clustered with the BA9 genotype. At the amino acid level, RSV-A strains from Senegal show proximity with the genotype ON1 characterized by a 72 nt insertion in G, resulting in 24 extra amino acids of which 23 are duplications of aa 261–283. Conclusion Globally our results show a clear circulation pattern of RSV in the second half of each year, between June and September and possibly extending into November, with children under 5 being more susceptible. Molecular studies identified the novel strains ON1 and BA9 as the major genotypes circulating in Senegal between 2012 and 2015. PMID:27315120

  11. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Senegal after Four Consecutive Years of Surveillance, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Amary; Dia, Ndongo; Cisse, El Hadj Abdel Kader; Kiori, Davy E; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Sy, Sara; Goudiaby, Debora; Richard, Vincent; Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye

    2016-01-01

    The burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains poorly defined in Africa. To address this, we carried out a descriptive and retrospective pilot study, with a focus on the epidemiology of RSV in Senegal after 4 years of surveillance. From January 2012 to October 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients. Viral detection was performed using RV16 kit enabling direct subtyping of RSV-A and B. For the molecular characterization of HRSV, the second hypervariable region of the Glycoprotein (G) gene was targeted for sequencing. We enrolled 5338 patients with 2803 children younger than five years of age (52.5%). 610 (11.4%) were positive for RSV infection: 276 (45.2%) were group A infections, 334 (54.8%) were group B infections and 21 (3.4%) were A/B co-infections. RSV detection rate is significantly higher (P Senegal clustered with strains that were previously assigned NA1 and novel ON1 genotype sequences. RSV-B sequences from Senegal clustered with the BA9 genotype. At the amino acid level, RSV-A strains from Senegal show proximity with the genotype ON1 characterized by a 72 nt insertion in G, resulting in 24 extra amino acids of which 23 are duplications of aa 261-283. Globally our results show a clear circulation pattern of RSV in the second half of each year, between June and September and possibly extending into November, with children under 5 being more susceptible. Molecular studies identified the novel strains ON1 and BA9 as the major genotypes circulating in Senegal between 2012 and 2015.

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection among drug injectors in St Petersburg, Russia: social and molecular epidemiology of an endemic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintsil, Elijah; Verevochkin, Sergei V; Dukhovlinova, Elena; Niccolai, Linda; Barbour, Russell; White, Edward; Toussova, Olga V; Alexander, Louis; Kozlov, Andrei P; Heimer, Robert

    2009-11-01

    To understand the epidemiology and transmission patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV), the predominant blood borne-pathogen infecting injection drug users (IDUs), in a part of the former Soviet Union. Cross-sectional respondent-driven sample of IDUs. St Petersburg, Russia. A total of 387 IDUs were recruited in late 2005 and throughout 2006. Participants were surveyed to collect demographic, medical and both general and dyad-specific drug injection and sexual behaviors. A blood sample was collected to detect antibodies to hepatitis C and to amplify viral RNA for molecular analysis. The molecular data, including genotypes, were analyzed spatially and linkage patterns were compared to the social linkages obtained by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) for chains of respondents and among the injection dyads. HCV infection was all but ubiquitous: 94.6% of IDUs were HCV-seropositive. Among the 209 viral sequences amplified, genotype 3a predominated (n = 119, 56.9%), followed by 1b (n = 61, 29.2%) and 1a (n = 25, 11.9%). There was no significant clustering of genotypes spatially. Neither genotypes nor closely related sequences were clustered within RDS chains. Analysis of HCV sequences from dyads failed to find associations of genotype or sequence homology within pairs. Genotyping reveals that there have been at least five unique introductions of HCV genotypes into the IDU community in St Petersburg. Analysis of prevalent infections does not appear to correlate with the social networks of IDUs, suggesting that simple approaches to link these networks to prevalent infections, rather than incident transmission, will not prove meaningful. On a more positive note, the majority of IDUs are infected with 3a genotype that is associated with sustained virological response to antiviral therapy.

  13. Role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 4 and 8 in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Bocanegra Ignacio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the importance of wild ruminants as potential reservoirs of bluetongue virus (BTV has been suggested, the role played by these species in the epidemiology of BT in Europe is still unclear. We carried out a serologic and virologic survey to assess the role of wild ruminants in the transmission and maintenance of BTV in Andalusia (southern Spain between 2006 and 2010. A total of 473 out of 1339 (35.3% wild ruminants analyzed showed antibodies against BTV by both ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT. The presence of neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1 and BTV-4 were detected in the four species analyzed (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer and mouflon, while seropositivity against BTV-8 was found in red deer, fallow deer and mouflon but not in roe deer. Statistically significant differences were found among species, ages and sampling regions. BTV RNA was detected in twenty-one out of 1013 wild ruminants (2.1% tested. BTV-1 and BTV-4 RNA were confirmed in red deer and mouflon by specific rRT-PCR. BTV-1 and BTV-4 seropositive and RNA positive wild ruminants, including juveniles and sub-adults, were detected years after the last outbreak was reported in livestock. In addition, between the 2008/2009 and the 2010/2011 hunting seasons, the seroprevalence against BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-8 increased in the majority of provinces, and these serotypes were detected in many areas where BTV outbreaks were not reported in domestic ruminants. The results indicate that wild ruminants seem to be implicated in the dissemination and persistence of BTV in Spain.

  14. The epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II in Canadian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Goldman, M; Scalia, V; Yi, Q-L; Fan, W; Xi, G; Dines, I R; Fearon, M A

    2013-10-01

    Blood donors in Canada have been tested for Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) since 1990. We report the epidemiology, risk factors and lookback/traceback of HTLV-positive donors/recipients. The annual HTLV rate was calculated from 1990 to 2010. Residual risk was estimated as the product of incidence and window period. Twenty-nine HTLV-positive donors and 116 matched controls (ratio 1 : 4) were interviewed about risk factors. For HTLV-positive donations, lookback investigations involved identification of all previous donations, and attempting to locate and test recipients. Traceback was initiated when transfusion transmission was queried for HTLV-positive blood recipients. All donors of products that the recipient received were identified, with an attempt to locate and test them. The HTLV rate decreased from 9.35 per 100,000 donations in 1990 to 1.11 in 2010. The residual risk of infection was 1 in 7.6 million donations. In logistic regression birth overseas (OR 18.7), history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR 32.9), sex with unknown background (OR 5.4) and blood transfusion (OR 8.9) were significant predictors. In the lookback study, of 109 HTLV-positive donors, 508 components were transfused, of whom 147 recipients were tested and 18 (12%) were positive. All were transfused prior to the implementation of donor testing. Twenty-three traceback investigations were requested involving 324 transfused untested products,of whom 219 (67.6%) of donors were tested and 13 (6%) were positive for HTLV. With testing of the blood supply, the risk from HTLV is very low and while most HTLV-positive donors have risk factors, deferrable risk is rare. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of bovine papillomatosis and the identification of a putative new virus type in Brazilian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Marcus V A; Silva, Maria A R; Pontes, Nayara E; Reis, Marcio C; Corteggio, Annunziata; Castro, Roberto S; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Balbino, Valdir Q; Freitas, Antonio C

    2013-08-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are a diverse group of double-stranded DNA viruses, of which 12 viral types have been detected and characterized so far. However, there is still a limited understanding of the diversity of BPV. Several putative new BPVs have been detected and some of these have been recently characterized as new viral types. However, only a very limited amount of information is available on the pathology associated with these novel viral types yet this information could be of significant value in improving our understanding of the biology of BPV. The objective of this study was to examine some of the epidemiological features of cutaneous bovine papillomatosis in Brazilian cattle, in particular to establish the relationship between BPV types isolated from beef and dairy cattle herds and the lesions they cause. Seventy-two cutaneous lesions were collected from 60 animals. Histopathological, PCR and sequencing assays were conducted to characterize the lesions and detect the BPV types responsible. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using the maximum likelihood method. BPV types 1-6 and 8-10 were found, as well as a putative new BPV type that belongs to the Deltapapillomavirus genus. The tumors were all classified as fibropapillomas. This is believed to be the first record of BPV types 3 and 10 associated with fibropapillomas. These results confirm that there is a wide range of BPV types that infect cattle, and that an understanding of this diversity is necessary for improved methods of therapeutic treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrepancies Between Classic and Digital Epidemiology in Searching for the Mayaro Virus: Preliminary Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawi, Mohammad; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Watad, Abdulla; Sharif, Kassem; Amital, Howard; Mahroum, Naim

    2017-12-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV), first discovered in Trinidad in 1954, is spread by the Haemagogus mosquito. Small outbreaks have been described in the past in the Amazon jungles of Brazil and other parts of South America. Recently, a case was reported in rural Haiti. Given the emerging importance of MAYV, we aimed to explore the feasibility of exploiting a Web-based tool for monitoring and tracking MAYV cases. Google Trends is an online tracking system. A Google-based approach is particularly useful to monitor especially infectious diseases epidemics. We searched Google Trends from its inception (from January 2004 through to May 2017) for MAYV-related Web searches worldwide. We noted a burst in search volumes in the period from July 2016 (relative search volume [RSV]=13%) to December 2016 (RSV=18%), with a peak in September 2016 (RSV=100%). Before this burst, the average search activity related to MAYV was very low (median 1%). MAYV-related queries were concentrated in the Caribbean. Scientific interest from the research community and media coverage affected digital seeking behavior. MAYV has always circulated in South America. Its recent appearance in the Caribbean has been a source of concern, which resulted in a burst of Internet queries. While Google Trends cannot be used to perform real-time epidemiological surveillance of MAYV, it can be exploited to capture the public's reaction to outbreaks. Public health workers should be aware of this, in that information and communication technologies could be used to communicate with users, reassure them about their concerns, and to empower them in making decisions affecting their health. ©Mohammad Adawi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Howard Amital, Naim Mahroum. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 01.12.2017.

  17. A brief summary of the epidemiology and genetic relatedness of avian influenza H9N2 virus in birds and mammals in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Mettenleiter, T C; Abdelwhab, E M

    2017-12-01

    H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The virus has been isolated from humans in Egypt and serosurveys indicated widespread infection particularly among poultry workers and pigs in some countries. Some isolates replicated well in experimentally inoculated dogs, mice, hamsters and ferrets. Insufficient protection of immunised poultry was frequently reported most likely due to concurrent viral or bacterial infections and antigenic drift of the field viruses from outdated vaccine strains. Genetic analysis indicated several distinct phylogroups including a panzootic genotype in the Asian and African parts of the ME, which may be useful for the development of vaccines. The extensive circulation of H9N2 for about 20 years in this region where the H5N1 virus is also endemic in some countries, poses a serious public health threat. Regional surveillance and control strategy are highly recommended.

  18. A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Amipour, S.; Wambacq, J.; Aerts, J.-M.; Maes, P.; Berckmans, D.; Lagrou, K.; van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

    2009-04-01

    understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. This analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-ground remote sensing techniques, specially LiDAR technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis in which the presence of Hanta virus will be assessed.

  19. Epidemiology of avian influenza A H7N9 virus in human beings across five epidemics in mainland China, 2013-17: an epidemiological study of laboratory-confirmed case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiling; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Peng; Uyeki, Timothy M; Feng, Luzhao; Lai, Shengjie; Wang, Lili; Huo, Xiang; Xu, Ke; Chen, Enfu; Wang, Xiaoxiao; He, Jianfeng; Kang, Min; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Jin; Wu, Jiabing; Hu, Shixiong; Zhang, Hengjiao; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Weijie; Ou, Jianming; Wu, Shenggen; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Zhijie; Shi, Yujing; Zhang, Juanjuan; Artois, Jean; Fang, Vicky J; Zhu, Huachen; Guan, Yi; Gilbert, Marius; Horby, Peter W; Leung, Gabriel M; Gao, George F; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-08-01

    The avian influenza A H7N9 virus has caused infections in human beings in China since 2013. A large epidemic in 2016-17 prompted concerns that the epidemiology of the virus might have changed, increasing the threat of a pandemic. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical severity, and time-to-event distributions of patients infected with A H7N9 in the 2016-17 epidemic compared with previous epidemics. In this epidemiological study, we obtained information about all laboratory-confirmed human cases of A H7N9 virus infection reported in mainland China as of Feb 23, 2017, from an integrated electronic database managed by the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and provincial CDCs. Every identified human case of A H7N9 virus infection was required to be reported to China CDC within 24 h via a national surveillance system for notifiable infectious diseases. We described the epidemiological characteristics across epidemics, and estimated the risk of death, mechanical ventilation, and admission to the intensive care unit for patients admitted to hospital for routine clinical practice rather than for isolation purpose. We estimated the incubation periods, and time delays from illness onset to hospital admission, illness onset to initiation of antiviral treatment, and hospital admission to death or discharge using survival analysis techniques. Between Feb 19, 2013, and Feb 23, 2017, 1220 laboratory-confirmed human infections with A H7N9 virus were reported in mainland China, with 134 cases reported in the spring of 2013, 306 in 2013-14, 219 in 2014-15, 114 in 2015-16, and 447 in 2016-17. The 2016-17 A H7N9 epidemic began earlier, spread to more districts and counties in affected provinces, and had more confirmed cases than previous epidemics. The proportion of cases in middle-aged adults increased steadily from 41% (55 of 134) to 57% (254 of 447) from the first epidemic to the 2016-17 epidemic. Proportions of cases in semi

  20. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... sequences from the Arctic and Arctic-like viruses, which were distinct from rabies isolates originating ill the Baltic region of Europe, the Steppes in Russia and from North America. The Arctic-like group consist of isolates from India, Pakistan, southeast Siberia and Japan. The Arctic group...... in northeast Siberia and Alaska. Arctic 2b isolates represent a biotype, which is dispersed throughout the Arctic region. The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders....

  1. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan in 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Bashir Aamir

    Full Text Available In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1 virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses.The first case of human infection with A(H1N1pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18(th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31(st August 2010. The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays.Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.

  2. The use of molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis and epidemiological study of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linchongsubongkoch, W.; Janukit, T.; Romlumdoan, S.; Phusirimongkol, A.

    2000-01-01

    The detection of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus from various kinds of field samples (tissue extract and cell culture isolate) was studied using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The gene selected for diagnosis was the polymerase gene and an amplification target product of 454 bp in length was produced using AP5/AP6 primer sets. The PCR product was further examined by NcoI endonuclease digestion. The presence of the internal restriction site was confirmed by demonstration of two small fragments of 330 bp and 124 bp in length. Forty-nine samples that gave positive and negative results by ELISA typing and were positive by the PCR test were tested by NcoI digestion to confirm the results. About 10% of PCR products could not be confirmed by the method. Furthermore the FMD RNA polymerase gene could be detected by the PCR method in samples negative in both ELISA typing and the virus isolation test. A total of 23 samples were examined and compared after each stage of the testing process. At the end of the extraction for ELISA the amplification product band at 454 bp was detected in 74% of the negative tissue extract samples, and in 48% at the end of the virus isolation procedure. The PCR technique was shown to rapidly and sensitively detect FMD viral genome, when compared with virus titration by tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID 50 ) method. The PCR was about 10 times more sensitive than the virus titration technique in detection of virus. Therefore, the PCR technique can be used in conjunction with current procedures for FMD diagnosis, to support the routine standard ELISA typing and virus isolation test on clinical samples. The first step of the nucleotide sequencing technique was introduced with a view to study genomic differentiation of FMD outbreak viruses. The appropriate primer sets for each of the three endemic sero-types were optimized and used to detect the PCR products from field isolate viruses. The PCR products of FMDV type O, A and

  3. La conservación de los paisajes aterrazados en la Toscana: entre la utopía y la realidad

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, María

    1995-01-01

    El presente artículo es fruto de la investigación realizada el pasado febrero en la región de Toscana. Tarea que no se podría haber desarrollado sin la inestimable ayuda de los profesores R. Landi (Instituto de Agronomía), M. Azzari y F. Canigiani (Instituto de Geografía) de la Universidad de Florencia, D. Croce (Dipartimento di Geografía G. Morandini, Università di Padova) o la colaboración de los investigadores del C.E.D.I.P. y del Istituto Sperimentale per la difesa dil suolo ...

  4. ANTIOXIDANTE NATURAL DE MARCELA (Achyrocline satureioides) E DE ERVA MATE (Ilex paraguariensis) NA ELABORAÇÃO DE LINGÜIÇA TOSCANA

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Borges de Brum

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver antioxidantes naturais de Achyrocline satureioides (marcela) e de Ilex paraguariensis (erva mate), para adição em lingüiça toscana e banha suína, com avaliação e determinação das melhores constituições quanto à atividade antioxidante e características sensoriais dos produtos. No primeiro experimento, foi avaliado o efeito de dois níveis (0,5% e 1%) de extratos hidro-etanólicos de erva mate e de marcela, bem como da composição mista de extratos d...

  5. Molecular and epidemiological analysis of pandemic and post-pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus from central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Mahima; Singh, Neeru; Shukla, Mohan K; Potdar, Varhsa A; Sharma, Ravendra K; Sahare, Lalit Kumar; Ukey, Mahendra J; Barde, Pradip V

    2018-03-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic struck India in 2009 and continues to cause outbreaks in its post-pandemic phase. Diminutive information is available about influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 from central India. This observational study presents epidemiological and molecular findings for the period of 6 years. Throat swab samples referred from districts of Madhya Pradesh were subjected to diagnosis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 following WHO guidelines. Clinical and epidemiological data were recorded and analyzed. Hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed. The H275Y mutation responsible for antiviral resistance was tested using allelic real-time RT-PCR. Out of 7365 tested samples, 2406 (32.7%) were positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, of which 363 (15.08%) succumbed to infection. Significant trends were observed in positivity (χ 2  = 50.8; P H1N1)pdm09 viruses having genetic diversity were detected from central India and continues to be a concern for public health. This study highlights the need of year-round monitoring by establishment of strong molecular and clinical surveillance program. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health and Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus that was linked with honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), the sudden and massive die-off of honey bee colonies in the U.S. in 2006-2007. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence and genetic diversity of IAPV, host transcripti...

  7. The Epidemiology, Virology and Clinical Findings of Dengue Virus Infections in a Cohort of Indonesian Adults in Western Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosasih, H.; Alisjahbana, B.; Nurhayati, .; Mast, Q. de; Rudiman, I.F.; Widjaja, S.; Antonjaya, U.; Novriani, H.; Susanto, N.H.; Jusuf, H.; Ven, A. van der; Beckett, C.G.; Blair, P.J.; Burgess, T.H.; Williams, M.; Porter, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue has emerged as one of the most important infectious diseases in the last five decades. Evidence indicates the expansion of dengue virus endemic areas and consequently the exponential increase of dengue virus infections across the subtropics. The clinical manifestations of dengue

  8. Dengue: a trilogy of people, mosquitoes and the virus. Current epidemiology and pathogenesis in (non-)endemic settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thai, K.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue consists of a spectrum of disease manifestations caused by four serotypes of Dengue virus, the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus affecting humans in the tropics and subtropics. The incidence of dengue and its geographical distribution have increased dramatically in the past 6 decades.

  9. European experience with the West Nile Virus ecology and epidemiology: could it be relevant for the New World?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2000), s. 415-426 ISSN 0882-8245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.982, year: 2000

  10. Assessing Disparities of Dengue Virus Transmission Risk across the US-Mexican Border Using a Climate Driven Vector-Epidemiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Cory; Monaghan, Andrew; Quattrochi, Dale; Crosson, William; Hayden, Mary; Ernst, Kacey

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease reemerging throughout much of the tropical Americas. Dengue virus transmission is explicitly influenced by climate and the environment through its primary vector, Aedes aegypti. Temperature regulates Ae. aegypti development, survival, and replication rates as well as the incubation period of the virus within the mosquito. Precipitation provides water for many of the preferred breeding habitats of the mosquito, including buckets, old tires, and other places water can collect. Although transmission regularly occurs along the border region in Mexico, dengue virus transmission in bordering Arizona has not occurred. Using NASA's TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite for precipitation input and Daymet for temperature and supplemental precipitation input, we modeled dengue transmission along a US-Mexico transect using a dynamic dengue transmission model that includes interacting vector ecology and epidemiological components. Model runs were performed for 5 cities in Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we performed ensembles of several thousands of model simulations in order to resolve the model uncertainty arising from using different combinations of parameter values that are not well known. For cities with reported dengue case data, the top model simulations that best reproduced dengue case numbers were retained and their parameter values were extracted for comparison. These parameter values were used to run simulations in areas where dengue virus transmission does not occur or where dengue fever case data was unavailable. Additional model runs were performed to reveal how changes in climate or parameter values could alter transmission risk along the transect. The relative influence of climate variability and model parameters on dengue virus transmission is assessed to help public health workers prepare location specific infection prevention strategies.

