WorldWideScience

Sample records for torula

  1. Economic feasibility of invesment alternatives for reducing torula yeast' production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Fernández, Alfredo; Díaz de los Ríos, Manuel; Saura Laria, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The prices of ammonium salts which are used in the torula yeast production technology are very high nowadays. In the other hand, this technology has very high energy costs which are consumed by blowers in fermentation, separators machines and in the concentration and drying of yeast. In this paper, different technical alternatives are analyzed for reducing the production cost of torula yeast, through changes in production inputs, electric motors and the replacement of a portion of the fuel used for drying by biogas. Then, the economic feasibility in both currencies is evaluated for practical application. (author)

  2. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF INVESMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING TORULA YEAST' PRODUCTION COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Torres Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prices of ammonium salts which are used in the torula yeast production technology are very high nowadays. In the other hand, this technology has very high energy costs which are consumed by blowers in fermentation, separators machines and in the concentration and drying of yeast. In this paper, different technical alternatives are analyzed for reducing the production cost of torula yeast, through changes in production inputs, electric motors and the replacement of a portion of the fuel used for drying by biogas. Then, the economic feasibility in both currencies is evaluated for practical application.

  3. Acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses. An effective factor of some symbiotic organisms against an abnormal fermentation. [Torula utilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shige, A; Kinoshita, S; Okumura, T

    1954-01-01

    There were three types of industrial acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses; one of them, called B type, was characterized by the extremely prolonged acidity peak, and sluggishness experiments were carried out to find some symbiotic organisms among various aerobic bacteria and yeasts for several strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Torula utilis showed an outstanding effectiveness for a rapid completion of the fermentation, and the yields of solvents was much increased. Culture filtrate of T. utilis contained a soluble and invertase activity. A close relation was found between high yields of solvents and the degree of inversion of molasses medium. Thus, the effective factor against sluggishness was ascribed to the invertase activity of the yeast. Some inhibiting factors to invertase of C. acetobutylicum were presumed to be present in molasses as the principal cause of the sluggishness.

  4. Selenium bioavailability from soy protein isolate and tofu in rats fed a torula yeast-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Graef, George L; Reeves, Philip G; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2009-12-23

    Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient, and soy is a major plant source of dietary protein to humans. The United States produces one-third of the world's soybeans, and the Se-rich Northern Plains produce a large share of the nation's soybeans. The present study used a rat model to determine the bioavailability of Se from a protein isolate and tofu (bean curd) prepared from a soybean cultivar we recently developed specifically for food grade markets. The soybean seeds contained 2.91 mg Se/kg. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet containing 5 microg Se/kg; after 56 days, they were replenished of Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 microg Se/kg from soy protein isolate or tofu. l-Selenomethionine (SeMet) was used as a reference. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the responses of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se contents, comparing those responses for each soy product to those for SeMet using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and thioredoxin reductase activity in liver, as well as dose-dependent increases in the Se contents of plasma, liver, muscle, and kidneys. These responses indicated an overall bioavailability of approximately 97% for Se from both the protein isolate and tofu, relative to SeMet. These results demonstrate that Se from this soybean cultivar is highly bioavailable in this model and that high-Se soybeans can be good dietary sources of Se.

  5. The Use Of Local Product Yeast For Substitution Torula Yeast In The Formulation Of Artificial Diet Fruit Fly Larvae Bactrocera Carambolae Drew and Hancock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikumbang, I.; Nasution, A.I.; Indarwatmi, M.; Kuswandi, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The use of local product yeast I.e brewer yeast, yeast of tapai (fermented cassava), yeast of tempe (fermented soy beam), and brem(intoxicating beverage made of fermented rice) after cooked and uncooked were used to substitute torula yeast to reduce cost production for mass-rearing of fruit fly had been carried out. Artificial diet formulation consisted of torula yeast, wheat bran, nipagin, sodium benzoate, cane sugar, water and HCI ti make pH of 4. One kilogram of diet was inoculated with 1 ml of fruit fly eggs. Parameters of the experiment were, the number of pupae, weight of pupae, percentage of pupae and the percentage of viable fly. The results showed that the number of pupae were 6356 for brewers yeast with cooked and 0.942 gram/100 pupae for brem. Percentage viable emergence fly were 70%, 18.25% and 15.25% for brewers yeast with cooked and uncooked respectively. Cost production for 1.000.000 using cooked brewer yeast was reduced about Rp.179,200 or cost efficiency were 55.56%

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETANOL AND TORULA YEAST IN AN AGROINDUSTRIAL FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz de los Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The links between the ethanol and fodder yeast productions belonging to an agro-industrial complex, concerning the use of the carbon sources supplied by sugar cane juice for both productions, are analyzed through mathematical modeling and simulation in this work. The relations of these carbon sources with some operation parameters of the distillery and their influences on the production of fodder yeast are also considered. In order to conduct this research, a simulation model in Microsoft Excel has been elaborated in which, using mass balances, the COD of vinasse and its incidence in the production of fodder yeast are estimated. This work shows the convenience of the use of indirect heating in the ethanol distillation column as an alternative for the increase of the carbon concentration in the vinasse meant to yeast production. It also analyzes the effect of both, the efficiency of the alcoholic fermentation and of the alcoholic level of the wine on the COD of vinasse; and it shows the convenience of working with a high alcoholic level to benefit both productions. The methodology used allows to predict the environmental response of this type of productions.

