Edge fluctuations in the MST [Madison Symmetric Torus] reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almagri, A.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.; Chartas, G.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.; Dexter, R.; Hokin, S.; Holly, D.; Nilles, E.; Prager, S.; Rempel, T.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.; Sprott, J.; Starr, G.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.
1990-10-01
Edge magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations are measured in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch. At low frequency ( e > p e /p e where φ and p e are the fluctuating potential and pressure, respectively). From measurements of the fluctuating density, temperature, and potential we infer that the electrostatic fluctuation induced transport of particles and energy can be substantial. 13 refs., 11 figs
Simulations of the lower-hybrid antenna in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsson, Johan; Smithe, David; Kaufman, Michael; Goetz, John; Thomas, Mark
2014-01-01
Due to constraints inherent to a reversed-field pinch plasma configuration, an unusual launch structure—the interdigital line—was used for lower-hybrid current-drive experiments in the Madison Symmetric Torus. The antenna design and performance were analyzed using an array of codes (including RANT3D/AORSA1D-H, Microwave Studio and VORPAL). It was found that the voltage phasing was not the intended one. As a result, the parallel-wavenumber spectrum of the launched wave peaks at a value lower than desired, making the accessibility marginal. Further simulations demonstrated that the error can largely be corrected by either lowering the antenna operating frequency or shortening the length of the resonators. (paper)
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Sakakita, Hajime; Craig, Darren; Anderson, Jay K.; Chapman, Brett E.; Den-Hartog, Daniel J.; Prager, Stewart C.; Biewer, Ted M.; Terry, Stephen D.
2003-01-01
We report on passive measurements of impurity ion velocities during the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch. During PPCD, the electron temperature increased and a sudden reduction of magnetic fluctuations was observed. For this change, we have studied whether plasma velocity is affected. Plasma rotation is observed to decrease during PPCD. From measurements of line intensities for several impurities at 10 poloidal chords, it is found that the impurity line emission shifts outward. The ion temperature of impurities is reasonably connected to that measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy from core to edge. (author)
Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch
Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.
2017-12-01
The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.
Mao, Wenzhe; Yuan, Peng; Zheng, Jian; Ding, Weixing; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi; Liu, Wandong; Xie, Jinlin
2016-11-01
A compact and lightweight support platform has been used as a holder for the interferometer system on the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX), which is a reversed field pinch device. The vibration caused by the interaction between the time-varying magnetic field and the induced current driven in the metal optical components has been measured and, following comparison with the mechanical vibration of the KTX device and the refraction effect of the ambient turbulent air flow, has been identified as the primary vibration source in this case. To eliminate this electromagnetic disturbance, nonmetallic epoxy resin has been selected as the material for the support platform and the commercially available metal optical mounts are replaced. Following these optimization steps and mechanical reinforcements, the stability of the interferometer platform has improved significantly. The phase shift caused by the vibration has been reduced to the level of background noise.
Reversed field pinch diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, P.G.
1986-01-01
The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuritsyn, A.; Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A. F.; Miller, M. C.; Mirnov, V. V.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.
2009-01-01
In this paper measurements of momentum and current transport caused by current driven tearing instability are reported. The measurements are done in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] in a regime with repetitive bursts of tearing instability causing magnetic field reconnection. It is established that the plasma parallel momentum profile flattens during these reconnection events: The flow decreases in the core and increases at the edge. The momentum relaxation phenomenon is similar in nature to the well established relaxation of the parallel electrical current and could be a general feature of self-organized systems. The measured fluctuation-induced Maxwell and Reynolds stresses, which govern the dynamics of plasma flow, are large and almost balance each other such that their difference is approximately equal to the rate of change of plasma momentum. The Hall dynamo, which is directly related to the Maxwell stress, drives the parallel current profile relaxation at resonant surfaces at the reconnection events. These results qualitatively agree with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. It is plausible that current-driven instabilities can be responsible for momentum transport in other laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
ExB flow shear and enhanced confinement in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, B.E.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.; Chiang, C.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Lanier, N.E.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Stoneking, M.R.; Terry, P.W.
1998-01-01
Strong ExB flow shear occurs in the edge of three types of enhanced confinement discharge in the Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed-field pinch. Measurements in standard (low confinement) discharges indicate that global magnetic fluctuations drive particle and energy transport in the plasma core, while electrostatic fluctuations drive particle transport in the plasma edge. This paper explores possible contributions of ExB flow shear to the reduction of both the magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations and, thus, the improved confinement. In one case, shear in the ExB flow occurs when the edge plasma is biased. Biased discharges exhibit changes in the edge electrostatic fluctuations and improved particle confinement. In two other cases, the flow shear emerges (1) when auxiliary current is driven in the edge and (2) spontaneously, following sawtooth crashes. Both edge electrostatic and global magnetic fluctuations are reduced in these discharges, and both particle and energy confinement improve. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munaretto, S., E-mail: smunaretto@wisc.edu; Chapman, B. E.; Nornberg, M. D.; Boguski, J.; DuBois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Sarff, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Ave, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2016-05-15
The orientation of 3D equilibria in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed-field pinch can now be controlled with a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). Absent the RMP, the orientation of the stationary 3D equilibrium varies from shot to shot in a semi-random manner, making its diagnosis difficult. Produced with a poloidal array of saddle coils at the vertical insulated cut in MST's thick conducting shell, an m = 1 RMP with an amplitude b{sub r}/B ∼ 10% forces the 3D structure into any desired orientation relative to MST's diagnostics. This control has led to improved diagnosis, revealing enhancements in both the central electron temperature and density. With sufficient amplitude, the RMP also inhibits the generation of high-energy (>20 keV) electrons, which otherwise emerge due to a reduction in magnetic stochasticity in the core. Field line tracing reveals that the RMP reintroduces stochasticity to the core. A m = 3 RMP of similar amplitude has little effect on the magnetic topology or the high-energy electrons.
Reversed field pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberston, S.
1991-05-01
The Reversatron RFP is usually operated with toroidal field windings which are a continuous helix of 144 turns. These windings produce a poloidal current which is uniform around the torus. The distribution of current is fixed by the geometry so that the applied field has only an m = 0, n = 0 component. The windings cannot act to stabilize an m = 0 mode with |n| > 0 or any m = 1 mode because these modes will excite no current in the windings. It has recently been suggested that parallel connected field coils might act as a shell by forcing the flux within each winding to be the same. Coils connected in parallel must have the same voltage at their terminals and thus must enclose the same volt-seconds or flux. Data from ZT-40 show that the discharges are more quiescent when parallel or series-parallel connected windings are used
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Den Hartog, D.J.
1989-11-01
Thomson scattering measurements of the central electron temperature and density during the plasma current peak have been performed on the MST Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). This Thomson scattering diagnostic was calibrated for absolute electron density measurements. These measurements of T e and n e , when combined with profile assumptions, were used to calculate estimates of energy confinement time (τ E ) and poloidal beta (β θ ). A standard discharge with I p ∼ 400 kA, F ∼ -0.1, and θ ∼ 1.6 typically exhibited T e ∼ 275 eV, n e ∼ 2.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , τ E ≤ 1 ms, and β θ ≤ 8%. The results of a limited plasma current scaling study did not indicate a strong scaling of T e or τ E with I p . The Thomson scattering diagnostic was used in conjunction with a bolometer, VUV radiation monitor, and edge magnetic coils to study the loss of energy from the plasma. Results indicate that thermal transport from stochastic magnetic fields, particle loss, and radiation are important energy loss processes. The experiments done for this study included an F-scan, a paddle limiter insertion series, and an argon doping series. The plasma maintained a constant βτ during these perturbation experiments, suggesting that increases in one energy loss channel are compensated by drops in other channels and increases in input power to the plasma
LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch programme
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Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1979-01-01
The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show that over half the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson-scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced, indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport is needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low-temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given. (author)
LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1978-01-01
The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show over half of the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport are needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given
Reversed field pinch ignition requirements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werley, K.A.
1991-01-01
Plasma models are described and used to calculated numerically the transport confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady state operation points for both the reversed field pinch (RFP) and the tokamak. The models are used to examine the CIT tokamak ignition conditions and the RFP experimental and ignition conditions. Physics differences between RFPs and tokamaks and their consequences for a D-T ignition machine are discussed. Compared with a tokamak, the ignition RFP has many physics advantages, including Ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, lower ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits) and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic field, larger aspect ratios and smaller plasma cross-sections, translate to significant cost reductions for both ignition and reactor applications. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. Devices that are under construction should go a long way toward resolving this scaling uncertainty. The 4 MA ZTH is expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data by three orders of magnitude above the results of ZT-40M, and, if the present scaling holds, ZTH is expected to achieve a D-T equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q = 1. A base case RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs
Turbulent transport in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, J.P.; Roberts, K.V.
1976-01-01
MHD stability of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) relies on reversal of the toroidal field component in the outer plasma region. Interest in this configuration comes from its potential economic advantages as a thermonuclear reactor, since compared to a Tokamak the RFP supports a higher value of β, the ratio between plasma and total magnetic pressure. Results of computations on the time-evolution of the RFP using a 1D MHD model are reported. (orig./GG) [de
Confinement dynamics in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.
1988-01-01
The study of basic transport and confinement dynamics is central to the development of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as a confinement concept. Thus, the goal of RFP research is to understand the connection between processes that sustain the RFP configuration and related transport/confinement properties. Recently, new insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation of RFP electron and ion physics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and strongly coupled role in RFP sustainment and confinement dynamics. In this paper, we summarize the results of these studies on the ZT-40M experiment. 8 refs
Reversed-Field Pinch plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miley, G.H.; Nebel, R.A.; Moses, R.W.
1979-01-01
The stability of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is strongly dependent on the plasma profile and the confining sheared magnetic field. Magnetic diffusion and thermal transport produce changing conditions of stability. Despite the limited understanding of RFP transport, modelling is important to predict general trends and to study possible field programming options. To study the ZT-40 experiment and to predict the performance of future RFP reactors, a one-dimensional transport code has been developed. This code includes a linear, ideal MHD stability check based on an energy principle. The transport section integrates plasma profiles forward in time while the stability section periodically checks the stability of the evolving plasma profile
Interchange stability of noncircular reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skinner, D.A.; Prager, S.C.; Todd, A.M.M.
1987-08-01
Interchange (Mercier) stability of toroidal reversed-field-pinch plasmas with noncircular cross-section is evaluated numerically. Marginally stable pressure profiles and beta values are produced. Most shapes, such as indented or vertically elongated, reduce stability by making the net magnetic curvature of the poloidal-field-dominated plasmas yet worse than that of the circle. Horizontally elongated plasmas slightly enhance stability beyond that of the circle as a result of increased shear produced by toroidicity. Such shear enhancement by the toroidal shift of magnetic surfaces might be exploited for future, more comprehensive studies
Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Hagenson, R.L.; Copenhaver, C.; Werley, K.A.
1986-01-01
The unique confinement properties of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media power cycle driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) with a power density and mass approaching values characteristic of pressurized-water fission rectors. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. After describing the main physics and technology issues for this base-case reactor, directions for future study are suggested
Turbulent transport in the MST reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rempel, T.D.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Zita, E.J.
1991-11-01
Measurements of edge turbulence and the associated transport are ongoing in the Madison Symmetric Torus (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.52 m) reversed-field pinch using magnetic and electrostatic probes. Magnetic fluctuations are dominated by m = 1 and n ∼ 2R/a tearing modes. Particle losses induced by magnetic field fluctuations have been found to be ambipolar ( parallel B r > = O). Electrostatic fluctuations are broadband and turbulent, with mode widths δm ∼ 3--7 and δn ∼70--150. Particle, parallel current, and energy transport arising from coherent motion with the fluctuating ExB drift has been measured. Particle transport via this channel is comparable to the total particle loss from MST. Energy transport (from phi >/B o ) due to electrostatic fluctuations is relatively small, and parallel current transport (from parallel E chi >/B o ) may be small as well
Reversed field pinch reactor study 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollis, A.A.; Mitchell, J.T.D.
1977-12-01
This report, the third of a series on the Reversed Field Pinch Reactor, describes a preliminary concept of the engineering design and layout of this pulsed toroidal reactor, which uses the stable plasma behaviour first observed in ZETA. The basic parameters of the 600 MW(e) reactor are taken from a companion study by Hancox and Spears. The plasma volume is 1.75m minor radius and 16m major radius surrounded by a 1.8m blanket-shield region - with the blanket divided into 14 removable segments for servicing. The magnetic confinement system consists of 28 toroidal field coils situated just outside the blanket and inside the poloidal and vertical field coils and all coils have normal copper conductors. The requirement to incorporate a conducting shell at the front of the blanket to provide a short-time plasma stability has a marked effect on the design. It sets the size of the blanket segment and the scale of the servicing operations, limits the breeding gain and complicates the blanket cooling and its integration with the heat engine. An extensive study will be required to confirm the overall reactor potential of the concept. (author)
Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Cort, G.E.
1979-08-01
A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a Reversed-Field Pinch (FRP) configuration is presented. A 50% atomic mixture of deuterium and tritium (DT) is ohmically heated to ignition by currents flowing in the toroidal plasma; this plasma current also inherently produces the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having a major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and burns at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a fuel burnup of approx. 50%. Tritium breeding occurs in a granular Li 2 O blanket which is packed around an array of radially oriented coolant tubes carrying a mixture of high-pressure steam and water. The slightly superheated steam emerging from this blanket would be used to drive a turbine directly. Low-pressure helium containing trace amounts of oxygen is circulated through the packed Li 2 O bed to extract the tritium. A 20-mm-thick copper first wall serves as a neutron multiplier, acts as a tritium barrier, and supports image currents to provide plasma stabilization on a 0.1-s timescale; external windings provide stability for longer times
Reversed-field pinch fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1980-01-01
A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) configuration is described. The plasma is ohmically ignited by toroidal plasma currents which also inherently provide the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and undergoes a transient, unrefueled burn at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a DT burnup of approx. 50%. The 5-s dwell period between burn pulses for plasma quench and refueling allows steady-state operation of all thermal systems outside the first wall; no auxiliary thermal capacity is required. Tritium breeding occurs in a granular Li 2 O blanket which is packed around an array of radially oriented water/steam coolant tubes. The slightly superheated steam emerging from this blanket directly drives a turbine that produces electrical power at an efficiency of 30%. A borated-water shield is located immediately outside the thermal blanket to protect the superconducting magnet coils. Both the superconducting poloidal and toroidal field coils are energized by homopolar motor/generators. Accounting for all major energy sinks yields a cost-optimized system with a recirculating power fraction of 0.17; the power output is 750 MWe
Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Schnurr, N.M.; Copenhaver, C.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.
1986-01-01
The unique confinement properties of the poloidal-field-dominated Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media (i.e., two separate coolants) power cycle that would be driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) having a power density and mass approaching pressurized-water-fission reactor values. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. A general rationale outlining the need for improved fusion concepts is given, followed by a description of the RFP principle, a detailed systems and trade-off analysis, and a conceptual FPC design for the ∝ 20-MW/m 2 (neutrons) compact RFP reactor, CRFPR(20). Key FPC components are quantified, and full power-balance, thermal, and mechanical FPC integrations are given. (orig.)
The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors
Chaos in reversed-field-pinch plasma simulation and experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watts, C.; Newman, D.E.; Sprott, J.C.
1994-01-01
We investigate the possibility that chaos and simple determinism are governing the dynamics of reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasmas using data from both numerical simulations and experiment. A large repertoire of nonlinear-analysis techniques is used to identify low-dimensional chaos. These tools include phase portraits and Poincare sections, correlation dimension, the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents, and short-term predictability. In addition, nonlinear-noise-reduction techniques are applied to the experimental data in an attempt to extract any underlying deterministic dynamics. Two model systems are used to simulate the plasma dynamics. These are the DEBS computer code, which models global RFP dynamics, and the dissipative trapped-electron-mode model, which models drift-wave turbulence. Data from both simulations show strong indications of low-dimensional chaos and simple determinism. Experimental data were obtained from the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP and consist of a wide array of both global and local diagnostic signals. None of the signals shows any indication of low-dimensional chaos or other simple determinism. Moreover, most of the analysis tools indicate that the experimental system is very high dimensional with properties similar to noise. Nonlinear noise reduction is unsuccessful at extracting an underlying deterministic system
Toroidal equilibrium in an iron-core reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.
1984-04-01
An analytical theory of toroidal equilibrium in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch is obtained, including effects of iron cores and resistive shell. The iron cores alter the form of the equilibrium condition and cause the equilibrium to be unstable on the shell resistive time scale
Overview of quasi single helicity experiments in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, P.; Marrelli, L.; Spizzo, G.
2003-01-01
We report the results of an experimental and theoretical project dedicated to the study of Quasi Single Helicity Reversed Field Pinch plasmas. The project has involved several RFP devices and numerical codes. It appears that QSH spectra are a feature common to all the experiments. (author)
The physics of reversed-field pinch profile sustainment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moses, R.W.
1985-01-01
A description of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is given. There is experimental evidence that indicates that an RFP dynamo effect sustains field reversal in steady state. Three sustainment mechanisms are reviewed: the MHD model, the tangled discharge model, and the kinetic dynamo model. The relationship of these models to each another is discussed briefly
Surface interactions in a reverse field pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCracken, G.M.; Firth, L.; Goodall, D.H.J.; King, R.E.; Lavender, K.E.; Newton, A.A.; Thompson, V.K. (Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon (UK). Culham Lab.); Edwards, B.C.; Titchmarsh, J. (UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Metallurgy Div.)
The principle findings of the investigations were: (1) mechanical deformation occurring at the end of the bellows section adjacent to the weld. (2) Very localised erosion on at least three deformed sections, leading in one case to the puncturing of the liner wall. These eroded spots were all at a region of the liner underneath a gap in the shell. The mechanism whereby the energy is deposited locally is not understood. (3) Deposition of stainless steel as molten droplets was observed over a much larger area adjacent to the shell gap. There is no obvious link between this deposition and the puncture. (4) Arcing is observed over a large proportion of the liner surface: the highest local density of arcs is found on the outer part of the torus, especially near the ports. (5) The inside of the vessel has large coloured areas which were identified as oxide layers probably formed as the result of liner heating by the plasma in the presence of leaks during the last weeks of operation.
Prospects for fusion applications of reversed-field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.
1985-01-01
The applicability of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) as a source of fusion neutrons for use in developing key fusion nuclear technologies is examined. This Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would emphasize high neutron wall loading, small plasma volume, low fusion and driver powers, and steady-state operation. Both parametric tradeoffs based on present-day physics understanding and a conceptual design based on an approx.1-MW/m 2 (neutron) driven operation are reported. 10 refs
A reversed-field theta-pinch plasma machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasojima, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sasao, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Noboru; Tanaka, Toshihide
1984-01-01
Mitsubishi Electric has constructed a reversed-field theta-pinch machine at its Central Research Laboratory and initiated a series of plasma diagnostics and control studies for development of nuclear-fusion technology. Although the device has a linear configuration, a stable high-temperature, high-density toroidal plasma can be generated. The article describes the overall structure, vacuum system, power-supply system, and diagnostics and control system of the plasma machine. (author)
Nonlinear tearing modes in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.
1989-01-01
Finite-amplitude islands, which are the saturated states of tearing modes in the reversed field pinch, are calculated. These states are bifurcated noncylindrical equilibrium states. With σ(r) (σequivalentj x B/B 2 ) nonuniform across the plasma, as is consistent with experiment, a variety of m = 1 and m = 0 bifurcated equilibria are possible, instead of just the m = 1 helix calculated for uniform σ(r) by Taylor [in Pulsed High Beta Plasmas, edited by D. Evans (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), p. 59]. Assuming the magnetic field lines in the reversed field pinch are weakly stochastic, the growth time of an unstable tearing mode is on the inertial time scale, as in the Taylor model, in constrast to growth on the resistive time scale predicted from nonlinear tearing mode theory when magnetic surfaces exist. The dependence of the saturated island width on radius of a conducting shell is investigated. Islands in the reversed field pinch often have magnetic wells in the island interior, which may result in improved confinement in the island regions
Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scime, E.; Hokin, S.; Watts, C.; Mattor, N.
1992-01-01
Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 200 eV for I = 350 kA, increases by as much as 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5--5 MHz were also measured. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion gyro-orbit scales
Electron Bernstein wave emission from an overdense reversed field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Anderson, J.K.; Biewer, T.M.; Craig, D.; Forest, C.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.
2002-01-01
Blackbody levels of emission in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies have been observed from an overdense (ω pe ∼3ω ce ) Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch plasma, a result of electrostatic electron Bernstein waves emitted from the core and mode converted into electromagnetic waves at the extreme plasma edge. Comparison of the measured radiation temperature with profiles measured by Thomson scattering indicates that the mode conversion efficiency can be as high as ∼75%. Emission is preferentially in the X-mode polarization, and is strongly dependent upon the density and magnetic field profiles at the mode conversion point
Microinstabilities and turbulent transport in the reversed field pinch
Carmody, Daniel Richard
The work presented in this thesis is concerned with addressing the nature of drift wave microturbulence in the reversed field pinch (RFP). Microturbulence is an important phenomenon and contributor to heat and particle transport in tokamaks, where it has been studied for several decades, but its role in the RFP is a rather new topic of study. As such, the nature of RFP drift waves and their relationship to their tokamak counterparts is still developing, and many of the results in this work are focused on addressing this challenge. Fundamental advances in microturbulence research have been made in recent decades through two parallel developments: the theoretical framework encompassed in the gyrokinetic model, and the computational power offered by massively-parallel, high-performance computing systems. Gyrokinetics is a formulation of kinetic theory in such a way that the fast timescale gyromotion of particles around magnetic field lines is averaged out. The implementation and use of RFP equilibrium models in gyrokinetic codes constitutes the bulk of this thesis. A simplified analytic equilibrium, the toroidal Bessel function model (TBFM), is used in the gyrokinetic code GYRO to explore the fundamental scaling properties of drift waves in the RFP geometry. Two drift wave instabilities, the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the microtearing mode (MTM) are found to occur, and the relationship of their critical threshold in driving gradients and plasma beta is explored. The critical values in these parameters are found to be above those of similar tokamak cases by roughly a factor of the flux surface aspect ratio. The MTM is found to be stabilized by increasing the RFP pinch parameter theta, making it unlikely for it to unstable in the high-theta improved confinement pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) discharges. Efforts are also made to address microinstabilities in specific experimental discharges of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). A semi
3-dimensional simulation of dynamo effect of reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koide, Shinji.
1990-09-01
A non-linear numerical simulation of the dynamo effect of a reversed field pinch (RFP) with finite beta is presented. It is shown that the m=-1, n=(9,10,11,....,19) modes cause the dynamo effect and sustain the field reversed configuration. The role of the m=0 modes on the dynamo effect is carefully examined. Our simulation shows that the magnetic field fluctuation level scales as S -0.2 or S -0.3 in the range of 10 3 5 , while Nebel, Caramana and Schnack obtained the fluctuation level is independent of S for a pressureless RFP plasma. (author)
Electron temperature diagnostics in the RFX reversed field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartiromo, R.; Carraro, L.; Marrelli, L.; Murari, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Puiatti, M.E.; Scarin, P.; Valisa, M.; Franz, P.; Martin, P.; Zabeo, L.
2000-01-01
The paper presents an integrated approach to the problem of electron temperature diagnostics of the plasma in a reversed field pinch. Three different methods, sampling different portions of the electron distribution function, are adopted, namely Thomson scattering, soft X-ray spectroscopy by pulse-height analysis and filtered soft X-ray intensity ratio. A careful analysis of the different sources of systematic errors is performed and a novel statistical approach is adopted to mutually validate the three independent measurements. A satisfactory agreement is obtained over a large range of experimental conditions, indicating that in the plasma core the energy distribution function is well represented by a maxwellian. (author)
Energy confinement in a high-current reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, Z.G.; Lee, G.S.; Diamond, P.H.
1985-07-01
The ion temperature gradient driven (eta/sub i/) mode is proposed as a candidate for the cause of anomalous transport in high current reversed field pinches. A 'four-field' fluid model is derived to describe the coupled nonlinear evolution of resistive interchange and eta/sub i/ modes. A renormalized theory is discussed, and the saturation level of the fluctuations is analytically estimated. Transport scalings are obtained, and their implications discussed. In particular, these results indicate that pellet injection is a potentially viable mechanism for improving energy confinement in a high temperature RFP
Asymmetric flux generation and its relaxation in reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arimoto, H.; Masamune, S.; Nagata, A.
1985-02-01
The toroidally asymmetric flux enhancement [''dynamo effect''] and the axisymmetrization of the enhanced fluxes that follows in the setting up phase of Reversed Field Pinch are investigated on the STP-3[M] device. A rapid increase in the toroidal flux generated by the dynamo effect is first observed near the poloidal and toroidal current feeders. Then, this inhomogeneity of the flux propagates toroidally towards the plasma current. The axisymmetrization of the flux is attained just after the maximum of plasma current. The MHD activities decrease significantly after this axisymmetrization and the quiescent period is obtained. (author)
Behaviour of the peripheral plasma in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuoka, A.; Sato, K.I.; Arimoto, H.; Yamada, S.; Nagata, A.; Murata, H.
1986-01-01
By using Langmuir probes installed behind limiters, time behaviour of the peripheral plasma in the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) are investigated. They are strongly affected by the confined RFP plasma and are divided into three phases (the initial phase before setting up the RFP configuration, the current rising phase, and the quiescent phase), which are just the same as those of the confined RFP plasma. Typical behaviour of the peripheral plasma have relations to the pump out phenomena and of the toroidal flux generation. (author)
Recent studies of Reversed-Field Pinch reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1981-01-01
The reactor prognoses of a class of confinement scheme that relies primarily on self-fields induced by axial currents flowing within a plasma column are presented. The primary focus has been placed on the toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). At the limit of very large current densities is the gas-embedded Dense Z-Pinch (DZP), a small-radius, linear device. Past conventional RFP reactor designs are reviewed. The extention of these conventional RFP reactors to DD advanced-fuel operation is described. The implications are summarized of operating higher-density, compact RFPs as reactors, wherein the current density rather than physical dimensions are scaled. Lastly, the application of very high current densities supported in a sub-millimeter linear current channel, as embodied in the DZP reactor, is reviewed
Oscillating field current drive for reversed field pinch discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.; Gribble, R.F.; Baker, D.A.
1984-06-01
Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD), also known as F-THETA pumping, is a steady-state current-drive technique proposed for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Unlike other current-drive techniques, which employ high-technology, invasive, and power intensive schemes using radio frequency or neutral particle injection, F-THETA pumping entails driving the toroidal and poloidal magnetic field circuits with low-frequency (audio) oscillating voltage sources. Current drive by this technique is a consequence of the strong nonlinear plasma coupling in the RFP. Because of its low frequency and efficient plasma coupling, F-THETA pumping shows excellent promise as a reactor-relevant current-drive technique. A conceptual and computational study of this concept, including its experimental and reactor relevance, is explored in this paper
Physics considerations of the Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1980-01-01
A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) configuration is described. The plasma is ohmically ignited by toroidal plasma currents which also inherently provide the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and undergoes a transient, unrefueled burn at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a DT burnup of approx. 50%. Accounting for all major energy sinks yields a cost-optimized system with a recirculating power fraction of 0.17; the power output is 750 MWe
Advanced-fuel reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1981-10-01
The utilization of deuterium-based fuels offers the potential advantages of greater flexibility in blanket design, significantly reduced tritium inventory, potential reduction in radioactivity level, and utilization of an inexhaustible fuel supply. The conventional DT-fueled Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) designs are reviewed, and the recent extension of these devices to advanced-fuel (catalyzed-DD) operation is presented. Attractive and economically competitive DD/RFPR systems are identified having power densities and plasma parameters comparable to the DT systems. Converting an RFP reactor from DT to DD primarily requires increasing the magnetic field levels a factor of two, still requiring only modest magnet coil fields (less than or equal to 4 T). When compared to the mainline tokamak, the unique advantages of the RFP (e.g., high beta, low fields at the coils, high ohmic-heating power densities, unrestricted aspect ratio) are particularly apparent for the utilization of advanced fuels
Divertor design for the TITAN reversed-field-pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooke, P.I.H.; Bathke, C.G.; Blanchard, J.P.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.P.; Hasan, M.Z.; Orient, G.; Sharafat, S.; Werley, K.A.
1987-01-01
The design of the toroidal-field divertor for the TITAN high-power-density reversed-field-pinch reactor is described. The heat flux on the divertor target is limited to acceptable levels (≤ 10 MW/m 2 ) for liquid-lithium cooling by use of an open divertor geometry, strong radiation from the core and edge plasma, and careful shaping of the target surface. The divertor coils are based on the Integrated-Blanket-Coil approach to minimize the loss in breeding-blanket coverage due to the divertor. A tungsten-rhenium armour plate, chosen for reasons of sputtering resistance, and good thermal and mechanical properties, protects the vanadium-alloy coolant tubes
Magnetohydrodynamic effects of current profile control in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sovinec, C.R.; Prager, S.C.
1999-01-01
Linear and non-linear MHD computations are used to investigate reversed field pinch configurations with magnetic fluctuations reduced through current profile control. Simulations with reduced ohmic drive and moderate auxiliary current drive, represented generically with an electron force term, applied locally in radius near the plasma edge show magnetic fluctuation energies that are orders of magnitude smaller than those in simulations without profile control. The core of the improved configurations has reduced magnetic shear and closed flux surfaces in some cases, and reversal is sustained through the auxiliary current drive. Modes resonant near the edge may become unstable with auxiliary drive, but their saturation levels can be controlled. The space of auxiliary drive parameters is explored, and the ill effects of deviating far from optimal conditions is demonstrated in non-linear simulations. (author)
Catalyzed deuterium fueled reversed-field pinch reactor assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrott, D.
1985-01-01
This study is part of a Department of Energy supported alternate fusion fuels program at Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of this portion of the study is to perform an assessment of a conceptual compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR) that is fueled by the catalyzed-deuterium (Cat-d) fuel cycle with respect to physics, technology, safety, and cost. The Cat-d CRFPR is compared to a d-t fueled fusion reactor with respect to several issues in this study. The comparison includes cost, reactor performance, and technology requirements for a Cat-d fueled CRFPR and a comparable cost-optimized d-t fueled conceptual design developed by LANL
A vented pump limiter for the reversed field pinch RFX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonato, P.
1998-01-01
The reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma performance, as in the Tokamak, is strongly correlated with the edge neutral particle control. The drawbacks of the conventional magnetic divertors and throat limiters on the RFP plasma have slackened the application of an active particle control system in existing devices. An advanced solution, based on the idea of the 'vented pump limiter' experimented on Tore Supra, has been conceived for RFX. This type of pump limiter is very attractive for a RFP. In this paper, the design of a 'vented limiter' prototype for RFX is presented. Up to six modules of this limiter can be installed at the equatorial plane of RFX, allowing a particle exhaust efficiency comparable with a divertor or a throat limiter working in a Tokamak. Finally, the optimization of this concept for the next step RFP device is presented. (orig.)
Physics of reversed-field pinch profile sustainment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moses, R.W.
1984-01-01
A description of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is given, emphasizing the necessity of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or kinetic process to sustain field reversal. Three sustainment mechanisms are reviewed: the MHD dynamo, the tangled discharge model, and nonlocal resistivity. A slab model of steady (ohmic) states is described. A relationship between ohmic state wave numbers and the minimum amplitude of nonsymmetric field components is given. If ohmic states are the sole source of the sustainment process, their wave lengths are probably much longer than the minor diameter of the plasma. Otherwise field asymmetries would exceed those observed in experiments. It is noted that internal field data are still limited, restricting the generality of our comments
Proposal for the ZT-40 reversed-field Z-pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Machalek, M.D.
1977-08-01
A next-generation, toroidal, reversed-field Z-pinch experiment to be constructed at LASL is proposed. On the basis of encouraging ZT-I and ZT-S experimental results, a larger device with a 40-cm bore and a 114-cm major radius is proposed, to extend the confinement time by about an order of magnitude. The new experiment will explore the physics of programming reversed-field pinches in a size range unexplored by previous reversed-field pinch experiments. Model reversed-field pinch reactor calculations show that, if stability is assumed, small fusion reactors are possible if the pinch current density is high. A basic aim will be to delineate the plasma and current density ranges in which stable reversed-field pinches can be produced. Improved vacuum techniques will be used to overcome the radiation losses that probably kept electron temperatures low in the earlier, smaller experiments
Confinement in TPE-RX reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, Y.; Bolzonella, T.; Canton, A.
2001-01-01
Characteristics of the confinement properties of a reversed field pinch (RFP), the TPE-RX (R/a=1.72/0.45 m, R and a are major and minor radii), are presented for the plasma current, I p of 0.2-0.4 MA. TPE-RX has been operational since 1998, and I p =0.5 MA and duration time of up to 0.1 s have been obtained separately. It is found that I p /N (=12x10 -14 Am, N is the line density) is higher than those of other RFPs and poloidal beta, β p , and energy confinement time, τ E , are 5-10% and 0.5-1 ms, respectively, which are comparable with those of other RFPs of comparable sizes (RFX and MST). Pulsed poloidal current drive has recently been tested and the result has shown a twofold improvement of β p and τ E . The improvement is discussed in terms of the dynamic trajectories in the F-Θ plane, where F and Θ are reversal and pinch parameters, respectively. The global confinement properties are compared between the locked and non-locked discharges, which yields a better understanding of the mode-locking phenomena in RFP plasmas. (author)
Soft x-ray measurement of internal tearing mode structure in a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.
1991-01-01
The structure of internally resonant tearing modes has been studied in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a soft x-ray detector system consisting of an imaging array at one toroidal location and several detectors at different toroidal locations. The toroidal mode numbers of m = 1 structures are in the range n = -5, -6, -7. The modes propagate with phase velocity v = 1--6 x 10 6 cm/s, larger than the diamagnetic drift velocity v d ∼ 5 x 10 5 cm/s. Phase locking between modes with different n in manifested as a beating of soft x-ray signals which is found to be strongest near the resonant surfaces of the modes (r/a = 0.1 -- 0.5). 15 refs., 5 figs
Confinement dynamics and boundary condition studies in the Reversed Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.; Ingraham, J.C.; Moses, R.W. Jr.
1988-01-01
The study of confinement dynamics, including investigation of the boundary conditions required for plasma sustainment, are central to the development of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) concept. Recently, several insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation RFP electron and ion dynamics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and coupled role in RFP stability, sustainment, and confinement. In this paper, we summarize the results of confinement studies on the ZT-40M experiment, and boundary condition studies on the Wisconsin non-circular RFP experiment. A brief description of the newly commissioned Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) is also presented. 28 refs., 3 figs
Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Chapman, J.T.
1998-01-01
Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data
High-β, improved confinement reversed-field pinch plasmas at high density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wyman, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Ahn, J. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ennis, D. A.; Fiksel, G.; Gangadhara, S.; Goetz, J. A.; O'Connell, R.; Oliva, S. P.; Prager, S. C.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D.; Bonomo, F.; Franz, P.; Brower, D. L.
2008-01-01
In Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching n e =4x10 19 m -3 . Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch
Pellet injection in the RFP (Reversed Field Pinch)
Wurden, G. A.; Weber, P. G.; Munson, C. P.; Cayton, T. E.; Bunting, C. A.; Carolan, P. G.
Observation of pellets injected into the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch has allowed a new twist on the usual tokamak ablation physics modeling. The RFP provides a strong ohmic heating regime with relatively high electron drift parameter (xi sub drift approx. 0.2), in the presence of a highly sheared magnetic field geometry. In situ photos of the pellet ablation cloud using a grated-intensified CCD camera, as well as two-view integrated photos of the pellet trajectory show substantial modification of the original pellet trajectory, in both direction and speed. Depending on the launch geometry, increases in the initial 500 m/s pellet speed by 50 percent were observed, and a ski jump deflector plate in the launch port has been used to counteract strong poloidal curvature. In contrast to the tokamak, the D sub alpha light signature is strongest near the edge, and weaker in the plasma center. Additional information on ion temperature response to pellet injection with 20 microsec time resolution has been obtained using a 5-channel neutral particle analyzer (NPA). The energy confinement is transiently degraded while the beta is largely unchanged. This may be indicative of pellet injection into a high-beta plasma operating at fixed beta.
Scaling of sustained ZT-40 M reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graham, J.; Haberstich, A.; Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Caramana, E.J.; DiMarco, J.N.; Erickson, R.M.; Ingraham, J.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Little, E.M.; Massey, R.S.; Phillips, J.A.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Schofield, A.E.; Thomas, K.S.; Watt, R.G.; Weber, P.G.
1993-12-01
Experiments aimed at evaluating the scaling properties of the ZT-40M Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) facility were conducted in 1983 at Los Alamos. Sustained discharges were produced at nominal toroidal currents ranging from 60 to 240 kA. The standard fill pressure was kept close to the lower limit of the usable pressure range, and the scaling data were acquired at a fixed time in the discharges while the plasma was in a quasi-steady state. Scalings of the diameter-averaged electron density, electron temperature on axis, product of these two parameters, and of various definitions of the electrical resistivity are presented. Trends of the toroidal voltage, energy containment time, and poloidal beta are shown. The impurity contents, particle containment time, and total radiation losses are described, and results obtained with and without poloidal limiters are compared. In addition, the performance of the facility at higher than standard density and at a constant ratio of the toroidal current over the electron line density is examined
Nonlinear dynamics of tearing modes in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Lynch, V.E.
1987-05-01
The results of investigations of nonlinear tearing-mode dynamics in reversed field pinch plasmas are described. The linear instabilities have poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers 10 ≤ n ≤ 20, and the resonant surfaces are therefore in the plasma core. The nonlinear dynamics result in dual cascade processes. The first process is a rapid m = 1 spectral broadening toward high n, with a simultaneous spreading of magnetic turbulence radially outward toward the field-reversal surface. Global m = 0 perturbations, which are driven to large amplitudes by the m = 1 instabilities, in turn trigger the m = 1 spectral broadening by back-coupling to the higher n. The second process is a cascade toward large m and is mediated by m = 2 modes. The m = 2 perturbations have the structure of localized, driven current sheets and nonlinearly stabilize the m = 1 modes by transferring m = 1 energy to small-scale dissipation. The calculated spectrum has many of the qualitative features observed in experiments. 13 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab
Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.
1984-08-01
The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment [i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems]. In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development
Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B.E.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C.B.; Goetz, J.A.; Holly, D.J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J.D.
2013-01-01
An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio. (paper)
Plasma behaviour in large reversed-field pinches and reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, J.P.; Bodin, H.A.B.; Carolan, P.G.; Johnston, J.W.; Newton, A.A.; Roberts, K.V.; Robinson, D.C.; Watts, M.R.C.; Piotrowicz, V.A.
1981-01-01
Recent analytic and numerical results on large reversed-field-pinch (RFP) systems and RFP reactors are presented. Predictions are made of the plasma behaviour in Eta Beta II, HBTXIA (under construction) and RFX (planned). The setting-up phase of an RFP is studied by using turbulence theory in transport equilibrium calculations, and estimates are made of the volt-seconds consumption for four different modes of field control. A prescription is given for a dynamo producing self-reversal which yields finite-β configurations. Residual instabilities of these equilibria may be resistive pressure-driven g-modes, and a new study of these modes that includes parallel viscosity indicates stability for anti β approximately 10%. The sustainment phase of the RFP is examined with tokamak scaling laws assumed for the energy confinement time. Temperatures in excess of 1keV are predicted for currents of 2MA in RFX. An operating cycle for a pulsed RFP reactor including gas puffing to reach ignition is proposed following a study of the energy replacement time for an Ohmically heated plasma. The scaling of the reactor parameters with minor radius is also investigated. (author)
Confinement properties of the RFP [Reversed Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, P.G.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Ingraham, J.C.; Miller, G.; Munson, C.P.; Pickrell, M.M.; Wurden; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Ritz, Ch.P.
1990-01-01
Research in ZT-40M has been focused on elucidating the confinement properties of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Recent improvements in diagnostic capability have permitted measurement of radial profiles, as well as a detailed study of the edge plasma. The emerging confinement picture for ZT-40M has several ingredients: Typically 0.3 of the Ohmic input power to ZT-40M is available to drive fluctuations. Evidence points to this fluctuational power heating the ions. Approximately one quarter of the input power is lost through radiation, with metal impurities playing a key role. Magnetic fluctations in ZT-40M are at the percent level, as measured in the edge plasma. Extrapolating these data to small radii shows stochasticity in the core plasma. Suprathermal electrons are measured in the edge plasma. These electrons originate in the core, and transport to the edge along the fluctuating magnetic field lines. Under typical conditions, these electrons constitute the major electron energy loss channel in ZT-40M. Electrostatic fluctuations dominate the edge electron particle flux, but not the electron thermal flux. The major ion loss process is charge exchange, with smaller contributions from conduction and convection. In examining these observations, and the parametric dependences of confinement, a working model for RFP confinement emerges. An overview of this model, together with implications for the multi-mega-ampere ZTH experiment will be presented
Simulation study of dynamo structure in reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, A.; Sato, K.I.; Ashida, H.; Amano, T.
1992-10-01
The dynamo structure in the reversed field pinch (RFP) is studied through the nonlinear dynamics of single-helicity mode. Simulation is concentrated upon the physical structure of nonlinear interactions of the plasma flow and magnetic fluctuation. The result indicates that when the initial equilibrium profile is deformed by resistive diffusion, the radial flow is driven near the core of the plasma. As this flow forms a vortex structure and magnetic fluctuation grows radially, the dynamo electric field is spirally induced just inside the reversal surface and then the toroidal flux is increased. This dynamo electric field correlates to nonlinear evolution of the kinetic energy of m=1 mode, and the increase of the toroidal flux is originated in the growth process of the magnetic energy of this mode. Consequently, the RFP configuration can be sustained by the single-helicity evolution of m=1 mode alone, and the electric field induced by the interactions of the toroidal velocity and the radial magnetic field is the most dominant source on the dynamo action. (author)
Does shaping bring an advantage for reversed field pinch plasmas?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, S.C.; Xu, X.Y.; Wang, Z.R.; Liu, Y.Q.
2013-01-01
The MHD–kinetic hybrid toroidal stability code MARS-K (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503) is applied to study the shaping effects on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stabilities in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas, where both elongation and triangularity are taken into account. The ideal wall β (the ratio of the gaso-kinetic to magnetic pressures) limit set by the ideal kink mode/resistive wall mode in shaped RFP is investigated first, followed by a study of the kinetic damping on the resistive wall mode. Physics understanding of the results is provided by a systematic numerical analysis. Furthermore, the stability boundary of the linear resistive tearing mode in shaped RFP plasmas is computed and compared with that of the circular case. Finally, bootstrap currents are calculated for both circular and shaped RFP plasmas. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that the current circular cross-section is an appropriate choice for RFP devices, in the sense that the plasma shaping does not bring an appreciable advantage to the RFP performance in terms of macroscopic stabilities. In order to reach a steady-state operation, future RFP fusion reactors will probably need a substantial fraction of external current drives, due to the unfavourable scaling for the plasma-generated bootstrap current in the RFP configuration. (paper)
Radio frequency wave experiments on the MST reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, C.B.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Nornberg, M.D.; Prager, S.C.; Thomas, M.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Ram, A.K.
1999-04-01
Experiments, simulations, and theory all indicate that the magnetic fluctuations responsible for the poor confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) can be controlled by altering the radial profile of the current density. The magnetic fluctuations in the RFP are due to resistive MHD instabilities caused by current profile peaking; thus confinement in the RFP is ultimately the result of a misalignment between inductively driven current profiles and the stable current profiles characteristic of the Taylor state. If a technique such as rf current drive can be developed to non-inductively sustain a Taylor state (a current profile linearly stable to all tearing modes), the confinement of the RFP and its potential as a reactor concept are likely to increase. Whether there is a self-consistent path from poor confinement to greatly improved confinement through current profile modification is an issue for future experiments to address if and only if near term experiments can demonstrate: (1) coupling to and the propagation of rf waves in RFP plasmas, (2) efficient current drive, and (3) control of the power deposition which will make it possible to control the current profile. In this paper, modeling results and experimental plans are presented for two rf experiments which have the potential of satisfying these three goals: high-n parallel lower hybrid (LH) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBWs)
Nonlinear dynamics of tearing modes in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Lynch, V.E.
1988-01-01
The results of investigations of nonlinear tearing-mode dynamics in reversed field pinch plasmas are described. The linear instabilities have poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers 10approx. < napprox. <20, and the resonant surfaces are therefore in the plasma core. The nonlinear dynamics result in dual cascade processes. The first process is a rapid m = 1 spectral broadening toward high n, with a simultaneous spreading of magnetic turbulence radially outward toward the field-reversal surface. Global m = 0 perturbations, which are driven to large amplitudes by the m = 1 instabilities, in turn trigger the m = 1 spectral broadening by back coupling to the higher n. The second process is a cascade toward large m and is mediated by m = 2 modes. The m = 2 perturbations have the structure of localized, driven current sheets and nonlinearly stabilize the m = 1 modes by transferring m = 1 energy to small-scale dissipation. The calculated spectrum has many of the qualitative features observed in experiments
Studies of a poloidal divertor reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.
