Manufacturing aspects of the ATLAS barrel toroid double pancakes
Drago, G; Gagliardi, P; Laurenti, A; Marabotto, R; Penco, R
2002-01-01
In 1999 INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) ordered to ANSALDO the manufacturing of 16 double pancakes for the ATLAS BARREL TOROID. In July 2001 four Double Pancakes have already been completed and shipped to the integration site. In this paper the main aspects of the manufacturing of the largest superconducting coils ever built (5*25 m) are described. The main phases of the manufacturing procedure are reviewed starting from the conductor preparation to the VPI impregnation, including references to the materials used as well as to the relevant customer's requirements. In particular the special winding form and the winding technique are treated. For each phase the most critical aspects and the relevant solutions are pointed out. Particular details about the technical solutions adopted for the impregnation and curing of the Double Pancake, which could not be performed inside an autoclave due to the huge dimension of the coil itself, are reported. Finally the methods used for the dimensional and electri...
Design of the pancake-winding central solenoid coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nishi, Masataka; Tsuji, Hirosi
1995-01-01
There was a debate over whether a pancake-winding or layer-winding technique is more appropriate for the Central Solenoid (CS) coil for ITER superconducting magnet. The layer-winding CS has the advantage of homogeneous winding supporting the TF centering force without weak joints, but has many difficulties during manufacturing and quality control. On other hand, the pancake-winding has the advantage of better quality control during manufacturing and module testing but has difficulties with joints and feeders, and pipes located in the load path of the bucking force from the toroidal field coils. The compact joints, reinforcement by preformed amour, sharp bending, and double seals are applied to the design of pancake-winding CS coil and demonstrated by hardware developments. The pancake-winding CS coil by using modified existing technology is compatible with the bucking concept of the ITER magnet system. (author)
2003-01-01
The second of ATLAS's eight toroid coils has been turned over to allow the securing operations for the "pancakes" (in essence two flat-wound coils) to be completed. Work on assembling the coils takes place in two phases. The first, integration, phase involves packing the two pancakes into their vacuum vessel. Tu rning the coil overThis is done using bladders filled with resin and glass microbeads under pressure. The resin is heated and, once cooled, holds the pancakes in place. The coil then has to be turned over as the operation has to be repeated on the other side. However, turning an ATLAS coil over is no easy matter. Each of the detector's toroid coils is 25 metres long, 5 metres wide and weighs 40 tonnes. To turn it over, the coil is put into a frame, but this weighs 65 tonnes altogether and the overhead travelling crane cannot support more than 60 tonnes. A special technique had to be devised to turn the coils over and then transport them to the heating table. Transport of the coilTo carry out this op...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qu, Timing; Michael, Philip C.; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu, E-mail: iwasa@jokaku.mit.edu [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 170 Albany Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Voccio, John [Wentworth Institute of Technology, 550 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Hahn, Seungyong [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 2031 Paul Dirac Drive, Florida 32310 (United States)
2016-08-22
We present design and test results of a superconducting persistent current switch (PCS) for pancake coils of rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide, REBCO, high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Here, a REBCO double-pancake (DP) coil, 152-mm ID, 168-mm OD, 12-mm high, was wound with a no-insulation technique. We converted a ∼10-cm long section in the outermost layer of each pancake to a PCS. The DP coil was operated in liquid nitrogen (77–65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60–57 K). Over the operating temperature ranges of this experiment, the normal-state PCS enabled the DP coil to be energized; thereupon, the PCS resumed the superconducting state and the DP coil field decayed with a time constant of 100 h, which would have been nearly infinite, i.e., persistent-mode operation, were the joint across the coil terminals superconducting.
Performance assessment and optimization of the ITER toroidal field coil joints
Rolando, G.; Foussat, A.; Knaster, J.; Ilyin, Y.; Nijhuis, Arend
2013-01-01
The ITER toroidal field (TF) system features eighteen coils that will provide the magnetic field necessary to confine the plasma. Each winding pack is composed of seven double pancakes (DP) connected through praying hands joints. Shaking hands joints are used to interface the terminals of the
ATLAS barrel toroid integration and test area in building 180
Maximilien Brice
2003-01-01
The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two 'double-pancake' windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. The barrel toroid is being assembled in building 180 on the Meyrin site. In the first phase of assembly, the coils are packed into their aluminium-alloy casing. These photos show the double-pancake coils from ANSALDO and the coil casings from ALSTOM. In the foreground is the tooling from COSMI used to turn over the coil casings during this first phase. In the right background is the yellow lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia which will transport the coil casings to a heating table for prestressing. Two test benches with magnetic mirror are also visible.
First assembly phase for the ATLAS toroid coils
Maximilien Brice
2003-01-01
The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. In the first phase of assembly, the two 'pancakes' are packed into their vacuum vessel. This is done using bladders filled with resin and glass microbeads under pressure. The resin is heated and, once cooled, holds the pancakes in place. The operation has to be performed on both sides of the coil, which necessitated a special technique to turn the coils over and then transport them to the heating table. Photos 01, 02, 03: Transporting the coil to the heating table using a special lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia in preparation for the 'bladderisation' operation.
The macroscopic pancake bounce
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hecksher, Tina; Bro, Jonas Andersen; Jensen, Kasper Sternberg Brogaard
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that the so-called pancake bounce of millimetric water droplets on surfaces patterned with hydrophobic posts (Liu et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 515) can be reproduced on larger scales. In our experiment, a bed of nails plays the role of the structured surface and a water balloon models...... the water droplet. The macroscopic version largely reproduces the features of the microscopic experiment, including the Weber number dependence and the reduced contact time for pancake bouncing. The scalability of the experiment confirms the mechanisms of pancake bouncing, and allows us to measure the force...... exerted on the surface during the bounce. The experiment is simple and inexpensive and is an example where front-line research is accessible to student projects....
First ATLAS Barrel Toroid coil casing arrives at CERN
2002-01-01
The first of eight 25-metre long coil casings for the ATLAS experiment's barrel toroid magnet system arrived at CERN on Saturday 2 March by road from Heidelberg. This structure will be part of the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever made. The first coil casing for the toroidal magnets of Atlas arrives at Building 180. This is the start of an enormous three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. Each of the eight sets of double pancake coils will be housed inside aluminium coil casings, which in turn will be held inside a stainless steel vacuum vessel. A huge construction, the casing that arrived at CERN measures 25 metres in length and 5 metres in width. It weighs 20 tones. And this is just the beginning of the toroid jigsaw: by early April a batch of four double pancake coils, which altogether weighs 65 tones, will arrive from Ansaldo in Italy. The first vacuum vessel will also be arriving from Felguera in Spain this month. It will take about two years for all these 25 m long structures of casings, coils a...
Commissioning Test of ATLAS End-Cap Toroidal Magnets
Dudarev, A; Foussat, A; Benoit, P; Jeckel, M; Olyunin, A; Kopeykin, N; Stepanov, V; Deront, L; Olesen, G; Ponts, X; Ravat, S; Sbrissa, K; Barth, J; Bremer, J; Delruelle, J; Metselaar, J; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O; Buskop, J; Baynham, D E; Carr, F S; Holtom, E
2009-01-01
The system of superconducting toroids in the ATLAS experiment at CERN consists of three magnets. The Barrel Toroid was assembled and successfully tested in 2006. Next, two End-Cap Toroids have been tested on surface at 77 K and installed in the cavern, 100-m underground. The End Cap Toroids are based on Al stabilized Nb-Ti/Cu Rutherford cables, arranged in double pancake coils and conduction cooled at 4.6 K. The nominal current is 20.5 kA at 4.1 T peak field in the windings and the stored energy is 250 MJ per toroid. Prior to final testing of the entire ATLAS Toroidal system, each End Cap Toroid passed a commissioning test up to 21 kA to guarantee a reliable performance in the final assembly. In this paper the test results are described. It includes the stages of test preparation, isolation vacuum pumping and leak testing, cooling down, step-by-step charging to full current, training quenches and quench recovery. By fast discharges the quench detection and protection system was checked to demonstrate a safe e...
First assembly phase for the ATLAS toroid coils
Patrice Loïez
2003-01-01
The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. In the first phase of assembly, the two 'pancakes' are packed into their vacuum vessel. This is done using bladders filled with resin and glass microbeads under pressure. The resin is heated and, once cooled, holds the pancakes in place. The operation has to be performed on both sides of the coil, which necessitated a special technique to turn the coils over and then transport them to the heating table. Photos 01, 02, 03: Use of the overhead travelling crane to hoist the coil up and then tilt it over, the coil frame's metal feet being used as rotational pivots, supporting half the coil's weight. Once it has been turned over, the coil, now with only half the frame, is transported to the heating table using a special lifting gant...
Analysis of a flux-coupling type superconductor fault current limiter with pancake coils
Liu, Shizhuo; Xia, Dong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Qingquan; Zhang, Guomin
2017-10-01
The characteristics of a flux-coupling type superconductor fault current limiter (SFCL) with pancake coils are investigated in this paper. The conventional double-wound non-inductive pancake coil used in AC power systems has an inevitable defect in Voltage Sourced Converter Based High Voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) power systems. Due to its special structure, flashover would occur easily during the fault in high voltage environment. Considering the shortcomings of conventional resistive SFCLs with non-inductive coils, a novel flux-coupling type SFCL with pancake coils is carried out. The module connections of pancake coils are performed. The electromagnetic field and force analysis of the module are contrasted under different parameters. To ensure proper operation of the module, the impedance of the module under representative operating conditions is calculated. Finally, the feasibility of the flux-coupling type SFCL in VSC-HVDC power systems is discussed.
PREFERENSI KONSUMEN TERHADAP PANCAKE DARI TEPUNG SUKUN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sitti Rosipah
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Preference of food product is influenced by personal characteristics (age, sex,education, income, and nutrient knowledge, food characteristics (taste, shape, and texture andalso surroundings characteristics (job, number of family, mobility, and season. Pancake hassome attributes such as texture, colour, taste, and aroma. These attributes will influenceconsumer likes. The aims of this research are to determine the attributes of consumerpreference appraisal and to know the order of consumer preference toward pancake made ofbreadfruit flour. The method used in this research is conjoint analysis. Attributes and theirlevel is determined by asking for some respondents (questionaire to collect data of consumerpreference of this product. The results (measured by utility value of this research are: texture(rather soft 0,029; colour (golden yellow 0,112; taste (sweet 0,021; and aroma (usual 0,566.The priority of consumer’s decision making toward pancake made of breadfruit are: aroma(49,745%, texture (19,925%, colour (19,628%, and taste (10,702%.
Spontaneous quenches of a high temperature superconducting pancake coil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aized, D.; Campbell, J.M.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)
1995-09-01
A double-pancake coil made of Bi-2223/Ag high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape was constructed with an embedded heater and graded conductors to study the stability and quench propagation in HTS coils. The experiments were performed with liquid nitrogen and gaseous helium cooling in temperatures ranging from 5 to 77 K. The coil was very stable, and no ``normal`` zone was sustained or propagated with local pulsed heating. However, spontaneous quenches of the cod were experienced. This was found to be the result of having the coil current higher than that of the lower I{sub c} sections of the coil for a long time. This quench process took minutes to develop--much longer than would be expected in a low temperature superconducting coil. The quench behaved more like a spreading and continuous heating of an increasingly larger partially resistive section of the coil than like a sequential ``normal`` front propagation.
Flow balancing orifice for ITER toroidal field coil
Litvinovich, A. V.; Y Rodin, I.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Safonov, A. V.; Stepanov, D. B.; Guryeva, T. M.
2017-12-01
Flow balancing orifices (FBOs) are used in in International thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field coil to uniform flow rate of cooling gas in the side double pancakes which have a different conductor length: 99 m and 305 m, respectively. FBOs consist of straight parts, elbows produced from a 316L stainless steel tube 21.34 x 2.11 mm and orifices made from a 316L stainless steel rod. Each of right and left FBOs contains 6 orifices, straight FBOs contain 4 and 6 orifices. Before manufacturing of qualification samples D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (JSC NIIEFA) proposed to ITER a new approach to provide the seamless connection between a tube and a plate therefore the most critical weld between the orifice with 1 mm thickness and the tube removed from the FBOs final design. The proposed orifice diameter is three times less than the minimum requirement of the ISO 5167, therefore it was tasked to define accuracy of calculation flow characteristics at room temperature and compare with the experimental data. In 2015 the qualification samples of flow balancing orifices were produced and tested. The results of experimental data showed that the deviation of calculated data is less than 7%. Based on this result and other tests ITER approved the design of FBOs, which made it possible to start the serial production. In 2016 JSC NIIEFA delivered 50 FBOs to ITER, i.e. 24 left side, 24 right side and 2 straight FBOs. In order to define the quality of FBOs the test facility in JSC NIIEFA was prepared. The helium tightness test at 10-9 m3·Pa/s the pressure up to 3 MPa, flow rate measuring at the various pressure drops, the non-destructive tests of orifices and weld seams (ISO 5817, class B) were conducted. Other tests such as check dimensions and thermo cycling 300 - 80 - 300 K also were carried out for each FBO.
Ecology and distribution of the pancake tortoise, Malacochersus ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Field investigations on the ecology, distribution and conservation of the pancake tortoise Malacochersus tornieri in Kenya were conducted from September to December 1998 and from March 2001 to April 2002. This crevice-dwelling tortoise inhabits Precambrian rock outcrops and kopjes that are discontinuously distributed ...
Performance assessment and optimization of the ITER toroidal field coil joints
Rolando, G.; Foussat, A.; Knaster, J.; Ilin, Y.; Nijhuis, A.
2013-08-01
The ITER toroidal field (TF) system features eighteen coils that will provide the magnetic field necessary to confine the plasma. Each winding pack is composed of seven double pancakes (DP) connected through praying hands joints. Shaking hands joints are used to interface the terminals of the conductor with the feeder and inter-coil U-shaped bus bars. The feasibility of operating plasma scenarios depends on the ability of the magnets to retain sufficient temperature and current margins. In this respect, the joints represent a possible critical region due to the combination of steady state Joule heating in the resistance of the joint and coupling losses and currents in ramped operation. The temperature and current margins of both DP and terminal joints are analysed during the 15 and 17 MA plasma scenarios. The effect on the joint performance of feasible optimization solutions, such as rotation of the terminal joints and sole RRR increase, is explored. The characterization of the TF coil joints is completed by the estimation of the coupling loss time constant for different inter-strand and strand-to-joint resistance values. The study is carried out with the code JackPot-ACDC, allowing the analysis of lap-type joints with a strand-level detail.