  11. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a review of viral genomes, viral induced host immune responses, genotypic distributions and worldwide epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HCV are frequently propagating blood borne pathogens in global community. Viral hepatitis is primarily associated with severe health complications, such as liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic fibrosis and steatosis. A literature review was conducted on hepatitis B virus (HBV, HBV genome, genotypic distribution and global epidemiology of HBV, HCV, HCV genome, HCV and host immune responses, HCV genotypic distribution and global epidemiology. The valued information was subjected for review. HBV has strict tissue tropism to liver. The virus infecting hepatocytes produces large amount of hepatitis B surface antigen particles which lack the DNA. It has capability to integrate into host genome. It has been found that genotype C is most emerging genotype associated with more severe liver diseases (cirrhosis. The approximate prevalence rate of genotype C is 27.7% which represents a major threat to future generations. Approximately 8% of population is chronic carrier of HBV in developing countries. The chronic carrier rate of HBV is 2%-7% in Middle East, Eastern and Southern Europe, South America and Japan. Among HCV infected individuals, 15% usually have natural tendency to overcome acute viral infection, where as 85% of individuals were unable to control HCV infection. The internal ribosomal entry site contains highly conserved structures important for binding and appropriate positioning of viral genome inside the host cell. HCV infects only in 1%-10% of hepatocytes, but production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (from CD8+ cells and interferon-gamma cause destruction of both infected cells and non-infected surrounding cells. Almost 11 genotypes and above 100 subtypes of HCV exists worldwide with different geographical distribution. Many efforts are still needed to minimize global burden of these infections. For the complete eradication of HBV (just like small pox and polio via vaccination strategies

  12. Clinical and epidemiological aspects related to the detection of adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection

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    Eduardo A. Ferone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects ofinfants with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI associated with the detection of adenovirus(ADV or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. METHODS: A preliminary respiratory infection surveillance study collected samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA for viral research, linked to the completion of a standard protocol, from children younger than two years admitted to a university hospital with ALRI, between March of 2008 and August of 2011. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for eight viruses: ADV, RSV, metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3, and Influenza A and B. Cases with NPA collectedduring the first 24 hours of admission, negative results of blood culture, and exclusive detection of ADV (Gadv group or RSV (Grsv group were selected for comparisons. RESULTS: The preliminary study included collection of 1,121 samples of NPA, 813 collected in thefirst 24 hours of admission, of which 50.3% were positive for at least one virus; RSV was identifiedin 27.3% of cases surveyed, and ADV was identified in 15.8%. Among the aspects analyzed inthe Gadv (n = 58 and Grsv (n = 134 groups, the following are noteworthy: the higher meanage, more frequent prescription of antibiotics, and the highest median of total white blood cellcount and C-reactive protein values in Gadv. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can detect persistent/latent forms of ADV, an aspect to be considered wheninterpreting results. Additional studies with quantitative diagnostic techniques could elucidatethe importance of the high frequency observed.

  13. A molecular epidemiology study based on VP2 gene sequences reveals that a new genotype of infectious bursal disease virus is dominantly prevalent in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, Caterina; Giovanardi, Davide; Pesente, Patrizia; Bonci, Michela; Felice, Viviana; Rossi, Giulia; Morandini, Emilio; Cecchinato, Mattia; Catelli, Elena

    2016-08-01

    A distinctive infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus genotype (ITA) was detected in IBD-live vaccinated broilers in Italy without clinical signs of IBD. It was isolated in specific-pathogen-free eggs and molecularly characterized in the hypervariable region of the virus protein (VP) 2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ITA strains clustered separately from other homologous reference sequences of IBDVs, either classical or very virulent, retrieved from GenBank or previously reported in Italy, and from vaccine strains. The new genotype shows peculiar molecular characteristics in key positions of the VP2 hypervariable region, which affect charged or potentially glycosylated amino acids virtually associated with important changes in virus properties. Characterization of 41 IBDV strains detected in Italy between 2013 and 2014 showed that ITA is emergent in densely populated poultry areas of Italy, being 68% of the IBDV detections made during routine diagnostic activity over a two-year period, in spite of the immunity induced by large-scale vaccination. Four very virulent strains (DV86) and one classical strain (HPR2), together with eight vaccine strains, were also detected. The currently available epidemiological and clinical data do not allow the degree of pathogenicity of the ITA genotype to be defined. Only in vivo experimental pathogenicity studies conducted in secure isolation conditions, through the evaluation of clinical signs and macro/microscopic lesions, will clarify conclusively the virulence of the new Italian genotype.

  14. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010–2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria

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    Fabio Tramuto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily and Northern (Liguria Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%, and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8% and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%. Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains. D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country.

  15. Hepadna viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

  16. The importance of natural fractures in a tight reservoir for potential CO2 storage : A case study of the upper Triassic-middle Jurassic Kapp Toscana Group (Spitsbergen, Arctic Norway)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, K.; Senger, K.; Braathen, A.; Tveranger, J.; Olaussen, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the Longyearbyen CO2 laboratory project, it is planned to inject carbon dioxide into a Triassic-Jurassic fractured sandstone-shale succession (Kapp Toscana Group) at a depth of 700- 1000 m below the local settlement. The targeted storage sandstones offer moderate secondary porosity and low

  17. The importance of natural fractures in a tight reservoir for potential CO2 storage: a case study of the upper Triassic-middle Jurassic Kapp Toscana Group (Spitsbergen, Arctic Norway)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, K.; Senger, K.; Braathen, A.; Tveranger, J.; Olaussen, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the Longyearbyen CO2 laboratory project, it is planned to inject carbon dioxide into a Triassic–Jurassic fractured sandstone–shale succession (Kapp Toscana Group) at a depth of 700– 1000 m below the local settlement. The targeted storage sandstones offer moderate secondary porosity and low

  18. Poder y centros de representación: castros y castillos en la Toscana y Tierra de Campos (siglos X-XII

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    Pérez Rodríguez, María

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Toubert published his research on Lazio, the concept of incastellamento has become an important starting point to explain Feudalism in good part of Medieval Mediterranean Europe. Far from to trying to validate the viability of this explanatory model for the Iberian Peninsula, we have conducted an analysis of the role of fortresses and the nature of bonds between monarchy and the aristocracies from the Toscana and the Cea’s bank, in the Tierra de Campos region. Our main purpose is to observe the existence of similarities and differences between both areas and their incidence in the development of Feudal logics.Desde que Pierre Toubert publicara su estudio sobre el Lazio, el incastellamento se convirtió en un importante punto de partida a la hora de explicar el feudalismo en buena parte del mundo mediterráneo. Lejos de intentar validar su viabilidad en la Península Ibérica, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio sobre el papel ejercido por las fortificaciones y la naturaleza de los vínculos entre monarquía y aristocracias en la región de la Toscana y la ribera del Cea, en Tierra de Campos. El objetivo principal es observar las semejanzas y diferencias existentes entre ambas zonas y su incidencia en el desarrollo del feudalismo.

  19. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Phylodynamics: Genetic Variability Associated with Epidemiological Factors in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, B. P.; Perez, A. M.; Jamal, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control is the high genetic variability of the FMD virus (FMDV). In endemic settings such as the Indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastating...... outbreaks in disease-free areas. In countries trying to control and eradicate FMD using vaccination strategies, the constantly evolving and wide diversity of field FMDV strains is an obstacle for identifying vaccine strains that are successful in conferring protection against infection with field viruses...... from this study will contribute to the understanding of FMDV variability and to the design of FMD control strategies in Pakistan. Viruses sequenced here also provide the earliest reported isolate from the Pan Asia IIANT-10 sublineage, which has caused several outbreaks in the Middle East and spread...

  20. Taxonomic and epidemiological aspects of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 species through the observation of the secondary structures in the 5' genomic untranslated region

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    Massimo Giangaspero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2 strains demonstrated in cattle, sheep and adventitious contaminants of biological products were evaluated by the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3 in the 5’ untranslated region (UTR, to determine their taxonomic status. Variation in conserved genomic sequences was used as a parameter for the epidemiological evaluation of the species in relation to geographic distribution, animal host and virulence. Four genotypes were identified within the species. Taxonomic segregation corresponded to geographic distribution of genotype variants. Genotype 2a was distributed worldwide and was also the only genotype that was circulating in sheep and cattle. Genotypes 2b, 2c and 2d were restricted to South America. Genotypes 2a and 2d were related to the contamination of biological products. Genetic variation could be related to the spread of BVDV-2 species variants in different geographic areas. Chronologically, the species emerged in North America in 1978 and spread to the United Kingdom and Japan, continental Europe, South America and New Zealand. Correlation between clinical features related with isolation of BVDV-2 strains and genetic variation indicated that subgenotype 1, variant 4 of genotype 2a, was related to a haemorrhagic syndrome. These observations suggest that the evaluation of genomic secondary structures, by identifying markers for expression of virus biological activities and species evolutionary history, may be a useful tool for the epidemiological evaluation of BVDV-2 species and possibly of other species of the genus Pestivirus.

  1. Genotypes of Rubella Virus and the Epidemiology of Rubella Infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukuta, Elizabeth; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Abernathy, Emily; Illunga, Benoit Kebela; Obama, Ricardo; Mondonge, Vital; Dahl, Benjamin A.; Maresha, Balcha G.; Icenogle, Joseph; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Rubella is a viral infection that may cause fetal death or congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), during early pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries assess the burden of rubella and CRS, including the determination of genotypes of circulating viruses. The goal of this study was to identify the genotypes of rubella viruses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Serum or throat swab samples were collected through the measles surveillance system. Sera that tested negative for measles IgM antibody were tested for rubella IgM antibody. Serum collected within 4 days of rash onset and throat swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR for rubella virus RNA. For positive samples, an amplicon of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. 11733 sera were tested for rubella IgM and 2816 (24%) were positive; 145 (5%) were tested for the presence of rubella RNA by real-time RT-PCR and 10 (7%) were positive. Seventeen throat swabs were analyzed by RT-PCR and three were positive. Sequences were obtained from eight of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DRC rubella viruses belonged to genotypes 1B, 1E, 1G, and 2B. This report provides the first information on the genotypes of rubella virus circulating in the DRC. These data contribute to a better understanding of rubella burden and the dynamics of rubella virus circulation in Africa. Efforts to establish rubella surveillance in the DRC are needed to support rubella elimination in Africa. PMID:27479298

  2. Genotypes of rubella virus and the epidemiology of rubella infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukuta, Elizabeth; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Abernathy, Emily; Illunga, Benoit Kebela; Obama, Ricardo; Mondonge, Vital; Dahl, Benjamin A; Maresha, Balcha G; Icenogle, Joseph; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Rubella is a viral infection that may cause fetal death or congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), during early pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries assess the burden of rubella and CRS, including the determination of genotypes of circulating viruses. The goal of this study was to identify the genotypes of rubella viruses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Serum or throat swab samples were collected through the measles surveillance system. Sera that tested negative for measles IgM antibody were tested for rubella IgM antibody. Serum collected within 4 days of rash onset and throat swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR for rubella virus RNA. For positive samples, an amplicon of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. 11733 sera were tested for rubella IgM and 2816 (24%) were positive; 145 (5%) were tested for the presence of rubella RNA by real-time RT-PCR and 10 (7%) were positive. Seventeen throat swabs were analyzed by RT-PCR and three were positive. Sequences were obtained from eight of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DRC rubella viruses belonged to genotypes 1B, 1E, 1G, and 2B. This report provides the first information on the genotypes of rubella virus circulating in the DRC. These data contribute to a better understanding of rubella burden and the dynamics of rubella virus circulation in Africa. Efforts to establish rubella surveillance in the DRC are needed to support rubella elimination in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 88:1677-1684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of livestock rabies viruses isolated in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba and Pernambuco from 2003 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited or no epidemiological information has been reported for rabies viruses (RABVs) isolated from livestock in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba (PB) and Pernambuco (PE). The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular epidemiology of RABVs circulating in livestock, especially cattle, in these areas between 2003 and 2009. Findings Phylogenetic analysis based on 890 nt of the nucleoprotein (N) gene revealed that the 52 livestock-derived RABV isolates characterized here belonged to a single lineage. These isolates clustered with a vampire bat-related RABV lineage previously identified in other states in Brazil; within PB and PE, this lineage was divided between the previously characterized main lineage and a novel sub-lineage. Conclusions The occurrences of livestock rabies in PB and PE originated from vampire bat RABVs, and the causative RABV lineage has been circulating in this area of northeastern Brazil for at least 7 years. This distribution pattern may correlate to that of a vampire bat population isolated by geographic barriers. PMID:22243739

  4. The epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of dengue virus during the third largest historical outbreak of dengue in Guangdong, China, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiufeng; Wu, De; Zhou, Huiqiong; Zhang, Huan; Guan, Dawei; He, Xiang; Cai, Songwu; Ke, Changwen; Lin, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    The third largest historical outbreak of dengue occurred during July to December 2014, in 20 of 21 cities of Guangdong, China. The epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the introduction, expansion and phylogeny of the DENV isolates involved in this outbreak were investigated. A combination analyses of epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of dengue virus was performed in this study. In total, 45,236 cases and 6 fatalities were reported. Unemployed individuals, retirees and retailers were the most affected populations. A total of 6024 cases were verified to have DENV infections by nucleic acid detection, of which 5947, 74 and 3 were confirmed to have DENV-1, -2, and -3 infections, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of DENV-1 isolates were assigned into three genotypes (I, IV, and V). Genotype V was the predominant genotype that likely originated from Singapore. The DENV-2 isolates were assigned to the Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes. A unique DENV-3 isolate (genotype III) shared high similarity with isolates obtained from Guangdong in 2013. A combination analyses demonstrated the multiple geographical origins of this outbreak, and highlight the importance of early detection, the case management and vector surveillance for preventing further dengue epidemics in Guangdong. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos; Brunini, Sandra Maria; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.

  6. ARTE GÓTICO Y PAISAJE SUBLIME. EL VIAJE DE CHARLES-ÉDOUARD JEANNERET A LA TOSCANA EN 1907

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    Germán Américo Hidalgo Hermosilla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. En este artículo se exponen dos aspectos centrales del viaje de Ch-E. Jeanneret a Italia, en 1907, en la que fue su primera experiencia de aprendizaje viajando, es decir, a partir de la observación directa de las obras de arte que le interesaba reconocer, pero aún guiada por los dictámenes de su maestro, Charles L'Eplattenier, el cual, a su vez, en aquella época estaba muy influido por los criterios estéticos y de enseñanza del dibujo de John Ruskin. Un primer aspecto, se refiere a su preferencia por obras de arte de la Edad Media, y cuyo acento estaba en la ornamentación. El segundo, tenía que ver con una particular dimensión paisajística del lugar al cual se desplazaba: la Toscana, que llevaba completamente idealizada, desde el imaginario romántico. A partir de estas dos instancias, podemos sintetizar la índole de sus intereses de juventud, como así mismo, la forma en que se aproximaba al mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este artículo es revelar aspectos por mucho tiempo desconocidos relativos a la etapa de formación de uno de los arquitectos más influyentes del siglo XX. SUMMARY. This article explores two central aspects of the journey by Charles-Édouard Jeanneret to Italy in 1907. It was his first experience of learning through the direct observation of the art works that he was interested in seeing while travelling. At this stage, he was still guided by the opinions of his teacher, Charles L'Eplattenier, who at the time was very influenced by the aesthetic criteria and the drawing teachings of John Ruskin. The first aspect relates to the preference of Jeanneret for works of art of the Middle-Ages, the accent of which was on ornamentation. The second relates to the particular scenic dimension of the place to which he travelled, Tuscany, which had been completely idealized by romantic imagination. From these two aspects we can synthesise the nature of his youthful interests and also the way in which he approached

  7. Molecular epidemiology of circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in chickens, in Bangladesh, 2007-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bangladesh has been severely hit by highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI-H5N1). However, little is known about the genetic diversity and the evolution of the circulating viruses in Bangladesh. In the present study, we analyzed the hemagglutinin gene of 30 Bangladeshi chicken isolates from...

  8. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in wildlife: diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keawcharoen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in Southeast Asia causing high mortality in poultry and have also been found to cross the species barrier infecting human and other mammalian species. Thailand is one of the countries severely affected by

  9. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human t-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in guinea-bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Tienen (Carla); T.I. de Silva (Thushan); L.C.J. Alcantara (Luiz); C. Onyango (Clayton); S. Jarju (Sheikh); N. Gonçalves (Nato); T. Vincent (Tim); P. Aaby; H. Whittle (Hilton); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M. Cotten (Matthew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Endemic Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in a Rural Community in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienen, Carla; de Silva, Thushan I.; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Onyango, Clayton O.; Jarju, Sheikh; Gonçalves, Nato; Vincent, Tim; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, Hilton; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Cotten, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in

  11. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Messele, T.; Masho, W.; Woldemichael, T.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239,

  12. A molecular epidemiological investigation of avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses isolated from game birds of the order Galliformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, E W; Mynn, J K; Irvine, R M; Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

    2010-12-01

    The partial (370 nucleotides) fusion gene sequences of 55 avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) isolates were obtained. Included were 41 published sequences, of which 16 were from strains of APMV-1 of previously determined lineages included as markers for the data analysed and 25 were from APMV-1 viruses isolated from game birds of the order Galliformes. In addition, we sequenced a further 14 game bird isolates obtained from the repository at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency. The game bird isolates had been obtained from 17 countries, and spanned four decades. Earlier studies have shown that class II APMV-1 viruses can be divided into at least 15 lineages and sub-lineages. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 39 game bird isolates were distributed across 12 of these sub-lineages. We conclude that no single lineage of Newcastle disease viruses appears to be prevalent in game birds, and the isolates obtained from these hosts reflected the prevailing, both geographically and temporally, viruses in poultry, pigeons or wild birds.

  13. A possible correlation between the host genetic background in the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    A. K. C. R. Santos

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region of Brazil is an area of great interest because of the large distribution of hepatitis B virus in specific Western areas. Seven urban communities and 24 Indian groups were visited in a total of 4,244 persons. Each individual was interviewed in order to obtain demographic and familial information. Whole blood was collected for serology and genetic determinations. Eleven genetic markers and three HBV markers were tested. Among the most relevant results it was possible to show that (i there was a large variation of previous exposure to HBV in both urban and non-urban groups ranging from 0 to 59.2%; (ii there was a different pattern of epidemiological distribution of HBV that was present even among a same linguistic Indian group, with mixed patterns of correlation between HBsAg and anti-HBs and (iii the prevalence of HBV markers (HBsAg and anti-HBs were significantly higher (P=0.0001 among the Indian population (18.8% than the urban groups (12.5%. Its possible that the host genetic background could influence and modulate the replication of the virus in order to generate HB carrier state.

  14. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV virus in Finland

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    Hyytiäinen Mauno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968. The infection reappeared in the large-scale bulk-tank milk surveillances which started in 1990, and was eradicated in 1994. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of this infection in Finland, and its eradication. Materials and methods The official sources of pertinent information, the legal basis for the disease control and the serological methods for the detection of the infection are described. Results and conclusion Ten AI bulls were found to be seropositive in 1970–1971. The total number of herds with BHV-1 antibody positive animals in the large-scale surveillance in 1990 and subsequent epidemiological investigations in 1991 was five, and the total number of seropositive animals was 90. The five herds formed three epidemiological units; semen of at least one bull seropositive in 1971 had been used in each unit. This remained the only plausible route of infection in each of the three units. Using the 'test and slaughter' approach and total stamping out in one herd the infection was eradicated in 1994.

  15. A Fatal Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Infection in a Traveler Returning from Madagascar: Clinical, Epidemiological and Veterinary Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Sophie; Cardinale, Eric; Ocquidant, Philippe; Roger, Matthieu; Lepec, Richard; Delatte, Hélène; Camuset, Guillaume; Desprès, Philippe; Brottet, Elise; Charlin, Cyril; Michault, Alain

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman living in Reunion Island and returning from Madagascar was hospitalized for neuroinvasive encephalitis and died 1 month later. West Nile virus (WNV) infection was biologically confirmed by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactive with WNV antigens in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and weak neutralizing activity was also detected. A veterinary survey performed in her traveling area showed a seroprevalence of WNV of 28.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1–36.3) in adult poultry, confirming an active circulation of the virus. Development of a severe form could be related to a weak antibody response, because the patient presented low IgM and IgG titers. This case report underlines the constant risk of emergence of West Nile in Indian Ocean territories, including Reunion Island where competent vectors are widely present during the whole year. PMID:23751400

  16. Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus among hospitalized pediatric patients in Northern Italy during the 2015-16 season.

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    Antonio Piralla

    Full Text Available The influenza B viruses belong to two lineages distinguished by their genetic and antigenic characteristics, which are referred to as the Yamagata and Victoria lineages, designated after their original isolates, B/Yamagata/16/88 and B/Victoria/2/87. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular characteristics of influenza B viruses circulating in a region of Northern Italy, Lombardia, during the influenza season of 2015-2016.Influenza B virus was detected using a respiratory virus panel of assays and an influenza B-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. The complete influenza B hemagglutinin (HA gene was amplified and sequenced directly from clinical specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using nucleotide sequences.A total of 71 hospitalized pediatric patients were influenza B positive. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the great majority of influenza B strains (66/71, 93.0% belonged to the Victoria-lineage and were antigenically like vaccine strain (B/Brisbane/60/2008 included only in the quadrivalent vaccine. In the detected influenza B strains, a series of amino acid changes were observed in the antigenic regions: I117V, V124A, N129D, V146I, N197D, T199A, and A202T. However, only 2 amino acid changes were observed in the HA regions involved in receptor binding or in antibody recognition.All the influenza B strains identified in this study belonged to the influenza B Victoria lineage not included in the trivalent vaccine commonly used by the general population during the 2015-2016 influenza season in Italy. This indicates that protection against influenza B infection in the vaccinated population was in general very poor during the 2015-2016 influenza season.