1988-07-01
An attempt has been made to form a reversed field pinch (RFP) in a poloidal divertor configuration which position the plasma far from a conducting wall. In this configuration, the plasma is localized within a magnetic separatrix formed by the combination of toroidal currents in the plasma and four internal aluminum rings. Plasmas were formed with plasma current /approximately/135 kA, toroidal field reversal lasting /approximately/1 msec, line-averaged density /approximately/1--2 /times/ 10 13 cm/sup /minus/3/ and central electron temperature /approximately/55 eV, but a large asymmetry in the magnetic field (δB/B /approximately/40%) onset at about the time the toroidal field reversed at the wall. Symmetric, poloidal divertor RFP equilibria were not formed. This behavior might be expected based on linear MHD stability analysis of a cylindrical plasma bounded by a large vacuum region and distant conducting wall. The symmetric equilibrium before the asymmetry develops and the asymmetry itself are described. 15 refs., 3 figs
Pellet injection in the RFP [Reversed Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Bunting, C.A.; Carolan, P.G.
1988-01-01
Observation of pellets injected into the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch has allowed a new twist on the usual tokamak ablation physics modeling. The RFP provides a strong ohmic heating regime with relatively high electron drift parameter (ξ/sub drift/ /approximately/ 0.2), in the presence of a highly sheared magnetic field geometry. In situ photos of the pellet ablation cloud using a grated-intensified CCD camera, as well as two-view integrated photos of the pellet trajectory show substantial modification of the original pellet trajectory, in both direction and speed. Depending on the launch geometry, increases in the initial 500 m/s pellet speed by 50% have been observed, and a ski jump deflector plate in the launch port has been used to counteract strong poloidal curvature. In contrast to the tokamak, the D/sub α/ light signature is strongest near the edge, and weaker in the plasma center. Additional information on ion temperature response to pellet injection with 20 μsec time resolution has been obtained using a 5-channel neutral particle analyzer (NPA). The energy confinement is transiently degraded while the beta is largely unchanged. This may be indicative of pellet injection into a high-beta plasma operating at fixed beta. 10 refs., 6 figs
Murakami density limit in tokamaks and reversed-field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, F.W.; Hulse, R.A.
1984-03-01
A theoretical upper limit for the density in an ohmically heated tokamak discharge follows from the requirement that the ohmic heating power deposited in the central current-carrying channel exceed the impurity radiative cooling in this critical region. A compact summary of our results gives this limit n/sub M/ for the central density as n/sub M/ = [Z/sub e//(Z/sub e/-1]/sup 1/2/n/sub eo/ (B/sub T//1T)(1m/R) where n/sub eo/ depends strongly on the impurity species and is remarkably independent of the central electron temperature T/sub e/(0). For T/sub e/(0) approx. 1 keV, we have n/sub eo/ = 1.5 x 10 14 cm -3 for beryllium, n/sub eo/ = 5 x 10 13 cm -3 for oxygen, n/sub eo/ = 1.0 x 10 13 cm -3 for iron, and n/sub eo/ = 0.5 x 10 13 cm -3 for tungsten. The results agree quantitatively with Murakami's original observations. A similar density limit, known as the I/N limit, exists for reversed-field pinch devices and this limit has also been evaluated for a variety of impurity species
The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-03-01
The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m 2 and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m 2 ; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings
Self-consistent equilibria in cylindrical reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo Surdo, C.; Paccagnella, R.; Guo, S.
1995-03-01
The object of this work is to study the self-consistent magnetofluidstatic equilibria of a 2-region (plasma + gas) reversed-field pinch (RFP) in cylindrical approximation (namely, with vanishing inverse aspect ratio). Differently from what happens in a tokamak, in a RFP a significant part of the plasma current is driven by a dynamo electric field (DEF), in its turn mainly due to plasma turbulence. So, it is worked out a reasonable mathematical model of the above self-consistent equilibria under the following main points it has been: a) to the lowest order, and according to a standard ansatz, the turbulent DEF say ε t , is expressed as a homogeneous transform of the magnetic field B of degree 1, ε t =(α) (B), with α≡a given 2-nd rank tensor, homogeneous of degree 0 in B and generally depending on the plasma state; b) ε t does not explicitly appear in the plasma energy balance, as it were produced by a Maxwell demon able of extract the corresponding Joule power from the plasma. In particular, it is showed that, if both α and the resistivity tensor η are isotropic and constant, the magnetic field is force-free with abnormality equal to αη 0 /η, in the limit of vanishing β; that is, the well-known J.B. Taylor'result is recovered, in this particular conditions, starting from ideas quite different from the usual ones (minimization of total magnetic energy under constrained total elicity). Finally, the general problem is solved numerically under circular (besides cylindrical) symmetry, for simplicity neglecting the existence of gas region (i.e., assuming the plasma in direct contact with the external wall)
Edge topology and flows in the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; Scarin, P.; Vianello, N.; Cappello, S.; Puiatti, M. E.; Valisa, M.; White, R. B.
2012-01-01
Edge topology and plasma flow deeply influence transport in the reversed-field pinch as well as in all fusion devices, playing an important role in many practical aspects of plasma performance, such as access to enhanced confinement regimes, the impact on global power balance and operative limits, such as the density limit (Spizzo G. et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 095011). A central role is played by the edge electric field, which is determined by the ambipolar constraint guaranteeing quasi-neutrality in a sheath next to the plasma wall. Its radial component is experimentally determined in RFX over the whole toroidal angle by means of a diagnostic set measuring edge plasma potential and flow with different techniques (Scarin P. et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 073002). The measured radial electric field is used to construct the potential in the form Φ(ψ p , θ, ζ) (ψ p radial coordinate, θ, ζ angles), by means of the Hamiltonian guiding-centre code ORBIT. Simulations show that a proper functional form of the potential can balance the differential radial diffusion of electrons and ions subject to m = 0 magnetic island O- and X-points. Electrons spend more time in the X-points of such islands than in O-points; ions have comparatively larger drifts and their radial motion is more uniform over the toroidal angle. The final spatial distribution of Φ(ψ p , θ, ζ) results in a complex 3D pattern, with convective cells next to the wall. Generally speaking, an edge topology dominating parallel transport with a given symmetry brings about an edge potential with the same symmetry. This fact helps us to build a first step of a unified picture of the effect of magnetic topology on the Greenwald limit, and, more generally, on flows in the edge of RFPs and tokamaks. (paper)
Statistical theory of field fluctuations in a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.
1982-01-01
A statistical description of three-dimensional, incompressible turbulence in an ideal, current-bearing, bounded magnetofluid is given both analytically and numerically. Our results are then compared with existing data taken from reversed-field pinch experiments
Experiments on the ZT-S reversed-field pinch, August--December 1978
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.R.
1979-06-01
During the latter half of 1978 the ZT-S reversed-field pinch was used to explore the utility of pitch-programming techniques in setting up stable diffuse pinch profiles. Several experimental observations relating to this goal are presented
Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scime, E.E.
1992-05-01
Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The characteristic anomalously high ion temperature of RFP discharges has been observed in the MST. The evolution of the ion and electron temperature, as well as density and charge exchange power loss, were measured for a series of reproducible discharges. The ion heating expected from collisional processes with the electrons is calculated and shown too small to explain the measured ion temperatures. The charge exchange determined ion temperature is also compared to measurements of the thermally broadened CV 227.1 nm line. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 250 eV for I = 360 kA, increases by more than 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5 endash 5 MHz were also measured during the dynamo bursts. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion cyclotron frequencies. Theoretical models for ion heating are reviewed and discussed in light of the experimental results. Similar electron heating mechanisms may be responsible for the discrepancy between measured and expected loop voltages in the RFP. The electrons, as well as the ions, may be heated by turbulent mechanisms, and a RFP energy budget including such phenomena is described
Observation of trapped-electron-mode microturbulence in reversed field pinch plasmas
Duff, J. R.; Williams, Z. R.; Brower, D. L.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W.
2018-01-01
Density fluctuations in the large-density-gradient region of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas exhibit multiple features that are characteristic of the trapped-electron mode (TEM). Core transport in conventional RFP plasmas is governed by magnetic stochasticity stemming from multiple long-wavelength tearing modes. Using inductive current profile control, these tearing modes are reduced, and global confinement is increased to that expected for comparable tokamak plasmas. Under these conditions, new short-wavelength fluctuations distinct from global tearing modes appear in the spectrum at a frequency of f ˜ 50 kHz, which have normalized perpendicular wavenumbers k⊥ρs≲ 0.2 and propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. They exhibit a critical-gradient threshold, and the fluctuation amplitude increases with the local electron density gradient. These characteristics are consistent with predictions from gyrokinetic analysis using the Gene code, including increased TEM turbulence and transport from the interaction of remnant tearing magnetic fluctuations and zonal flow.
Single-piece maintenance procedures for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotz, S.P.; Creedon, R.L.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Duggan, W.P.; Krakowski, R.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Wong, C.P.C.
1987-01-01
The TITAN reactor is a compact (major radius of 3.9 m and minor plasma radius of 0.6 m), high neutron wall loading (--18MW/m 2 ) fusion energy system based on the reversed-field pinch (RFP) concept. The TITAN-I fusion power core (FPC) is a lithium, self-cooled design with vanadium alloy (V-3Ti-1Si) structural material. The compact design of the TITAN fusion power core (FPC) reduces the system to a few small and relatively low mass components, making toroidal segmentation of the FPC unnecessary. A single-piece maintenance procedure in which the replaceable first wall and blanket is removed as a single unit is, therefore, possible. The TITAN FPC design provides for top access to the reactor with vertical lifts used to remove the components. The number of remote handling procedures is few and the movements are uncomplicated. The annual torus replacement requires that the reusable ohmic-heating coil set and hot-shield assembly be removed and temporarily stored in a hot cell. The used first wall and blanket assembly is drained and disconnected from the coolant supply system, then lifted to a processing room where it is cooled and prepared for Class-C waste burial. The new, pre-tested first wall and blanket assembly is then lowered into position and the removal procedure is reversed to complete the replacement process
Current profile redistribution driven by neutral beam injection in a reversed-field pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parke, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Johnson, C. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, Auburn University 206 Allison Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)
2016-05-15
Neutral beam injection in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas on the Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] drives current redistribution with increased on-axis current density but negligible net current drive. Internal fluctuations correlated with tearing modes are observed on multiple diagnostics; the behavior of tearing mode correlated structures is consistent with flattening of the safety factor profile. The first application of a parametrized model for island flattening to temperature fluctuations in an RFP allows inferrence of rational surface locations for multiple tearing modes. The m = 1, n = 6 mode is observed to shift inward by 1.1 ± 0.6 cm with neutral beam injection. Tearing mode rational surface measurements provide a strong constraint for equilibrium reconstruction, with an estimated reduction of q{sub 0} by 5% and an increase in on-axis current density of 8% ± 5%. The inferred on-axis current drive is consistent with estimates of fast ion density using TRANSP [Goldston et al., J. Comput. Phys. 43, 61 (1981)].
Generation and confinement of hot ions and electrons in a reversed-field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, B E; Almagri, A F; Anderson, J K; Caspary, K J; Clayton, D J; Den Hartog, D J; Ennis, D A; Fiksel, G; Gangadhara, S; Kumar, S; Magee, R M; O'Connell, R; Parke, E; Prager, S C; Reusch, J A; Sarff, J S; Stephens, H D; Brower, D L; Ding, W X; Craig, D
2010-01-01
By manipulating magnetic reconnection in Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) discharges, we have generated and confined for the first time a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma with an ion temperature >1 keV and an electron temperature of 2 keV. This is achieved at a toroidal plasma current of about 0.5 MA, approaching MST's present maximum. The manipulation begins with intensification of discrete magnetic reconnection events, causing the ion temperature to increase to several kiloelectronvolts. The reconnection is then quickly suppressed with inductive current profile control, leading to capture of a portion of the added ion heat with improved ion energy confinement. Electron energy confinement is simultaneously improved, leading to a rapid ohmically driven increase in the electron temperature. A steep electron temperature gradient emerges in the outer region of the plasma, with a local thermal diffusivity of about 2 m 2 s -1 . The global energy confinement time reaches 12 ms, the largest value yet achieved in the RFP and which is roughly comparable to the H-mode scaling prediction for a tokamak with the same plasma current, density, heating power, size and shape.
MHD turbulence models for the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gimblett, C.G.; Watkins, M.L.
1976-01-01
A kinematic model which describes the effect of isotropic, non-mirror symmetric turbulence on a mean magnetic field is used to examine the temporal behaviour of magnetic field in high beta pinch experiments. Solutions to the model can indicate the formation of a steady-state, force-free configuration that corresponds to the state of lowest magnetic energy and the reversal of the toroidal magnetic field at the plasma boundary in accordance with experimental observations on toroidal pinches such as ZETA and HBTX. This model neglects both the dynamic interaction between fluid and field and the associated anisotropy. These effects are examined in a further model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.
1984-04-01
The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer-Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 m -1 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches
Global properties of ohmically heated reversed-field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, R.A.
The simultaneous requirements of power balance and pressure balance have been considered. The treatment generalizes the Pease-Braginskii pinch current limit by including toroidal magnetic field, anomalous resistivity, nonradiative losses, and time-dependent fields. The rise of the temperature to a state of power balance proves to be amenable to a very simple and unified description. Finally, the practical parameter windows implied by the joint action of power balance and pressure balance are displayed
Compressibility Effects in the Dynamics of the Reversed-Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2008-01-01
We study the reversed-field pinch through the numerical solution of the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. Two cases are investigated: In the first case the pressure is derived from an adiabatic condition, and in the second case the pressure equation includes heating terms due to resistivity and viscosity. In the adiabatic case a single helicity state is observed, and the reversed-field pinch configuration is formed for short time intervals and is finally lost. In the nonadiabatic case the system reaches a multiple helicity state, and the reversal parameter remains negative for a longer time. The results show the importance of compressibility in determining the large scale dynamics of the system
Ohmic heating of the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, R.
1980-04-01
Simple analytic expressions are found for the global heating rate and the time needed to achieve global power balance with radiation and other losses, in useful agreement with large RFP transport codes. A simple condition is noted, which insures that the heating can be accomplished before appreciable resistive evolution occurs in the pinch profile. The product of poloidal beta, β/sub theta/, and toroidal current, I, that characterizes a condition of global power balance is derived subject to the above-mentioned condition without making key assumptions used by earlier investigators. First, a perfectly steady state (with local power balance) is not assumed, nor is it appropriate to do so. Secondly, the cross-field resistivity is not required to be classical. Since the value of (β/sub theta/ I) plays a fundamental role in determining the kind of device one requires, the foundations of this value are important
Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedqvist, A.; Rachlew-Kaellne, E.
1998-01-01
Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy has been used to investigate the effects of impurities in a reversed field pinch operating with a resistive shell. Results of electron temperature, impurity ion densities, particle confinement time and Z eff together with a description of the interpretation and the equipment are presented. (author)
Changes in transport and confinement in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
Sallander, E.; Sallander, J.; Hedqvist, A.
1999-09-01
At the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch a non-intrusive approach has been undertaken to monitor transport driven by magnetic fluctuations. Correlations are presented between fluctuations observed in the core and at the edge of the plasma. The fluctuations are characterized and their effect on the confinement of core electron energy is estimated.
Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
Hedqvist, Anders; Rachlew-Källne, Elisabeth
1998-09-01
Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy has been used to investigate the effects of impurities in a reversed field pinch operating with a resistive shell. Results of electron temperature, impurity ion densities, particle confinement time and 0741-3335/40/9/004/img1 together with a description of the interpretation and the equipment are presented.
Changes in transport and confinement in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallander, E.; Sallander, J.; Hedqvist, A.
1999-01-01
At the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch a non-intrusive approach has been undertaken to monitor transport driven by magnetic fluctuations. Correlations are presented between fluctuations observed in the core and at the edge of the plasma. The fluctuations are characterized and their effect on the confinement of core electron energy is estimated. (author)
Plasma behaviors in the open field region of reversed-field theta-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aso, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Keiichi.
1983-03-01
A characteristic behavior of the plasma in an open field region of reversed field theta pinch has been studied with the guide field (GF) which extends the field line along the axial direction. The experimental result suggests that the rotaional instability may be induced in FRC after the plasma touches the wall at the ends of the open field. (author)
Edge plasmas and plasma/wall interactions in an ignition-class reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werley, K.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.
1987-01-01
A range of limiter, armor, and divertor options are examined as a means to minimize plasma/wall interactions for a high-power-density, ignition-class reversed field pinch. An open, toroidal-field divertor can operate at maximum powers, while isolating the core plasma from impurities and protecting the wall. 16 refs
Plasma engineering design of a compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.
1983-01-01
The rationale for and the characteristics of the high-power-density Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to key plasma engineering aspects of the conceptual design, including plasma operations, current drive, and impurity/ash control by means of pumped limiters or magnetic divertors. A brief description of the Fusion-Power-Core integration is given
Resistive Wall Mode Stability and Control in the Reversed Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadikin, Dmitriy
2006-03-01
Control of MHD instabilities using a conducting wall together with external magnetic fields is an important route to improved performance and reliability in fusion devices. Active control of MHD modes is of interest for both the Advanced Tokamak and the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) configurations. A wide range of unstable, current driven MHD modes is present in the RFP. An ideally conducting wall facing the plasma can in principle provide stabilization to these modes. However, a real, resistive wall characterized by a wall field diffusion time, cannot stabilize the ideal MHD modes unless they rotate with Alfvenic velocity, which is usually not the case. With a resistive wall, the ideal modes are converted into resistive wall modes (RWM) with growth rates comparable to the inverse wall time. Resistive wall modes have been studied in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell RFP device. Growth rates have been measured and found in agreement with linear MHD stability calculations. An advanced system for active control has been developed and installed on the EXTRAP T2R device. The system includes an array of 128 active saddle coils, fully covering the torus surface. Experiments on EXTRAP T2R have for the first time demonstrated simultaneous active suppression of multiple independent RWMs. In experiments with a partial array, coupling of different modes due to the limited number of feedback coils has been observed, in agreement with theory. Different feedback strategies, such as the intelligent shell, the rotating shell, and mode control have been studied. Further, feedback operation with different types of magnetic field sensors, measuring either the radial or the toroidal field components have been compared
Demonstration of Electron Bernstein Wave Heating in a Reversed Field Pinch
Seltzman, Andrew H.
The Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) presents an alternative to conventional electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive in overdense plasmas, where electromagnetic waves are inaccessible. The first observation of rf heating in a reversed field pinch (RFP) using the EBW has been demonstrated on Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). The EBW propagates radially inward through a magnetic field that is either stochastic or has broken flux surfaces, before absorption on a substantially Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance (? = n*?_ce - k_parallel*v_parallel), where n is the harmonic number. Deposition depth is controllable with plasma current on a broad range (n=1-7) of harmonics. Novel techniques were required to measure the suprathermal electron tail generated by EBW heating in the presence of intense Ohmic heating. In the thick-shelled MST RFP, the radial accessibility of the EBW is limited to r/a > 0.8 ( 10 cm), where a=52cm is the minor radius, by magnetic field error induced by the porthole necessary for the antenna; accessibility in a thin-shelled device with actively controlled saddle coils (without the burden of substantial porthole field error) is likely to be r/a> 0.5 in agreement with ray tracing studies. Measured electron loss rates with falloff time constants in the 10s of micros imply a large, non-collisional radial diffusivity; collisional times with background particles are on the order of one millisecond. EBW-heated test electrons are used as a probe of edge (r/a > 0.9) radial transport, showing a modest transition from 'standard' to reduced-tearing RFP operation.
Dynamics of a reconnection-driven runaway ion tail in a reversed field pinch plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, J. K., E-mail: jkanders@wisc.edu; Kim, J.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Sears, S. H. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2016-05-15
While reconnection-driven ion heating is common in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, the underlying mechanisms for converting magnetic to kinetic energy remain not fully understood. Reversed field pinch discharges are often characterized by rapid ion heating during impulsive reconnection, generating an ion distribution with an enhanced bulk temperature, mainly perpendicular to magnetic field. In the Madison Symmetric Torus, a subset of discharges with the strongest reconnection events develop a very anisotropic, high energy tail parallel to magnetic field in addition to bulk perpendicular heating, which produces a fusion neutron flux orders of magnitude higher than that expected from a Maxwellian distribution. Here, we demonstrate that two factors in addition to a perpendicular bulk heating mechanism must be considered to explain this distribution. First, ion runaway can occur in the strong parallel-to-B electric field induced by a rapid equilibrium change triggered by reconnection-based relaxation; this effect is particularly strong on perpendicularly heated ions which experience a reduced frictional drag relative to bulk ions. Second, the confinement of ions varies dramatically as a function of velocity. Whereas thermal ions are governed by stochastic diffusion along tearing-altered field lines (and radial diffusion increases with parallel speed), sufficiently energetic ions are well confined, only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field. High energy ions traveling mainly in the direction of toroidal plasma current are nearly classically confined, while counter-propagating ions experience an intermediate confinement, greater than that of thermal ions but significantly less than classical expectations. The details of ion confinement tend to reinforce the asymmetric drive of the parallel electric field, resulting in a very asymmetric, anisotropic distribution.
Start-up assist by magnetized plasma flow injection in TPE-RX reversed-field pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asai, T. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)]. E-mail: asai@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp; Nagata, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji (Japan); Koguchi, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Sakakita, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Yambe, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)
2006-11-15
A reversed-field pinch (RFP) start-up assisted by a magnetized plasma flow injection was demonstrated for the first time on a TPE-RX machine. This sequence of experiments aimed to establish a new method of ionization, gas-fill and helicity injection in the start-up phase of an RFP. In this start-up method, magnetized and well-ionized plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and injected into the torus chamber as an initial pre-ionized plasma for RFP formation. In the initial experiments, attenuated density pump-out and comparatively slow decay of the toroidal flux and plasma current were observed as evidence of its being an effective start-up method.
Linear pinch driven by a moving compact torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, C.W.; Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.
1984-01-01
In principle, a Z-pinch of sufficiently large aspect ratio can provide arbitrarily high magnetic field intensity for the confinement of plasma. In practice, however, achievable field intensities and timescales are limited by parasitic inductances, pulse driver power, current, voltage, and voltage standoff of nearby insulating surfaces or surrounding gas. Further, instabilities may dominate to prevent high fields (kink mode) or enhance them (sausage mode) but in a nonuniform and uncontrollable way. In this paper we discuss an approach to producing a high-field-intensity pinch using a moving compact torus. The moving torus can serve as a very high power driver and may be used to compress a pre-established pinch field, switch on an accelerating pinch field, or may itself be reconfigured to form an intense pinch. In any case, the high energy, high energy density, and high velocity possible with an accelerated compact torus can provide extremely high power to overcome, by a number of orders of magnitude, the limitations to pinch formation described earlier. In this paper we will consider in detail pinches formed by reconfiguration of the compact torus
Reversed-field pinch configuration with minimum energy and finite beta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Peng
1989-01-01
The reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration has been studied for the case of finite beta. Suydam's condition and the sufficient criterion have been used to examine this configuration. Results of numerical calculations show that the critical value of the pinch parameter Θ for the appearance of the reverse toroidal field increases as the β-value increases. The critical value of Θ for the helical state increases with β as well. Suydam's and Robinson's stability regions increase and shift towards higher values of Θ with increasing β. Theoretical results for finite β coincide with recent RFP experimental results
Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.; Cheng, E.T.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H.
1988-03-01
TITAN-II is a compact, high power density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MWm/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a passive safety assurance design. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Cheng, E.T. (General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)); Grotz, S.P.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. for Plasma and Fusion Research); TITAN Research Group
1989-04-01
TITAN-II is a compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a level 2 of passive safety assurance design. (orig.).
Enhanced confinement with plasma biasing in the MST reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craig, D.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.
1997-06-01
We report an increase in particle confinement with plasma biasing in a reversed field pinch. Miniature plasma sources are used as electrodes to negatively bias the plasma at the edge (r/a ∼ 0.9). Particle content increases and H α radiation decreases upon application of bias and global particle confinement roughly doubles as a result. Measurements of plasma potential, impurity flow, and floating potential fluctuations indicate that strong flows are produced and that electrostatic fluctuations are reduced
Method and apparatus for producing average magnetic well in a reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkawa, T.
1983-01-01
A magnetic well reversed field plasma pinch method and apparatus produces hot magnetically confined pinch plasma in a toroidal chamber having a major toroidal axis and a minor toroidal axis and a small aspect ratio, e.g. < 6. A pinch current channel within the plasma and at least one hyperbolic magnetic axis outside substantially all of the plasma form a region of average magnetic well in a region surrounding the plasma current channel. The apparatus is operated so that reversal of the safety factor q and of the toroidal magnetic field takes place within the plasma. The well-producing plasma cross section shape is produced by a conductive shell surrounding the shaped envelope and by coils. A shell is of copper or aluminium with non-conductive breaks, and is bonded to a thin aluminium envelope by silicone rubber. (author)
The reversed-field pinch as a poloidal-field-dominated, compact, high-power-density fusion system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.
1988-01-01
This paper discusses the feasibility of reversed-field pinch devices as future thermonuclear reactors. Safety, cost, ion temperatures, Lawson numbers, and power densities are reviewed for these types of devices. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Resistive wall modes in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch
Brunsell, P. R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.
2003-10-01
Resistive wall modes (RWM) in the reversed field pinch are studied and a detailed comparison of experimental growth rates and linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is made. RWM growth rates are experimentally measured in the thin shell device EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1 (2001)]. Linear MHD calculations of RWM growth rates are based on experimental equilibria. Experimental and linear MHD RWM growth rate dependency on the equilibrium profiles is investigated experimentally by varying the pinch parameter Θ=Bθ(a)/ in the range Θ=1.5-1.8. Quantitative agreement between experimental and linear MHD growth rates is seen. The dominating RWMs are the internal on-axis modes (having the same helicity as the central equilibrium field). At high Θ, external nonresonant modes are also observed. For internal modes experimental growth rates decrease with Θ while for external modes, growth rates increase with Θ. The effect of RWMs on the reversed-field pinch plasma performance is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasqualini, D.; Martin, P.; Koguchi, H.; Yagi, Y.; Hirano, Y.; Sakakita, H.; Spizzo, G.
2006-01-01
The MHD instabilities that sustain the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration tend to phase-lock together and also to wall-lock, forming a bulging of the plasma column, called 'locked mode'. This phenomenon is of particular interest, since the locked mode causes a larger plasma resistivity, plasma cooling, and, in some cases, anomalous discharge termination. Up to now, studies of the locked mode have been focused on m=1 modes (being m the poloidal mode number). In this Letter we show that m=0 modes also play a role, based on the cross-check between magnetic spectra and toroidally resolved D α array measurements. (author)
Initial reversed-field pinch experiments on ZT-40 and recent advances in RFP theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1980-01-01
The ZT-40 reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been operated in several modes: (1) without reversed toroidal field, (2) with self reversal, and (3) with aided reversal. An analytic ohmic heating and ignition model both confirm and provide guidance for transport codes. Nondissipative formation schemes have been analyzed and ideal MHD stable evolution and burn scenarios have been found. Particle and fluid simulations have produced qualitative agreement with respect to the nonlinear behavior of m = 0 resistive g-modes. Helical ohmic reversed field states are produced by a 2-D dynamical simulation, and nonlinear analytic work describes the final state. A fast resistive MHD code for linear stability has clarified the relations between several kinds of resistive instabilities. Ballooning modes and g-modes in systems with arbitrary magnetic shear including resistivity and viscosity, have been studied in a unified treatment with growth rate vs wavenumber showing the existence of important cutoffs
Effects of compressibility and heating in magnetohydrodynamics simulations of a reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2009-01-01
The reversed field pinch is studied using numerical simulations of the compressible magnetohydrodynamics equations. Contrary to what has been done in previous works, the hypotheses of constant density and vanishing pressure are not used. Two cases are investigated. In the first case the pressure is derived from an adiabatic condition and in the second case the pressure equation includes heating terms due to resistivity and viscosity. The evolution of the reversal parameter and the production of single helicity or multiple helicity states are different in the two cases. The simulations show that the results are affected by compressibility and are very sensitive to hypotheses on heat production.
Numerical modeling of formation of helical structures in reversed-field-pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizuguchi, N.; Ichiguchi, K.; Todo, Y.; Sanpei, A.; Oki, K.; Masamune, S.; Himura, H.
2012-11-01
Nonlinear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) simulations have been executed for the low-aspect-ratio reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasma to reveal the physical mechanism of the formation processes of helical structures. The simulation results show a clear formation of n=4 structure as a result of dominant growth of resistive modes, where n represents the toroidal mode number. The resultant relaxed helical state consists of a unique bean-shaped and hollow pressure profile in the poloidal cross section for both cases of resonant and non-resonant triggering instability modes. The results are partially comparable to the experimental observations. The physical mechanisms of those processes are examined. (author)
Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R
Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.
2005-08-01
The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E × B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport.
Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsaaker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.R.
2005-01-01
The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E x B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport
Characteristics of a large reversed field pinch machine, TPE-RX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, Y.; Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Sekine, S.; Sakakita, H.; Koguchi, H.; Kiyama, S.; Maejima, Y.; Hirota, I.; Hayase, K.; Sato, Y.; Sugisaki, K.; Oyabu, I.; Hasegawa, M.; Yamane, M.; Sato, F.; Kuno, K.; Minato, T.; Kiryu, A.; Takagi, S.; Sako, K.; Kudough, F.; Urata, K.; Orita, J.; Kaguchi, H.; Sago, H.; Ue, K.
1998-01-01
Construction of a new, large reversed field pinch (RFP) machine called TPE-RX was complete at the end of 1997 as a successor of the previous TPE-1RM20 machine at the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL). RFP configuration has been successfully obtained in March 1998. The optimization of the operating condition and discharge cleaning of the wall are presently undergoing with the first physics experiments. This paper is the first report of TPE-RX especially on the goals, overall machine characteristics and the present status. Other papers accompanying with this one will present specific topics on the magnetic coil system and the vacuum vessel system. (author)
Characteristics of a large reversed field pinch machine, TPE-RX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yagi, Y.; Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Sekine, S.; Sakakita, H.; Koguchi, H.; Kiyama, S.; Maejima, Y.; Hirota, I.; Hayase, K.; Sato, Y.; Sugisaki, K. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Oyabu, I.; Hasegawa, M.; Yamane, M.; Sato, F.; Kuno, K.; Minato, T.; Kiryu, A.; Takagi, S.; Sako, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Kudough, F.; Urata, K.; Orita, J.; Kaguchi, H.; Sago, H.; Ue, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan)
1998-07-01
Construction of a new, large reversed field pinch (RFP) machine called TPE-RX was complete at the end of 1997 as a successor of the previous TPE-1RM20 machine at the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL). RFP configuration has been successfully obtained in March 1998. The optimization of the operating condition and discharge cleaning of the wall are presently undergoing with the first physics experiments. This paper is the first report of TPE-RX especially on the goals, overall machine characteristics and the present status. Other papers accompanying with this one will present specific topics on the magnetic coil system and the vacuum vessel system. (author)
Magnetic divertor design for the compact reversed-field pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1984-01-01
A recently completed design of a pumped-limiter-based Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor is used to estimate for the first time the impact of magnetic divertors. A range of divertor options for the low-toroidal-field RFP is examined, and a design selection is made constrained by consideration of field ripple (magnetic island), blanket displacement, recirculating power, cost, heat flux, and access. Design choices based on diversion of minority (toroidal) field lead to a preference for (poloidally) symmetric or bundle divertor geometries
Data-acquisition system of the reversed field pinch device REPUTE-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuzuki, N.; Aoki, H.; Shinohara, H.; Toyama, H.; Morikawa, J.
1988-01-01
The new, compact data-acquisition system of the reversed field pinch device, REPUTE-1, is reported. Its distinctive feature is high flexibility and easy handling. The interface between the computer and measurement devices is CAMAC. The computer and the CAMAC devices are connected to a CAMAC byte serial highway that transmits setup parameters and acquisition data. The computer carries out setup of CAMAC devices and data acquisition automatically by use of CAMAC parameters and the acquisition data base. The maintenance tools for the data base are also provided. The computer system, which consists of a ''TOSBAC DS-600,'' has been in operation for REPUTE-1 since 1985
The reversed-field-pinch (RFP) fusion neutron source: A conceptual design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.
1989-01-01
The conceptual design of an ohmically heated, reversed-field pinch (RFP) operating at ∼5-MW/m 2 steady-state DT fusion neutron wall loading and ∼124-MW total fusion power is presented. These results are useful in projecting the development of a cost effective, low input power (∼206 MW) source of DT neutrons for large-volume (∼10 m 3 ), high-fluence (3.4 MW yr/m 2 ) fusion nuclear materials and technology testing. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs
Alpha effect of Alfven waves and current drive in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litwin, C.; Prager, S.C.
1997-10-01
Circularly polarized Alfven waves give rise to an α-dynamo effect that can be exploited to drive parallel current. In a open-quotes laminarclose quotes magnetic the effect is weak and does not give rise to significant currents for realistic parameters (e.g., in tokamaks). However, in reversed field pinches (RFPs) in which magnetic field in the plasma core is stochastic, a significant enhancement of the α-effect occurs. Estimates of this effect show that it may be a realistic method of current generation in the present-day RFP experiments and possibly also in future RFP-based fusion reactors
MHD computation of feedback of resistive-shell instabilities in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zita, E.J.; Prager, S.C.
1992-05-01
MHD computation demonstrates that feedback can sustain reversal and reduce loop voltage in resistive-shell reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. Edge feedback on ∼2R/a tearing modes resonant near axis is found to restore plasma parameters to nearly their levels with a close-fitting conducting shell. When original dynamo modes are stabilized, neighboring tearing modes grow to maintain the RFP dynamo more efficiently. This suggests that experimentally observed limits on RFP pulselengths to the order of the shell time can be overcome by applying feedback to a few helical modes
Numerical studies of active current profile control in the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahlin, J-E; Scheffel, J; Anderson, J K
2007-01-01
Quenching of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) dynamo is observed in numerical simulations using current profile control. A novel algorithm employing active feedback of the dynamo field has been utilized. The quasi-steady state achieved represents an important improvement as compared with earlier numerical work and may indicate a direction for the design of future experiments. Both earlier and the novel schemes of feedback control result in quasi-single helicity states. The energy confinement time and poloidal beta are observed to be substantially increased, as compared with the conventional RFP, in both the cases. Different techniques for experimental implementation are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onchi, T; Fujisawa, A; Sanpei, A; Himura, H; Masamune, S
2017-01-01
Permutation entropy and statistical complexity are measures for complex time series. The Bandt–Pompe methodology evaluates probability distribution using permutation. The method is robust and effective to quantify information of time series data. Statistical complexity is the product of Jensen–Shannon divergence and permutation entropy. These physical parameters are introduced to analyse time series of emission and magnetic fluctuations in low-aspect-ratio reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma. The observed time-series data aggregates in a region of the plane, the so-called C – H plane, determined by entropy versus complexity. The C – H plane is a representation space used for distinguishing periodic, chaos, stochastic and noisy processes of time series data. The characteristics of the emissions and magnetic fluctuation change under different RFP-plasma conditions. The statistical complexities of soft x-ray emissions and magnetic fluctuations depend on the relationships between reversal and pinch parameters. (paper)
Fusion core start-up, ignition, and burn simulations of reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, Y.Y.
1988-01-01
A transient reactor simulation model is developed to investigate and simulate the start-up, ignition, and burn of a reversed-field pinch reactor. The simulation is based upon a spatially averaged plasma balance model with field profiles obtained from MHD quasi-equilibrium analysis. Alpha particle heating is estimated from Fokker-Planck calculations. The instantaneous plasma current is derived from a self-consistent circuit analysis for plasma/coil/eddy current interactions. The simulation code is applied to the TITAN RFP reactor design which features a compact, high-power-density reversed-field pinch fusion system. A contour analysis is performed using the steady-state global plasma balance. The results are presented with contours of constant plasma current. A saddle point is identified in the contour plot which determined the minimum value of plasma current required to achieve ignition. In the simulations of the TITAN RFP reactor, the OH-driven super-conducting EF coils are found to deviate from the required equilibrium values as the induced plasma current increases. A set of basic results from the simulation of TITAN RFP reactor yield a picture of RFP plasma operation in a reactor. Investigations of eddy currents are also presented and have very important in reactor design
Toroidal fusion reactor design based on the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.
1978-07-01
The toroidal reversed-field pinch (RFP) achieves gross equilibrium and stability with a combination of high shear and wall stabilization, rather than the imposition of tokamak-like q-constraints. Consequently, confinement is provided primarily by poloidal magnetic fields, poloidal betas as large as approximately 0.58 are obtainable, the high ohmic-heating (toroidal) current densities promise a sole means of heating a D-T plasma to ignition, and the plasma aspect ratio is not limited by stability/equilibrium constraints. A reactor-like plasma model has been developed in order to quantify and to assess the general features of a power system based upon RFP confinement. An ''operating point'' has been generated on the basis of this plasma model and a relatively detailed engineering energy balance. These results are used to generate a conceptual engineering model of the reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR) which includes a general description of a 750 MWe power plant and the preliminary consideration of vacuum/fueling, first wall, blanket, magnet coils, iron core, and the energy storage/transfer system
Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): fusion-power-core integration study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copenhaver, C.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schnurr, N.M.
1985-08-01
Using detailed two-dimensional neutronics studies based on the results of a previous framework study (LA-10200-MS), the fusion-power-core (FPC) integration, maintenance, and radio-activity/afterheat control are examined for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR). While maintaining as a base case the nominal 20-MW/m 2 neutron first-wall loading design, CRFPR(20), the cost and technology impact of lower-wall-loading designs are also examined. The additional detail developed as part of this follow-on study also allows the cost estimates to be refined. The cost impact of multiplexing lower-wall-loading FPCs into a approx. 1000-MWe(net) plant is also examined. The CRFPR(20) design remains based on a PbLi-cooled FPC with pressurized-water used as a coolant for first-wall, pumped-limiter, and structural-shield systems. Single-piece FPC maintenance of this steady-state power plant is envisaged and evaluated on the basis of a preliminary layout of the reactor building. This follow-on study also develops the groundwork for assessing the feasibility and impact of impurity/ash control by magnetic divertors as an alternative to previously considered pumped-limiter systems. Lastly, directions for future, more-detailed power-plant designs based on the Reversed-Field Pinch are suggested
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakakita, H.; Asai, T.; Fiksel, G.; Yagi, Y.; Frassinetti, L.; Hayase, K.; Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.; Shimada, T.; Innocente, P.; Spizzo, G.; Terranova, D.; Sato, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.
2005-01-01
We present the characteristics and experimental scaling laws of reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas, which are obtained from the recently established toroidal pinch experiment (TPE) database. The database contains information for approximately 1500 discharges consistently selected from four TPE RFP devices, and covers two decades of RFP experiments under conventional operating conditions at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. We present the physics of the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) discharges in the TPE-RX RFP device, and a comparison of the improved energy confinement time in PPCD, τ E P PCD , with τ E s caling as the reference scaling law (τ E s caling ∼ a 1.63 (I P 0.78 (I P /N) 0.33 Θ 2.97 ) in the TPE database, is attempted. The result shows that τ E P PCD agrees well with τ E s caling because of the strong pinch parameter dependence on the TPE scaling law. A potential improved confinement mode in the quasi-single-helicity (QSH) state is also investigated in TPE-RX, with respect to the operation conditions under which the QSH spontaneously appears in the core region, where a typical island structure is observed by means of soft Xray tomography. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.
1984-01-01
The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer--Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches
Comparison study of toroidal-field divertors for a compact reversed-field pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.
1985-01-01
Two divertor configurations for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) based on diverting the minority (toroidal) field have been reported. A critical factor in evaluating the performance of both poloidally symmetric and bundle divertor configurations is the accurate determination of the divertor connection length and the monitoring of magnetic islands introduced by the divertors, the latter being a three-dimensional effect. To this end the poloidal-field, toroidal-field, and divertor coils and the plasma currents are simulated in three dimensions for field-line tracings in both the divertor channel and the plasma-edge regions. The results of this analysis indicate a clear preference for the poloidally symmetric toroidal-field divertor. Design modifications to the limiter-based CRFPR design that accommodate this divertor are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2010-01-01
A compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the reversed-field pinch is performed including anisotropic thermal conductivity. When the thermal conductivity is much larger in the direction parallel to the magnetic field than in the perpendicular direction, magnetic field lines become isothermal. As a consequence, as long as magnetic surfaces exist, a temperature distribution is observed displaying a hotter confined region, while an almost uniform temperature is produced when the magnetic field lines become chaotic. To include this effect in the numerical simulation, we use a multiple-time-scale analysis, which allows us to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity. The resulting temperature distribution is related to the existence of closed magnetic surfaces, as observed in experiments. The magnetic field is also affected by the presence of an anisotropic thermal conductivity.
Temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2010-01-01
The temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is investigated including thermal conductivity. For numerical reasons, an isotropic thermal conductivity is used, even though in a RFP plasma the parallel conductivity is much larger than the perpendicular one so that magnetic field lines tend to become isothermal. The system shows alternating multiple helicity states and quasi-single helicity states. Single-helical-axis states are formed when the amplitude of the dominant mode is above a determined threshold, as observed in experiments. The relation between heat transport and magnetic field topology that is observed in RFP experiments cannot be found in the simulation, since thermal conductivity is independent of the magnetic field. This difficulty should be taken into account in the numerical investigation of the RFP dynamics. In this paper, the first description of the temperature evolution in a compressible MHD simulation of a RFP is given.
Role of anisotropic thermal conductivity in the reversed-field pinch dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2011-01-01
Two compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch are performed, with isotropic and anisotropic thermal conductivity. We describe in detail the numerical method we use to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity, which makes magnetic field lines almost isothermal. We compare the results of the two simulations, showing that the anisotropic thermal conductivity causes the formation of a hot island when closed magnetic surfaces exist, while temperature becomes almost uniform when the magnetic field is chaotic. After a transient single-helicity state that is formed in the initial phase, a stationary state is reached where the RFP configuration exists in a multiple helicity state, even though the Hartmann number is below the threshold found in previous simulations for the formation of multiple helicity states.
Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallander, J.
1999-01-01
Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities. (author)
Reversed-field pinch experiments in EXTRAP T2R with a resistive shell boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malmberg, J.-A.; Cecconello, M.; Brunsell, P.R.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.
2003-01-01
The EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch has a resistive shell with a magnetic penetration time of 6 ms. This time is intermediate between the dynamo/relaxation cycle time scale (<2ms) and the pulse length (∼20ms). The resonant tearing modes do not wall-lock. They rotate with angular phase velocities in the range of 20 to 600 krad/s. As a result of the rotation the radial component of the perturbations at the shell from the resonant modes is suppressed. Non-resonant (resistive-wall) kink modes are unstable and their linear growth rates have been measured. The measured growth rates follow the trend expected from theoretical estimates for a range of equilibrium parameters. Furthermore, when the resonant modes are rotating, the loop voltage and confinement parameters have values comparable to those of a conducting shell RFP. The poloidal beta is around 10% for a range of current and density. (author)
Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
Sallander, J.
1999-05-01
Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiina, S.; Yagi, Y.; Sugimoto, H.; Ashida, H.; Hirano, Y.; Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Taguchi, M.; Nagamine, Y.; Osanai, Y.; Saito, K.; Watanabe, M.; Aizawa, M.
2005-01-01
Dominant plasma self-induced current equilibrium is achieved together with the high β for the steady-state neoclassical reversed field pinch (RFP) equilibrium with low aspect ratio by broadening the plasma pressure profile. The RF-driven current, when the safety factor is smaller than unity, is much less than the self-induced current, which dominates (96%) the toroidal current. This neoclassical RFP equilibrium has strong magnetic shear or a high-stability beta (β t = 63%) due to its hollow current profile. It is shown that the obtained equilibrium is close to the relaxed-equilibrium state with a minimum energy, and is also robust against microinstabilities. These attractive features allow the economical design of compact steady-state fusion power plants with low cost of electricity (COE). (author)
Tritium systems for the TITAN reversed-field pinch fusion reactor design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, R.C.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Gierszewski, P.J.
1987-01-01
Tritium systems for the TITAN reversed-field pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study have been designed for two blanket concepts. The TITAN-1 design uses a self-cooled liquid-lithium blanket. The TITAN-2 design uses a self-cooled aqueous-solution blanket, with lithium nitrate dissolved in the water for tritium breeding. Tritium inventory, release, and safety margins are within regulatory limits, at acceptable costs. Major issues for TITAN-1 are plasma-driven permeation, the need for a secondary coolant loop, tritium storage requirements, redundancy in the plasma exhaust system, and minimal isotopic distillation of the exhaust. TITAN-1 fuel cleanup, reprocessing, and air detritiation systems are described in detail
Electrical design of a high current density air-core reversed-field pinch ''ZTP''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reass, W.A.; Cribble, R.F.; Melton, J.G.
1983-01-01
This paper describes the electrical design of a small, high current density (10 MA/m 2 ) toroidal reversed-field Z-Pinch (RFP) presently being constructed at Los Alamos. Special purpose magnetic field programs were used to calculate self and mutual inductances for the poloidal field windings. The network analysis program MINI-SCEPTRE was then used to predict plasma current, including the interaction between toroidal and poloidal field circuits, as described by the Bessel function model for RFP's. Using these programs, coil geometry was obtained for minimal field errors and the pulse power systems were optimized to minimize equilibrium control power. Results of computer modeling and implementation of the electrical circuits are presented
The reversed-field pinch: a compact approach to fusion power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.