  7. Utilization of spent sulfite liquor carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, A J; Whitmore, L M; Boggs, Jr, L A

    1959-01-01

    Possible utilization of the sugars in spent sulfite liquor in the manufacture of ethanol, torula food yeast, and other fermentation products, and in the production of sugar derivatives, such as the diacetone derivatives, is discussed.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12453-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( DQ472721 |pid:none) Hydnopolyporus fimbriatus isolate ... 83 1e-14 DQ234555_1( DQ234555 |pid:none) Rhodo...torula hordea isolate AFTOL-I... 83 1e-14 DQ472726_1( DQ472726 |pid:none) Camarophy

  9. Fungi associated with base rot disease of aloe vera ( Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi associated with base rot disease of Aloe vera (syn. Aloe barbadensis) were investigated in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Fungi and their percentage frequency were Aspergillus verocosa 28.03%, Fusarium oxysporium 24.24%, Plectosphaerella cucumerina 16.67%, Mammeria ehinobotryoides 15.91% and Torula ...

  10. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  11. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meilyn González Cortés; Yenisleidy Martínez Martínez; Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Raúl A. Pérez Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from...

  12. Human urine and chicken feces as fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attractants for resource-poor fruit growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime; Aluja, Martín; Vázquez, Alejandro; Equihua, Miguel; Varón, Jorge

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated human urine and chicken feces, two naturally occurring, inexpensive, and readily available substances, as baits for the capture of Anostrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) by using glass McPhail traps. Two studies were performed simultaneously in a commercial mango orchard in Veracruz, México. In the first study, we compared a 50% water dilution of human urine against hydrolyzed protein, both compounds at the fresh and 5-d-old stages, and water alone (control treatment). In the second study, we tested fresh chicken feces mixed with water, a torula yeast/borax solution at three different ages (1-4, 5-9, and 10-15 d), and water (control treatment). Both human urine and chicken feces were attractive to Anastrepha adults compared with water alone, but attracted two and three times fewer adults than hydrolyzed protein and torula yeast/borax, respectively. However, unlike torula yeast/borax, aging of human urine did not decrease its attractiveness. Five-day old human urine attracted numerically more A. serpentina females than males, similar numbers of A. obliqua males and females, and significantly more sexually immature A. obliqua females than mature ones. Chicken feces proved to be as attractive as the aged torula yeast/borax treatments for A. obliqua and A. serpentina. We argue that because both human urine and chicken feces are cost-free and can be easily obtained, they are viable, low-technology alternatives to costly commercial attractants, particularly for low-income growers or backyard farmers in Mexico and other Latin American countries.

  13. Application of the radionuclide /sup 32/P for determining the requirement of phosphorus by yeasts cultivated on potato mashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szebiotko, K; Fiszer, W; Piasecki, M; Luczynski, A [Wyzsza Szkola Rolnicza, Poznan (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The phosphorus uptake by the yeasts Torulopsis utilis and Torula cremoris, cultivated on sweet potato mash with the density of 4,8 and 16/sup 0/Blg, were investigated to establish an optimal phosphorus dose for protein biosynthesis on this substrate. For determining the phosphorus uptake, /sup 32/P labelled KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ was used. Bulk protein content was determined, to determine the correlation between the phosphorus uptake by yeasts and protein synthesis on the one hand and the use of sugars on the other.

  14. Application of the radionuclide 32P for determining the requirement of phosphorus by yeasts cultivated on potato mashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebiotko, K.; Fiszer, W.; Piasecki, M.; Luczynski, A.

    1975-01-01

    The phosphorus uptake by the yeasts Torulopsis utilis and Torula cremoris, cultivated on sweet potato mash with the density of 4,8 and 16 0 Blg, were investigated to establish an optimal phosphorus dose for protein biosynthesis on this substrate. For determining the phosphorus uptake, 32 P labelled KH 2 PO 4 was used. Bulk protein content was determined, to determine the correlation between the phosphorus uptake by yeasts and protein synthesis on the one hand and the use of sugars on the other

  15. Comparative analysis of the concentration of fungal spores in the air of Lublin and Rzeszów (Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the concentration of fungal spores were carried out in the cities of Lublin and Rzeszów simultaneously in 2002. At both sites the volumetric method of measurement was applied, using the Lanzoni VPPS 2000 trap. Only the allergenic taxa were analysed: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Drechslera type, Epicoccum, Torula, Stemphylium, Pithomyces, Polythrincium, and Ganoderma. The research showed considerable differences in the concentration and frequency of spores in the air at the sites compared. Higher mean concentrations of spores were usually observed in Lublin. Only for two taxa were the concentrations higher in Rzeszów. No significant differences were observed for the genus of Polythrincium and Torula. Also the lengths of periods of occurrence of the spores were determined using the 95% method. It was determined that the geobotanical conditions in Rzeszów have a positive effect on the lengthening of the presence of the spores in aeroplankton. The results of the observations were analysed statistically, which confirmed the occurrence of significant differences between the cities compared.