Scintigraphic and Radiologic Findings of Pancake Kidney in a Patient with Fanconi Aplastic Anemia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adem Maman
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this case, we have presented that a patient has fankoni aplastic anemia with pancakes kidney in scintigraphy and ultrasonography. The patient is 10 years old and a girl who fanconi aplastic anemia had been diagnosed since three years. In physical examination her general status is good. There was not left hand thumb and she had double the distal phalanx in his right hand thumb in her inspection. We observed 2/6 sistolic murmur in cardiovascular system examınation. Other systems were natural. Abdominal ultrasonography was observed that both the kidney were ectopic location and fused view in the left lower quadrant. Similarly in Tc-99m DTPA and DMSA renal scintigraphy, both kidneys were fused and in the left hemipelvis. The right kidney function were significantly lower by comparison with the left kidney functions. Radiological imaging is necessary in patients with Fanconi aplastic anemia without present clinical symptoms. The renal ultrasonography is important for determining pancakes. In addition, static and dynamic renal scintigraphy plays an important role in revealing the functional status of the kidneys
Engineering bacteria to solve the Burnt Pancake Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosemond Sabriya
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the possibility of executing DNA-based computation in living cells by engineering Escherichia coli to address a classic mathematical puzzle called the Burnt Pancake Problem (BPP. The BPP is solved by sorting a stack of distinct objects (pancakes into proper order and orientation using the minimum number of manipulations. Each manipulation reverses the order and orientation of one or more adjacent objects in the stack. We have designed a system that uses site-specific DNA recombination to mediate inversions of genetic elements that represent pancakes within plasmid DNA. Results Inversions (or "flips" of the DNA fragment pancakes are driven by the Salmonella typhimurium Hin/hix DNA recombinase system that we reconstituted as a collection of modular genetic elements for use in E. coli. Our system sorts DNA segments by inversions to produce different permutations of a promoter and a tetracycline resistance coding region; E. coli cells become antibiotic resistant when the segments are properly sorted. Hin recombinase can mediate all possible inversion operations on adjacent flippable DNA fragments. Mathematical modeling predicts that the system reaches equilibrium after very few flips, where equal numbers of permutations are randomly sorted and unsorted. Semiquantitative PCR analysis of in vivo flipping suggests that inversion products accumulate on a time scale of hours or days rather than minutes. Conclusion The Hin/hix system is a proof-of-concept demonstration of in vivo computation with the potential to be scaled up to accommodate larger and more challenging problems. Hin/hix may provide a flexible new tool for manipulating transgenic DNA in vivo.
Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes
2012-01-01
Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz. Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...
2002-01-01
Because of its exceptional size, it was not feasible to assemble and test the Barrel Toroid - made of eight coils - as an integrated toroid on the surface, prior to its final installation underground in LHC interaction point 1. It was therefore decided to test these eight coils individually in a dedicated test facility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kucinski, M.Y.; Caldas, I.L.
1986-08-01
Using the conventional toroidal coordinate system Laplace's equation for the magnetic scalar potential due to toroidal helical currents is solved. The potential is written as a sum of an infinite series of functions. Each partial sum represents the potential within some accuracy. The effect of the winding law is analysed in the case of small curvature. (Author) [pt
Hedberg V
On the 15th of June 2001 the EB approved a new conceptual design for the toroid shield. In the old design, shown in the left part of the figure above, the moderator part of the shielding (JTV) was situated both in the warm and cold areas of the forward toroid. It consisted both of rings of polyethylene and hundreds of blocks of polyethylene (or an epoxy resin) inside the toroid vacuum vessel. In the new design, shown to the right in the figure above, only the rings remain inside the toroid. To compensate for the loss of moderator in the toroid, the copper plug (JTT) has been reduced in radius so that a layer of borated polyethylene can be placed around it (see figure below). The new design gives significant cost-savings and is easier to produce in the tight time schedule of the forward toroid. Since the amount of copper is reduced the weight that has to be carried by the toroid is also reduced. Outgassing into the toroid vacuum was a potential problem in the old design and this is now avoided. The main ...
Samus Toroid Installation Fixture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stredde, H.; /Fermilab
1990-06-27
The SAMUS (Small Angle Muon System) toroids have been designed and fabricated in the USSR and delivered to D0 ready for installation into the D0 detector. These toroids will be installed into the aperture of the EF's (End Toroids). The aperture in the EF's is 72-inch vertically and 66-inch horizontally. The Samus toroid is 70-inch vertically by 64-inch horizontally by 66-inch long and weighs approximately 38 tons. The Samus toroid has a 20-inch by 20-inch aperture in the center and it is through this aperture that the lift fixture must fit. The toroid must be 'threaded' through the EF aperture. Further, the Samus toroid coils are wound about the vertical portion of the aperture and thus limit the area where a lift fixture can make contact and not damage the coils. The fixture is designed to lift along a surface adjacent to the coils, but with clearance to the coil and with contact to the upper steel block of the toroid. The lift and installation will be done with the 50 ton crane at DO. The fixture was tested by lifting the Samus Toroid 2-inch off the floor and holding the weight for 10 minutes. Deflection was as predicted by the design calculations. Enclosed are sketches of the fixture and it relation to both Toroids (Samus and EF), along with hand calculations and an Finite Element Analysis. The PEA work was done by Kay Weber of the Accelerator Engineering Department.
Toroidal nuclear fusion device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Yutaka; Kasahara, Tatsuo; Takizawa, Teruhiro.
1975-01-01
Object: To design a device so as to be formed into a large-size and to arrange ports, through which neutral particles enter, in inclined fashion. Structure: Toroidal coils are wound about vacuum vessels which are divided into plural number. In the outer periphery of the vacuum vessels, ports are disposed inclined in the peripheral direction of the vacuum vessels and communicated with the vacuum vessels, and wall surfaces opposed to the ports of the toroidal coils adjacent at least the inclined sides of the ports are inclined substantially simularly to the port wall surfaces. (Kamimura, M.)
Toroidal drift magnetic pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canobbio, E.
1977-01-01
A set of azimuthal coils which carry properly dephased rf-currents in the KHz frequency range can be used to heat toroidal plasmas by perpendicular Landau damping of subsonic Alfven waves. The heating mechanism and the rf-field structure are discussed in some detail
Initial temperature profiles of the PDX inner toroidal limiter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulrickson, M.; Kugel, H.W.
1983-01-01
The temperature profiles resulting from plasma operation on the PDX vertical, large area, inner toroidal limiter have been measured during both ohmic and neutral beam heated discharges using a scanning infrared camera. An asymmetric double peaked temperature profile is seen after neutral beam heated discharges. Disruptions in ohmically heated discharges are found to be preceded by a single peaked deposition and succeeded by a initially symmetric double peaked deposition. The results were compared with the Schmidt model for scrapeoff at a toroidal limiter and it was found that the measured double peaked temperature profiles yielded scrape-off lengths consistent with previous measurements
Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkawa, T.; Schaffer, M.J.
1981-01-01
Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof
Development of Toroidal Core Transformers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Leon, Francisco [New York Univ. (NYU), Brooklyn, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
2014-08-01
VA transformer passed the impulse test in KEMA high-voltage laboratories. Additional products include: nine papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, one patent has been filed, three PhD students were supported from beginning to graduation, five postdoctoral fellows, and three MSc students were partially supported. The electrical characteristics of our dry-type toroidal transformers are similar to those of the oil-immersed pole mounted transformers currently in use by many utilities, but toroids have higher efficiency. The no-load losses of the 50 kVA prototype are only 45 W. A standard transformer has no-load losses between 90 and 240 W. Thus, even the finest transformer built today with standard technology has double the amount of no-load losses than the prototype toroidal transformer. When the manufacturing process is prepared for mass production, the cost of a dry-type toroidal transformer would be similar to the price of an oil-filed standard design. However, because of the greatly reduced losses, the total ownership cost of a toroidal transformer could be about half of a traditional design. We got a grant from Power Bridge NY in the amount of $149,985 from June 2014 to May 2015 to continue developing the transformer with commercialization objectives. We are considering the possibility to incorporate a company to manufacture the transformers and have contacted investors. The current status of the real life testing is as follows: after several months of silence, Con Edison has re-started conversations and has shown willingness to test the transformer. Other companies, PSE&G and National Grid have recently also shown interest and we will present our product to them soon.
Toroidal rotation studies in KSTAR
Lee, S. G.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, Y. S.; Ko, W. H.; Terzolo, L.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; KSTAR Team
2014-10-01
Investigation of the toroidal rotation is one of the most important topics for the magnetically confined fusion plasma researches since it is essential for the stabilization of resistive wall modes and its shear plays an important role to improve plasma confinement by suppressing turbulent transport. The most advantage of KSTAR tokamak for toroidal rotation studies is that it equips two main diagnostics including the high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and charge exchange spectroscopy (CES). Simultaneous core toroidal rotation and ion temperature measurements of different impurity species from the XICS and CES have shown in reasonable agreement with various plasma discharges in KSTAR. It has been observed that the toroidal rotation in KSTAR is faster than that of other tokamak devices with similar machine size and momentum input. This may due to an intrinsically low toroidal field ripple and error field of the KSTAR device. A strong braking of the toroidal rotation by the n = 1 non-resonant magnetic perturbations (NRMPs) also indicates these low toroidal field ripple and error field. Recently, it has been found that n = 2 NRMPs can also damp the toroidal rotation in KSTAR. The detail toroidal rotation studies will be presented. Work supported by the Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning under the KSTAR project.
Toroidal simulation magnet tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walstrom, P.L.; Domm, T.C.
1975-01-01
A number of different schemes for testing superconducting coils in a simulated tokamak environment are analyzed for their merits relative to a set of test criteria. Two of the concepts are examined in more detail: the so-called cluster test scheme, which employs two large background field coils, one on either side of the test coil, and the compact torus, a low-aspect ratio toroidal array of a small number of coils in which all of the coils are essentially test coils. Simulation of the pulsed fields of the tokamak is discussed briefly
Fixed boundary toroidal plasma equilibria with toroidal flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Yanqiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Yemin; Xiang, Nong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2016-04-15
The fixed boundary toroidal plasma equilibria with toroidal flows are investigated by solving the modified Grad-Shafranov equation numerically in the cylindrical coordinate system. For normal equilibrium configurations with geometry and profiles similar to usual tokamaks with no flow, it is found that the effect of flow is to lead to an outward shift of the magnetic flux surfaces, together with the profiles of pressure, and mass and current densities. The shifts could become significant when the toroidal flow Mach number exceeds 0.5. For non-conventional current profiles, even for the usual tokamak geometry, novel current reversal equilibrium configurations may result, sometimes with changed topology in the poloidal flux function. This change in the topology of plasma equilibrium can be attributed to the large toroidal flow. The computed results may correspond to situations of intense tangential injection during the low toroidal current phase in expected experimental situations.
Development of a REBCO HTS magnet for Maglev - repeated bending tests of HTS pancake coils -
Sugino, Motohikoa; Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Minoru; Ogata, Masafumi
2018-01-01
In the past study, two manufacturing methods were developed that can manufacture pancake coils by using REBCO coated conductors. It was confirmed that the conductors have no electric degradation that caused by the manufacturing method. The durability evaluation tests of the pancake coils were conducted as the final evaluation of the coil manufacturing method in this study. The repeated bending deformation was applied to manufactured pancake coils in the tests. As the results of these tests, it was confirmed that the pancake coils that were manufactured by two methods had the durability for the repeated bending deformation and the coils maintained the appropriate mechanical performance and electric performance. We adopted the fusion bonding method as the coil manufacturing method of the HTS magnet Furthermore, using the prototype pancake coil that was manufactured by the fusion bonding method as a test sample, the repeated bending test under the exited condition was conducted. Thus it was confirmed that the coil manufactured by the fusion bonding method has no degradation of the electricity performance and the mechanical properties even if the repeated bending deformation was applied under the exited condition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohmori, Junji; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuru
2009-09-01
The winding pack (WP) of the Toroidal Field (TF) coil of ITER consists of 7 double-pancakes (DPs). In the DP, the conductor is embedded in a groove of a radial plate (RP), and cover plates (CP) are welded to the RP teeth to fix the conductors in the RP groove. The dimensions of the DP are 15 m in height and 9 m in width while the tolerances of the DP are very severe, such as a flatness of 2 mm and an in-plane deviation of a few millimeters. It is therefore required to reduce the deformation of the DP by CP welding. In order to estimate welding deformation, the authors apply an analytical method in which the CP welding deformation of the DP can be calculated using inherent strain evaluated from welding deformation measured using a RP mock-up. Calculated results indicate that out-of-plane distortion can be kept to within required tolerances, but in-plane deformation is larger than allowed when welding thickness is 2.5 mm. The in-plane deformation is mainly caused by the bending of the curved RP region. Therefore, reducing the welding thickness at the curved region emerges as the most promising solution of this issue. Calculated results assuming a welding thickness of 1 mm at the curved region show that the in-plane deformation conforms to required tolerances. Furthermore, since the maximum out-of-plane deformation is within tolerances but marginal, an alternative design in which the number of welding lines is half that of the reference design, is proposed not only to improve the out-of-plane distortion but also to simplify the manufacture of the DP. It is found that the alternative design is effective in reducing welding distortion. (author)
Quantum mechanics of toroidal anions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, G.N.
1990-01-01
We consider a toroidal solenoid with an electric charge attached to it. It turns out that statistical properties of the wave function describing interacting toroidal anions depend on both their relative position and orientation. The influence of the particular gauge choice on the exchange properties of the wave function is studied. 30 refs.; 6 figs
Device for supporting a toroidal coil in a toroidal type nuclear fusion device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Hakaru; Sato, Hiroshi.
1975-01-01
Object: To easily manufacture a center block having a strength sufficient to withstand an electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of a toroidal coil and to increase its reliability. Structure: In a device for supporting toroidal coils wherein the electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of a plurality of toroidal coils arranged in toroidal fashion, the contact surface between the toroidal coil and the center block is arranged parallel to the center axis of toroidal so as to receive the electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of the toroidal coil as the component of force in a radial direction. (Taniai, N.)