  17. 2009 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 in Morocco, 2009–2010: Epidemiology, Transmissibility, and Factors Associated With Fatal Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Amal; Ihazmad, Hassan; El Falaki, Fatima; Tempia, Stefano; Cherkaoui, Imad; El Aouad, Rajae

    2012-01-01

    Background. Following the emergence of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) in the United States and Mexico in April 2009, A(H1N1)pdm09 spread rapidly all over the world. There is a dearth of information about the epidemiology of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Africa, including Morocco. We describe the epidemiologic characteristics of the A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic in Morocco during 2009–2010, including transmissibility and risk factors associated with fatal disease. Methods. We implemented influenza surveillance for patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) at 136 private and public clinics for patients with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at 16 regional public hospitals from June 2009 through February 2010. Respiratory samples and structured questionnaires were collected from all enrolled patients, and samples were tested by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza viruses. We estimated the risk factors associated with fatal disease as well as the basic reproduction number (R0) and the serial interval of the pandemic virus. Results. From June 2009 through February 2010, we obtained 3937 specimens, of which 1452 tested positive for influenza virus. Of these, 1398 (96%) were A(H1N1)pdm09. Forty percent of specimens from ILI cases (1056 of 2646) and 27% from SARI cases (342 of 1291) were positive for A(H1N1)pdm09. Sixty-four deaths occurred among laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 SARI cases. Among these cases, those who had hypertension (age-adjusted odd ratio [aOR], 28.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0–398.7), had neurological disorders (aOR, 7.5; 95% CI, 1.5–36.4), or were obese (aOR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.6–31.1), as well as women of gestational age who were pregnant (aOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.6), were at increased risk of death. Across the country, elevated numbers of locally acquired infections were detected 4 months after the detection of the first laboratory-confirmed case and coincided with the

  18. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  19. Epidemiological and clinical analysis of hepatitis virus A infections during three successive outbreaks in Sfax (Tunisia) between 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, S; Fki Berrajah, L; Ayadi, I; Messedi, E; Jallouli, H; Hammami, A; Karray-Hakim, H

    2016-05-01

    to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HAV infection during three successive outbreaks occurring between 2007 and 2010 in the governorate of Sfax. epidemiological and clinical characteristics were retrospectively analyzed from the outbreak investigations. The diagnosis of acute hepatitis A was confirmed by ELISA detection of immunoglobulin M serum antibodies to HAV. 443 patients were identified and 159 of them investigated. Their mean age was 12.2 years and the M/F ratio was 0.9. The most affected age groups were 6-10 years (35%) and 11-15 years (33%). The most likely sources of contamination were drinking water from wells or tanks and direct transmission. The most frequent symptoms included asthenia, digestive disorders, and jaundice. Two cases of fulminant hepatitis were reported, one lethal. our results show that HAV endemicity in the governorate of Sfax has dropped from high to intermediate as demonstrated by the increasing age at primary HAV infection. Strengthening health education and improving access to drinking water would reduce the transmission risk of HAV in our regions.

  20. Epidemiology and Genetic Characterization of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Responsible for Clinical Disease in Algeria in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Lecouturier, F; Amelot, G; Gaudaire, D; Mamache, B; Laugier, C; Legrand, L; Zientara, S; Hans, A

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in Algeria between May and July, 2011. The outbreak started in Tiaret, in west province of Algeria, and spread to the other parts of the country affecting almost 900 horses in many provinces. The population studied was composed of 325 horses from different groups of age. Clinical sign expression was age dependent. Indeed, a morbidity rate of 14.9% was observed in horses under 15 months old and a rate of 4.95% in horses over 8 years old. Interestingly, the morbidity rate raised sharply to reach 100% in horses aged between 18 months and 7 years. The virus (H3N8) was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 11) from non-vaccinated horses using a qRT-PCR targeting a portion of the gene encoding the matrix protein (M). The virus isolates were identified as H3N8 by sequencing the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes and were named from A/equine/Tiaret/1/2011 to A/equine/Tiaret/10/2011. Alignment of HA1 amino acid sequence confirmed that viruses belong to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in the American lineage. Moreover, they are closely related to A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, A/equine/Eyragues/1/2010, A/equine/Bokel/2011 and A/equine/Lichtenfeld/2012. Our data indicate that this strain was also circulating in the European horse population in 2010, 2011 and 2012. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in wild and captive sooty mangabeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina-Dorge, Vicki L; Lorino, Rebecca; Gormus, Bobby J; Metzger, Michael; Telfer, Paul; Richardson, David; Robertson, David L; Marx, Preston A; Apetrei, Cristian

    2005-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and diversity of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV) isolates within the long-established Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) colony of sooty mangabeys (SMs; Cercocebus atys). Serological analysis determined that 22 of 39 animals (56%) were positive for STLV type 1 (STLV-1). A second group of thirteen SM bush meat samples from Sierra Leone in Africa was also included and tested only by PCR. Twenty-two of 39 captive animals (56%) and 3 of 13 bush meat samples (23%) were positive for STLV-1, as shown by testing with PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of viral strains obtained demonstrated that STLV-1 strains from SMs (STLV-1sm strains) from the TNPRC colony and Sierra Leone formed a single cluster together with the previously reported STLV-1sm strain from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. These data confirm that Africa is the origin for TNPRC STLV-1sm and suggest that Sierra Leone is the origin for the SM colonies in the United States. The TNPRC STLV-1sm strains further divided into two subclusters, suggesting STLV-1sm infection of two original founder SMs at the time of their importation into the United States. STLV-1sm diversity in the TNPRC colony matches the high diversity of SIVsm in the already reported colony. The lack of correlation between the lineage of the simian immunodeficiency virus from SMs (SIVsm) and the STLV-1sm subcluster distribution of the TNPRC strains suggests that intracolony transmissions of both viruses were independent events.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of co-infection with hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adult patients in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudi, Ian; Iijima, Sayuki; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Murakami, Shuko; Isogawa, Masanori; Hachiya, Atsuko; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the genetic characteristics of both viruses among pre-HIV-treatment patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. This cross-sectional survey involved 176 remnant plasma samples collected from consenting HIV patients (median age 35 [18-74]) between June and September 2014. HBV seromarkers were determined by high-sensitivity chemiluminescence assays. Molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted on the basal core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and S regions of HBV, as well as part of the HIV pol region. Of the 176 participants (65.7% female), 19 (10.8%) were positive for HBsAg (median 0.033 IU/ml (IQR 0.01-415). The HBsAg incidence was higher in men than women (P = 0.009). HBsAg-positive subjects had lower median CD4 counts (P = 0.016). HBV DNA was detectable in 12 HBsAg-positive samples (median 3.36 log cp/ml (2.86-4.51), seven being amplified and sequenced. All isolates were subgenotype A1 without HBV drug resistance mutations but each had at least one BCP/PC mutation. PreS deletion mutants and small S antigen variants M133I/T and D144G were identified. Of the 164 HIV isolates successfully genotyped, 163 (99.4%) were HIV-1 subtype C and only one was HIV-1 subtype F1. Sixteen (9.8%) had at least one drug resistance mutation, predominantly non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-related mutations, observed mostly among female participants. This study shows that co-infection with HBV is present among HIV patients enrolling into HIV care in Zimbabwe, suggesting that HBV screening and monitoring programmes be strengthened in this context. J. Med. Virol. 89:257-266, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil

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    Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3, tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1, illicit drug use (OR = 2.3, sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9 were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. CONCLUSION: The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.

  4. Epidemiological investigations of the introduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Chile, 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Víctor; Mena, Juan; Culhane, Marie; Apel, Maria Ignacia; Max, Vanessa; Perez, Patricio; Moreno, Valentina; Mathieu, Christian; Johow, Magdalena; Badia, Catalina; Torremorell, Montserrat; Medina, Rafael; Ortega, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that the outbreaks were caused by a PRRSV closely related to viruses present in swine farms in North America, and different from the strain that circulated in the country before 2009. Using divergence time estimation analysis, we found that the 2013–2015 PRRSV may have been circulating in Chile for at least one month before the first detection. A single strain of PRRSV spread into a limited number of commercial and backyard swine farms. New infections in commercial systems have not been reported since October 2014, and eradication is underway by clearing the disease from the few commercial and backyard farms that remain positive. This is one of the few documented experiences of PRRSV introduction into a disease-free country. PMID:28742879

  5. The epidemiology and transmissibility of Zika virus in Girardot and San Andres island, Colombia, September 2015 to January 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, DP; Dean, NE; Yang, Y; Kenah, E; Quintero, J; Tomasi, S; Ramirez, EL; Kelly, Y; Castro, C; Carrasquilla, G; Halloran, ME; Longini, IM

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Colombia in September 2015. As of April 2016, Colombia had reported over 65,000 cases of Zika virus disease (ZVD). We analysed daily surveillance data of ZVD cases reported to the health authorities of San Andres and Girardot, Colombia, between September 2015 and January 2016. ZVD was laboratory-confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the serum of acute cases within five days of symptom onset. We use daily incidence data to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) in each population. We identified 928 and 1,936 reported ZVD cases from San Andres and Girardot, respectively. The overall attack rate for reported ZVD was 12.13 cases per 1,000 residents of San Andres and 18.43 cases per 1,000 residents of Girardot. Attack rates were significantly higher in females in both municipalities (p < 0.001). Cases occurred in all age groups with highest rates in 20 to 49 year-olds. The estimated R0 for the Zika outbreak was 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–1.74) in San Andres and 4.61 (95% CI: 4.11–5.16) in Girardot. Transmission of ZIKV is ongoing in the Americas. The estimated R0 from Colombia supports the observed rapid spread. PMID:27452806

  6. Clinical, epidemiological and etiological studies of adult aseptic meningitis: Report of 11 cases with varicella zoster virus meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Shinichi; Shiga, Yuji; Himeno, Takahiro; Tachiyama, Keisuke; Kamimura, Teppei; Kono, Ryuhei; Takemaru, Makoto; Takeshita, Jun; Shimoe, Yutaka; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2017-09-30

    We treated 11 cases (52.7 ± 14.9 years, all male) with varicella zoster virus (VZV) meningitis and 437 cases with adult aseptic meningitis from 2004 to 2016. The incidence rate of adult VZV meningitis in the cases with aseptic meningitis was 2.5%. Herpes zoster infections are reported to have occurred frequently in summer and autumn. VZV meningitis also occurred frequently in the similar seasons, in our patients. The diagnoses were confirmed in 9 cases with positive VZV-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and in 2 cases with high VZV-IgG indexes (> 2.0). For diagnosis confirmation, the former test was useful for cases within a week of disease onset, and the latter index was useful for cases after a week of disease onset. Zoster preceded the meningitis in 8 cases, while the meningitis preceded zoster in 1 case, and 2 cases did not have zoster (zoster sine herpete). Two patients were carriers of the hepatitis B virus, 1 patient was administered an influenza vaccine 4 days before the onset of meningitis, and 1 patient was orally administered prednisolone for 2 years, for treatment. Their immunological activities might have been suppressed. The neurological complications included trigeminal neuralgia, facial palsy (Ramsay Hunt syndrome), glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and Elsberg syndrome. Because the diseases in some patients can become severe, they require careful treatment.

  7. Prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis delta virus in pregnant women and in patients in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Wael; Malick, F-Zahra Fall; Sidiya, Ahmad; Ishagh, Elkhalil; Chekaraou, Mariama Abdou; Veillon, Pascal; Ducancelle, Alexandra; Brichler, Ségolène; Le Gal, Frédéric; Lo, Baidy; Gordien, Emmanuel; Lunel-Fabiani, Françoise

    2012-08-01

    No recent data are available on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) prevalence in Mauritania. One thousand twenty pregnant women and 946 patients visiting for routine checkups were screened for HBV and HDV infection. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnic, clinical, and biological data were recorded. HBV and HDV genotypes were determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. In the pregnant women and patients cohorts, respectively, the prevalence of HBsAg (10.7% and 18.3%) and anti-HBcAb (66.3% and 76.5%) indicated high HBV endemicity. In pregnant women, exposure to HBV was significantly associated in multivariate analysis with education level, ethnicity, blood transfusion, and occupation. HDV antibodies (HDVAb) were found in 14.7% of pregnant women. In patients, HBsAg was found less frequently in females than in males. Again in multivariate analysis, exposure to HBV was significantly correlated with gender (males), and HDVAb positivity with age and gender. The HBV DNA viral load was >3 log IU/ml in only 10.1% of pregnant women and in 17.3% of patients. HDV-RNA was detectable in 21 (67.7%) of the 31 patients positive for HDVAb, and in 11 of the 16 pregnant women positive for HDVAb (68.8%). The most frequent HBV genotypes were: HBV/D, 53%; HBV/E, 35%; and HBV/A, 12%. Sub-genotyping revealed HBV/D1,/D7, and the recently described/D8. HDV genotypes were: HDV-1, 90.3% and HDV-5, 9.7%. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV and HDV infections in Mauritania and demonstrates the high genetic diversity of HBV in this country. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in South Korea using sequencing of the fusion protein cleavage site region and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Jeong; Sung, Haan Woo; Choi, Jun Gu; Kim, Jae Hong; Song, Chang Seon

    2004-10-01

    The study, using sequence analysis and the phylogenetic relationship of the fusion protein gene, divided the Korean epizootic isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) into several lineages to determine the molecular epidemiology of the virus. A 695 base pair fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction between matrix protein gene and fusion protein gene of 30 Korean NDV isolates, which were isolated from field outbreaks of Newcastle disease between 1949 and 2002. All isolates showed the amino acid sequence 112R-R-Q/R-K-R116 at the C-terminus of the F2 protein and phenylalanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. These amino acid sequences were identical to a known virulent motif. The region of the F gene between nucleotides 47 and 435 was compared by phylogenetic analysis. Based on nucleotide sequence, the Korean NDV isolates belonged to genotype III, V, VI and VII corresponding to isolates in 1949, 1982 to 1984, 1988 to 1997, and 1995 to 2002, respectively. These data showed that genotypes of five Korean Newcastle disease epizootics had replaced each other serially (III, V, VI and VII) in chronological order. Further, the five Korean Newcastle disease epizootics were closely related with the Newcastle disease panzootics or Newcastle disease epizootics in other countries. Present study showed that the Korean genotype V isolated before 1984 was related with European Newcastle disease epizootics in the 1970s, whereas the Korean genotypes VI and VII isolated after 1988 were more closely related with Far East Newcastle disease epizootics, especially Newcastle disease epizootics in Japan, Taiwan and China. Since 1988, the genotypes VI and VII of Far East origin were dominant in South Korea. That might be due to the increased trade of agricultural products including poultry among Far East Asian countries.

  9. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  10. Reduced Risk of Importing Ebola Virus Disease because of Travel Restrictions in 2014: A Retrospective Epidemiological Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Shiori

    2016-01-01

    Background An epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from 2013–16 posed a serious risk of global spread during its early growth phase. A post-epidemic evaluation of the effectiveness of travel restrictions has yet to be conducted. The present study aimed to estimate the effectiveness of travel restrictions in reducing the risk of importation from mid-August to September, 2014, using a simple hazard-based statistical model. Methodology/Principal Findings The hazard rate was modeled as an inverse function of the effective distance, an excellent predictor of disease spread, which was calculated from the airline transportation network. By analyzing datasets of the date of EVD case importation from the 15th of July to the 15th of September 2014, and assuming that the network structure changed from the 8th of August 2014 because of travel restrictions, parameters that characterized the hazard rate were estimated. The absolute risk reduction and relative risk reductions due to travel restrictions were estimated to be less than 1% and about 20%, respectively, for all models tested. Effectiveness estimates among African countries were greater than those for other countries outside Africa. Conclusions The travel restrictions were not effective enough to expect the prevention of global spread of Ebola virus disease. It is more efficient to control the spread of disease locally during an early phase of an epidemic than to attempt to control the epidemic at international borders. Capacity building for local containment and coordinated and expedited international cooperation are essential to reduce the risk of global transmission. PMID:27657544

  11. Landscape features and helminth co-infection shape bank vole immunoheterogeneity, with consequences for Puumala virus epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneity in environmental conditions helps to maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in ecosystems. As such, it may explain why the capacity of animals to mount immune responses is highly variable. The quality of habitat patches, in terms of resources, parasitism, predation and habitat fragmentation may, for example, trigger trade-offs ultimately affecting the investment of individuals in various immunological pathways. We described spatial immunoheterogeneity in bank vole populations with respect to landscape features and co-infection. We focused on the consequences of this heterogeneity for the risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. We assessed the expression of the Tnf-α and Mx2 genes and demonstrated a negative correlation between PUUV load and the expression of these immune genes in bank voles. Habitat heterogeneity was partly associated with differences in the expression of these genes. Levels of Mx2 were lower in large forests than in fragmented forests, possibly due to differences in parasite communities. We previously highlighted the positive association between infection with Heligmosomum mixtum and infection with PUUV. We found that Tnf-α was more strongly expressed in voles infected with PUUV than in uninfected voles or in voles co-infected with the nematode H. mixtum and PUUV. H. mixtum may limit the capacity of the vole to develop proinflammatory responses. This effect may increase the risk of PUUV infection and replication in host cells. Overall, our results suggest that close interactions between landscape features, co-infection and immune gene expression may shape PUUV epidemiology.

  12. Epidemiological features and genetic characterization of virus strains in rotavirus associated gastroenteritis in children of Odisha in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Eileena; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, S K; Acharya, A S

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the clinical characteristics, severity and seasonality of rotavirus infection and prevalent genotypes in 652 non-rota vaccinated children in Odisha in eastern India. P genotypes were analysed for their association with host blood group antigens. P type of the virus is determined by the VP8* gene, and specific recognition of A - type of Histo - blood group antigen by P[14]VP8* has been reported. VP4, VP7 and VP6 genes of commonly identified G1P[8] strain were compared with genes of the same strain isolated from other parts of India, elsewhere and strains used for Rotarix and Rotateq vaccines. In 54.75% of children with gastroenteritis, rota virus was found. 9.65% of children had moderate, 78.07% severe, and 12.28% very severe disease as assessed using the Vesikari scoring system. The incidence of infection was highest during winter months. There was no association between any blood group and specific P genotypes. G1P[8] was the commonest cause of gastroenteritis, followed by G1P[11], G3P[8], G9P[8], G2P[4], G2P[6], G9P[4], G9P[11] and G1P[6]. Predominant G genotypes identified were G1 (72.9%), G9 (10.81%), G2 (8.10%) and G3 (8.10%). Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene, placed the G1P[8] strain in lineage 1 and of VP6 gene placed nine G1P[8] strains in subgroup II and one in subgroup I. The VP7 gene segment of two Odisha G1P[8] strains were found to cluster relatively close to the VP7 sequences of Rotarix vaccine. Antigenic differences were found with vaccine strains. Ten G1P[8] strains sequenced for the VP4 gene had 91-93% nucleotide and 92-96% amino acid identity with Rotateq vaccine P[8]). Rotarix vaccine VP4 had 89-91% nucleotide and 90-92% amino acid identity. Our findings indicate genetic variability of rotavirus strains circulating in the region and are significant, given the introduction of rota vaccination in the State. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary and epidemiological analyses based on spike genes of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus circulating in Thailand in 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Christopher J; Temeeyasen, Gun; Tripipat, Thitima; Kaewprommal, Pavita; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Piriyapongsa, Jittima; Nilubol, Dachrit

    2017-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been endemic causing sporadic outbreaks in Thailand since 2007. In 2014-2015, several herds had experienced severe PED outbreaks and the reason of the re-current outbreaks was unknown. Whether or not the introduction of exotic strains or continual evolution of existing PEDV, genetic analyses would provide a more understanding in its evolutionary pattern. In the study, 117 complete spike gene sequences of Thai PED virus (PEDV) collected from 2008 to 2015 were clustered along with 95 references of PEDV spike sequences, and analyzed with the US sequences dataset (n=99). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Thai PEDV spike sequences were genetically diverse and had been influenced by multiple introduction of exotic strains. Although Thai PEDV have been evolved into 6 subgroups (TH1-6), Subgroup TH1 strains with the unique 9 nucleotides (CAA GGG AAT) insertion between 688th-689th position of spike (changing amino acid from N to TREY) insertion has become the dominant subgroup since 2014. Thai PEDV spike gene have higher evolutionary rate compare to that of the US sequences. One contributing factor would be the intra-recombination between subgroups. Thailand endemic strain should be assigned into new subclade of G2 (Thai pandemic variant). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Analysis on sero-epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B virus among people born during 1994-2001 before and after hepatitis B vaccine catch-up vaccination, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F Z; Zheng, H; Miao, N; Sun, X J; Zhang, G M; Liang, X F; Cui, F Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To analyze the sero-epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B virus among people born during 1994-2001, conducted by the national hepatitis B sero-epidemiological surveys in 2006 and 2014. Methods: Based on the data of the two national hepatitis B sero-epidemiological surveys in 2006 and 2014, people born during 1994-2001 were included into our analysis as this study subjects. The two surveys were conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (not including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China. Face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, sex, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reagents were used for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc measurements and Abbott micro-particle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) reagents was used to confirm test. We analyzed HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc positive rate by gender, ethnicity, urban/rural, eastern/central/western region, birth years and compared the distribution of serum epidemiological characteristics in 2006 and 2014. Results: 19 821 and 4 712 people born during 1994-2001 were involved in 2006 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people born during 1994-2001, HBsAg positive rate were 2.02% (95 % CI: 1.82%-2.21%) in 2014 and 1.95% (95 % CI: 1.56%-2.35%) in 2006. Anti-HBc positive rate were 7.94% (95 %CI: 7.17%-8.71%) in 2014 and higher than that in 2006 (6.49%, 95 %CI: 6.15%-6.83%), especially for the female (8.31%, 95 % CI: 7.20%-9.43%), urban (7.45%, 95 % CI: 6.38%-8.52%), western region (11.25%, 95 %CI: 9.79%-12.71%), minority people (16.02%, 95 %CI: 13.47%-18.57%) in 2014 were higher than that of the female (6.29%, 95 % CI: 5.81%-6.78%), urban (4.82%, 95 % CI: 4.40%-5.24%), western region (7.97%, 95 % CI: 7.31%-8.63%), minority people (11

  15. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS — ONCOGENIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mayansky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to oncogenic viruses, particularly human papilloma virus. Papilloma viral infection is found in all parts of the globe and highly contagious. In addition to exhaustive current data on classification, specifics of papilloma viruses composition and epidemiology, the author describes in great detail the malignization mechanisms of papilloma viruses pockets. Also, issues of diagnostics and specific prevention and treatment of diseases caused by this virus are illustrated. Key words: oncogenic viruses, papilloma viruses, prevention, vaccination. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:48-55

  16. Serological and molecular epidemiological outcomes after two decades of universal infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Chris; Minuk, Gerald Y; Uhanova, Julia; Baikie, Maureen; Wong, Thomas; Osiowy, Carla

    2017-08-16

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection within the Canadian Arctic is considered endemic (>2% prevalence). Within the Arctic region of Nunavut, a vaccination program targeted at newborn infants was initiated approximately 20years ago, along with interim grade school catch-up programs, with the result that individuals born after 1980 are presumed vaccinated. This study investigates the effectiveness of these programs and is the first seroepidemiological survey to determine HBV prevalence in Nunavut in the post-vaccination era. Anonymized serum specimens scheduled for destruction following medical testing were collected between April 2013 and April 2014 from individuals granting consent. Specimens were tested for HBV antibodies, surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBV DNA to perform molecular characterization. Four thousand eight hundred and two specimens (13% of the population) were collected, with a resulting median age of 29years (range 1week to 93years). The prevalence of antibody to the HBV core protein was 9.4%; however, a 10-fold decrease in the rate of HBV exposure was noted among those born after 1980 compared to those born before (1.8% vs. 19.8%, pB5 (previously B6) was the most prevalent genotype observed (81.8%) indicating persistence of locally acquired infection. Vaccine-based antibody as the sole serological marker was evident in the vaccine age cohort, although the rate of decay with increasing age was much greater than predicted (less than 10% in those aged 5-19years). Nearly two decades after the advent of HBV vaccination in Nunavut, HBV prevalence has decreased to 1.2%, indicating non-endemic prevalence. However, the persistence of infection and a lower than expected prevalence of vaccine-based immunity in the vaccine age cohort will require further investigation to understand the causes and consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections requiring pediatric intensive care admission in Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T F; Lam, D S Y; Miu, T Y; Hon, K L; Chau, C S K; Ku, S W; Lee, R S Y; Chow, P Y; Chiu, W K; Ng, D K K

    2014-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children. However, there are limited data on severe RSV infection requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. This retrospective study described features of RSV-associated PICU admissions in Hong Kong and investigated factors for mortality and duration of PICU stay. Children with laboratory-confirmed RSV infection and admitted to the PICUs of all eight government hospitals in Hong Kong between January 2009 and June 2011 were identified from computerized auditing systems and PICU databases. RSV in respiratory samples was detected by direct immunofluorescence and/or viral culture. The relationships between mortality and PICU duration and demographic and clinical factors were analyzed. A total of 118 (2.4 %) PICU admissions were identified among 4,912 RSV-positive pediatric cases in all hospitals. Sixty-five (55.6 %) patients were infants. PICU admissions were higher between October and March. Eight (6.8 %) patients died, but only two were infants. RSV-associated mortality was related to prior sick contact, presence of older siblings, neurodevelopmental conditions, chromosomal and genetic diseases, and bacterial co-infections, but none was significant following logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 9.36, 95 % confidence interval 0.91-96.03 for prior sick contact, p = 0.060). Chronic lung disease was the only risk factor for the duration of PICU admission (β = 0.218, p = 0.017). The majority of RSV-infected children do not require PICU support. There is winter seasonality for RSV-associated PICU admission in Hong Kong. Prior sick contact is the only risk factor for RSV-associated mortality, whereas the presence of chronic lung disease is associated with longer PICU stay. The current risk-based approach of RSV prophylaxis may not be effective in reducing severe RSV infections.