  16. Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B; Batal, A B

    2012-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on broiler performance, and physical and morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Experiment 1: A total of 180 one-d-old male chicks were placed in battery brooders in 3 × 6 replicate pens containing 10 chicks each. Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments; a maize-soyabean meal based diet supplemented with 0, 0·25, and 0·50% Torula yeast RNA (as a source of nucleotides) from 0 to 16 d of age. 3. Experiment 2: A total of 1344 one-d-old male chicks were placed in floor pens and reared on recycled wood shavings (two flocks) under a high stocking density (0·068 m(2)/bird). Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 0·25% Torula yeast RNA, 2% and 6% Nupro®) for the starter period (0 to 14 d of age) with 6 replicate pens containing 56 chicks each. All the birds were fed on the same common grower diet with no supplementation of nucleotides from 15 to 32 d of age. 4. Experiment 1: Supplementing the diets with up to 0·50% Torula yeast RNA did not affect broiler performance, or relative intestinal tract weight and length of broilers at any periods measured. 5. Experiment 2: From 0 to 14 d of age, broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 0·25% Torula yeast RNA and 2 and 6% Nupro® were significantly heavier and had improved feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios as compared with the birds fed on the control diet. Supplementing the starter diet only with 2% Nupro® supplementation significantly improved body weight (BW) gain as compared with the control diet over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age). Broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 2 and 6% Nupro® from 0 to 14 d of age had better feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age) as compared with the birds fed on the control diet, even though the birds were only fed on the diets

  17. Validación del uso de la levadura (Candida utilis NRRL Y-600), en la fabricación de los sustitutos lecheros

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Amarilys Guevara-Rodríguez; Víctor Rodríguez-Domínguez; Anais Rodríguez-Medina; Laura Rodríguez-Acosta

    2012-01-01

    En Cuba, en la cría artificial de terneros, se utilizan reemplazantes lácteos de importación y el de producción nacional. Se tiene como objetivo evaluar la Levadura Torula de vinaza (Candida utilis NRRL Y-660) como componente proteico en el sustituto lácteo "Los Naranjos" que se suministra a partir de los 31días y hasta los 90 días de nacidos a los terneros. La muestra abarcó un total de 30 terneras de líneas de leche (Holstein puro y mestizo), distribuidas al azar en un diseño aleatorio en 3...

  18. Acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses. An effective factor of some symbiotic organisms against an abnormal fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, A; Kinoshita, S; Okumura, T

    1954-01-01

    There were three types of abnormal fermentation in the industrial acetone-butanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses; one of them called B type, was characterized by the extremely prolonged acidity peak, and sluggishness experiments were carried out to find some symbiotic organisms among various aerobic bacteria and yeasts for several strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Torula utilis showed an outstanding effectiveness for a rapid completion of the fermentation, and the yields of solvents was much increased. Culture filtrate of T. utilis contained a soluble and thermolabile effective factor, and showed high invertase activity. A close relation was found between high yields of solvents and the degree of inversion of molasses medium. Thus, the effective factor against sluggishness was ascribed to the invertase activity of the yeast. Some inhibiting factors to invertase of C. acetobutylicum were presumed to be present in molasses as the principal cause of the sluggishness.

  19. Degradation of natural cellulose by thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, A P; Johri, B N

    1981-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus Friesen, Sporotrichum sp., Thermoascus aurantiacus Miche and Torula thermophila Cooney and Emerson were able to degrade filter paper to an appreciable extent. Absidia corymbifera (Cohn) Saccardo et Trotter, Rhizopus microsporus van Tieghem and R. rhizopodiformis (Cohn) Zopf could not degrade filter paper though they were able to grow on the media supplied. The fungi able to degrade filter paper were also capable of elaborating extracellular cellulase and produced sufficient hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose. The Cx enzyme was stable at 45 degrees C for 25 days. An incubation period of 15 to 25 days was sufficient not only to degrade CMC but even more complex substrates, such as jute, cotton and filter paper. The cellulases of these fungi were inductive in nature. (Refs. 11).

  20. Rearing larvae of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus Dorsalis Hendel on media containing banana or rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poramarcom, R.; Mitchell, S.

    1983-12-01

    Materials available in Thailand were substituted for some of those in the standard medium currently used in rearing larvae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel at the Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of this study is to decrease rearing costs through medium modification in Thailand. Larvae were reared in different media: three media containing banana and the other three containing rice bran, as the main ingredient. Wheat germ flakes and torula yeast were added to at: (1) 7.2 and 3.6% (2) 7.2 and 7.2% and (3) 10.8 and 7.2% by weight respectively. The standard medium comprised the seventh medium. The results showed that higher mean pupal recovery, higher mean pupal weight, and higher mean percentage of adult eclosion were obtained from media containing banana compared to media without banana. Media containing banana, (3) and (1), resulted in a significantly (P=0.05) higher mean pupal recovery, 57.49 and 56.88% respectively. Media containing banana, (2) and (3), resulted in the highest mean pupal weight, 12 and 11.68 mg. respectively. Media containing banana produced pupae with highest percentage of adult eclosion. No significant difference was observed in fecundity and fertility of flies reared in all media. Torula yeast and/or wheat germ flakes did not increase the number or weight of pupae. This study showed that media containing banana was the most suitable media for rearing D. dorsalis larvae. All three media containing rice bran were unsuitable for rearing this insect

  1. Evaluation of Food Lures for Capture and Monitoring of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Temperate Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, J M da; Arioli, C J; Santos, J P Dos; Menezes-Netto, A C; Botton, M