Development of a Pancake-Making Method for a Batter-Based Product
Cake and pancake are major batter-based products made with soft wheat flour. A standardized baking method for high-ratio cake has been widely used for evaluating the cake-baking performance of soft wheat flour. Chlorinated flour is used to make high-ratio cake, and the cake formula contains relative...
Equivelar toroids with few flag-orbits
Collins, José; Montero, Antonio
2018-01-01
An $(n+1)$-toroid is a quotient of a tessellation of the $n$-dimensional Euclidean space with a lattice group. Toroids are generalizations of maps in the torus on higher dimensions and also provide examples of abstract polytopes. Equivelar toroids are those that are induced by regular tessellations. In this paper we present a classification of equivelar $(n+1)$-toroids with at most $n$ flag-orbits; in particular, we discuss a classification of $2$-orbit toroids of arbitrary dimension.
Next generation toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, Shoichi
1998-10-01
A general survey of the possible approach for the next generation toroidal devices was made. Either surprisingly or obviously (depending on one's view), the technical constraints along with the scientific considerations lead to a fairly limited set of systems for the most favorable approach for the next generation devices. Specifically if the magnetic field strength of 5 T or above is to be created by superconducting coils, it imposes minimum in the aspect ratio for the tokamak which is slightly higher than contemplated now for ITER design. The similar technical constraints make the minimum linear size of a stellarator large. Scientifically, it is indicated that a tokamak of 1.5 times in the linear dimension should be able to produce economically, especially if a hybrid reactor is allowed. For the next stellarator, it is strongly suggested that some kind of helical axis is necessary both for the (almost) absolute confinement of high energy particles and high stability and equilibrium beta limits. The author still favors a heliac most. Although it may not have been clearly stated in the main text, the stability afforded by the shearless layer may be exploited fully in a stellarator. (author)
Toroidal hollow-core microcavities produced by self-rolling of strained polymer bilayer films
Luchnikov, V.; Kumar, K.; Stamm, M.
2008-03-01
Hollow-core toroidal micro-cavities are obtained by self-rolling of double-layer (polyvinyl pyridine/polystyrole) polymer films. Rolling of the bilayer is due to preferential swelling of polyvinyl pyridine in water solution of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid. The tube formation proceeds from a circular opening in the film made by photolithography or by mechanical scratching. Toroid equilibrium dimensions are determined by the balance of the elastic energy relaxation via the film scrolling and the work of the in-plane stretching that is due to increasing radius of the toroid. The principle features of the micro-toroid formation process are captured by a simple analytical model. The inner walls of the cavities can be made metal coated. For this aim, the polymer bilayer can be metallized by vacuum sputtering prior to lithographic patterning and rolling of the bilayer. The toroids with metallic inner surfaces are promising for the future research as IR-frequency range resonators.
Toroidal helical quartz forming machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanks, K.W.; Cole, T.R.
1977-01-01
The Scyllac fusion experimental machine used 10 cm diameter smooth bore discharge tubes formed into a simple toroidal shape prior to 1974. At about that time, it was discovered that a discharge tube was required to follow the convoluted shape of the load coil. A machine was designed and built to form a fused quartz tube with a toroidal shape. The machine will accommodate quartz tubes from 5 cm to 20 cm diameter forming it into a 4 m toroidal radius with a 1 to 5 cm helical displacement. The machine will also generate a helical shape on a linear tube. Two sets of tubes with different helical radii and wavelengths have been successfully fabricated. The problems encountered with the design and fabrication of this machine are discussed
Toroidal Trivelpiece-Gould modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoessel, F.P.
1979-01-01
Electron plasma waves are treated in quasi-electrostatic approximation in a toroidal cavity of rectangular cross-section in an infinitely strong azimuthal magnetic field. The differential equation for the electrostatic potential, derived from fluid equations, can be separated using cylindrical coordinates. The eigenvalue problem for the radial dependence is solved numerically by a shooting method. Eigenvalues are given for different aspect ratios. Comparison with appropriate modes of the straight geometry shows that the toroidal frequencies generally lie some percent above those for the straight case. Plots of the eigenfunctions demonstrate clearly the influence of toroidicity. The deviation from symmetry (which should appear for straight geometry) depends not only on the aspect ratio but also strongly on the mode numbers. (author)
Eddy Current Signal Analysis for Transmit-Receive Pancake Coil on ECT Array Probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyang Beom
2006-01-01
In this paper, the eddy current signals come from a pair of transmit-receive (T/R) pancake coil on ECT array Probe are analyzed with the variations of the lift-of and of the distance between transmit and receive coils. To obtain the electromagnetic characteristics of the probes, the governing equation describing the eddy current problems is derived from Maxwell's equation and is solved using three-dimensional finite element method. Eddy current signals from T/R coils on ECT array probe have quite different characteristics compared with ones from impedance coil on rotating pancake coil probe. The results in this paper ran be helpful when the field eddy current signals from ECT array probe are evaluated
The complex and unique ATLAS Toroid family
2002-01-01
Big parts for the toroid magnets that will be used in the ATLAS experiment have been continuously arriving at CERN since March. These structures will create the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever.
Saddle-splay screening and chiral symmetry breaking in toroidal nematics
Koning, Vinzenz; van Zuiden, Benjamin C.; Kamien, Randall D.; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2013-01-01
We present a theoretical study of director fields in toroidal geometries with degenerate planar boundary conditions. We find spontaneous chirality: despite the achiral nature of nematics the director configuration show a handedness if the toroid is thick enough. In the chiral state the director field displays a double twist, whereas in the achiral state there is only bend deformation. The critical thickness increases as the difference between the twist and saddle-splay moduli grows. A positiv...
Lowering the first ATLAS toroid
Maximilien Brice
2004-01-01
The ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN will consist of eight toroid magnets, the first of which was lowered into the cavern in these images on 26 October 2004. The coils are supported on platforms where they will be attached to form a giant torus. The platforms will hold about 300 tonnes of ATLAS' muon chambers and will envelop the inner detectors.
RF breakdown by toroidal helicons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Bounded whistlers are well-known for their efficient plasma production capabilities in thin cylindrical tubes. In this paper we shall present their radio frequency (RF) breakdown and discharge sustaining capabilities in toroidal systems. Pulsed RF power in the electronmagnetohy- drodynamic (EMHD) frequency ...
RF breakdown by toroidal helicons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bounded whistlers are well-known for their efﬁcient plasma production capabilities in thin cylindrical tubes. In this paper we shall present their radio frequency (RF) breakdown and discharge sustaining capabilities in toroidal systems. Pulsed RF power in the electronmagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) frequency regime is fed to ...
Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.
1997-01-01
The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author)
Collapse analysis of toroidal shell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomares, R.J.
1990-01-01
This paper describes a study performed to determine the collapse characteristics of a toroidal shell using finite element method (FEM) analysis. The study also included free drop testing of a quarter scale prototype to verify the analytical results. The full sized toroidal shell has a 24-inch toroidal diameter with a 24-inch tubal diameter. The shell material is type 304 strainless steel. The toroidal shell is part of the GE Model 2000 transportation packaging, and acts as an energy absorbing device. The analyses performed were on a full sized and quarter scaled models. The finite element program used in all analyses was the LIBRA code. The analytical procedure used both the elasto-plastic and large displacement options within the code. The loading applied in the analyses corresponded to an impact of an infinite rigid plane oriented normal to the drop direction vector. The application of the loading continued incrementally until the work performed by the deforming structure equalled the kinetic energy developed in the free fall. The comparison of analysis and test results showed a good correlation
Hybrid winding concept for toroids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold
2013-01-01
and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...
Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.Q.
2002-01-01
Active feedback of resistive wall modes is investigated using cylindrical theory and toroidal calculations. For tokamaks, good performance is obtained by using active coils with one set of coils in the poloidal direction and sensors detecting the poloidal field inside the first wall, located at the outboard mid-plane. With suitable width of the feedback coil such a system can give robust control with respect to variations in plasma current, pressure and rotation. Calculations are shown for ITER-like geometry with a double wall. The voltages and currents in the active coils are well within the design limits for ITER. Calculations for RFP's are presented for a finite number of coils both in the poloidal and toroidal directions. With 4 coils in the poloidal and 24 coils in the toroidal direction, all non-resonant modes can be stabilized both at high and low theta. Several types of sensors, including radial and internal poloidal or toroidal sensors, can stabilize the RWM, but poloidal sensors give the most robust performance. (author)
Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-09-15
We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.
Experimental studies of compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
The Berkeley Compact Toroid Experiment (BCTX) device is a plasma device with a Marshall-gun generated, low aspect ratio toroidal plasma. The device is capable of producing spheromak-type discharges and may, with some modification, produce low-aspect ratio tokamak configurations. A unique aspect of this experimenal devie is its large lower hybrid (LH) heating system, which consists of two 450MHz klystron tubes generating 20 megawatts each into a brambilla-type launching structure. Successful operation with one klystron at virtually full power (18 MW) has been accomplished with 110 μs pulse length. A second klystron is currently installed in its socket and magnet but has not been added to the RF drive system. This report describes current activities and accomplishments and describes the anticipated results of next year's activity
Transporting the first ATLAS toroid
Maximilien Brice
2004-01-01
The first coil for the ATLAS toroid magnet is transported from its assembly hall at the CERN Meyrin site to the storage hall above the ATLAS cavern. This involves driving the massive transportation vehicle first through the Meyrin site and then across a main road only metres from the France-Swiss border. Eight magnets in total will be transported in this way before being lowered into the experimental cavern where they will be mounted in a huge ring surrounding the detector.
Modeling of pancake frying with non-uniform heating source applied to domestic cookers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sanz-Serrano, F.; Sagues, C.; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu
2016-01-01
. In this work we propose a model of contact frying of pancakes in domestic cookers, particularly in induction hobs and radiant cookers, in which the heating of the cooking vessels can be non-uniform. This non-uniformity is unavoidable in practice, but it can be reduced by optimizing the design of the cooker....... The proposed model combines heat and mass transfer phenomena, and also includes the correlation between the browning development and the temperature distribution, the local water content and the cooking time. The model has been also validated through experiments using a commercial induction hob and a radiation...
Toroidal electric field in front of the lower hybrid grill of the castor tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zacek, F.; Petrzilka, V.; Devynck, P.; Goniche, M.
2003-01-01
A small tokamak Castor (R/a = 0.4/0.85 m) with low plasma energy density and short pulses (20 ms) offers a unique possibility to carry out probe measurements in front of the grill antenna and as a consequence to provide direct information about the local electric fields in this region. For measurements of the toroidal electrical field, a small double probe with 2 tips separated by 3.5 mm in the toroidal direction has been used. The tips are oriented in the radial direction. The probe is radially movable in front of the central grill waveguide. Cross-correlations and FFT (fast Fourier transform) analysis of the measured V fl signals are given together with an attempt to investigate characteristics of toroidal electric field E tor (up to 500 kHz), derived from V fl measured by 2 toroidally separated tips
Heating of toroidal plasmas by neutral injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1971-08-01
This paper presents a brief review of the physics of ion acceleration, charge exchange and ionization, trajectories for fast ions in toroidal magnetic fields, and fast-ion thermalization. The injection of fast atoms is found to be a highly competitive method both for heating present-day experimental toroidal plasmas and for bringing full-scale toroidal CTR plasmas to low-density ignition. 13 refs., 9 figs
Cryptosporidiosis caused by two distinct species in Russian tortoises and a pancake tortoise.
Griffin, Chris; Reavill, Drury R; Stacy, Brian A; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X
2010-05-28
Cryptosporidiosis in squamates is well documented, but there is very limited information available on cryptosporidiosis in testudines. We describe three cases of cryptosporidiosis in tortoises with associated pathology. Two Russian tortoises (Agrionemys [Testudo] horsfieldii) and a pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri), all from separate collections, were found dead. At necropsy, two had histological evidence of intestinal cryptosporidiosis and one had gastric cryptosporidiosis. Consensus Cryptosporidium sp. PCR and sequencing was used to identify the Cryptosporidium sp. present in these three tortoises. In the juvenile Russian tortoise with gastric cryptosporidiosis, the organism had 98% homology with a previously reported sequence from an Indian star tortoise isolate. A second chelonian Cryptosporidium sp. was identified in the pancake tortoise and the second Russian tortoise. This sequence was 100% identical to a shorter gene sequence previously reported in a marginated tortoise. This is the first report coordinating pathology with Cryptosporidium characterization in chelonians. The two Cryptosporidium sp. found in tortoises segregate according to site of infection, and there may be further differences in pathology, host range, and transmission. These Cryptosporidium sp. appear to be able to infect diverse tortoise host species. This may be an under-recognized problem in tortoises. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fast Dump of the ATLAS Toroids
Dudarev, A; Volpini, Giovanni; Dudarev, Alexey; Kate, Herman Ten
2010-01-01
The toroidal magnet system of the ATLAS Detector at CERN consists of a Barrel Toroid (BT) and two End Cap Toroids (ECT-A and ECT-C). Each toroid is built up from eight racetrack coils wound with an aluminum stabilized NbTi conductor and indirectly cooled by forced flow liquid helium. The three toroids operate in series at 20.5 kA with a total stored energy of 1.5 GJ. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the quench protection system, series of fast dump tests have been performed first of the single toroids and finally of the entire toroidal magnet system. In this paper a model to simulate the fast dump of the ATLAS toroids in single mode operation and in full system configuration is presented. The model is validated through comparison with measured data extracted from the ramp-and-quench runs. The calculated energy dissipation in the various coils is in very good agreement (within 1-2\\%) with the enthalpy changes estimated from the temperature measurements of the different parts of the cold ...
Electrostatics of a Family of Conducting Toroids
Lekner, John
2009-01-01
An exact solution is found for the electrostatic potential of a family of conducting charged toroids. The toroids are characterized by two lengths "a" and "b", with "a" greater than or equal to "2b". They are closed, with no hole in the "doughnut". The results are obtained by considering the potential of two equal charges, displaced from the…
Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.
1992-09-23
The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling.
In this study, we investigated the changes in the levels of phenolic acids during pancake preparation from refined and whole-wheat flours of two wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenolic acids, namely ultrasonic-assisted extrac...