1985-01-01
The potential of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) for development into an efficient, compact, copper-coil fusion reactor has been quantified by comprehensive parametric tradeoff studies. This compact system promises to be competitive in size, power density, and cost to alternative energy sources. Conceptual engineering designs that substantiate these promising results have been completed. This 1000 MW(e) (net) design is described along with a detailed rationale and physics/technology assessment for the compact approach to fusion. The RFP presents a robust plasma confinement system capable of providing a range of reactor systems that are compact in both physical size and/or net power output while ensuring acceptable cost and engineering feasibility for a range of assumed physics performance. (author)
Plasma performance and scaling laws in the RFX-mod reversed-field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Innocente, P.; Alfier, A.; Canton, A.; Pasqualotto, R.
2009-01-01
The large range of plasma currents (I p = 0.2-1.6 MA) and feedback-controlled magnetic boundary conditions of the RFX-mod experiment make it well suited to performing scaling studies. The assessment of such scaling, in particular those on temperature and energy confinement, is crucial both for improving the operating reversed-field pinch (RFP) devices and for validating the RFP configuration as a candidate for the future fusion reactors. For such a purpose scaling laws for magnetic fluctuations, temperature and energy confinement have been evaluated in stationary operation. RFX-mod scaling laws have been compared with those obtained from other RFP devices and numerical simulations. The role of the magnetic boundary has been analysed, comparing discharges performed with different active control schemes of the edge radial magnetic field.
High beta plasma confinement and neoclassical effects in a small aspect ratio reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayase, K.; Sugimoto, H.; Ashida, H.
2003-01-01
The high β equilibrium and stability of a reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration with a small aspect ratio are theoretically studied. The equilibrium profile, high beta limit and the bootstrap current effect on those are calculated. The Mercier stable critical β decreases with 1/A, but β∼0.2 is permissible at A=2 with help of edge current profile modification. The effect of bootstrap current is evaluated for various pressure and current profiles and cross-sectional shapes of plasma by a self-consistent neoclassical PRSM equilibrium formulation. The high bootstrap current fraction (F bs ) increases the shear stabilization effect in the core region, which enhances significantly the stability β limit compared with that for the classical equilibrium. These features of small aspect ratio RFP, high β and high F bs , and a possibly easier access to the quasi-single helicity state beside the intrinsic compact structure are attractive for the feasible economical RFP reactor concept. (author)
Magnetic islands at the field reversal surface in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinsker, R.I.; Reiman, A.H.
1985-09-01
In the reversed field pinch (RFP), magnetic field perturbations having zero poloidal mode number and any toroidal mode number are resonant at the field reversal surface. Such perturbations are a particular threat to the RFP because of their weak radial dependence at low toroidal mode number, and because the toroidal field ripple is essentially of this type. The widths of the resulting islands are calculated in this paper. The self-consistent plasma response is included through the assumption that the plasma relaxes to a Taylor force-free state. The connection with linear tearing mode theory is established for those limits where arbitrarily large islands result from infinitesimal perturbations. Toroidal effects are considered, and application of the theory to RFP experiments is discussed
Ohm close-quote s law for plasmas in reversed field pinch configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martines, E.; Vallone, F.
1997-01-01
An analytical relationship between current density and applied electric field in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas has been derived in the framework of the kinetic dynamo theory, that is assuming a radial field-aligned momentum transport caused by the magnetic field stochasticity. This Ohm close-quote s law yields current density profiles with a poloidal current density at the edge which can sustain the magnetic field configuration against resistive diffusion. The dependence of the loop voltage on plasma current and other plasma parameters for RFP experiments has been obtained. The results of the theoretical work have been compared with experimental data from the RFX experiment, and a good agreement has been found. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Electrical design of a high current density air-core reversed-field pinch ZTP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reass, W.A.; Melton, J.G.; Gribble, R.F.
1983-01-01
This paper describes the electrical design of a small, high current density (10 MA/m 2 ) toroidal reversed-field Z-Pinch (RFP) presently being constructed at Los Alamos. Special purpose magnetic field programs were used to calculate self and mutual inductances for the poloidal field windings. The network analysis program MINI-SCEPTRE was then used to predict plasma current, including the interaction between toroidal and poloidal field circuits, as described by the Bessel function model for RFP's. Using these programs, coil geometry was obtained for minimal field errors and the pulse power systems were optimized to minimize equilibrium control power. Results of computer modeling and implementation of the electrical circuits are presented
Edge-plasmas and wall protection in RFPs [Reversed-Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werley, K.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.
1988-01-01
The Reverse-Field Pinch (RFP) has the ability to operate as a compact, moderate-to-high beta, high-power-density system. A compact system requires careful control of the particle and heat fluxes impinging on plasma-facing components. A strongly recycling, toroidal-field open divertor combined with a highly radiating (>90% of plasma heating power) core plasma is required. An open divertor configuration locates the plate near the field null to take advantage of the flux expansion and minimum poloidal asymmetries to minimize peak heat fluxes. The physics and engineering requirements are quantitatively discussed for an evolutionary sequence of impurity/ash-control schemes for AT-40M (0.4 MA) → ZT-P (0.08 MA) → ZTH (2-4 MA) → FTF/RFP (10 MA) → TITAN (18 MA). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
A one-dimensional plasma and impurity transport model for reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veerasingam, R.
1991-11-01
In this thesis a one-dimensional (1-D) plasma and impurity transport model is developed to address issues related to impurity behavior in Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) fusion plasmas. A coronal non-equilibrium model is used for impurities. The impurity model is incorporated into an existing one dimensional plasma transport model creating a multi-species plasma transport model which treats the plasma and impurity evolution self-consistently. Neutral deuterium particles are treated using a one-dimensional (slab) model of neutral transport. The resulting mode, RFPBI, is then applied to existing RFP devices such as ZT-40M and MST, and also to examine steady state behavior of ZTH based on the design parameters. A parallel algorithm for the impurity transport equations is implemented and tested to determine speedup and efficiency
Confinement improvement with rf poloidal current drive in the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hokin, S.; Sarff, J.; Sovinec, C.; Uchimoto, E.
1994-01-01
External control of the current profile in a reversed-field pinch (RFP), by means such as rf poloidal current drive, may have beneficial effects well beyond the direct reduction of Ohmic input power due to auxiliary heating. Reduction of magnetic turbulence associated with the dynamo, which drives poloidal current in a conventional RFP, may allow operation at lower density and higher electron temperature, for which rf current drive becomes efficient and the RFP operates in a more favorable regime on the nτ vs T diagram. Projected parameters for RFX at 2 MA axe studied as a concrete example. If rf current drive allows RFX to operate with β = 10% (plasma energy/magnetic energy) at low density (3 x 10 19 m -3 ) with classical resistivity (i.e. without dynamo-enhanced power input), 40 ms energy confinement times and 3 keV temperatures will result, matching the performance of tokamaks of similar size
Thermal instabilities in the edge region of reversed-field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goedert, J.; Mondt, J.P.
1984-04-01
Thermal stability of the edge region of reversed-field pinch configurations is analyzed within the context of a two-fluid model. Two major sources of instability are identified in combination with a parallel electric field: either an electron temperature gradient and/or a density gradient that leads to rapid growth (of several to many ohmic heating rates) over a region of several millimeters around the mode-rational surfaces in the edge region. The basic signature of both instabilities is electrostatic. In the case of the density gradient mode, the signature relies on the effects of electron compressibility, whereas the temperature gradient mode can be identified as the current-convective instability by taking the limit of zero diamagnetic drift, density gradient, thermal force, drift heat flux, and electron compressibility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dreicer, H.
1987-09-01
Potential commercial fusion power systems must be acceptable from a safety and environmental standpoint. They must also promise to be competitive with other sources of energy (i.e., fossil, fission, etc.) when considered from the standpoint of the cost of electricity (COE) and the unit direst cost (UDC) in ($/kWe). These costs are affected by a host of factors including recirculating power, plant availability, construction time, capital cost etc., and are, thus, influenced by technological complexity. In a attempt to meet these requirements, the emphasis of fusion research in the United States has been moving toward smaller, lower-cost systems. There is increased interest in higher beta tokamaks and stellarators, and in compact alternate concepts such as the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) and the Compact Toroids (CTs) which are, in part, the subject of this paper
A comprehensive theory of the equilibria in a tokamak and a reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiyoda, Katsuji
1996-01-01
The equilibrium configuration of a tokamak is analysed by the equilibrium equations derived for analysing a reversed field pinch (RFP). The expressions of the magnetic field and the toroidal shift in the internal plasma region and the external vacuum region are obtained. The expressions in the vacuum region become the Shafranov's expressions, when the plasma-center coordinates is used. Discontinuities of the equilibrium quantities are considered. It is concluded that the equilibrium equations are applicable also to the tokamak plasma and that the difference of the equilibria between the tokamak and the RFP stems from the choices of the pressure and the toroidal current function. A feature of our theory is that any ordering to the safety factor is not imposed. (author)
Role of magnetic reconnection phenomena in the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.
1983-01-01
The reversed-field pinch (RFP), an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic confinement experiment, has physics rich in the area commonly called field line reconnection or merging. This paper reviews the topics where reconnection plays a vital role: (a) RFP formation and the phenomenon of self-reversal, (b) RFP sustainment in which the RFP configuration has been shown to be capable of maintaining itself for times much longer than earlier predictions from classical resistive MHD theory, (c) steady state current drive in which dynamo action and associated reconnection processes give rise to the possibility of sustaining the configuration indefinitely by means of low frequency ac modulation of the toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, (d) the effects of reconnection on the formation and evolution of the magnetic surfaces which are intimately related to the plasma containment properties. It appears that all phases of the RFP operation are intimately related to the reconnection and field regeneration processes similar to those encountered in space and astrophysics
Gravestijn, Bob
2003-01-01
The determination of the plasma confinement propertiesdemand data as the electron temperature, the ionic and electrondensity profiles and the radiative emissivity profiles. Thefocus of this thesis is the importance of radial profiles inspectroscopic diagnostics applied to the EXTRAP-T2Rreversed-field pinch. EXTRAP-T2R is a resistive shell reversed-field pinch with amagnetic field shell penetration time much longer than therelaxation cycle time scale. Significant improvements inconfinement pro...
Energetic electron measurements in the edge of a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ingraham, J.C.; Ellis, R.F.; Downing, J.N.; Munson, C.P.; Weber, P.G.; Wurden, G.A.
1990-01-01
The edge plasma of the ZT-40M [Fusion Technol. 8, 1571 (1985)] reversed-field pinch has been studied using a combination of three different plasma probes: a double-swept Langmuir probe, an electrostatic energy analyzer, and a calorimeter--Langmuir probe. The edge plasma has been measured both with and without a movable graphite tile limiter present nearby in the plasma. Without a limiter a fast nonthermal tail of electrons (T congruent 350 eV) is detected in the edge plasma with nearly unidirectional flow along B and having a density between 2% and 10% of the cold edge plasma (T congruent 20 eV). The toroidal sense of this fast electron flow is against the force of the applied electric field. A large power flux along B is measured flowing in the same direction as the fast electrons and is apparently carried by the fast electrons. With the limiter present the fast electrons are still detected in the plasma, but are strongly attenuated in the shadow of the limiter. The measured scrape-off lengths for both the fast electrons and the cold plasma indicate cross-field transport at the rate of, or less than, Bohm diffusion. Estimates indicate that the fast electrons could carry the reversed-field pinch current density at the edge and, from the measured transverse diffusion rates, could also account for the electron energy loss channel in ZT-40 M. The long mean-free-path kinetic nature of these fast electrons suggests that a kinetic process, rather than a magnetohydrodynamic process that is based upon a local Ohm's law formulation, is responsible for their generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, Y.; Maejima, Y.; Zollino, G.
2001-01-01
Confinement characteristics of the TPE series reversed field pinch (RFP) machines, TPE-1RM15, TPE-1RM20 and TPE-1RM20mod, at Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) are summarized. Especially data are synthesized in respect to the effects of the different boundary structures of the machines, where shell proximity and overlapped poloidal shell gaps by the multi-layered shell structure are featured. Comparison of the experimental results is shown in terms of the characteristics of magnetic fluctuations, global confinement properties in general, operation capability of the improved confinement in high pinch parameter (Q) discharges and locked mode events. Linear growth rate of the unstable modes as a function of the shell distance is numerically simulated. Understandings of RFP plasma physics have also made progress by the most recent intensive experiments on correlation studies between fast electrons and dynamo activities and measurement of the plasma and mode rotation. TPE-1RM20mod was shutdown in December 1996 and new RFP experiment has started in TPE-RX from March 1998. The new machine also succeeds the concept of the shell configuration of the TPE-1RM20. (author)
A study of reversed field pinch experiments using a new programming mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kita, Y.
1979-08-01
A new mode of external-field programming for setting up a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is tested in STP-1. It involves creating an initial plasma with a screw pinch followed by external-field reversal. The program is done carefully so as to satisfy the equilibrium relation with respect to the minor radius throughout the setting-up phase. Increase of the trapped flux in the plasma by a factor of two is consequently attained, as compared with previous usual programming mode. Actually, at a plasma current of 58 kA, a stable operation time of 13 μsec is achieved with a density of 3.5 x 10 15 cm -3 and a temperature of 20 eV. After 13 μsec stable operation time, the plasma is suddenly crashed down by a violent MHD instability. One dimensional stability analysis based on ideal MHD model is applied to the experimental results. It is found that the instability is m = 1 resistive tearing mode under the influence of viscosity. Using the new programming high current operation at 110 kA is done and results in higher plasma temperature and density of 40 eV and 4.5 x 10 15 cm -3 , respectively. The duration of stable discharge, however, is limited to about 10 μsec, in spite of the expected longer confinement time at the higher temperature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scardovelli, R.A.; Nebel, R.A.; Werley, K.A.; Miley, G.H.
1987-01-01
Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD) is based on the premise that in order to sustain a relaxing Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma, one needs only to supply magnetic helicity at the same rate it is consumed. The purpose of this work is to try to better understand the possible mechanisms underlying these relaxations within the context of different kinds of resistive MHD instabilities
Magnetic fluctuation driven cross-field particle transport in the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.; Liu, D.
1997-01-01
Electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations generally cause cross-field particle transport in confined plasmas. Thus core localized turbulence must be kept at low levels for sufficient energy confinement in magnetic fusion plasmas. Reversed-field pinch (RFP) equilibria can, theoretically, be completely stable to ideal and resistive (tearing) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes at zero beta. Unstable resistive interchange modes are, however, always present at experimentally relevant values of the poloidal beta β θ . An analytical quasilinear, ambipolar diffusion model is here used to model associated particle transport. The results indicate that core density fluctuations should not exceed a level of about 1% for plasmas of fusion interest. Parameters of experimentally relevant stationary states of the RFP were adjusted to minimize growth rates, using a fully resistive linearized MHD stability code. Density gradient effects are included through employing a parabolic density profile. The scaling of particle diffusion [D(r)∝λ 2 n 0.5 T/aB, where λ is the mode width] is such that the effects of particle transport are milder in present day RFP experiments than in future reactor-relevant plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR): sensitivity study and design-point determination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1982-07-01
If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique, magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. A comprehensive system model is developed and described for a steady-state, compact RFP reactor (CRFPR). This model is used to select a unique cost-optimized design point that will be used for a conceptual engineering design. The cost-optimized CRFPR design presented herein would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants and are an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion power. The sensitivity of the base-case design point to changes in plasma transport, profiles, beta, blanket thickness, normal vs superconducting coils, and fuel cycle (DT vs DD) is examined. The RFP approach is found to yield a point design for a high-power-density reactor that is surprisingly resilient to changes in key, but relatively unknown, physics and systems parameters
Simulation study of self-sustainment mechanism in reversed-field pinch configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusano, Kanya; Sato, Tetsuya.
1989-09-01
3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are carried out in order to reveal the fundamental mechanism of the self-sustainment process in the reversed-field pinch plasma. It is confirmed that the RFP configuration is sustained in a cyclic process, where the MHD relaxation phase and the resistive diffusion phase appear cyclically and alternatively. In the MHD relaxation process, the RFP plasma approaches a Taylor's minimum energy state, but it departs from there in the diffusion process. In other words, since MHD relaxation processes periodically release excess magnetic energy accumulated in the resistive diffusion phase, RFP plasma can stay in the neighborhood of the minimum energy state. The mechanism of this cyclic process is disclosed. Namely, when at least two ideal kink (m = 1) modes becomes unstable, MHD relaxation can take place. This is because the MHD relaxation progresses through nonlinear reconnection of the m = 0 mode, which is driven by nonlinear coupling between the unstable kink modes. Therefore, self-sustainment processes can be achieved by the nonlinear effects of essentially the m = 0 and 1 modes. The quantitative dependence of the relaxation-diffusion cycle on the aspect ratio of the device is considered along with its dependence on the magnetic Reynolds, number. These results are consistent with recent experiments and indicate that a coherent oscillation, which is often observed in experiments, is necessary for self-sustainment. The influence of self-sustainment processes on particle confinement is briefly discussed. (author)
Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.
2006-07-01
Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of td≈10τw is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.
Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R
Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J. R.; Rachlew, E.
2006-11-01
Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size.
Scaling of confinement and profiles in the EXTRAP T2 reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welander, A.
1999-01-01
In the Extrap T2 reversed-field pinch the diagnostic techniques for the measurement of electron density and temperature include; Thomson scattering which gives values at three radial positions in the core (r/a=0, 0.28, 0.56), Langmuir probes which give values at the edge (r/a>0.9) and interferometry which gives a line-averaged density. The empirical scaling of electron density and temperature including profile information with global plasma parameters has been studied. The density profile is subject to large variations, with an average parabolic shape when the density is low and flatter shapes when the density is increased. The change in the profile shape can be attributed to a shift in the penetration length of neutrals from the vicinity of the wall. The temperature scales roughly as I/n 1/2 where I is the plasma current and n is the density. The temperature profile is always quite flat with lower variations and there is a tendency for a flatter profile at higher temperatures. (author)
Scaling of confinement and profiles in the EXTRAP T2 reversed-field pinch
Welander, A.
1999-01-01
In the EXTRAP T2 reversed-field pinch the diagnostic techniques for the measurement of electron density and temperature include; Thomson scattering which gives values at three radial positions in the core (r/a = 0, 0.28, 0.56), Langmuir probes which give values at the edge (r/a > 0.9) and interferometry which gives a line-averaged density. The empirical scaling of electron density and temperature including profile information with global plasma parameters has been studied. The density profile is subject to large variations, with an average parabolic shape when the density is low and flatter shapes when the density is increased. The change in the profile shape can be attributed to a shift in the penetration length of neutrals from the vicinity of the wall. The temperature scales roughly as I/n1/2 where I is the plasma current and n is the density. The temperature profile is always quite flat with lower variations and there is a tendency for a flatter profile at higher temperatures.
Spontaneous quasi single helicity regimes in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch
Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.
2007-11-01
In recent years, good progress toward a better understanding and control of the plasma performance in reversed-field pinch devices has been made. These improvements consist both of the discovery of spontaneous plasma regimes, termed the quasi single helicity (QSH) regime, in which part of the plasma core is no longer stochastic, and of the development of techniques for active control of plasma instabilities. In this paper, a systematic study of spontaneous QSH in the EXTRAP T2R device [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsaker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] is presented. In this device, QSH states can occur spontaneously and it is associated with magnetic and thermal structures. A statistical analysis to determine the most favorable experimental conditions to have a transition to the QSH regime will be presented. The results described here are useful to understand the underlying properties of QSH regimes in view of future applications of the QSH active control in EXTRAP T2R; they are also important to have a comparison with the QSH studied in other devices.
Self-Organisation and Intermittent Coherent Oscillations in the EXTRAP T2 Reversed Field Pinch
Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Sallander, E.; Drake, J. R.
Many reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiments exhibit a coherent oscillatory behaviour that is characteristic of discrete dynamo events and is associated with intermittent current profile self-organisation phenomena. However, in the vast majority of the discharges in the resistive shell RFP experiment EXTRAP T2, the dynamo activity does not show global, coherent oscillatory behaviour. The internally resonant tearing modes are phase-aligned and wall-locked resulting in a large localised magnetic perturbation. Equilibrium and plasma parameters have a level of high frequency fluctuations but the average values are quasi-steady. For some discharges, however, the equilibrium parameters exhibit the oscillatory behaviour characteristic of the discrete dynamo events. For these discharges, the trend observed in the tearing mode spectra, associated with the onset of the discrete relaxation event behaviour, is a relative higher amplitude of m = 0 mode activity and relative lower amplitude of the m = 1 mode activity compared with their average values. Global plasma parameters and model profile calculations for sample discharges representing the two types of relaxation dynamics are presented.
Measurements of hot electrons in the Extrap T1 reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welander, A.; Bergsaaker, H.
1998-01-01
The presence of an anisotropic energetic electron population in the edge region is a characteristic feature of reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. In the Extrap T1 RFP, the anisotropic, parallel heat flux in the edge region measured by calorimetry was typically several hundred MWm -2 . To gain more insight into the origin of the hot electron component and to achieve time resolution of the hot electron flow during the discharge, a target probe with a soft x-ray monitor was designed, calibrated and implemented. The x-ray emission from the target was measured with a surface barrier detector covered with a set of different x-ray filters to achieve energy resolution. A calibration in the range 0.5-2 keV electron energy was performed on the same target and detector assembly using a LaB 6 cathode electron gun. The calibration data are interpolated and extrapolated numerically. A directional asymmetry of more than a factor of 100 for the higher energy electrons is observed. The hot electrons are estimated to constitute 10% of the total electron density at the edge and their energy distribution is approximated by a half-Maxwellian with a temperature slightly higher than the central electron temperature. Scalings with plasma current, as well as correlations with local Hα measurements and radial dependences, are presented. (author)
Measurements of hot electrons in the Extrap T1 reversed-field pinch
Welander, A.; Bergsåker, H.
1998-02-01
The presence of an anisotropic energetic electron population in the edge region is a characteristic feature of reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. In the Extrap T1 RFP, the anisotropic, parallel heat flux in the edge region measured by calorimetry was typically several hundred 0741-3335/40/2/011/img1. To gain more insight into the origin of the hot electron component and to achieve time resolution of the hot electron flow during the discharge, a target probe with a soft x-ray monitor was designed, calibrated and implemented. The x-ray emission from the target was measured with a surface barrier detector covered with a set of different x-ray filters to achieve energy resolution. A calibration in the range 0.5-2 keV electron energy was performed on the same target and detector assembly using a 0741-3335/40/2/011/img2 cathode electron gun. The calibration data are interpolated and extrapolated numerically. A directional asymmetry of more than a factor of 100 for the higher energy electrons is observed. The hot electrons are estimated to constitute 10% of the total electron density at the edge and their energy distribution is approximated by a half-Maxwellian with a temperature slightly higher than the central electron temperature. Scalings with plasma current, as well as correlations with local 0741-3335/40/2/011/img3 measurements and radial dependences, are presented.
Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunsell, P.R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.; Rachlew, E.
2006-01-01
Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size
Reversed-field pinch experiments in EXTRAP T2R with a resistive shell boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.
2002-01-01
The EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch is operated with a resistive shell with a magnetic penetration time of 6 ms. This time is intermediate between the dynamo/relaxation cycle time scale (<1 ms) and the pulse length (= 20 ms). The internally-resonant tearing modes do not wall lock and exhibit natural rotation with velocities in the range of 20 to 600 krad/s. Under these conditions the radial component of the tearing mode perturbation at the shell is suppressed. Therefore the linear growth rates of the unstable, non-resonant, ideal (resistive-wall) kink modes can be observed even at very low amplitudes (0.01% of the equilibrium field). Both internally-non-resonant and externally non-resonant RW mode types are observed. The growth rates have been measured for a range of equilibrium current profile parameters and are compared with theoretical estimates. Previous observations and simulations for the resistive-shell RFP have shown an increased loop voltage associated with altered dynamo dynamics. When the tearing modes are rotating, the loop voltage and confinement parameters have values comparable to those of a conducting-shell RFP. (author)
A review of the experimental and theoretical status of the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.
1987-01-01
This paper reviews the status of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) approach to the development of a compact nuclear fusion reactor. Two RFP papers in this conference are complementary; the first paper contains the historical origins and basic concepts concerning MHD instabilities, relaxation and RFP confinement properties as well as a discussion of future prospects of the RFP. This paper gives an overview of the status of plasma parameters of the present main RFP experiments and of the status of theory and experiment of the interesting RFP plasma phenomena of relaxation, self reversal and flux generation (these effects are often referred to as the dynamo effect). The low frequency oscillating-field current drive concept which exploits these effects is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the theoretical results obtained from plasma simulation codes used in these active areas of study. Selected topics of recent research on the Los Alamos ZT-40M experiments are reported. The paper concludes with descriptions of the next generation Los Alamos RFP experiment ZTH, to be located in the new Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) presently under construction, and the characteristics of an RFP compact reactor. 68 refs
Cost-constrained design point for the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1978-01-01
A broad spectrum of Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) operating modes are compared on an economics basis. An RFPR with superconducting coils and an air-core poloidal field transformer optimizes to give a minimum cost system when compared to normal-conducting coils and the iron-core transformer used in earlier designs. An interim design is described that exhibits a thermally stable, unrefueled, 21 s burn (burnup 50 percent) with an energy containment time equal to 200 times the Bohm time, which is consistent with present-day tokamak experiments. This design operates near the minimum energy state (THETA = B/sub THETA/(r/sub w/)/[B/sub z/] = 2.0 and F = B/sub z/(r/sub w/)/[B/sub z/] = 1.0 from the High Beta Model) of the RFP configuration. This cost-optimized design produces a reactor of 1.5-m minor radius and 12.8-m major radius, that generates 1000 MWe (net) with a recirculating power fraction of 0.15 at a direct capital cost of 970 $/kWe
Toroidal magnetic field system for a 2-MA reversed-field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melton, J.G.; Linton, T.W.
1983-01-01
The engineering design of the toroidal magnetic field (TF) system for a 2-MA Reversed-Field Pinch experiment (ZT-H) is described. ZT-H is designed with major radius 2.15 meters, minor radius 0.40 meters, and a peak toroidal magnetic field of 0.85 Tesla. The requirement for highly uniform fields, with spatial ripple <0.2% leads to a design with 72 equally spaced circular TF coils, located at minor radius 0.6 meters, carrying a maximum current of 9.0 MA. The coils are driven by a 12-MJ capacitor bank which is allowed to ring in order to aid the reversal of magnetic field. A stress analysis is presented, based upon calculated hoop tension, centering force, and overturning moment, treating these as a combination of static loads and considering that the periodic nature of the loading causes little amplification. The load transfer of forces and moments is considered as a stress distribution resisted by the coils, support structures, wedges, and the structural shell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirus, K.A.
1998-06-01
In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Roessler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high-dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirus, Kevin A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1998-01-01
In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Roessler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high-dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses.
Stable Alfven-wave dynamo action in the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werley, K.A.
1984-01-01
Previous theoretical work has suggested that Alfven waves may be related to the anomalous toroidal magnetic flux generation and extended (over classical expectations) discharge times observed in the reversed-field pinch. This thesis examines the dynamo action of stable Alfven waves as a means of generating toroidal flux. Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. This technique is readily extendable to other plasmas in which dynamic stable model action is of interest. Such plasmas include Alfven wave current-drive and plasma heating for fusion devices, as well as astrophysical and geophysical dynamo systems. This study also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number
Design and development of a lower-hybrid antenna for the MST reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, M.; Cekic, M.; Lovell, T.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Uchimoto, E.
1995-01-01
Recent theoretical studies strongly motivated the development of a radio-frequency current drive scheme for current density gradient reduction in the outer region of a reversed field pinch. The preliminary experiments using inductive current drive indicate that such current density profile modification reduces the magnetic fluctuation amplitude and related energy and particle losses. To test the theoretical predictions and to further improve confinement in the MST, the authors are planning a series of lower-hybrid wave experiments. The initial phase is the design and optimization of a low-power antenna to study slow wave propagation in a frequency range 2--3 f LH (200--300 MHz) with parallel index of refraction n parallel ∼10. Ray-tracing calculations, for typical MST plasma parameters, indicate that such a wave will spiral radially into a target zone inside the reversal layer. The antenna consists of an array of tunable loops arranged in the poloidal direction. The design is compatible with the existing box-port openings in the MST conductive shell to prevent additional magnetic field errors associated with large portholes. Antenna vacuum characteristics are studied on a test-stand designed to approximate the geometry of the MST shell. For the initial measurements of plasma response and antenna loading, the authors designed a reduced, easily insertable, vacuum antenna structure. The results of plasma impedance measurements will be compared with the numerical modeling results and incorporated in the optimized design of the antenna for wave propagation experiments
Improved zero dimensional model of a reversed field pinch fusion device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haynes, K.E.
1987-01-01
A zero-dimensional model has been developed which accurately predicts conditions observed during several runs of the ZT-40M reversed field pinch fusion device at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model is based on a physical model developed by E.H. Klevans at Penn State University. Improvements made to this model included the use of coronal non-equilibrium equations for predicting impurity effects, the inclusion of an exponentially decaying ion heating term, and the relaxation of the assumption that ion and electron densities are equal in the device. The model has been used to simulate ZT-40M in both flat-top and slowly ramped current modes. Using experimentally measured density and current evolutions, the model accurately predicts observed tau/sub E/, β/sub Θ/, T/sub e/, T/sub i/, Z/sub eff/, and radiated power. The continuing goal of this work is to predict conditions in the ZT-H device, which is under construction. 28 refs., 18 figs
Engineering and physics of high-power-density, compact, reversed-field-pinch fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Steiner, D.
1989-01-01
The technical feasibility and key developmental issues of compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field-Pinch (RFP) reactors are the primary results of the TITAN RFP reactor study. Two design approaches emerged, TITAN-I and TITAN-II, both of which are steady-state, DT-burning, circa 1000 MWe power reactors. The TITAN designs are physically compact and have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW m 2 . Detailed analyses indicate that: a) each design is technically feasible; b) attractive features of compact RFP reactors can be realized without sacrificing the safety and environmental potential of fusion; and c) major features of this particular embodiment of the RFP reactor are retained in a design window of neutron wall loading ranging from 10 to 20 MW/m 2 . A major product of the TITAN study is the identification and quantification of major engineering and physics requirements for this class of RFP reactors. These findings are the focus of this paper. (author). 26 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab
The safety designs for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Grotz, S.P.; Blanchard, J.; Sharafat, S.; Najmabadi, F.
1989-01-01
TITAN is a study to investigate the potential of the reversed-field pinch concept as a compact, high-power density energy system. Two reactor concepts were developed, a self-cooled lithium design with vanadium structure and an aqueous solution loop-in-pool design, both operating at 18 MW/m 2 . The key safety features of the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium blanket design are in material selection, fusion power core configuration selection, lithium piping connections, and passive lithium drain tank system. Based on these safety features and results from accident evaluation, TITAN-I can at least be rated at a level 3 of safety assurance. For the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design, the key passive feature is the complete submersion of the fusion power core and the corresponding primary coolant loop system into a pool of low temperature water. Based on this key safety design feature, the TITAN-II design can be rated at a level 2 of safety assurance. (orig.)
Analysis of resistive tearing-mode in the reversed-field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oshiyama, Hiroshi; Masamune, Sadao; Hamuro, Eitaro; Tamaki, Reiji.
1985-01-01
As one of the methods of confining high temperature plasma by magnetic stress, attention has been paid to reversed field pinch (RFP). This RFP is the method of maintaining plasma pressure by combining the poloidal field generated by plasma current and the toroidal field having nearly same intensity, thus forming the toroidal shape, closed magnetic surface. As the typical RFP equipment, there have been TPE-1R(M), HBTX-1A, ZT-40M and OHTE, but in order to anticipate the further development, one of the problems is the resistive instability. In this study, the critical beta value determined by the tearing mode in RFP configuration was examined by analytical and numerical calculation methods. The position of a wall required for the stability was determined by solving a second order differential equation for a radial perturbed magnetic field. The propriety of the computer code for determining the position was examined. The magnetic field configuration having a finite beta value was determined, and its stability against a tearing mode was investigated. For this judgement of the stability, the developed computer code was used. The tearing mode in a Bessel function model, the tearing mode of a finite beta value and others are described. (Kako, I.)
Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.
2006-01-01
Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of t d ≅10τ w is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system
Tokamak-like confinement at high beta and low field in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarff, J S; Anderson, J K; Biewer, T M; Brower, D L; Chapman, B E; Chattopadhyay, P K; Craig, D; Deng, B; Hartog, D J Den; Ding, W X; Fiksel, G; Forest, C B; Goetz, J A; O'Connell, R; Prager, S C; Thomas, M A
2003-01-01
For several reasons, improved-confinement achieved in the reversed field pinch (RFP) during the last few years can be characterized as 'tokamak-like'. Historically, RFP plasmas have had relatively poor confinement due to tearing instability which causes magnetic stochasticity and enhanced transport. Tearing reduction is achieved through modification of the inductive current drive, which dramatically improves confinement. The electron temperature increases to >1 keV and the electron heat diffusivity decreases to approx. 5 m 2 s -1 , comparable with the transport level expected in a tokamak plasma of the same size and current. This corresponds to a 10-fold increase in global energy confinement. Runaway electrons are confined, and Fokker-Planck modelling of the electron distribution reveals that the diffusion at high energy is independent of the parallel velocity, uncharacteristic of stochastic transport. Improved-confinement occurs simultaneously with increased beta approx. 15%, while maintaining a magnetic field strength ten times weaker than a comparable tokamak. Measurements of the current, magnetic, and electric field profiles show that a simple Ohm's Law applies to this RFP sustained without dynamo relaxation
Core fluctuations and current profile dynamics in the MST reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brower, D.L.; Ding, W.X.; Lei, J.
2003-01-01
First measurements of the current density profile, magnetic field fluctuations and electrostatic (e.s.) particle flux in the core of a high-temperature reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. We report three new results: (1) The current density peaks during the slow ramp phase of the sawtooth cycle and flattens promptly at the crash. Profile flattening can be linked to magnetic relaxation and the dynamo which is predicted to drive anti-parallel current in the core. Measured core magnetic fluctuations are observed to increases four-fold at the crash. Between sawtooth crashes, measurements indicate the particle flux driven by e.s. fluctuations is too small to account for the total radial particle flux. (2) Core magnetic fluctuations are observed to decrease at least twofold in plasmas where energy confinement time improves ten-fold. In this case, the radial particle flux is also reduced, suggesting core e.s. fluctuation-induced transport may play role in confinement. (3) The parallel current density increases in the outer region of the plasma during high confinement, as expected, due to the applied edge parallel electric field. However, the core current density also increases due to dynamo reduction and the emergence of runaway electrons. (author)
Mirus, Kevin Andrew
In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Rossler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high- dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses.
Self-organisation and intermittent coherent oscillations in the EXTRAP T2 reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.A.; Sallander, E.; Drake, J.R.
2002-01-01
Many reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiments exhibit a coherent oscillatory behaviour that is characteristic of discrete dynamo events and is associated with intermittent current profile self-organisation phenomena. However, in the vast majority of the discharges in the resistive shell RFP experiment EXTRAP T2, the dynamo activity does not show global, coherent oscillatory behaviour. The internally resonant tearing modes are phase-aligned and wall-locked resulting in a large localised magnetic perturbation. Equilibrium and plasma parameters have a level of high frequency fluctuations but the average values are quasi-steady. For some discharges, however, the equilibrium parameters exhibit the oscillatory behaviour characteristic of the discrete dynamo events. For these discharges, the trend observed in the tearing mode spectra, associated with the onset of the discrete relaxation event behaviour, is a relative higher amplitude of m = 0 mode activity and relative lower amplitude of the m = 1 mode activity compared with their average values. Global plasma parameters and model profile calculations for sample discharges representing the two types of relaxation dynamics are presented
ZT-P: an advanced air core reversed field pinch prototype
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1986-01-01
The ZT-P experiment, with a major radius of 0.45 m and a minor radius of 0.07 m, was designed to prototype the next generation of reversed field pinch (RFP) machines at Los Alamos. ZT-P utilizes an air-core poloidal field system, with precisely wound and positioned rigid copper coils, to drive the plasma current and provide plasma equilibrium with intrinsically low magnetic field errors. ZT-P's compact configuration is adaptable to test various first wall and limiter designs at reactor-relevant current densities in the range of 5 to 20 MA/m 2 . In addition, the load assembly design allows for the installation of toroidal field divertors. Design of ZT-P began in October 1983, and assembly was completed in October 1984. This report describes the magnetic, electrical, mechanical, vacuum, diagnostic, data acquisition, and control aspects of the machine design. In addition, preliminary data from initial ZT-P operation are presented. Because of ZT-P's prototypical function, many of its design aspects and experimental results are directly applicable to the design of a next generation RFP. 17 refs., 47 figs
Plasma-column instabilities in a reversed-field pinch without a shell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmid, P.G.
1988-01-01
Plasma column instabilities in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) without a shell were investigated in the Colorado Reversatron RFP. The Reversatron RFP (aspect ration R/a = 50 cm/8cm) is a toroidal plasma containment device consisting of a vacuum chamber, a thick conducting shell, modular shells, magnetic field producing coils and diagnostics to characterize the plasma. RFP discharges were set up in the Reversatron in three different experimental configurations: with a thick conducting shell, with a modular shell and with no shell. In two of the configurations, a shell enclosed the plasma column to provide some plasma stability. A vertical magnetic field provided equilibrium in experiments without a shell. Data from discharges without a shell indicated that the plasma duration was greatly reduced and the plasma resistance increased compared to the discharges with a thick shell. Plasma position probes indicated large plasma centriod displacements corresponding to a n = 1 and a n = 3 kink coincident with the peak of the plasma current and the start of a discharge termination phase. The modular shell lengthened the discharge duration and lowered the plasma resistance to values intermediate between the plasma with a thick shell and the plasma with no shell. The modular shell suppressed the large plasma column displacements observed in the RFP plasma without a shell.
Equilibrium poloidal-field distributions in reversed-field-pinch toroidal discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Mann, L.W.; Schoenberg, K.F.
1983-01-01
A comparison between the approximate analytic formulae of Shafranov for equilibrium in axisymmetric toroidal systems and fully toroidal numerical solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation for reversed-field-pinch (RFP) configurations is presented as a function of poloidal beta, internal plasma inductance, and aspect ratio. The Shafranov formula for the equilibrium poloidal-field distribution at the conducting shell that surrounds the plasma is accurate to within 5% for aspect ratios greater than 2, poloidal betas less than 50%, and for plasma current channels that exceed one third of the minor toroidal radius. The analytic description for the centre shift of the innermost flux surface that encloses the plasma current (the Shafranov shift) is accurate to within 15% for aspect ratios greater than 2 and poloidal betas below 50%, provided the shift does not exceed one tenth of the minor conducting boundary radius. The Shafranov formulae provide a convenient method for describing the gross equilibrium behaviour of an axisymmetric RFP discharge, as well as an effective tool for designing the poloidal-field systems of RFP experiments. (author)
Equilibrium poloidal field distributions in reversed-field-pinch toroidal discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Mann, L.W.; Schoenberg, K.F.
1982-04-01
A comparison between the analytic formulae of Shafranov for equilibrium in axisymmetric toroidal reversed field pinch (RFP) systems and fully toroidal numerical solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation is presented as a function of poloidal beta, internal plasma inductance, and aspect ratio. The Shafranov formula for the equilibrium poloidal field distribution is accurate to within 5% for aspect ratios greater than 2, poloidal betas less than 50%, and for plasma current channels that exceed one-third of the minor toroidal radius. The analytic description for the center shift of the innermost flux surface that encloses the plasma current (the Shafranov shift) is accurate to within 15% for aspect ratios greater than 2 and poloidal betas below 50%, provided the shift does not exceed one-tenth of the minor conducting boundary radius. The behavior of the magnetic axis shift as a function of plasma parameters is included. The Shafranov formulae provide a convenient method for describing the equilibrium behavior of an RFP discharge. Examples illustrating the application of the analytic formulae to the Los Alamos ZT-40M RFP experiment are given
High-flux first-wall design for a small reversed-field pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cort, G.E.; Graham, A.L.; Christensen, K.E.
1982-01-01
To achieve the goal of a commercially economical fusion power reactor, small physical size and high power density should be combined with simplicity (minimized use of high-technology systems). The Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is a magnetic confinement device that promises to meet these requirements with power densities comparable to those in existing fission power plants. To establish feasibility of such an RFP reactor, a practical design for a first wall capable of withstanding high levels of cyclic neutron wall loadings is needed. Associated with the neutron flux in the proposed RFP reactor is a time-averaged heat flux of 4.5 MW/m 2 with a conservatively estimated transient peak approximately twice the average value. We present the design for a modular first wall made from a high-strength copper alloy that will meet these requirements of cyclic thermal loading. The heat removal from the wall is by subcooled water flowing in straight tubes at high linear velocities. We combined a thermal analysis with a structural fatigue analysis to design the heat transfer module to last 10 6 cycles or one year at 80% duty for a 26-s power cycle. This fatigue life is compatible with a radiation damage life of 14 MW/yr/m 2
A conceptual design study of a reversed field pinch fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondo, S.; Tanaka, S.; Terai, T.; Hashizume, H.
1989-01-01
A conceptual design of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor with a solid breeder blanket REPUTER-1 has been studied through parametric system studies and detailed design and analysis in order to clarify the technical feasibility of a compact fusion reactor. F-θ pumping is used for driving the plasma current necessary for steady state operation. A maintenance policy of replacing a whole fusion power core including TF coils is proposed to cope with the requirements of high wall loading and high mass power density. For the same reason a normal conductor is selected for most of the coils. The first wall is structurally independent of the blanket. The blanket module is composed of SiC reinforced blocks which form a stable arch so as to keep the stresses in SiC basically compressive. The coolant for the first wall and the limiter is pressurized water, while the coolant for the blanket is helium gas. A number of thin Li 2 O and thick beryllium tiles are packed into the blanket block so as to obtain a proper tritium breeding ratio. A pumped limiter is chosen for the plasma exhaust system. The study has shown the technical feasibility of a high power density fusion power reactor (330 kWe/tonne) with solid breeder blanket and many key physics and engineering issues are also clarified. (orig.)
Point design for deuterium-deuterium compact reversed-field pinch reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabiri, A.E.; Dobrott, D.R.; Gurol, H.; Schnack, D.D.
1984-01-01
A deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactor may be made comparable in size and cost to a deuterium-tritium (D-T) reactor at the expense of high-thermal heat load to the first wall. This heat load is the result of the larger percentage of fusion power in charged particles in the D-D reaction as compared to the D-T reaction. The heat load may be reduced by increasing the reactor size and hence the cost. In addition to this ''degraded'' design, the size may be kept small by means of a higher heat load wall, or by means of a toroidal divertor, in which case most of the heat load seen by the wall is in the form of radiation. Point designs are developed for these approaches and cost studies are performed and compared with a D-T reactor. The results indicate that the cost of electricity of a D-D RFP reactor is about20% higher than a D-T RFP reactor. This increased cost could be offset by the inherent safety features of the D-D fuel cycle
Plasma-column instabilities in a reversed-field pinch without a shell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, P.G.
1988-01-01
Plasma column instabilities in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) without a shell were investigated in the Colorado Reversatron RFP. The Reversatron RFP (aspect ration R/a = 50 cm/8cm) is a toroidal plasma containment device consisting of a vacuum chamber, a thick conducting shell, modular shells, magnetic field producing coils and diagnostics to characterize the plasma. RFP discharges were set up in the Reversatron in three different experimental configurations: with a thick conducting shell, with a modular shell and with no shell. In two of the configurations, a shell enclosed the plasma column to provide some plasma stability. A vertical magnetic field provided equilibrium in experiments without a shell. Data from discharges without a shell indicated that the plasma duration was greatly reduced and the plasma resistance increased compared to the discharges with a thick shell. Plasma position probes indicated large plasma centriod displacements corresponding to a n = 1 and a n = 3 kink coincident with the peak of the plasma current and the start of a discharge termination phase. The modular shell lengthened the discharge duration and lowered the plasma resistance to values intermediate between the plasma with a thick shell and the plasma with no shell. The modular shell suppressed the large plasma column displacements observed in the RFP plasma without a shell
Maintenance procedures for the TITAN-I and TITAN-II reversed field pinch reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotz, S.P.; Duggan, W.; Krakowski, R.; Najmabadi, F.; Wong, C.P.C.
1989-01-01
The TITAN reactor is a compact, high-power-density (neutron wall loading 18 MW/m 2 ) machine, based on the reversed-field-pinch (RFP) confinement concept. Two designs for the fusion power core have been examined: TITAN-I is based on a self-cooled lithium loop with a vanadium-alloy structure for the first wall, blanket and shield; and TITAN-II is based on an aqueous loop-in-pool design with a LiNO 3 solution as the coolant and breeder. The compact design of the TITAN fusion power core, (FPC) reduces the system to a few small and relatively low mass components, making toroidal segmentation of the FPC unnecessary. A single-piece maintenance procedure is possible. The potential advantages of single-piece maintenance procedures are: (1) Short period of down time; (2) improved reliability; (3) no adverse effects resulting from unequal levels of irradiation; and (4) ability to continually modify the FPC design. Increased availability can be expected from a fully pre-tested, single-piece FPC. Pre-testing of the FPC throughout the assembly process and prior to installation into the reactor vault is discussed. (orig.)