    2017-06-01

    The Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the main pest of fruit trees grown in temperate climates in the southern region of Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the major commercial food lures used in Brazil for trapping and monitoring of A. fraterculus in plum, pear, and feijoa orchards. The assessed lures were hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin (CeraTrap) and plant origin (BioAnastrepha), torula yeast + borax (Torula), and grape juice. Response variables included the rate of adult capture (flies per trap per day, FTD) and the percentage of females captured. We also evaluated the number of times the weekly capture rate exceeded the traditional threshold of 0.5 FTD for each lure. Traps baited with grape juice, currently used for monitoring A. fraterculus in Southern Brazil, captured fewer adults and a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures. CeraTrap trapped a greater number of A. fraterculus adults and, in some cases, a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures in pears. Traps baited with CeraTrap had greater capture rates (FTD), particularly during the stages of fruit maturation and harvest, and even in years with low population density of A. fraterculus, thus demonstrating greater sensitivity in the detection of this pest. These results show that, in order to detect and monitor the presence of A. fraterculus in plum, feijoa, and pear crops, protein-based lures are superior to grape juice, especially the animal protein CeraTrap. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effective sampling range of food-based attractants for female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2010-04-01

    Release-recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (torula yeast/borax) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava, Psidium guajava L., grove and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h and 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 9-46 m from the release point. In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24-h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (percentage of capture) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which relative trapping efficiency was > or = 25%. This corresponded to the area in which 90% of the recaptures occured. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.

  3. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR Food attractants used in the monitoring of fruit flies in peach trees in lapa, Paraná (PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, o vinagre foi substituído pelo composto protéico hidrolisável da marca Torula®. As substâncias atrativas à base de proteína foram as mais eficientes na captura de Anastrepha spp., e as capturas ocorreram antecipadas em relação ao suco de uva. De acordo com os resultados, recomendam-se atrativos à base de proteína para monitoramento de Anastrepha spp em pessegueiro, na Lapa.Fruit flies of Anastrepha genus are a key pest in peach trees in Paraná. Food attractants were tested to determine their efficiency in monitoring fruit flies captured in McPhail fly traps. The experiment was conducted over a period of three years. In 2002 the following attractors were tested: Maguari® brand grape juice, BioAnastrepha® brand hydrolyzed enzymatic protein and Chemin Agrin® vinegar. Over the next two years, the vinegar was replaced by Torula® hydrolyzed protein compound. Protein-based attractants were the most efficient in trapping Anastrepha spp. and captured flies earlier comparing to grape juice. According to the results, the use of protein-based attractants for monitoring Anastrepha spp in the Lapa peach trees was recommended.

  4. Antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil (EO of Lippia gracilis Schauer over fungi and heliconia endophytic bacteria was evaluated. For the fungi Geotrichum candidum; Trichoderma viride; Torula herbarum; Paecillomyces sp.; Fusicoccum sp.; P. aeruginens; Curvularia lunata; Aspergillus nidulans; A. flavus; and A. niger mycelial discs were inoculated in PDA medium with oil (0; 420; 440; 460; 480 e 500 µL L-1. The inhibition percentage in 420 µL L-1 was 100% for all fungi, except for C. lunata and A. niger, which was 95.58% and 89.40% , respectively. In other experiment, a suspension of the Salmonella choleraceuis-diarizonae, Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus thuringiensis, B. pumilus, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. hormaechei was individually added to the solid NYDA medium dishes. In each dish, wells were drilled in medium and filled with water or EO (420 µL L-1. The diameter of the inhibition halo was assessed. K. pneumoniae was the bacterial species less sensitive and E. hormaechei was the most sensitive.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial (OE de Lippia gracilis Schauer sobre fungos contaminantes de laboratórios de cultura de tecidos vegetais e bactérias endofíticas de helicônias. Discos de micélio dos fungos Geotrichum candidum; Trichoderma viride; Torula herbarum; Paecillomyces sp.; Aspergillus nidulans; Fusicoccum sp.; A. flavus; P. aeruginens; Curvularia lunata e A. niger, foram inoculados em meio BDA com óleo (0; 420; 440; 460; 480 e 500 µL L-1. O percentual de inibição em 420 µL L-1 foi de 100% para todos os fungos exceto paraC. lunata and A. niger, o qual foi de 95.58% and 89.40% respectivamente. Em outro experimento, suspensão das espécies Salmonela choleraceuis-diarizonae, Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus thuringiensis, B. pumilus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. hormaechei, Bacillus pumilus, B. cereus, B. pumilus foi individualmente adicionada ao meio NYDA, que foi vertido em placas de Petri e, ap

  5. Encapsulation of Platelet in Kefiran Polymer and Detection of Bioavailability of Immobilized Platelet in Probiotic Kefiran as A New Drug for Surface Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Jenab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background : Kefir contains lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Acetobacter and Streptococcus and yeasts (Kluyveromyces, Torula, Candida, Saccharomyces .Kefiran is the polysaccharide produced by lactic acid bacteria in kefir.Methods : Kefiran was prepared from milk containing 0.5% fat and 10 grams kefir grains and was separated from kefir by ethanol (0.02 gram following entrapping the platelets to this polymer. Ligand of the platelet-polysaccharide was studied by FTIR.Results : FTIR results showed that the bands of C-O and C-O-C connections were formed and the polysaccharides had been attached to the receptors of the platelet glycoproteins (GP Ib,GPIIb / IIIa. Stability and encapsulation of the platelet and kefiran were assessed by Coulter Counter. Encapsulation of the platelets by polysaccharide at the beginning caused to reduce the number of platelets following by releasing of 50% of the platelets after 3 hours.Conclusion : The platelets were encapsulated in kefiran polymer and detected for bioavailability as new drug for surface bleeding. Also, kefiran has antimicrobial and antifungal properties. On the other hand, the existence of nisin in kefiran could be useful as an antibacterial lantibiotic. 