  18. Molecular epidemiology and characterization of bovine leukemia virus in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Yun; Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Pan, Yangyang; Xu, Fang; Tian, Lili; Zeng, Qiaoying

    2018-03-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a member of the genus Deltaretrovirus of the family Retroviridae and cause a chronic lymphosarcoma, which is extensive in cattle. In yaks (Bos grunniens), the distribution, strains and genetic characteristics of BLV have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate BLV infections in domestic yaks and determine the genetic variability of BLV circulating in a region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, China. Blood samples were collected from 798 yaks, which were from different farms from Gansu, Qinghai and Sichuan provinces surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats was used to detect the BLV provirus. The highest prevalence of BLV infection was in Gansu province, where it was 18.93% (39/206) in white yaks from Tianzhu City and 19.14% (31/162) in black yaks from Gannan City. In Qinghai and Sichuan provinces, the prevalence of BLV in black yaks was 14.83% (35/236) and 14.94% (29/194), respectively. The prevalence of BLV was not significantly different in yaks up to one year old than in older animals. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using 16 different env-gp51 (497-bp) gene sequences from the three provinces and 71 known BLV strains, which revealed that in both Gansu and Qinghai provinces, genotypes 6 and 10 of the BLV strains were at high levels, whereas only genotype 10 was prevalent in Sichuan Province. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons revealed 95.7-99.8% sequence identity among the full-length env genes of 16 strains, nearly full-length genome sequences of six BLV strains, and those of the known genotypes 6 and 10 of BLV. This study provides comprehensive information is regarding the widespread infection of domestic yaks with BLV on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, and shows that at least two BLV genotypes (genotypes 6 and 10) are circulating in this population.

  19. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the sero-epidemiological association between Epstein Barr virus and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohmeed, Yahya H; Avenell, Alison; Aucott, Lorna; Vickers, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    A role for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been postulated. Previous systematic reviews found higher prevalences of anti-EBV antibodies in MS patients compared to controls, but many studies have since been published, and there is a need to apply more rigorous systematic review methods. We examined the link between EBV and MS by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies that examined the prevalence of anti-EBV antibodies in the serum of cases and controls. We searched Medline and Embase databases from 1960 to 2012, with no language restriction. The Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (OR) for anti-EBV antibodies sero-positivity were calculated, and meta-analysis conducted. Quality assessment was performed using a modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Thirty-nine studies were included. Quality assessment found most studies reported acceptable selection and comparability of cases and controls. However the majority had poor reporting of ascertainment of exposure. Most studies found a higher sero-prevalence of anti-EBNA IgG and anti-VCA IgG in cases compared to controls. The results for anti-EA IgG were mixed with only half the studies finding a higher sero-prevalence in cases. The meta-analysis showed a significant OR for sero-positivity to anti-EBNA IgG and anti-VCA IgG in MS cases (4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.3 to 6.6, p<0.00001] and 4.5 [95% CI 2.8 to 7.2, p<0.00001] respectively). However, funnel plot examination suggested publication bias for the reporting of the anti-EBNA IgG. No significant difference in the OR for sero-positivity to anti-EA IgG was found (1.4 [95% CI 0.9 to 2.1, p = 0.09]). These findings support previous systematic reviews, however publication bias cannot be excluded. The methodological conduct of studies could be improved, particularly with regard to reporting and conduct of laboratory analyses.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the sero-epidemiological association between Epstein Barr virus and multiple sclerosis.

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    Yahya H Almohmeed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A role for Epstein Barr virus (EBV in multiple sclerosis (MS has been postulated. Previous systematic reviews found higher prevalences of anti-EBV antibodies in MS patients compared to controls, but many studies have since been published, and there is a need to apply more rigorous systematic review methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the link between EBV and MS by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies that examined the prevalence of anti-EBV antibodies in the serum of cases and controls. We searched Medline and Embase databases from 1960 to 2012, with no language restriction. The Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (OR for anti-EBV antibodies sero-positivity were calculated, and meta-analysis conducted. Quality assessment was performed using a modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Thirty-nine studies were included. Quality assessment found most studies reported acceptable selection and comparability of cases and controls. However the majority had poor reporting of ascertainment of exposure. Most studies found a higher sero-prevalence of anti-EBNA IgG and anti-VCA IgG in cases compared to controls. The results for anti-EA IgG were mixed with only half the studies finding a higher sero-prevalence in cases. The meta-analysis showed a significant OR for sero-positivity to anti-EBNA IgG and anti-VCA IgG in MS cases (4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.3 to 6.6, p<0.00001] and 4.5 [95% CI 2.8 to 7.2, p<0.00001] respectively. However, funnel plot examination suggested publication bias for the reporting of the anti-EBNA IgG. No significant difference in the OR for sero-positivity to anti-EA IgG was found (1.4 [95% CI 0.9 to 2.1, p = 0.09]. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support previous systematic reviews, however publication bias cannot be excluded. The methodological conduct of studies could be improved, particularly with regard to reporting and conduct of

  2. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus and genotype distribution in immigrants crossing to Europe from North and sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Ahmed, Mohamed O; Dau, Aghnyia A; Agnan, Mohamed M

    The association between the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and immigration is rarely studied, particularly for the immigrants crossing to the resettlement countries. Most of the published data are confined to those immigrants who were resident in European countries and rarely immigrated before they reach the final destination. Libya is a large country in North Africa with the longest coast of the Mediterranean Sea facing the European Union. It has been considered as the main transient station for African immigrants to Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the prevalence of HCV in African immigrants gathered in Libya from different African countries on their way to Europe and (2) HCV genotype distribution in these immigrants and its correlation with different demographic factors. A total of 14 205 serum samples were collected in a 3-year period (2013-2015) from different immigrants from North and sub-Saharan Africa who resided in the African immigrant campus, Tripoli, Libya. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. Each serum sample was tested for anti-HCV antibody using ELISA. The genotypes were determined and assigned using a specific genotyping assay and correlated with demographic and potential risk factors of the recruited individuals. Of the immigrants studied, 1078 (7.6%) were positive for HCV. The prevalence of HCV infection ranged from 1.4% to 18.7%; it was higher among individuals arriving from Nile river (3.6-18.7%) of North Africa, followed by those who arrived from the West African region (2.1-14.1%), Horn of Africa (HOA, 6.8-9.9%), and Maghreb countries (1.4-2.7%). The relative risk factor attributable to gender variation was not significant (95% Cl: 0.8513-1.2381). Five genotypes were detected in 911 African immigrants. Genotypic analysis showed that the predominant HCV genotypes in this group were genotypes 4, 1, and 2 that

  3. An apparent lack of epidemiologic association between hepatitis C virus knowledge and the prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a national survey in Egypt.

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    Hiam Chemaitelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Egypt has by far the largest hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence in the world with 14.7% of the population being antibody positive for HCV. The aim of this study was to examine the association between knowledge of HCV and HCV antibody positivity among the Egyptian population. METHODS: We characterized different measures of HCV knowledge and examined their associations with HCV prevalence, by analyzing a nationally representative database using standard epidemiologic methods. The database, the 2008 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey, included demographic, health, and HCV biomarker information for a sample of over 12,000 individuals. RESULTS: Basic knowledge of HCV was found to be high, but multiple gaps were identified in the specific knowledge of HCV and its modes of transmission. There was no statistically significant difference in HCV prevalence between those who have heard of HCV infection and those who have not (14.4% vs. 15.9%, p>.05. Similar results were found for the other HCV knowledge measures including those specific to HCV modes of transmission and to the sources of information for HCV awareness. Logistic regression analyses did not demonstrate an association between HCV knowledge and HCV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not provide support for an effect of awareness on reducing the risk of HCV infection in Egypt. Public health messages directed at the lay public may not provide sufficient empowerment for individuals to avoid HCV infection, and should be complemented with prevention programs to promote and strengthen infection control in the settings of exposure, particularly in health care facilities.

  4. Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of emergent dengue virus in Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos border, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting-Song; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Feng, Yun; Fan, Jian-Hua; Tang, Tian; Liu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Liu; Yin, Xiao-Xiong; Chen, Gang; Li, Hua-Chang; Zu, Jin; Li, Hong-Bin; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2017-05-08

    Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and neighbors the Southeast Asian countries, all of which are dengue-endemic areas. In 2000-2013, sporadic imported cases of dengue fever (DF) were reported almost annually in Yunnan Province. During 2013-2015, we confirmed that a large-scale indigenous DF outbreak emerged in cities of Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos border. Epidemiological characteristics of DF in Yunnan Province during 2013-2015 were evaluated by retrospective analysis. A total of 232 dengue virus (DENV)-positive sera were randomly collected for sequence analysis of the capsid/premembrane region of DENV from patients with DF in Yunnan Province. The envelope gene of DENV isolates was also amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining method with the Tajima-Nei model. Phylogenetically, all DENV-positive samples could be classified into DENV-1 genotype I and DENV-2 Asian I genotype during 2013-2015 and DENV-4 genotype I in 2015 from Ruili City; and DENV-3 genotype II in 2013 and DENV-2 Cosmopolitan genotype in 2015 from Xishuangbanna Prefecture. Our results indicated that imported DF from patients from Laos and Myanmar was the primary cause of the DF epidemic in Yunnan Province. Additionally, DENV strains of all four serotypes were identified in indigenous cases in Yunnan Province during the same time period, while the dengue epidemic pattern observed in southwestern Yunnan showed characteristics of a hypoendemic nature: circulation of DENV-1 and DENV-2 over consecutive years.

  5. Pandemic influenza virus 2009 H1N1 and adenovirus in a high risk population of young adults: epidemiology, comparison of clinical presentations, and coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Heather C; Fugate, William H; Murray, Clinton K; Cropper, Thomas L; Lott, Lisa; McDonald, J Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (2009 H1N1) emerged worldwide, causing morbidity and mortality that disproportionately affected young adults. Upper respiratory infection (URI), largely due to adenovirus, is an endemic cause of morbidity in military training. Whether clinical presentations differ or excess morbidity results from coinfection is unclear. The Center for Advanced Molecular Detection evaluates epidemiology and rapid diagnostics of respiratory pathogens in trainees with URI. From May 1, 2009, to November 30, 2009, demographic, clinical, and PCR data from throat and nasal specimens for adenovirus and 2009 H1N1 were prospectively collected. 375 trainees with URI enrolled and were tested for both adenovirus and 2009 H1N1 by PCR (median age 20; 89% male). Adenovirus PCR was positive in 72% (96% serotype E-4) and 2009 H1N1 in 20%. Males were more likely to have adenovirus and females more likely to have 2009 H1N1 (p  =  0.047). Subjects with 2009 H1N1 presented an average of 1 week earlier in training, had shorter illness duration before enrollment, less sore throat, diarrhea, and fewer abnormal findings on throat exam. Coryza and cough were more common with 2009 H1N1 compared to adenovirus. Subjects with 2009 H1N1 were less likely to have adenovirus than those without, despite persistently high frequencies of adenovirus detections during peak 2009 H1N1 weeks (15% vs. 83%, p adenovirus and 2009 H1N1 was rare (4%). Rates of hospitalization and pneumonia did not differ between the adenovirus, 2009 H1N1, or coinfected groups. Military trainees with 2009 H1N1 vs. adenovirus have differing clinical presentations, and males are more likely to have adenovirus. Despite high frequencies of adenovirus infection, coinfection with adenovirus and 2009 H1N1 is rare and apparently does not result in increased morbidity.

  6. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and severity of respiratory syncytial virus acute lower respiratory infection in Malaysian children, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Khuen F; Tan, Kah K; Sam, Zhi H; Ting, Grace Ss; Gan, Wan Y

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory data and severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in Malaysian children and to determine risk factors associated with prolonged hospital stay, paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and mortality. Retrospective data on demographics, clinical presentation, outcomes and laboratory findings of 450 children admitted into Tuanku Jaafar Hospital in Seremban, Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 with documented diagnosis of RSV ALRI were collected and analysed. Most admissions were children below 2 years old (85.8%; 386/450). Commonest symptoms were fever (84.2%; 379/450), cough (97.8%; 440/450) and rhinorrhea (83.6%; 376/450). The median age among febrile patients (n = 379) was 9.0 months with interquartile range (IQR) of 4.0-19.0 months whereas the median age among those who were apyrexial (n = 71) was 2 months with IQR of 1-6 months (P-value history of prematurity, chronic comorbidity and thrombocytosis were significantly associated with prolonged hospital stay, PICU admission and mortality. Infants less than 6 months old with RSV ALRI tend to be afebrile at presentation. Younger age, history of prematurity, chronic comorbidity and thrombocytosis are predictors of severe RSV ALRI among Malaysian children. Case fatality rate for Malaysian children below 5 years of age with RSV ALRI in our centre is higher than what is seen in developed countries, suggesting that there is room for improvement. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Epidemiología genómica y paraparesia espástica tropical asociada a la infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 Genome epidemiology and tropical spastic paraparesis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1

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    Mercedes Salcedo-Cifuentes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el ambiente genómico de las secuencias adyacentes al virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1 en pacientes con paraparesia espástica tropical y mielopatía asociada a la infección con HTLV-1 (PET/MAH de diferentes regiones de Colombia y del Japón. MÉTODOS: Se enfrentaron 71 clones recombinantes con secuencias del genoma humano adyacentes al 5'-LTR de pacientes con PET/MAH, a las bases de datos del Genome Browser y del Gen-Bank. Se identificaron y analizaron estadísticamente 16 variables genómicas estructurales y composicionales mediante el programa informático R, versión 2.8.1, en una ventana de 0,5 Mb. RESULTADOS: El 43,0% de los provirus se localizaron en los cromosomas del grupo C; 74% de las secuencias se ubicaron en regiones teloméricas y subteloméricas (P OBJECTIVE: Characterize the genomic environment of the sequences adjacent to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in different regions of Colombia and Japan. METHODS: A total of 71 recombinant clones with human genome sequences adjacent to 5' LTR in patients with HAM/TSP were compared to the Genome Browser and GenBank databases. Sixteen structural and compositional genome variables were identified, and statistical analysis was conducted in the R computer program, version 2.8.1, in a 0.5 Mb window. RESULTS: A total of 43.0% of the proviruses were located in the group C chromosomes; 74% of the sequences were located in the telomeric and subtelomeric regions (P < 0.05. A cluster analysis was used to establish the hierarchical relations between the genome characteristics included in the study. The analysis of principal components identified the components that defined the preferred genome environments for proviral integration in cases of HAM/TSP. CONCLUSIONS: HTLV-1 was integrated more often in chromatin regions rich in CpG islands with a high density

  8. The high frequency of non-aspartic acid residues at HA222 in influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic viruses is associated with mortality during the upsurge of 2015: a molecular and epidemiological study from central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, P V; Sahu, M; Shukla, M K; Bharti, P K; Sharma, R K; Sahare, L K; Ukey, M J; Singh, N

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A(H1N1) viruses of the 2009 pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm09) continue to cause outbreaks in the post-pandemic period. During January to May 2015, an upsurge of influenza was recorded that resulted in high fatality in central India. Genetic lineage, mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and infection by quasi-species are reported to affect disease severity. The objective of this study is to present the molecular and epidemiological trends during the 2015 influenza outbreak in central India. All the referred samples were subjected to qRT-PCR for diagnosis. HA gene sequencing (23 survivors and 24 non-survivors) and cloning were performed and analyzed using Molecular Evolutionary Genomic Analyzer (MEGA 5·05). Of the 3625 tested samples, 1607 (44·3%) were positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, of which 228 (14·2%) individuals succumbed to death. A significant trend was observed in positivity (P = 0·003) and mortality (P H1N1)pdm09 virus was characterized as belonging to clade-6B. Clinically significant mutations were detected. Patients infected with the quasi-species of the virus had a greater risk of death (P = 0·009). This study proposes a robust molecular and clinical surveillance program for the detection and characterization of the virus, along with prompt treatment protocols to prevent outbreaks.

  9. Avaliação da qualidade tecnológica de envoltório natural suíno utilizado no processamento de lingüiça Toscana Evaluation of the technological quality of natural pork casings used for manufacture of Toscana sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Aparecida Lucini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade de seis (6 diferentes fornecedores de envoltórios naturais suínos, utilizados para a elaboração de linguiça Toscana em um frigorífico localizado na região oeste do Paraná. As amostras foram codificadas como fornecedor 01, 02, 03, 04, 05 e 06, onde, com exceção do fornecedor 02, os demais foram de procedência nacional. As análises tecnológicas executadas nos envoltórios naturais foram a determinação da metragem, número de furos, número de fios por maço e a mensuração do calibre. Baseado nos resultados obtidos, o fornecedor 05 apresentou o pior desempenho. Não foi possível destacar um único fornecedor como o melhor para tal função. Sugere-se que a empresa em questão desenvolva formas de determinar o desvio padrão aceitável para os atributos, em especial, metragem, visando a melhor padronização do processo tecnológico.The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of six (6 different natural swine casings for the elaboration of Toscana Sausage at a sausage manufacturer locate in the west region of Paraná State. The samples were codified as supplier 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, and 06 and with exception of supplier 02, they all had Brazilian origin. The technological analyses in the natural casings were the determination of length, number of punctures, thread number per bundle and bore measurement. Based on the results obtained, the supplier 05 presented the worst performance. It was not possible to determine an ideal supplier for this purpose. It is suggested that the company develops ways of determining the best acceptable standard deviation of these attributes, in special, the length, aiming at the best technological standardization of the process for the industry.

  10. Emergence and epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the American desert southwest, and development of host plant resistance in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Sonoran Desert region of the southwestern USA in 2006 and has become established. The virus is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci, which has been present in the region since the early 1990s. CYSDV results in lat...

  11. Molecular epidemiology of human rhinoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita

    2006-01-01

    The first part of this work investigates the molecular epidemiology of a human enterovirus (HEV), echovirus 30 (E-30). This project is part of a series of studies performed in our research team analyzing the molecular epidemiology of HEV-B viruses. A total of 129 virus strains had been isolated in different parts of Europe. The sequence analysis was performed in three different genomic regions: 420 nucleotides (nt) in the VP4/VP2 capsid protein coding region, the entire VP1 capsid protein cod...

  12. Clinical, epidemiological and virological features of dengue virus infections in vietnamese patients presenting to primary care facilities with acute undifferentiated fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thai, Khoa T. D.; Phuong, Hoang Lan; Thanh Nga, Tran Thi; Giao, Phan Trong; Hung, Le Quoc; van Nam, Nguyen; Binh, Tran Quang; Simmons, Cameron; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Thinh; Rogier van Doorn, H.; de Jong, Menno D.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To explore clinical and virological characteristics and describe the epidemiology of dengue in patients who presented with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) at primary health centers (PHC) in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from

  13. Molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses circulating in two rabies endemic provinces of Laos, 2011-2012: regional diversity in Southeast Asia.