The safety designs for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Grotz, S.P.; Blanchard, J.P.; Sharafat, S.; Najmabadi, F.
1988-01-01
TITAN is a study to investigate the potential of the reversed-field pinch concept as a compact, high-power density energy system. Two reactor concepts were developed, a self-cooled lithium design with vanadium structure and an aqueous solution loop-in-pool design, both operating at 18 MW/m 2 . The key safety features of the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium blanket design are in material selection, fusion power core configuration selection, lithium piping connections and passive lithium drain tank system. Based on these safety features and results from accident evaluation, TITAN-I can at least be rated as level 3 of safety assurance. For the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design, the key passive feature is the complete submersion of the fusion power core and the corresponding primary coolant loop system into a pool of low temperature water. Based on this key safety design feature, the TITAN-II design can be rated as level 2 of safety assurance. 7 refs., 2 figs
Zero-dimensional model of a reversed field pinch fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veerasingam, R.
1987-12-01
A zero-dimensional model for the energy balance for electrons and ions of a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) device has been developed. The model can be used as a tool for parametric studies and has been applied to simulate some ZT-40M experiments. In the model multiplicative coefficients C 1 , C 2 , C 3 and C 4 are introduced to treat anomalous resistivity, electron and ion energy confinement times and to account for the instability driven ion heating that is observed in RFP experiments. Parametric studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of the model to changes in multiplicative coefficients. A set of coefficients which can simulate a number of ZT-40M experiments have been obtained and the sensitivity of T/sub e/ and T/sub i/ to these coefficients was examined. Both flat top and ramp current waveforms were studied. The effects of different levels of impurities were also examined. The results showed that while all the three impurities used, viz., carbon, oxygen and nickel contributed to Z/sub eff/, nickel dominated the impurity radiation power. The results were then applied to study the behavior of the ZT-H device which is being built in the Confinement Physics Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 30 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs
Electron transport in the stochastic fields of the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, M.-H.; Punjabi, A.
1996-01-01
We employ the Monte Carlo method for the calculation of anomalous transport developed by Punjabi and Boozer to calculate the particle diffusion coefficient for electrons in the stochastic magnetic fields of the reversed-field pinch (RFP). In the Monte Carlo calculations represented here, the transport mechanism is the loss of magnetic surfaces due to resistive perturbations. The equilibrium magnetic fields are represented by the Bessel function model for the RFP. The diffusion coefficient D is calculated as a function of a, the amplitude of the perturbation. We see three regimes as the amplitude of the tearing modes is increased: the Rechester-Rosenbluth regime where D scales as a 2 ; the anomalous regime where D scales more rapidly than a 2 ; and the Mynick-Krommes regime where D scales more slowly than a 2 . Inclusion of the effects of loop voltage on the particle drift orbits in the RFP does not affect the intervals in the amplitude a where these regimes operate. (Author)
Blanket activation and afterheat for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.
1985-01-01
A detailed assessment has been made of the activation and afterheat for a Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) blanket using a two-dimensional model that included the limiter, the vacuum ducts, and the manifolds and headers for cooling the limiter and the first and second walls. Region-averaged, multigroup fluxes and prompt gamma-ray/neutron heating rates were calculated using the two-dimensional, discrete-ordinates code TRISM. Activation and depletion calculations were performed with the code FORIG using one-group cross sections generated with the TRISM region-averaged fluxes. Afterheat calculations were performed for regions near the plasma, i.e., the limiter, first wall, etc. assuming a 10-day irradiation. Decay heats were computed for decay periods up to 100 minutes. For the activation calculations, the irradiation period was taken to be one year and blanket activity inventories were computed for decay times to 4 x 10 5 years. These activities were also calculated as the toxicity-weighted biological hazard potential (BHP). 15 refs
Far-infrared laser interferometry measurements on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio.
1993-09-01
Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 μm was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of ∼10% for both chords during the current rising phase and ∼5% and ∼15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a ∼30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m=0 magnetic fluctuations, and a ∼90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veranda, M; Bonfiglio, D; Cappello, S; Chacón, L; Escande, D F
2013-01-01
Helical self-organized reversed-field pinch (RFP) regimes emerge both numerically—in 3D visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations—and experimentally, as in the RFX-mod device at high current (I P above 1 MA). These states, called quasi-single helicity (QSH) states, are characterized by the action of a MHD mode that impresses a quasi-helical symmetry to the system, thus allowing a high degree of magnetic chaos healing. This is in contrast with the multiple helicity (MH) states, where magnetic fluctuations create a chaotic magnetic field degrading the confinement properties of the RFP. This paper reports an extensive numerical study performed in the frame of 3D visco-resistive MHD which considers the effect of helical magnetic boundary conditions, i.e. of a finite value of the radial magnetic field at the edge (magnetic perturbation, MP). We show that the system can be driven to a selected QSH state starting from both spontaneous QSH and MH regimes. In particular, a high enough MP can force a QSH helical self-organization with a helicity different from the spontaneous one. Moreover, MH states can be turned into QSH states with a selected helicity. A threshold in the amplitude of MP is observed above which is able to influence the system. Analysis of the magnetic topology of these simulations indicates that the dominant helical mode is able to temporarily sustain conserved magnetic structures in the core of the plasma. The region occupied by conserved magnetic surfaces increases reducing secondary modes' amplitude to experimental-like values. (paper)
Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.
2014-01-01
Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q fi ) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes
Quantitative plasma spectroscopy in a resistive shell reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedqvist, Anders
1999-10-01
The subject addressed in this thesis is quantitative plasma spectroscopy. Measurements of electron temperature and impurity ion density, performed at EXTRAP-T2, are aimed to investigate the effects of operating a reversed- field pinch with a resistive shell and a graphite wall. The spectroscopic measurements are analyzed with a collisional-radiative model and a consistency check is performed for the measurements and the model itself. The resistive shell results in wall-locked modes, enhanced plasma-wall interaction and degraded confinement. Measurements of vacuum ultraviolet resonant transitions of carbon and oxygen show that the local heating of the wall, at the position of the locking, leads to influxes of hydrogen and impurities, resulting in a cold and resistive plasma. Effects on the local scale are also observed. Spatially-resolved measurements of line emission originating from charge exchange collisions are used to investigate the change in neutral hydrogen profile. Temporal correlations between soft x-ray emission and poloidal loop voltage at the position of the wall-locked modes are observed and in connection, a decrease in central electron temperature, indicating there is a direct energy loss channel between the center and the edge. The hydrogen recycling properties of the graphite wall are investigated in an isotope exchange experiment. The density of the hydrogen isotopes are measured from spectral line emission and compared with recycling models. In charge exchange collisions between fully stripped chlorine and thermal deuterium, observed in JET plasmas, only a single n-level is populated. This is different from most ions and may be used to test models for calculating charge exchange collision cross-sections
Experimental studies of confinement in the EXTRAP T2 and T2R reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cecconello, Marco
2003-01-01
The confinement properties of fusion plasmas are affected by magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations. The determination of the plasma confinement properties requires the measurement of several global and local quantities such as the ion and electron temperatures, the electron and neutral density profiles, the radiation emissivity profiles, the ohmic input power and the particle and heat diffusivities. The focus of this thesis is the study of the plasma confinement properties based on measurements of these quantities under different experimental conditions. The studies have been carried out on the reversed field pinch experiments EXTRAP T2 and T2R at the Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Studies carried out in EXTRAP T2 were focused on dynamo activity and on the effect of phase alignment and locking to the wall of magnetic instabilities. These were observed with a dedicated imaging system. The experimental studies in EXTRAP T2R were focused on the measurement of the confinement properties of different configurations. To this aim, a set of diagnostics were used some of which were upgraded, such as the interferometer, while others were newly installed, such as a neutral particle energy analyser and a bolometer array. The dynamo, which is responsible for the plasma sustainment, involves resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that enhance stochastic transport. Furthermore, the plasma confinement properties are in general improved in the presence of mode rotation. The possibility of reducing the stochastic transport and thereby further improving the confinement has been demonstrated in a current profile control experiment. These results indicate that long pulse operations with a resistive shell and current profile control are indeed feasible
Reversed field pinch magnetic equilibrium and profile dynamics in Extrap T1-upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordlund, P.; Mazur, S.; Drake, J.R.
1992-05-01
An eight station insertable magnetic probe has been installed on the Extrap T1-U machine. The structure of the reversed field pinch magnetic equilibrium and the time evolution of the profiles has been studied. The probe was inserted into sustained high current density RFP plasma, typically 12-16 MA/m 2 on axis. When the probe was inserted there was a somewhat shorter pulse duration and a slightly decaying current. The magnetic field profiles are shift corrected and expressed in a cylindrically symmetric form. All quantities are then derived from cylindrically symmetric equations. In the beginning of the sustainment phase, where the best reproducibility is achieved, we have been able to obtain estimates of the pressure profile consistent with independent measurements of the central pressure. Values of βθ approx = 0.19 and approx = 0.09 are found leading to an estimation of the energy confinement time, with the probe inserted, of τε approx = 5 μs. Profiles of the effective parallel conductivity clearly indicates the presence of a 'dynamo mechanism' sustaining the field configuration. Higher Θ discharges usually exhibit large oscillations in the F-Θ plane. We find that these oscillations represents macroscopic redistribution of the current in the plasma. A cyclic process is found where the parallel current density (μ-profile) tends to peak in the center and then relax towards a flatter and broader configuration. Towards the end of the discharge there is an increasing fluctuation level along with an increasing V loop /I p - Here we find a relative increase in the current density in the edge region resulting in a hollow μ-profile. (au) (15 refs., 31 figs.)
The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m 2 ) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately
The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1987-01-01
The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m/sup 2/) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately.
A global analysis of the behaviour of the ZT-40M reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Philipps, J.A.; Baker, D.A.; Gribble, R.F.
1995-01-01
Experimental data from the reversed field experiment, ZT-40M, have been re-examined in an attempt to determine the scaling behaviour of the physical plasma quantities and their fluctuations. A subset of the data is defined, allowing a reduced number of independent variables to described the behaviour. For flat-top ZT-40M discharges the independent variables are chosen as being the toroidal current, I φ , and the dimensionless pinch parameter, Θ, which is proportional to the ratio of the toroidal current to the toroidal magnetic flux. The amplitudes of the dependent variables, including the electron temperature, plasma resistance, toroidal flux, the ratio of I φ to the mean electron density and their fluctuation amplitudes, exhibit minima as functions of Θ for constant Iφ. These minima move towards lower Θ values with increasing I φ . Over the range of conditions for acceptable operation, the scaling of variables with I φ is not unique but depends on the variation of Θ as I φ increases. The Θ variation is governed by the specific conditions (such as constant poloidal beta, β p ) chosen to set the desired RFP operational constraints. Contour plots of the dependent variables versus the two independent variables, I φ and Θ, allow the determination of the Iφ-Θ trajectory that corresponds to discharges that meet the chosen condition. The analysis shows that the amplitude of the low frequency fluctuations correlates with the mean β p and energy confinement time of ZT-40M. By modifying the external circuits on ZT-40M, low frequency fluctuations were reduced. Comparing the designs of different RFP experiments and their operating behaviour, these modifications suggest design changes for present and future RFP experiments that will benefit their performance. (author). 90 refs, 14 figs, 3 tabs
Momentum transport during reconnection events in the MST reversed field pinch
Kuritsyn, Alexey
2008-11-01
During reconnection events in the MST reversed field pinch momentum parallel to the magnetic field is observed to be suddenly transported from the core to the edge. This occurs simultaneous with a surge in multiple resistive tearing instabilities. From measurements of the plasma flow and the forces arising from tearing instability (Maxwell and Reynolds stresses) we have established that tearing instabilities induce strong momentum transport. Comparison with nonlinear MHD computation of tearing fluctuations supports this conclusion, although it also indicates that effects beyond single-fluid MHD are likely to be important. The radial profile of the parallel velocity is reconstructed from a combination of diagnostics: Rutherford scattering of injected neutral atoms (for majority ions), charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (for minority ions), and Mach probes (for edge majority ion flow). Maxwell stress has been measured previously in the core by laser Faraday rotation, and both stresses are measured in the edge with probes. A surprising observation is that both the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are each ten times larger than needed to account for the observed momentum transport (i.e., larger than the inertial and viscous terms in the momentum balance equation). However, they are oppositely directed such that their difference is approximately equal to the rate of change of plasma momentum. The large magnitude of the individual stresses is not predicted by MHD theory; the Maxwell stress also produces a Hall dynamo effect, implying that a two-fluid theory might be necessary for a complete description of momentum transport. To test further the relation between momentum transport and tearing fluctuations, momentum transport was measured perturbatively, by altering plasma rotation with inserted biased electrodes. Biasing is applied in plasmas with large tearing activity and improved confinement plasmas in which tearing activity is reduced by inductive current profile
Movable limiter experiment on TPE-1RM15 reversed field pinch machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Toshio; Hirota, Isao; Maejima, Yoshiki; Hirano, Yoichi; Ogawa, Kiyoshi
1989-01-01
Two movable limiters with a graphite head (35 mm Φ x 40 mm high) were installed in TPE-1RM15 reversed field pinch (RFP) machine. Measurement of the heat flux input to the movable limiters and the effect of the insertion of the limiter on plasma properties, as well as surface analyses of the graphite head after the exposure, were conducted. The heat flux input into the electron drift side of the limiter exceeded that from the ion drift side by factor of 4-6 at the maximum insertion of the limiters (10 mm inward from the shadow of the fixed limiters). This factor increased as the movable limiter protruded into the plasma, and this profile is attributed to the change of the pitch profile of the magnetic field line at the plasma periphery. At the maximum insertion of the two movable limiters, the energy input into a graphite head was about 10% of the joule input energy during the current sustainment phase. The one turn loop voltage and plasma resistance increased when the movable limiters were inserted beyond the shadow of the fixed limiters, and the increment of the joule input power roughly correlates with the increment of the loss power into the protruded movable limiters. Unbalanced position scanning showed that the relative distance of a movable limiter from the plasma column was not affected by another movable limiter installed 180 0 toroidally away from the former limiter. Fundamental surface analyses of the graphite head showed that deposition of metal impurities (Fe and Cr) was higher at the corner of the ion drift side than that of the electron shift side, and that the corner of the electron drift side was more roughened than the ion drift side. (orig.)
Spectroscopic measurement of the MHD dynamo in the MST reversed field pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chapman, James Tharp [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1998-09-01
The author has directly observed the coupling of ion velocity fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations to produce an MHD dynamo electric field in the interior of the MST reversed field pinch. Chord averaged ion velocity fluctuations were measured with a fast spectroscopic diagnostic which collects line radiation from intrinsic carbon impurities simultaneously along two lines of sight. The chords employed for the measurements resolved long wavelength velocity fluctuations of several km/s at 8-20 kHz as tiny, fast Doppler shifts in the emitted line profile. During discrete dynamo events the velocity fluctuations, like the magnetic fluctuations, increase dramatically. The toroidal and poloidal chords with impact parameters of 0.3 a and 0.6 a respectively, resolved fluctuation wavenumbers with resonance surfaces near or along the lines of sight indicating a radial velocity fluctuation width for each mode which spans only a fraction of the plasma radius. The phase between the measured toroidal velocity fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations matches the predictions of resistive MHD while the poloidal velocity fluctuations exhibit a phase consistent with the superposition of MHD effects and the advection of a mean flow gradient past the poloidal line of sight. Radial velocity fluctuations resolved by a chord through the center of the plasma were small compared to the poloidal and toroidal fluctuations and exhibited low coherence with the magnetic fluctuations. The ensembled nonlinear product of the ion velocity fluctuations and fluctuations in the magnetic field indicates a substantial dynamo electric field which peaks during the periods of spontaneous flux generation.
Quantitative plasma spectroscopy in a resistive shell reversed-field pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hedqvist, Anders
1999-10-01
The subject addressed in this thesis is quantitative plasma spectroscopy. Measurements of electron temperature and impurity ion density, performed at EXTRAP-T2, are aimed to investigate the effects of operating a reversed- field pinch with a resistive shell and a graphite wall. The spectroscopic measurements are analyzed with a collisional-radiative model and a consistency check is performed for the measurements and the model itself. The resistive shell results in wall-locked modes, enhanced plasma-wall interaction and degraded confinement. Measurements of vacuum ultraviolet resonant transitions of carbon and oxygen show that the local heating of the wall, at the position of the locking, leads to influxes of hydrogen and impurities, resulting in a cold and resistive plasma. Effects on the local scale are also observed. Spatially-resolved measurements of line emission originating from charge exchange collisions are used to investigate the change in neutral hydrogen profile. Temporal correlations between soft x-ray emission and poloidal loop voltage at the position of the wall-locked modes are observed and in connection, a decrease in central electron temperature, indicating there is a direct energy loss channel between the center and the edge. The hydrogen recycling properties of the graphite wall are investigated in an isotope exchange experiment. The density of the hydrogen isotopes are measured from spectral line emission and compared with recycling models. In charge exchange collisions between fully stripped chlorine and thermal deuterium, observed in JET plasmas, only a single n-level is populated. This is different from most ions and may be used to test models for calculating charge exchange collision cross-sections.
Fluctuation reduction and enhanced confinement in the MST reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, B.E.
1997-10-01
Plasmas with a factor of ≥3 improvement in energy confinement have been achieved in the MST reversed-field pinch (RFP). These plasmas occur spontaneously, following sawtooth crashes, subject to constraints on, eg, toroidal magnetic field reversal and wall conditioning. Possible contributors to the improved confinement include a reduction of core-resonant, global magnetic fluctuations and a reduction of electrostatic fluctuations over the entire plasma edge. One feature of these plasmas is a region of strong ExB flow shear in the edge. Never before observed in conjunction with enhanced confinement in the RFP, such shear is common in enhanced confinement discharges in tokamaks and stellarators. Another feature of these plasmas is a new type of discrete dynamo event. Like sawtooth crashes, a common form of discrete dynamo, these events correspond to bursts of edge parallel current. The reduction of electrostatic fluctuations in these plasmas occurs within and beyond the region of strong ExB flow shear, similar to what is observed in tokamaks and stellarators. However, the reductions in the MST include fluctuations whose correlation lengths are larger than the width of the shear region. The reduction of the global magnetic fluctuations is most likely due to flattening of the μ=μ 0 rvec J· rvec B/B 2 profile. Flattening can occur, eg, due to the new type of discrete dynamo event and reduced edge resistivity. Enhanced confinement plasmas are also achieved in the MST when auxiliary current is applied to flatten the μ profile and reduce magnetic fluctuations. Unexpectedly, these plasmas also exhibit a region (broader than in the case above) of strong ExB flow shear in the edge, an edge-wide reduction of electrostatic fluctuations, and the new type of discrete dynamo event. Auxiliary current drive has historically been viewed as the principal route to fusion reactor viability for the RFP
Spectroscopic measurement of the MHD dynamo in the MST reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, J.T.
1998-09-01
The author has directly observed the coupling of ion velocity fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations to produce an MHD dynamo electric field in the interior of the MST reversed field pinch. Chord averaged ion velocity fluctuations were measured with a fast spectroscopic diagnostic which collects line radiation from intrinsic carbon impurities simultaneously along two lines of sight. The chords employed for the measurements resolved long wavelength velocity fluctuations of several km/s at 8--20 kHz as tiny, fast Doppler shifts in the emitted line profile. During discrete dynamo events the velocity fluctuations, like the magnetic fluctuations, increase dramatically. The toroidal and poloidal chords with impact parameters of 0.3 a and 0.6 a respectively, resolved fluctuation wavenumbers with resonance surfaces near or along the lines of sight indicating a radial velocity fluctuation width for each mode which spans only a fraction of the plasma radius. The phase between the measured toroidal velocity fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations matches the predictions of resistive MHD while the poloidal velocity fluctuations exhibit a phase consistent with the superposition of MHD effects and the advection of a mean flow gradient past the poloidal line of sight. Radial velocity fluctuations resolved by a chord through the center of the plasma were small compared to the poloidal and toroidal fluctuations and exhibited low coherence with the magnetic fluctuations. The ensembled nonlinear product of the ion velocity fluctuations and fluctuations in the magnetic field indicates a substantial dynamo electric field which peaks during the periods of spontaneous flux generation
Linear studies of resistive interchange modes in a cylindrical reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.; O'Neill, N.J.; Killeen, J.; Bonugli, R.J.; Ellis, M.J.
1986-01-01
Resistive interchange modes in a cylindrical reversed field pinch are studied using a one-dimensional, linear, compressible initial value code. Separate equations for the electron and ion temperature perturbations are solved. Hall terms and the thermal force vector are included in Ohm's law. Anisotropic thermal conductivity and viscosity are included in the code model. Calculations are carried out for various values of poloidal and toroidal mode number, Lundquist number, Suydam parameter, Hall parameter, thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc., with respect to uniform density equilibria known to be stable to tearing modes. It is shown that in the cold ion limit sufficiently large Hall terms cause all modes that are tested to become stable. However for T/sub i/ = T/sub e/ and ignoring the effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity, there is a critical value of the ratio of Alfven to ion cyclotron frequency above which the ''even'' mode not only dominates the ''odd'' mode but is likely to have a growth rate significantly larger than that of the odd mode in the absence of Hall terms. Inclusion of a classical tensor thermal conductivity, while having little effect on the odd mode in the absence of Hall terms, does stabilize the even mode for sufficiently large Hall parameter. Inclusion of a classical tensor viscosity reduces the growth rate of (but does not necessarily stabilize) the odd mode. Inclusion of Hall and thermal force terms, tensor thermal conductivity and tensor viscosity causes all modes that are tested to stabilize. Results are compared to other contemporary studies
Refueling and density control in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Watt, R.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Buechl, K.
1987-01-01
The effects of pellet injection and gas puff refueling have been studied in the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch. Multiple deuterium pellets (≤ 6 x 10 19 D atoms/pellet) with velocities ranging from 300 to 700 m/sec have been injected into plasmas with n-bar/sub e/ ∼1 to 5 X 10 19 m -3 , I/sub phi/ ∼100 to 250 kA, T/sub e/(0) ∼150 to 300 eV and discharge durations of ≤ 20 msec. Photographs and an array D/sub α/ detectors show substantial deflection of the pellet trajectory in both the poloidal and toroidal planes, due to asymmetric ablation of the pellet by electrons streaming along field lines. To compensate for the poloidal deflection, the injector was moved up +14 cm off-axis, allowing the pellets to curve down to the midplane. In this fashion, central peaking of the pellet density deposition profile can be obtained. Both electron and ion temperatures fall in response to the density rise, such that β/sub θ/(β/sub θ/ identical to n-bar/sub e/(T/sub e/(0) + T/sub i/)/(B/sub θ/(a)) 2 ) remains roughly constant. Energy confinement is momentarily degraded, and typically a decrease in F (F identical to B/sub phi/(a)/(B/sub phi/)) is seen as magnetic energy is converted to plasma energy when the pellet ablates. As a result of pellet injection at I/sub phi/ = 150 kA we observe T/sub e/(0) α n-bar/sub e//sup -.9 +- .1/, while the helicity based resistivity eta/sub k/ transiently varies as n-bar/sub e//sup .7 +- .1/. While the achievement of center-peaked density profiles is possible with pellet injection, gas puffing at rates strong enough to show a 50% increase in n-bar/sub e/ over a period of 10 msec (∼150 torr-litres/sec) leads to hollow density profiles. The refueling requirements for parameters expected in the next generation RFPs (ZTH, RFX) can be extrapolated from these data using modified tokamak pellet ablation codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malmberg, Jenny-Ann
2003-06-01
It is relatively straightforward to establish equilibrium in magnetically confined plasmas, but the plasma is frequently susceptible to a variety of instabilities that are driven by the free energy in the magnetic field or in the pressure gradient. These unstable modes exhibit effects that affect the particle, momentum and heat confinement properties of the configuration. Studies of the dynamics of several of the most important modes are the subject of this thesis. The studies are carried out on plasmas in the reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration. One phenomenon commonly observed in RFPs is mode wall locking. The localized nature of these phase- and wall locked structures results in localized power loads on the wall which are detrimental for confinement. A detailed study of the wall locked mode phenomenon is performed based on magnetic measurements from three RFP devices. The two possible mechanisms for wall locking are investigated. Locking as a result of tearing modes interacting with a static field error and locking due to the presence of a non-ideal boundary. The characteristics of the wall locked mode are qualitatively similar in a device with a conducting shell system (TPE-RX) compared to a device with a resistive shell (Extrap T2). A theoretical model is used for evaluating the threshold values for wall locking due to eddy currents in the vacuum vessel in these devices. A good correlation with experiment is observed for the conducting shell device. The possibility of successfully sustaining discharges in a resistive shell RFP is introduced in the recently rebuilt device Extrap T2R. Fast spontaneous mode rotation is observed, resulting in low magnetic fluctuations, low loop voltage and improved confinement. Wall locking is rarely observed. The low tearing mode amplitudes allow for the theoretically predicted internal non-resonant on-axis resistive wall modes to be observed. These modes have not previously been distinguished due to the formation of wall
Activation and waste disposal of the TITAN RFP [reversed-field-pinch] reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, E.T.; Conn, R.W.
1988-01-01
The TITAN-I lithium self-cooled and TITAN-II aqueous lithium nitrate solution-cooled fusion reactors are based on the reversed-field-pinch (RFP) toroidal confinement concept and operate at high power density with an 18.1 MW/m 2 neutron wall loading. These designs were analyzed to study the activation and waste disposal aspects of such high-power density reactors. It was found that because of the use of V-3Ti-1Si (TITAN-I) and reduced activation ferritic steel (TITAN-II) as structural alloys for the first wall, blanket, reflector, and shield components, all the TITAN components except the divertor collector plates can be classified as shallow-land burial (10CFR61 Class C or better) nuclear waste for disposal, provided that the impurity elements, niobium and molybdenum, can be controlled below about 1 and 0.3 appm levels, respectively. The average annual disposal masses were estimated to be 150 and 96 tonnes, respectively, for the 1,000 MW TITAN-I and TITAN-II reactors. This corresponds to about 11% of the total mass in the fusion power core of both reactors. The divertor collector plates are fabricated with tungsten because of its low particle sputtering properties. These divertor collector plates in the TITAN-I reactor will be qualified as Class C waste after 18.1 MW-y/m 2 operation. The waste disposal rating of the divertor collector plates in the TITAN-II reactor, however, is estimated to be a factor of 4 higher than allowed for Class C disposal, because of the soft neutron spectrum in the beryllium environment. The annual disposal mass of this non-Class C waste is 0.35 tons, about 0.04% of the average annual discharge mass for the TITAN-II reactor. An additional 74 m 3 annual discharge of Class C waste containing 14 C may be needed for the TITAN-II reactor because of the use of nitrate salt in the aqueous coolant as the tritium breeder. 13 refs., 6 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Burkhardt, L.C.; Di Marco, J.N.; Haberstich, A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Howell, R.B.; Karr, H.J.; Schofield, A.E.
1977-01-01
The scaling properties of a toroidal reversed-field Z pinch have been investigated over a limited range by comparing two experiments having conducting walls and discharge-tube minor diameters which differ by a factor of approximately 1.5. Both the confinement time of the plasma column and the electron temperature were found to increase about a factor of two with the increased minor diameter. Both the poloidal field diffusion and the decay of the toroidal reversed field were significantly reduced with the larger tube diameter. These results support the hypothesis that the loss of stability later in the discharge is caused by diffusion-induced deterioration of initially favourable plasma-field profiles to MHD unstable ones. This conclusion has been verified by stability analysis of the magnetic field profiles. Fusion reactor calculations show that small reactors are conceptually possible assuming good containment can be achieved for current densities approximately >20MAm -2 . (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nebel, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Moses, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.
1980-01-01
Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. Agreement is good between the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional models, giving more confidence in the RFPR design point reported previously from the zero-dimensional analysis
Properties of the edge plasma in the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vianello, N; Spolaore, M; Serianni, G; Bergsaker, H; Antoni, V; Drake, J R
2002-01-01
The edge region of the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment has been investigated using Langmuir probes. Radial profiles of main plasma parameters are obtained and compared with those of the previous device Extrap-T2. The spontaneous setting up of a double shear layer of ExB toroidal velocity is confirmed. The particle flux induced by electrostatic fluctuations is calculated and the resulting effective diffusion coefficient is consistent with the Bohm estimate. A close relationship between electrostatic fluctuations at the edge and non-linear coupling of MHD modes in the core is found
Properties of the edge plasma in the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment
Vianello, N.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Bergsåker, H.; Antoni, V.; Drake, J. R.
2002-12-01
The edge region of the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment has been investigated using Langmuir probes. Radial profiles of main plasma parameters are obtained and compared with those of the previous device Extrap-T2. The spontaneous setting up of a double shear layer of E×B toroidal velocity is confirmed. The particle flux induced by electrostatic fluctuations is calculated and the resulting effective diffusion coefficient is consistent with the Bohm estimate. A close relationship between electrostatic fluctuations at the edge and non-linear coupling of MHD modes in the core is found.
Analytical study of a reversed-field pinch with rectangular cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Peng
1990-01-01
An analyic solution of the force-free equation for a toroidal configuration of rectangular cross section is presented. It is shown that the critical value of contraction ratio for the appearance of a reversed field as well as of the ohmic current increases as the elongation of the cross section increases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koliner, J. J.; Boguski, J., E-mail: boguski@wisc.edu; Anderson, J. K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J. R.; Goetz, J. A.; McGarry, M.; Morton, L. A.; Parke, E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cianciosa, M. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hanson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2016-03-15
In order to characterize the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas that bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, the V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code was modified to include a conducting boundary. RFP plasmas become helical at a high plasma current, which induces large eddy currents in MST's thick aluminum shell. The V3FIT conducting boundary accounts for the contribution from these eddy currents to external magnetic diagnostic coil signals. This implementation of V3FIT was benchmarked against MSTFit, a 2D Grad-Shafranov solver, for axisymmetric plasmas. The two codes both fit B{sub θ} measurement loops around the plasma minor diameter with qualitative agreement between each other and the measured field. Fits in the 3D case converge well, with q-profile and plasma shape agreement between two distinct toroidal locking phases. Greater than 60% of the measured n = 5 component of B{sub θ} at r = a is due to eddy currents in the shell, as calculated by the conducting boundary model.
Ultra-low q and reversed field pinch experiments in Extrap T1 with a resistive shell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunsell, P.; Drake, J.R.; Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.
1991-02-01
The Extrap T1 device is a high aspect ratio toroidal pinch with the dimensions R/a = 0.5 m/0.057 m. In the experiments described here, the stainless steel bellows vacuum vessels was surrounded by a resistive shell with a perpendicular field penetration time of 75 μs. The ULQ discharges, with toroidal currents in the range 20-50 kA and pulse lengths up to 2 ms, showed the typical step-wise decay of the plasma current. The current steps corresponded to transitions of the edge q-value across rational values 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1. During a step through a rational q value, there was an increase in the fluctuation activity and a corresponding increase in the plasma resistance. As part of the ULQ studies, discharges with four poloidal field nulls were produced by applying an octupole magnetic field, thus demonstrating that it is possible to sustain ULQ equilibria with poloidal field x-points and a magnetic separatix. In another study, the transition from ULQ discharges to relaxed state discharges was investigated. When the initial bias toroidal field was reduced so that q was less than about 1/6, which corresponded to a pinch parameter of about 0.6, a change in the discharge character was observed. The loop voltage required to sustain a given current increased and stochastic fluctuations were seen. Toroidal flux was generated and relaxed state equilibira developed. For higher pinch parameter, in the range of 1.5 to 2.0, a reversed field pinch could be set up if the toroidal field power supply provided a reversed current in the coils. The plasma resistivity was again lower and the pulse lengths in the RFP mode were up to 1 ms, corresponding to over 10 shell penetration times. (au)
Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.
2006-09-01
Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.
2006-01-01
Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4x10 10 cm -3 for a central electron density of 1x10 13 cm -3 . Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20 m 2 s -1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ∼2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravestijn, R M; Drake, J R; Hedqvist, A; Rachlew, E
2004-01-01
A loop voltage is required to sustain the reversed-field pinch (RFP) equilibrium. The configuration is characterized by redistribution of magnetic helicity but with the condition that the total helicity is maintained constant. The magnetic field shell penetration time, τ s , has a critical role in the stability and performance of the RFP. Confinement in the EXTRAP device has been studied with two values of τ s , first (EXTRAP-T2) with tau s of the order of the typical relaxation cycle timescale and then (EXTRAP-T2R) with τ s much longer than the relaxation cycle timescale, but still much shorter than the pulse length. Plasma parameters show significant improvements in confinement in EXTRAP-T2R. The typical loop voltage required to sustain comparable electron poloidal beta values is a factor of 3 lower in the EXTRAP-T2R device. The improvement is attributed to reduced magnetic turbulence
Effect of double-shell structure on reduction of field errors in the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, S.; Masamune, S.; Nagata, A.; Arimoto, H.; Oshiyama, H.; Sato, K.I.
1988-08-01
Reversed-field pinch (RFP) operation on STP-3 (M) proved that the adition of a quasistational vertical field B sub(perpendicular) together with large reduction of irregular magnetic field at the shell gap could remarkably improve properties of the plasma confinement. Here, the gaps of a thick shell is wholely covered with the single primary coil having a shell shape. The measured field error at the gap is as small as 7.5 % of the poloidal field. The application of B sub(perpendicular) sets the plasma at a more perfect equilibrium. In this operation, the plasma resistivety much decreased by a factor 2 and the electron temperature rose up to 0.8 keV. (author)
END effects on the n = 2 rotational instability in the reversed field theta-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aso, Y.; Wu, Ch.; Himeno, S.; Hirano, K.
1981-07-01
It is observed that n = 2 rotational mode which appears in the field reversed configuration created by a theta-pinch can be stabilized if the ejected plasmas from the ends are guided out to the far ends of the apparatus by long axial solenoidal fields. This is understood from the fact that endshorting becomes no longer possible before the ejecting plasma tips reach to the ends. Measurement of plasma rotations just outside the separatrix suggests that both preferential diffusion loss and endshorting play a very important role for the n = 2 mode. (author)
Confinement and fluctuations in the MST [Madison Symmetric Torus] reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sprott, J.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.A.; Chartas, G.; Dexter, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Hokin, S.A.; Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.W.; Watts, C.
1990-09-01
MST is a large (R 0 /a = 1.5/0.52 m) RFP which to date has obtained 80 ms discharges at a peak plasma current of 0.6 MA. Low loop voltages (15 volts) and modest temperatures (T e /T i ∼ 350/250 eV) are routinely obtained giving estimated unoptimized energy confinement times of about 1 ms. Loop voltage and ion temperature are anomalous. Magnetic fluctuations are typically 0.5% with most of the power at frequencies below 30 kHz and mode numbers in agreement with MHD prediction for tearing modes. Electrostatic fluctuations are typically 10 to 20% with a spectrum that decreases with frequency. 5 refs., 2 figs
Analysis techniques for diagnosing runaway ion distributions in the reversed field pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, J., E-mail: jkim536@wisc.edu; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Sears, S. H. [University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2016-11-15
An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) on the Madison Symmetric Torus measures deuterium ions of energy ranges 8-45 keV with an energy resolution of 2-4 keV and time resolution of 10 μs. Three different experimental configurations measure distinct portions of the naturally occurring fast ion distributions: fast ions moving parallel, anti-parallel, or perpendicular to the plasma current. On a radial-facing port, fast ions moving perpendicular to the current have the necessary pitch to be measured by the ANPA. With the diagnostic positioned on a tangent line through the plasma core, a chord integration over fast ion density, background neutral density, and local appropriate pitch defines the measured sample. The plasma current can be reversed to measure anti-parallel fast ions in the same configuration. Comparisons of energy distributions for the three configurations show an anisotropic fast ion distribution favoring high pitch ions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, S.C.; Chu, M.S.
2002-01-01
The effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas are studied. Most RFP machines are equipped with one or more metal shells outside of the vacuum vessel. These shells have finite resistivities. The eddy currents induced in each of the shells contribute to the braking electromagnetic (EM) torque which slows down the plasma rotation. In this work we study the electromagnetic torque acting on the plasma (tearing) modes produced by a system of resistive shells. These shells may consist of several nested thin shells or several thin shells enclosed within a thick shell. The dynamics of the plasma mode is investigated by balancing the EM torque from the resistive shells with the plasma viscous torque. Both the steady state theory and the time-dependent theory are developed. The steady state theory is shown to provide an accurate account of the resultant EM torque if (dω/dt)ω -2 <<1 and the time scale of interest is much longer than the response (L/R) time of the shell. Otherwise, the transient theory should be adopted. As applications, the steady state theory is used to evaluate the changes of the EM torque response from the resistive shells in two variants of two RFP machines: (1) modification from Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) [Gnesotto et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 335 (1995)] to the modified RFX: both of them are equipped with one thin shell plus one thick shell; (2) modification from Extrap T2 to Extrap T2R [Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)]: both of them are equipped with two thin shells. The transient theory has been applied numerically to study the time evolution of the EM torque during the unlocking of a locked tearing mode in the modified RFX
Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.
2013-04-01
A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n = 10 and n = 8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behaviour was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic EFs of n = 8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mode rotation in response to a uniformly rotating perturbation. The results are in good agreement with theory, and the extension to lower n, to tearing modes and to tokamaks, including ITER, is discussed.
Malmberg, J.-A.; Brunsell, P. R.
2002-01-01
Observations of resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell (τw=6 ms) reversed field pinch are described. A nonresonant mode (m=1,n=-10) with the same handedness as the internal field grows nearly exponentially with an average growth time of about 2.6 ms (less than 1/2 of the shell time) consistent with linear stability theory. The externally nonresonant unstable modes (m=1,n>0), predicted by linear stability theory, are observed to have only low amplitudes (in the normal low-Θ operation mode of the device). The radial field of the dominant internally resonant tearing modes (m=1,n=-15 to n=-12) remain low due to spontaneous fast mode rotation, corresponding to angular phase velocities up to 280 krad/s. Phase aligned mode structures are observed to rotate toroidally with an average angular velocity of 40 krad/s, in the opposite direction of the plasma current. Toward the end of the discharge, the radial field of the internally resonant modes grows as the modes slow down and become wall-locked, in agreement with nonlinear computations. Fast rotation of the internally resonant modes has been observed only recently and is attributed to a change of the front-end system (vacuum vessel, shell, and TF coil) of the device.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirnov, V.V.
2002-01-01
Large-scale tearing instabilities have long been considered to underlie transport and dynamo processes in the reversed field pinch (RFP). The vast majority of theoretical and computational RFP work has focused on pressureless, single-fluid MHD in cylindrical plasmas driven solely by a toroidal electric field. We report results of five investigations covering two-fluid dynamos, toroidal nonlinear MHD computation, nonlinear computation of Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD), the effect of shear flow on tearing instability, and the effect of pressure on resistive instability. The key findings are: (1) two-fluid dynamo arising from the Hall term is much larger than the standard MHD dynamo present in a single-fluid treatment, (2) geometric coupling from toroidicity precludes the occurrence of laminar single helicity states, except for nonreversed plasmas, (3) OFCD, a form of AC helicity injection, can sustain the RFP plasma current, although magnetic fluctuations are enhanced, (4) edge shear flow can destabilize the edge resonant m=0 modes, which occur as spikes in experiment, and (5) pressure driven modes are resistive at low beta, only becoming ideal at extremely high beta. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Z.R.; Guo, S.C.
2011-01-01
The cylindrical MHD model integrated with a feedback system is applied to the study of resistive wall mode (RWM) in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The model takes into account the compressibility, longitudinal flow, viscosity and resistive wall with a finite thickness. The study, via both analytical and numerical analyses, provides a physical understanding on the following subjects: firstly, on the nature of the instability spectrum of the RWM observed in RFP plasmas; specifically, the growth rates of the two groups of the RWMs (internally non-resonant and externally non-resonant) have opposite dependence on the variation of the field reversal. Secondly, on the response of the unstable plasmas to the feedback control in RFPs, the mode behaviour in plasmas under the feedback is clarified and discussed in detail. Finally, the linear solutions of time evolution of RWM instability in various feedback scenarios are given. The effects of the wall proximity, the sensor location and the system response time are discussed, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.
2013-01-01
Compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. Previous simulations of the RFP, including density and pressure evolution, showed that a stationary state with a reversed toroidal magnetic field could not be obtained, contrary to the results produced with numerical codes neglecting density and pressure dynamics. The simulations described in the present paper show that including density and pressure evolution, a stationary RFP configuration can be obtained if the resistivity has a radial profile steeply increasing close to the wall. Such resistivity profile is more realistic than a uniform resistivity, since the temperature at the wall is lower than in the plasma core
Frassinetti, L; Predebon, I; Koguchi, H; Yagi, Y; Hirano, Y; Sakakita, H; Spizzo, G; White, R B
2006-10-27
The quasi-single-helicity (QSH) state of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma is a regime in which the RFP configuration can be sustained by a dynamo produced mainly by a single tearing mode and in which a helical structure with well-defined magnetic flux surfaces arises. In this Letter, we show that spontaneous transitions to the QSH regime enhance the particle confinement. This improvement is originated by the simultaneous and cooperative action of the increase of the magnetic island and the reduction of the magnetic stochasticity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olofsson, K Erik J; Brunsell, Per R; Drake, James R [Fusion Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH Stockholm), Sweden (Association EURATOM-VR) (Sweden); Rojas, Cristian R; Hjalmarsson, Haakan, E-mail: erik.olofsson@ee.kth.se [Automatic Control, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Stockholm (Sweden)
2011-08-15
The usage of computationally feasible overparametrized and nonregularized system identification signal processing methods is assessed for automated determination of the full reversed-field pinch external plasma response spectrum for the experiment EXTRAP T2R. No assumptions on the geometry of eigenmodes are imposed. The attempted approach consists of high-order autoregressive exogenous estimation followed by Markov block coefficient construction and Hankel matrix singular value decomposition. It is seen that the obtained 'black-box' state-space models indeed can be compared with the commonplace ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) resistive thin-shell model in cylindrical geometry. It is possible to directly map the most unstable autodetected empirical system pole to the corresponding theoretical resistive shell MHD eigenmode.
Gregoratto, D.; Drake, J. R.; Yadikin, D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Paccagnella, R.; Brunsell, P. R.; Bolzonella, T.; Marchiori, G.; Cecconello, M.
2005-09-01
Arrays of magnetic coils and sensors in the EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43 1457 (2001)] reversed-field pinch have been used to investigate the plasma response to an applied resonant magnetic perturbation in the range of the resistive-wall modes (RWMs). Measured RWM growth rates agree with predictions of a cylindrical ideal-plasma model. The linear growth of low-n marginally stable RWMs is related to the so-called resonant-field amplification due to a dominant ∣n∣=2 machine error field of about 2 G. The dynamics of the m =1 RWMs interacting with the applied field produced by the coils can be accurately described by a two-pole system. Estimated poles and residues are given with sufficient accuracy by the cylindrical model with a thin continuous wall.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olofsson, K Erik J; Brunsell, Per R; Drake, James R [School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Association EURATOM-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Witrant, Emmanuel, E-mail: erik.olofsson@ee.kth.s [Control Systems Department, UJF/GIPSA-lab, INPG/UJF Grenoble University (France)
2010-10-15
Recent developments and applications of system identification methods for the reversed-field pinch (RFP) machine EXTRAP T2R have yielded plasma response parameters for decoupled dynamics. These data sets are fundamental for a real-time implementable fast Fourier transform (FFT) decoupled discrete-time fixed-order strongly stabilizing synthesis as described in this work. Robustness is assessed over the data set by bootstrap calculation of the sensitivity transfer function worst-case H{sub {infinity}}-gain distribution. Output tracking and magnetohydrodynamic mode m = 1 tracking are considered in the same framework simply as two distinct weighted traces of a performance channel output-covariance matrix as derived from the closed-loop discrete-time Lyapunov equation. The behaviour of the resulting multivariable controller is investigated with dedicated T2R experiments.
Olofsson, K. Erik J.; Brunsell, Per R.; Rojas, Cristian R.; Drake, James R.; Hjalmarsson, Håkan
2011-08-01
The usage of computationally feasible overparametrized and nonregularized system identification signal processing methods is assessed for automated determination of the full reversed-field pinch external plasma response spectrum for the experiment EXTRAP T2R. No assumptions on the geometry of eigenmodes are imposed. The attempted approach consists of high-order autoregressive exogenous estimation followed by Markov block coefficient construction and Hankel matrix singular value decomposition. It is seen that the obtained 'black-box' state-space models indeed can be compared with the commonplace ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) resistive thin-shell model in cylindrical geometry. It is possible to directly map the most unstable autodetected empirical system pole to the corresponding theoretical resistive shell MHD eigenmode.
Sallander, J.