  6. Diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in nine different deep-sea sediment samples of the South China Sea by culture-dependent methods followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Although 14 out of 27 identified species were reported in a previous study, 13 species were isolated from sediments of deep-sea environments for the first report. Moreover, these ITS sequences of six isolates shared 84-92 % similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, which suggested that they might be novel phylotypes of genera Ajellomyces, Podosordaria, Torula, and Xylaria. The antimicrobial activities of these fungal isolates were explored using a double-layer technique. A relatively high proportion (56 %) of fungal isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among four marine pathogenic microbes (Micrococcus luteus, Pseudoaltermonas piscida, Aspergerillus versicolor, and A. sydowii). Out of these antimicrobial fungi, the genera Arthrinium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities, while genus Aureobasidium displayed only antibacterial activity, and genera Acremonium, Cladosporium, Geomyces, and Phaeosphaeriopsis displayed only antifungal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable deep-sea-derived fungi in the South China Sea. These results suggest that diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea are a potential source for antibiotics' discovery and further increase the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  7. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella P. M. Wanderley Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA at 28º ± 2º C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions.

  8. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [es

  9. Radiation inactivation analysis of enzymes. Effect of free radical scavengers on apparent target sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.C.; Solomonson, L.P.; Barber, M.J.; McCreery, M.J.; Ness, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    In most cases the apparent target size obtained by radiation inactivation analysis corresponds to the subunit size or to the size of a multimeric complex. In this report, we examined whether the larger than expected target sizes of some enzymes could be due to secondary effects of free radicals. To test this proposal we carried out radiation inactivation analysis on Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, Torula yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Chlorella vulgaris nitrate reductase, and chicken liver sulfite oxidase in the presence and absence of free radical scavengers (benzoic acid and mannitol). In the presence of free radical scavengers, inactivation curves are shifted toward higher radiation doses. Plots of scavenger concentration versus enzyme activity showed that the protective effect of benzoic acid reached a maximum at 25 mM then declined. Mannitol alone had little effect, but appeared to broaden the maximum protective range of benzoic acid relative to concentration. The apparent target size of the polymerase activity of DNA polymerase I in the presence of free radical scavengers was about 40% of that observed in the absence of these agents. This is considerably less than the minimum polypeptide size and may reflect the actual size of the polymerase functional domain. Similar effects, but of lesser magnitude, were observed for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase, and sulfite oxidase. These results suggest that secondary damage due to free radicals generated in the local environment as a result of ionizing radiation can influence the apparent target size obtained by this method

  10. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P. M.; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28o ± 2o C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions. PMID:24031941

  11. Production of urinary selenium metabolites in the rat following 75SeO32- administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiker, K.W.; Burk, R.F.

    1974-01-01

    Urinary metabolites of 75 Se were studied in male Holtzmann rats fed a Torula yeast diet with either no selenium (basal) or 0.5 ppM selenium (selenium) added as sodium selenite. The animals were anesthetized, a ureter was cannulated, and 20 μCi of 75 SeO 3 2- were injected intraportally. Only a small fraction (1.3 percent) of the injected 75 Se was excreted in 6 h by animals fed the basal diet but 13.3 percent was excreted by animals fed the selenium diet. Paper chromatography showed that both groups excreted mostly inorganic 75 Se in the first 10 min. A decrease in 75 Se excretion followed, and then, 70 min after the collection was started, the selenium diet group had an increase in 75 Se excretion which persisted for the rest of the 6 h and consisted mainly of the organic metabolites trimethylselenonium ion and U-2. 75 Se excretion remained low in the basal diet group. Liver uptake and release of 75 Se in the 1 h following intraperitoneal 75 SeO 3 2- injection was much greater in the selenium diet rats than in the basal diet rats. These results suggest that the greater excretion of 75 Se by rats fed the selenium diet than that by rats fed the basal diet was due to increased production of organic urinary selenium metabolites by the liver. (U.S.)

  12. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P M; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-07-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28(o) ± 2(o) C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions.

  13. Isolation, Identification and Seasonal Distribution of Soilborne Fungi in Different Areas of Erbil Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid M. Toma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey study was undertaken for the isolation and identification of soilborne fungi inhabiting different areas in Erbil, Iraq. A total of 15 soil samples collected seasonally during August 2008-July 2009. Fungi were isolated from soil during this study's period, by soil dilution plate method on selective medium: Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, eighty-one different genera of fungi were isolated during the four seasons; (30, 33, 70, and 53 genera isolated in (summer, autumn, winter and spring respectively, the most frequently isolated fungi during four seasons were Aspergillus sp. (539x103 colony forming units /g.soil, followed by Penicillium sp. (215x103 cfu/g.soil, Rhizopus spp. (115x103 cfu/g.soil, Emericella spp. (109x103 cfu/g.soil, Fusarium spp. (47x103 cfu/g.soil, and Ulocladium botrytis (47x103 cfu/g.soil, while the least frequently isolated fungal genera were Blakeslea tuningtam, Clasterosporium cyperi, Idriella sp., Naranus cryptomeriae and Torula alternata, (1x103 cfu/g.soil, for each one. Fungi isolated from soil by washing method counted for ninety three species belonging to fifty six genera, among them: Aspergillus sp., Circinella sp., Cunninghamella sp., Mucor spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus sp.