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    Kamruddin Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos.We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses.Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions.There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses circulating in two rabies endemic provinces of Laos, 2011-2012: regional diversity in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kamruddin; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Vorachith, Phengphet; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lamaningao, Pheophet; Mori, Daisuke; Takaki, Minako; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Nishizono, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos. We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses. Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions. There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies Viruses Circulating in Two Rabies Endemic Provinces of Laos, 2011–2012: Regional Diversity in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kamruddin; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Vorachith, Phengphet; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lamaningao, Pheophet; Mori, Daisuke; Takaki, Minako; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Nishizono, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos. Methods We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry’s National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses. Results Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions. Conclusion There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion. PMID:25825907

  16. Presence of sandflies infected with Leishmania infantum and Massilia virus in the Marseille urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, B; Bichaud, L; Charrel, R; Mary, C; Izri, A; de Lamballerie, X; Piarroux, R

    2014-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered a rural disease in Europe. However, circumstantial evidence has indicated urban transmission of leishmaniasis and phleboviruses in the urban area of Marseille, France. To investigate this urban transmission, sandflies were trapped in 33 locations in the urban area (horse farms, public gardens and a residential area). Sandflies were always captured: 87.8% were Phlebotomus perniciosus, a vector of Leishmania infantum and Toscana and Massilia viruses. RT-PCR and cell culture inoculation identified the Massilia virus in 2/99 pools of sandflies, and PCR identified Leishmania in 5/99. No dual infection was observed, but both pathogens were detected in samples from the same trapping site. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. Dengue Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Transmission of the Dengue Virus Dengue is transmitted between people by the ... the vectors is too infrequent to sustain transmission. Dengue is an Emerging Disease The four dengue viruses ...

  18. Epidemiological, Clinical and Virological Characteristics of Influenza B Virus from Patients at the Hospital Tertiary Care Units in Bangkok during 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horthongkham, Navin; Athipanyasilp, Niracha; Pattama, Archiraya; Kaewnapan, Bualan; Sornprasert, Suthatta; Srisurapanont, Surangrat; Kantakamalakul, Wannee; Amaranond, Palanee; Sutthent, Ruengpung

    2016-01-01

    Influenza B virus, which causes acute respiratory infections, has increased in prevalence in recent years. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, influenza B virus can be divided into two lineages, Victoria and Yamagata, that co-circulate during the influenza season. However, analysis of the potential association between the clinical and virological characteristic and the lineage of influenza B viruses isolated in Thailand was lacking. To investigate influenza B virus genetically and determine its neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor susceptibility phenotype, a total of 6920 nasopharyngeal-wash samples were collected from patients with influenza-like illness between the years 2011 and 2014 and were screened for influenza B virus by real-time PCR. Of these samples, 3.1% (216/6920) were confirmed to contain influenza B viruses, and 110 of these influenza viruses were randomly selected for nucleotide sequence analysis of the HA and NA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA sequences showed clustering into various clades: Yamagata clade 3 (11/110, 10%), Yamagata clade 2 (71/110, 64.5%), and Victoria clade 1 (28/110, 25.5%). The analysis of clinical characteristic demonstrated that the Victoria lineage was significantly associated with the duration of hospitalization, number of deceased cases, pneumonia, secondary bacterial infection and underlying disease. When combined with phylogenetic analysis of the NA sequences, four samples showed viruses with reassortant sequences between the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. Statistical analysis of the clinical outcomes and demographic data for the reassortant strains did not differ from those of the other strains in circulation. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza B viruses were not detected. Our findings indicated the co-circulation of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages over the past four cold seasons in Bangkok. We also demonstrated differences in the clinical symptoms between these lineages.

  19. Community Surveillance of Respiratory Viruses Among Families in the Utah Better Identification of Germs-Longitudinal Viral Epidemiology (BIG-LoVE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Carrie L; Ampofo, Krow; Stockmann, Chris; Adler, Frederick R; Herbener, Amy; Miller, Trent; Sheng, Xiaoming; Blaschke, Anne J; Crisp, Robert; Pavia, Andrew T

    2015-10-15

    This study: (1) describes the viral etiology of respiratory illness by prospectively collecting weekly symptom diaries and nasal swabs from families for 1 year, (2) analyzed data by reported symptoms, virus, age, and family composition, and (3) evaluated the duration of virus detection. Twenty-six households (108 individuals) provided concurrent symptom and nasal swab data for 4166 person-weeks. The FilmArray polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC) was used to detect 16 respiratory viruses. Viral illnesses were defined as ≥1 consecutive weeks with the same virus detected with symptoms reported in ≥1 week. Participants reported symptoms in 23% and a virus was detected in 26% of person-weeks. Children younger than 5 years reported symptoms more often and were more likely to have a virus detected than older participants (odds ratio [OR] 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-2.94 and OR 3.96, 95% CI, 3.35-4.70, respectively). Compared with single person households, individuals living with children experienced 3 additional weeks of virus detection. There were 783 viral detection episodes; 440 (56%) associated with symptoms. Coronaviruses, human metapneumovirus, and influenza A detections were usually symptomatic; bocavirus and rhinovirus detections were often asymptomatic. The mean duration of PCR detection was ≤2 weeks for all viruses and detections of ≥3 weeks occurred in 16% of episodes. Younger children had longer durations of PCR detection. Viral detection is often asymptomatic and occasionally prolonged, especially for bocavirus and rhinovirus. In clinical settings, the interpretation of positive PCR tests, particularly in young children and those who live with them, may be confounded. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Think globally, act locally: Phylodynamic reconstruction of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV QX genotype (GI-19 lineage reveals different population dynamics and spreading patterns when evaluated on different epidemiological scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Franzo

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV represents one of the poultry industry major threats, particularly in high density producing countries. The emergence and spread of new IBV genotypes have frustrated the various disease control efforts implemented over time. Despite that, few comprehensive and large scale studies have been performed to understand the international and local spreading dynamics of this virus. In the present work, these phenomena were evaluated by implementing a Bayesian phylodynamic approach to reconstruct the epidemiological patterns and population history of the QX genotype (currently renamed GI-19 lineage, the most relevant IBV lineage of the Old-World. Our analysis, based on 807 partial S1 sequences of strains collected from 18 countries between 1993 and 2015, demonstrates that this genotype originated in China well before its first identification. After a prolonged local circulation, it started spreading to other European, Asian and Middle East countries in successive waves, which were mirrored by concomitant fluctuations in viral population size. Interestingly, the within-Europe spread was characterized by a higher estimated migration rate compared with the inter-continental one, potentially reflecting the closer geographic and economic relationships among these countries. Nevertheless, the colonization of new states by the GI-19 lineage appeared to occur mostly by single introduction events in both intra and inter-continental spread, likely because of epidemiological factor and health policy combination which seems to prevent the frequent introduction and mixing of different strains. On the other hand, the within Italy QX circulation reconstruction showed a much more intricate connection network among different locations, evidencing the difficulty in controlling IBV spread especially in highly densely poultry populated areas. The presence of several well supported epidemiological links among distantly related Italian regions

  1. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  2. [Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, B; Cabrera, L; Arias, C F

    1997-01-01

    A workshop on viral epidemiology was held on September 29, 1995 at the Medical School of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. The aim of this workshop was to promote interaction among scientists working in viral epidemiology. Eighteen scientists from ten institutions presented their experiences and work. General aspects of the epidemiology of meaningful viral diseases in the country were discussed, and lectures presented on the rota, polio, respiratory syncytial, dengue, papiloma, rabies, VIH and hepatitis viruses.

  3. Epidemiologic study of influenza infection in Okinawa, Japan, from 2001 to 2007: changing patterns of seasonality and prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Taira, Katsuya; Saito, Reiko; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Shou; Zaraket, Hassan; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    To clarify seasonal influenza patterns and the prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in Okinawa, located at the southern extremity of Japan in a subtropical climate, we conducted a laboratory-based study of influenza virus infections from 2001 to 2007. The annual outbreaks tended to show two peaks in Okinawa, in summer and winter, although the main islands of Japan, located in a temperate climate area, showed only winter influenza activity. Epidemic types and subtypes in Okinawa mostly matched those on the main islands of Japan in winter and those in Taiwan in summer. Rates of amantadine resistance dramatically increased, from 7.3% in the November 2002-to-March 2003 season to 90.0% in summer 2005, and a similarly high rate of resistance continued for the rest of the study period. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of A/H3N2 isolates collected from 2002 to 2007 revealed a monophyletic lineage that was divided into four period groups. Each group included amantadine-sensitive and -resistant viruses within independent clusters. In the November 2005-to-March 2006 season, all of the amantadine-resistant viruses were clustered in clade N, with dual (position 193 and 225) amino acid mutations in their HA1 subunits. In 2005, clade N amantadine-resistant viruses existed in Okinawa several months before the circulation of this clade on the main islands of Japan. In conclusion, surveillance in Okinawa to monitor influenza virus circulation is important for elucidating the dynamics of virus transmission in a border area between temperate and subtropical areas, as Okinawa is one of the best sentinel points in Japan.

  4. [Yellow fever virus, dengue 2 and other arboviruses isolated from mosquitos, in Burkina Faso, from 1983 to 1986. Entomological and epidemiological considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, V; Lhuillier, M; Meunier, D; Sarthou, J L; Monteny, N; Digoutte, J P; Cornet, M; Germain, M; Cordellier, R

    1993-01-01

    An arbovirus surveillance was carried out in Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1986. It was based on crepuscular catches of mosquitoes on human bait in some wooded areas and in one town. The total collection was 228 catches with an average of 8 men per catch. The total number of mosquitoes caught was 44,956 among which 32,010 potential vector of yellow fever; all these mosquitoes were analysed for arbovirology. In the south-western part of the country (region of Bobo-Dioulasso), surveillance was conducted each year from August to November, whilst the circulation of Aedes-borne arboviruses is well known to be favoured. In 1983, 1984 and 1986, seven strains of yellow fever virus were isolated in circumstances remarkably similar. They came from selvatic areas and never from the town. They concerned only Aedes (Stegomyia) luteocephalus which is the very predominant potential vector of yellow fever in the region. They were obtained in low figure, between 1 and 4 per year. They occurred from 27th of October to 21th of November. These observations confirm that the southern portion of the Sudan savanna zone of West Africa is the setting of a customary circulation of yellow fever virus and therefore belongs to the endemic emergence zone. In 1986, two strains of dengue 2 virus were isolated. One concerned Ae. luteocephalus from the selvatic area, the other Ae. (St.) aegypti from the heart of town. These data suggest two distinct cycles for dengue 2 virus, one urban and one selvatic, which could coexist simultaneously in the same region. In the south-eastern part of the country (region of Fada-N'Gourma) a yellow fever epidemic occurred between September and December 1983; its study has enable to precise their entomological aspects. The entomological inoculation rate of yellow fever virus has been evaluated to 22 infected bites per man during the month of october, for a man living close to forest gallery. 25 strains of yellow fever virus strains was isolated from Ae. (Diceromyia

  5. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  7. An epidemiological study of avian influenza A (H5) virus in nomadic ducks and their raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shamim; Khan, Salah Uddin; Mikolon, Andrea; Rahman, Mohammad Ziaur; Abedin, Jaynal; Zeidner, Nord; Sturm-Ramirez, Katherine; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-05-01

    In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype. The median age of the ducks was 24 months (range: 8-36 months) and the median flock size was 300 ducks (range: 105-1100). Of 1860 egg yolk samples, 556 (30%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 28-32) were positive for antibodies against H5 and 58 flocks (94%) had at least one egg with H5-specific antibodies. Of 496 fecal samples, 121 (24%, 95% CI: 22-29) had detectable influenza A RNA. Thirty-three flocks (53%) had at least one fecal sample positive for influenza A RNA. Nomadic ducks in Bangladesh are commonly infected with avian influenza A (H5) virus and may serve as a bridging host for transmission of avian influenza A (H5) virus or other avian influenza A viruses subtypes between wild waterfowl, backyard poultry, and humans in Bangladesh. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L M; Strecker, Thomas; Cadar, Daniel; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Faber, Kelly; Patel, Ketan; Brown, Shelley M; Davis, William G; Klena, John D; Rollin, Pierre E; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Noack, Bernd; Emmerich, Petra; Rieger, Toni; Wolff, Svenja; Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Eickmann, Markus; Mengel, Jan Philipp; Schultze, Tilman; Hain, Torsten; Ampofo, William; Bonney, Kofi; Aryeequaye, Juliana Naa Dedei; Ribner, Bruce; Varkey, Jay B; Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall; Kann, Gerrit; De Leuw, Philipp; Schuettfort, Gundolf; Stephan, Christoph; Wieland, Ulrike; Fries, Jochen W U; Kochanek, Matthias; Kraft, Colleen S; Wolf, Timo; Nichol, Stuart T; Becker, Stephan; Ströher, Ute; Günther, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo.

  9. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L.M.; Strecker, Thomas; Cadar, Daniel; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Faber, Kelly; Patel, Ketan; Brown, Shelley M.; Davis, William G.; Klena, John D.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Noack, Bernd; Emmerich, Petra; Rieger, Toni; Wolff, Svenja; Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Eickmann, Markus; Mengel, Jan Philipp; Schultze, Tilman; Hain, Torsten; Ampofo, William; Bonney, Kofi; Aryeequaye, Juliana Naa Dedei; Ribner, Bruce; Varkey, Jay B.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Lyon, G. Marshall; Kann, Gerrit; De Leuw, Philipp; Schuettfort, Gundolf; Stephan, Christoph; Wieland, Ulrike; Fries, Jochen W.U.; Kochanek, Matthias; Kraft, Colleen S.; Wolf, Timo; Nichol, Stuart T.; Becker, Stephan; Ströher, Ute

    2018-01-01

    We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo. PMID:29460758

  10. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for

  11. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  12. Ebola virus - epidemiology, diagnosis, and control: threat to humans, lessons learnt, and preparedness plans - an update on its 40 year's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Khandia, Rekha; Tiwari, Ruchi; Munjal, Ashok; Saminathan, Mani; Sachan, Swati; Desingu, Perumal Arumugam; Kattoor, Jobin Jose; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Joshi, Sunil Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. For curbing the disease timely, we need effective therapeutics/prophylactics, however, in the absence of any approved vaccine, timely diagnosis and monitoring of EBOV remains of utmost importance. The technologically advanced vaccines like a viral-vectored vaccine, DNA vaccine and virus-like particles are underway for testing against EBOV. In the absence of any effective control measure, the adaptation of high standards of biosecurity measures, strict sanitary and hygienic practices, strengthening of surveillance and monitoring systems, imposing appropriate quarantine checks and vigilance on trade, transport, and movement of visitors from EVD endemic countries remains the answer of choice for tackling the EBOV spread. Herein, we converse with the current scenario of EBOV giving due emphasis on animal and veterinary perspectives along with advances in diagnosis and control strategies to be adopted, lessons learned from the recent outbreaks and the global preparedness plans. To retrieve the evolutionary information, we have analyzed a total of 56 genome sequences of various EBOV species submitted between 1976 and 2016 in public databases.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, and drug consumption in South America and the Caribbean: epidemiological evidence and initiatives to curb the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mariana A; Malta, Monica; Enriquez, Melissa; Bastos, Francisco I

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews data on drug use in relation to the spread of human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS in South America and the Caribbean. Information was gathered by thoroughly reviewing major bibliographic databanks, web sites of international institutions and regional networks working with substance misuse or human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS, and abstracts from conferences and meetings. Although some gaps remain, a growing body of evidence documents the significant role of injected cocaine in the Brazilian and Southern Cone epidemics. The Caribbean and the Andean areas have thus far been spared in large part from the spread of injection drug use and its consequences, but the situation has been changing in Southern Cone countries towards a higher prevalence of harmful injection habits. Additional challenges have been posed by the increasing availability of heroin in the Andean Area and the abuse of crack cocaine and its impact on the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in many cities. Harm reduction strategies have been established in most areas of Brazil and are gaining momentum in Argentina. Other countries in the Region still face serious limitations due to restrictive legislation and lack of broader support. Greater participation of Latin American and Caribbean countries in research protocols and continued debate on both successful and failed experiences should be encouraged in order to minimize existing barriers to the full adoption of effective measures to curb the human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS epidemic in this Region.

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection epidemiology among people who inject drugs in Europe: a systematic review of data for scaling up treatment and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Grady, Bart; Kantzanou, Maria; Sperle, Ida; Cullen, Katelyn J.; Hatzakis, Angelos; Prins, Maria; Vickerman, Peter; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Hope, Vivian D.; Matheï, Catharina; Busch, Martin; Bollaerts, Kaat; Bogdanova, Violeta; Nesheva, Elmira; Fotsiou, Nasia; Kostrikis, Leontios; Mravčík, Viktor; Řehák, Vratislav; Částková, Jitka; Hobstová, Jiřina; Nechanská, Blanka; Fouchard, Jan; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Tefanova, Valentina; Tallo, Tatjana; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki; Brisacier, Anne-Claire; Michot, Isabelle; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Zimmermann, Ruth; Fotiou, Anastasios; Gazdag, Gábor; Tarján, Anna; Galvin, Brian; Garavan, Carrie; Thornton, Lelia; Cruciani, Mario; Basso, Monica; Karnīte, Anda; Caplinskiene, Irma; Lopes, Sofia; Origer, Alain; Melillo, Jackie; Camilleri, Moses; Demanuele, Carlo Olivari; Croes, Esther; Op de Coul, Eline; Rosińska, Magdalena; Struzik, Marta; Martins, Mário; Duran, Domingos; Vilar, Graça; Resende, Maria Emília; Martins, Helena Cortes; Abagiu, Adrian Octavian; Ruta, Simona; Arama, Victoria; Kopilovic, Boris; Kustec, Tanja; Klavs, Irena; Aleixandre, Noelia Llorens; Folch, Cinta; Bravo, Maria Jose; Gómez, Rosario Sendino; Berglund, Torsten; Strandberg, Joakim; Hope, Vivian; Hotho, Daphne; van Houdt, Sabine; Low, Andrea; Mcdonald, Bethan; Platt, Lucy; Kalamara, Eleni; Giraudon, Isabelle; Groshkova, Teodora; Palladino, Claudia; Hutchinson, Sharon; Ncube, Fortune; Eramova, Irina; Goldberg, David; Vicente, Julian; Griffiths, Paul

    2014-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment options are improving and may enhance prevention; however access for PWID may be poor. The availability in the literature of information on seven main topic areas (incidence, chronicity, genotypes, HIV

  15. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus: Recent Emergence of Distinct Sub-lineages of the Dominant Genotype 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Williams

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent increased activity of the mosquito-borne Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV in Australia has renewed concerns regarding its potential to spread and cause disease.To better understand the genetic relationships between earlier and more recent circulating strains, patterns of virus movement, as well as the molecular basis of MVEV evolution, complete pre-membrane (prM and Envelope (Env genes were sequenced from sixty-six MVEV strains from different regions of the Australasian region, isolated over a sixty year period (1951-2011. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that, of the four recognized genotypes, only G1 and G2 are contemporary. G1 viruses were dominant over the sampling period and found across the known geographic range of MVEV. Two distinct sub-lineages of G1 were observed (1A and 1B. Although G1B strains have been isolated from across mainland Australia, Australian G1A strains have not been detected outside northwest Australia. Similarly, G2 is comprised of only Western Australian isolates from mosquitoes, suggesting G1B and G2 viruses have geographic or ecological restrictions. No evidence of recombination was found and a single amino acid substitution in the Env protein (S332G was found to be under positive selection, while several others were found to be under directional evolution. Evolutionary analyses indicated that extant genotypes of MVEV began to diverge from a common ancestor approximately 200 years ago. G2 was the first genotype to diverge, followed by G3 and G4, and finally G1, from which subtypes G1A and G1B diverged between 1964 and 1994.The results of this study provides new insights into the genetic diversity and evolution of MVEV. The demonstration of co-circulation of all contemporary genetic lineages of MVEV in northwestern Australia, supports the contention that this region is the enzootic focus for this virus.

  16. Epidemiological and ornithological aspects of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 of Asian lineage in wild birds in Germany, 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globig, A; Staubach, C; Beer, M; Köppen, U; Fiedler, W; Nieburg, M; Wilking, H; Starick, E; Teifke, J P; Werner, O; Unger, F; Grund, C; Wolf, C; Roost, H; Feldhusen, F; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T C; Harder, T C

    2009-04-01

    In Germany, two distinct episodes of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1) in wild birds occurred at the beginning of 2006, and in summer 2007. High local densities of wild bird populations apparently sparked clinically detectable outbreaks. However, these remained restricted in (i) number of birds, (ii) species found to be affected, (iii) time, and (iv) location despite the presence of several hundred thousands of susceptible wild birds and further stressors (food shortage, harsh weather conditions and moulting). Northern and southern subpopulations of several migratory anseriform species can be distinguished with respect to their preference for wintering grounds in Germany. This corroborates viral genetic data by Starick et al. (2008) demonstrating the introduction of two geographically restricted virus subpopulations of Qinghai-like lineage (cluster 2.2.A and 2.2.B) into northern and southern Germany, respectively, in 2006. The incursion of virus emerging in 2007, found to be distinct from the clusters detected in 2006 (Starick et al., 2008), may have been associated with moulting movements. Intensive past-outbreak investigations with negative results of live and dead wild birds and of terrestrial scavengers excluded continued circulation of virus on a larger scale. However, persistence of virus in small pockets of local wild bird populations could not be ruled out resiliently. 1.5% of investigated sera originating from cats sampled at the epicentres of the Ruegen 2006-outbreak contained H5-antibodies. Passive monitoring was found to be highly superior to live bird surveillance when aiming at the detection of HPAIV H5N1 in wild birds (P < 0.0001).

  17. Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II in French Guiana: clinical and molecular epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazanji Mirdad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We review here the epidemiological studies performed by our group on human retrovirus HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections and the associated diseases in French Guiana since 1984. French Guiana is an overseas French administrative district located between Brazil and Surinam. Its population is characterized by a large variety of ethnic groups, including several populations of African origin and various populations of Amerindian origin. Several epidemiological studies of large samples of pregnant women and in remote villages showed that HTLV-I is highly endemic in this area but is restricted to groups of African origin, especially the Noir-Marrons. In this endemic population, the results of segregation analysis in a genetic epidemiological study were consistent with the presence of a dominant major gene predisposing to HTLV-I infection, especially in children. In contrast, HTLV-II infection appears to be rare in French Guiana, having been found in only a few individuals of Brazilian origin. From a molecular point of view, the HTLV-I strains present in the Noir-Marrons, Creoles and Amerindians appear to originate from Africa, as they belong to the large cosmopolitan molecular subtype A.