Quench analysis of pancake wound REBCO coils with low resistance between turns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markiewicz, W Denis; Jaroszynski, Jan J; Abraimov, Dymtro V; Joyner, Rachel E; Khan, Amanatullah
2016-01-01
Quench in a pancake wound REBCO superconducting coil with low resistance (LR) between turns is examined by numerical analysis. In these calculations it is generally observed that once established, quench propagates rapidly in LR coils. Large transients are induced in the azimuthal solenoid current, allowed by the LR between turns, and become self-propagating. The transition from an initial state characterized by thermal diffusion to the dynamic inductive state of quench propagation is observed. The analysis is applied to the inner coil of a 30 T magnet where the quench performance is studied as a function of the value of resistance between turns. Rapid propagation of quench is seen in calculations for resistance between turns significantly greater than the resistance reported for no-insulation coils. The influence on quench of both steel co-wind and the amount of copper in the conductor is examined through calculation of the maximum temperature and the quench propagation velocity. (paper)
EDDY-360 rotating pancake probe inspection of small radius U-bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, S.W.; Griffith, J.C.; Baumann, J.M.
1988-01-01
Conventional bobbin coil or 4 x 2 array pancake coil probes have not been able to detect or satisfactorily size primary side intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the small-radius U-bend regions of recirculating steam generators in pressurized water reactor systems. BandW has developed a rotating probe inspection system that improves inspection of these areas of the generator. The probe consists of a flexible neck connecting the small probe motor body with the head and sensing coil assembly. The probe is delivered to the tube through a snorkel connecting the probe driver with a remote manipulator. Test results demonstrate that the EDDY-360 probe does provide better sensitivity and sizing capability than conventional techniques
Quench analysis of pancake wound REBCO coils with low resistance between turns
Markiewicz, W. Denis; Jaroszynski, Jan J.; Abraimov, Dymtro V.; Joyner, Rachel E.; Khan, Amanatullah
2016-02-01
Quench in a pancake wound REBCO superconducting coil with low resistance (LR) between turns is examined by numerical analysis. In these calculations it is generally observed that once established, quench propagates rapidly in LR coils. Large transients are induced in the azimuthal solenoid current, allowed by the LR between turns, and become self-propagating. The transition from an initial state characterized by thermal diffusion to the dynamic inductive state of quench propagation is observed. The analysis is applied to the inner coil of a 30 T magnet where the quench performance is studied as a function of the value of resistance between turns. Rapid propagation of quench is seen in calculations for resistance between turns significantly greater than the resistance reported for no-insulation coils. The influence on quench of both steel co-wind and the amount of copper in the conductor is examined through calculation of the maximum temperature and the quench propagation velocity.
Quasistatic evolution of compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sgro, A.G.; Spencer, R.L.; Lilliequist, C.
1981-01-01
Some results are presented of simulations of the post formation evolution of compact toroids. The simulations were performed with a 1-1/2 D transport code. Such a code makes explicit use of the fact that the shapes of the flux surfaces in the plasma change much more slowly than do the profiles of the physical variables across the flux surfaces. Consequently, assuming that the thermodynamic variables are always equilibrated on a flux surface, one may calculate the time evolution of these profiles as a function of a single variable that labels the flux surfaces. Occasionally, during the calculation these profiles are used to invert the equilibrium equation to update the shapes of the flux surfaces. In turn, these shapes imply certain geometric cofficients, such as A = 2 >, which contain the geometric information required by the 1-D equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, Katsumi
2001-01-01
The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)
Numerical determination of axisymmetric toroidal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.; Dalhed, H.E.; Greene, J.M.
1978-07-01
Numerical schemes for the determination of stationary axisymmetric toroidal equilibria appropriate for modeling real experimental devices are given. Iterative schemes are used to solve the elliptic nonlinear partial differential equation for the poloidal flux function psi. The principal emphasis is on solving the free boundary (plasma-vacuum interface) equilibrium problem where external current-carrying toroidal coils support the plasma column, but fixed boundary (e.g., conducting shell) cases are also included. The toroidal current distribution is given by specifying the pressure and either the poloidal current or the safety factor profiles as functions of psi. Examples of the application of the codes to tokamak design at PPPL are given
Toroidal field ripple effects in large tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uckan, N.A.; Tsang, K.T.; Callen, J.D.
1975-01-01
In an experimental power reactor, the ripple produced by the finite number of toroidal field coils destroys the ideal axisymmetry of the configuration and is responsible for additional particle trapping, loss regions and plasma transport. The effects of toroidal field ripple on the plasma transport coefficient, the loss of alpha particles and energetic injection ions, and the relaxation of toroidal flows are investigated in a new and systematic way. The relevant results are applied to the ORNL-EPR reference design; the maximum ripple there of about 2.2 percent at the outer edge of the plasma column is found to be tolerable from plasma physics considerations
Rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei and fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Royer, G.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.
1995-01-01
The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three dimensional and plane fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localised below the plane fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension. (author)
Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes
Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding
2017-10-01
Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.
LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch programme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1979-01-01
The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show that over half the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson-scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced, indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport is needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low-temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given. (author)
Steady state compact toroidal plasma production
Turner, William C.
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.
Bow-shaped toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonanos, P.
1981-05-01
Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case
Relationships between solid spherical and toroidal harmonics
Majic, Matt; Ru, Eric C. Le
2018-01-01
We derive new relationships expressing solid spherical harmonics as series of toroidal harmonics and vice versa. The expansions include regular and irregular spherical harmonics, ring and axial toroidal harmonics of even and odd parity about the plane of the torus. The expansion coefficients are given in terms of a recurrence relation. As an example application we apply one of the expansions to express the potential of a charged conducting torus on a basis of spherical harmonics.
Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.
1985-11-01
In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs.
Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.
1985-11-01
In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs
Celebrating the Barrel Toroid commissioning
Peter Jenni
ATLAS invited Funding Agency representatives and Laboratory Heads directly related to the funding and construction of the Barrel Toroid for a small ceremony on 13th December 2006 at Point 1, in order to mark the successful first full excitation of the BT (see last eNews). On that date, which was during the December CERN Council week, several of the Funding Agency Heads or their representatives could be present, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. Speeches were delivered by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni thanking the Funding Partners in the name of the Collaboration, by Magnet Project Leader Herman ten Kate tracing the BT construction history, and by the CERN Director-General Robert Aymar congratulating all those who have contributed to the successful project. Herman ten Kate addressing the delegates. The text of the introductory address by Peter Jenni is reproduced here. "It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here...
Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punjabi, A.
1989-12-01
When the magnetic moment of particle is conserved, there are three mechanisms which cause anomalous transport. These are: variation of magnetic field strength in flux surface, variation of electrostatic potential in flux surface, and destruction of flux surface. The anomalous transport of different groups of particles resulting from each of these mechanisms is different. This fact can be exploited to determine the cause of transport operative in an experimental situation. This approach can give far more information on the transport than the standard confinement time measurements. To implement this approach, we have developed Monte Carlo codes for toroidal geometries. The equations of motion are developed in a set of non-canonical, practical Boozer co-ordinates by means of Jacobian transformations of the particle drift Hamiltonian equations of motion. Effects of collisions are included by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion. Effects of the loop voltage on particle motions are also included. We plan to apply our method to study two problems: the problem of the hot electron tail observed in edge region of ZT-40, and the energy confinement time in TOKAPOLE II. For the ZT-40 problem three situations will be considered: a single mode in the core, a stochastic region that covers half the minor radius, a stochastic region that covers the entire plasma. A turbulent spectrum of perturbations based on the experimental data of TOKAPOLE II will be developed. This will be used to simulate electron transport resulting from ideal instabilities and resistive instabilities in TOKAPOLE II
Toroidal field coil torque structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaines, A.L.
1983-01-01
A torque structure is disclosed particularly suitable for utilization in a power reactor of the Tokamak-type, and operable therein for purposes of providing support for the toroidal field (TF) coils that comprise one of the major operating components of such a Tokamak power reactor. The subject torque structure takes the form of a frame structure that is operable to enable torque loads acting on the TF coils to be equilibrated as close to the area of force application as feasible. The aforesaid torque structure includes an intercoil structure composed of spacer wedges that are interposed between each adjacent pair of TF coils. The spacer wedges, in turn, consist of bearing plates positioned between the TF coils so as to be in contacting relation therewith and a number of cross plates that are cooperatively associated with the bearing plates so as to form therewith a rigid assembly. The intercoil structure is affixed to a segmented, membrane shell that surrounds, encloses and supports the TF coil frames. Access is had to the interior of the shell through an opening formed for this purpose in a reinforced portion of the shell. Eddy current losses are minimized by insulating the joints formed at the juncture of adjoining segments of the shell
Calculated E-I characteristics of HTS pancakes and coils exposed to inhomogeneous magnetic fields
Adanny, Y.; Wolfus, Y.; Friedman, A.; Kopansky, F.; Yeshurun, Y.; Bar-Haim, Z.; Ron, Z.; Pundak, N.
2006-06-01
The upper limit of the operating current of LTS solenoids can be estimated as the coordinate of the crossing point of its load line with IC (B) line of the superconductor. For HTS coils this approach seems to underestimate the allowable operating current of the coil. A better approach is to obtain a full electric field distribution over the coil and to use it as the base for a more sophisticated coil design criteria. We developed an algorithm and a Matlab program for calculating distributions of the current density, magnetic field and electric field in HTS solenoids made of pancakes, considering the inhomogeneous current density distribution inside the anisotropic tape. I-V curves of several Bi-2223 coils are calculated and good agreeement of the calculated and measured critical currents, IC, and indexes, n, are attained. One can utilize the program in the coil design choosing his own criteria of coil's critical current, e.g., 1) The average electric field 10-4 V/m over the coil, 2) The electric field 10-4 V/m at the weak point of the coil, 3) The energy dissipation in the entire coil, 4) Distribution of local energy dissipation.
Duvall, Thomas L.; Hanasoge, Shravan M.
2012-01-01
With large separations (10-24 deg heliocentric), it has proven possible to cleanly separate the horizontal and vertical components of supergranular flow with time-distance helioseismology. These measurements require very broad filters in the k-$\\omega$ power spectrum as apparently supergranulation scatters waves over a large area of the power spectrum. By picking locations of supergranulation as peaks in the horizontal divergence signal derived from f-mode waves, it is possible to simultaneously obtain average properties of supergranules and a high signal/noise ratio by averaging over many cells. By comparing ray-theory forward modeling with HMI measurements, an average supergranule model with a peak upflow of 240 m/s at cell center at a depth of 2.3 Mm and a peak horizontal outflow of 700 m/s at a depth of 1.6 Mm. This upflow is a factor of 20 larger than the measured photospheric upflow. These results may not be consistent with earlier measurements using much shorter separations (<5 deg heliocentric). With a 30 Mm horizontal extent and a few Mm in depth, the cells might be characterized as thick pancakes.
Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.W.; Rewoldt, G.
1993-01-01
Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in TFTR L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities
Effects of toroidicity on resistive tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Manickam, J.; Strauss, H.R.; Grimm, R.; McGuire, K.
1983-03-01
A reduced set of resistive MHD equations is solved numerically in three dimensions to study the stability of tokamak plasmas. Toroidal effects are included self-consistently to leading and next order in inverse aspect ratio, epsilon. The equations satisfy an energy integral. In addition, the momentum equation yields the Grad-Shafranov equation correct to all orders in epsilon. Low beta plasma are studied using several different q-profiles. In all cases, the linear growth rates are reduced by finite toroidicity. Excellent agreement with resistive PEST is obtianed. In some cases, toroidal effects lead to complete stabilization of the mode. Nonlinear results show smaller saturated island widths for finite aspect ratio compared to the cylindrical limit. If the current channel is wide enough so as to produce steep gradients towards the outside of the plasma, both the finite aspect ratio cases and cylindrical cases disrupt
PDX toroidal field coils stress analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikodem, Z.D.; Smith, R.A.
1975-01-01
A method used in the stress analysis of the PDX toroidal field coil is developed. A multilayer coil design of arbitrary dimensions in the shape of either a circle or an oval is considered. The analytical model of the coil and the supporting coil case with connections to the main support structure is analyzed using the finite element technique. The three dimensional magnetic fields and the non-uniform body forces which are a loading condition on a coil due to toroidal and poloidal fields are calculated. The method of analysis permits rapid and economic evaluations of design changes in coil geometry as well as in coil support structures. Some results pertinent to the design evolution and their comparison are discussed. The results of the detailed stress analysis of the final coil design due to toroidal field, poloidal field and temperature loads are presented
Current control necessary for toroidal plasma equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagao, S.
1987-01-01
It is shown that a significant amount of dipole current is necessary for the plasma equilibrium of toroidal configurations in general. Through the vector product with the poloidal field, this dipole current force has to balance with the hoop force of plasma pressure itself of the annular shape. The measurement of such a current of dipole type may be interesting for the confirmation of the plasma equilibrium in the toroidal system. Moreover it is certained that there is a new mode of a tokamak operation with such a dipole current component and with smaller vertical field than that based on the classical tokamak theory. (author) [pt
Models for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arendt, F.; Brechna, H.; Erb, J.; Komarek, P.; Krauth, H.; Maurer, W.
1976-01-01
Prior to the design of large GJ toroidal magnet systems it is appropriate to procure small scale models, which can simulate their pertinent properties and allow to investigate their relevant phenomena. The important feature of the model is to show under which circumstances the system performance can be extrapolated to large magnets. Based on parameters such as the maximum magnetic field and the current density, the maximum tolerable magneto-mechanical stresses, a simple method of designing model magnets is presented. It is shown how pertinent design parameters are changed when the toroidal dimensions are altered. In addition some conductor cost estimations are given based on reactor power output and wall loading
Toroidal Precession as a Geometric Phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.W. Burby and H. Qin
2012-09-26
Toroidal precession is commonly understood as the orbit-averaged toroidal drift of guiding centers in axisymmetric and quasisymmetric configurations. We give a new, more natural description of precession as a geometric phase effect. In particular, we show that the precession angle arises as the holonomy of a guiding center's poloidal trajectory relative to a principal connection. The fact that this description is physically appropriate is borne out with new, manifestly coordinate-independent expressions for the precession angle that apply to all types of orbits in tokamaks and quasisymmetric stellarators alike. We then describe how these expressions may be fruitfully employed in numerical calculations of precession.
The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hegna, C. C. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2016-05-15
The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.