  14. Cave Entrance dependent Spore Dispersion of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Various Sediments of Iron Ore Cave in Brazil: a colloquy on human threats while caving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of fungi. The fungal community present in a cave also includes pathogenic and opportunistic species out of which some are also served as energy sources in such energy stared ecosystems. Studies on microbial diversity and their role on such energy starved ecosystem are scarce. The present study was aimed to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi present in the various sediment of an iron ore cave and to recognize them as pathogenic and/or opportunistic species. Further the impact of cave entrance on the spore depositions on various distances dependent sediments were analyzed. The results suggest a diverse microbial community inhabiting the cave and an influence of cave entrance over spore deposition on various sediments. We counted a total of 4,549 filamentous fungi that included 34 species of 12 genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Penicillium, Torula, Trichoderma, Mucor and Rhizopus. A positive significant relation was observed between spore deposition and distance from cave entrance (p= 0.001. Areas of potential mycoses risks were recognized. This is the first study on microbiological community of an iron ore cave in the country.

  15. Effect of radurization on the storage life of pollen substitutes utilized in the feeding of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymas, B.; Przybyl, A.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of treatment under high pressure and in elevated temperature, the pollen substitutes are not free from microbial contamination, and the pasteurizing effect may be achieved through the use of gamma irradiation. In the case of feed for honey bees, the dose of 5 KGy resulted in decrease of bacterial contamination by 2-3 log cycles. The problem whether such treatment could influence the nutritive value of two protein-rich feeds for honey bees, was the scope of this work. Two protein feeds were used for the feeding studies. The feeds had the following composition: powder milk, casein, Torula fodder yeasts, extruded maize, potato pulp, maltodextrin, sunflower oil, vitamin mixture, milk acid. Besides, feed I contained blood meal and ground rape, while feed II contained fish meal and soya meal instead. On the basis of the experiment, it was found that extruded and radurized protein feeds, after one-years storage at 6 C, did not lose their nutritive value. (orig./vhe)

  16. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  17. Female-biased attraction of Oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from Terminalia catappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Jang, Eric B

    2006-11-01

    Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Porapak Q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with SPME collections producing larger EAD responses from a greater number of compounds. Geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest EAD responses. A synthetic blend containing SPME collected, EAD stimulatory compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind tunnel bioassays, but heavily male-biased trap captures in a larger olfactometer arena. A nine-component subset of compounds eliciting relatively small EAD responses (EAD minor) and consisting of equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate, and (E)-beta-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males.

  18. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A J; Salinas, E J [USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 22675 N. Moorefield Rd, Edinburg, TX 78541-5033 (United States); Rendon, P [USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 4a Avenida 12-62, Zona 10, Guatemala City (Guatemala)

    2007-03-15

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [Spanish] En Guatemala, se compararon dos sistemas de trampeo durante la epoca lluviosa de Mayo a Deciembre, 2001. Combinaciones de trampa/atrayente que consistieron de trampas de plastico con bases verdes o amarillos y con atrayentes sinteticos (acetate de amoniaco y putrecina) fueron comparadas con el sistema de trampeo tradicional McPhail de vidrio cebada con torula y borax en agua. Los dos sistemas capturaron moscas del genero Anastrepha incluyendo Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A

  19. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries, Reduit (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  20. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  1. Assessment of selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium soy foods in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Reeves, Philip G; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from a protein isolate and tofu (bean curd) prepared from naturally produced high-Se soybeans. The Se concentrations of the soybeans, the protein isolate and tofu were 5.2±0.2, 11.4±0.1 and 7.4±0.1mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet containing 14, 24 or 30 μg Se/kg from the protein isolate or 13, 23 or 31 μg Se/kg from tofu, respectively. l-Selenomethionine (SeMet) was used as a reference. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for the protein isolate and tofu to those for SeMet by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Furthermore, supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in the Se concentrations of plasma, liver, muscle and kidneys. These results indicated an overall bioavailability of approximately 101% for Se from the protein isolate and 94% from tofu, relative to SeMet. We conclude that Se from naturally produced high-Se soybeans is highly bioavailable in this model and that high-Se soybeans may be a good dietary source of Se. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  3. Analyses of Selenotranscriptomes and Selenium Concentrations in Response to Dietary Selenium Deficiency and Age Reveal Common and Distinct Patterns by Tissue and Sex in Telomere-Dysfunctional Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan Ty; Wu, Tung-Lung; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2017-10-01