  18. Lactato de sódio, nisina e sua combinação na validade comercial da linguiça Toscana embalada a vácuo e estocada a 4°C

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Rafael Xavier Araújo; José,Kelly Fernanda Campos; Franco,Robson Maia; Silva,Teófilo José Pimentel da

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a validade comercial de quatro formulações de linguiça toscana (Controle - sem adição de aditivo, F1 - adicionada de 3% de lactato de sódio, F2 - adicionada de 0,5% de nisina e F3 - adicionada de 3% de lactato de sódio e 0,5% de nisina). As amostras foram distribuídas em sacos de polietileno contendo 200 gramas para cada formulação e dia de estocagem, para posteriores análises bacteriológicas e físico-químicas. Todas as formulações foram embaladas a vácuo e...

  19. Emergence and epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the American Desert Southwest, and development of host plant resistance in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermantel, William M; Gilbertson, Robert L; Natwick, Eric T; McCreight, James D

    2017-09-15

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Sonoran Desert region of the southwestern USA in 2006 and has become well established. Symptoms induced by CYSDV infection include a striking interveinal chlorosis or yellowing and reduced yield and quality. The virus is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, and the cryptic species MEAM1 has been present in the region since the early 1990s. CYSDV has now become the most economically important of the viruses affecting cucurbit production in the southwestern US. Here, we present a review of recent studies on CYSDV in the southwestern US, with implications for management of this virus throughout the world. Field surveys have established that CYSDV results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become infected shortly after emergence due to high B. tabaci populations and abundant sources of inoculum. Studies have also demonstrated that CYSDV has an extensive host range among crops and weeds prevalent in the region. Recent studies demonstrated considerable variation in virus accumulation and transmission rates among the host plants evaluated as potential reservoirs. Cucurbit hosts had the highest CYSDV titers, were efficient sources for virus acquisition, and showed a positive correlation between titer in source plants and transmission to cucurbit plants. Non-cucurbit hosts had significantly lower CYSDV titers and varied in their capacity to serve as sources for transmission. Experiments demonstrated that multiple factors influence the efficiency with which a host plant species will be a reservoir for vector transmission of CYSDV to crops. Melon PI 313970 was identified as a new source of host plant resistance to CYSDV, in addition to the previously identified TGR 1551 (=PI 482420) and TGR 1937 (=PI 482431). Potential new sources of CYSDV resistance were identified by field screening of ca. 500 melon accessions with naturally occurring

  20. Epidemiological study of border disease virus infection in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) after an outbreak of disease in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Hurtado, Ana; Lavín, Santiago

    2008-02-05

    In 2001 and 2002, an outbreak of a previously unreported disease, associated with a border disease virus (BDV), caused high mortality in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) population in the Alt Pallars-Aran National Hunting Reserve in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain). Between 2002 and 2006, sera and/or tissue samples taken from 116 healthy chamois shot during the hunting season, plus 42 from chamois affected by different diseases, were studied. A blocking enzyme-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to study pestivirus seroprevalence in 114 healthy hunted and 31 diseased chamois, yielding positive results in 73.7 and 22.6% of the chamois, respectively. Comparative virus neutralization tests (VNT) performed on 42 seropositive samples with 6 pestivirus strains yielded statistically higher titres to BDV Spain 97, followed by BDV chamois, BDV 137/4, BDV Moredun, Bovine Diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1) NADL and BVDV-2 atypical. Virological investigations for pestivirus detection were performed using an antigen ELISA test in 82 healthy and 18 diseased chamois, RT-PCR in 16 healthy and in all diseased chamois, and virus isolation in 14 diseased chamois. No viral antigen was detected in any of the healthy animals. A pestivirus, characterized as BDV by monoclonal antibodies, was detected in the 10 chamois showing clinical signs consistent with BDV infection. Sequence analysis in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. In the remaining chamois, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, pneumonia, trauma and contagious ecthyma were diagnosed. The cause of death was unknown in five chamois. The results suggest that the infection has become endemic in the population and that it could have a significant impact on chamois population dynamics.

  1. Epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 infections in southwestern Finland during a 10-year period (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortekangas-Savolainen, Outi; Orhanen, Elina; Puodinketo, Teemu; Vuorinen, Tytti

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the proportion of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in genital infections during a 10-year period (2003-2012) among outpatients of a clinic of sexually transmitted disease in Southwestern Finland. We analyzed prospectively the proportion of HSV-1- or HSV-2-positive culture samples from our sexually transmitted disease clinic outpatients with genital herpes infection during the years 2003 to 2012 and compared the proportions of positive HSV-1 and HSV-2 findings with the age and sex of the patients. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was typed in 66.4% (557/839) and HSV-1 in 33.6% (282/839) of the patients during the entire study period. The mean age of male patients (26.3 years) with a laboratory-confirmed HSV-1 infection was significantly lower than that in male patients with an HSV-2 infection in 2003 to 2007 (26.3 vs. 32.9 years), with P Herpes simplex virus type 2 was still the most common causative agent of genital herpes in Southwestern Finland, but the proportion of HSV-1 was increasingly high. The age difference between male patients with HSV-1 and HSV-2 narrowed during the years studied.

  2. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses detected in Europe during season 2007-8 had epidemiologic and clinical characteristics similar to co-circulating susceptible A(H1N1) viruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancio B.C.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Kramarz, P.; Bonmarin, I.; Borgen, K.; Boucher, C.A.; Buchholz, U.; Buda, S.; Dijkstra, F.; Dudman, S.; Duwe, S.; Hauge, S.H.; Hungnes, O.; Meijer, A.; Mossong, J.; Paget, W.J.; Phin, N.; Sande, M. van der; Schweiger, B.; Nicoll, A.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2007-08 influenza season, high levels of oseltamivir resistance were detected among influenza A(H1N1) viruses in a number of European countries. We used surveillance data to describe influenza A(H1N1) cases for whom antiviral resistance testing was performed. We pooled data from national

  3. Epidemiología de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis B en dos poblaciones del departamento del Magdalena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando De La Hoz

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1989 se llevó a cabo una encuesta de seroprevalencia de infección por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB en dos poblaciones del departamento del Magdalena (costa norte de Colombia: Cerro Azul y Varela, las cuales presentaban historia reciente de casos de hepatitis fulminante (HF causada por co y sobre infección del virus de la hepatitis Delta (VHD en portadores del antígeno de superficie del VHB (HBsAg. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, en la población con mayor número de casos fulminantes, Cerro Azul,la infección por VHB empieza desde la infancia temprana, probablemente por transmisión horizontal y alrededor de los 15 años, ya la mitad de la población ha sido infectada por VHB. En ella los principales factores asociados con la infección fueron: la carencia de un sistema de disposición de excretas, el hacinamiento y el antecedente de algún familiar muerto por Hepatitis. En la segunda población, Varela, menos afectada por la hepatitis fulminante, la infección por VHB ocurre a edades mas tardías: desde los 15 años en adelante, y alrededor de los 30 años, la mitad de la población ha sido infectada por este virus. En ella los factores que hallamos asociados a la infección por VHB son; el sexo masculino, la carencia de un sistema de eliminación de excretas, el antecedente de transfusión sanguínea y la aplicación de medicamentos parenterales ambulatorios.

  4. Re-emergence of Rift Valley fever virus in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002-2003: identification of new vectors and epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Y; Sall, A A; Diallo, D; Mondo, M; Girault, L; Dia, I; Diallo, M

    2012-09-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a threat that must not be neglected, as the consequences of RVFV are dramatic, both for human and animal health. This virus is a zoonotic virus that already has demonstrated a real capacity for re-emerging after long periods of silence, as observed in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002. In this article we present the 2nd emergence in Barkedji after the 1st manifestation in 1993, and for the 1st time the circulation of RVFV during 2 consecutive years among mosquito populations in Senegal. As part of the entomological surveillance program undertaken since 1990 to detect circulation of the RVFV in Barkedji, 108,336 mosquitoes belonging to 34 species and 5 genera were collected in 2002-2003. Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes, previously known to be vectors of RVFV in Senegal, comprised 88.7% of the total collection. In 2002, Ae. vexans was the most abundant mosquito, followed by Cx. poicilipes; the opposite situation was observed in 2003. In 2002, 29 and 10 RVFV isolates were obtained from Cx. poicilipes (minimum infection rate [MIR] = 0.13%) and Ae. vexans (MIR = 0.02%) pools, respectively and the MIR for the 2 species were significantly different (chi2 = 34.65; df = 1, P < 0.001). In 2003, 7 RVFV strains were isolated from Cx. poicilipes (3, MIR = 0.03), Mansonia africana (2, MIR = 0.08), Ae. fowleri (1), and Ma. uniformis (1, MIR = 0.05). The 3 latter species were found to be associated with RVFV for the 1st time in Senegal. A significant decrease in MIR was observed from 2002 to 2003 (chi2 6.28; df = 1, P = 0.01) for Cx. poicilipes, the only species involved in the transmission during the 2 sampling years.

  5. Ebola Virus Disease: An Update on Epidemiology, Symptoms, Laboratory Findings, Diagnostic Issues, and Infection Prevention and Control Issues for Laboratory Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin S; Mepham, Stephen; Shorten, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    The 2014 to 2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD), through the sheer size of the outbreak and combined experience within both resource-rich and resource-poor settings, allowed for more information to be gained about the clinical and pathologic features of EVD. This review highlights the range of aspects of EVD that the authors find are relevant to laboratory medicine, including the need for robust prediagnostic and laboratory processing algorithms to inform sampling of suspect patients, the vast majority of whom, in resource-rich settings, will have another diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...

  7. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy......Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...

  8. Lessons from the epidemiological surveillance program, during the influenza A (H1N1 virus epidemic, in a reference university hospital of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Moretti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The case definition of influenza-like illness (ILI is a powerful epidemiological tool during influenza epidemics. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of two definitions used as epidemiological tools, in adults and children, during the influenza A H1N1 epidemic. Patients were included if they had upper respiratory samples tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction during two periods, using the ILI definition (coughing + temperature > 38ºC in period 1, and the definition of severe acute respiratory infection (ARS (coughing + temperature > 38ºC and dyspnoea in period 2. RESULTS: The study included 366 adults and 147 children, covering 243 cases of ILI and 270 cases of ARS. Laboratory confirmed cases of influenza were higher in adults (50% than in children (21.6% ( p < 0.0001 and influenza infection was more prevalent in the ILI definition (53% than ARS (24.4% (p < 0.0001. Adults reported more chills and myalgia than children (p = 0.0001. Oseltamivir was administered in 58% and 46% of adults and children with influenza A H1N1, respectively. The influenza A H1N1 case fatality rate was 7% in adults and 8.3% in children. The mean time from onset of illness until antiviral administration was 4 days. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of ILI to ARS definition resulted in less accuracy in influenza diagnosis and did not improve the appropriate time and use of antiviral medication.

  9. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  10. Epidemiology of Ebola virus disease transmission among health care workers in Sierra Leone, May to December 2014: a retrospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olu, Olushayo; Kargbo, Brima; Kamara, Sarian; Wurie, Alie H; Amone, Jackson; Ganda, Louisa; Ntsama, Bernard; Poy, Alain; Kuti-George, Fredson; Engedashet, Etsub; Worku, Negusu; Cormican, Martin; Okot, Charles; Yoti, Zabulon; Kamara, Kande-Bure; Chitala, Kennedy; Chimbaru, Alex; Kasolo, Francis

    2015-10-13

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that much of the continuing infection of health care workers (HCWs) with Ebola virus during the current outbreak in Sierra Leone has occurred in settings other than Ebola isolation units, and it is likely that some proportion of acquisition by HCWs occurs outside the workplace. There is a critical need to define more precisely the pathways of Ebola infection among HCWs, to optimise measures for reducing risk during current and future outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of Ebola acquisition among health workers in Sierra Leone during May-December 2014. The data used were obtained mainly from the national Ebola database, a cross-sectional survey conducted through administration of a structured questionnaire to infected HCWs, and key informant interviews of select health stakeholders. A total of 293 HCWs comprising 277 (95 %) confirmed, 6 (2 %) probable, and 10 (3 %) suspected cases of infection with Ebola virus were enrolled in the study from nine districts of the country. Over half of infected HCWs (153) were nurses; others included laboratory staff (19, 6.5 %), doctors (9, 3.1 %), cleaners and porters (9, 3.1 %), Community Health Officers (8, 2.7 %), and pharmacists (2, 0.7 %). HCW infections were mainly reported from the Western Area (24.9 %), Kailahun (18.4 %), Kenema (17.7 %), and Bombali (13.3 %) districts. Almost half of the infected HCWs (120, 47.4 %) believed that their exposure occurred in a hospital setting. Others believed that they were exposed in the home (48, 19 %), at health centres (45, 17.8 %), or at other types of health facilities (13, 5.1 %). Only 27 (10.7 %) of all HCW infections were associated with Ebola virus disease (EVD) isolation units. Over half (60 %, 150) of infected HCWs said they had been trained in infection prevention and control prior to their infection, whereas 34 % (85) reported that they had not been so trained. This study demonstrated the perception that most HCW infections are

  11. Molecular Epidemiology and Strain Comparison between Hepatitis E Viruses in Human Sera and Pig Livers during 2014 to 2016 in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Martin C W; Kwok, Kirsty; Hung, Tin-Nok; Chan, Paul K S

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is considered an emerging foodborne pathogen in developed countries in which it was previously not endemic. To investigate genetic association between human HEV infection and HEV-contaminated high-risk food in Hong Kong, we compared local virus strains obtained from hepatitis E patient sera with those surveyed from high-risk food items during 2014 to 2016. Twenty-four cases of laboratory-confirmed human HEV infections were identified from January 2014 to March 2016 in our hospitals. Five types of food items at risk of HEV contamination were purchased on a biweekly basis from April 2014 to March 2016 in two local market settings: supermarkets (lamb, oyster, and pig liver) and wet markets (oyster, pig blood curd, pig large intestine, and pig liver). HEV RNA detection was performed by a real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay. HEV RNA was detected in pig liver, pig intestine, and oyster samples with prevalences of 1.5%, 0.4%, and 0.2%, respectively. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic inference showed that all human and swine HEV strains belonged to genotype 4. HEV subtype distributions in humans and swine were highly comparable: subtype 4b predominated, while subtype 4d was the minority. Local human and swine HEV genotype 4 strains shared over 95% nucleotide identity and were genetically very similar, implicating swine as an important foodborne source of autochthonous human HEV infections in Hong Kong. Action should be taken to raise the awareness among public and health care professionals of hepatitis E as an emerging foodborne disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Spatial characteristics and the epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9 virus in five waves from 2013 to 2017 in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haocheng Wu

    Full Text Available The five-wave epidemic of H7N9 in China emerged in the second half of 2016. This study aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics among the five waves, estimating the possible infected cases and inferring the extent of the possible epidemic in the areas that have not reported cases before.The data for the H7N9 cases from Zhejiang Province between 2013 and 2017 was obtained from the China Information Network System of Disease Prevention and Control. The start date of each wave was 16 March 2013, 1 July 2013, 1 July 2014, 1 July 2015 and 1 July 2016. The F test or Pearson's chi-square test were used to compare the characteristics of the five waves. Global and local autocorrelation analysis was carried out to identify spatial autocorrelations. Ordinary kriging interpolation was analyzed to estimate the number of human infections with H7N9 virus and to infer the extent of infections in the areas with no cases reported before.There were 45, 94, 45, 34 and 80 cases identified from the first wave to the fifth, respectively. The death rate was significantly different among the five waves of epidemics (χ2 = 10.784, P = 0.029. The age distribution (F = 0.903, P = 0.462, gender (χ2 = 2.674, P = 0.614 and occupation(χ2 = 19.764, P = 0.407 were similar in each period. Most of the cases were males and farmers. A significant trend (χ2 = 70.328, P<0.001 was identified that showed a growing proportion of rural cases. There were 31 high-high clusters and 3 high-low clusters at the county level among the five waves and 12, 8, 2, 9 and 3 clusters in each wave, respectively. The total cases infected with the H7N9 virus were far more than those that have been reported now, and the affected areas continue to expand. The epidemic in the north of Zhejiang Province persisted in all five waves. Since the second wave, the virus spread to the south areas and central areas. There was an obvious decline in the infected cases in the urban areas, and the epidemics

  13. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in injection drug users in Argentina: high seroprevalence of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Estáni, Sergio; Rossi, Diana; Weissenbacher, Mercedes

    2003-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compile published data and to describe the prevalences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs) in different populations studied in Argentina from 1987 through 1999. Twenty-two studies of HIV infection in the IDU population were selected, and 6 subject groups were defined: outpatients, prisoners, children in rehabilitation institutes, hospitalized patients, IDUs receiving drug treatment, and female sex workers. The median prevalence of HIV infection among 1506 outpatients (5 studies) was 64.0%; among 175 prisoners (1 study), the prevalence was 35.4%; among 446 children in rehabilitation institutes (4 studies), the prevalence was 48.1%; among 136 hospitalized patients (2 studies), the prevalence was 49.5%; among 2708 IDUs receiving drug treatment (7 studies), the prevalence was 39.0%; and among 26 female sex workers (2 studies), the prevalence was 47.0%. Prevalence of HIV infection was high among IDUs in Argentina, ranging from 27% to 80%.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus among the indigenous population of the Curuçá and Itaquaí Rivers, Javari Valley, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Kimura, Lucinete Okamura

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most serious public health problems in the world. In Brazil, HBV endemicity is heterogeneous, with the highest disease prevalence in the North region. A total of 180 samples were analyzed and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and semi-nested PCR of the HBV S-gene, with the aim of determining the prevalence of HBV-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in indigenous groups inhabiting the areas near the Curuçá and Itaquaí Rivers in the Javari Valley, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The prevalence of the HBV-DNA S-gene was 51.1% (92/180). The analysis found 18 of 49 (36.7%) samples from the Marubo tribe, 68 of 125 (54.4%) from the Kanamary, and 6 of 6 (100%) from other ethnic groups to be PCR positive. There was no statistically significant difference in gender at 5% (p=0.889). Indigenous people with positive PCR for HBV-DNA had a lower median age (pValley, making it important to devise strategies for control and more effective prevention in combating the spread of HBV.

  15. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Central China since 2014: The prevalence of NADC30-like PRRSVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jian; Xie, Weitao; Chen, Xin-Xin; Qiao, Songlin; Zhao, Mengmeng; Gu, Yu; Zhao, Bao-Lei; Zhang, Gaiping

    2017-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by respiratory disorders in piglets and reproductive failure in sows, is still the great threat of swine industry. Recently, Emergence of the novel NADC30-like PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) has caused widespread outbreaks of PRRS. To investigate the epidemic characteristics of PRRSVs in Central China since 2014, 6372 clinical serum samples were tested by ELISA, 250 tissue samples were tested by RT-PCR, and among these, 30 ORF5 and 17 Nsp2 genes sequences were analyzed. Phylogenetic tree based on ORF5 revealed that, 17 isolates were clustered into subgroup 1, represented by the NADC30. And for the Nsp2, The strains which had a discontinuous 131-amino-acid deletion in Nsp2, called NADC30-like strains, were clustered into subgroup 2. Our data suggested that the NADC30-like PRRSV strains spread quickly and are now circulating and prevalent in Central China as well as the classical HP-PRRSV strains. In addition, amino acid variation analysis of GP5 revealed that the amino acid sequences of NADC30-like PRRSV strains underwent rapid evolution and contained extensive amino acid substitutions in important motifs, such as potential neutralization epitope and the N-glycosylation sites. In summary, our data would provide a large amount of detailed information on molecular variation and genetic diversity of PRRSV in central China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Novel Nsp2 deletion based on molecular epidemiology and evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Shandong Province from 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Qin, Li-Ting; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xing; Sun, Na; Yang, Yong; Chen, Ting; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ren, Jing-Qiang; Sun, Ying-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine disease affecting swine worldwide. In this study, a total of 385 samples were collected from Shandong pig farms during 2013 and 2014, when pigs were not inoculated with any vaccine. Results indicated that, out of 385 samples, 47 (12.21%) were PRRSV-RNA-positive. The gene sequence analysis of 12 ORF5, 12 ORF7, and 8 Nsp2 of these samples was used to determine the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV in different parts of China's Shandong Province. The phylogenetic tree based on these 3 genes indicated that the Chinese PRRSV strains could be divided into five subgroups and two large groups. The 8 study strains were clustered into subgroup IV, another 4 strains into subgroup I. The first 8 strains shared considerable homology with VR-2332 in ORF5 (96-97.5%), the other 4 strains shared considerable homology with JXA1 (94-98%). Phylogenetic tree of GP5 showed that the eight isolates formed a tightly novel clustered branch, subgroup V, which resembled but differed from isolate VR-2332. When examined using Nsp2 alone, the first 8 strains showed considerable homology with a U.S. vaccine strain, Ingelvac MLV (89.6-98.4%). One novel pattern of deletion was observed in Nsp2. The genetic diversity of genotype 2 PRRSV tended to vary in the field. The emergence of novel variants will probably be the next significant branch of PRRSV study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus among the indigenous population of the Curuçá and Itaquaí Rivers, Javari Valley, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóvão Alves da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is one of the most serious public health problems in the world. In Brazil, HBV endemicity is heterogeneous, with the highest disease prevalence in the North region. METHODS: A total of 180 samples were analyzed and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR and semi-nested PCR of the HBV S-gene, with the aim of determining the prevalence of HBV-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid in indigenous groups inhabiting the areas near the Curuçá and Itaquaí Rivers in the Javari Valley, State of Amazonas, Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of the HBV-DNA S-gene was 51.1% (92/180. The analysis found 18 of 49 (36.7% samples from the Marubo tribe, 68 of 125 (54.4% from the Kanamary, and 6 of 6 (100% from other ethnic groups to be PCR positive. There was no statistically significant difference in gender at 5% (p=0.889. Indigenous people with positive PCR for HBV-DNA had a lower median age (p<0.001 of 23 years. There was no statistical difference found in relation to sources of contamination or clinical aspects with the PCR results, except for fever (p<0.001. The high prevalence of HBV-DNA of 75% (15/20 in pregnant women (p=0.009 demonstrates an association with vertical transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the high prevalence of HBV-DNA in the Javari Valley, making it important to devise strategies for control and more effective prevention in combating the spread of HBV.