New material equations for electromagnetism with toroid polarizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubovik, V.M.; Martsenyuk, M.A.; Saha, B.
1999-09-01
With regard to the toroid contributions, a modified system of equations of electrodynamics moving continuous media has been obtained. Alternative formalisms to introduce the toroid moment contributions in the equations of electromagnetism has been worked out. The two four-potential formalism has been developed. Lorentz transformation laws for the toroid polarizations has been given. Covariant form of equations of electrodynamics of continuous media with toroid polarizations has been written. (author)
Toroidal groups line bundles, cohomology and quasi-Abelian varieties
Kopfermann, Klaus
2001-01-01
Toroidal groups are the connecting link between torus groups and any complex Lie groups. Many properties of complex Lie groups such as the pseudoconvexity and cohomology are determined by their maximal toroidal subgroups. Quasi-Abelian varieties are meromorphically separable toroidal groups. They are the natural generalisation of the Abelian varieties. Nevertheless, their behavior can be completely different as the wild groups show.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wilsa Hermianti
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Kimpul taro (Xanthosoma sagittifolium contains high enough of starch and fibers so that it can function as a non-rice food carbohydrates source. Previous research was done a research about taro block process technology (Hermianti et al., 2010. In this study, taro blocks was used for making of various wet food, semi-wet and dry food products such as bread, pies, cookies, pancakes, and taro porridge by substituting wheat flour and rice flour. The research was aimed to find out the composition of the appropriate use of taro block in making of various food products with a good quality and preferred. Bread, pies, and cookies were made with percentage of taro block 0% (control/without taro block, 25%, 50%, and 75%, whereas for pancakes with formula of taro block 0% (control/without taro block , 30%, 50%, 100%. Porridge was made to subtitute rice flour with percentage of taro block 0% (control/without taro block, 30%, 50%, and 100%. The chemical analysis of taro block was done on several parameter included moisture content, ash content, starch, and protein, while for processed food products were conducted the organoleptic test (color, aroma, taste, and texture based on the panelists acceptance level. The most products of taro cookies and taro bread preferred by panelists were analyzed the fat content, protein, carbohydrates and calories and storability for dry food products (cookies. The results showed that taro block moisture content 12.40%, ash content 1.12%, starch content 73.37%, amylose 2.88%, amylopectin 70.49%, and protein 3.4%. The organoleptic test with optimal results and preferably were bread and pastel with the use of taro 25%, cookies with the use of taro 50%, taro pancake formula with 50% taro block, and porridge with usage of taro block 30%.ABSTRAKTalas kimpul (Xanthosoma sagittifolium mengandung karbohidrat dan serat yang tinggi sehingga dapat berfungsi sebagai sumber bahan pangan karbohidrat. Penelitian terdahulu telah
On the stabilization of toroidal pinches by finite larmor radius effects and toroidal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, R.; Weiland, J.
1989-01-01
The radial eigenvalue problem for internal modes in a large aspect ratio toriodal pinch has been solved. A particularly stable regime for a weak but nonzero toroidal magnetic field has been found. (31 refs.)
ATLAS: Full power for the toroid magnet
2006-01-01
The 9th of November was a memorable day for ATLAS. Just before midnight, the gigantic Barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas in the coil windings, with an electrical current of 21000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils (as seen on the graph). This achievement was obtained after several weeks of commissioning. The ATLAS Barrel Toroid was first cooled down for about six weeks in July-August to -269Â°C (4.8 K) and then powered up step-by-step in successive test sessions to 21 kA. This is 0.5 kA above the current required to produce the nominal magnetic field. Afterwards, the current was safely switched off and the stored magnetic energy of 1.1 gigajoules was dissipated in the cold mass, raising its temperature to a safe -218Â°C (55 K). 'We can now say that the ATLAS Barrel Toroid is ready for physics,' said Herman ten Kate, project leader for the ATLAS magnet system. The ATLAS barrel toroid magnet is the result of a close collaboration between the magnet la...
Celebration for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet
2007-01-01
Representatives from Funding Agencies and Barrel Toroid Magnet Laboratories during the ceremony. From left to right: Jean Zinn-Justin (Head of DAPNIA/CEA/Saclay), CERN Director-General Robert Aymar, and Roberto Petronzio (President INFN).Allan Clark (DPNC University Geneva) and Enrique Fernandez (IFAE Barcelona) were among the guests visiting the ATLAS cavern. The barrel toroid is visible in the background. A celebration took place at Point 1 on 13 December to toast the recent powering-up of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet to full field (Bulletin No. 47-48/06). About 70 guests were invited to attend, mainly composed of representatives from funding partners and key members of the laboratory management teams of the barrel toroid magnet, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. An introductory speech by ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni the scene for evening. This was followed by the ATLAS magnet system project leader Herman Ten Kate's account of the...
ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field
2006-01-01
Â OnÂ 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph
Design of the TPX outboard toroidal limiters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaubel, K.M.; Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.
1995-01-01
The Tokamak Physics Experiment outboard limiter system incorporates the passive stabilizer plates, the ripple armor, the toroidal break and the support structures. These components are designed to withstand substantial steady state heat loads and high mechanical forces caused by plasma disruptions. The design of these components has been developed to deal with the challenging thermal, structural and remote handling requirements
Curvature driven instabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, P.
1986-11-01
The electromagnetic ballooning mode, the curvature driven trapped electron mode and the toroidally induced ion temperature gradient mode have been studies. Eigenvalue equations have been derived and solved both numerically and analytically. For electromagnetic ballooning modes the effects of convective damping, finite Larmor radius, higher order curvature terms, and temperature gradients have been investigated. A fully toroidal fluid ion model has been developed. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for an instability below the MHD limit is the presence of an ion temperature gradient. Analytical dispersion relations giving results in good agreement with numerical solutions are also presented. The curvature driven trapped electron modes are found to be unstable for virtually all parameters with growth rates of the order of the diamagnetic drift frequency. Studies have been made, using both a gyrokinetic ion description and the fully toroidal ion model. Both analytical and numerical results are presented and are found to be in good agreement. The toroidally induced ion temperature gradients modes are found to have a behavior similar to that of the curvature driven trapped electron modes and can in the electrostatic limit be described by a simple quadratic dispersion equation. (author)
Quantum electron transport in toroidal carbon nanotubes
Jack, Mark; Encinosa, Mario
2008-03-01
Electron transport under bias is treated in tight-binding approximation using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach. Density-of-states D(E), transmissivity T(E), and current ISD are calculated through a (3,3) armchair nanotorus with laterally attached metallic leads and a magnetic field penetrating the toroidal plane. Plateaus in T(E) through the torus are observed as a function of both the relative angle between leads and magnetic flux. Initial computational studies performed with 1800 atoms and attached leads show substantial computational slowdown when increasing the system size by a factor of two. Results are generated by inverting the device Hamiltonian with a standard recursion method extended to account for unit cell toroidal closure. Significant computational speed-up is expected for a parallelized code on a multiprocessor computer cluster. The dependence of electronic features on torus size and torus curvature is tested for three tori with 900, 1800 and 3600 carbon atoms, respectively. References: 1. M. Jack and M. Encinosa, Quantum electron transport in toroidal carbon nanotubes with metallic leads. ArXiv: quant-ph/0709.0760. 2. M. Encinosa and M. Jack, Dipole and solenoidal magnetic moments of electronic surface currents on toroidal nanostructures. J. Comp.-Aided Mat. Design (Springer), 14 (1) (2007) 65 -- 71.
Toroidal 12 cavity klystron : a novel approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazarika, A.B.R.
2013-01-01
A toroidal 12 cavity klystron is designed to provide with high energy power with the high frequency microwave RF- plasma generated from it. The cavities are positioned in clock hour positions. The theoretical modeling and designing is done to study the novel approach. (author)
Toroidal Dipole Moment of a Massless Neutrino
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Perez, E. Reyes
2009-01-01
We obtain the toroidal dipole moment of a massless neutrino τ v l M using the results for the anapole moment of a massless Dirac neutrino a v l D , which was obtained in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions (SM)SU(2) L x U(1) Y .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Y.; Fang, J.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, J.; Sheng, L.
2011-01-01
The critical current and alternating current loss of HTS coil are not equal in different parts of HTS coil. AC loss inside the magnet forms a certain distribution which makes the winding loss calculation very complex. The analytical expressions are established based on Kim's model and the Clem model. The AC loss of HTS coil is measured by electrical method at 77 K and numerical calculation model is resolved by Matlab. The theoretical results and measurement data were compared and analyzed. As a high temperature superconductor (HTS) coil is a complex electromagnetic system, the critical current and alternating current loss are not equal in different parts of HTS coil. AC loss inside the magnet forms a certain distribution which makes the winding loss calculation very complex. The analytical expressions are established based on Kim's model and the Clem model. The AC loss of high-temperature superconductor pancake coil is generally obtained from experimental measurements and numerical calculations. The AC loss of high-temperature superconductor pancake coil is measured by electrical method at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Numerical calculation model, which is set up and resolved by Matlab, was given as the theory equation in this study, where the theoretical results and measurement data were compared and analyzed.
Shielding and synchrotron radiation in toroidal waveguide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. V. Stupakov
2003-03-01
Full Text Available We develop a new approach to the calculation of the synchrotron radiation in a toroidal vacuum chamber. Using a small parameter ϵ=sqrt[a/R], where a is the characteristic size of the cross section of the toroid and R is the bending radius, we simplify Maxwell’s equations assuming that the characteristic frequency of the modes ω∼c/aϵ and neglect terms of higher order in ϵ. For a rectangular cross section of the waveguide, we find an analytical solution of the equations and analyze their asymptotics at very high frequency. We then obtain an equation which gives radiation into each synchronous mode. We demonstrate the flexibility of the new method by calculating the frequencies and the loss factors for the lowest modes in square and round waveguides.
Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.
1982-01-01
For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations
Toroidal plasma response to external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storer, R.G.
1998-01-01
Toroidal plasmas respond to external driving fields in a way which is determined by the coupling of these fields to the spectrum of the plasma. We have extended the toroidal resistive magnetohydrodynamic spectral code, SPECTOR, to include the effects of external fields on tokamak-like plasmas. The code is capable of determining both the stable and unstable modes and also the response to helical applied fields with arbitrary mode structure. Resistivity changes the continuous regions of the ideal MHD spectrum into a set of discrete eigenvalues lying along lines in the complex frequency plane with a spacing which is related to the inverse of the square root of the magnetic Reynolds number. Results are presented which relate the spectral distribution to the plasma response as a function of frequency. (author)
METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DANAILA Ligia
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.
Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.
1981-12-01
An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized
Kinetic Damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Berk, H.L.; Pletzer, A.
2005-01-01
The damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in JET plasmas is investigated by using a reduced kinetic model. Typically no significant damping is found to occur near the center of the plasma due to mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. In contrast, continuum damping from resonance near the plasma edge may be significant, and when it is, it gives rise to damping rates that are compatible with the experimental observations
Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, R.H.
1987-01-01
Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, end losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma features are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong rf heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong rf heating and collisions. 37 refs
ISX toroidal field coil design and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussung, R.O.; Lousteau, D.C.; Johnson, N.E.; Weed, R.A.
1975-01-01
Structural design and analysis aspects of the toroidal field coils for the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) tokamak are discussed. The overall mechanical design of ISX is predicated on the ability to remove the upper segment of the toroidal field coils to allow access to the toroidal vacuum vessel. The high current, 120 kA, capability of the new 74 MW power supply, coupled with the modest field requirement of ISX, allows the use of room temperature copper coils. Seventy-two turns, grouped into 18 coils, generate a magnet field of 18 kG at the major radius of 90 cm. Finite element structural analysis codes were utilized to determine the distribution of stresses and deflections around a typical turn. Initial material distribution on a coil was sized using the two-dimensional program FEATS. The resulting coil design was then coupled to the center bucking and out-of-plane restraint systems utilizing the NASTRAN code. The boundary conditions for the analytical models used in the two programs were then iterated, reaching satisfactory agreement as to stress contours and location for the joints
Design and performance of FRX-C/T: a compact toroid translation experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribble, R.; Carroll, T.; Kewish, R.; Reass, W.; Rej, D.; Webster, R.; Yavornik, E.
1985-01-01
The FRX-C/T experiment is a combination of the FRX-C theta-pinch, which forms field-reversed configuration (FRC) compact toroids, with a dc solenoid section, where the FRC (typical plasma parameters of n = 1-3 x 10 15 cm -3 , T/sub e/+T/sub i/ = 0.2-0.7 keV, tau/sub E/ approx. 100 μs) is translated and trapped in an axial dc guide field B 0 . The experiment combines pulsed, high-voltage technology for the theta-inch formation region with a dc energized magnet set for the translation section. Five stainless steel tank modules form the translation vacuum chamber. A B 0 field of < 8 kG is generated by the thirty-nine water-cooled pancake magnets of the dc magnet set that is mounted concentric with the vacuum vessel. A dc magnetic mirror (ratio < 5) is at the end of the translation region. The dc magnets are powered by a computer controlled and monitored 0.3 kV, 2.5 MW dc power supply. A computer monitored 78 channel digital thermal switch system and 128 channel analog thermistor system ensure that the coils do not overheat. The 1248-turn dc solenoid is 0.17 m away from the 100-kV theta-pinch coil requiring precautionary measures to minimize transient high voltages induced onto the dc solenoid. A helical quadrupole magnet has been added to the translation vessel to produce a weak B-field that suppresses the n=2 rotational instability
Kiss, T.; Noda, S.; Nishimura, S.; Ohya, K.; Utsunomiya, D.; Ilyin, Y.; Okamoto, H.
2001-01-01
By calculating the magnetic field distribution in a stacked pancake coil with use of finite element method and by taking into account the transport properties obtained in a short tape sample, we predict the electric field vs. current density, E–J, characteristics depending on the position inside the
Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari
1980-01-01
A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)
A 'rational' explanation of resonant surfaces in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cross, R.C.
1983-05-01
Resonant surfaces are of fundamental importance in toroidal plasmas, particularly in relation to stability theory. A simple explanation as to why these surfaces are 'resonant' is given in terms of the propagation of localized torsional Alfven and ion acoustic wave packets. These packets are guided along helical field lines in toroidal plasmas, leading to the formation of unstable standing waves on those field lines which close on themselves after one or more toroidal revolutions
Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta
Bonanos, Peter
1992-01-01
A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.