    Background: The hierarchies of tissue selenium distribution and selenotranscriptomes are thought to critically affect healthspan and longevity. Objective: We determined selenium status and selenotranscriptomes in response to long-term dietary selenium deficiency and age in tissues of male and female mice. Methods: Weanling telomerase RNA component knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a selenium-deficient (0.03 mg Se/kg) Torula yeast-based AIN-93G diet or a diet supplemented with sodium selenate (0.15 mg Se/kg) until age 18 or 24 mo. Plasma, hearts, kidneys, livers, and testes were collected to assay for selenotranscriptomes, selected selenoproteins, and tissue selenium concentrations. Data were analyzed with the use of 2-factor ANOVA (diet × age) in both sexes. Results: Dietary selenium deficiency decreased ( P ≤ 0.05) selenium concentrations (65-72%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 3 (82-94%) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) (17-41%) levels in the plasma of both sexes of mice and mRNA levels (9-68%) of 4, 4, and 12 selenoproteins in the heart, kidney, and liver of males, respectively, and 5, 16, and 14 selenoproteins, respectively, in females. Age increased selenium concentrations and SELENOP levels (27% and 30%, respectively; P ≤ 0.05) in the plasma of males only but decreased (12-46%; P selenium deficiency and age in ≥1 tissue or sex, or both. Dietary selenium deficiency upregulated (40-160%; P ≤ 0.05) iodothyronine deiodinase 2 ( Dio2 ) and selenoprotein N ( Selenon ) in the kidneys of males. Age upregulated (11-44%; P selenium status and selenotranscriptomes because of dietary selenium deficiency and age. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Exploration of unique relation among industrial fungi by statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Siddique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to explore the relation among thermophilic cellulolytic fungi, which are of industrialimportance. There was no report found about the genetic relationship of fungi, which are used to produce industrial enzymes.So the aim of the study was to observe the similarity among different cellulolytic fungi on genetic level, which will providethe background to understand the correlation among cellulase producing systems of these fungi. Eleven (11 fungi werestudied for genetic diversity using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD a PCR based molecular marker system.In this regard twenty universal decamers used for RAPD resulted in 1527 numbers of bands observed during comparison ofall wild strains. Maximum polymorphism was generated with GLA-07. Average numbers of bands per 20 primers were 65-72.An Interesting feature of the study was the similarity of Humicola insolens with Torula thermophile, more than with theother members of the Humicola family. This genetic pattern affects the physical structure of the fungi. Spores of Torulathermophila are more related to Humicola insolens than to its own family. Similarity between the two was found to be 57.8%,whereas between Humicola lanuginosa (Thermomysis lanuginosus and Humicola grisea it was 57.3%. Apart from this,similarity between Talaromyces dupontii and Rhizomucor pusillus was 51.5%. Least similarity was found in Rhizomucorpusillus and Humicola grisea, which was 18.7% and Chaetomium thermophile and Sporotrichum thermophile, which was18.3%. Genetic similarity matrix was constructed on the basis of Nei and Li’s index.

  5. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  6. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  7. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  8. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho V, H [Universidad de Costa Rica Escuela de Biologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with Multilure{sup RM} Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San

  9. Influence of dietary selenium on the disposition of arsenate in the female B6C3F{sub 1} mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, E.M.; Hughes, M.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Levander, O.A. [Nutrient Requirements and Functions Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1997-06-27

    Interactions between arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) at the metabolic level are multifaceted and complex. These interactions are of practical significance because populations in various parts of the world are simultaneously exposed to inorganic As in drinking water and Se mainly in the diet at varying levels. The primary goal of this study was to investigate whether differing dietary Se status would alter the profile of urinary metabolites or their time course for elimination after exposure to arsenate [As(V)]. Weanling female 86C3F, mice were maintained for 28 d on either a control diet of powdered rodent meal sufficient in Se (A 0.2 ppm) or Torula yeast-based (TYB) diets deficient (B, 0.02 ppm Se), sufficient (C, 0.2 ppm Se), or excessive (D, 2.0 ppm Se) in Se; mice then received by oral gavage 5 mg (As)/kg as sodium [{sup 73}As] arsenate. The time course for elimination of total arsenic and metabolites in urine was measured over a 48-h period, and total arsenic was determined in feces and tissues at 48 h. Mice on the Se excess diet excreted a significantly higher percentage of urinary As as inorganic As, with a significantly decreased ratio of organic to inorganic As compared to Se-sufficient mice, suggesting that As methylation was decreased. Mice on the Se-deficient diet appeared to eliminate As(V), arsenite, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine more slowly than Se-sufficient mice; however, further studies are required to confirm this finding. Mice on the Se-sufficient meal diet (A) excreted significantly less (by percent) arsenate-derived radioactivity in urine and more in feces compared to mice on the Se-sufficient TYB diet (C), with total elimination being similar for both groups. This indicates that mice on the meal diet absorbed significantly less As(V) than mice on the TYB diet, and this may be due to more fiber or {open_quotes}bulk{close_quotes} in the meal diet. 35 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Sazonalidade e prevalência de fungos anemófilos em ambiente hospitalar no Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Cáurio Lobato

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O ar atmosférico é o meio de dispersão mais utilizado e bem sucedido dos fungos. O objetivo deste estudo foi reconhecer a diversidade taxonômica de fungos anemófilos em ambiente hospitalar. Foram coletadas amostras do ar do hospital conforme as estações do ano num total de 104 amostras, entre maio de 2006 a junho de 2007. A técnica Settle Plate foi utilizada e a identificação dos fungos foi feita através da macro e micromorfologia. O cálculo das prevalências e o teste do x2 foram utilizados. Os gêneros encontrados foram: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium e Rhodotorula, além de fungos não- esporulados. Na distribuição sazonal dos gêneros durante o inverno, leveduras dos gêneros Candida e Rhodotorula tiveram uma maior prevalência. Na primavera, Alternaria e Acremonium obtiveram a sua maior prevalência e no verão Helminthosporium e Torula. Cladosporium foi mais prevalente nas estações da primavera e do verão e Aspergillus foi o mais prevalente no outono e no verão. Quanto aos gêneros fúngicos por tipo de ambiente, as amostras oriundas dos Expurgos, Oficinas, ambientes confinados, Salas de Preparo de Materiais, de Procedimentos e o Centro de Materiais e Esterilização foram os locais com maior ocorrência. As Unidades de Internação e o Ambulatório foram os locais com o mais alto índice de diversidade fúngica. Os gêneros Mucor e Rhizopus apresentaram uma correlação para o tipo de ambiente hospitalar. O estudo realizado constitui-se de um resultado inédito no que diz respeito ao conhecimento da micobiota anemófila em ambiente hospitalar neste município.