1998-06-01
The radial distribution of impurity line emission in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP) is studied with a five viewing chord, absolutely calibrated, spectrometer system. The light is analyzed with a single 0.5 m grating spectrometer. Different parts of the entrance slit are used for different channels. This arrangement makes it possible to use the system over a wide wavelength range, from 2500 to 6500 Å, without having to recalibrate the relative sensitivity for the different channels. The rather short plasma pulses of 10-15 ms require a high time resolution. The use of photomultiplier tubes provides a time resolution of 10 μs which is limited by the transient recorders used. The result is a robust, low-cost system that produces reliable measurements of the radial dependence of emission from a wide range of impurity ions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itagaki, Masafumi; Sanpei, Akio; Masamune, Sadao; Watanabe, Kiyomasa
2014-01-01
For the MHD equilibrium reconstruction of a reverse field pinch device, it is a big issue to identify accurately the strong eddy current flow on the shell. In the present work, boundary integrals of the eddy current along the shell are added to the conventional Cauchy-condition surface method formulation. The eddy current profile is unknown in advance but straightforwardly identified using only the signals from magnetic sensors located outside the plasma. Two ideas are introduced to overcome the numerical difficulties encountered in the problem. One is an accurate boundary integral scheme to damp out the near singularity occurring at the sensor position very close to the shell. The other is the modified truncated singular value decomposition technique to solve an ill-conditioned matrix equation when a large number of nodal points exist on the shell. The capability of the new method is demonstrated for a test problem modeling the RELAX device. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiksel, G.; Frank, J.; Holly, D.
1993-01-01
Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO 3 or LiNbO 3 as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm 2 10 kW/cm 2 and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.R.; Rusbridge, M.G.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1984-01-01
The characteristics of edge-region electromagnetic disturbances and of pulsed radial fluxes of plasma to the liner as well as the detailed interrelationship among these processes have been studied on the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch in its normal, shallow-reversal operating regime. The dominant magnetic disturbances are spiky (pulsewidth approx.5--10 μs) low-amplitude (Vertical BarB/sub r//B/sub theta/Vertical Bar -2 )= poloidally symmetric radial-field structures intersecting the vacuum wall and precessing toroidally in the anti-I/sub phi/ sense. The effect of even slight toroidal-field reversal (Vertical BarB/sub phi/(a)Vertical Barroughly-equalB/sub theta/(a)/10) is to polarize these radial-field spikes preferentially positive (i.e., B/sub r/>0) and to increase the speed of the minority (B/sub r/ 0) spikes. Synchronous with the polarized B/sub r/ spikes are intense radially outward fluxes of plasma (instantaneously > or approx. =10 22 m -2 s -1 ) leading to recurrent, large amplitude (Vertical BarΔn/n> or approx. =25%) depletion of the density in the outer quarter of minor radius. The resulting time-averaged global loss-rate per particle is significant (approx.10 3 s -1 )
Sallander, J.; Hedqvist, A.; Rachlew-Källne, E.
1998-09-01
The investigations of the radial distributions of 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission from the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma show that the emission profile varies a lot, even during one plasma discharge. At central electron temperatures of about 150 eV it was expected that the 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission should emerge from the plasma centre. In comparison, 0953-4075/31/17/015/img4 is always observed to radiate from the centre. Our measurements of 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission have, however, shown that this is not always the case, the emission often comes from the plasma edge. The analysis of the measurements has led us to conclude that the edge emission comes from charge-exchange recombination with neutral hydrogen near the carbon first wall. These observations provide a way to estimate the change in neutral hydrogen density during local plasma-wall interaction.
Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.
2006-01-01
An active feedback system is required for long pulse operation of the reversed field pinch (RFP) device to suppress resistive wall modes (RWMs). A general feature of a feedback system using a discrete active coil array is a coupling effect which arises when a set of side band modes determined by the number of active coils is produced. Recent results obtained on the EXTRAP T2R RFP demonstrated the suppression of independent m = 1 RWMs using an active feedback system with a two-dimensional array of discrete active coils in the poloidal and toroidal directions. One of the feedback algorithms used is the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Active feedback systems having different number of active coils in the poloidal (Mc) and toroidal (Nc) directions (Mc × Nc = 2 × 32 and Mc × Nc = 4 × 16) are studied. Different side band effects are seen for these configurations. A significant prolongation of the plasma discharge is achieved for the intelligent shell feedback scheme using the 2 × 32 active coil configuration. This is attributed to the side band sets including only one of the dominant unstable RWMs and avoiding coupling to resonant modes. Analog proportional-integral-derivative controllers are used in the feedback system. Regimes with different values of the proportional gain are studied. The requirement of the proportional-integral control for low proportional gain and proportional-derivative control for high proportional gain is seen in the experiments.
Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.
2012-10-01
A new ITER-relevant non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) were generated and their rotation sustained by rotating magnetic perturbations. In particular, stable modes of toroidal mode number n=8 and 10 and unstable modes of n=1 were used in this experiment. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the RWMs were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude (in the case of unstable modes, the observed oscillation was superimposed to the mode growth). This behavior was used to infer the amplitude and toroidal phase of n=1, 8 and 10 EFs. The method was first tested against known, deliberately applied EFs, and then against actual intrinsic EFs. Applying equal and opposite corrections resulted in longer discharges and more uniform mode rotation, indicating good EF compensation. The results agree with a simple theoretical model. Extensions to tearing modes, to the non-uniform plasma response to rotating perturbations, and to tokamaks, including ITER, will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.; Brunsell, P.R.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.A.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Bolzonella, T.; Manduchi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Ortolani, S.; Spizzo, G.; Zanca, P.; Bondeson, A.; Liu, Y.Q.
2005-01-01
Active feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been demonstrated on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. The control system includes a sensor consisting of an array of magnetic coils (measuring mode harmonics) and an actuator consisting of a saddle coil array (producing control harmonics). Closed-loop (feedback) experiments using a digital controller based on a real time Fourier transform of sensor data have been studied for cases where the feedback gain was constant and real for all harmonics (intelligent-shell) and cases where the feedback gain could be set for selected harmonics, with both real or complex values (targeted-harmonics). The growth of the dominant RWMs can be suppressed by feedback for both the intelligent-shell and targeted-harmonic control systems. Because the number of toroidal positions of saddle coils in the array is half the number of sensors, it is predicted and observed experimentally that the control harmonic spectrum has sidebands. As a result, each control harmonic has to control simultaneously two mode harmonics. Real gains can stabilize non-rotating RWMs, while complex gains give better results for (slowly) rotating RWMs. In addition open loop experiments have been used to observe the effects of resonant field errors applied to unstable, marginally stable and robustly stable modes. The observed effects of field errors are consistent with the thin-wall model, where mode growth is proportional to the resonant field error amplitude and the wall penetration time for that mode harmonic. (author)
Drake, J. R.; Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J. A.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Bolzonella, T.; Manduchi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Ortolani, S.; Spizzo, G.; Zanca, P.; Bondeson, A.; Liu, Y. Q.
2005-07-01
Active feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been demonstrated in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. The control system includes a sensor consisting of an array of magnetic coils (measuring mode harmonics) and an actuator consisting of a saddle coil array (producing control harmonics). Closed-loop (feedback) experiments using a digital controller based on a real time Fourier transform of sensor data have been studied for cases where the feedback gain was constant and real for all harmonics (corresponding to an intelligent-shell) and cases where the feedback gain could be set for selected harmonics, with both real and complex values (targeted harmonics). The growth of the dominant RWMs can be reduced by feedback for both the intelligent-shell and targeted-harmonic control systems. Because the number of toroidal positions of the saddle coils in the array is half the number of the sensors, it is predicted and observed experimentally that the control harmonic spectrum has sidebands. Individual unstable harmonics can be controlled with real gains. However if there are two unstable mode harmonics coupled by the sideband effect, control is much less effective with real gains. According to the theory, complex gains give better results for (slowly) rotating RWMs, and experiments support this prediction. In addition, open loop experiments have been used to observe the effects of resonant field errors applied to unstable, marginally stable and robustly stable modes. The observed effects of field errors are consistent with the thin-wall model, where mode growth is proportional to the resonant field error amplitude and the wall penetration time for that mode harmonic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.; Brunsell, P.R.; Yadikin, D.
2005-01-01
Active feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been demonstrated in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. The control system includes a sensor consisting of an array of magnetic coils (measuring mode harmonics) and an actuator consisting of a saddle coil array (producing control harmonics). Closed-loop (feedback) experiments using a digital controller based on a real time Fourier transform of sensor data have been studied for cases where the feedback gain was constant and real for all harmonics (corresponding to an intelligent-shell) and cases where the feedback gain could be set for selected harmonics, with both real and complex values (targeted harmonics). The growth of the dominant RWMs can be reduced by feedback for both the intelligent-shell and targeted-harmonic control systems. Because the number of toroidal positions of the saddle coils in the array is half the number of the sensors, it is predicted and observed experimentally that the control harmonic spectrum has sidebands. Individual unstable harmonics can be controlled with real gains. However if there are two unstable mode harmonics coupled by the sideband effect, control is much less effective with real gains. According to the theory, complex gains give better results for (slowly) rotating RWMs, and experiments support this prediction. In addition, open loop experiments have been used to observe the effects of resonant field errors applied to unstable, marginally stable and robustly stable modes. The observed effects of field errors are consistent with the thin-wall model, where mode growth is proportional to the resonant field error amplitude and the wall penetration time for that mode harmonic
Torus C-I field reversed theta-pinch at UNICAMP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machida, M.; Collares, M.P.; Honda, R.Y.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Scheid, V.H.B.
1984-01-01
The influence of multipole fields (octopole and quadrupole) on supressing the n=2 rotational instability, field reconnection, particle loss effects is studied, and the viability of transforming the theta-pinch from Campinas, Brazil (100Kv, 55Kj) to the field reversed theta-pinch with plasma translation program is analyzed. (E.G.) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carraro, L.; Sattin, F.; Puiatty, M.E.; Scarin, P.; Valisa, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Mattioli, M.; Demichelis, C.; Mandl, W. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1996-07-01
Collisional radiative models (CRM) are needed to simulate experimental line brightnesses and emissivities from fusion devices. CRM are built for H-like and He-like carbon and oxygen ions. The impurity ion radial distribution is obtained using a transport code with two radius dependent transport parameters: a diffusion coefficient D and an inward convection velocity V. Examples are given of the quantitative interpretation of experimental spectroscopic data from two fusion devices: the Tore Supra Tokamak and the Reversed Field Pinch RFX. (K.A.). 60 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carraro, L.; Sattin, F.; Puiatty, M.E.; Scarin, P.; Valisa, M.; Mattioli, M.; Demichelis, C.; Mandl, W.
1996-07-01
Collisional radiative models (CRM) are needed to simulate experimental line brightnesses and emissivities from fusion devices. CRM are built for H-like and He-like carbon and oxygen ions. The impurity ion radial distribution is obtained using a transport code with two radius dependent transport parameters: a diffusion coefficient D and an inward convection velocity V. Examples are given of the quantitative interpretation of experimental spectroscopic data from two fusion devices: the Tore Supra Tokamak and the Reversed Field Pinch RFX. (K.A.)
Electrical circuit modeling of reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sprott, J.C.
1988-02-01
Equations are proposed to describe the radial variation of the magnetic field and current density in a circular, cylindrical RFP. These equations are used to derive the electrical circuit parameters (inductance, resistance, and coupling coefficient) for an RFP discharge. The circuit parameters are used to evaluate the flux and energy consumption for various startup modes and for steady-state operation using oscillating field current drive. The results are applied to the MST device. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab
Quasi-single helicity spectra in the Madison Symmetric Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Franz, P.; Chapman, B.E.; Craig, D.; Sarff, J.S.; Biewer, T.M.; Prager, S.C.; Reardon, J.C.
2002-01-01
Evidence of a self-organized collapse towards a narrow spectrum of magnetic instabilities in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch device is presented. In this collapsed state, dubbed quasi-single helicity (QSH), the spectrum of magnetic modes condenses spontaneously to one dominant mode more completely than ever before observed. The amplitudes of all but the largest of the m=1 modes decrease in QSH states. New results about thermal features of QSH spectra and the identification of global control parameters for their onset are also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoneking, M.R.; Lanier, N.E.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Sinitsyn, D.
1997-01-01
Current profile control is employed in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch to reduce the magnetic fluctuations responsible for anomalous transport. An inductive poloidal electric-field pulse is applied in the sense to flatten the parallel current profile, reducing the dynamo fluctuation amplitude required to sustain the equilibrium. This technique demonstrates a substantial reduction in fluctuation amplitude (as much as 50%), and improvement in energy confinement (from 1 to 5 ms); a record low fluctuation (0.8%) and record high temperature (615 eV) for this device were observed simultaneously during current drive experiments. Plasma beta increases by 50% and the Ohmic input power is three times lower. Particle confinement improves and plasma impurity contamination is reduced. The results of the transient current drive experiments provide motivation for continuing development of steady-state current profile control strategies for the reversed field pinch. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffer, M.J.
1997-08-01
A stabilized pinch configuration is described, consisting of a D-shaped plasma cross section wrapped tightly around a guiding axis. The open-quotes helical-Dclose quotes geometry produces a very large axial (toroidal) transform of magnetic line direction that reverses the pitch of the magnetic lines without the need of azimuthal (poloidal) plasma current. Thus, there is no need of a open-quotes dynamoclose quotes process and its associated fluctuations. The resulting configuration has the high magnetic shear and pitch reversal of the reversed field pinch (RFP). (Pitch = P = qR, where R = major radius). A helical-D pinch might demonstrate good confinement at q << 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namsrai, Kh.
2001-11-01
Geometrical structure and physical characteristics of a torus are investigated in detail. Newtonian and electromagnetic potentials of the torus are defined at short and long distances. It is shown that torus potential at small distances has attractive oscillator behaviour. Motion of a particle in the torus potential is studied. The inertia tensor of the torus and its dynamics are obtained. Rotating torus whose tip is held fixed by two massless rigid threads and moves in a gravitational field is considered. (author)
Magnetic turbulent electron transport in a reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.; Moses, R.
1990-01-01
A model of magnetic turbulent electron transport is presented. The model, based on the thermal conduction theory of Rechester and Rosenbluth, entails a Boltzmann description of electron dynamics in the long mean-free-path limit and quantitatively describes the salient features of superthermal electron measurements in the RFP edge plasma. Included are predictions of the mean superthermal electron energy, current density, and power flux asymmetry. A discussion of the transport model, the assumptions implicit in the model, and the relevance of this work to more general issue of magnetic turbulent transport in toroidal systems is presented. 32 refs., 3 figs
The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures
The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-01-01
This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures.
The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: overview of titan-2 design; titan-2 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-2 divertor engineering; titan-2 tritium systems; titan-2 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-2 maintenance procedures.
The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
This report discusses research on the titan-1 fusion power core. The major topics covered are: titan-1 fusion-power-core engineering; titan-1 divertor engineering; titan-1 tritium systems; titan-1 safety design and radioactive-waste disposal; and titan-1 maintenance procedures
Mode dynamics and confinement in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunsell, P.R.; Bergsaker, H.; Brzozowski, J.H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Scheffel, J.; Schnack, D.D.
2001-01-01
Tearing mode dynamics and toroidal plasma flow in the RFP has been experimentally studied in the Extrap T2 device. A toroidally localised, stationary magnetic field perturbation, the 'slinky mode' is formed in nearly all discharges. There is a tendency of increased phase alignment of different toroidal Fourier modes, resulting in higher localised mode amplitudes, with higher magnetic fluctuation level. The fluctuation level increases slightly with increasing plasma current and plasma density. The toroidal plasma flow velocity and the ion temperature has been measured with Doppler spectroscopy. Both the toroidal plasma velocity and the ion temperature clearly increase with I/N. Initial, preliminary experimental results obtained very recently after a complete change of the Extrap T2 front-end system (first wall, shell, TF coil), show that an operational window with mode rotation most likely exists in the rebuilt device, in contrast to the earlier case discussed above. A numerical code DEBSP has been developed to simulate the behaviour of RFP confinement in realistic geometry, including essential transport physics. Resulting scaling laws are presented and compared with results from Extrap T2 and other RFP experiments. (author)
''Compact'' reversed-field pinch (CRFP) reactor design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miley, G.H.; Nebel, R.A.
1980-01-01
These results indicate that a CRFP operating in the range of 100 MWe should be feasible. While the large aspect ratio leads to a 6.4-m major radius, the design still retains many attributes of conventional compact tori, such as simplicity and ease of access. The relatively low Q/sub p/ with batch burns might be satifactory for a demonstration unit. However, to obtain power-plant ''grade'' Q/sub p/, either refueling (possibly by pellets) or larger size plasmas appear necessary
Statistical magnetohydrodynamics and reversed-field-pinch quiescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.
1982-01-01
A statistical model of a bounded, incompressible, cylindrical magnetofluid is presented. This model predicts the presence of magnetic fluctuations about a cylindrically-symmetric, Bessel-function-model, mean magnetic field, which satisfies del x = μ . As theta → 1.56, the model predicts that the significant region of the fluctuation spectrum narrows down to a single (coherent) m = 1 mode. An analogy between the Debye length of an electrostatic plasma and μ -1 suggests the physical validity o the model's prediction of when /r - r'/ greater than or equal to μ -1
Stable Alfven wave dynamo action in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werley, K.A.
1984-01-01
Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. Static quasi-linear Alfven wave calculations have shown that dynamo emfs on the order of eta vector J are possible. This suggested a possible explanation of RFP behavior and a new (externally driven) mechanism for extending operation and controlling field profiles (possibly reducing plasma transport). This thesis demonstrates that the dynamo emf can quickly induce plasma currents whose emf cancels the dynamo effect. This thesis also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number
Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhe Gao
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.
Numerical study of two-fluid flowing equilibria of helicity-driven spherical torus plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.
2004-01-01
Two-fluid flowing equilibrium configurations of a helicity-driven spherical torus (HD-ST) are numerically determined by using the combination of the finite difference and the boundary element methods. It is found from the numerical results that electron fluids near the central conductor are tied to an external toroidal field and ion fluids are not. The magnetic configurations change from the high-q HD-ST (q>1) with paramagnetic toroidal field and low-β (volume average β value, ∼ 2%) through the helicity-driven spheromak and RFP (reverse field pinch) to the ultra low-q HD-ST (0 ∼ 18%) as the external toroidal field at the inner edge regions decreases and reverses the sign. The two-fluid effects are more significant in this equilibrium transition when the ion diamagnetic drift is dominant in the flowing two-fluid. (authors)
Simulation and design of feedback control on resistive wall modes in Keda Torus eXperiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Chenguang; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong
2014-01-01
The feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) (Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 094009 (2014)) is investigated by simulation. A linear model is built to describe the growth of the unstable modes in the absence of feedback and the resulting mode suppression due to feedback, given the typical reversed field pinch plasma equilibrium. The layout of KTX with two shell structures (the vacuum vessel and the stabilizing shell) is taken into account. The feedback performance is explored both in the scheme of “clean mode control” (Zanca et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1425 (2007)) and “raw mode control.” The discrete time control model with specific characteristic times will mimic the real feedback control action and lead to the favored control cycle. Moreover, the conceptual design of feedback control system is also presented, targeting on both RWMs and tearing modes
CPRF/ZTH front-end torus design and fabrication status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballard, E.O.; Baker, C.; Gomez, T.; Prince, P.P.; Smith, R.L.
1989-01-01
Design of the ZTH front-end torus has been completed for a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the ZTH front-end torus. The ZTH torus consists of an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel supported by an external electrically conducting 304L stainless steel shell. Interspace support rings support the vacuum vessel to the shell and also provide accurate radial support for the interspace electrical diagnostics. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shell's external surface. The shell consists of an explosion bonded stainless steel-copper composite with water-cooling tube assemblies attached to the outer surface. The 0.135-in. thick copper is on the inside surface of the shell, and provides an electrically conducting path with the required electrical time constant of 50 ms. The shell plate will be formed to the required toroidal configuration, after which the poloidal and toroidal flanges will be welded to the structure and machined. The Inconel vacuum vessel consists of bellows segments, armor support rings, and diagnostic stations welded together to form the complete vacuum vessel assembly. The necessity for accurate positioning of the vacuum vessel within the shell requires that the shell and vacuum vessel be fabricated with major diameter tolerances within 0.050-in. true position of the nominal diameters of 188.0-in. and 188.820-in., respectively. 7 figs
... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Pinched Nerve Information Page Pinched Nerve Information Page What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain ...
Nonlinear coupling of tearing fluctuations in the Madison Symmetric Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Cekic, M.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.R.; Assadi, S.; Sidikman, K.L.
1992-11-01
Three-wave, nonlinear, tearing mode coupling has been measured in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP) [Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] using bispectral analysis of edge magnetic fluctuations resolved in ''k-space. The strength of nonlinear three-wave interactions satisfying the sum rules m 1 + m 2 = m 3 and n 1 + n 2 = n 3 is measured by the bicoherency. In the RFP, m=l, n∼2R/a (6 for MST) internally resonant modes are linearly unstable and grow to large amplitude. Large values of bicoherency occur for two m=l modes coupled to an m=2 mode and the coupling of intermediate toroidal modes, e.g., n=6 and 7 coupled to n=13. These experimental bispectral features agree with predicted bispectral features derived from MHD computation. However, in the experiment, enhanced coupling occurs in the ''crash'' phase of a sawtooth oscillation concomitant with a broadened mode spectrum suggesting the onset of a nonlinear cascade
CPRF/ZTH front-end torus design and fabrication status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballard, E.O.; Baker, C.; Gomez, T.; Prince, P.P.; Smith, R.L.
1989-01-01
Design of the ZTH front-end torus has been completed for a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the ZTH front-end. The ZTH torus consists of an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel supported by an external electrically conducting 304L stainless steel shell. Interspace support rings support the vacuum vessel to the shell and also provide accurate radial support for the interspace electrical diagnostics. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shell's external surface. The shell consists of an explosion bonded stainless steel-copper composite with water-cooling tube assemblies attached to the outer surface. The 0.135-in. thick copper is on the inside surface of the shell, and provides an electrically conducting path with the required electrical time constant of 50 ms. The shell plate will be formed to the required toroidal configuration, after which the poloidal and toroidal flanges will be welded to the structure and machined. The Inconel vacuum vessel consists of bellows segments, armor support rings, and diagnostic stations welded together to form the complete vacuum vessel assembly. The necessity for accurate positioning of the vacuum vessel within the shell requires that the shell and vacuum vessel be fabricated with major diameter tolerances within 0.050-in. true position of the nominal diameters of 188.0-in. and 188.820-in., respectively. 7 figs
Computational methods for reversed-field equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, J.K.; Auerbach, S.P.; Willmann, P.A.; Berk, H.L.; McNamara, B.
1980-01-01
Investigating the temporal evolution of reversed-field equilibrium caused by transport processes requires the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation and computation of field-line-averaged quantities. The technique for field-line averaging and the computation of the Grad-Shafranov equation are presented. Application of Green's function to specify the Grad-Shafranov equation boundary condition is discussed. Hill's vortex formulas used to verify certain computations are detailed. Use of computer software to implement computational methods is described
Reversed-field multiple mirror concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinhauer, L.C.; Grossmann, W.; Seyler, C.E.
1978-01-01
The reversed-field multiple mirror (RFMM), is a promising technique for end-stoppering linear magnetic fusion plasmas. By this means the physics and engineering advantages of a linear plasma are gained while circumventing the endloss problem, allowing the projection of very short (less than or equal to 100 m) conceptual reactors. RFMM end-stoppering is accomplished by a string of closed field-line cells on the plasma column axis; these cells strongly retard the axial flow of particles and energy. We describe the reactor implications of the RFMM
A high time resolution x-ray diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus
DuBois, Ami M.; Lee, John David; Almagri, Abdulgadar F.
2015-07-01
A new high time resolution x-ray detector has been installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) to make measurements around sawtooth events. The detector system is comprised of a silicon avalanche photodiode, a 20 ns Gaussian shaping amplifier, and a 500 MHz digitizer with 14-bit sampling resolution. The fast shaping time diminishes the need to restrict the amount of x-ray flux reaching the detector, limiting the system dead-time. With a much higher time resolution than systems currently in use in high temperature plasma physics experiments, this new detector has the versatility to be used in a variety of discharges with varying flux and the ability to study dynamics on both slow and fast time scales. This paper discusses the new fast x-ray detector recently installed on MST and the improved time resolution capabilities compared to the existing soft and hard x-ray diagnostics. In addition to the detector hardware, improvements to the detector calibration and x-ray pulse identification software, such as additional fitting parameters and a more sophisticated fitting routine are discussed. Finally, initial data taken in both high confinement and standard reversed-field pinch plasma discharges are compared.
Stephens, Hillary Dianne
Tearing mode induced magnetic islands have a significant impact on the thermal characteristics of magnetically confined plasmas such as those in the reversed-field-pinch. Using a state-of-the-art Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic, electron temperature fluctuations correlated with magnetic tearing modes have been observed on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field-pinch. The TS diagnostic consists of two independently triggerable Nd:YAG lasers that can each pulse up to 15 times each plasma discharge and 21 General Atomics polchromators equipped with avalanche photodiode modules. Detailed calibrations focusing on accuracy, ease of use and repeatability and in-situ measurements have been performed on the system. Electron temperature (Te) profiles are acquired at 25 kHz with 2 cm or less resolution along the minor radius, sufficient to measure the effect of an island on the profile as the island rotates by the measurement point. Bayesian data analysis techniques are developed and used to detect fluctuations over an ensemble of shots. Four cases are studied; standard plasmas in quiescent periods, through sawteeth, through core reconnection events and in plasmas where the tearing mode activity is decreased. With a spectrum of unstable tearing modes, remnant islands that tend to flatten the temperature profile are present in the core between sawtooth-like reconnection events. This flattening is characteristic of rapid parallel heat conduction along helical magnetic field lines. The spatial structure of the temperature fluctuations show that the location of the rational surface of the m/n = 1/6 tearing mode is significantly further in than equilibrium suggestions predict. The fluctuations also provide a measurement of the remnant island width which is significantly smaller than the predicted full island width. These correlated fluctuations disappear during both global and core reconnection events. In striking contrast to temperature flattening, a temperature gradient
Conceptual design for an air core 2 meg-amp reversed field experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammer, C.F.
1983-01-01
The Los Alamos CTR Division is involved in the conceptual design of a next phase Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The paper will discuss, in general, some of the physics questions that the experiment will address. Also in more detail it will discuss the engineering parameters and the possible hardware design solutions. The experiment is designed to produce a plasma current of about 2 MA which can be sustained for about 200 ms. The electrical energy for the system is provided by a large motor generator set. An inductive energy store is used to drive the magnetizing and poloidal field windings. A capacitor bank provides the energy for the toroidal field windings. The current in both circuits is maintained by using SCR controlled transformer rectifiers
Conceptual design for an AIR CORE 2 MEG-AMP Reversed field experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammer, C.F.
1983-01-01
The Los Alamos CTR Division is involved in the conceptual design of a next phase Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The paper will discuss, in general, some of the physics questions that the experiment will address. Also in more detail it will discuss the engineering parameters and the possible hardware design solutions. The experiment is designed to produce a plasma current of about 2 MA which can be sustained for about 200 ms. The electrical energy for the system is provided by a large motor generator set. An inductive energy store is used to drive the magnetizing and poloidal field windings. A capacitor bank provides the energy for the toroidal field windings. The current in both circuits is maintained by using SCR controlled transformer rectifiers
Thomson scattering in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welander, A.
1996-11-01
A Thomson scattering system has been installed on the EXTRAP-T2 RFP experiment. The system measures the electron density and temperature in three radial points using three spectral channels. A description of the system, the calibration techniques and examples of data obtained are given. The error bars for the electron temperature measurements are estimated to be < 10% for typical T2-plasmas. 4 refs
MHD control experiments in the Extrap T2R Reversed Field Pinch
Marrelli, L.; Bolzonella, T.; Brunsell, P.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.; Franz, P.; Gregoratto, D.; Manduchi, G.; Martin, P.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Piovesan, P.; Spizzo, G.; Yadikin, D.; Zanca, P.
2004-11-01
We report here on MHD active control experiments performed in the Extrap T2R device, which has been recently equipped with a set of 32 feedback controlled saddle coils couples. Experiments aiming at selectively exciting a resonant resistive instability in order to actively induce Quasi Single Helicity states will be presented. Open loop experiments have in fact shown that a spectrum with one dominant mode can be excited in a high aspect ratio device like T2R. In addition, evidences of controlled braking of tearing modes, which spontaneously rotate in T2R, have been gathered, allowing the determination of a threshold for mode wall locking. Different feedback control schemes have been implemented. In particular, mode suppression schemes proved successful in delaying resistive wall modes growth and in increasing the discharge duration: this suggests a hybrid mode control scenario, in which RWM are suppressed and QSH is induced. Radiation imaging and internal magnetic field reconstructions performed with the ORBIT code will be presented.
Radiated Power and Impurity Concentrations in the EXTRAP-T2R Reversed-Field Pinch
Corre, Y.; Rachlew, E.; Cecconello, M.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist, A.; Pégourié, B.; Schunke, B.; Stancalie, V.
2005-01-01
A numerical and experimental study of the impurity concentration and radiation in the EXTRAP-T2R device is reported. The experimental setup consists of an 8-chord bolometer system providing the plasma radiated power and a vacuum-ultraviolet spectrometer providing information on the plasma impurity content. The plasma emissivity profile as measured by the bolometric system is peaked in the plasma centre. A one dimensional Onion Skin Collisional-Radiative model (OSCR) has been developed to compute the density and radiation distributions of the main impurities. The observed centrally peaked emissivity profile can be reproduced by OSCR simulations only if finite particle confinement time and charge-exchange processes between plasma impurities and neutral hydrogen are taken into account. The neutral hydrogen density profile is computed with a recycling code. Simulations show that recycling on metal first wall such as in EXTRAP-T2R (stainless steel vacuum vessel and molybdenum limiters) is compatible with a rather high neutral hydrogen density in the plasma centre. Assuming an impurity concentration of 10% for oxygen and 3% for carbon compared with the electron density, the OSCR calculation including lines and continuum emission reproduces about 60% of the total radiated power with a similarly centrally peaked emissivity profile. The centrally peaked emissivity profile is due to low ionisation stages and strongly radiating species in the plasma core, mainly O4+ (Be-like) and C3+ Li-like.
Radiated Power and Impurity Concentrations in the EXTRAP-T2R Reversed-Field Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corre, Y.; Rachlew, E.; Gravestijn, R.M.; Hedqvist, A.; Stancalie, V.
2005-01-01
A numerical and experimental study of the impurity concentration and radiation in the EXTRAP-T2R device is reported. The experimental setup consists of an 8-chord bolometer system providing the plasma radiated power and a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer providing information on the plasma impurity content. The plasma emissivity profile as measured by the bolometric system is peaked in the plasma centre. A one dimensional Onion Skin Collisional-Radiative model (OSCR) has been developed to compute the density and radiation distributions of the main impurities. The observed centrally peaked emissivity profile can be reproduced by OSCR simulations only if finite particle confinement time and charge-exchange processes between plasma impurities and neutral hydrogen are taken into account. The neutral hydrogen density profile is computed with a recycling code. Simulations show that recycling on metal first wall such as in EXTRAP-T2R (stainless steel vacuum vessel and molybdenum limiters) is compatible with a rather high neutral hydrogen density in the plasma centre. Assuming an impurity concentration of 10% for oxygen and 3% for carbon compared with the electron density, the OSCR calculation including lines and continuum emission reproduces about 60% of the total radiated power with a similarly centrally peaked emissivity profile. The centrally peaked emissivity profile is due to low ionisation stages and strongly radiating species in the plasma core, mainly O 4+ (Be-like) and C 3+ (Li-like)
Theoretical reversed field pinch studies: Progress report, August 31, 1987 to June 1988
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
This paper describes the progress made in Grant DE-FG02-85ER53212 since the end of the last year, August 31, 1987 to the present (June, 1988). Substantial results have emerged in two areas of high importance to the RFP program - nonlinear evolution with nonideal boundaries and self-consistent equilibrium in the presence of field errors. Both of these topics are critical for a basic understanding of RFP physics, for interpretation of current experiments, and for design of future devices and reactors. 3 refs
Electron Bernstein wave experiments in a over-dense reversed field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, C. B.; Anderson, J.K.; Cengher, M.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Carter, M.; Harvey, R.W.; Pinsker, R.I.; Smirnov, A.P.
2003-01-01
Experiments and theoretical work show that it is possible to couple power to the EBW in an RFP, and that these waves may be suitable for driving current. The main results of our work thus far are: (1) A coupling theory for a phased array of waveguides is developed and compared to experiment. Both O and X mode polarizations can be used; in general coupling for both is optimized for obliquely launched waves. (2) The surface impedance and reflection coefficients have been measured for EBWs launched by waveguide antennas on the edge of MST. Emission and coupling measurements are both consistent with theoretical models and the measured density gradients at the plasma edge. In particular, the coupling showed a strong asymmetry in N Φ for X-mode launch. (3) Black-body levels of emission have been observed in the ECRF from over-dense MST plasmas, which by reciprocity indicate that coupling to the EBW is possible with external antennas. Emission is preferentially polarized in the X-mode and is affected by density fluctuations at the plasma edge. Mode conversion efficiencies as high as 75% have been observed. (4) Ray tracing of EBW waves, coupled to Fokker Planck calculations show that localized, efficient current drive is possible. Current drive is possible by choosing the poloidal angle of the launching antenna to control the N of the wave. (authors)
Experiments of spheromak and reversed field configuration in 2m theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogi, Y.; Shimamura, S.; Ogura, H.; Osanai, Y.; Saito, K.; Shiina, S.; Yoshimura, H.
1981-01-01
Since the z-current produces the paramagnetic field near the electrodes, the spheromak formation is more difficult in the straight bias field. In order to help the reconnection at the coil ends, the cusp bias coils are added to both ends of the straight coil. Then the spheromak configuration is formed and the plasma is confined for 5 to 10 μs. On the other hand, the RFC continues for about 30 μs in case of the straight bias field. The confinement time is limited by the rotational instability. Although the start time of the instability is not clear, the elongation of the plasma is detected in 15 to 20 μs after the RFC is formed. The period of the rotation is slightly different every shot. Detailed study of the instability is being pursued
Poloidal field system design for the ZT-H reversed field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.; Gribble, R.F.; Linton, T.W.; Reass, W.R.
1983-01-01
This report discusses each of the following areas: (1) equilibrium specification, (2) the equilibrium winding, (3) the magnetizing winding, (4) numerical poloidal field system analysis, (5) coil cross section, turns, minimum field error, (6) coil stresses and cooling, (7) the upper structure, (8) the loads, (9) boundary conditions and method of analysis, and (10) design description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomson, D.B.
1987-11-01
These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date
Magnetic fluctuation induced transport and edge dynamo measurements in the MST reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hokin, S.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.
1994-09-01
Probe measurements in MST indicate that RFP particle and energy loss is governed by magnetic fluctuations inside r/a = 0.8, with energy carried out convectively by superthermal electrons. The radial loss rate is lower than the Rechester-Rosenbluth level, presumably due to the establishment of a restraining ambipolar potential. Several aspects of these measurements contradict the Kinetic Dynamo Theory, while the MHD dynamo EMF is measured to be large enough to drive the edge current carried by these superthermal electrons
Pitch programming of the ZT-S reversed-field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.; Burkhardt, L.C.; Baker, D.A.; Howell, R.B.; Schofield, A.E.; Sgro, A.G.
1979-01-01
Pitch programming is only realizable in the non-ideal case and as such is tried on ZT-S. Once the resistivity profile in the plasma is determined along with the appropriate thermal conductivity, then q(t) at the wall possesses a fairly simple mapping to a q(r) for a given time as shown in the experimental results. Thus the resulting q(r) profiles are qualitatively similar to ones desirable from the point of MHD stability theory. The results of this initial investigation indicate that pitch programming should be pursued further as a possible means of setting up desirable equilibrium profiles in an RFP
ZTI: Preliminary characterization of an ignition class reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.
1990-01-01
A preliminary cost-optimized conceptual design of an intermediate-step, ignition-class RFP device (ZTI) for the study of alpha-particle physics in a DT plasma is reported. The ZTI design reflects potentially significant cost savings relative to similar ignition-class tokamaks for device parameters that reside on the path to a viable commercial RFP reactor. Reductions in both device costs and number of steps to commercialization portend a significantly reduced development cost for fusion. The methodology and result and coupling realistic physics, engineering, and cost models through a multi-dimensional optimizer are reported for ZTI, which is a device that would follow the 2--4 MA ZTH on a approx-gt 1996--98 timescale. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Magnetic and electrostatic fluctuation measurements on the ZT-40M reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.; Ingraham, J.C.; Munson, C.P.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Weber, P.G.; Tsui, H.Y.; Ritz, C.P.
1990-01-01
It is presently unknown whether anomalous transport in toroidal, magnetically confined plasma systems, if fluctuation induced, is dominated by electrostatic or magnetic turbulence. We are participating in a joint study of the edge plasmas of tokamak, stellarator, and RFP in an attempt to elucidate this issue. We measure magnetic and electrostatic fields using probes inserted into the edge of the ZT-40M RFP. Using the present technique, with stationary probes, these measurements can be done without damaging the probes only for low current discharges (60 kA). In this initial study, we find that both turbulent magnetic and electrostatic transport are of importance. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Reversed-field-pinch and ultra-low-q discharges in REPUTE-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, N.; Yoshida, Z.; Kamada, Y.; Saito, M.; Miyamoto, K.
1987-01-01
Ultra-low q (ULQ) and very-low q (VLQ) discharge experiments have been done using the REPUTE-1 RFP. It was found that in these q regime, the plasma density and beta are fairly high, and the confinement property is less sensitive to the error field compared to the RFP. However, since the temperature of the REPUTE-1 discharge is limited in low value because of the small plasma current due to the small toroidal field, its magnetic Reynolds number is too small to simulate the reactor plasma behavior. The radiation barrier has not been overcome yet, and consequently the energy confinement time is very short. In order to improve these aspects of the REPUTE-1 experiment, the REPUTE-2 is designed to produce higher toroidal field of 2T. The toroidal field increases slowly to the final value as in the case of the ramp-up mode of the RFP operation. The first stage of the REPUTE-2 project will be devoted to study the confinement physics of RFP, ULQ, and VLQ. In the second stage, innovation of these configurations, such as resistive shell RFP, neutral beam current drive, and higher current density, is planned. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Global modelling of plasma-wall interaction in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagatin, M.; Costa, S.; Ortolani, S.
1989-01-01
The impurity production and deuterium recycling mechanisms in ETA-BETA II and RFX are firstly discussed by means of a simple model applicable to a stationary plasma interacting with the wall. This gives the time constant and the saturation values of the impurity concentration as a function of the boundary temperature and density. If the latter is sufficiently high, the impurity buildup in the main plasma becomes to some extent stabilized by the shielding effect of the edge. A self-consistent global model of the time evolution of an RFP plasma interacting with the wall is then described. The bulk and edge parameters are derived by solving the energy and particle balance equations incorporating some of the basic plasma-surface processes, such as sputtering, backscattering and desorption. The application of the model to ETA-BETA II confirms the impurity concentrations of the light and metal impurities as well as the time evolution of the average electron density found experimentally under different conditions. The model is then applied to RFX, a larger RFP experiment under construction, whose wall will be protected by a full graphite armour. The time evolution of the discharge shows that carbon sputtering could increase Z eff to ≅ 4, but without affecting significantly the plasma performance. (orig.)
PF magnetic design for the 4MA reversed field pinch experiment CPRF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribble, R.F.; Rogers, J.D.
1987-01-01
ZTH is to reach 2 MA by inductive energy transfer in 0.05 s followed by power supply ramping to 4 MA in 0.4 s. Major and minor radii are 2.4 and 0.4 m. Copper for the poloidal field coils weighs 48 metric tonnes, the one-turn equivalent ohmic heating (OH) coil inductance is 1.90 μH, and the OH coil rating is 15.4 MAT, 225 MJ, and 29.3 Vs at 60 kA. The normal operating OH current is 50 kA. Design of the coil for 60 kA provides a margin for uncertainties. OH coils are connected in series and the combination is connected in parallel with four equilibrium field (EF) coils. With optimized location of all coils, this connection provides decoupling between the OH and EH coil sets so that the changing OH current does not affect EF winding current. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Global modelling of plasma-wall interaction in reversed field pinches
Bagatin, M.; Costa, S.; Ortolani, S.
1989-04-01
The impurity production and deuterium recycling mechanisms in ETA—BETA II and RFX are firstly discussed by means of a simple model applicable to a stationary plasma interacting with the wall. This gives the time constant and the saturation values of the impurity concentration as a function of the boundary temperature and density. If the latter is sufficiently high, the impurity buildup in the main plasma becomes to some extent stabilized by the shielding effect of the edge. A self-consistent global model of the time evolution of an RFP plasma interacting with the wall is then described. The bulk and edge parameters are derived by solving the energy and particle balance equations incorporating some of the basic plasma-surface processes, such as sputtering, backscattering and desorption. The application of the model to ETA-BETA II confirms the impurity concentrations of the light and metal impurities as well as the time evolution of the average electron density found experimentally under different conditions. The model is then applied to RFX, a larger RFP experiment under construction, whose wall will be protected by a full graphite armour. The time evolution of the discharge shows that carbon sputtering could increase Zeff to ~ 4, but without affecting significantly the plasma performance.
B4C solid target boronization of the MST reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Den Hartog, D.J.; Cekic, M.; Fiksel, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Kendrick, R.D.; Prager, S.C.; Stoneking, M.R.
1992-10-01
A solid rod of hot-pressed boron carbide is being used as the source of boron during boronization of MST. The most striking result of this procedure is the reduction in oxygen contamination of the plasma (O III radiation, characteristic of oxygen at the edge, falls by about a factor of 3 after boronization.). The radiated power fraction drops to about half its initial value. Particle reflux from the wall is also lowered, making density control simpler. The rod (12.7 mm diameter) is inserted into the edge plasma of normal high-power RFP discharges. B 4 C is ablated from the surface of the rod and deposited in a thin film (a-B/C:H) on the walls and limiters. The energy flux carried by ''superthermal'' (not ''runaway'') electrons at the edge of MST appears to enhance the efficient, non-destructive ablation of the boron carbide rod
Transport and confinement studies in the RFX-mod reversed-field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Innocente, P.; Alfier, A.; Carraro, L.; Lorenzini, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Terranova, D.
2007-01-01
In the modified RFX experiment (RFX-mod) external magnetic field coils and a close fitting thin conductive shell control radial magnetic fields. In the so-called virtual shell (VS) operation, radial field zeroing at the thin shell radius is stationary provided by the feedback-controlled coils. First experiments on RFX-mod proved the capability of the active scheme to steadily reduce the radial magnetic field. Furthermore it has been found that such edge magnetic field control extends its beneficial effects to the whole plasma. With respect to the old RFX, where magnetohydrodynamic modes amplitude was controlled by the use of a passive thick conductive shell, a stationary 2- to 3-fold reduction of the B r field amplitude in the core is obtained. The reduction of field fluctuations positively reflects on confinement. In fact, a strong reduction of the loop voltage is observed and correspondingly a 3-fold increase in pulse length is achieved by using the same poloidal flux swing. Temperature and particle measurements confirm the improved confinement properties of the VS operation. With a lower ohmic input power, higher electron temperature and lower particle influx are measured. Particle and heat transport have been studied by means of a 1D code. Local power balance was used to compute the heat conductivity profile: for the VS discharges a lower conductivity over a significant region of the plasma is found. The improved properties of RFX-mod VS operation provide a better confinement scaling in terms of plasma current. The results show that compared with the thick shell configuration, a significant confinement improvement can be obtained under stationary conditions by actively controlling the plasma magnetic boundary
Scrape-off model and pumped-limiter design for reversed-field pinches (RFP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Embrechts, M.J.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.
1983-01-01
In order to develop a better understanding of the plasma/first-wall interaction in an RFP configuration, the models being developed to describe edgeplasma and scrapeoff regions for the tokamak have been adopted. Specifically, a scrapeoff model similar to the one developed and used for the tokamak FED design is used to model the parameter range where pumped limiters may be applied to the compact RFP. The one-dimensional, steady-state heat and particle equations are solved in the scrapeoff layer for an RFP geometry, assuming equal electron and ion temperature and density, convective transport along field lines, and Bohm-like diffusion. All charge-exchange and radiation effects are assumed to take place in the region between plasma and scrapeoff layer, and only a specific fraction of the total plasma energy will enter the scrapeoff layer in the form of conduction and convection. A simplified recycling model based on an effective recycling coefficient is used. For a given particle and energy flux entering the scrapeoff and for specified relationships between the particle flux and the energy flux near the first wall, the temperature and density profiles in the scrapeoff layer region are determined. The shape of the limiter surface is determined iteratively for a specified number of poloidal limiters by specifying a constant (design) heat flux for the limiter surfaces
Self-consistent equilibrium in a cylindrical, dissipative reverse field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, S.C.; Paccagnella, R.
1994-01-01
One of the authors (C.L.S.) recently proposed a dissipative model to self-consistently solve the equilibrium problem in a free-boundary plasma column under cylindrical symmetry. In the present paper, on one hand the problem is strongly specialized to circular symmetry and to Ohm's and Fourier's laws without off-diagonal contributions; on the other hand, it is generalized by adding a dynamo effective electric field E d in Ohm's law, based on the standard turbulent model. This seems appropriate enough to study RFP equilibria, since it is well known that a stationary and cylindrically symmetric RFP is incompatible with a classical Ohm's law. Reasonably, only numerical solutions are expected to be accessible in general; but the further simplified problem with scalar and constant electric resistivity and constant dynamo coefficient α (E d =αB) can be solved analytically by elementary means. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomson, D.B. (comp.)