Mautner, Anna-Katharina; Latimer, Ashley E; Fritz, Uwe; Scheyer, Torsten M
2017-03-01
Exceptional variability in the shell of the pancake tortoise Malacochersus tornieri, both in the keratinous surficial scutes and the underlying bones, in addition to its remarkably fenestrated bony shell are unique among tortoises. Based on 14 individuals of different sizes and ages, the observed variation in M. tornieri was described in detail, with additional notes on the typically testudinid skull, inner ear and brain endocast using microCT-scan data, as well as the limbs. Similar degrees of variation have not yet been described in any other extant turtle species and therefore seem notable in M. tornieri, and might be related to the species' unique lifestyle. Within the carapace, the peripherals and suprapygals are most variable in number. Furthermore, different combinations of peripherals are participating in the central plastral fontanelle and in some individuals additional bones take part in the formation of the plastron. J. Morphol. 278:321-333, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
General Atomic's superconducting toroidal field coil concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcorn, J.; Purcell, J.
1978-01-01
General Atomic's concept for a superconducting toroidal field coil is presented. The concept is generic for large tokamak devices, while a specific design is indicated for a 3.8 meter (major radius) ignition/burn machine. The concept utilizes bath cooled NbTi conductor to generate a peak field of 10 tesla at 4.2 K. The design is simple and straightforward, requires a minimum of developmental effort, and draws extensively upon the perspective of past experience in the design and construction of large superconducting magnets for high energy physics. Thus, the primary emphasis is upon economy, reliability, and expeditious construction scheduling. (author)
Electrical disruption in toroidal plasma of hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberto, M.; Silva, C.A.B.; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P.
1991-01-01
The initial phase of ionization of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated using zero-dimensional model. The model describes the temporal evolution of plasma by spatial medium of particle density and temperature, on whole plasma volume. The energy and particle (electrons and ions) balance equations are considered. The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss involves ionization, Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating converter gives the initial voltage necessary to disruption. (M.C.K.)
3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid
Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro
2016-01-01
The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.
Compact toroid formation, compression, and acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degnan, J.H.; Bell, D.E.; Baca, G.P.; Dearborn, M.E.; Douglas, M.R.; Englert, S.E.; Englert, T.J.; Holmes, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Lehr, F.M.; Marklin, G.J.; Mullins, B.W.; Peterkin, R.E.; Price, D.W.; Roderick, N.F.; Ruden, E.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Coffey, S.K.; Seiler, S.W.; Bird, G.
1992-01-01
Research on the formation, compression, and acceleration of milligram Compact Toroids (CTs) will be discussed. This includes experiments with 2-stage coaxial gun discharges and calculations including 2D- MHD. The CTs are formed by 110 μf, 70 KV, 2 MA, 3 μs rise time discharges into 2 mg gas puffs in a 90 cm inner diameter, 7.6 cm gap coaxial gun with approximately 0.15 Tesla of radial-axial initial magnetic field. Reconnection at the neck of the toroidal magnetized plasma bubble extracted from the first stage gun forms the CT. Trapping, relaxation to a minimum energy Taylor state is observed with magnetic probe arrays. Low energy (few hundred KJ, 2 MA) acceleration in straight coaxial geometry, and high energy acceleration using a conical compression stage are discussed. The Phillips Laboratory 1,300 μf, 120 KV, 9.4 MJ SHIVA STAR capacitor bank is used for the acceleration discharge. The charging and triggering of the 36-module bank has been modified to permit use of any multiple of three modules. Highlights of fast photography, current, voltage, magnetic probe array, optical spectroscopy, interferometry, VUV, and higher energy radiation data and 2D-MHD calculations will be presented. Considerably more detail is presented in companion papers
Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnack, Dalton D
2006-05-16
This document reports the successful completion of the OFES Theory Milestone for FY2005, namely, Perform parametric studies to better understand the edge physics regimes of laboratory experiments. Simulate at increased resolution (up to 20 toroidal modes), with density evolution, late into the nonlinear phase and compare results from different types of edge modes. Simulate a single case including a study of heat deposition on nearby material walls. The linear stability properties and nonlinear evolution of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamak plasmas are investigated through numerical computation. Data from the DIII-D device at General Atomics (http://fusion.gat.com/diii-d/) is used for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, but edge parameters are varied to reveal important physical effects. The equilibrium with very low magnetic shear produces an unstable spectrum that is somewhat insensitive to dissipation coefficient values. Here, linear growth rates from the non-ideal NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) agree reasonably well with ideal, i.e. non-dissipative, results from the GATO global linear stability code at low toroidal mode number (n) and with ideal results from the ELITE edge linear stability code at moderate to high toroidal mode number. Linear studies with a more realistic sequence of MHD equilibria (based on DIII-D discharge 86166) produce more significant discrepancies between the ideal and non-ideal calculations. The maximum growth rate for the ideal computations occurs at toroidal mode index n=10, whereas growth rates in the non-ideal computations continue to increase with n unless strong anisotropic thermal conduction is included. Recent modeling advances allow drift effects associated with the Hall electric field and gyroviscosity to be considered. A stabilizing effect can be observed in the preliminary results, but while the distortion in mode structure is readily apparent at n=40, the growth rate is only 13% less than the non-ideal MHD
Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Scotti
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.
Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A magnetized, low-β plasma in pure toroidal configuration is formed and ex- tensively studied with ion mass as control parameter. Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ~1011 cm−3, ~4 × 1010 cm −3 and ~2 × 1010 cm −3 respectively.
Investigation of diocotron modes in toroidally trapped electron plasmas using non-destructive method
Lachhvani, Lavkesh; Pahari, Sambaran; Sengupta, Sudip; Yeole, Yogesh G.; Bajpai, Manu; Chattopadhyay, P. K.
2017-10-01
Experiments with trapped electron plasmas in a SMall Aspect Ratio Toroidal device (SMARTEX-C) have demonstrated a flute-like mode represented by oscillations on capacitive (wall) probes. Although analogous to diocotron mode observed in linear electron traps, the mode evolution in toroids can have interesting consequences due to the presence of in-homogeneous magnetic field. In SMARTEX-C, the probe signals are observed to undergo transition from small, near-sinusoidal oscillations to large amplitude, non-linear "double-peaked" oscillations. To interpret the wall probe signal and bring forth the dynamics, an expression for the induced current on the probe for an oscillating charge is derived, utilizing Green's Reciprocation Theorem. Equilibrium position, poloidal velocity of the charge cloud, and charge content of the cloud, required to compute the induced current, are estimated from the experiments. Signal through capacitive probes is thereby computed numerically for possible charge cloud trajectories. In order to correlate with experiments, starting with an intuitive guess of the trajectory, the model is evolved and tweaked to arrive at a signal consistent with experimentally observed probe signals. A possible vortex like dynamics is predicted, hitherto unexplored in toroidal geometries, for a limited set of experimental observations from SMARTEX-C. Though heuristic, a useful interpretation of capacitive probe data in terms of charge cloud dynamics is obtained.
Progress on Thomson scattering in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
Schlossberg, D. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Schoenbeck, N. L.; Winz, G. R.
2013-11-01
A novel Thomson scattering system has been implemented on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment where typical densities of 1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 10 to 500 eV are expected. The system leverages technological advances in high-energy pulsed lasers, volume phase holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings, and gated image intensified (ICCD) cameras to provide a relatively low-maintenance, economical, robust diagnostic system. Scattering is induced by a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (2 J at 532 nm, 7 ns FWHM pulse) directed to the plasma over a 7.7 m long beam path, and focused to VPH transmission gratings (eff. > 80%) and fast-gated ICCDs (gate > 2 ns, Gen III intensifier) with high-throughput (F/1.8), achromatic lensing. A stray light mitigation facility has been implemented, consisting of a multi-aperture optical baffle system and a simple beam dump. Successful stray light reduction has enabled detection of scattered signal, and Rayleigh scattering has been used to provide a relative calibration. Initial temperature measurements have been made and data analysis algorithms are under development.
Double-impulse magnetic focusing of launched cold atoms
Arnold, Aidan S.; Pritchard, Matthew J.; Smith, David A.; Hughes, Ifan G.
2006-04-01
We have theoretically investigated three-dimensional focusing of a launched cloud of cold atoms using a pair of magnetic lens pulses (the alternate-gradient method). Individual lenses focus radially and defocus axially or vice versa. The performance of the two possible pulse sequences are compared and found to be ideal for loading both 'pancake' and 'sausage' shaped magnetic/optical microtraps. It is shown that focusing aberrations are considerably smaller for double-impulse magnetic lenses compared to single-impulse magnetic lenses. An analysis of clouds focused by the double-impulse technique is presented.
Formation of a compact toroid for enhanced efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mozgovoy, A. G. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)
2014-02-15
We report here our results on the formation of a plasma configuration with the generic name of compact toroid (CT). A method of compact toroid formation to confine, heat and compress a plasma is investigated. Formation of a compact torus using an additional toroidal magnetic field helps to increase the plasma current to a maintainable level of the original magnetic field. We design the Compact Toroid Challenge (CTC) experiment in order to improve the magnetic flux trapping during field reversal in the formation of a compact toroid. The level of the magnetic field immersed in the plasma about 70% of the primary field is achieved. The CTC device and scheme of high level capturing of magnetic flux are presented.
Mechanical Commissioning of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Magnet
Foussat, A; Dudarev, A; Bajas, H; Védrine, P; Berriaud, C; Sun, Z; Sorbi, M
2008-01-01
ATLAS is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Its features include the 4 T Barrel Toroid magnet, the largest superconducting magnet (25 m long, 20 m diameter) that provides the magnetic field for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The coils integrated at CERN, were tested individually at maximum current of 22 kA in 2005. Following the mechanical assembly of the Barrel Toroid in the ATLAS underground cavern, the test of the full Barrel Toroid was performed in October 2006. Further tests are foreseen at the end 2007 when the system will include the two End Cap Toroids (ECT). The paper gives an overview of the good mechanical test results achieved in comparison with model predictions and the experience gained in the mechanical behavior of the ATLAS Toroidal coils is discussed.
Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas
Comer, Kathryn J.
We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent
ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] data management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kannan, K.L.; Baylor, L.R.
1988-01-01
Data management for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), a stellarator located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is provided by DMG, a locally developed, VAX-based software system. DMG is a data storage and retrieval software system that provides the user interface to ATF raw and analyzed data. Data are described in terms of data models and data types and are organized as signals into files, which are internally documented. The system was designed with user accessibility, software maintainability, and extensibility as primary goals. Extensibility features include compatibility with ATF as it moves from pulsed to steady-state operation and capability for use of the DMG system with experiments other than ATF. DMG is implemented as a run-time library of routines available as a shareable image. General-purpose and specialized data acquisition and analysis applications have been developed using the DMG system. This paper describes the DMG system and the interfaces to it. 4 refs., 2 figs
The theory of toroidally confined plasmas
White, Roscoe B
2014-01-01
This graduate level textbook develops the theory of magnetically confined plasma, with the aim of bringing the reader to the level of current research in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It begins with the basic concepts of magnetic field description, plasma equilibria and stability, and goes on to derive the equations for guiding center particle motion in an equilibrium field. Topics include linear and nonlinear ideal and resistive modes and particle transport. It is of use to workers in the field of fusion both for its wide-ranging account of tokamak physics and as a kind of handbook or formulary. This edition has been extended in a number of ways. The material on mode-particle interactions has been reformulated and much new information added, including methodology for Monte Carlo implementation of mode destabilization. These results give explicit means of carrying out mode destabilization analysis, in particular for the dangerous fishbone mode. A new chapter on cyclotron motion in toroidal geometry has ...
Isomorphic routing on a toroidal mesh
Mao, Weizhen; Nicol, David M.
1993-01-01
We study a routing problem that arises on SIMD parallel architectures whose communication network forms a toroidal mesh. We assume there exists a set of k message descriptors (xi, yi), where (xi, yi) indicates that the ith message's recipient is offset from its sender by xi hops in one mesh dimension, and yi hops in the other. Every processor has k messages to send, and all processors use the same set of message routing descriptors. The SIMD constraint implies that at any routing step, every processor is actively routing messages with the same descriptors as any other processor. We call this isomorphic routing. Our objective is to find the isomorphic routing schedule with least makespan. We consider a number of variations on the problem, yielding complexity results from O(k) to NP-complete. Most of our results follow after we transform the problem into a scheduling problem, where it is related to other well-known scheduling problems.
Distance statistics in large toroidal maps
Guitter, E.
2010-04-01
We compute a number of distance-dependent universal scaling functions characterizing the distance statistics of large maps of genus one. In particular, we obtain explicitly the probability distribution for the length of the shortest non-contractible loop passing via a random point in the map, and that for the distance between two random points. Our results are derived in the context of bipartite toroidal quadrangulations, using their coding by well-labeled 1-trees, which are maps of genus one with a single face and appropriate integer vertex labels. Within this framework, the distributions above are simply obtained as scaling limits of appropriate generating functions for well-labeled 1-trees, all expressible in terms of a small number of basic scaling functions for well-labeled plane trees.
Advanced toroidal facility vaccuum vessel stress analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammonds, C.J.; Mayhall, J.A.
1987-01-01
The complex geometry of the Advance Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel required special analysis techniques in investigating the structural behavior of the design. The response of a large-scale finite element model was found for transportation and operational loading. Several computer codes and systems, including the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center Cray machines, were implemented in accomplishing these analyses. The work combined complex methods that taxed the limits of both the codes and the computer systems involved. Using MSC/NASTRAN cyclic-symmetry solutions permitted using only 1/12 of the vessel geometry to mathematically analyze the entire vessel. This allowed the greater detail and accuracy demanded by the complex geometry of the vessel. Critical buckling-pressure analyses were performed with the same model. The development, results, and problems encountered in performing these analyses are described. 5 refs., 3 figs
Advanced Toroidal Facility vacuum vessel stress analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammonds, C.J.; Mayhall, J.A.