  11. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    Information provided by trapping systems is used to assess the presence, seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, host sequence and infestation levels of fruit fly pests. This information is key for implementation of effective fruit fly control programmes. Most trapping systems commercially available are based on para-pheromones which are male specific. These male specific trapping systems have been used as the main survey tool in area-wide fruit fly control programmes. Nevertheless, in recent years, scientists and programme managers have realized that, in order to improve the efficiency of fruit fly control, it is essential to have a female specific or at least a female biased trapping system. Until the late 1990s, the only fruit fly female biased attractants were based on natural protein baits such as Torula Yeast and hydrolysate proteins. Although these attractants tend to catch more females than males (in average 60% females against 40% males), the proportion in favor of females is insufficient and the attractants are considered to be weak and non-selective. In 1999, as a result of a previous Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Development of Female Medfly Attractant Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assessment' the first effective female biased synthetic food lure was developed for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied.) (IAEA-TECDOC-1099). This lure, with the commercial name of Biolure, is now being used in large-scale medfly control programmes worldwide. Given this background, and in order to further advance this field, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme approved in 2000 a five year CRP entitled 'Development of Improved Attractants and their Integration into Fruit Fly SIT Management Programmes'. The research conducted under this CRP focused mainly on developing female biased trapping systems for other fruit fly species of quarantine and economic importance within the Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis and Dacus genera and on optimization

  12. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    caatingaensis (endophyte from Tacinga inamoena ), Geastrum ishikawae on sandy soil, Geastrum pusillipilosum on soil, Gymnopus pygmaeus on dead leaves and sticks, Inonotus hymenonitens on decayed angiosperm trunk, Pyricularia urashimae on Urochloa brizantha , and Synnemellisia aurantia on Passiflora edulis . Chile : Tubulicrinis australis on Lophosoria quadripinnata. France : Cercophora squamulosa from submerged wood, and Scedosporium cereisporum from fluids of a wastewater treatment plant. Hawaii : Beltraniella acaciae , Dactylaria acaciae , Rhexodenticula acaciae , Rubikia evansii and Torula acaciae (all on Acacia koa ) . India : Lepidoderma echinosporum on dead semi-woody stems, and Rhodocybe rubrobrunnea from soil. Iran : Talaromyces kabodanensis from hypersaline soil. La Réunion : Neocordana musarum from leaves of Musa sp. Malaysia : Anungitea eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita , Camptomeriphila leucaenae (incl. Camptomeriphila gen. nov.) on Leucaena leucocephala , Castanediella communis on Eucalyptus pellita , Eucalyptostroma eucalypti (incl. Eucalyptostroma gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , Melanconiella syzygii on Syzygium sp., Mycophilomyces periconiae (incl. Mycophilomyces gen. nov.) as hyperparasite on Periconia on leaves of Albizia falcataria , Synnemadiella eucalypti (incl. Synnemadiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , and Teichospora nephelii on Nephelium lappaceum. Mexico : Aspergillus bicephalus from soil. New Zealand : Aplosporella sophorae on Sophora microphylla , Libertasomyces platani on Platanus sp., Neothyronectria sophorae (incl. Neothyronectria gen. nov.) on Sophora microphylla , Parastagonospora phoenicicola on Phoenix canariensis , Phaeoacremonium pseudopanacis on Pseudopanax crassifolius , Phlyctema phoenicis on Phoenix canariensis , and Pseudoascochyta novae-zelandiae on Cordyline australis. Panama : Chalara panamensis from needle litter of Pinus cf. caribaea . South Africa : Exophiala eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp

  13. Radiation preservation of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) with special reference to fungi and the effect of the physico-chemical properties of the nuts before and after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    , Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and flame photometry. Finally the consume acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mouth fell and overall acceptability. Data were analysed statistically using SPSS (version 16.0) and GENSTAT (12 th edition). The sex distribution of respondents varied from one Region to another but was predominantly females. Generally, traders between the ages of 16 to 75 years sold tiger nuts but this varied from Region to Region. Majority of the dealers in tiger nut were illiterates in all the production and selling centres. The local names also varied depending on dialect and language used in communication. In the cosmopolitan Accra all the names were mentioned by respondents. There is a well-structured marketing strategy of tiger nuts in Ghana with markets in Accra receiving nuts from all over the country including the North. The nuts are stored in different packaging materials (jute sack, woven polypropylene, rattan baskets, grey baft sacks and card boxes depending on the Region). Majority of the sellers of tiger nuts knew its nutritional value but the most popular was the mil (Atadwe milk) which is a delicacy. The method of harvesting and cleaning of the nuts for storage varied in the Central and Eastern Regions. The tiger nuts were contaminated by 29 different fungi belonging to fourteen genera (aspergillus, Cladosproium, Fusarium, Mucor, Monoascus, Neosartorya, Neurospora, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Rhodotorula, Syncephalastrum, Torula and Saccharomyces). Aspergillus species predominated followed by Penicillium sp. Although their percentage occurrence varied from one cultivar to another, several potential toxin-producing species (A.flavus, A.alutaceus, A.sulphreus, A.terreus, Paecilomyces carneus, Penicillium digitatum, P.roqueforti, P.corylophilum) of public concern were isolated. These contaminating fungal species could be traced from the soil from