1987-11-01
These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Torus Palatinus and Torus Mandibularis in a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ogunbodede
; 28:105-111. 4. Seah, Y. H. Torus Palatinus and. Torus Mandibularis: a Review of the Literature. Aust. Dent. J. 1995;. 40:318-321. 5. Bernal, B. A.; Moreira, D. E.;. Rodriguez, P., I [Prevalence of. Torus Palatinus and Torus. Mandibularis in the ...
Electromagnetic diagnostic system for the Keda Torus eXperiment
Tu, Cui; Liu, Adi; Li, Zichao; Tan, Mingsheng; Luo, Bing; You, Wei; Li, Chenguang; Bai, Wei; Fu, Chenshuo; Huang, Fangcheng; Xiao, Bingjia; Shen, Biao; Shi, Tonghui; Chen, Dalong; Mao, Wenzhe; Li, Hong; Xie, Jinglin; Lan, Tao; Ding, Weixing; Xiao, Chijin; Liu, Wandong
2017-09-01
A system for electromagnetic measurements was designed and installed on the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) reversed field pinch device last year. Although the unique double-C structure of the KTX, which allows the machine to be opened easily without disassembling the poloidal field windings, makes the convenient replacement and modification of the internal inductive coils possible, it can present difficulties in the design of flux coils and magnetic probes at the two vertical gaps. Moreover, the KTX has a composite shell consisting of a 6 mm stainless steel vacuum chamber and a 1.5 mm copper shell, which results in limited space for the installation of saddle sensors. Therefore, the double-C structure and composite shell should be considered, especially during the design and installation of the electromagnetic diagnostic system (EDS). The inner surface of the vacuum vessel includes two types of probes. One type is for the measurement of the global plasma parameters, and the other type is for studying the local behavior of the plasma and operating the new saddle coils. In addition, the probes on the outer surface of the composite shell are used for measurements of eddy currents. Finally, saddle sensors for radial field measurements for feedback control were installed between the conducting shell and the vacuum vessel. The entire system includes approximately 1100 magnetic probes, 14 flux coils, 4 ×26 ×2 saddle sensors, and 16 Rogowski coils. Considering the large number of probes and limited space available in the vacuum vessel, the miniaturization of the probes and optimization of the probe distribution are necessary. In addition, accurate calibration and careful mounting of the probes are also required. The frequency response of the designed magnetic probes is up to 200 kHz, and the resolution is 1 G. The EDS, being spherical and of high precision, is one of the most basic and effective diagnostic tools of the KTX and meets the demands imposed by requirements on
Torus type thermonuclear device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imura, Yasuya.
1979-01-01
Purpose: To attain supporting effect against electromagnetic force and moderate the inner stress applied to toroidal coils due to thermal expansion by intervening a stress relaxation member between the outer circumferential side of a torus and a support device in toroidal coils. Constitution: Toroidal coils for confining a plasma within a torus vacuum container is supported on a support secured to upper and lower bases. A thermoplastic stress relaxation material of a low young's modulus is put between the outer circumferential side of the torus container and the torus outer circumferential side of the support in the toroidal coil. Thermoplastic resin is best suited to the stress relaxation substance, although tetrafluoro resin may be used as the stress relaxation substance while packing non-woven tetron fabric or non-woven glass fabric impregnated with varnish in a gap between the stress relaxation substance and the support or the toroidal coils. (Seki, T.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cobble, James Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-09
This document summarizes the Bumpy Torus Experiment as a viable fusion reactor concept. Conclusions reached include the following: In 30 years, order-of-magnitude technological advances have occurred in multiple areas of plasma heating and confinement. The ORNL bumpy torus of the 1970s was technology limited. Now that ITER is technology limited, an alternate concept is needed. A device built on such a concept should be current free, CW, modular, have a gentle shutdown, and demonstrable stability. The bumpy torus meets or has the potential to meet all of these criteria. Earlier, stability was not possible due to power limits; it has not been fully tested. It is time to revisit the bumpy-torus concept with a modest new machine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cobble, James Allen
2016-01-01
This document summarizes the Bumpy Torus Experiment as a viable fusion reactor concept. Conclusions reached include the following: In 30 years, order-of-magnitude technological advances have occurred in multiple areas of plasma heating and confinement. The ORNL bumpy torus of the 1970s was technology limited. Now that ITER is technology limited, an alternate concept is needed. A device built on such a concept should be current free, CW, modular, have a gentle shutdown, and demonstrable stability. The bumpy torus meets or has the potential to meet all of these criteria. Earlier, stability was not possible due to power limits; it has not been fully tested. It is time to revisit the bumpy-torus concept with a modest new machine.
First-order finite-Larmor-radius fluid modeling of tearing and relaxation in a plasma pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
King, J. R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Suite A Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Sovinec, C. R. [Department of Engineering-Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Mirnov, V. V. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2012-05-15
Drift and Hall effects on magnetic tearing, island evolution, and relaxation in pinch configurations are investigated using a non-reduced first-order finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) fluid model with the nonideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with rotation, open discussion (NIMROD) code [C.R. Sovinec and J. R. King, J. Comput. Phys. 229, 5803 (2010)]. An unexpected result with a uniform pressure profile is a drift effect that reduces the growth rate when the ion sound gyroradius ({rho}{sub s}) is smaller than the tearing-layer width. This drift is present only with warm-ion FLR modeling, and analytics show that it arises from {nabla}B and poloidal curvature represented in the Braginskii gyroviscous stress. Nonlinear single-helicity computations with experimentally relevant {rho}{sub s} values show that the warm-ion gyroviscous effects reduce saturated-island widths. Computations with multiple nonlinearly interacting tearing fluctuations find that m = 1 core-resonant-fluctuation amplitudes are reduced by a factor of two relative to single-fluid modeling by the warm-ion effects. These reduced core-resonant-fluctuation amplitudes compare favorably to edge coil measurements in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)]. The computations demonstrate that fluctuations induce both MHD- and Hall-dynamo emfs during relaxation events. The presence of a Hall-dynamo emf implies a fluctuation-induced Maxwell stress, and the simulation results show net transport of parallel momentum. The computed magnitude of force densities from the Maxwell and competing Reynolds stresses, and changes in the parallel flow profile, are qualitatively and semi-quantitatively similar to measurements during relaxation in MST.
The belt-screw-pinch reactor and other high-beta systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bustraan, M.; Klippel, H.Th.; Veringa, H.J.; Verschuur, K.A.
1981-01-01
In a screw-pinch reactor the expenditure for plasma implosion and compression can be reduced and the reacting volume and burn time can be enlarged. This is possible by pinch ignition of only a few percent of the fuel. Fusion energy then ignites injected fuel pellets and expands the plasma. The magnitude of the pulsed magnetic fields is such as to make the application of superconducting coils feasible. An economical reactor model is described. A comparison is made with tokamak and reversed field pinch reactor designs. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Bartsch, R.R.
1981-01-01
The Compact Torus (CT) concept includes any axisymmetric toroidal plasma configuration, which does not require the linking of any material through the hole in the torus. Thus, the magnet coils, vacuum vessel, etc., have a simple cylindrical or spherical geometry instead of the toroidal geometry required for Tokamaks and RFP's. This simplified geometry results in substantial engineering advantages in CT reactor embodiments while retaining the good confinement properties afforded by an axisymmetric toroidal plasma-field geometry. CT's can be classified into three major types by using the ion gyro radius rho/sub i/ and the magnitude of the maximum toroidal field B/sub tm/
Principal noncommutative torus bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve
2008-01-01
of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the group...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grisham, D.L.
1981-01-01
A remote handling system is proposed for moving a torus sector of the accelerator from under the cryostat to a point where it can be handled by a crane and for the reverse process for a new sector. Equipment recommendations are presented, as well as possible alignment schemes. Some general comments about future remote-handling methods and the present capabilities of existing systems will also be included. The specific task to be addressed is the removal and replacement of a 425 to 450 ton torus sector. This requires a horizontal movement of approx. 10 m from a normal operating position to a point where its further transport can be accomplished by more conventional means (crane or floor transporter). The same horizontal movement is required for reinstallation, but a positional tolerance of 2 cm is required to allow reasonable fit-up for the vacuum seal from the radial frames to the torus sector. Since the sectors are not only heavy but rather tall and narrow, the transport system must provide a safe, stable, and repeatable method fo sector movement. This limited study indicates that the LAMPF-based method of transporting torus sectors offers a proven method of moving heavy items. In addition, the present state of the art in remote equipment is adequate for FED maintenance
Torus type thermonuclear device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomei, Yoshio.
1982-01-01
Purpose: To facilitate heat removal at limiters and enable helium discharge without using a diverter by the separate disposition of a main limiter receiving the heat from plasmas and an auxiliary limiter for helium discharge. Constitution: A main limiter for establishing and maintaining torus plasmas and an auxiliary limiter for helium discharge are disposed separately. The auxiliary limiter is disposed between the magnetic plane at the position where the plasmas in the confining region begin to contact the main limiter and the first blanket wall. Thus, a sufficient contact area with the plasmas can be taken for the main limiter disposed to the inside of the torus to thereby avoid excess heat concentration. Further, helium ions transported through a passage along the magnetic plane between the main limiter and the first blanket wall to the exhaust chamber are neutralized and thereafter discharged by the auxiliary limiter. (Moriyama, K.)
Torus Breakdown in Noninvertible Maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maistrenko, V.; Maistrenko, Yu.; Mosekilde, Erik
2003-01-01
We propose a criterion for the destruction of a two-dimensional torus through the formation of an infinite set of cusp points on the closed invariant curves defining the resonance torus. This mechanism is specific to noninvertible maps. The cusp points arise when the tangent to the torus at the p......We propose a criterion for the destruction of a two-dimensional torus through the formation of an infinite set of cusp points on the closed invariant curves defining the resonance torus. This mechanism is specific to noninvertible maps. The cusp points arise when the tangent to the torus...... at the point of intersection with the critical curve L-0 coincides with the eigendirection corresponding to vanishing eigenvalue for the noninvertible map. Further parameter changes lead typically to the generation of loops (self-intersections of the invariant manifolds) followed by the transformation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, L.A.; Hedrick, C.L.; Uckan, N.A.
1979-03-01
The ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) program of experiment, theory, and reactor studies has been a remarkably successful one. In the five years since EBT-I began operating, work has progressed from a demonstration of macrostability to an increasingly detailed understanding of transport properties. Collisionless scaling (tau/sub E/ increases with temperature) has been observed, and the magnitude of the energy confinement time is consistent with neoclassical theory. Experiments on EBT-S (for scale) are now being conducted at the increased magnetic field levels and higher microwave power and frequency made possible by a 28-GHz gyrotron development program. A review of the program is given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McAlees, D.G.; Uckan, N.A.; Lidsky, L.M.
1976-01-01
In the Elmo Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) study the feasibility of achieving a fusion power plant based on the EBT confinement concept was evaluated. If the present understanding of the physics can be extrapolated to reactor scale devices the reactor could operate at high beta, high power density, and at steady state. The high aspect ratio of the device eases the accessibility, structural design and remote maintenance problems which are common to low aspect ratio machines. A version of the EBTR reference design described here could be constructed with only minor extrapolations in available technology
Introduction to Pinch Technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rokni, Masoud
? How to put energy efficiency and other targets like reducing emissions, increasing plant capacities, improve product qualities etc, into a one coherent strategic plan for the overall site? All these questions and more can be answered with a full understanding of Pinch Technology and an awareness...... of the available tools for applying it in a practical way. The aim here is to provide the basic knowledge of pinch technology concept and how it can be applied across a wide range of process industries. The pinch technology was proposed firstly for optimization of heat exchangers and therefore it is introduced...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan'kov, V.V.
1991-01-01
Although pinches, unlike tokamaks, have not occupied a central position in fusion research, their structural simplicity and the wealth of physical processes associated with plasma foci have maintained a steady interest. The development of Z-pinches, including plasma foci, micropinches, and dense Z-pinches, is reviewed. Attention is focused on theoretical as opposed to experimental questions, and on recent work rather than the basic results now found in textbooks. Finally, Soviet work is discussed more fully than work done abroad, and applications to controlled fusion are emphasized
Spherical Torus Center Stack Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz
2002-01-01
The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sperling, J.L.; Hamasaki, S.; Krall, N.A.
1982-01-01
In order that a stable bumpy torus plasma configuration can be attained, it is first necessary to irradiate the plasma with sufficient external power to cause annulus formation. To estimate the power required to initiate annuli, it is assumed that quasilinear electron-cyclotron heating by microwaves is the dominant electron heating mechanism. A scaling law for required microwave power is derived which shows that annulus formation is assisted by smaller cross-section areas, lower density, lower microwave frequency, and higher C-mode temperature. The scaling law is quantitatively evaluated for NBT, EBT-1, EBT-S, EBT-P, and EBT-R parameters. The resulting power estimates are consistent with the available microwave power in previous and present experiments. In larger projected bumpy tori, like EBT-P and EBT-R, it may be necessary to initiate annulus formation at densities which are lower than in the stable T-mode so that the necessary microwave power can be reduced to reasonably modest levels. It is suggested that instabilities as well as rf heating can aid the formation of bumpy torus electron annuli. Rf experiments on NBT and EBT-S would be beneficial in determining the capability of rf power to assist annulus startup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan'kov, V.V.
1991-01-01
The development of Z-pinches, including plasma foci, micropinches and dense Z-pinches are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the physics of sausage instability development. Theoretical questions are discussed in more detail that the experimental ones, recent works - to a fuller extent than the fundamental pioneer ones which are included in the textbooks. The Soviet works are given a greater coverage as compared to the foreign ones. An emphasis is made on the problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion
The belt-shaped screw-pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bustraan, M.; Klippel, H.Th.; Veringa, H.J.; Verschuur, K.A.; Lievense, K.
1981-12-01
The belt-shaped screw pinch is a pulsed toroidal plasma with an elongated cross-section. Force-free currents in an outer plasma envelope of low density allow beta to rise to high values in the order of 50%. This is a potential possibility to develop an economically attractive reactor. The physical requirements of its realization are described: formation, heating and ignition of a very small amount of the fuel to be burnt in one pulse by the fields generated by normal or superconducting coils. Then follows injection of the greater part of the fuel by D-T pellets and consequent plasma heating and expansion by nuclear reactions without undue disturbing of the plasma current configuration. Technical requirements include an insulating first wall and fast rising magnetic fields produced by superconducting coils. This reactor system is compared with the tokamak and the reversed-field pinch system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shlachter, J.S.; Hammel, J.E.; Scudder, D.W.
1985-01-01
Early researchers recogniZed the desirable features of the linear Z-pinch configuration as a magnetic fusion scheme. In particular, a Z-pinch reactor might not require auxiliary heating or external field coils, and could constitute an uncomplicated, high plasma β geometry. The simple Z pinch, however, exhibited gross MHD instabilities that disrupted the plasma, and the linear Z pinch was abandoned in favor of more stable configurations. Recent advances in pulsed-power technology and an appreciation of the dynamic behavior of an ohmically heated Z pinch have led to a reexamination of the Z pinch as a workable fusion concept
The incredible shrinking torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischler, W.; Susskind, L.
1997-01-01
Using M(atrix) theory, the dualities of toroidally compactified M-theory can be formulated as properties of super Yang Mills theories in various dimensions. We consider the cases of compactification on 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-dimensional tori. The dualities required by string theory lead to conjectures of remarkable symmetries and relations between field theories as well as extremely unusual dynamical properties. By studying the theories in the limit of vanishingly small tori, a wealth of information is obtained about strongly coupled fixed points of super Yang-Mills theory in various dimensions. Perhaps the most striking behavior, as noted by Rozali in this context, is the emergence of an additional dimension of space in the case of a 4-torus. (orig.)
Torus type thermonuclear device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Hakaru; Saito, Ryusei.
1981-01-01
Purpose: To obtain toroidal coil supports structures capable of coping with the changes in the elasticity distribution due to thermal expansion and performing elastic support function corresponding to the distribution of stresses exerted on the toroidal coils, by providing elastic function to the inner circumference side of the coil support structures. Constitution: Support structures for supporting toroidal coils from above and below are formed at the torus inner circumference side thereof with ribs in contact with a central block and having elasticity coefficient corresponding to the distribution of stresses exerted on the toroidal coils, and the stresses exerted on the toroidal coils are elastically supported on the ribs. Accordingly, if the stress distribution varies due to the thermal expansion or the like, adequate supporting function can be obtained well-corresponding to such changes, whereby effective plasma confinement can be attained. (Moriyama, K.)
An alternative to the compact torus ICF driver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.
1992-11-01
Plasma guns have been used in the Controlled Thermonuclear Reaction (CTR) Program to inject energetic deuterium-tritium plasma into a magnetic confinement machine, also for dense-plasma-focus devices to achieve fusion utilizing Z-pinches. In this report we propose another CTR application of a plasma gun: accelerating the plasma in a coaxial geometry to a speed in the neighborhood of a centimeter per shake with a total kinetic energy of about 20 MJ. The kinetic energy is efficiently converted to x-rays in a time of about a shake, and the x-ray pulse is used to implode an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. As far as we know the plasma gun application we are proposing has not been explored before, but we observe that the LLNL Compact Torus Program hopes to accelerate a compact-torus-plasma to a comparable speed and energy and, in one of its applications, to generate x-rays for ICF purposes. In fact, the only difference between the LLNL Compact Torus Program and what we are proposing is that our plasma does not rely on imbedded magnetic fields and currents to minimize instabilities. We minimize instabilities by snowplowing the plasma to its required speed in a single shock. Which approach is better requires additional investigation
Steady state theta pinch concept for slow formation of FRC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1987-05-01
A steady state high beta plasma flow through a channel along the magnetic field increasing downstream can be regarded as a ''steady state theta pinch'', because if we see the plasma riding on the flow we should observe very similar process taking place in a theta pinch. Anticipating to produce an FRC without using very high voltage technics such as the ones required in a conventional theta pinch, we have studied after the analogy a ''steady state reversed field theta pinch'' which is brought about by steady head-on collision of counter plasma streams along the channel as ejected from two identical co-axial plasma sources mounted at the both ends of the apparatus. The ideal Poisson and shock adiabatic flow models are employed for the analysis of the steady colliding process. It is demonstrated that an FRC involving large numbers of particles is produced only by the weak shock mode which is achieved in case energetic plasma flow is decelerated almost to be stagnated through Poisson adiabatic process before the streams are collided. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tetsu, Miyamoto
1999-01-01
The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)
Torus knots and mirror symmetry
Brini, Andrea; Marino, Marcos
2012-01-01
We propose a spectral curve describing torus knots and links in the B-model. In particular, the application of the topological recursion to this curve generates all their colored HOMFLY invariants. The curve is obtained by exploiting the full Sl(2, Z) symmetry of the spectral curve of the resolved conifold, and should be regarded as the mirror of the topological D-brane associated to torus knots in the large N Gopakumar-Vafa duality. Moreover, we derive the curve as the large N limit of the matrix model computing torus knot invariants.
Time-resolved observation of discrete and continuous MHD dynamo in the reversed-field pinch edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, H.; Almagri, A.F.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.
1994-01-01
We report the first experimental verification of the MHD dynamo in the RFP. A burst of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo electric field is observed during the sawtooth crash, followed by an increase in the local parallel current in the MST RFP edge. By measuring each term, the parallel MHD mean-field Ohm's law is observed to hold within experimental error bars both between and during sawtooth crashes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nalesso, G.; Jacobson, A.R.
1984-01-01
Using a ten-chord interferometer, we have measured a field-aligned (k/sub parallel/roughly-equal2 m -1 ; k/sub perpendicular/> or approx. =25 m -1 ) plasma-density disturbance propagating along B with a speed in the ion acoustic range. The propagation is purely in the electron drift direction and is observed only when the drift parameter (electron drift speed/electron thermal speed)> or approx. =0.1. A novel spatial-filter technique resolves this localized mode, which otherwise would be hidden by more robust global disturbances present along the lines of sight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusano, K.; Kondoh, Y.; Gesso, H.; Osanai, Y.; Saito, K.N.; Ukai, R.; Nanba, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Shiina, S.
2001-01-01
Before the generation of steady state, dynamo-free RFP configuration by rf current driving scheme, it is necessary to find an optimum configuration into high stability beta limit against m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes and reducing nonlinearly turbulent level with less rf power. As first step to the optimization study, we are interested in partially relaxed state model (PRSM) RFP configuration, which is considered to be closer to a relaxed state at finite beta since it has force-free fields for poloidal direction with a relatively shorter characteristic length of relaxation and a relatively higher stability beta limit to m=1 resonant ideal MHD modes. The stability beta limit to m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes can be predicted to be relatively high among other RFP models and to be enhanced by the current density profile control using fast magnetosonic waves (FMW), which are accessible to high density region with strong absorption rate. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longmire, Conrad L [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
1958-07-01
In a pinch, the outward diffusion of plasma due to collisions can be balanced by the inward drift resulting from ExB, where E is the applied electric field and B the magnetic field. From the equation expressing the balance of these two effects, together with the pressure balance equation, one obtains the perpendicular conductivity, which is about one-half of the classical parallel conductivity. This result has been applied to the problem of a static pinch under the assumptions: 1) there is an applied longitudinal (B{sub z}) magnetic field; 2) the plasma is isothermal; 3) the solution depends only on the radial coordinate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2007-01-01
The successful development of ITER and DEMO scenarios requires preparatory activities on devices that are smaller than ITER, sufficiently flexible and capable of investigating the peculiar physics of burning plasma conditions. The aim of the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) proposal [2.1] (formerly FT3 [2.2]) is to show that the preparation of ITER scenarios and the development of new expertise for the DEMO design and RD can be effectively implemented on a new facility. FAST will a) operate with deuterium plasmas, thereby avoiding problems associated with tritium, and allow investigation of nonlinear dynamics (which are important for understanding alpha particle behaviour in burning plasmas) by using fast ions accelerated by heating and current drive systems; b) work in a dimensionless parameter range close to that of ITER; c) test technical innovative solutions, such as full-tungsten plasma-facing components and an advanced liquid metal divertor target for the first wall/divertor, directly relevant for ITER and DEMO; d) exploit advanced regimes with a much longer pulse duration than the current diffusion time; e) provide a test bed for ITER and DEMO diagnostics; f) provide an ideal framework for model and numerical code benchmarks, their verification and validation in ITER/ DEMO-relevant plasma conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-01-01
The ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) program of experiment, theory, and reactor studies has been a remarkably successful one. In the five years since EBT-I began operating, work has progressed from demonstrating macrostability to an increasingly detailed understanding of transport properties. Collisionless scaling (tau/sub E/ increases with temperature) has been observed and the magnitude of the energy confinement time is consistent with neoclassical theory. Experiments on EBT-S are now being conducted at the increased magnetic field levels and higher microwave power and frequency made possible by a 28-GHz gyrotron development program. Initial results confirm our assumptions of neoclassical scaling. In conjunction with the experimental advances, EBT theory now has a well-developed transport theory which models the physics which we now think to be important: for example, it yields negative ambipolar electric fields which are consistent with those measured. Stability calculations continue to predict stable equilibrium with β/sub ring/ approx. β/sub core/ approx. 20 to 40%
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.
1975-01-01
The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)
Collisional tearing in a field-reversed sheet pinch assuming nonparallel propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quest, K.B.; Coroniti, F.V.
1985-01-01
We examine the linear stability properties of the collisional tearing mode in a reversed-field sheet pinch assuming that the wave vector is not parallel to B, where B is the equilibrium magnetic field. We show that pressure balance in the direction of the equilibrium current requires a nonzero perturbed current component deltaJ/sub z/ that is driven toward tyhe center of the pinch. At the center of the pinch, deltaJ/sub z/ goes to zero, and momentum is balanced by coupling to the ion-acoustic mode. In order to achieve current closure, a large perturbed field-aligned current is generated that is strongly localized about the dissipative tearing layer. The relation of this work to the collisionless case is discussed
A disrupted molecular torus around Eta Carinae as seen in 12CO with ALMA
Smith, Nathan; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John
2018-03-01
We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of 12CO 2-1 emission from circumstellar material around the massive star Eta Carinae (η Car). These observations reveal new structural details about the cool equatorial torus located ˜4000 au from the star. The CO torus is not a complete azimuthal loop, but rather, is missing its near side, which appears to have been cleared away. The missing material matches the direction of apastron in the eccentric binary system, making it likely that η Car's companion played an important role in disrupting portions of the torus soon after ejection. Molecular gas seen in ALMA data aligns well with the cool dust around η Car previously observed in mid-infrared (IR) maps, whereas hot dust resides at the inner surface of the molecular torus. The CO also coincides with the spatial and velocity structure of near-IR H2 emission. Together, these suggest that the CO torus seen by ALMA is actually the pinched waist of the Homunculus polar lobes, which glows brightly because it is close to the star and warmer than the poles. The near side of the torus appears to be a blowout, associated with fragmented equatorial ejecta. We discuss implications for the origin of various features north-west of the star. CO emission from the main torus implies a total gas mass in the range of 0.2-1 M⊙ (possibly up to 5 M⊙ or more, although with questionable assumptions). Deeper observations are needed to constrain CO emission from the cool polar lobes.
Bifurcation structure of successive torus doubling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Tsubouchi, Takashi
2006-01-01
The authors discuss the 'embryology' of successive torus doubling via the bifurcation theory, and assert that the coupled map of a logistic map and a circle map has a structure capable of generating infinite number of torus doublings
Staged theta pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.
1976-01-01
Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.
1958-01-01
Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, D.
1998-06-01
In the past thirty-six months, great progress has been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy and power output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA-II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources have the potential to drive high-yield ICF reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. In this paper, the recent technical progress with Z-pinches will be described, and a technical strategy for achieving high-yield ICF with z-pinches will be presented
'Affine' algebras on the torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakkari, M.
1993-07-01
The analysis of the Kac-Moody ''like'' algebra L-circumflex 2 (G) on the torus is performed. It will be seen that the root systems construction leading to a Cartan matrix is not possible. Different twist of L-circumflex 2 λ (G) are discussed. Connections with known results are done. (author). 10 refs
Investigations of the magnetic structure and the decay of a plasma-gun-generated compact torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, W.C.; Goldenbaum, G.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hammer, J.H.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.
1983-01-01
The results of a series of experimental measurements of compact toroidal (CT) plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun injecting into a flux-conserving metallic liner are reported. The experiments were performed on the Beta II facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The magnetic equilibria are well described by a force-free eigenmode structure that results from an extension of Taylor's theory of the reversed-field pinch. Consideration of helicity conservation during relaxation of the composite plasma-gun flux-conserver system to the final state equilibrium yields theoretical expressions that are compared with the experiment
National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Torus Design, Fabrication and Assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neumeyer, C.; Barnes, G.; Chrzanowski, J.H.; Heitzenroeder, P.
1999-01-01
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Fabrication, assembly, and initial power tests were completed in February of 1999. The majority of the design and construction efforts were constructed on the Torus system components. The Torus system includes the centerstack assembly, external Poloidal and Toroidal coil systems, vacuum vessel, torus support structure and plasma facing components (PFC's). NSTX's low aspect ratio required that the centerstack be made with the smallest radius possible. This, and the need to bake NSTXs carbon-carbon composite plasma facing components at 350 degrees C, was major drivers in the design of NSTX. The Centerstack Assembly consists of the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) windings, the Ohmic Heating (OH) solenoid and its associated tension cylinder, three inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils, thermal insulation, diagnostics and an Inconel casing which forms the inner wall of the vacuum vessel boundary. It took approximately nine months to complete the assembly of the Centerstack. The tight radial clearances and the extreme length of the major components added complexity to the assembly of the Centerstack components. The vacuum vessel was constructed of 304-stainless steel and required approximately seven months to complete and deliver to the Test Cell. Several of the issues associated with the construction of the vacuum vessel were control of dimensional stability following welding and controlling the permeability of the welds. A great deal of time and effort was devoted to defining the correct weld process and material selection to meet our design requirements. The PFCs will be baked out at 350 degrees C while the vessel is maintained at 150 degrees C. This required care in designing the supports so they can accommodate the high electromagnetic loads resulting from plasma disruptions and the resulting relative thermal expansions
Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izzo, R.
1981-01-01
The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes
Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izzo, R.
1981-01-01
The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes.
FLIT: Flowing LIquid metal Torus
Kolemen, Egemen; Majeski, Richard; Maingi, Rajesh; Hvasta, Michael
2017-10-01
The design and construction of FLIT, Flowing LIquid Torus, at PPPL is presented. FLIT focuses on a liquid metal divertor system suitable for implementation and testing in present-day fusion systems, such as NSTX-U. It is designed as a proof-of-concept fast-flowing liquid metal divertor that can handle heat flux of 10 MW/m2 without an additional cooling system. The 72 cm wide by 107 cm tall torus system consisting of 12 rectangular coils that give 1 Tesla magnetic field in the center and it can operate for greater than 10 seconds at this field. Initially, 30 gallons Galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) will be recirculated using 6 jxB pumps and flow velocities of up to 10 m/s will be achieved on the fully annular divertor plate. FLIT is designed as a flexible machine that will allow experimental testing of various liquid metal injection techniques, study of flow instabilities, and their control in order to prove the feasibility of liquid metal divertor concept for fusion reactors. FLIT: Flowing LIquid metal Torus. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Symposium: new trends in unconventional approaches to magnetic fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Post, R.F.
1983-01-01
An extensive review of the meeting is given. The concepts discussed included reverse-field pinches, compact tori, advanced stellarators, multipoles, surface magnetic confinement systems, the bumpy torus, and a collection of mirror-based approaches
Development of an effective pinch bar
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Ottermann, RW
2003-02-01
Full Text Available . ....................................10 Figure 3-3: Layout of lightweight pinch bar extruded fibreglass tube. ..................................11 Figure 3-4: XDM lightweight pinch bar with manufactured glass fibre bar. ..........................12 Figure 3-5: XDM lightweight pinch... bar with extruded glass fibre tube. ................................12 Figure 3-6: Stiffness of a 2.8m lightweight pinch bar with an extruded glass fibre tube and a 25mm steel pinch bar...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aizawa, N; Chakrabarti, R
2007-01-01
We note that the recently introduced fuzzy torus can be regarded as a q-deformed parafermion. Based on this picture, classification of the Hermitian representations of the fuzzy torus is carried out. The result involves Fock-type representations and new finite-dimensional representations for q being a root of unity as well as already known finite-dimensional ones
National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masayuki Ono
2000-01-01
The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. Physics outcome of the NSTX research program is relevant to near-term applications such as the Volume Neutron Source (VNS) and burning plasmas, and future applications such as the pilot and power plants. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current was successfully ramped up to the design value of 1 million amperes (MA) on December 14, 1999. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments have also started. Stable CHI discharges of up to 133 kA and 130-msec duration have been produced using 20 kA of injected current. Using eight antennas connected to two transmitters, up to 2 MW of HHFW power was successfully coupled to the plasma. The Neutral-beam Injection (NBI) heating system and associated NBI-based diagnostics such as the Charge-exchange Recombination Spectrometer (CHERS) will be operational in October 2000
Acceleration of a compact torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartmann, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Kusse, B.
1987-01-01
The authors report the first results of a study of acceleration of spheromak-type compact toruses in the RACE experiment (plasma Ring ACceleration Experiment). The RACE apparatus consists of (1) a magnetized, coaxial plasma gun 50 cm long, 35 cm OD, 20 cm ID, (2) 600 cm long coaxial acceleration electrodes 50 cm OD, 20 cm ID, (3) a 250 kJ electrolytic capacitor bank to drive the gun solenoid for initial magnetization, (4) a 200 kJ gun bank, (5) a 260 kJ accelerator bank, and (6) magnetic probes and other diagnostics, and vacuum apparatus. To outer acceleration electrode is an extension, at larger OD, of the gun outer electrode, and the inner acceleration electrode is supported and fed by a coaxial insert in the gun center electrode as shown
Compact torus compression of microwaves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewett, D.W.; Langdon, A.B.
1985-01-01
The possibility that a compact torus (CT) might be accelerated to large velocities has been suggested by Hartman and Hammer. If this is feasible one application of these moving CTs might be to compress microwaves. The proposed mechanism is that a coaxial vacuum region in front of a CT is prefilled with a number of normal electromagnetic modes on which the CT impinges. A crucial assumption of this proposal is that the CT excludes the microwaves and therefore compresses them. Should the microwaves penetrate the CT, compression efficiency is diminished and significant CT heating results. MFE applications in the same parameters regime have found electromagnetic radiation capable of penetrating, heating, and driving currents. We report here a cursory investigation of rf penetration using a 1-D version of a direct implicit PIC code
Studies of accelerated compact toruses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.
1983-01-01
In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency
Methanol in the L1551 Circumbinary Torus
White, Glenn J.; Fridlund, C. W. M.; Bergman, P.; Beardsmore, A.; Liseau, Rene; Phillips, R. R.
2006-01-01
We report observations of gaseous methanol in an edge-on torus surrounding the young stellar object L1551 IRS5. The peaks in the torus are separated by ~ 10,000 AU from L1551 IRS5, and contain ~ 0.03 earth masses of cold methanol. We infer that the methanol abundance increases in the outer part of the torus, probably as a result of methanol evaporation from dust grain surfaces heated by the shock luminosity associated with the shocks associated with the jets of an externally located x-ray sou...
Tool path in torus tool CNC machining
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XU Ying
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.
Feasibility study for the Spherical Torus Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarus, E.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Baylor, L.R.
1985-10-01
The design of the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX) is discussed. The physics of the plasma are given in a magnetohydrodynamic model. The structural aspects and instrumentation of the device are described. 19 refs., 103 figs
Torus bifurcations in multilevel converter systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Yanochkina, Olga O.
2011-01-01
embedded one into the other and with their basins of attraction delineated by intervening repelling tori. The paper illustrates the coexistence of three stable tori with different resonance behaviors and shows how reconstruction of these tori takes place across the borders of different dynamical regimes....... The paper also demonstrates how pairs of attracting and repelling tori emerge through border-collision torus-birth and border-collision torus-fold bifurcations. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company....
Coaxial helicity injection and n=1 relaxation activity in the HIST spherical torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, M.; Oguro, T.; Kagei, Y.
2003-01-01
In order to understand comprehensively the role of the n=1 instability and relaxation on current generation processes in helicity-driven spherical systems, we have investigated dynamics of ST plasmas produced in the HIST device by decreasing the external toroidal field (TF) and reversing its sign in time. In result, we have discovered that the ST relaxes towards flipped ST configurations through formation of reversed-field pinches (RFPs)-like magnetic field profiles. Surprisingly, it has been observed that not only toroidal flux but also poloidal flux reverses sign spontaneously during the relaxation process. The dynamics associated to self-reversal of the magnetic fields is presently investigated by using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations. Furthermore, we have first demonstrated that a flipped ST plasma can be successfully sustained by CHI. The n=1 relaxation activity is found to be essential in the current sustainment of the flipped ST as well as the spheromak and the unflipped ST. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glavic, P.; Kravanja, Z.; Homsak, M.
1990-01-01
Pinch technology has proven to be a powerful tool for designing new processes and retrofitting old ones. But, until recently, it was thought to pertain only to heat exchanger networks, separators and power devices (such as heat engines and heat pumps). Regarded as process background, reactors have been left out of heat integrations. Their structure, however, can be changed and, within limits, their parameters modified to better exploit energy. In a pinch-designed plant, heat is transferred between the hot and cold process streams so efficiently that the plant's utility requirements (heat sources and sinks) are minimal. The design procedure is discussed. It involves two steps: finding a nearly optimal process structure by means of an analysis of process-temperature-vs.- enthalpy diagrams, and then optimizing the structure by means of grid diagrams or a computerized procedure
Eigenvalue pinching on spinc manifolds
Roos, Saskia
2017-02-01
We derive various pinching results for small Dirac eigenvalues using the classification of spinc and spin manifolds admitting nontrivial Killing spinors. For this, we introduce a notion of convergence for spinc manifolds which involves a general study on convergence of Riemannian manifolds with a principal S1-bundle. We also analyze the relation between the regularity of the Riemannian metric and the regularity of the curvature of the associated principal S1-bundle on spinc manifolds with Killing spinors.
Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SPIELMAN,RICK B.
2000-01-01
Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.
Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SPIELMAN, RICK B.
2000-01-01
Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999
Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.
1984-02-01
Recently, several innovative approaches were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator - snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each approach have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties deduced from provisional configurations that implement the approach but are not necessarily optimized. Further optimization is needed in all cases to evaluate the full potential of each approach. Results of these studies indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past
Spectroscopic study of turbulent heating in the high beta tokamak - Torus II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgiou, G.E.
1979-01-01
Visible spectroscopy, involving line profile and line intensity measurements, was used to study the turbulent heating of the rectangular cross-section high-beta tokamak Torus II. The spectroscopy was done in the visible wave-length region using a six channel polychrometer having 0.2 A resolution, which is capable of radial scans of the plasma. The plasma, obtained by ionizing helium, is heated by poloidal skin currents, induced by a rapid (tau/sub R/ approx. = 1.7 μsec) change of the toroidal magnetic field either parallel or anti-parallel to the initial toroidal bias magnetic field, which converts a cold toroidal Z-pinch plasma into a hot tokamak plasma
Guiding center simulations of strong ion beams with applications to the Counterstreaming Ion Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tull, C.
1978-03-01
In the proposed Counterstreaming Ion Torus (CIT) steady state rather than pulsed operation may be possible if all of the plasma power density is provided by neutral beam injection. After the neutral beams have penetrated the magnetic field, strong ion beam currents are produced. A major concern with the relatively strong counterstreaming ion currents is the effect of the beam self-magnetic fields on the macroscopic equilibrium of the system. Pinching and self focusing of the individual beams may occur, or the repulsive interaction of the two oppositely directed beam currents may destroy the equilibrium entirely. We investigate this macroscopic behavior of the ion beams with a guiding center plasma particle simulation model and we describe a model we have developed to simulate steady state behavior in an ideal CIT configuration
Multicast Performance Analysis for High-Speed Torus Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Oral, S; George, A
2002-01-01
... for unicast-based and path-based multicast communication on high-speed torus networks. Software-based multicast performance results of selected algorithms on a 16-node Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) torus are given...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.; Burkhardt, C.; Rusbridge, G.
1983-01-01
Coordinated measurements of density fluctuations, using a 10-chord forward scattering array, and of poloidal voltage fluctuations (for frequencies lower than the liner's skin frequency) have led to a consistent account of fluid acceleration associated with pulsed particle loss. The fluctuations involved in this mechanism are present from the beginning of the discharge, and are not obviously related to termination percursor phenomena observed in ZT-40M and discussed elsewhere. The dominant density fluctuation in ZT-40M is an impulsive (risetime about 5 μs) poloidally symmetric cavitation occurring in an annulus (Δr approx. = 0.02-0.04 m) near the liner (r = a = 0.2 m). The pulsed disturbance is primarily due to radial loss of plasma to the liner rather than to toroidal convection. The peak ion flux to the liner is GAMMA /sub i/ greater than or equal to 10 22 m -2 s -1 during an impulse. The cavitations leave an imprint in the density profile that propagates toroidally (against I /sub PHI/ ) with a speed about (1-2) x 10 4 m/s. Another important fluctuating quantity, the poloidal voltage at the plasma boundary, is dominated by impulsive spikes whose full-width is similar to the density-cavitations risetime. The spikes propagate toroidally (against I /sub PHI/ ) with a speed about 3 x 10 4 m/s and survive for a pathlength less than or equal to 1 m. The voltage spikes and density cavitations are highly correlated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; DiMarco, J.N.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this document is the quantitative definition of objectives, targets, and parameters of the Next-Step device to follow the present RFX experiment; this device is given the name RFXNS. Although developed over five years ago, much of the material distilled into the 1988 RFP tactical plan is useful in establishing the goals and parameters of RFXNS. This earlier plan established tentative parameters of an RFP next step based on: predictions of RFP ignition and commercial-reactor devices; and the assumed successful operation of highly complementary RFP experiments RFX and ZTH/CPRF. Programmatic changes and evolution that have occurred since 1988 strongly impact the role and characteristics of an RFXNS: the Los Alamos ZTH/CPRF project and fusion program was terminated in mid-construction for reasons of MFE cost savings and concept focusing; great progress has been made in launching ITER; and reactor projections for the tokamak have increased in detail and variety, but not in commercial promise and competitiveness. A brief status of and perspective from each of the above three points is necessary before the key issues and their implementation to form the basis of the RFXNS definition are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabiri, A.E.; Glancy, J.E.
1983-05-01
A high-temperature first wall/blanket which would take full advantage of the absence of tritium breeding in a d-d reactor was designed. This design which produces steam at p = 7 MPa and T = 538 0 C at the blanket exit eliminates the requirement for a separate steam generator. A steam cycle with steam-to-steam reheat yielding about 37.5 percent efficiency is compatible with this design
Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alkalaev, Konstantin [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskiy per. 7, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Geiko, Roman [Mathematics Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics,Usacheva str. 6, Moscow, 119048 (Russian Federation); Rappoport, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, Moscow, 127994 (Russian Federation)
2017-04-12
We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.
Magnetoacoustic heating and FCT-equilibria in the belt pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erckmann, V.
1983-02-01
In the HECTOR belt pinch of high β plasma is produced by magnetic compression in a Tokamak geometry. After compresseion the initial β value can be varied between 0.2 and 0.8. During 5 μs the plasma is further heated by a fast magnetoacoustic wave with a frequency near the first harmonic of the ion cyclotronfrequency. For the first time the β-value of a pinch plasma could be increased further from 0.34 after compression to 0.46 at the end of the rf-heating cycle. By proper selection of the final β-value the region for resonance absorption of the heating wave can be shifted. Strong heating (200 MW) has been observed in the cases, where the resonance region has been located in the center of the plasma. In deuterium discharges an increase in ion temperature is observed during the heating process, whereas the electrons are energetically decoupled, showing no temperature increase. Strong plasma losses are found in the 200 MW range after the rf-heating process. The dominant mechanisms are charge exchange collisions with neutral gas atoms. During rf-heating and the subsequent cooling phase the magnetic flux is frozen due to the high conductivity of the plasma. The observed equilibria could be identified as flux conserving Tokamak (FCT) equilibria. Based on a two-dimensional code the time-evolution of the equilibria has been calculated. The q-profiles are time-independent, with increasing β the magnetic axis of the plasma is shifted towards the outer boundary of the torus, and finally the linear relation between β and βsub(pol), which is characteristic for low-β-equilibria, is no longer valid. Thus for the first time the existence of FCT-equilibria at high β has been demonstrated experimentally together with a qualitative agreement with FCT-theory. (orig./AH) [de
Pro-torus actions on Poincaré duality spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
duality spaces, Borel's dimension formula and topological splitting principle to local weights, hold if 'torus' is replaced by 'pro-torus'. Keywords. Pro-torus; Poincaré duality space; local weight. 1. Introduction. In the theory of linear representations of compact connected Lie groups, the crucial first step is restriction to the ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Ramon Osorio Castillo
2014-06-01
Full Text Available ResumenLos huesos maxilares no son ajenos a las patologías que se pueden presentar en el sistema esquelético. Algunas de esas condiciones y patologías son singulares por sus características clínicas, su distribución y prevalencia. Los torus palatinos, los torus mandibulares (TM y las exostosis de los maxilares son un claro ejemplo de ellos. Hasta la presente existen ideas especulativas acerca de su etiopatogenia, de los factores asociados, de su incidencia y prevalencia, de su necesidad de tratamiento, lo que puede crear confusión entre los clínicos tanto en diagnóstico como en el manejo.El torus como tumor óseo benigno puede localizarse en el maxilar a nivel del paladar, o en la mandíbula a nivel de las tablas internas; o puede aparecer en cualquier parte del esqueleto. El TM es una exostosis o crecimiento óseo en la superficie lingual de la mandíbula. Este crecimiento ocurre generalmente cerca de la línea milohioidea, opuesto a los premolares, pero se puede extender del canino al primer molar. La mucosa que los recubre tiende a ser fina y no tolera por lo general las fuerzas de las prótesis que se colocan encima de ellos. La incidencia del torus de la mandíbula es baja en el 6% a 12.5% entre caucásicos y en los habitantes de la llanura africana. De manera contraria, algunos autores reportan una prevalencia mucho más elevada en la Costa Atlántica Colombiana.Se presenta el caso de un paciente con torus mandibulares bilaterales, con muchos años de crecimiento, hasta que por situaciones tanto fonéticas como de ulceraciones repetitivas decidió someterse al acto quirúrgico de forma bilateral. Se presentan algunas consideraciones para el manejo de esta. (Duazary 2008; 111-114AbstractThe jawbone is not a strange to the pathologies that can occur in the skeletal system. Some of these terms and conditions are unique for their clinical features, distribution and prevalence. The torus palate, jawbone torus (TM in spanish and
Electron distribution functions in Io plasma torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boev, A.G.