  19. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (pbiochemistry. Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect of alcohol intake on AST. HBV infection was slightly associated with ALP but not with other liver biochemistry parameters.

  20. Hepatitis B virus infection in Haemodialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Predictive risk factors for infection and molecular epidemiology

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    Bassit Leda C

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients under haemodialysis are considered at high risk to acquire hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Since few data are reported from Brazil, our aim was to assess the frequency and risk factors for HBV infection in haemodialysis patients from 22 Dialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, south of Brazil. Methods This study includes 813 patients, 149 haemodialysis workers and 772 healthy controls matched by sex and age. Serum samples were assayed for HBV markers and viraemia was detected by nested PCR. HBV was genotyped by partial S gene sequencing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses with stepwise logistic regression analysis were carried out to analyse the relationship between HBV infection and the characteristics of patients and their Dialysis Units. Results Frequency of HBV infection was 10.0%, 2.7% and 2.7% among patients, haemodialysis workers and controls, respectively. Amidst patients, the most frequent HBV genotypes were A (30.6%, D (57.1% and F (12.2%. Univariate analysis showed association between HBV infection and total time in haemodialysis, type of dialysis equipment, hygiene and sterilization of equipment, number of times reusing the dialysis lines and filters, number of patients per care-worker and current HCV infection. The logistic regression model showed that total time in haemodialysis, number of times of reusing the dialysis lines and filters, and number of patients per worker were significantly related to HBV infection. Conclusions Frequency of HBV infection among haemodialysis patients at Santa Catarina state is very high. The most frequent HBV genotypes were A, D and F. The risk for a patient to become HBV positive increase 1.47 times each month of haemodialysis; 1.96 times if the dialysis unit reuses the lines and filters ≥ 10 times compared with haemodialysis units which reuse

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection in Haemodialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Predictive risk factors for infection and molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Flair J; Moraes, Cleusa R; Pinho, João R R; Mello, Isabel M V G C; Bertolini, Dennis A; Lemos, Marcílio F; Moreira, Regina C; Bassit, Leda C; Cardoso, Rita A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Gabriela; Da Silva, Luiz C

    2004-04-27

    Patients under haemodialysis are considered at high risk to acquire hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Since few data are reported from Brazil, our aim was to assess the frequency and risk factors for HBV infection in haemodialysis patients from 22 Dialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, south of Brazil. This study includes 813 patients, 149 haemodialysis workers and 772 healthy controls matched by sex and age. Serum samples were assayed for HBV markers and viraemia was detected by nested PCR. HBV was genotyped by partial S gene sequencing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses with stepwise logistic regression analysis were carried out to analyse the relationship between HBV infection and the characteristics of patients and their Dialysis Units. Frequency of HBV infection was 10.0%, 2.7% and 2.7% among patients, haemodialysis workers and controls, respectively. Amidst patients, the most frequent HBV genotypes were A (30.6%), D (57.1%) and F (12.2%). Univariate analysis showed association between HBV infection and total time in haemodialysis, type of dialysis equipment, hygiene and sterilization of equipment, number of times reusing the dialysis lines and filters, number of patients per care-worker and current HCV infection. The logistic regression model showed that total time in haemodialysis, number of times of reusing the dialysis lines and filters, and number of patients per worker were significantly related to HBV infection. Frequency of HBV infection among haemodialysis patients at Santa Catarina state is very high. The most frequent HBV genotypes were A, D and F. The risk for a patient to become HBV positive increase 1.47 times each month of haemodialysis; 1.96 times if the dialysis unit reuses the lines and filters > or = 10 times compared with haemodialysis units which reuse < 10 times; 3.42 times if the number of patients per worker is more than five. Sequence similarity among the HBV S gene from isolates of different patients pointed out

  2. Bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses at the wildlife/domestic interface: an eco-epidemiological framework implemented in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, A; Grosbois, V; Etter, E; Gaidet, N; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2014-12-01

    Wild terrestrial birds can act as potential local spreaders or bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) between waterfowl (the maintenance hosts of AIVs) and domestic avian populations in which AIVs may cause disease. Few studies have investigated this hypothesis, although it is an important knowledge gap in our understanding of AIV spread within socio-ecosystems. We designed a simple and reproducible approach in an agro-ecosystem in Zimbabwe based on: (1) bird counts at key target sites (i.e., wetlands, villages, intensive poultry production buildings and ostrich farms) to identify which wild birds species co-occur in these different sites and seasons when the risk of AIV transmission through these potential bridge hosts is maximal and (2) targeted sampling and testing for AIV infection in the identified potential bridge hosts. We found that 12 wild bird species represented the vast majority (79%) of co-occurrences in the different sites, whereas 230 bird species were recorded in this ecosystem. Specifically, three species - barn swallow, Hirundo rustica, red-billed quelea, Quelea quelea and cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis - represented the main potential bridge host species (65% of co-occurrences). In two out of these three species (i.e., barn swallow and red-billed quelea), we detected AIV infections, confirming that they can play a bridge function between waterfowl and domestic species in the ecosystem. Our approach can be easily implemented in other ecosystems to identify potential bridge hosts, and our results have implications in terms of surveillance, risk management and control of AIV spread in socio-ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistence of attenuated HIV-1 rev alleles in an epidemiologically linked cohort of long-term survivors infected with nef-deleted virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesselingh Steven L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sydney blood bank cohort (SBBC of long-term survivors consists of multiple individuals infected with nef-deleted, attenuated strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Although the cohort members have experienced differing clinical courses and now comprise slow progressors (SP as well as long-term nonprogressors (LTNP, longitudinal analysis of nef/long-terminal repeat (LTR sequences demonstrated convergent nef/LTR sequence evolution in SBBC SP and LTNP. Thus, the in vivo pathogenicity of attenuated HIV-1 strains harboured by SBBC members is dictated by factors other than nef/LTR. Therefore, to determine whether defects in other viral genes contribute to attenuation of these HIV-1 strains, we characterized dominant HIV-1 rev alleles that persisted in 4 SBBC subjects; C18, C64, C98 and D36. Results The ability of Rev derived from D36 and C64 to bind the Rev responsive element (RRE in RNA binding assays was reduced by approximately 90% compared to Rev derived from HIV-1NL4-3, C18 or C98. D36 Rev also had a 50–60% reduction in ability to express Rev-dependent reporter constructs in mammalian cells. In contrast, C64 Rev had only marginally decreased Rev function despite attenuated RRE binding. In D36 and C64, attenuated RRE binding was associated with rare amino acid changes at 3 highly conserved residues; Gln to Pro at position 74 immediately N-terminal to the Rev activation domain, and Val to Leu and Ser to Pro at positions 104 and 106 at the Rev C-terminus, respectively. In D36, reduced Rev function was mapped to an unusual 13 amino acid extension at the Rev C-terminus. Conclusion These findings provide new genetic and mechanistic insights important for Rev function, and suggest that Rev function, not Rev/RRE binding may be rate limiting for HIV-1 replication. In addition, attenuated rev alleles may contribute to viral attenuation and long-term survival of HIV-1 infection in a subset of SBBC members.

  4. Emerged HA and NA Mutants of the Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Viruses with Increasing Epidemiological Significance in Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tsai, Chu-Han; Chu, Kuan-Ying; Chuang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Chang-Chun; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Wu, Ko-Wen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shen, Yea-Huei; Huang, Li-Min; Lee, Ping-Ing; Yang, ChingLai; Compans, Richard; Rouse, Barry T.; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to observe dynamic changes of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of pH1N1 strains that spread in two metropolitan areas -Taipei and Kaohsiung. We observed cumulative increases of amino acid substitutions of both HA and NA that were higher in the post–peak than in the pre-peak period of the epidemic. About 14.94% and 3.44% of 174 isolates had one and two amino acids changes, respective, in the four antigenic sites. One unique adaptive mutation of HA2 (E374K) was first detected three weeks before the epidemic peak. This mutation evolved through the epidemic, and finally emerged as the major circulated strain, with significantly higher frequency in the post-peak period than in the pre-peak (64.65% vs 9.28%, p<0.0001). E374K persisted until ten months post-nationwide vaccination without further antigenic changes (e.g. prior to the highest selective pressure). In public health measures, the epidemic peaked at seven weeks after oseltamivir treatment was initiated. The emerging E374K mutants spread before the first peak of school class suspension, extended their survival in high-density population areas before vaccination, dominated in the second wave of class suspension, and were fixed as herd immunity developed. The tempo-spatial spreading of E374K mutants was more concentrated during the post–peak (p = 0.000004) in seven districts with higher spatial clusters (p<0.001). This is the first study examining viral changes during the naïve phase of a pandemic of influenza through integrated virological/serological/clinical surveillance, tempo-spatial analysis, and intervention policies. The vaccination increased the percentage of E374K mutants (22.86% vs 72.34%, p<0.001) and significantly elevated the frequency of mutations in Sa antigenic site (2.36% vs 23.40%, p<0.001). Future pre-vaccination public health efforts should monitor amino acids of HA and NA of pandemic influenza viruses isolated at

  5. Epidemiology and clinical parameters of adult human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in South eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, Gu; Ele, Pu; Okocha, Ec; Iloduba, Uc

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has continued to ravage the teeming populations in Nigeria, with disastrous consequences. Despite many studies and progress on HIV/AIDS in Africa, the data on the status of the patients at the commencement of therapy is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the demographic, clinical and some laboratory features of adult HIV/AIDS patients, seen at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between July 2002 and October 2004. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Adult patients living with HIV/AIDS were studied using an interview administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1. A total of 400 respondents participated in this study. The mean age was 36.8 (8.8) years. Almost 60% patients were married and the HIV concordance rate was 53.3% (136/255). Nearly 30% of the families had at least one child positive for HIV. The most common associated risky behavior was injection administered in patent medicine stores 74.5%(302/400) and the most common clinical symptom was respiratory. Of the 400 patients recruited in this study, 19 (4.8%) were lost to follow-up on the 6 months' visit, giving a follow-up rate of 95.2% (381/400). There was statistically significant difference in the mean body weight (P = 0.02), mean total white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and mean CD4(+) count (P < 0.001) at presentation and after 6 months of ART therapy. HIV/AIDS patients present late and body weight, CD4(+) count and total white blood cell count seemed to recover quickly on commencement of ART. The prevalence of concordance among couples and mother to child transmission rates tended to be high. Administration of injectable at patent medicine stores and multiple sexual partners are the most significant risk factors.

  6. Viruses of botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of HIV-1 and emerging problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukashov, V. V.; de Ronde, A.; de Jong, J. J.; Goudsmit, J.

    2000-01-01

    Broad use of antiretroviral drugs is becoming a factor that is important to consider for understanding the HIV-1 epidemiology. Since 1993, we observe that a proportion of new infections within major risk groups in Amsterdam is caused by azidothymidine (AZT)-resistant viruses. After the introduction

  8. Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa in the past fifteen years. Overall, 26 hemorrhagic epidemic outbreaks have been registered in 12 countries; 18 caused by the Ebola virus and eight by the Marburg virus. About 2551 cases ...

  9. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  10. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  11. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  12. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. Lactato de sódio, nisina e sua combinação na validade comercial da linguiça Toscana embalada a vácuo e estocada a 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Xavier Araújo Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a validade comercial de quatro formulações de linguiça toscana (Controle - sem adição de aditivo, F1 - adicionada de 3% de lactato de sódio, F2 - adicionada de 0,5% de nisina e F3 - adicionada de 3% de lactato de sódio e 0,5% de nisina. As amostras foram distribuídas em sacos de polietileno contendo 200 gramas para cada formulação e dia de estocagem, para posteriores análises bacteriológicas e físico-químicas. Todas as formulações foram embaladas a vácuo e mantidas sob refrigeração a temperatura de 4°C. Em relação à validade comercial, as amostras foram submetidas às seguintes análises bacteriológicas: contagem de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias mesófilas e psicrotróficas; contagem de bactérias ácido-láticas e contagem de enterobactérias. As análises fisico-químicas realizadas foram: pH, atividade de água e teor de substância reativa ao ácido tiobarbitúrico. Interpretando-se os resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se que a utilização da combinação de 3% de lactato de sódio e 0,5% de nisina, aumentou a validade das amostras, quando comparada às demais.

  14. Ebola Virus Epidemiology and Evolution in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Nigerian 7 infections, shows that the Nigerian EBOV lineage nests within a lineage previously seen in 8 Liberia but is genetically distinct from it, and...identified as part of the viral-ngs pipeline with default minimum read and 21 strand bias filters . 22 23 TR-16-169 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...coverage had more than 1 16 iSNV call that passed our basic filters . 17 18 Phylogenetic tree 19 To better understand the evolutionary

  15. GB virus C epidemiology in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peer B; Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H

    2003-01-01

    children, 9 and 15 years of age (n = 901), blood donors (n = 5,203), hospital employees (n = 1,432), and prisoners and injecting drug users (n = 447). In-house RT-PCR for GBV-CRNA was used together with a commercial ELISA for anti-E2 (Boehringer, Germany). In addition, questionnaires for risk factors...

  16. Epidemiological Patterns of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaleye

    This tends to happen when the immune system is weakened, in situations of stress during a cold or on exposure to strong ultraviolet light, even in people without HIV. ... infected with other bacteria or fungi. An HIV- positive person who has herpes attacks of the skin and/or herpes in the throat of any duration is diagnosed as ...

  17. Evolution and emergence of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Santiago F; Fraile, Aurora; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are common agents of plant infectious diseases. During last decades, worldwide agriculture production has been compromised by a series of epidemics caused by new viruses that spilled over from reservoir species or by new variants of classic viruses that show new pathogenic and epidemiological properties. Virus emergence has been generally associated with ecological change or with intensive agronomical practices. However, the complete picture is much more complex since the viral populations constantly evolve and adapt to their new hosts and vectors. This chapter puts emergence of plant viruses into the framework of evolutionary ecology, genetics, and epidemiology. We will stress that viral emergence begins with the stochastic transmission of preexisting genetic variants from the reservoir to the new host, whose fate depends on their fitness on each hosts, followed by adaptation to new hosts or vectors, and finalizes with an efficient epidemiological spread. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Velez, Jafet; Malaga, Carlos; Wandeler, Alexander I

    2008-01-01

    The mongoose is the principal reservoir for rabies on the island of Puerto Rico. This report describes a molecular epidemiological study of representative rabies viruses recovered from the island in 1997. Two closely related but distinct variants circulating in regionally localised parts of the island were identified. The lack of a monophyletic relationship of these viruses suggests that two independent incursions of rabies onto the island have occurred. Both of these Puerto Rican variants were closely related to a variant, known as the north central skunk strain, currently circulating in North American skunk populations and all are members of the cosmopolitan rabies lineage spread during the colonial period. However, the Puerto Rican viruses are clearly distinct from those presently circulating in mongooses in Cuba and which are epidemiologically closely linked to the Mexican dog rabies virus. This study clearly establishes the distinct origins of the rabies viruses now circulating on these two Caribbean islands.

  19. Hepatitis C virus and human T-lymphotropic virus coinfection: epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and histopathological features Coinfecção vírus da hepatite C-vírus linfotrópico de células T humanas: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, laboratoriais e histopatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Pádua Milagres

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four hepatitis C virus patients coinfected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 were compared with six coinfected with HTLV-2 and 55 with HCV alone, regarding clinical, epidemiological, laboratory and histopathological data. Fischer's discriminant analysis was applied to define functions capable of differentiating between the study groups (HCV, HCV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HTLV-2. The discriminant accuracy was evaluated by cross-validation. Alcohol consumption, use of intravenous drugs or inhaled cocaine and sexual partnership with intravenous drug users were more frequent in the HCV/HTLV-2 group, whereas patients in the HCV group more often reported abdominal pain or a sexual partner with hepatitis. Coinfected patients presented higher platelet counts, but aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels were higher among HCV-infected subjects. No significant difference between the groups was seen regarding liver histopathological findings. Through discriminant analysis, classification functions were defined, including sex, age group, intravenous drug use and sexual partner with hepatitis. Cross-validation revealed high discriminant accuracy for the HCV group.Compararam-se 24 pacientes coinfectados pelos vírus da hepatite C/vírus linfotrópico de células T humanas do tipo 1 com 6 coinfectados por VHC/HTLV-2 e 55 infectados pelo VHC, no tocante a dados clínico-epidemiológicos, laboratoriais e histopatológicos. A análise discriminante de Fischer foi utilizada para definir funções capazes de diferenciar os grupos de estudo (VHC, VHC/HTLV-1 e VHC/HTLV-2. A acurácia discriminatória foi avaliada pelo por validação cruzada. O uso de álcool, drogas endovenosas, cocaína inalatória e a parceria sexual com UDEV foram mais freqüentes no grupo VHC/HTLV-2, enquanto queixa de dor abdominal e parceiro sexual com hepatite predominaram no grupo VHC. Os coinfectados apresentaram número maior de plaquetas, enquanto as aminotransferases e

  20. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons

  1. RNA viruses in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2009-03-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.

  2. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of fish Novirhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    The genus Novirhabdoviridae contains several of the important rhabdoviruses that infect fish hosts. There are four established virus species: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), Hirame rhabdovirus(HIRRV), and Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV). Viruses of these species vary in host and geographic range, and they have all been studied at the molecular and genomic level. As globally significant pathogens of cultured fish, IHNV and VHSV have been particularly well studied in terms of molecular epidemiology and evolution. Phylogenic analyses of hundreds of field isolates have defined five major genogroups of IHNV and four major genotypes of VHSV worldwide. These phylogenies are informed by the known histories of IHNV and VHSV, each involving a series of viral emergence events that are sometimes associated with host switches, most often into cultured rainbow trout. In general, IHNV has relatively low genetic diversity and a narrow host range, and has been spread from its endemic source in North American to Europe and Asia due to aquaculture activities. In contrast, VHSV has broad host range and high genetic diversity, and the source of emergence events is virus in widespread marine fish reservoirs in the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Common mechanisms of emergence and host switch events include use of raw feed, proximity to wild fish reservoirs of virus, and geographic translocations of virus or naive fish hosts associated with aquaculture.

  3. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    information about its biology which may be useful to the present and future researchers. Key words: Respiratory virus, Human Respiratory syncytial virus, biology, genome, epidemiology, immunity. INTRODUCTION. Acute lower ..... of respiratory infections in bone marrow transplant. Pneumonia develops in about one-half of ...

  4. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  5. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  6. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  7. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  8. Nipah Virus Transmission in a Hamster Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks. PMID:22180802

  9. Influenza B viruses: not to be discounted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Bodewes, Rogier; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Vries, Rory D

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to influenza A viruses, which have been investigated extensively, influenza B viruses have attracted relatively little attention. However, influenza B viruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and full understanding of their biological and epidemiological properties is imperative to better control this important pathogen. However, some of its characteristics are still elusive and warrant investigation. Here, we review evolution, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunity and identify gaps in our knowledge of influenza B viruses. The divergence of two antigenically distinct influenza B viruses is highlighted. The co-circulation of viruses of these two lineages necessitated the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines, which is discussed in addition to possibilities to develop universal vaccination strategies.

  10. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  11. ARTE GÓTICO Y PAISAJE SUBLIME. EL VIAJE DE CHARLES-ÉDOUARD JEANNERET A LA TOSCANA EN 1907 / Gothic art and sublime landscape. The journey of Charles-Édouard Jeanneret to Tuscany in 1907

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Hidalgo Hermosilla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. En este artículo se exponen dos aspectos centrales del viaje de Ch-E. Jeanneret a Italia, en 1907, en la que fue su primera experiencia de aprendizaje viajando, es decir, a partir de la observación directa de las obras de arte que le interesaba reconocer, pero aún guiada por los dictámenes de su maestro, Charles L'Eplattenier, el cual, a su vez, en aquella época estaba muy influido por los criterios estéticos y de enseñanza del dibujo de John Ruskin. Un primer aspecto, se refiere a su preferencia por obras de arte de la Edad Media, y cuyo acento estaba en la ornamentación. El segundo, tenía que ver con una particular dimensión paisajística del lugar al cual se desplazaba: la Toscana, que llevaba completamente idealizada, desde el imaginario romántico. A partir de estas dos instancias, podemos sintetizar la índole de sus intereses de juventud, como así mismo, la forma en que se aproximaba al mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este artículo es revelar aspectos por mucho tiempo desconocidos relativos a la etapa de formación de uno de los arquitectos más influyentes del siglo XX. SUMMARY. This article explores two central aspects of the journey by Charles-Édouard Jeanneret to Italy in 1907. It was his first experience of learning through the direct observation of the art works that he was interested in seeing while travelling. At this stage, he was still guided by the opinions of his teacher, Charles L'Eplattenier, who at the time was very influenced by the aesthetic criteria and the drawing teachings of John Ruskin. The first aspect relates to the preference of Jeanneret for works of art of the Middle-Ages, the accent of which was on ornamentation. The second relates to the particular scenic dimension of the place to which he travelled, Tuscany, which had been completely idealized by romantic imagination. From these two aspects we can synthesise the nature of his youthful interests and also the way in which he approached

  12. Predicting virus emergence amid evolutionary noise

    OpenAIRE

    Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    The study of virus disease emergence, whether it can be predicted and how it might be prevented, has become a major research topic in biomedicine. Here we show that efforts to predict disease emergence commonly conflate fundamentally different evolutionary and epidemiological time scales, and are likely to fail because of the enormous number of unsampled viruses that could conceivably emerge in humans. Although we know much about the patterns and processes of virus evolution on evolutionary t...