1987-01-01
The complex geometry of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel required special analysis techniques in investigating the structural behavior of the design. The response of a large-scale finite element model was found for transportation and operational loading. Several computer codes and systems, including the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center Cray machines, were implemented in accomplishing these analyses. The work combined complex methods that taxed the limits of both the codes and the computer systems involved. Using MSC/NASTRAN cyclic-symmetry solutions permitted using only 1/12 of the vessel geometry to mathematically analyze the entire vessel. This allowed the greater detail and accuracy demanded by the complex geometry of the vessel. Critical buckling-pressure analyses were performed with the same model. The development, results, and problems encountered in performing these analyses are described
Shear-dependant toroidal vortex flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khorasani, Nariman Ashrafi; Haghighi, Habib Karimi [Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-01-15
Pseudoplastic circular Couette flow in annulus is investigated. The flow viscosity is dependent on the shear rate, which directly affects the conservation equations that are solved in the present study by the spectral method in the present study. The pseudoplastic model adopted here is shown to be a suitable representative of nonlinear fluids. Unlike the previous studies, where only the square of shear rate term in the viscosity expression was considered to ease the numerical manipulations, in the present study takes the term containing the quadratic power into account. The curved streamlines of the circular Couette flow can cause a centrifugal instability leading to toroidal vortices, known as Taylor vortices. It is further found that the critical Taylor number becomes lower as the pseudoplastic effect increases. Comparison with existing measurements on pseudoplastic circular Couette flow results in good agreement.
Nonideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and toroidal magnetic confinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furth, H.P.
1985-05-01
The marked divergence of experimentally observed plasma instability phenomena from the predictions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics led in the early 1960s to the formulations of finite-resistivity stability theory. Beginning in the 1970s, advanced plasma diagnostics have served to establish a detailed correspondence between the predictions of the finite-resistivity theory and experimental plasma behavior - particularly in the case of the resistive kink mode and the tokamak plasma. Nonlinear resistive-kink phenomena have been found to govern the transport of magnetic flux and plasma energy in the reversed-field pinch. The other predicted finite-resistivity instability modes have been more difficult to identify directly and their implications for toroidal magnetic confinement are still unresolved.
Design considerations for ITER toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.
1987-01-01
The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb 3 Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the U.S. TIBER concept. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils
Toroidal microinstability studies of high temperature tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1989-07-01
Results from comprehensive kinetic microinstability calculations are presented showing the effects of toroidicity on the ion temperature gradient mode and its relationship to the trapped-electron mode in high-temperature tokamak plasmas. The corresponding particle and energy fluxes have also been computed. It is found that, although drift-type microinstabilities persist over a wide range of values of the ion temperature gradient parameter η i ≡ (dlnT i /dr)/(dlnn i /dr), the characteristic features of the dominant mode are those of the η i -type instability when η i > η ic ∼1.2 to 1.4 and of the trapped-electron mode when η i ic . 16 refs., 7 figs
Compact toroid development, activity plan for spheromaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-06-01
This document contains the description, goals, status, plans, and approach for the investigation of the properties of a magnetic configuration for plasma confinement identified as the spheromak. This component of the magnetic fusion development program has been characterized by its potential for physical compactness and a flexible range of output power. The included material represents the second phase of spheromak program planning. The first was completed in February 1983 and was reported in DOE/ER-0160, Compact Toroid Development. This planning builds on that previous report and concentrates on the detailed plans for the next several years of the current DOE sponsored program. It has been deliberately restricted to the experimental and theoretical efforts possible within the present scale of effort. A third phase of this planning exercise will examine the subsequent effort and resources needed to achieve near-term (1987 to 1990) spheromak technical objectives
Progress on large superconducting toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haubenreich, P.N.; Luton, J.N.; Thompson, P.B.; Beard, D.S.
1979-01-01
Large superconducting toroidal field coils of competing designs are being produced by six major industrial teams. In the US, teams headed by General Dynamics Convair, General Electric, and Westinghouse are under contract to design and fabricate one coil each to specifications established by the Large Coil Program. A facility for testing 6 coils in a toroidal array at fields to 8 to 12 tesla is under construction at Oak Ridge. Through an international agreement, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland will produce one coil each for testing with the US coils. Each test coil will have a 2.5 x 3.5 m D-shape winding bore and is designed to operate at a current of 10 to 18 kA at a peak field of 8T while subjected to pulsed fields of 0.14 T applied in 1.0 s. There are significant differences among the six coil designs: five use NbTi, one Nb 3 Sn; three are cooled by pool boiling helium, three by forced flow; five have welded or bolted stainless steel coil cases, one has aluminum plate structure. All are designed to be cryostable at 8T, with structural margin for extended operation. The three US coil teams are almost or completely finished with detailed design and are now procuring materials and setting up manufacturing equipment. The non-US teams are at various stages of verification testing and design. The GDC and GE coils are scheduled for delivery in the spring of 1981 and the others will be completed a year later. The 11-m diameter vessel at the test facility has been completed and major components of the test stand are being procured. Engineering and procurement to upgrade the helium liquifier-refrigerator system are under way
Petascale Parallelization of the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ethier, Stephane; Adams, Mark; Carter, Jonathan; Oliker, Leonid
2010-05-01
The Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) is a global, three-dimensional particle-in-cell application developed to study microturbulence in tokamak fusion devices. The global capability of GTC is unique, allowing researchers to systematically analyze important dynamics such as turbulence spreading. In this work we examine a new radial domain decomposition approach to allow scalability onto the latest generation of petascale systems. Extensive performance evaluation is conducted on three high performance computing systems: the IBM BG/P, the Cray XT4, and an Intel Xeon Cluster. Overall results show that the radial decomposition approach dramatically increases scalability, while reducing the memory footprint - allowing for fusion device simulations at an unprecedented scale. After a decade where high-end computing (HEC) was dominated by the rapid pace of improvements to processor frequencies, the performance of next-generation supercomputers is increasingly differentiated by varying interconnect designs and levels of integration. Understanding the tradeoffs of these system designs is a key step towards making effective petascale computing a reality. In this work, we examine a new parallelization scheme for the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) [?] micro-turbulence fusion application. Extensive scalability results and analysis are presented on three HEC systems: the IBM BlueGene/P (BG/P) at Argonne National Laboratory, the Cray XT4 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and an Intel Xeon cluster at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Overall results indicate that the new radial decomposition approach successfully attains unprecedented scalability to 131,072 BG/P cores by overcoming the memory limitations of the previous approach. The new version is well suited to utilize emerging petascale resources to access new regimes of physical phenomena.
1D equation for toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozhansky, V A; Senichenkov, I Yu
2010-01-01
A 1D equation for toroidal momentum transport is derived for a given set of turbulent transport coefficients. The averaging is performed taking account of the poloidal variation of the toroidal fluxes and is based on the ambipolar condition of the zero net radial current through the flux surface. It is demonstrated that taking account of the Pfirsch-Schlueter fluxes leads to a torque in the toroidal direction which is proportional to the gradient of the ion temperature. This effect is new and has not been discussed before. The boundary condition at the separatrix, which is based on the results of the 2D simulations of the edge plasma, is formulated.
Performance of a Folded-Strip Toroidally Wound Induction Machine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bogi Bech; Jack, Alan G.; Atkinson, Glynn J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the measured experimental results from a four-pole toroidally wound induction machine, where the stator is constructed as a pre-wound foldable strip. It shows that if the machine is axially restricted in length, the toroidally wound induction machine can have substantially...... shorter stator end-windings than conventionally wound induction machines, and hence that a toroidally wound induction machine can have lower losses and a higher efficiency. The paper also presents the employed construction method, which emphasizes manufacturability, and highlights the advantages...
Deformation energy of a toroidal nucleus and plane fragmentation barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauchard, C.; Royer, G.
1996-01-01
The path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes is investigated using a one-parameter shape sequence. The deformation energy is determined within the analytical expressions obtained for the various shape-dependent functions and the generalized rotating liquid drop model taking into account the proximity energy and the temperature. With increasing mass and angular momentum, a potential well appears in the toroidal shape path. For the heaviest systems, the pocket is large and locally favourable with respect to the plane fragmentation barriers which might allow the formation of evanescent toroidal systems which would rapidly decay in several fragments to minimize the surface tension. (orig.)
Progress in gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevins, W.M.; Dimits, A.M.; Cohen, B.I.; Shumaker, D.E.
2001-01-01
The 3-D nonlinear toroidal gyrokinetic simulation code PG3EQ is used to study toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence - a key cause of the anomalous transport that limits tokamak plasma performance. Systematic studies of the dependence of ion thermal transport on various parameters and effects are presented, including dependence on E-vectorxB-vector and toroidal velocity shear, sensitivity to the force balance in simulations with radial temperature gradient variation, and the dependences on magnetic shear and ion temperature gradient. (author)
Laser-induced production of large carbon-based toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyn, M. Elizabeth; He Jibao; Koplitz, Brent
2005-01-01
We report on the production of large carbon-based toroids (CBTs) from fullerenes. The process involves two-step laser irradiation of a mixed fullerene target (76% C 60 , 22% C 70 ). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly identifies toroidal-shaped structures as well as Q-shaped constructs. The typical diameters of the CBTs are ∼0.2-0.3 μm with tubular diameters of ∼50-100 nm, but toroids as wide as 0.5 μm are observed making them nanostructures on the verge of being microstructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwenterly, S.W.; Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Walker, M.S.; Hazelton, D.W.; Haldar, P.; Rice, J.A.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Motowidlo, L.R.
1994-01-01
Critical Currents are reported for several Ag/BSCCO single-pancake coils in static magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 5 T and temperatures from 4.2 K to 105 K. The sample coils were co-wound of one to six tape conductors in parallel. Since the closed loops formed in such an arrangement could lead to eddy current heating or instability in changing fields, one of the coils was also tested in helium gas, in fields ramped at rates of up to 1.5 T/s. For these quasi-adiabatic tests, at each temperature the transport current was set just below the critical value for a preset static field of 3.3 or 4.9 T. The field was then rapidly ramped down to zero, held for 20 sec, and then ramped back up to the original value. The maximum observed temperature transient of about 1.7 K occurred at 9 K, for a field change of 4.75 T. The temperature transients became negligible when the sample was immersed in liquid helium. Above 30 K, the transients were below 1 K. These results give confidence that parallel co-wound HTSC coils are stable in a rapidly-ramped magnetic field, without undue eddy current heating
On the double adiabatic continuous spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
1984-09-01
In earlier work it has been found that the Alfven and cusp (or slow) continuous spectra can become unstable in toroidal geometry, as judged from the linearized double adiabatic equations. In this paper the validity of fluid approaches to the present problem is investigated. The physical implications of the stability conditions are discussed. (Author)
Mcdonough, T. R.
1974-01-01
The trapping of Titan's escaping atmosphere in the Saturnian system by a toroidal ring is discussed. The radius of the toroid is comparable to Titan's orbit, or about ten times larger than the visible rings. Theoretical atmospheric models are formulated that consider Saturn's gravitational attraction and magnetospheric properties in forming this toroid and in protecting toroid particles from direct ionization by solar wind particles.
Study of the Tokamak-15 Superconducting Toroidal Field Coil (STFC) heating under the quench
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anashkin, I.O.; Kabanovsky, S.V.; Chudnovsky, A.N.; Khvostenko, P.P.; Vertiporokh, A.N.; Ivanov, D.P.; Posadsky, I.A.
1994-01-01
Experiments in Tokamak-15 were performed to study the STFC heating under the quench. The quench was specially caused by current introduction into STFC at the unchanged input helium temperature. The experimental results and simulation data on temperature heating and amount of heat realized in the pancakes under the quench are given. In the experiments was shown that quench occurs in the internal turns of pancakes and estimations of maximal temperature heating corresponds to calculated ones
Influence of toroidal rotation on resistive tearing modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W.
2015-01-01
Influence of toroidal equilibrium plasma rotation on m/n = 2/1 resistive tearing modes is studied numerically using a 3D toroidal MHD code (CLT). It is found that the toroidal rotation with or without shear can suppress the tearing instability and the Coriolis effect in the toroidal geometry plays a dominant role on the rotation induced stabilization. For a high viscosity plasma (τ R /τ V ≫ 1, where τ R and τ V represent resistive and viscous diffusion time, respectively), the effect of the rotation shear combined with the viscosity appears to be stabilizing. For a low viscosity plasmas (τ R /τ V ≪ 1), the rotation shear shows a destabilizing effect when the rotation is large
Influence of toroidal rotation on resistive tearing modes in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W., E-mail: zwma@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2015-12-15
Influence of toroidal equilibrium plasma rotation on m/n = 2/1 resistive tearing modes is studied numerically using a 3D toroidal MHD code (CLT). It is found that the toroidal rotation with or without shear can suppress the tearing instability and the Coriolis effect in the toroidal geometry plays a dominant role on the rotation induced stabilization. For a high viscosity plasma (τ{sub R}/τ{sub V} ≫ 1, where τ{sub R} and τ{sub V} represent resistive and viscous diffusion time, respectively), the effect of the rotation shear combined with the viscosity appears to be stabilizing. For a low viscosity plasmas (τ{sub R}/τ{sub V} ≪ 1), the rotation shear shows a destabilizing effect when the rotation is large.
Toroidal and rotating bubble nuclei and the nuclear fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Royer, G.; Fauchard, C.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.
1997-01-01
The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. Previously, a one-parameter shape sequence has been defined to describe the path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes. New analytical expressions for the shape dependent functions have been obtained. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three-dimensional and plane-fragmentation barriers. Metastable bubble-like minima only appear at very high angular momentum and above the three dimensional fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localized below the plane-fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension
System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices
Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.; Stix, T.H.; Grimm, R.C.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.
1984-08-30
This invention pertains to methods and arrangements for attaining high beta values in plasma confinement devices. More specifically, this invention pertains to methods for accessing the second stability region of operation in toroidal magnetic confinement devices.
Effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riyopoulos, S.; Mahajan, S.
1985-11-01
The effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion is examined by treating the wave propagation in an inhomogeneous medium as an eigenvalue problem for ω 2 (m,n),m,n poloidal and toroidal wave numbers. Since the frequency regime near ω 2 = ω/sub LH/ 2 is an accumulation point for the eigenvalue spectrum, the degenerate perturbation technique must be applied. The toroidal eigenmodes are constructed by a zeroth order superposition of monochromatic solutions with different poloidal dependence m, thus they generically exhibit a wide spectrum in k/sub parallel/ for given fixed ω 2 even for small inverse aspect ratio epsilon. In case that the average is in the neighborhood of k/sub min/, the minimum wave number for accessibility of the mode conversion regime, it is expected that excitation of toroidal modes rather than geometric optics will determine the wave coupling to the plasma
Structural design of the superconducting toroidal field coils for ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, F.M.G.; Sborchia, C.; Thome, R.J.; Malkov, A.; Titus, P.H.