2003-01-01
Electron distribution functions measured by the Voyager 1 in different shares of the Io plasma torus are explained. It is proved that their suprathermal tails are formed by the electrical field induced by the 'Jupiter wind'. The Maxwellian parts of all these spectra characterize thermal equilibrium populations of electrons and the radiation of exited ions
Surgical management of palatine Torus - case series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thaís Sumie Nozu Imada
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Torus palatinus is a specific name to identify exostoses developed in the hard palate along the median palatine suture. Despite of not being a pathological condition, its presence requires attention and knowledge regarding its management. Surgical removal of exostoses is indicated when the patient frequently traumatizes the area of palatine torus during mastication and speech or when it is necessary for the rehabilitation of the upper arcade with complete dentures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to present three cases of Torus palatinus and to discuss the management of them. CASE REPORT: In the first case, a 57-year-old Caucasian man sought oral rehabilitation of his edentulous maxilla but presented a hard nodules in the hard palate; in the second case, a 40-year-old Caucasian woman was referred for frequent trauma of palatal mucosa during mastication, aesthetic complaint, and discomfort caused by the trauma of her tongue in this area; and in the third case, a 45-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a lesion on the palate that caused difficulty swallowing. When the Torus palatinus was impairing the basic physiological functions of the patients, all cases were surgically treated, improving the patients' quality of life. FINAL CONSIDERATION: The dentist should be properly prepared to choose the best from among the existing surgical approaches for each individual lesion in order to improve the results and avoid possible complications.
Induction effects of torus knots and unknots
Oberti, Chiara; Ricca, Renzo L.
2017-09-01
Geometric and topological aspects associated with induction effects of field lines in the shape of torus knots/unknots are examined and discussed in detail. Knots are assumed to lie on a mathematical torus of circular cross-section and are parametrized by standard equations. The induced field is computed by direct integration of the Biot-Savart law. Field line patterns of the induced field are obtained and several properties are examined for a large family of knots/unknots up to 51 crossings. The intensity of the induced field at the origin of the reference system (center of the torus) is found to depend linearly on the number of toroidal coils and reaches maximum values near the boundary of the mathematical torus. New analytical estimates and bounds on energy and helicity are established in terms of winding number and minimum crossing number. These results find useful applications in several contexts when the source field is either vorticity, electric current or magnetic field, from vortex dynamics to astrophysics and plasma physics, where highly braided magnetic fields and currents are present.
Torus palatinus | Naidoo | SA Journal of Radiology
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Kupffer and Bessel-Hagen coined the term torus palatinus in 1879 for a benign osseous protuberance arising from the midline of the hard palate. Tori are present in approximately 20% of the population and are occult until adulthood. Recent advances in modern radiology have led to improved evaluation and diagnosis of ...
Magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beleggia, Marco; De Graef, Marc; Millev, Yonko
2009-01-01
We provide an exhaustive description of the magnetostatics of the uniformly polarized torus and its derivative self-intersecting (spindle) shapes. In the process, two complementary approaches have been implemented, position-space analysis of the Laplace equation with inhomogeneous boundary condit...
Spherical torus, compact fusion at low field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, Y.K.M.
1985-02-01
A spherical torus is obtained by retaining only the indispensable components on the inboard side of a tokamak plasma, such as a cooled, normal conductor that carries current to produce a toroidal magnetic field. The resulting device features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (ranging from below 2 to about 1.3), a naturally elongated D-shaped plasma cross section, and ramp-up of the plasma current primarily by noninductive means. As a result of the favorable dependence of the tokamak plasma behavior to decreasing aspect ratio, a spherical torus is projected to have small size, high beta, and modest field. Assuming Mirnov confinement scaling, an ignition spherical torus at a field of 2 T features a major radius of 1.5 m, a minor radius of 1.0 m, a plasma current of 14 MA, comparable toroidal and poloidal field coil currents, an average beta of 24%, and a fusion power of 50 MW. At 2 T, a Q = 1 spherical torus will have a major radius of 0.8 m, a minor radius of 0.5 m, and a fusion power of a few megawatts
1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang
2016-01-01
Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness...
Lower pinch radius limit in EXTRAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1989-01-01
In an Extrap pinch there is a superimposed magnetic octupole field which forms a magnetic separatrix with the field generated by the pinch current. Earlier experiments have shown that the octupole field has a stabilizing influence on the plasma. Regardless of the details of this stabilizing mechanism, it is expected that the influence of the octupole field should become negligible for a sufficiently small ratio between the characteristic pinch and separatrix radii. In other words, there should exist a lower limit of this ratio below which the system approaches the state of an ordinary unstabilized Z-pinch. The present paper presents an extended version of an earlier theoretical model of this lower limit, and its relation to the corresponding critical ratio between the external conductor and pinch currents. This ratio is found to vary substantially with the plasma parameters. (authors)
Plasma sheath dynamics in pinch discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansour, A.A.Abd-Fattah
1995-01-01
The main interest of the study was to understand the dynamic and to determine the plasma parameters in the 3.5 meter θ-pinch discharge. The 3.5 meter thetatron plasma device has been reconstructed and developed which consist of four capacitor banks: a) Main pinch capacitor bank, (θ-pinch bank) consists of 40 capacitors connected in parallel each of 1.5 μ F., with maximum energy equal to 48 k Joule. b) Preionization capacitor bank (z-pinch) consists of capacitors connected in series each of 1.5μ F., with maximum energy to 0.94 k Joule. c) Bias field bank consists of 4 capacitors connected in parallel each of 38μ F., with maximum energy equal to 4.46 k Joule. d) Screw pinch capacitor bank consists of 5 capacitors connected in parallel each of 1.5μ F., with maximum energy equal to 6 k Joule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindemuth, I.R.
1989-01-01
One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santiago, M.A.M.
1987-01-01
A review of the problem of growth rate calculations for tearing modes in field reversed Θ-pinches is presented. Its shown that in the several experimental data, the methods used for analysing the plasma with a global finite resistivity has a better quantitative agreement than the boundary layer analysis. A comparative study taking into account the m = 1 resistive kindmode and the m = 2 mode, which is more dangerous for the survey of rotational instabilities of the plasma column is done. It can see that the imaginary component of the eigenfrequency, which determinates the growth rate, has a good agreement with the experimental data and the real component is different from the rotational frequency as it has been measured in some experiments. (author) [pt
Upper pinch radius limit in EXTRAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1989-12-01
A simple static equilibrium model of the Z-pinch is considered where a hot plasma core is surrounded by a cold-mantle (gas blanket). The pinch radius, defined as the radial extension of the fully ionized plasma core, is uniquely determined by the plasma particle. momentum and heat balance equations. In Extrap configurations an octupole field is introduced which imposes a magnetic separatrix on Z-pinch geometry. This makes the conditions for Extrap equilibrium 'overdetermined' when the characteristic pinch radium given by the plasma parameters tends to exceed the characteristic radius of the magnetic separatrix. In this case no conventional pinch equilibrium can exist, and part of the current which is forced into the plasma discharge by external sources must be channelled outside of the separatrix, i.e. into the surrounding support structure of the Extrap conductors and the vessel walls. A possibly existing bootstrap current in the plasma boundary layer is further expected to be 'scraped off' in this case. The present paper gives some illustrations of the marginal case of this upper pinch radius limit, in a state where the pinch current is antiparallel to the external rod currents which generate the octupole field. (authors)
Drift resonance and stability of the Io plasma torus
Zhan, Jie; Hill, T. W.
2000-03-01
The observed local time asymmetry of the Io plasma torus is generally attributed to the presence of a persistent dawn-to-dusk electric field in the Jovian magnetosphere. The local time asymmetry is modulated at the System 3 rotation period of Jupiter's magnetic field, suggesting that the dawn-to-dusk electric field may be similarly modulated. We argue that such a System 3 modulation would have a profound disruptive effect on the observed torus structure if the torus were to corotate at exactly the System 3 rate: the torus would be a resonantly forced harmonic oscillator, and would disintegrate in a few rotation periods, contrary to observations. This destabilizing effect is independent of, and in addition to, the more familiar effect of the centrifugal interchange instability, which is also capable of disrupting the torus in a few rotation periods in the absence of other effects. We conclude that the observed (few percent) corotation lag of the torus is essential to preserving the observed long-lived torus structure by detuning the resonant frequency (the torus drift frequency) relative to the forcing frequency (System 3). A possible outcome of this confinement mechanism is a residual radial oscillation of the torus at the beat period (~10 days) between System 3 and the torus drift period.
A new equilibrium torus solution and GRMHD initial conditions
Penna, Robert F.; Kulkarni, Akshay; Narayan, Ramesh
2013-11-01
Context. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations are providing influential models for black hole spin measurements, gamma ray bursts, and supermassive black hole feedback. Many of these simulations use the same initial condition: a rotating torus of fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium. A persistent concern is that simulation results sometimes depend on arbitrary features of the initial torus. For example, the Bernoulli parameter (which is related to outflows), appears to be controlled by the Bernoulli parameter of the initial torus. Aims: In this paper, we give a new equilibrium torus solution and describe two applications for the future. First, it can be used as a more physical initial condition for GRMHD simulations than earlier torus solutions. Second, it can be used in conjunction with earlier torus solutions to isolate the simulation results that depend on initial conditions. Methods: We assume axisymmetry, an ideal gas equation of state, constant entropy, and ignore self-gravity. We fix an angular momentum distribution and solve the relativistic Euler equations in the Kerr metric. Results: The Bernoulli parameter, rotation rate, and geometrical thickness of the torus can be adjusted independently. Our torus tends to be more bound and have a larger radial extent than earlier torus solutions. Conclusions: While this paper was in preparation, several GRMHD simulations appeared based on our equilibrium torus. We believe it will continue to provide a more realistic starting point for future simulations.
Exploring Torus Universes in Causal Dynamical Triangulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Budd, Timothy George; Loll, R.
2013-01-01
Motivated by the search for new observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we consider Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) in 2+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of a torus. This system is of particular interest, because one can study not only the global scale factor, but also global...... shape variables in the presence of arbitrary quantum fluctuations of the geometry. Our initial investigation focusses on the dynamics of the scale factor and uncovers a qualitatively new behaviour, which leads us to investigate a novel type of boundary conditions for the path integral. Comparing large....... Apart from setting the stage for the analysis of shape dynamics on the torus, the new set-up highlights the role of nontrivial boundaries and topology....
TORUS Annual Continuation and Progress Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arbanas, Goran [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elster, Charlotte [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Echer, Jutta [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nunes, Filomena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, Ian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-02-24
The TORUS collaboration derives its name from the research it focuses on, namely the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes. It is a Topical Collaboration in Nuclear Theory, and funded by the Nuclear Theory Division of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy. The funding supports one postdoctoral researcher for the years 1 through 4. The collaboration brings together as Principal Investigators a large fraction of the nuclear reaction theorists currently active within the USA. The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve directreaction calculations. This multi-institution collaborative effort is directly relevant to three areas of interest: the properties of nuclei far from stability; microscopic studies of nuclear input parameters for astrophysics, and microscopic nuclear reaction theory.
Equilibrium-torus bifurcation in nonsmooth systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhusubahyev, Z.T.; Mosekilde, Erik
2008-01-01
Considering a set of two coupled nonautonomous differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides describing the behavior of a DC/DC power converter, we discuss a border-collision bifurcation that can lead to the birth of a two-dimensional invariant torus from a stable node equilibrium...... point. We obtain the chart of dynamic modes and show that there is a region of parameter space in which the system has a single stable node equilibrium point. Under variation of the parameters, this equilibrium may disappear as it collides with a discontinuity boundary between two smooth regions...... in the phase space. The disappearance of the equilibrium point is accompanied by the soft appearance of an unstable focus period-1 orbit surrounded by a resonant or ergodic torus. Detailed numerical calculations are supported by a theoretical investigation of the normal form map that represents the piecewise...
Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neumeyer, C.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kessel, C.; Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Schmidt, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.
2002-01-01
Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (DandD) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program
Torus-doubling process via strange nonchaotic attractors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitsui, Takahito; Uenohara, Seiji; Morie, Takashi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2012-01-01
Torus-doubling bifurcations typically occur only a finite number of times. It has been assumed that torus-doubling bifurcations in quasiperiodically forced systems are interrupted by the appearance of strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs). In the present Letter, we study a quasiperiodically forced noninvertible map and report the occurrence of a torus-doubling process via SNAs. The mechanism of this process is numerically clarified. Furthermore, this process is experimentally demonstrated in a switched-capacitor integrated circuit. -- Highlights: ► We report the occurrence of a torus-doubling process via strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs). ► The process consists of the gradual fractalization of a torus and the Heagy–Hammel transition. ► The torus-doubling process via SNAs is also experimentally demonstrated in an electronic circuit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovberg, R.H.
1988-01-01
The plasma Z-Pinch occupies a unique position in the history of controlled fusion research as the first confinement and heating scheme to be tried experimentally. In contrast to the sophistication of programs being conducted today, in which extensive theoretical and experimental forces are in close collaboration, early pinch experiments were designed on quite elementary theoretical grounds. Indeed, these systems and the results from them provided the focus for much of the rapid development of theoretical plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics during the 1950's. In comparison to present programs, these early experiments had the considerable advantage of small size and minimal managerial encumbrance. After nearly three decades of abandonment because of difficulties with MHD instabilities, the Z-pinch is arising once again in a new incarnation characterized by microscopic size and time scales, and very high density. Uniquely in the history of the pinch, the new experimental surprises seem encouraging, rather than discouraging, to the goal of thermonuclear fusion
Studying uniform thickness II: Transversely nonsimple iterated torus knots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
LaFountain, Douglas
2011-01-01
We prove that an iterated torus knot type in the standard contact 3-sphere fails the uniform thickness property (UTP) if and only if it is formed from repeated positive cablings, which is precisely when an iterated torus knot supports the standard contact structure. This is the first complete UTP...... classification for a large class of knots. We also show that all iterated torus knots that fail the UTP support cabling knot types that are transversely non-simple....
Compact-Toroid Fusion Reactor (CTOR) based on the Field-Reversed Theta Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.
1981-01-01
Scoping studies of a translating Compact Torus Reactor (CTOR) have been made on the basis of a dynamic plasma model and an overall systems approach. This CTOR embodiment uses a Field-Reversed Theta Pinch as a plasma source. The field-reversed plasmoid would be formed and compressionally heated to ignition prior to injection into and translation through a linear burn chamber, thereby removing the high-technology plamoid source from the hostile reactor environment. Stabilization of the field-reversed plasmoid would be provided by a passive conducting shell located outside the high-temperature blanket but within the low-field superconducting magnets and associated radition shielding. On the basis of this batch-burn but thermally steady-state approach, a reactor concept emerges with a length below approx. 40 m that generates 300 to 400 MWe of net electrical power with a recirculating power fraction less than 0.15
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
RYUTOV,D.D.; DERZON,MARK S.; MATZEN,M. KEITH
1999-10-25
The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizing the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 36 figures and more than 300 references.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryutov, D.D.; Derzon, M.S.; Matzen, M.K.
1998-07-01
The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizes the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z-pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 52 figures and nearly 300 references
Experiments on a Toroidal Screw Pinch with Various Field Programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zwicker, H.; Wilhelm, R.; Krause, H. [Max-Planck-Institut Fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Garching, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)
1971-10-15
In the toroidal screw pinch ISAR-IV (large diameter 60 cm, aspect ratio 5, maximum storage, energy 140 kj) attempts were made to get an improved stability of the plasma by different kinds of field programming. The best results were obtained with positive trapped B{sub z}-fields and simultaneous switching of main B{sub z}-field and I{sub z}-current. In this case the dense plasma column (n{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 2-3 x 10{sup 16} , kT Almost-Equal-To 50-100 eV, {beta} Almost-Equal-To 15-20%) is surrounded by a force-free plasma ({beta} = 1%) with weak shear and it behaves stably for, at least, 25 {mu}s. The resulting containment time nr of near 10{sup 12} s cm{sup -3} remains a factor of 2-3 below the upper limit given by the classical diffusion. The following loss of the equilibrium position near the coil axis ({Delta} Almost-Equal-To 1-2 cm) is connected to a strong damping of the axial plasma current which starts near the end of the containment. It may be assumed that the increase of the effective plasma resistance mainly results from a contact of the force-free regions with the tube wall. Attempts were made to improve the containment by suitable programming of a plasma z-current. The results are presented. Experiments with one quartz limiter inside the torus improved the equilibrium but introduced instabilities at the new surface of the dilute plasma. To obtain more information about the outer region, the dilute plasma was produced without a dense core and separated from the tube walls by weak adiabatic compression. Under these Tokamak-like conditions the q-value was varied. In the region of q Almost-Equal-To 1 there appeared instabilities which seem to haver higher m-modes and rather short wavelengths. In a different kind of field programming the field distribution of the ''diffuse pinch'' was realized within an accuracy of 5-10% (kT Almost-Equal-To 100 eV, {beta} Almost-Equal-To 30%). In contrast to the predictions of MHD-theory, stability was observed only for
Summary of US compact torus experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, C.W.
1981-01-01
During the past several years a rapid increase has occurred in compact torus (CT) research in the United States, reflecting renewed interest in this simplified reactor consequences of this configuration. This paper reviews early approaches to CT formation and results and summarizes present experimental studies. Recent experiments have demonstrated a number of macroscopic aspects of the CT, including the conditions under which a macroscopically stable CT can be formed and maintained. Scaling experiments and more detailed studies of plasma transport in progress are discussed along with experiments under construction
The ELMO Bumpy Torus: present and future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uckan, N.A.
1978-01-01
The ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) experiment at ORNL was designed to circumvent the MHD stability problem encountered in standard bumpy tori by using the ''minimum-B'' properties of annular high-beta, hot-electron plasmas formed by microwave heating. The EBT combines the attractive features of both mirrors and tokamaks. The feasibility of this combined system has been demonstrated successfully in the EBT-I experiment and discussed at greater length elsewhere. The present status of the EBT research activities at ORNL is described briefly
Two dimensional critical models on a torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleur, H.; Di Francesco, P.
1987-01-01
After the general developments of conformal invariance in two dimensions, it was realized that the study of critical models in finite geometries, in addition to the practical information it could provide through finite size scaling, was also of great conceptual interest. The simplest example is the case of the torus, a genus 1 surface which is thus not conformally equivalent to the plane. This geometry appears quite frequently in lattice calculations for systems with periodic boundary conditions, and is also very natural from the point of view of string theory. We will discuss briefly in these notes the main results obtained so far in this simple case
The Schwinger Model on the torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azakov, S.
1996-08-01
The classical and quantum aspects of the Schwinger model on the torus are considered. First we find explicitly all zero modes of the Dirac operator in the topological sectors with nontrivial Chern index and its spectrum. In the second part we determine the regularized effective action and discuss the propagators related to it. Finally we calculate the gauge invariant averages of the fermion bilinears and correlation functions of currents and densities. We show that in the infinite volume limit the well-known result for the chiral condensate can be obtained and the clustering property can be established. (author). 23 refs
The Columbia Non-neutral Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedersen, Thomas Sunn
2009-01-01
Final report for the Columbia Non-neutral Torus. This details the results from the design, construction and initial operation of the Columbia Non-neutral Torus. During the duration of this grant, I designed, built, and operated the Columbia Nonneutral Torus, the world's lowest aspect ratio stellarator, and arguably, the world's simplest stellarator. This demonstrates the ease and robustness of the chosen stellarator design and allowed us to commence the investigation of the physics of non-neutral plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces. These plasmas are unique in many ways and had not previously been studied in a stellarator. Our first results showed that it is possible to confine and study a relatively cold pure electron plasma in a stellarator. We confirmed that the plasma is stable, and that the plasma is reasonably well confined in a stellarator configuration. These results were published in Physics of Plasmas (2006) and Physical Review Letters (2006). They enabled the existing program which is resolving the underlying transport processes in a classical stellarator with intense self-electric fields and enable the next phase of operation, electron-positron plasma physics. During the period of this grant, two students were trained in experimental plasma physics and both received their PhD degrees shortly after the grant terminated. One student is now employed in the financial services industry, the other is a postdoctoral associate at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The chief goals were to build and begin operation of the Columbia Non-neutral Torus. These goals were achieved in the third year of funding. The development of diagnostic methods and the confirmation of stable equilibria were also achieved during the grant period. In summary, the main scientific goals were all met. The main educational goals were also met, as the experiment became the training ground not only for the two aforementioned graduate students but also for a number of undergraduate students
Compact torus theory: MHD equilibrium and stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, D.C.; Seyler, C.E.; Anderson, D.V.
1979-01-01
Field reversed theta pinches have demonstrated the production and confinement of compact toroidal configurations with surprisingly good MHD stability. In these observations, the plasma is either lost by diffusion or by the loss of the applied field or is disrupted by an n = 2 (where n is the toroidal mode number) rotating instability only after 30 to 100 MHD times, when the configuration begins to rotate rigidly above a critical speed. These experiments have led one to investigate the equilibrium, stability, and rotation of a very elongated, toroidally axisymmetric configuration with no toroidal field. Many of the above observations are explained by recent results of these investigations which are summarized
On some Closed Magnetic Curves on a 3-torus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munteanu, Marian Ioan, E-mail: marian.ioan.munteanu@gmail.com [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Faculty of Mathematics (Romania); Nistor, Ana Irina, E-mail: ana.irina.nistor@gmail.com [Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iaşi, Department of Mathematics and Informatics (Romania)
2017-06-15
We consider two magnetic fields on the 3-torus obtained from two different contact forms on the Euclidean 3-space and we study when their corresponding normal magnetic curves are closed. We obtain periodicity conditions analogues to those for the closed geodesics on the torus.
Fabrication of an alumina torus for thermonuclear fusion containment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauth, W.E.; Blake, R.D.; Dickinson, J.M.; Rutz, H.L.; Stoddard, S.D.
1978-05-01
A 235-cm-diam torus has been fabricated for plasma containment during thermonuclear fusion experiments. This 30-cm-diam torus consists of sixty 99.5%-alumina segments, 80% of which are assembled by forming vacuum-tight ceramic-to-ceramic seals. Selection of sealing materials and techniques are discussed
Arithmetic functions in torus and tree networks
Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.
2007-12-25
Methods and systems for performing arithmetic functions. In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, methods and apparatus are provided, working in conjunction of software algorithms and hardware implementation of class network routing, to achieve a very significant reduction in the time required for global arithmetic operation on the torus. Therefore, it leads to greater scalability of applications running on large parallel machines. The invention involves three steps in improving the efficiency and accuracy of global operations: (1) Ensuring, when necessary, that all the nodes do the global operation on the data in the same order and so obtain a unique answer, independent of roundoff error; (2) Using the topology of the torus to minimize the number of hops and the bidirectional capabilities of the network to reduce the number of time steps in the data transfer operation to an absolute minimum; and (3) Using class function routing to reduce latency in the data transfer. With the method of this invention, every single element is injected into the network only once and it will be stored and forwarded without any further software overhead. In accordance with a second aspect of the invention, methods and systems are provided to efficiently implement global arithmetic operations on a network that supports the global combining operations. The latency of doing such global operations are greatly reduced by using these methods.
Status of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)*
Ono, Masayuki
2001-10-01
The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX experimental facility has been operating reliably and its capabilities steadily improving. Due to relatively efficient ohmic current drive and benign halo current behavior, the plasma current was increased to 1.4 MA, which is well above the design value of 1 MA. The plasmas at 1 MA are now routinely heated by NBI to the average toroidal beta value of 20 percent range at 3 kG with electrons and ions in the 1-2 keV range. Even with the “L-mode” edge, the energy confinement time can well exceed the so-called L-mode (and even H-mode) scaling values. As a part of ST tool development, High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating has demonstrated efficient electron heating with the central electron temperatures reaching 3.7 keV. HHFW induced H-modes have been also observed. For CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) non-inductive start-up, CHI discharges of up to 300 kA of toroidal current and 300 msec duration have been produced from zero current using = 25 kA of injected current. The poster presentation will also include the near term NSTX facility upgrade plan.
Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ono, Masayuki [PPPL; Kaita, Robert [PPPL
2014-01-01
The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.
Torus actions and their applications in topology and combinatorics
Buchstaber, Victor M
2002-01-01
The book presents the study of torus actions on topological spaces is presented as a bridge connecting combinatorial and convex geometry with commutative and homological algebra, algebraic geometry, and topology. This established link helps in understanding the geometry and topology of a space with torus action by studying the combinatorics of the space of orbits. Conversely, subtle properties of a combinatorial object can be realized by interpreting it as the orbit structure for a proper manifold or as a complex acted on by a torus. The latter can be a symplectic manifold with Hamiltonian torus action, a toric variety or manifold, a subspace arrangement complement, etc., while the combinatorial objects include simplicial and cubical complexes, polytopes, and arrangements. This approach also provides a natural topological interpretation in terms of torus actions of many constructions from commutative and homological algebra used in combinatorics. The exposition centers around the theory of moment-angle comple...
Plasma and current structures in dynamical pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butov, I.Ya.; Matveev, Yu.V.
1981-01-01
Dynamics of plasma layers and current structure in aZ-pinch device has been experimentally investigated. It is found that shaping of a main current envelope is ended with its explosion-like expansion, the pinch decaying after compression to separated current filaments. It is also shown that filling of a region outside the pinch with plasma and currents alternating in directions occurs owing to interaction of current loops (inductions) formed in a magnetic piston during its compression with reflected shock wave. Current circulating in the loops sometimes exceeds 1.5-2 times the current of discharge circuit. The phenomena noted appear during development of superheat instability and can be realized, for example, in theta-pinches, plasma focuses, tokamaks. The experiments were carried out at the Dynamic Zeta-pinch device at an energy reserse of up to 15 kJ (V 0 =24 kV) in a capacitor bank. Half-period of the discharge current is 9 μs; Isub(max)=3.5x10sup(5) A. Back current guide surrounding a china chamber of 28 cm diameter and 50 cm length is made in the form of a hollow cylinder. Initial chamber vacuum is 10 -6 torr [ru
Plasma focus - dense Z pinch and their applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Shozo
1986-02-01
''Workshop on the possibility of Z-pinch as a intense pulse light source'' in 1983 and ''Research meeting on plasma focus and Z-pinch'' in 1984 were held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University under a collaborating research program. Research activities reported at the meetings on plasma focus, dense Z-pinch, and related phenomena are summerized. (author)
Measurements of high-current electron beams from X pinches and wire array Z pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Bell, K. S.; Hammer, D. A.; Agafonov, A. V.; Romanova, V. M.; Mingaleev, A. R.
2008-01-01
Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch cross point to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups are discussed. Results of computer simulation of electron beam propagation from the pinch to the Faraday cup give limits for the measured current for beams having different energy spreads. The beam is partially neutralized as it propagates from the X pinch to a diagnostic system, but within a Faraday cup diagnostic, space charge effects can be very important. Experimental results show evidence of such effects.
Coaxial helicity injection and n=1 relaxation activity in the HIST spherical torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, M.
2002-01-01
Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has demonstrated non-inductive current generation of spherical tokamak (ST) and spheromak plasmas on several devices. In order to understand comprehensively the role of the n=1 instability and relaxation on current generation processes in helicity-driven spherical systems, we have investigated dynamics of ST plasmas produced in the HIST device (major radius R=0.30 m, minor radius a=0.24 m, aspect ratio A=1.25, toroidal field B t t <150 kA and discharge time t<5 ms in the ST configuration) by decreasing the external toroidal field (TF) and reversing its sign in time. In results, we have discovered that the ST relaxes towards flipped ST configurations through formation of reversed-field pinches (RFPs)-like magnetic field profiles. Surprisingly, it has been observed that not only toroidal flux but also poloidal flux reverses sign spontaneously during the relaxation process. This self-reversal of the poloidal field is thought to be evidence for 'global helicity conservation'. Furthermore, we have first demonstrated that a flipped ST plasma can be successfully sustained by CHI. (author)
Engineering prototypes for theta-pinch devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansborough, L.D.; Hammer, C.F.; Hanks, K.W.; McDonald, T.E.; Nunnally, W.C.
1975-01-01
Past, present, and future engineering prototypes for theta-pinch plasma-physics devices at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are discussed. Engineering prototypes are designed to test and evaluate all components under system conditions expected on actual plasma-physics experimental devices. The importance of engineering prototype development increases as the size and complexity of the plasma-physics device increases. Past experiences with the Scyllac prototype and the Staged Theta-Pinch prototype are discussed and evaluated. The design of the proposed Staged Scyllac prototype and the Large Staged Scyllac implosion prototype assembly are discussed
An FPGA-based torus communication network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pivanti, Marcello; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Ferrara Univ. (Italy); Simma, Hubert [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC
2011-02-15
We describe the design and FPGA implementation of a 3D torus network (TNW) to provide nearest-neighbor communications between commodity multi-core processors. The aim of this project is to build up tightly interconnected and scalable parallel systems for scientific computing. The design includes the VHDL code to implement on latest FPGA devices a network processor, which can be accessed by the CPU through a PCIe interface and which controls the external PHYs of the physical links. Moreover, a Linux driver and a library implementing custom communication APIs are provided. The TNW has been successfully integrated in two recent parallel machine projects, QPACE and AuroraScience. We describe some details of the porting of the TNW for the AuroraScience system and report performance results. (orig.)
An FPGA-based torus communication network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pivanti, Marcello; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio; Simma, Hubert
2011-02-01
We describe the design and FPGA implementation of a 3D torus network (TNW) to provide nearest-neighbor communications between commodity multi-core processors. The aim of this project is to build up tightly interconnected and scalable parallel systems for scientific computing. The design includes the VHDL code to implement on latest FPGA devices a network processor, which can be accessed by the CPU through a PCIe interface and which controls the external PHYs of the physical links. Moreover, a Linux driver and a library implementing custom communication APIs are provided. The TNW has been successfully integrated in two recent parallel machine projects, QPACE and AuroraScience. We describe some details of the porting of the TNW for the AuroraScience system and report performance results. (orig.)
Space Propulsion via Spherical Torus Fusion Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Craig H.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.
2003-01-01
A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 204 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1630 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment were performed on all major systems including nuclear fusion reactor, magnetic nozzle, power conversion, fast wave plasma heating, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery, and other systems. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance and utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/X-ray radiation
Effect of robust torus on the dynamical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, C G L; Carvalho, R Egydio de; Caldas, I L; Roberto, M
2010-01-01
In the present work, we quantify the fraction of trajectories that reach a specific region of the phase space when we vary a control parameter using two symplectic maps: one non-twist and another one twist. The two maps were studied with and without a robust torus. We compare the obtained patterns and we identify the effect of the robust torus on the dynamical transport. We show that the effect of meandering-like barriers loses importance in blocking the radial transport when the robust torus is present.
Current drive experiments on the HIT-II spherical torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarboe, T.R.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B.A.; Holcomb, C.T.; McCollam, K.J.; Sieck, P.E.
1999-01-01
This paper describes the following new achievements from the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) program: a) formation and sustainment of a toroidal magnetic equilibrium using coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in a conducting shell that has an L/R time much shorter than the pulse length; b) static formation of a spherical torus with plasma current over 180 kA using a transformer and feedback controlled equilibrium coils; and c) production of a current increase in a transformer produced spherical torus using CHI. (author)
Current drive experiments on the HIT-II spherical torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarboe, T.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B.; Holcomb, C.T.; McCollam, K.J.; Sieck, P.E.
2001-01-01
This paper describes the following new achievements from the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) program: a) formation and sustainment of a toroidal magnetic equilibrium using coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in a conducting shell that has an L/R time much shorter than the pulse length; b) static formation of a spherical torus with plasma current over 180 kA using a transformer and feedback controlled equilibrium coils; and c) production of a current increase in a transformer produced spherical torus using CHI. (author)
Characterization of laser-cut copper foil X-pinches
Collins, G. W.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Wei, M. S.; Reed, C. T.; Forsman, A. C.; Beg, F. N.
2016-10-01
Quantitative data analyses of laser-cut Cu foil X-pinch experiments on the 150 ns quarter-period, ˜250 kA GenASIS driver are presented. Three different foil designs are tested to determine the effects of initial structure on pinch outcome. Foil X-pinch data are also presented alongside the results from wire X-pinches with comparable mass. The X-ray flux and temporal profile of the emission from foil X-pinches differed significantly from that of wire X-pinches, with all emission from the foil X-pinches confined to a ˜3 ns period as opposed to the delayed, long-lasting electron beam emission common in wire X-pinches. Spectroscopic data show K-shell as well as significant L-shell emission from both foil and wire X-pinches. Fits to synthetic spectra using the SCRAM code suggest that pinching foil X's produced a ˜1 keV, ne ≥ 1023 cm-3 plasma. The spectral data combined with the improved reliability of the source timing, flux, and location indicate that foil X-pinches generate a reproducible, K-shell point-projection radiography source that can be easily modified and tailored to suit backlighting needs across a variety of applications.
A summary of the Berkeley and Livermore pinch programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colgate, Stirling A [University of California Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)
1958-07-01
In order to progress toward practical thermonuclear devices, the principal objective must be to prolong containment times by improving the electrical conductivity of the plasma. Those pinch configurations which are grossly unstable are, of course, unsuitable for practical thermonuclear work. Therefore our purely dynamic experiments are conducted only to study basic shock heating and instability mechanisms. Our basic evaluation of progress in pinch-type experiments is the reduction of the dissipation rate of the magnetic fields. The present pessimistic viewpoint is that most of the pinch devices that depend upon high current density within the plasma are beset with an enhanced dissipation rate which is disastrous to pinch containment. This dissipation is derived either from an electron plasma current instability or from hydromagnetic turbulence. Both have been predicted in theory and observed in experiment. Studies have been presented for the following cases: linear and toroidal pinch experiments; sheet pinch devices of modest size; homopolar geometry; shock heating and screw dynamic pinch.
Radiation hydrodynamics of z-pinch plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J.
1993-01-01
Over the years there has been a sustained interest in and fascination with Z-pinch plasmas. Whether the interest is in radiation source development, fusion plasmas, or basic research there exits an extensive bibliography of literature promulgating and perpetuating a variety of claims regarding the performance of Z-pinch plasmas. In this paper an attempt will be made to present a coherent picture of the documented and commonly held views for a class of Z-pinch plasmas concerned primarily with soft x-ray radiation source development. Many of the issues and findings are common to Z-pinch plasmas in general but the attention here will be focused on gas puffs and multiple wire arrays. The role and importance of radiation on the dynamics and the interplay between the radiation and the dynamics will also be presented and discussed. A number of comparisons with experimental results will be made with 0-, 1-, and 2-D numerical simulations for several pulsed power drivers ranging in current from several mega-amps to 10's of mega-amps for a variety of risetimes and load materials
Self-stabilized pinch (SSP) concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugisaki, Kiwamu; Hirano, Keiichi.
1985-01-01
Self-Stabilized pinch (SSP) consept is revealed. SSP providcs many attractive features for application to a fusion reactor. Design studies for high temperature plasma production are carried out. Use of adiabatic compression leads to a remarkable reduction of required power source. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, A.G.; Chandler, G.I.; Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Lillberg, J.W.; Machalek, M.D.; Seibel, F.T.
1976-01-01
Scylla IV-P is a flexible, linear theta pinch designed to investigate high-density linear concepts, end-stoppering, alternate heating methods, and plasma injection techniques relevant to a pure fusion reactor and/or a fusion-fission hybrid system. The construction and experimental arrangement of the device are briefly described
Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iman Dianat
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.
Topological T-duality for torus bundles with monodromy
Baraglia, David
2015-05-01
We give a simplified definition of topological T-duality that applies to arbitrary torus bundles. The new definition does not involve Chern classes or spectral sequences, only gerbes and morphisms between them. All the familiar topological conditions for T-duals are shown to follow. We determine necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a T-dual in the case of affine torus bundles. This is general enough to include all principal torus bundles as well as torus bundles with arbitrary monodromy representations. We show that isomorphisms in twisted cohomology, twisted K-theory and of Courant algebroids persist in this general setting. We also give an example where twisted K-theory groups can be computed by iterating T-duality.
Torus as phase space: Weyl quantization, dequantization, and Wigner formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ligabò, Marilena, E-mail: marilena.ligabo@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy)
2016-08-15
The Weyl quantization of classical observables on the torus (as phase space) without regularity assumptions is explicitly computed. The equivalence class of symbols yielding the same Weyl operator is characterized. The Heisenberg equation for the dynamics of general quantum observables is written through the Moyal brackets on the torus and the support of the Wigner transform is characterized. Finally, a dequantization procedure is introduced that applies, for instance, to the Pauli matrices. As a result we obtain the corresponding classical symbols.
On the energy crisis in the Io plasma torus
Smith, Robert A.; Bagenal, Fran; Cheng, Andrew F.; Strobel, Darrell
1988-01-01
Recent calculations of the energy balance of the Io plasma torus show that the observed UV and EUV radiation cannot be maintained solely via energy input by the ion pickup mechanism. Current theoretical models of the torus must be modified to include non-local energy input. It is argued that the required energy may be supplied by inward diffusion of energetic heavy ions with energies less than about 20 keV.
The geometric Schwinger model on the torus. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joos, H.
1990-01-01
The author analyzes the Euclidean version of the geometric Schwinger model on the torus. After the calculation of the zero mode wave functions associated with the different topological sectors, which can be expressed by θ functions defined on the two-dimensional torus, he determines the regularized effective action and discusses the propagator related to it. Finally he studies applications to the standard questions like the particle spectrum, the screening of the static potential, and the appearance of the anomaly. (HSI)
Thomson scattering on ELMO Bumpy Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cobble, J.A.
1985-04-01
Below 10 12 cm -3 density, a Thomson scattering experiment is an exacting task. Aside from the low signal level, the core plasma in this instance is bathed in high-energy x rays, surrounded by a glowing molecular surface plasma, and heated steady state by microwaves. This means that the noise level from radiation is high and the environment is extremely harsh-so harsh that much effort is required to overcome system damage. In spite of this, the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) system has proven itself capable of providing reliable n/sub e/ and T/sub e/ measurements at densities as low as 2 x 10 11 cm -3 . Radial scans across 20 cm of the plasma diameter have been obtained on a routine basis, and the resulting information has been a great help in understanding confinement in the EBT plasma. The bulk electron properties are revealed as flat profiles of n/sub e/ and T/sub e/, with density ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 x 10 12 cm -3 and temperature decreasing from 100 to 20 eV as pressure in the discharge is increased at constant power. Evidence is presented for a suprathermal tail, which amounts to about 10% of the electron distribution at low pressures. The validity of this conclusion is supported by two independent sensitivity calibrations
Hirzebruch genera of manifolds with torus action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panov, T E
2001-01-01
A quasitoric manifold is a smooth 2n-manifold M 2n with an action of the compact torus T n such that the action is locally isomorphic to the standard action of T n on C n and the orbit space is diffeomorphic, as a manifold with corners, to a simple polytope P n . The name refers to the fact that topological and combinatorial properties of quasitoric manifolds are similar to those of non-singular algebraic toric varieties (or toric manifolds). Unlike toric varieties, quasitoric manifolds may fail to be complex. However, they always admit a stably (or weakly almost) complex structure, and their cobordism classes generate the complex cobordism ring. Buchstaber and Ray have recently shown that the stably complex structure on a quasitoric manifold is determined in purely combinatorial terms, namely, by an orientation of the polytope and a function from the set of codimension-one faces of the polytope to primitive vectors of the integer lattice. We calculate the χ y -genus of a quasitoric manifold with a fixed stably complex structure in terms of the corresponding combinatorial data. In particular, this gives explicit formulae for the classical Todd genus and the signature. We also compare our results with well-known facts in the theory of toric varieties
ADHM construction of instantons on the torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, C.; Pawlowski, J.M.; Tok, T.; Wipf, A.
2001-01-01
We apply the ADHM instanton construction to SU(2) gauge theory on T n xR 4-n for n=1,2,3,4. To do this we regard instantons on T n xR 4-n as periodic (modulo gauge transformations) instantons on R 4 . Since the R 4 topological charge of such instantons is infinite the ADHM algebra takes place on an infinite dimensional linear space. The ADHM matrix M is related to a Weyl operator (with a self-dual background) on the dual torus T-tilde n . We construct the Weyl operator corresponding to the one-instantons on T n xR 4-n . In order to derive the self-dual potential on T n xR 4-n it is necessary to solve a specific Weyl equation. This is a variant of the Nahm transformation. In the case n=2 (i.e., T 2 xR 2 ) we essentially have an Aharonov-Bohm problem on T-tilde 2 . In the one-instanton sector we find that the scale parameter, λ, is bounded above, λ 2 V-tilde 2
Parametric dependences of momentum pinch and Prandtl number in JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tala, T.; Salmi, A.; Angioni, C.
2011-01-01
Several parametric scans have been performed to study momentum transport on JET. A neutral beam injection modulation technique has been applied to separate the diffusive and convective momentum transport terms. The magnitude of the inward momentum pinch depends strongly on the inverse density...... gradient length, with an experimental scaling for the pinch number being -Rvpinch/χφ = 1.2R/Ln +1.4. There is no dependence of the pinch number on collisionality, whereas the pinch seems to depend weakly on q-profile, the pinch number decreasing with increasing q. The Prandtl number was not found to depend...... either on R/Ln, collisionality or on q. The gyro-kinetic simulations show qualitatively similar dependence of the pinch number on R/Ln, but the dependence is weaker in the simulations. Gyro-kinetic simulations do not find any clear parametric dependence in the Prandtl number, in agreement...
Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.
1979-01-01
A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table
Design innovations of the next-step spherical torus experiment and spherical torus development path
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, M.; Kessel, C.; Peng, M.
2003-01-01
The spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path is complementary to the tokamak burning plasma experiment such as ITER as it focuses toward the compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher toroidal beta regimes to improve the design of DEMO and a Power Plant. To support the ST development path, one option of a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) device is examined. NSST is a 'performance extension' (PE) stage ST with a plasma current of 5 - 10 MA, R = 1.5, B T ≤ 2.7 T with flexible physics capability to 1) Provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of the CTF, 2) Explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, 3) Contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high β toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the TFTR site to minimize the cost and time required for the construction. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Kessel, C.; Neumeyer, C.; Schmidt, J.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.; Grisham, L.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Jarboe, T.; Jun, C.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Raman, R.; Stevenson, T.; Viola, M.; Wilson, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.
2003-01-01
A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction
Pinching Solutions of Slender Cylindrical Jets
1993-06-01
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681.2This research was supported in part by Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Cientifico y Tecnologico (FONDE...concentrate on inviscid irrotational flows of liquid jets. A review article has been written by Bogy [2]. Of relevance is also the work of Chandrasekhar...equations become elliptic and allow the possibility of admissible pinching solutions described in this article . It is interesting to find that for jets
ZAPP: Z-pinch atomic physics program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reed, K.
1983-01-01
High-density and high-temperature plasmas have been produced in a z-pinch with a hollow gas puff. A number of interesting atomic-physics phenomena occur in these plasmas and some of these phenomena provide important diagnostic information for characterizing the plasmas. We have been interested in collisions of high-energy electrons with highly stripped ions in these plasmas. Such collisions may produce a population inversion which could result in stimulated emission in the x-ray regime
On the instability increments of a stationary pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bud'ko, A.B.
1989-01-01
The stability of stationary pinch to helical modes is numerically studied. It is shown that in the case of a rather fast plasma pressure decrease to the pinch boundary, for example, for an isothermal diffusion pinch with Gauss density distribution instabilities with m=0 modes are the most quickly growing. Instability increments are calculated. A simple analytical expression of a maximum increment of growth of sausage instability for automodel Gauss profiles is obtained
''Turbulent Equipartition'' Theory of Toroidal Momentum Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.D.; Rewaldt, G.
2008-01-01
The mode-independent part of magnetic curvature driven turbulent convective (TuroCo) pinch of the angular momentum density (Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 14,072302 (2007)) which was originally derived from the gyrokinetic equation, can be interpreted in terms of the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory. It is shown that the previous results can be obtained from the local conservation of 'magnetically weighted angular momentum density', nm i U # parallel# R/B 2 , and its homogenization due to turbulent flows. It is also demonstrated that the magnetic curvature modification of the parallel acceleration in the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in the laboratory frame, which was shown to be responsible for the TEP part of the TurCo pinch of angular momentum density in the previous work, is closely related to the Coriolis drift coupling to the perturbed electric field. In addition, the origin of the diffusive flux in the rotating frame is highlighted. Finally, it is illustrated that there should be a difference in scalings between the momentum pinch originated from inherently toroidal effects and that coming from other mechanisms which exist in a simpler geometry.
X-ray backlighting of two-wire Z-pinch plasma using X-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, Zhao; Xiao-Bing, Zou; Ran, Zhang; Xin-Xin, Wang
2010-01-01
Two 50-μm Mo wires in parallel used as a Z-pinch load are electrically exploded with a pulsed current rising to 275 kA in 125 ns and their explosion processes are backlighted using an X-pinch as an x-ray source. The backlighting images show clearly the processes similar to those occurring in the initial stages of a cylindrical wire-array Z-pinch, including the electric explosion of single wires characterised by the dense wire cores surrounded by a low-density coronal plasma, the expansion of the exploding wire, the sausage instability (m = 0) in the coronal plasma around each wire, the motion of the coronal plasma as well as the wire core toward the current centroid, the formation of the precursor plasma column with a twist structure something like that of higher mode instability, especially the kink instability (m = 1). (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)
High-density fusion and the Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Munger, R.H.
1975-01-01
The formation of a Z-pinch in dense gas is investigated using numerical modeling in one and two dimensions. Hot, dense Z-pinches are calculated with n approximately 2 x 10 21 cm 3 and T = 10 keV. Relaxation by sausage instability of an unstable pinch profile to a marginally stable one is calculated along with end losses in 2 dimensions to show that, if plasma is confined for N = 50 to 200 sound transits across the radius a, pinches with length L = Na are of interest for fusion power. A conceptual, ''no-wall'' fusion reactor is discussed. (author)
On the Heating of Ions in Noncylindrical Z-Pinches
Svirsky, E. B.