  13. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  14. Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-20

    pathogenetic mechanism from dengue-2 and dengue-4 viruses . Additional detailed epidemiological, virological and clinical evaluation on dengue-1 and...Soawy Ca saoouj Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses (U) 12. PCIRSONAL AUTHORS) James L. Hardy, Ph.D. and Srisakul C. Kliks, Ph.D. 13a. TYPE Of REPORT...17. COSATI COOLS I& S UBiJECT TERMS0,G ’-mPJ!’ iwin.. - fl OV nu0a mef) FIELD I GROUP SUS-GROUIP Dengue viruses , dengue hemorrhagic fever, virulence

  15. Ebola virus: bioterrorism for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramodkumar Pyarelal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is a severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus. Ebola virus (EBOV spreads by human to human transmission through contacts with body fluids from infected patients. Initial stages of EBOV are non-specific which makes the differential diagnosis broad. Here in this review article we focused on to show the details of EBOV, from its first case right up to the possible targets to cure this lethal disease. In this study we have shown the statistical survey, epidemiology, disease ontology, different genes coding for different proteins in EBOV and future aspects of it.

  16. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  17. Co-infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e vírus da imunodeficiência humana: uma análise epidemiológica em Taubaté (SP Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus: an epidemiological analysis in the city of Taubaté, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Miranda de Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os principais aspectos da co-infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e vírus da imunodeficiência humana no município de Taubaté (SP nos anos de 2001 e 2002. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho apresenta o levantamento epidemiológico dos casos de tuberculose ocorridos em Taubaté em 2001 e 2002. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 250 casos de tuberculose, dos quais 70 corresponderam a casos de sorologia positiva para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (28%, 95 de sorologia negativa (38%, e para 85 pacientes a sorologia não foi realizada (34%. Com relação ao primeiro grupo houve predomínio do sexo masculino e da faixa etária de 30 a 40 anos, a forma clínica de tuberculose mais comum foi a pulmonar (65,71% e a taxa de cura foi de 59,38% . No grupo de pacientes para os quais não se comprovou a co-infecção também predominou o sexo masculino e ocorrência na mesma faixa etária, sendo a forma clínica mais comum também a pulmonar (70,55% e a taxa de cura foi de 81,63%. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o vírus da imunodeficiência humana é importante na epidemiologia da tuberculose e, portanto, o teste sorológico para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana deve ser realizado quando se diagnostica a presença de tuberculose.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the main aspects of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus in the city of Taubaté (located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil in 2001 and 2002. METHODS: This study presents epidemiological data on tuberculosis cases occurring in Taubaté in 2001 and 2002. RESULTS: Of the 250 cases of tuberculosis analyzed, 70 (28% presented human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, 95 (38% presented human immunodeficiency virus seronegativity, and 85 (34% were patients who had not been submitted to serological testing. In the first group (tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, males from 30 to 40 years of age predominated, the most common clinical

  18. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  19. «Filípoli, Filípica o Filipiana»: hegemonía y arbitrismo a través de las «Advertencias sobre los presidios de toscana» de Francisco Álvarez de Ribera (1568)

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarría Múgica, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    En un momento de intensa reorganización del poder español en Italia, Francisco Álvarez de Ribera, un funcionario destacado de la Monarquía, propondrá en unas «Advertencias sobre los presidios de Toscana» retomar un viejo proyecto ya discutido en círculos eruditos sieneses en beneficio del rey de España: la fundación de un gran puerto en el Estado de los Presidios, en la costa de Siena, que llevaría por nombre «Filípoli, Filípica o Filipiana». Con esta medida pretendía afianzar el poder y la r...

  20. «Filípoli, Filípica o Filipiana»: hegemonía y arbitrismo a través de las «Advertencias sobre los presidios de toscana» de Francisco Álvarez de Ribera (1568

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chavarría Múgica

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available During a period of intense reorganisation of Spanish imperial rule in Italy, Francisco Álvarez de Ribera, a distinguished functionary of the Monarchy, revived in his Advertencias sobre los presidios de Toscana an old project previously discussed withim Sienese erudite circles. This project was the foundation of an important royal port in the Stato dei Presidi (an Spanish military base on the coast of Siena, which would be called Filípoli, Filípica or Filipiana. With this measure he intended to consolidate the hegemony of the Spanish Monarchy in Italy as a response to Cosimo de Medici's growing power. The analysis of these papers permits us to go beyond the project's practical application and to gain a deeper insight into the basis of the Catholic Monarchy's power in Italy, and the role of the Stato dei Presidí in the so-called Spanish imperial system.

  1. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention Cáncer del cérvix y virus del papiloma humano: evidencia epidemiológica y perspectivas para su prevención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUBIA MUÑOZ

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.El cáncer del cérvix constituye un problema importante de salud pública y es el más común en el mundo, después del de mama. Aproximadamente 80% de los 500 000 casos que se

  2. An evaluation of the flora adjacent to wine grape vineyards for the presence of alternative host plants of grapevine red blotch-associated virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a recently discovered virus of concern to wine grape production in North America. While the vector of this virus is unknown, other elements of virus epidemiology are essential to develop guidelines for the management of the virus as well as to assist ...

  3. Genetic susceptibility to West Nile virus and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the host genetic predisposition to 2 viruses, West Nile virus and dengue virus, which belong to the genus Flavivirus. Although by definition these viruses have shared characteristics (e.g. similar size, single stranded, RNA viruses, both transmitted by the bite from an infected mosquito), they differ greatly in epidemiology and clinical manifestations. The text below not only summarizes the genetic factors that predispose to complications of these 2 important flaviviruses, but also illustrates the challenges in determining the genomic basis for complications to these viruses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Teaching Elementary Probability and Statistics: Some Applications in Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Hardeo; Reesal, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    Illustrates some applications of elementary probability and statistics to epidemiology, the branch of medical science that attempts to discover associations between events, patterns, and the cause of disease in human populations. Uses real-life examples involving cancer's link to smoking and the AIDS virus. (MDH)

  5. Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory aspects of hepatitis E

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hepatitis E epidemics in India · Hepatitis E: Epidemiological forms · Epidemic hepatitis E · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Kanpur epidemic: Time course · Intrafamilial transmission · Slide 10 · Hepatitis E virus · HEV infection: unresolved issues · HEV: possible reservoirs · HEV: Prolonged fecal excretion · HEV: Subclinical infection.

  6. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in ...

  7. Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya. Ibrahim Eldaghayes, Abdunaser Dayhum, Abdulwahab Kammon, Monier Sharif, Giancarlo Ferrari, Christianus Bartels, Keith Sumption, Donald P. King, Santina Grazioli, Emiliana Brocchi ...

  8. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  9. Epidemiology for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    The epidemiological approach, as elaborated to accomodate multiple-causation of chronic disease, is suggested as appropriate for the size and the nature of the failure-to-learn problem faced by educators. The epidemiological approach begins with an examination of the health status of an area's population. Major problems are identified with respect…

  10. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs. The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course.

  11. Addressing the public health burden of respiratory viruses: the Battle against Respiratory Viruses (BRaVe) Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legand, Anais; Briand, Sylvie; Shindo, Nikki; Brooks, W. Abdullah; de Jong, Menno D.; Farrar, Jeremy; Aguilera, Ximena; Hayden, Frederick G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the enormous estimated burden of respiratory virus infections worldwide, a substantial number of research priorities exist in order to better understand their epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and clinical management across different populations and resource settings. New therapeutics and

  12. L’informazione geografica nella regione Toscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Trevisani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tuscany region, made possible consult and download geographic informations through Creative Commons license, to facilitate the access to geographic database that produce. All this is possible through the GEOScopio WMS.

  13. Archivi sonori in Toscana: un’indagine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Cappelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sound documents archives in Tuscany: a research The sound documents are part of a larger heritage that testifies the life, the culture and the history of the 20th century. But what is the quantity, the typology and the state of conservation of audio carriers? What strategies have been carried out for their preservation, administration and valorisation? To answer these questions, in 2007, a census was realized on a sample of 107 institutions in Tuscany. The research method developed into 3 phases: surveying, statistic processing and data evaluation. The results are worrying and confirm that the sound documents risk to deteriorate and to disap-pear in a short time: in fact 70% of the institutions don’t take particular measures for their conservation; 75% make the original carriers accessible; 85% don’t transfer the content on other carriers. In conclusion, a census not just on a small sample but on the whole national territory, would give us the real dimensions of the problem and how to face it.

  14. Virus infections of honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

  15. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  16. Estandarización de la obtención de amplificados del genoma del virus de la rabia para su uso en estudios de epidemiología molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Páez

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de perfeccionar el diagnóstico y la tipificación del virus de la rabia en Colombia, el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del Instituto Nacional de Salud estandarizó técnicas para amplificar un fragmento de ADN complementario (ADNc a una fracción de 902 nucleótidos seleccionados del ARN del virus de la rabia. La fracción mencionada contiene secuencias que codifican para los aminoácidos 447-525 de la glicoproteína y 1-35 de la proteína L. Además, contiene la región intergénica no codificante conocida como Pseudogen Psi. Las técnicas estandarizadas consistieron en: 1 amplificación biológica mediante reaislamiento del virus en ratón ICR, 2 extracción del ARN total a partir del cerebro del ratón infectado, y 3 amplificación molecular utilizando la técnica de transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR para obtener el ADNc. La muestra del estudio constó de 30 cepas de virus de rabia obtenidas originalmente de 30 caninos y tomadas del banco del Laboratorio de Virología. Por su simplicidad, la metodología descrita en este estudio presenta grandes ventajas sobre las técnicas descritas en anteriores estudios. La tecnología propuesta es un complemento preciso de las técnicas de diagnóstico de la rabia; además, se aplica a la identificación de relaciones filogenéticas de diversos aislamientos y, por ende, se utiliza en la identificación de las dinámicas de transmisión y difusión geográfica del virus rábico.

  17. Rabies in southeast Brazil: a change in the epidemiological pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Campos, Angélica Cristine A; Lopes, Marissol Cardoso; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Iamamoto, Keila; Araújo, Danielle Bastos; Venditti, Leandro Lima R; Ribeiro, Erica S; Pedro, Wagner André; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This epidemiological study was conducted using antigenic and genetic characterisation of rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in the southeast of Brazil from 1993 to 2007. An alteration in the epidemiological profile was observed. One hundred two samples were tested using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies, and 94 were genetically characterised by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. From 1993 to 1997, antigenic variant 2 (AgV-2), related to a rabies virus maintained in dog populations, was responsible for rabies cases in dogs, cats, cattle and horses. Antigenic variant 3 (AgV-3), associated with Desmodus rotundus, was detected in a few cattle samples from rural areas. From 1998 to 2007, rabies virus was detected in bats and urban pets, and four distinct variants were identified. A nucleotide similarity analysis resulted in two primary groups comprising the dog and bat antigenic variants and showing the distinct endemic cycles maintained in the different animal species in this region.

  18. JPRS Report, Epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: SubSaharan Africa, Drugs, Heart Diseases, Malaria, Death, Influenza Virus, Animal Diseases, Fevers, Cholera, Anthrax, Dengue, Public health, Hemorrhagic fever, Cancer, Meningitis, Death, Salmonella...

  19. Animal influenza epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducatez, Mariette; Webster, R G; Webby, R J

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A viruses exist within their natural host, aquatic birds, in a number of antigenic subtypes. Only a few of these subtypes have successfully crossed into other avian and mammalian hosts. This brief review will focus on just three examples of viruses that have successfully passed between species; avian H5NI1 and H9N2 viruses and H3N2 viruses which have transmitted from aquatic birds to humans and then to swine. Although there are a number of other subtypes that have also transmitted s...

  20. JPRS Report, Epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    ...Partial Contents: Drugs, AIDSCholera, Guinea Worm Diseases, Drug Abuser, Strains, Virus, Epidemic Diseases, Death, Hepatitis, Hospitals, Vaccines, Health Care Facilities, Diagnostic, Malaria, Preventive Medicine, Human...

  1. JPRS Report, Epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    ...Partial Contents: Drugs, AIDSMeasles, Cholera, Guinea Worm Diseases, Drug Abuser, Strains, Virus, Epidemic Diseases, Death, Hepatitis, Hospitals, Vaccines, Health Care Facilities, Diagnostic, Malaria, Preventive Medicine, Human...

  2. The contrasting phylodynamics of human influenza B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Holmes, Edward C; Joseph, Udayan; Fourment, Mathieu; Su, Yvonne C F; Halpin, Rebecca; Lee, Raphael T C; Deng, Yi-Mo; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Fedorova, Nadia B; Zhou, Bin; Spirason, Natalie; Kühnert, Denise; Bošková, Veronika; Stadler, Tanja; Costa, Anna-Maria; Dwyer, Dominic E; Huang, Q Sue; Jennings, Lance C; Rawlinson, William; Sullivan, Sheena G; Hurt, Aeron C; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Wentworth, David E; Smith, Gavin J D; Barr, Ian G

    2015-01-16

    A complex interplay of viral, host, and ecological factors shapes the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from Australia and New Zealand, we reveal fundamental differences in the phylodynamics of the two co-circulating lineages of influenza B virus (Victoria and Yamagata), showing that their individual dynamics are determined by a complex relationship between virus transmission, age of infection, and receptor binding preference. In sum, this work identifies new factors that are important determinants of influenza B evolution and epidemiology.

  3. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souchkevitch, G.

    1996-01-01

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  4. Basic concepts of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiology can be defined simply as the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. As a descriptive tool, epidemiology can aid health care service providers, for example, in allocation of resources. In its analytic capacity, the epidemiologic approach can help identify determinants of disease through the study of human populations. Epidemiology is primarily an observational rather than experimental methodology, with corresponding strengths and limitations. Relative to other approaches for assessing disease etiology and impacts of potential health hazards, epidemiology has a rather unique role that is complementary to, but independent of, both basic biologic sciences and clinical medicine. Experimental biologic sciences such as toxicology and physiology provide critical information on biologic mechanisms of disease required for causal inference. Clinical medicine often serves as the warning system that provides etiologic clues to be pursued through systematic investigation. The advantage of the epidemiologic approach is its reliance on human field experience, that is, the real world. While laboratory experimentation is uniquely well suited to defining potential hazards, it can neither determine whether human populations have actually been affected nor quantify that effect. Building all the complexities of human behavior and external factors into a laboratory study or mathematical model is impossible. By studying the world as it exists, epidemiology examines the integrated, summarized product of the myriad factors influencing health

  5. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Epidemiology of viruses causing chronic hepatitis among populations from the Amazon Basin and related ecosystems Epidemiología de las hepatitis crónicas con carácter vírico en las comunidades indígenas de la cuenca amazónica y de otros ecosistemas similares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Echevarría

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On the last twenty years, viral hepatitis has emerged as a serious problem in almost all the Amerindian communities studied in the Amazon Basin and in other Amazon-related ecological systems from the North and Center of South America. Studies performed on communities from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela have shown a high endemicity of the hepatitis B virus (HBV infection all over the region, which is frequently associated to a high prevalence of infection by hepatitis D virus among the chronic HBV carriers. Circulation of both agents responds mainly to horizontal virus transmission during childhood through mechanisms that are not fully understood. By contrast, infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV, which is present in all the urban areas of South America, is still very uncommon among them. At the moment, there is not data enough to evaluate properly the true incidence that such endemicity may have on the health of the populations affected. Since viral transmission might be operated by mechanisms that could not be acting in other areas of the World, it seems essential to investigate such mechanisms and to prevent the introduction of HCV into these populations, which consequences for health could be very serious.A lo largo de los últimos veinte años, las hepatitis víricas se han revelado como un importante problema para las comunidades indígenas de la cuenca amazónica y de otros ecosistemas similares del norte y centro de Sudamérica. Los estudios realizados en comunidades de Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Perú y Venezuela han demostrado una alta propensión endémica para la infección por el virus de la hepatitis B, que se asocia con frecuencia a una elevada prevalencia de coinfección con el virus de la hepatitis D entre los portadores crónicos. La circulación de ambos agentes responde a su transmisión horizontal durante la infancia, a través de mecanismos aún poco conocidos. Por el contrario, la infección por el virus de la

  7. GLOBAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION AND NEW IMMUNISATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova-Baranova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerous international epidemiological studies currently suggest a growing prevalence of many infectious diseases and, hence, an increased number of complications and fatal outcomes. The global medical community has come to a conclusion about the need to use all available efficient and safe vaccines in order to fight the spread of infections that cannot be tolerated in modern society (pertussis, poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, etc. The article provides the latest data on these infections, their prevalence, and international recommendations on immunisation against influenza, which is especially critical in the light of recent H1N1 influenza pandemic and its likely propagation going forward as the virus continues to mutate. Key words: controlled infectious diseases, epidemiology, vaccination, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:6-9

  8. Epidemiology of Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, R S; Golden, A L

    1986-04-01

    Although our current understanding is limited, epidemiologic investigation of Crohn's disease holds great promise. Certain aspects of the epidemiology are clear. The incidence of Crohn's disease, which has increased over the past few decades, may have reached a plateau. The disease has its peak onset in early life, with a second peak among the elderly. It is more common in the developed countries and among Jews. Whether the disease is related to occupation, social class, marital status, stress, infection, diet, smoking, and oral contraceptives is less certain. This paper reviews the epidemiology of Crohn's disease and proposes areas in which further research is needed.

  9. Epidemiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology aims at providing direct evidence of the long term health effects in humans due to potentially dangerous exposures to various nuisance agents, including ionising radiation. Inappropriate interpretation and use of the results of epidemiological studies may result in inaccurate assessments of the risks associated with radiation exposure. This report presents the proceedings of a Workshop organised by the NEA to create an opportunity for epidemiologists and radiation protection specialists to exchange their experiences and views on the problems of methodology in epidemiological research and on the application of its results to the assessment of radiation risks

  10. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filette Marina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus. Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV, as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections.

  11. Exploiting genetic information to trace plant virus dispersal in landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    PICARD, Coralie; Dallot, Sylvie; Brunker, Kirstyn; Berthier, Karine; Roumagnac, Philippe; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Thébaud, Gael

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade, knowledge of pathogen life history has greatly benefited from the advent and development of molecular epidemiology. This branch of epidemiology uses information on pathogen variation at the molecular level to gain insights into a pathogen's niche and evolution and to characterize pathogen dispersal within and between host populations. Here, we review molecular epidemiology approaches that have been developed to trace plant virus dispersal in landscapes. In particular, ...

  12. Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the archetypal allergic disease otolaryngologists encounter. Epidemiologic studies inform providers of the association of rhinitis symptoms and allergy test results in the broader population. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of AR is important for interpreting both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Articles were selected based on literature review through PubMed and personal knowledge of the author. The largest and highest-quality studies were included. The search selection was not standardized. Epidemiological studies demonstrate marked variability globally in the prevalence of both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Self-reported seasonal or perennial rhinitis symptoms significantly overestimate the prevalence of AR defined by a positive history and positive allergy tests. Positive allergy tests are also common in those without self-reported rhinitis symptoms. Interpreting rhinitis symptoms and allergy testing is enhanced by an understanding of the epidemiology of AR. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  13. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  14. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  15. Epidemiological surveillance of herpes viral encephalitis in Cordoba, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tique, Vaneza; Mattar, Salim; Freire, María; Illian, Eduardo; Camargo, Francisco; Vergara, Oscar; Moraes-Figueiredo, Luiz T

    2016-08-01

    Objective To establish an epidemiological surveillance of viral herpes encephalitis in major hospitals of Monteria, Cordoba. Methods From September 2009 to December 2011, a descriptive study of cases of viral encephalitis was made in three hospitals in the city of Monteria. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 118 patients were included in the study. Clinical aspects, as well as cytochemical and microbiological analysis (Gram stain and culture) of CSF, were used for selecting the patients. Virus detection was performed by using multiplex nested PCR for Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus and Varicella zoster virus. Results Viral DNA of herpesvirus was detected in the CSFs of 30 (25.4 %) participants, as follows: 22 (18.6 %) Herpes simplex 1 and 2 viruses, 4 (3.3 %) Cytomegalovirus and 1 (0.8 %) Varicella zoster virus. Co-infections were observed in 3 patients (2.5 %), 1 case by HSV-VZV and 2 cases by CMV/HSV. The clinical manifestations of the patients included: headache (18.6 %), fever (14.4 %), asthenia (10.1 %), seizures (9.3 %), vomiting (8.4 %), and stiff neck (5.9 %). Thirty percent of the patients also had HIV-AIDS. A case fatality rate of 20 % was observed for the patients. Conclusions This paper shows that herpesvirus is a cause of infection of the CNS in patients from Cordoba. This study contributes to the epidemiology of encephalitis, as well as to patient management.

  16. Scabies: an epidemiologic reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, C G

    1983-04-01

    Scabies is a highly contagious parasitic infestation whose exact nature is unknown. A reassessment of epidemiologic data questions accepted ideas such as that scabies is a sexually transmitted disease; 30-year cycles of scabies epidemics exist; changes in the immune status of the host population (herd immunity) are epidemiologically significant; fomite transmission is rare; and blacks are resistant to the mite. Scabies epidemics are due to several factors and improved surveillance is needed before the disease can be better controlled.

  17. Epidemiology of Stone Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiology has improved our understanding and management of stone. These types of studies have quantified changes in patterns and burden of disease, while identification of risk factors has changed clinical practice and provided insight into pathophysiologic processes related to stone formation. Because nephrolithiasis is a complex disease, an understanding of the epidemiology, particularly the interactions among different factors, may help lead to approaches that reduce the risk of stone f...

  18. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  19. Human Viruses and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morales-Sánchez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  20. Human Viruses and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

  1. Epidemiology of human infection with the novel virus influenza A (H1H1 in the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil - june-september 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Schout

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1 infection was considered widespread in Brazil on July 16, 2009. Since then, 46,810 cases of acute respiratory syndrome have been reported in Brazil, most of them concentrated in São Paulo. Through September 16, we have confirmed 9,249 cases of novel influenza A H1N1in Brazil, including 699 deaths. The mortality rate observed in Brazil is 0.47/100,000 inhabitants and varies according to region. In this p