2018-01-01
The method proposed here for analyzing processes in a hot plasma of noncylindrical Z-pinches is based on separation of the group of high-energy ions into a special fraction. Such ions constitute an insignificant fraction ( 10%) of the total volume of the Z-pinch plasma, but these ions contribute the most to the formation of conditions in which the pinch becomes a source of nuclear fusion products and X-ray radiation. The method allows a quite correct approach to obtaining quantitative estimates of the plasma parameters, the nuclear fusion energy yield, and the features of neutron fluxes in experiments with Z-pinches.
TFTR centralized torus interface valve control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearson, G.G.; Olsen, D.H.
1983-01-01
A system developed especially for the TFTR to monitor and control the interface between the vacuum vessel and associated diagnostics will be described in this paper. Diagnostics which must be connected to the machine vacuum are required to do so through a Torus Interface Valve (TIV). Two types of TIV's are used on TFTR. The first type is a non-latching valve which must be held in the opened position by a sustained OPEN command, returning automatically to the closed position when the OPEN command is removed. This type of TIV is used on all systems which never insert a probe into the vacuum vessel through the TIV. The second type of TIV is a latching valve which requires a momentary OPEN command to open and a momentary CLOSE command to close. Each TIV is linked to its own dedicated logic controller. Each logic controller is hardwired to the appropriate TIV OPEN/CLOSED limit switches, probe IN/OUT limit switches, TFTR vacuum vessel pressure setpoint switches, and diagnostic pressure setpoint switches. The logic controller can be configured for local (push-button) or remote (computer) control. Each controller has a uniquely coded keyswitch to determine the configuration. Whether under local or remote control, all OPEN and CLOSE commands must be approved by the TIV controller (TIVC). In the case of systems with probes, the controller must receive a positive indication that the probe is completely backed out before a CLOSE command will be transmitted from the TIVC to the TIV. Before a valve will be opened by a controller, the differential pressure across the valve must be within certain limits
Plasma dynamics in a staged pinch device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattak, N.A.D.; Ahmed, Z.; Mirza, A.M.; Murtaza, G.
1998-01-01
Plasma parameters in fiber initiated fast and dense theta-pinch plasma driven by an annular finite-thickness gas-puff Z-pinch are studied. The imploding gas-puff Z-pinch plasma traps an axial magnetic field B/sub z/, compressing it to large values (of the order of several megagauss) in an extremely short time. The rapidly changing magnetic flux of this field induces an azimuthal current on the surface of the coaxially placed fiber, with a rise time an order of magnitude shorter than the applied Z-pinch current. The shorter rise time of the current stabilizes the pinch against sausage mode of MHD instabilities. Our numerical results demonstrate that for a relatively thick gas-puff layer, the compression occurs before the current saturates. At the peak compression the fuel densities of the order of 10/sup 25/ cm/sup -3/ and temperature above 10 keV can be achieved on a time scale of 0.1 nanoseconds, yielding the Lawson Criterion parameters n tau is approximately equal to 10/sup 14/ sec cm/sup -3/ for D-T fuel. The snow-plow effect incorporated in our model exercise a strong influence on the onset and growth rate of sausage and Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) modes of instabilities. Imposing a rotational velocity on the outer thin gas-puff plasma can control the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Numerical results indicate that the choice of the spin velocity is critical. Large values of the spin velocity, though provide stabilization against the R-T instability at the final stage of compression, however, it adversely reduce the plasma parameters so essential to achieve controlled fusion. Our analysis, therefore, suggests that a judicious choice of the spin velocity is necessary to obtain the desired temperature and density, especially when we seed D-T fiber plasma with a small fraction of high-Z Kr impurity to initiate the radiative collapse. (author)
Partially collisional model of the Titan hydrogen torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilton, D.A.
1987-01-01
A numerical model was developed for atomic hydrogen densities in the Titan hydrogen torus. The effects of occasional collisions were included in order to accurately simulate physical conditions inferred from the Voyager 1 and 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) results of Broadfoot et al. (1981) and Sandel et al. (1982). The model employed Lagrangian perturbation of orbital elements of hydrogen atoms launched from Titan and Monte Carlo simulation of collisions and loss mechanisms. The torus is found to be azimuthally symmetric with the density sharply peaked at Titan's orbit, and decreasing rapidly in the outward and perpendicular directions and more gradually inward from 17 to 5 R/sub s/. The energetic hydrogen atoms from Saturn's upper atmosphere, first predicted by Shemansky and Smith (1982), were also investigated. Collisions of these Saturnian atoms with the torus population do not contribute to the torus density, and will lead to a net loss of torus atoms if their launch speeds from Saturn extend above 40 km/sec. The Saturnian atoms produce a corona which was modeled using the theory of Chamberlain (1963)
Kudy vede správná cesta k termojaderné fúzi?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Řípa, Milan
-, červen (2015) Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * stellarator * reversed field pinch * Wendelstein * Keda Torus eXperiment KTX * ZETA * first plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.vedaprozivot.cz/sd/novinky/hlavni-stranka/150630_termojaderna_fuze.html
Physics issues of a proposed program, SPIRIT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Hantao; Yamada, Masaaki
2000-01-01
Physics issues of the proposed program, SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Induction Techniques) are discussed. The main purpose of this program is to explore the physics of global stability and sustainment of compact toroids, including FRC (field reversed configuration) as well as low-aspect-ratio RFP (reversed field pinch), spheromak and spherical torus. (author)
Smooth invariant densities for random switching on the torus
Bakhtin, Yuri; Hurth, Tobias; Lawley, Sean D.; Mattingly, Jonathan C.
2018-04-01
We consider a random dynamical system obtained by switching between the flows generated by two smooth vector fields on the 2d-torus, with the random switchings happening according to a Poisson process. Assuming that the driving vector fields are transversal to each other at all points of the torus and that each of them allows for a smooth invariant density and no periodic orbits, we prove that the switched system also has a smooth invariant density, for every switching rate. Our approach is based on an integration by parts formula inspired by techniques from Malliavin calculus.
The CLAS12 Torus Detector Magnet at Jefferson Laboratory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luongo, Cesar [Jefferson Lab; Ballard, Joshua [Jefferson Lab; Biallas, George [Jefferson Lab; Elouadrhiri, Latifa [Jefferson Lab; Fair, Ruben [Jefferson Lab; Ghoshal, Probir [Jefferson Lab; Kashy, Dave [Jefferson Lab; Legg, Robert [Jefferson Lab; Pastor, Orlando [Jefferson Lab; Rajput-Ghoshal, Renuka [Jefferson Lab; Rode, Claus [Jefferson Lab; Wiseman, Mark [Jefferson Lab; Young, Glenn [Jefferson Lab; Elementi, Luciano [Fermilab; Krave, Steven [Fermilab; Makarov, Alexander [Fermilab; Nobrega, Fred [Fermilab; Velev, George [Fermilab
2015-12-17
The CLAS12 Torus is a toroidal superconducting magnet, which is part of the detector for the 12-GeV accelerator upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The coils were wound/fabricated by Fermilab, with JLab responsible for all other parts of the project scope, including design, integration, cryostating the individual coils, installation, cryogenics, I&C, etc. This paper provides an overview of the CLAS12 Torus magnet features and serves as a status report of its installation in the experimental hall. Completion and commissioning of the magnet is expected in 2016.
Maass Cusp Forms on Singly Punctured Two-Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siddig, Abubaker Ahmed Mohamed; Shah, Nurisya Mohd; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin
2009-01-01
Quantum mechanical systems on punctured surfaces modeled by hyperbolic spaces can play an interesting role in exploring quantum chaos and in studying behaviour of future quantum nano-devices. The case of singly-punctured two-torus, for example, has been well-studied in the literature particularly for its scattering states. However, the bound states on the punctured torus given by Maass cusp forms are lesser known. In this note, we report on the algorithm of numerically computing these functions and we present ten lower-lying eigenvalues for each odd and even Maass cusp forms.
Investigation on the pinch point position in heat exchangers
Pan, Lisheng; Shi, Weixiu
2016-06-01
The pinch point is important for analyzing heat transfer in thermodynamic cycles. With the aim to reveal the importance of determining the accurate pinch point, the research on the pinch point position is carried out by theoretical method. The results show that the pinch point position depends on the parameters of the heat transfer fluids and the major fluid properties. In most cases, the pinch point locates at the bubble point for the evaporator and the dew point for the condenser. However, the pinch point shifts to the supercooled liquid state in the near critical conditions for the evaporator. Similarly, it shifts to the superheated vapor state with the condensing temperature approaching the critical temperature for the condenser. It even can shift to the working fluid entrance of the evaporator or the supercritical heater when the heat source fluid temperature is very high compared with the absorbing heat temperature. A wrong position for the pinch point may generate serious mistake. In brief, the pinch point should be founded by the iterative method in all conditions rather than taking for granted.
Deuterated fibre Z-pinch on the S-300 generator
Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Bakshaev, Yu L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Danko, S. A.; Korolev, V. D.; Ustroev, G. I.; Ivanov, M. I.; Cai, Hongchun
2006-01-01
Dense Z-pinch experiments were carried out on the S-300 generator (3.5 MA, 100 ns, 0.15 Omega) at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. The experiments were performed at a peak current of 2 MA with a rise time of about 100 ns. The Z-pinch was formed from a deuterated polyethylene fibre of 100 mu m
Self-pinched lithium beam transport experiments on SABRE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, D.L.; Olson, C.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Shokir, I.; Cuneo, M.E.; Menge, P.R.; Johnston, R.R.; Welch, D.R.
1996-01-01
Self-pinched transport of ion beams has many advantages for ion-driven ICF applications involving high yield and energy production. The authors are currently preparing for a self-pinched lithium beam transport experiment on the SABRE accelerator. There are three transport elements that must eventually be demonstrated: (1) efficient lithium beam generation and ballistic transport to a focus at the self-pinched transport channel entrance; (2) self-pinched transport in the channel, requiring optimized injection conditions and gas breakdown; and (3) self-pinched transport of the equilibrated beam from the channel into free space, with associated aiming and stability considerations. In the present experiment, a hollow annular lithium beam from an applied-B extraction ion diode will be focused to small radius (r ≤ 2 cm) in a 60 cm long ballistic focus section containing argon gas at a pressure of a few Torr. The self-pinched transport channel will contain a low pressure background gas of 10--40 mTorr argon to allow sufficient net current to confine the beam for long distance transport. IPROP simulations are in progress to optimize the design of the ballistic and self-pinched transport sections. Progress on preparation of this lithium self-pinched transport experiment, including a discussion of transport system design, important gas breakdown issues, and diagnostics, will be presented
Quasiperiodicity and Torus Breakdown in a Power Electronic DC/DC Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Soukhoterin, Evgeniy; Mosekilde, Erik
2007-01-01
This paper discusses the mechanisms of torus formation and torus destruction in a dc/dc converter with relay control and hysteresis. We establish a chart of the dynamical modes in the input voltage versus load resistance parameter plane. This chart displays several different torus bifurcations...
Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on force of finger pinch
Odagaki, Masato; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiwaki, Osamu
2009-04-01
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to explore many aspects of brain function, and to treat neurological disorders. Cortical motor neuronal activation by TMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) produces efferent signals that pass through the corticospinal tracts. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are observed in muscles innervated by the stimulated motor cortex. TMS can cause a silent period (SP) following MEP in voluntary electromyography (EMG). The present study examined the effects of TMS eliciting MEP and SP on the force of pinching using two fingers. Subjects pinched a wooden block with the thumb and index finger. TMS was applied to M1 during the pinch task. EMG of first dorsal interosseous muscles and pinch forces were measured. Force output increased after the TMS, and then oscillated. The results indicated that the motor control system to keep isotonic forces of the muscles participated in the finger pinch was disrupted by the TMS.
Influence of pinches on magnetic reconnection in turbulent space plasmas
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Divin, Andrey
A generally accepted scenario of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas is the breakage of magnetic field lines in X-points. In laboratory, reconnection is widely studied in pinches, current channels embedded into twisted magnetic fields. No model of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas considers both null-points and pinches as peers. We have performed a particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional configuration where null-points are present nitially, and Z-pinches are formed during the simulation. The X-points are relatively stable, and no substantial energy dissipation is associated with them. On contrary, turbulent magnetic reconnection in the pinches causes the magnetic energy to decay at a rate of approximately 1.5 percent per ion gyro period. Current channels and twisted magnetic fields are ubiquitous in turbulent space plasmas, so pinches can be responsible for the observed high magnetic reconnection rates.
Integration thermal processes through Pinch technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rios H, Carlos Mario; Grisales Rincon, Rogelio; Cardona, Carlos Ariel
2004-01-01
This paper presents the techniques of heat integration used for process optimization, their fortresses and weaknesses during the implementation in several specific process are also discussed. It is focused to the pinch technology, explaining algorithms for method applications in the industry. The paper provides the concepts and models involved in different types of commercial software applying this method for energy cost reduction, both in design of new plants and improve of old ones. As complement to benefits of the energy cost reduction it is analysed other favorable aspects of process integration, as the emissions waste reduction and the combined heat end power systems
The Magpie dense z-pinch project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chittenden, J.; Choi, P.; Mitchell, I.; Dangor, A.E.; Haines, M.G.
1990-01-01
The authors present a design study on the Mega Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE), a project currently under construction at Imperial College London, to study radiative collapse of a dense Z-pinch plasma created from a 20 um diameter cryogenic hydrogen fiber. The 2 TW generator is composed of four individual 2.4 MV Marx banks of the HERMES III type design with a maximum stored energy of 336 kJ. They drive four 5 ohm Pulse Forming Lines which are combined into a single 1.25 MA in 150 ns to a 150 nH load
MHD simulations of molybdenum X-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenkov, G.V.; Stepnevski, V.
2002-01-01
One investigates into compression of molybdenum X-pinches applying numerical MHD-models with parabolic and conical initial geometry. The second model describing plasma axial motion in greater detail offers a real geometry of a discharge and is applicable to loads characterized by higher masses in contrast to the first one. Both models enabled to describe all basic phases of compression including origination of a minidiode, occurrence of a narrow neck, microexplosion of a hot point and origination of shock waves followed by sausage instability [ru
Numerical studies of the linear theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brackbill, J.U.; Menzel, M.T.; Barnes, D.C.
1975-01-01
Aspects of several physical problems associated with linear theta pinches were studied using recently developed numerical methods for the solution of the nonlinear equations for time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic flow in two- and three-dimensions. The problems studied include the propagation of end-loss produced rarefaction waves, the flow produced in a proposed injection experiment geometry, and the linear growth and nonlinear saturation of instabilities in rotating plasmas, all in linear geometries. The studies illustrate how numerical computations aid in flow visualization, and how the small amplitude behavior and nonlinear fate of plasmas in unstable equilibria can be connected through the numerical solution of the dynamical equations. (auth)
Electron temperature measurement in Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerusov, A.V.; Orlov, M.M.; Terent'ev, A.R.; Khrabrov, V.A.
1987-01-01
Measurement of temperature of emitting plasma sheath in noncylindrical Z-pinch in neon at the stage of convergence to the axis, based on comparing the intensity of spectral lines belonging to Ne1, Ne2, is performed. Line intensity relation dependence was determined using calculations according to emitting-collision model. Spectra were recorded by electron-optical converter and relative intensity was determined by subsequent photometry of photolayer. Cylindric symmetrical MHD-calculations during which temperature and the observed line intensity relation were determined, are conducted
Legendrian and transverse cables of positive torus knots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
B. Etnyre, John; la Fountain, Douglas James; Tosun, Bulent
In this paper we classify Legendrian and transverse knots in the knot types obtained from positive torus knots by cabling. This classification allows us to demonstrate several new phenomena. Specifically, we show there are knot types that have non-destabilizable Legendrian representatives whose T...
Beta II compact torus experiment plasma equilibrium and power balance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, W.C.; Goldenbaum, G.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Prono, D.S.; Hartman, C.W.; Taska, J.
1982-01-01
In this paper we follow up some of our earlier work that showed the compact torus (CT) plasma equilibrium produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun is nearly force free and that impurity radiation plays a dominant role in determining the decay time of plasma currents in present generation experiments
Recursive representation of the torus 1-point conformal block
Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina
2010-01-01
The recursive relation for the 1-point conformal block on a torus is derived and used to prove the identities between conformal blocks recently conjectured by Poghossian in [1]. As an illustration of the efficiency of the recurrence method the modular invariance of the 1-point Liouville correlation function is numerically analyzed.
Global solvability for involutive systems on the torus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cleber de Medeira
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider a class of involutive systems of n smooth vector fields on the torus of dimension n+1. We prove that the global solvability of this class is related to an algebraic condition involving Liouville forms and the connectedness of all sublevel and superlevel sets of the primitive of a certain 1-form associated with the system.
Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes
Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder
2011-01-01
Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...
Modular differential equations for torus one-point functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Lang, Samuel
2009-01-01
It is shown that in a rational conformal field theory every torus one-point function of a given highest weight state satisfies a modular differential equation. We derive and solve these differential equations explicitly for some Virasoro minimal models. In general, however, the resulting amplitudes do not seem to be expressible in terms of standard transcendental functions
Spherical torus (ST) concept and its reactor implications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, Y.K.M.; Lazarus, E.A.; Miller, R.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Krakowski, R.A.; Seed, T.J.; Zubrin, R.M.; Schnurr, N.M.
1986-01-01
A brief description of the spherical torus design is given. The design concept includes resistive demountable toroidal field coils, poloidal divertor for impurity control, oscillating-field current maintenance, RF initiation and ramp-up of the plasma current, and flowing liquid-metal breeding blanket. 4 refs., 6 figs
Five-dimensional gauge theory and compactification on a torus
Haghighat, B.; Vandoren, S.J.G.
2011-01-01
We study five-dimensional minimally supersymmetric gauge theory compactified on a torus down to three dimensions, and its embedding into string/M-theory using geometric engineering. The moduli space on the Coulomb branch is hyperkaehler equipped with a metric with modular transformation properties.
Plasma diagnostics in compact torus of UNICAMP (Campinas state university)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, M; Doi, Y.; Aramaki, E.A.; Porto, P.; Berni, L.; Machida, M.
1989-08-01
This paper which describes experiments carried out in the Compact Torus of UNICAMP (TC-1) is divided into 3 parts: 1) summary of TC-1 characteristics and its operation mode; 2) description of diagnostics in use and ones to be installed, 3) recent experimental results using optical and electromagnetical diagnostics. (author)
ELMO Bumpy Torus fusion-reactor design study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.
1981-01-01
A complete power plant design of a 1200-MWe ELMO Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) is described that emphasizes those features that are unique to the EBT confinement concept, with subsystems and balance-of-plant items that are generic to magnetic fusion being adopted from past, more extensive tokamak reactor designs
Rotational instability in a linear theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekdahl, C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Commisso, R.J.; Gribble, R.F.; McKenna, K.F.; Miller, G.; Siemon, R.E.
1980-01-01
The m=1 ''wobble'' instability of the plasma column in a 5-m linear theta pinch has been studied using an axial array of orthogonally viewing position detectors to resolve the wavelength and frequency of the column motion. The experimental results are compared with recent theoretical predictions that include finite Larmor orbit effects. The frequency and wavelength characteristics at saturation agree with the predicted dispersion relation for a plasma rotating faster than the diamagnetic drift speed. Measurements of the magnetic fields at the ends of the pinch establish the existence of currents flowing in such a way that they short out the radial electric fields in the plasma column. The magnitude of rotation, the observed delay in the onset of m=1 motion, and the magnitude of end-shorting currents can all be understood in terms of the torsional Alfven waves that communicate to the central plasma column the information that the ends have been shorted. The same waves are responsible for the torque which rotates the plasma and leads to the observed m=1 instability. Observations of the plasma in the presence of solid end plugs indicate a stabilization of high-m number modes and a reduction of the m=1 amplitude
Engineering feasibility evaluation of a peristaltic pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boicourt, G.P.
1977-04-01
A recent proposal for reducing the end loss of a linear theta pinch is to produce moving magnetic mirrors at the coil ends. The concept entails the sequential pulsing of an axially arranged series of two-turn coaxial coils. The electrical design of such a system presents some unique problems. Ideally, the individual pulse circuits should be completely independent. This would facilitate the design by eliminating interactive effects. In practice, the circuits must be interconnected through isolating inductors to enable the production of a uniform biasing magnetic field. Moreover, the coils must be located physically close together. This produces strong magnetic coupling between the pulse circuits, which can seriously affect the shape and speed of the inward-moving magnetic-mirror field. Possible systems were modeled for the NET-2 circuit analysis code. The models took account of the inductive coupling between the individual circuits in the model. The results show that an increasing magnetic mirror can be produced provided the radius of the theta pinch is not too great compared to the intercoil spacing. The peristaltic field can be maintained for several cycles in the inner coils. The voltage hold-off requirements on the pulse circuit switches are found to be severe, but not impossible to meet
Moderately reverberant learning ultrasonic pinch panel.
Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre
2013-10-01
Tactile sensing is widely used in human-computer interfaces. However, mechanical integration of touch technologies is often perceived as difficult by engineers because it often limits the freedom of style or form factor requested by designers. Recent work in active ultrasonic touch technologies has made it possible to transform thin glass plates, metallic sheets, or plastic shells into interactive surfaces. The method is based on a learning process of touch-induced, amplitude-disturbed diffraction patterns. This paper proposes, first, an evolution in the design with multiple dipole transducers that improves touch sensitivity or maximum panel size by a factor of ten, and improves robustness and usability in moderately reverberant panels, and second, defines a set of acoustic variables in the signal processing for the evaluation of sensitivity and radiating features. For proof of concept purposes, the design and process are applied to 3.2- and 6-mm-thick glass plates with variable damping conditions. Transducers are bonded to only one short side of the rectangular substrates. Measurements show that the highly sensitive free lateral sides are perfectly adapted for pinch-touch and pinch-slide interactions. The advantage of relative versus absolute touch disturbance measurement is discussed, together with tolerance to abutting contaminants.
Material testing in a linear theta pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alani, R.; Azodi, H.; Naraghi, M.; Safaii, B.; Torabi-Fard, A.
1983-01-01
The interaction of stainless steel 316 and Inconel 625 alloys has been investigated with a thermonuclear-like plasma, n = 10 16 cm -3 and Tsub(i) = 1 keV, generated in the Alvand I linear theta pinch. The average power flux is 10 7 W/cm 2 and the interaction time nearly one μs. A theoretical analysis based on the formation of an observed impurity layer near the material, has been used to determine the properties of the impurity layer and the extent of the damage on the material. Although arcing has been observed, the dominant damage mechanism has been assessed to be due to evaporation. Exposure to single shots has produced very heavily defective areas and even surface cracks on the SS 316 sample, but no cracks were observed on Inconel 625 after exposure to even 18 shots. On the basis of temperature rise and evaporation a comparison is made among materials exposed to plasmas of a theta pinch, shock tube, present generation tokamak and an anticipated tokamak reactor. (orig.)
Electrostatic turbulence in the Z pinch corona
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, R.E.
1994-01-01
The microstability of electrostatic waves in the periphery of a Z pinch is formulated and resolved for a new class of Vlasov meta-equilibria admitting self-similar solutions in the electron gyrokinetic limit. These equilibria are subject to strong radial motions, and a mild deviation from charge neutrality arises to maintain ion acceleration close to that of the magnetized electrons. A unique class of profiles in density, axial current, temperature, and drift speed defines these equilibria. They are characterized by (i) the interior pinch current, (ii) the interior number density, (iii) the parallel and perpendicular temperatures, (iv) the exterior axial electric field value at the initial time, and (v) the radial ion acceleration relative to that of the electrons. Unstable ion sound waves arise in this medium by coupling radial and axial free energy to azimuthal longitudinal oscillations. The waves grow only for a limited range of radial or axial Exb/B drift speeds and electron temperatures. The growth rate, which can be as large as 0.115ω pi , is found to scale proportional to plasma frequency over the density range from 10 12 to 10 18 ions cm -3
Processes governing pinch formation in diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaugrund, A.E.; Cooperstein, G.; Goldstein, S.A.
1975-01-01
The process of pinch formation in large aspect ratio diodes has been studied by means of streak photography and time-resolved x-ray detectors. A tight pinch is formed at the anode center by a collapsing thin hollow electron beam. The collapse velocity depends, among other things, on the type of material in the top 1 μm layer of the anode. In a tentative model it is assumed that an anode plasma is at least partially created from gases released from the surface layer of the anode by the heating action of the beam. These gases are ionized by primary, backscattered, and secondary electrons. Ions emitted from this plasma modify the electron trajectories in the diode leading to a radial collapse of the hollow electron beam. The observed monotonic dependence of the collapse velocity on the atomic number of the anode material can be explained by the smooth dependence on Z of both the specific heat and the electron backscatter coefficient. In the case of high-Z anodes the ion expansion time appears to be the factor limiting the collapse velocity. Detailed experimental data are presented
An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soto, L.; Pavez, C.; Moreno, J.; Pavez, C.; Barbaglia, M.; Clausse, A.
2004-01-01
As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra miniature device has been designed and constructed (nano focus NF: 5 nF, 5-10 kV, 5-10 kA, 60-250 mJ, 16 ns time to peak current). Sub-millimetric anode radius covered by a coaxial insulator were used for experiments in hydrogen. Evidence of pinch was observed in electrical signals in discharges operating at 60 mJ. A single-frame image converter camera (4 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The dynamics observed from the photographs is consistent with: a) formation of a plasma sheath close to the insulator surface, b) fast axial motion of the plasma sheath, c) radial compression over the anode, and d) finally the plasma is detached from the anode in the axial direction. The total time since stage a) to d) was observed to be about 30 ns. X ray and neutron emission is being studied. Neutron yield of the order of 10 3 neutrons per shot is expected for discharges operating in deuterium at 10 kA. (authors)
Analysis of pinching in deterministic particle separation
Risbud, Sumedh; Luo, Mingxiang; Frechette, Joelle; Drazer, German
2011-11-01
We investigate the problem of spherical particles vertically settling parallel to Y-axis (under gravity), through a pinching gap created by an obstacle (spherical or cylindrical, center at the origin) and a wall (normal to X axis), to uncover the physics governing microfluidic separation techniques such as deterministic lateral displacement and pinched flow fractionation: (1) theoretically, by linearly superimposing the resistances offered by the wall and the obstacle separately, (2) computationally, using the lattice Boltzmann method for particulate systems and (3) experimentally, by conducting macroscopic experiments. Both, theory and simulations, show that for a given initial separation between the particle centre and the Y-axis, presence of a wall pushes the particles closer to the obstacle, than its absence. Experimentally, this is expected to result in an early onset of the short-range repulsive forces caused by solid-solid contact. We indeed observe such an early onset, which we quantify by measuring the asymmetry in the trajectories of the spherical particles around the obstacle. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant Nos. CBET- 0731032, CMMI-0748094, and CBET-0954840.
Nonlinear evolution of magnetic islands in a two fluid torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugiyama, L.E.; Park, W.
1996-01-01
A numerical model MH3D-T for the two fluid description of macroscopic evolution in a full three dimensional torus has been developed. Based on the perturbative drift ordering, generalized to arbitrary perturbation size, the model follows the full temperature evolution, including the thermal equilibration along the magnetic field. It contains the diamagnetic drifts, ion gyroviscous stress tensor, and the Hall term in Ohm's law. Electron inertia is neglected. The numerical model solves the same equations in a torus and in several simplified configurations. It has been benchmarked against the diamagnetic ω* i stabilization of the resistive m = 1, n = 1 reconnecting mode in a cylinder. The nonlinear evolution of resistive magnetic islands with m,n ≠ 1,1 in a cylinder is found to agree with previous analytic and reduced-torus results, which show that the diamagnetic rotation vanishes early in the island evolution and the saturated island size is determined by the same external driving factor Δ' as in MHD. The two fluid evolution in a full torus, however, differs from that in a cylinder and from the resistive MHD evolution. The poloidal rotation velocity undergoes a degree of poloidal momentum damping in the torus, even without neoclassical effects. The two fluid magnetic island grows faster, nonlinearly, than the resistive MHD island, and also couples different toroidal harmonics more effectively. Plasma compressibility and processes operating along the magnetic field play a much more important role than in MHD or in simple geometry. The two fluid model contains all the important neoclassical fluid effects except for the b circ ∇ circ Π parallelj viscous force terms. The addition of these terms is in progress
Progress on z-pinch inertial fusion energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, C.; Rochau, G.; Matzen, M.K.
2005-01-01
The goal of z-pinch inertial fusion energy (IFE) is to extend the single-shot z-pinch inertial confinement fusion (ICF) results on Z to a repetitive-shot z-pinch power plant concept for the economical production of electricity. Z produces up to 1.8 MJ of x-rays at powers as high as 230 TW. Recent target experiments on Z have demonstrated capsule implosion convergence ratios of 14-21 with a double-pinch driven target, and DD neutron yields up to 8x10exp10 with a dynamic hohlraum target. For z-pinch IFE, a power plant concept is discussed that uses high-yield IFE targets (3 GJ) with a low rep-rate per chamber (0.1 Hz). The concept includes a repetitive driver at 0.1 Hz, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the driver to the target, high-yield targets, and a thick-liquid wall chamber. Recent funding by a U.S. Congressional initiative for $4M for FY04 is supporting research on RTLs, repetitive pulsed power drivers, shock mitigation, full RTL cycle planned experiments, high-yield IFE targets, and z-pinch power plant technologies. Recent results of research in all of these areas are discussed, and a Road Map for Z-Pinch IFE is presented. (author)
Direction of Impurity Pinch and Auxiliary Heating in Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angioni, C.; Peeters, A.G.
2006-01-01
A mechanism of particle pinch for trace impurities in tokamak plasmas, arising from the effect of parallel velocity fluctuations in the presence of a turbulent electrostatic potential, is identified analytically by means of a reduced fluid model and verified numerically with a gyrokinetic code for the first time. The direction of such a pinch reverses as a function of the direction of rotation of the turbulence in agreement with the impurity pinch reversal observed in some experiments when moving from dominant auxiliary ion heating to dominant auxiliary electron heating
Pinching parameters for open (super) strings
Playle, Sam; Sciuto, Stefano
2018-02-01
We present an approach to the parametrization of (super) Schottky space obtained by sewing together three-punctured discs with strips. Different cubic ribbon graphs classify distinct sets of pinching parameters; we show how they are mapped onto each other. The parametrization is particularly well-suited to describing the region within (super) moduli space where open bosonic or Neveu-Schwarz string propagators become very long and thin, which dominates the IR behaviour of string theories. We show how worldsheet objects such as the Green's function converge to graph theoretic objects such as the Symanzik polynomials in the α ' → 0 limit, allowing us to see how string theory reproduces the sum over Feynman graphs. The (super) string measure takes on a simple and elegant form when expressed in terms of these parameters.
Energy required to pinch a DNA plectoneme
Barde, Céline; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel
2018-03-01
DNA supercoiling plays an important role from a biological point of view. One of its consequences at the supramolecular level is the formation of DNA superhelices named plectonemes. Normally separated by a distance on the order of 10 nm, the two opposite double strands of a DNA plectoneme must be brought closer if a protein or protein complex implicated in genetic regulation is to be bound simultaneously to both strands, as if the plectoneme was locally pinched. We propose an analytic calculation of the energetic barrier, of elastic nature, required to bring closer the two loci situated on the opposed double strands. We examine how this energy barrier scales with the DNA supercoiling. For physically relevant values of elastic parameters and of supercoiling density, we show that the energy barrier is in the kBT range under physiological conditions, thus demonstrating that the limiting step to loci encounter is more likely the preceding plectoneme slithering bringing the two loci side by side.
New bifocal pinch experiment SPEED 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raacke, J.; Berntien, U.; Decker, G.; Kies, W.; Roewekamp, P.
1996-01-01
The SPEED 3 compact plasma focus device will be used as a soft x-ray source for various practical applications. It exploits a bifocal configuration with a plane insulator, very short accelerator and a hollow inner electrode. The discharge is driven by eight parallel two-stage Marx modules, capable of delivering up to 1.25 MA of current with the rise time of 0.3 s. The key parts of the device, the plasma diagnostic systems used, and the processes in the discharge are described in the paper. Framing camera pictures of a typical discharge are shown for illustration. The results of preliminary experiments are discussed, dealing almost exclusively with the discharge inaction, sheath and pinch formation. (J.U.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 2 refs
New bifocal pinch experiment SPEED 3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raacke, J; Berntien, U; Decker, G; Kies, W; Roewekamp, P [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik
1997-12-31
The SPEED 3 compact plasma focus device will be used as a soft x-ray source for various practical applications. It exploits a bifocal configuration with a plane insulator, very short accelerator and a hollow inner electrode. The discharge is driven by eight parallel two-stage Marx modules, capable of delivering up to 1.25 MA of current with the rise time of 0.3 s. The key parts of the device, the plasma diagnostic systems used, and the processes in the discharge are described in the paper. Framing camera pictures of a typical discharge are shown for illustration. The results of preliminary experiments are discussed, dealing almost exclusively with the discharge inaction, sheath and pinch formation. (J.U.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 2 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slutz, Stephen A.; Olson, Craig L.; Rochau, Gary E.; Dezon, Mark S.; Peterson, P.F.; Degroot, J.S.; Jensen, N.; Miller, G.
2000-01-01
The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the most powerful multi-module synchronized pulsed-power accelerator in the world. Rapid development of z-pinch loads on Z has led to outstanding progress in the last few years, resulting in radiative powers of up to 280 TW in 4 ns and a total radiated x-ray energy of 1.8 MJ. The present goal is to demonstrate single-shot, high-yield fusion capsules. Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology, which should be well suited for Inertial Fusion Energy, but a rep-rated capability is needed. Recent developments have led to a viable conceptual approach for a rep-rated z-pinch power plant for IFE. This concept exploits the advantages of going to high yield (a few GJ) at low rep-rate (approximately 0.1 Hz), and using a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to provide the necessary standoff between the fusion target and the power plant chamber. In this approach, a portion of the transmission line near the capsule is replaced after each shot. The RTL should be constructed of materials that can easily be separated from the liquid coolant stream and refabricated for a subsequent shots. One possibility is that most of the RTL is formed by casting FLiBe, a salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium, which is an attractive choice for the reactor coolant, with chemically compatible lead or tin on the surface to provide conductivity. The authors estimate that fusion yields greater than 1 GJ will be required for efficient generation of electricity. Calculations indicate that the first wall will have an acceptable lifetime with these high yields if blast mitigation techniques are used. Furthermore, yields above 5 GJ may allow the use of a compact blanket direct conversion scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaber, W.H.; Beshara, A.B.; El-Bialy, A.B.; Masoud, M.M. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Dept., N.R.C., Atomic Energy Authority, Enshass (Egypt)
2004-07-01
A ramp Z-pinch discharge is designed and built in order to increase the pinch ratio and obtain a maximum contraction, and to increase the temperature. The discharge chamber is a cylindrical Pyrex tube of 25 cm long, 18.5 cm, 20 cm inner and outer diameter and two circular Aluminum plates of radius 15 cm separated by 21 cm are inserted into the tube. The tube is filled with He gas at 0.1 mbar. Two capacitor banks are used, the first bank 30 {mu}F and the second fast bank 1.3 {mu}F. The charging voltage was 8 kV for both banks. The discharge current and voltage of each bank are measured by potential divider and Rogowski coil respectively. Also the plasma inductance and resistance are obtained for each case. The plasma inductance has its peak value 300 nH at 4 {mu}s, while the plasma resistance has it minimum 8 m{omega} at the same time in the case of conventional discharge (single bank). In the case of ramp discharge, the inductance has two peaks 440 nH, 380 nH at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively, while the resistance has two minimum 4 m{omega}, 20 m{omega} at at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively. The temperature has been measure spectroscopically by using relative continuum intensity ratio method. The temperature has its peak value 38 eV at 4 {mu}s for single bank case, while it larger peak value 55 eV for ramp case. (orig.)
Nonlinear stage of a Z-pinch instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garanin, S.F.; Chernyshev, Y.D.
1987-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability is analyzed for a Z-pinch with a fully developed skin effect in the current. Two-dimensional numerical calculations carried out on the sausage instability show that its occurrence leads to a stage describable by a self-similar solution when the length of the neck is fixed and the plasma compression is isentropic. At a perturbation wavelength small in comparison with the pinch radius, this stage is preceded by a stage which reduces to a nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The dynamics of the motion of magnetic field ''bubbles'' and of plasma ''jets'' is analyzed in this case. The plasma jets emerging from the pinch do not block the pinch from the current source
Exploration of spherical torus physics in the NSTX device
Ono, M.; Kaye, S. M.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Barnes, G.; Blanchard, W.; Carter, M. D.; Chrzanowski, J.; Dudek, L.; Ewig, R.; Gates, D.; Hatcher, R. E.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S. C.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kalish, M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; McCormack, B.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Nelson, B. E.; Neumeyer, C.; Oliaro, G.; Paoletti, F.; Parsells, R.; Perry, E.; Pomphrey, N.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E. J.; Viola, M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; NSTX Team
2000-03-01
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is being built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to test the fusion physics principles for the spherical torus concept at the MA level. The NSTX nominal plasma parameters are R0 = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, R/a >= 1.26, Bt = 3 kG, Ip = 1 MA, q95 = 14, elongation κ The plasma heating/current drive tools are high harmonic fast wave (6 MW, 5 s), neutral beam injection (5 MW, 80 keV, 5 s) and coaxial helicity injection. Theoretical calculations predict that NSTX should provide exciting possibilities for exploring a number of important new physics regimes, including very high plasma β, naturally high plasma elongation, high bootstrap current fraction, absolute magnetic well and high pressure driven sheared flow. In addition, the NSTX programme plans to explore fully non-inductive plasma startup as well as a dispersive scrape-off layer for heat and particle flux handling.
Short interval expansion of Rényi entropy on torus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, Jun-Bao [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jia-ju [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China)
2016-08-23
We investigate the short interval expansion of the Rényi entropy for two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) on a torus. We require the length of the interval ℓ to be small with respect to the spatial and temporal sizes of the torus. The operator product expansion of the twist operators allows us to compute the short interval expansion of the Rényi entropy at any temperature. In particular, we pay special attention to the large c CFTs dual to the AdS{sub 3} gravity and its cousins. At both low and high temperature limits, we read the Rényi entropies to order ℓ{sup 6}, and find good agreements with holographic results. Moreover, the expansion allows us to read 1/c contribution, which is hard to get by expanding the thermal density matrix. We generalize the study to the case with the chemical potential as well.
Five-dimensional gauge theory and compactification on a torus
Haghighat, Babak; Vandoren, Stefan
2011-09-01
We study five-dimensional minimally supersymmetric gauge theory compactified on a torus down to three dimensions, and its embedding into string/M-theory using geometric engineering. The moduli space on the Coulomb branch is hyperkähler equipped with a metric with modular transformation properties. We determine the one-loop corrections to the metric and show that they can be interpreted as worldsheet and D1-brane instantons in type IIB string theory. Furthermore, we analyze instanton corrections coming from the solitonic BPS magnetic string wrapped over the torus. In particular, we show how to compute the path-integral for the zero-modes from the partition function of the M5 brane, or, using a 2d/4d correspondence, from the partition function of N=4 SYM theory on a Hirzebruch surface.
Recent results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maingi, R; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Bialek, J; Bourdelle, C; Bush, C E; Darrow, D S; Fredrickson, E D; Gates, D A; Gilmore, M; Gray, T; Jarboe, T R; Johnson, D W; Kaita, R; Kaye, S M; Kubota, S; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Maqueda, R J; Mastrovito, D; Medley, S S; Menard, J E; Mueller, D; Nelson, B A; Ono, M; Paoletti, F; Park, H K; Paul, S F; Peebles, T; Peng, Y-K M; Phillips, C K; Raman, R; Rosenberg, A L; Roquemore, A L; Ryan, P M; Sabbagh, S A; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V A; Stutman, D; Swain, D W; Synakowski, E J; Taylor, G; Wilgen, J; Wilson, J R; Wurden, G A; Zweben, S J
2003-01-01
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect-ratio fusion research facility whose research goal is to make a determination of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept in the areas of high-β stability, confinement, current drive, and divertor physics. Remarkable progress was made in extending the operational regime of the device in FY 2002. In brief, β t of 34% and β N of 6.5 were achieved. H-mode became the main operational regime, and energy confinement exceeded conventional aspect-ratio tokamak scalings. Heating was demonstrated with the radiofrequency antenna, and signatures of current drive were observed. Current initiation with coaxial helicity injection produced discharges of 400 kA, and first measurements of divertor heat flux profiles in H-mode were made
Determining the resistance of X-pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Shen; Zhu Xin-Lei; Zhang Ran; Luo Hai-Yun; Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Xue Chuang; Ning Cheng; Ding Ning; Shu Xiao-Jian
2013-01-01
The current and the voltage of an X-pinch were measured. The inductance of the X-pinch was assumed to be a constant and estimated by the calculation of the magnetic field based on the well-known Biot—Savart's Law. The voltage of the inductance was calculated with L · di/dt and subtracted from the measured voltage of the X-pinch. Then, the resistance of the X-pinch was determined and the following results were obtained. At the start of the current flow the resistance of the exploding wires is several tens of Ohms, one order of magnitude, higher than the metallic resistance of the wires at room temperature, and then it falls quickly to about 1 Ω, which reflects the physical processes occurring in the electrically exploding wires, i.e., a current transition from the highly resistive wire core to the highly conductive plasma. It was shown that the inductive contribution to the voltage of the X-pinch is less than the resistive contribution. For the wires we used, the wires' material and diameter have no strong influence on the resistance of the X-pinch, which may be explained by the fact that the current flows through the plasma rather than through the metallic wire itself. As a result, the current is almost equally divided between two parallel X-pinches even though the diameter and material of the wires used for these two X-pinches are significantly different. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Impact of PINCH expression on survival in colorectal cancer patients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lööf, Jasmine; Rosell, Johan; Bratthäll, Charlotte; Doré, Siv; Starkhammar, Hans; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Feng
2011-01-01
The adaptor protein PINCH is overexpressed in the stroma of several types of cancer, and is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. In this study we further investigate the relationship of PINCH and survival regarding the response to chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 251 primary adenocarcinomas, 149 samples of adjacent normal mucosa, 57 samples of distant normal mucosa and 75 lymph node metastases were used for immunohistochemical staining. Stromal staining for PINCH increased from normal mucosa to primary tumour to metastasis. Strong staining in adjacent normal mucosa was related to worse survival independently of sex, age, tumour location, differentiation and stage (p = 0.044, HR, 1.60, 95% CI, 1.01-2.52). PINCH staining at the invasive margin tended to be related to survival (p = 0.051). In poorly differentiated tumours PINCH staining at the invasive margin was related to survival independently of sex, age and stage (p = 0.013, HR, 1.90, 95% CI, 1.14-3.16), while in better differentiated tumours it was not. In patients with weak staining, adjuvant chemotherapy was related to survival (p = 0.010, 0.013 and 0.013 in entire tumour area, invasive margin and inner tumour area, respectively), but not in patients with strong staining. However, in the multivariate analysis no such relationship was seen. PINCH staining in normal adjacent mucosa was related to survival. Further, PINCH staining at the tumour invasive margin was related to survival in poorly differentiated tumours but not in better differentiated tumours, indicating that the impact of PINCH on prognosis was dependent on differentiation status
Experimental study of the neck formation in an X pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artyomov, A P; Chaikovsky, S A; Fedunin, A V; Labetskaya, N A; Rousskikh, A G; Zhigalin, A S; Oreshkin, V I
2014-01-01
X-pinch experiments have been performed on a compact 250 kA, 180 ns pulsed power generator specially designed for this purpose at the Institute of High Current Electronics (Tomsk, Russia). The X pinches were composed of two molybdenum wires of diameter 25 μm making an angle of 36° with the z-axis. The X-pinch dynamics was recorded with a 3 ns exposure time using an HSFC Pro four-frame camera. Axial plasma jets propagating toward both the anode and the cathode were observed. The jets became noticeable within 10 ns after the onset of current flow, which approximately corresponded to the time at which the electrical explosion of the X-pinch wires occurred. The velocity of the anode-directed jet reached 10 7 cm/s, which was about 1.5 times the velocity of the cathode-directed jet. These high jet velocities are inconsistent with the plasma temperature resulting from the wire explosion. Hence, these jets seem to develop due to implosion of the light plasma layer stripped by magnetic forces from the wire surface, and the increase in their velocities is perhaps due to cumulative effects taking place at the X-pinch axis. The X-pinch neck formed as a rule above the initial wire cross point (closer to the anode). In this region, the plasma diameter gradually increased with time and then drastically decreased 10-15 ns prior to the x-ray pulse. Immediately before the x-ray pulse, in the (250-300 μm long) plasma neck, a lower scale constriction developed, forming a h ot spot . It has been confirmed that the anode-directed plasma jet could take some part of the X-pinch wire current because of the evident jet pinching in the anode region. This process seems to determine the neck length
Pinch grafting for chronic venous leg ulcers in general practice
Steele, Keith
1985-01-01
Twenty-five patients with chronic venous leg ulcers were treated in general practice by pinch grafting. Fifteen of the ulcers (60%) were completely healed one year after grafting. Prior to grafting 19 patients (76%) complained of daily pain in the ulcer. These patients experienced complete relief from pain after grafting. Pinch grafting is a simple, safe and effective therapy when applied in a domiciliary environment.