1995-01-01
Structural design issues and features of the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be discussed. Selected analyses of the structural and mechanical behavior of the ITER TF coils will also be presented. (orig.)
Toroidal high-spin isomers in the nucleus 304120
Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Kosior, A.
2017-05-01
Background: Strongly deformed oblate superheavy nuclei form an intriguing region where the toroidal nuclear structures may bifurcate from the oblate spheroidal shape. The bifurcation may be facilitated when the nucleus is endowed with a large angular moment about the symmetry axis with I =Iz . The toroidal high-K isomeric states at their local energy minima can be theoretically predicted using the cranked self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method. Purpose: We use the cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method to predict the properties of the toroidal high-spin isomers in the superheavy nucleus 120304184. Method: Our method consists of three steps: First, we use the deformation-constrained Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach to search for the nuclear density distributions with toroidal shapes. Next, using these toroidal distributions as starting configurations, we apply an additional cranking constraint of a large angular momentum I =Iz about the symmetry z axis and search for the energy minima of the system as a function of the deformation. In the last step, if a local energy minimum with I =Iz is found, we perform at this point the cranked symmetry- and deformation-unconstrained Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations to locate a stable toroidal high-spin isomeric state in free convergence. Results: We have theoretically located two toroidal high-spin isomeric states of 120304184 with an angular momentum I =Iz=81 ℏ (proton 2p-2h, neutron 4p-4h excitation) and I =Iz=208 ℏ (proton 5p-5h, neutron 8p-8h) at the quadrupole moment deformations Q20=-297.7 b and Q20=-300.8 b with energies 79.2 and 101.6 MeV above the spherical ground state, respectively. The nuclear density distributions of the toroidal high-spin isomers 120304184(Iz=81 ℏ and 208 ℏ ) have the maximum density close to the nuclear matter density, 0.16 fm-3, and a torus major to minor radius aspect ratio R /d =3.25 . Conclusions: We demonstrate that aligned angular momenta of Iz=81 ℏ and 208 ℏ arising from
Turbulent and neoclassical toroidal momentum transport in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abiteboul, J.
2012-10-01
The goal of magnetic confinement devices such as tokamaks is to produce energy from nuclear fusion reactions in plasmas at low densities and high temperatures. Experimentally, toroidal flows have been found to significantly improve the energy confinement, and therefore the performance of the machine. As extrinsic momentum sources will be limited in future fusion devices such as ITER, an understanding of the physics of toroidal momentum transport and the generation of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks would be an important step in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Among the mechanisms expected to contribute to the generation of toroidal rotation is the transport of momentum by electrostatic turbulence, which governs heat transport in tokamaks. Due to the low collisionality of the plasma, kinetic modeling is mandatory for the study of tokamak turbulence. In principle, this implies the modeling of a six-dimensional distribution function representing the density of particles in position and velocity phase-space, which can be reduced to five dimensions when considering only frequencies below the particle cyclotron frequency. This approximation, relevant for the study of turbulence in tokamaks, leads to the so-called gyrokinetic model and brings the computational cost of the model within the presently available numerical resources. In this work, we study the transport of toroidal momentum in tokamaks in the framework of the gyrokinetic model. First, we show that this reduced model is indeed capable of accurately modeling momentum transport by deriving a local conservation equation of toroidal momentum, and verifying it numerically with the gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Secondly, we show how electrostatic turbulence can break the axisymmetry and generate toroidal rotation, while a strong link between turbulent heat and momentum transport is identified, as both exhibit the same large-scale avalanche-like events. The dynamics of turbulent transport are
Polymer- and salt-induced toroids of hexagonal DNA.
Ubbink, J; Odijk, T
1995-01-01
A model is proposed for polymer- and salt-induced toroidal condensates of DNA, based on a recent theory of the undulation enhancement of the electrostatic interaction in the bulk hexagonal phase of semiflexible polyions. In a continuum approximation, the thermodynamic potential of a monomolecular toroid may be split up in bulk, surface, and curvature contributions. With the help of an approximate analytical minimization procedure, the optimal torus dimensions are calculated as a function of t...
Transport in the high temperature core of toroidal confinement systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiland, J.
1994-01-01
Recent theoretical and experimental results on confinement of hot plasmas in toroidal devices, particularly tokamaks, are discussed from general principal points of view and related to predictions from a toroidal drift wave model using a full transport matrix including off diagonal terms. A reactive fluid model corresponding to a two pole approximation of the kinetic response is used. This model has the ability to reproduce both adiabatic and isothermal limits of the perpendicular dynamics. 106 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab
An important step for the ATLAS toroid magnet
2000-01-01
The ATLAS experiment's prototype toroid coil arrives at CERN from the CEA laboratory in Saclay on 6 October. The world's largest superconducting toroid magnet is under construction for the ATLAS experiment. A nine-metre long fully functional prototype coil was delivered to CERN at the beginning of October and has since been undergoing tests in the West Area. Built mainly by companies in France and Italy under the supervision of engineers from the CEA-Saclay laboratory near Paris and Italy's INFN-LASA, the magnet is a crucial step forward in the construction of the ATLAS superconducting magnet system. Unlike any particle detector that has gone before, the ATLAS detector's magnet system consists of a large toroidal system enclosing a small central solenoid. The barrel part of the toroidal system will use eight toroid coils, each a massive 25 metres in length. These will dwarf the largest toroids in the world when ATLAS was designed, which measure about six metres. So the ATLAS collaboration decided to build a...
Dynamics of accelerated compact toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLean, H.S.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Hartman, C.W.; Molvik, A.W.
1990-01-01
Previous work on the RACE experiment has demonstrated acceleration and focusing of spheromak-type compact toroids of low mass (10 μg), low density (10 13 cm -3 ), and low magnetic field (2 KG). Computer modeling and measurements give reasonably good accounting of ring mass, momentum, and energy. Present work has been toward increasing the ring magnetic field and utilizing inductive storage by compressing similar plasma rings prior to acceleration. The precompression, followed by acceleration has been performed. Ring density and magnetic field have increased (n e ∼ 10 15 cm -3 , B ∼ 4 KG) in the precompression cone, and magnetic field increases (B ∼ 8--12 KG) after compression and during acceleration, however, trajectory measurements have shown an increase in drag or possibly ring mass above that accounted for by the density measurements in the precompression cone. For the low mass/density/field rings, drag forces did not need to be invoked for agreement between modeling and experiment and mass was consistent with electron density measurements. Drag and/or mass change is now apparently important in this higher mass/density/field regime
Toroidal regularization of the guiding center Lagrangian
Burby, J. W.; Ellison, C. L.
2017-11-01
In the Lagrangian theory of guiding center motion, an effective magnetic field B*=B +(m /e )v∥∇× b appears prominently in the equations of motion. Because the parallel component of this field can vanish, there is a range of parallel velocities where the Lagrangian guiding center equations of motion are either ill-defined or very badly behaved. Moreover, the velocity dependence of B* greatly complicates the identification of canonical variables and therefore the formulation of symplectic integrators for guiding center dynamics. This letter introduces a simple coordinate transformation that alleviates both these problems simultaneously. In the new coordinates, the Liouville volume element is equal to the toroidal contravariant component of the magnetic field. Consequently, the large-velocity singularity is completely eliminated. Moreover, passing from the new coordinate system to canonical coordinates is extremely simple, even if the magnetic field is devoid of flux surfaces. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in regularizing the guiding center Lagrangian by presenting a new and stable one-step variational integrator for guiding centers moving in arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic fields.
Compact toroid injection into C-2U
Roche, Thomas; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Putvinski, S.; Allfrey, I.; Beall, M.; Cordero, M.; Granstedt, E.; Kinley, J.; Morehouse, M.; Sheftman, D.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; the TAE Team
2015-11-01
Sustainment of an advanced neutral beam-driven FRC for a period in excess of 5 ms is the primary goal of the C-2U machine at Tri Alpha Energy. In addition, a criteria for long-term global sustainment of any magnetically confined fusion reactor is particle refueling. To this end, a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun has been developed. Compact toroids (CT) are to be injected perpendicular to the axial magnetic field of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test-stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of B ~ 1 kG is established (comparable to the C-2U axial field) and CTs are fired across it. As a minimal requirement, the CT must have energy density greater than that of the magnetic field it is to penetrate, i.e., 1/2 ρv2 >=B2 / 2μ0 . This criteria is easily met and indeed the CTs traverse the test-stand field. A preliminary experiment on C-2U shows the CT also capable of penetrating into FRC plasmas and refueling is observed resulting in a 20 - 30% increase in total particle number per single-pulsed CT injection. Results from test-stand and C-2U experiments will be presented.
Physics models in the toroidal transport code PROCTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howe, H.C.
1990-08-01
The physics models that are contained in the toroidal transport code PROCTR are described in detail. Time- and space-dependent models are included for the plasma hydrogenic-ion, helium, and impurity densities, the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal rotation velocity, and the toroidal current profile. Time- and depth-dependent models for the trapped and mobile hydrogenic particle concentrations in the wall and a time-dependent point model for the number of particles in the limiter are also included. Time-dependent models for neutral particle transport, neutral beam deposition and thermalization, fusion heating, impurity radiation, pellet injection, and the radial electric potential are included and recalculated periodically as the time-dependent models evolve. The plasma solution is obtained either in simple flux coordinates, where the radial shift of each elliptical, toroidal flux surface is included to maintain an approximate pressure equilibrium, or in general three-dimensional torsatron coordinates represented by series of helical harmonics. The detailed coupling of the plasma, scrape-off layer, limiter, and wall models through the neutral transport model makes PROCTR especially suited for modeling of recycling and particle control in toroidal plasmas. The model may also be used in a steady-state profile analysis mode for studying energy and particle balances starting with measured plasma profiles.
Toroidal Plasma Thruster for Interplanetary and Interstellar Space Flights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorelenkov, N.N.; Zakharov, L.E.; Gorelenkova, M.V.
2001-01-01
This work involves a conceptual assessment for using the toroidal fusion reactor for deep space interplanetary and interstellar missions. Toroidal thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as tokamaks and stellarators, are unique for space propulsion, allowing for a design with the magnetic configuration localized inside toroidal magnetic field coils. Plasma energetic ions, including charged fusion products, can escape such a closed configuration at certain conditions, a result of the vertical drift in toroidal rippled magnetic field. Escaping particles can be used for direct propulsion (since toroidal drift is directed one way vertically) or to create and heat externally confined plasma, so that the latter can be used for propulsion. Deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV also can be used for direct propulsion. A special design allows neutrons to escape the shield and the blanket of the tokamak. This provides a direct (partial) conversion of the fusion energy into the directed motion of the propellant. In contrast to other fusion concepts proposed for space propulsion, this concept utilizes the natural drift motion of charged particles out of the closed magnetic field configuration
Analytical modelling of resistive wall mode stabilization by rotation in toroidal tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ham, C J; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J
2011-01-01
Stabilization of the resitive wall mode (RWM) may allow fusion power to be doubled for a given magnetic field in advanced tokamak operation. Experimental evidence from DIII-D and other machines suggests that plasma rotation can stabilize the RWM. Several authors (Finn 1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 3782, Bondeson and Xie 1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 2081) have constructed analytical cylindrical models for the RWM, but these do not deal with toroidal effects. The framework of Connor et al (1988 Phys. Fluids 31 577) is used to develop ideal plasma analytic models with toroidicity included. Stepped pressure profiles and careful ordering of terms are used to simplify the analysis. First, a current driven kink mode model is developed and a dispersion relation for arbitrary current profile is calculated. Second, the external pressure driven kink mode is similarly investigated as the most important RWM arises from this mode. Using this latter model it is found that the RWM is stabilized by Alfven continuum damping with rotation levels similar to those seen in experiments. An expression for the stability of the external kink mode for more general current profiles and a resistive wall is derived in the appendix.
Structural analysis of TFTR toroidal field coil conceptual design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.A.
1975-10-01
The conceptual design evaluation of the V-shaped toroidal field coils on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor has been performed by detailed structural analysis with the finite element method. The innovation provided by this design and verified in this work is the capability to support toroidal field loads while simultaneously performing the function of twist restraint against the device axial torques resulting from the vertical field loads. The evaluations made for the conceptual design provide predictions for coil deflections and stresses. The results are available for the separate effects from toroidal fields, poloidal fields, and the thermal expansion of the coils as well as for the superposition of the primary loads and the primary plus thermal loads
Vlasov tokamak equilibria with sheared toroidal flow and anisotropic pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuiroukidis, Ap, E-mail: kouirouki@astro.auth.gr [Technological Education Institute of Serres, 62124 Serres (Greece); Throumoulopoulos, G. N., E-mail: gthroum@uoi.gr [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Tasso, H., E-mail: het@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2015-08-15
By choosing appropriate deformed Maxwellian ion and electron distribution functions depending on the two particle constants of motion, i.e., the energy and toroidal angular momentum, we reduce the Vlasov axisymmetric equilibrium problem for quasineutral plasmas to a transcendental Grad-Shafranov-like equation. This equation is then solved numerically under the Dirichlet boundary condition for an analytically prescribed boundary possessing a lower X-point to construct tokamak equilibria with toroidal sheared ion flow and anisotropic pressure. Depending on the deformation of the distribution functions, these steady states can have toroidal current densities either peaked on the magnetic axis or hollow. These two kinds of equilibria may be regarded as a bifurcation in connection with symmetry properties of the distribution functions on the magnetic axis.
Modal analysis of a stiffened toroidal shell sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerreta, R.; Di Pietro, E.; Pizzuto, A.
1987-01-01
This paper presents the results of the modal analysis of a sector of the toroidal vacuum vessel of a new experimental machine for research in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion (FTU - Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The vacuum vessel, one of the most critical components of the experimental device, consist of 12 stainless steel toroidal sectors, and it is designed to withstand pulsed electromagnetic loads during operation. Results of the modal analysis of the stiffened toroidal shell sector are compared and discussed with regard to the experimental data. Theoretical eigenvalues and eigenvectors have been predicted by means of ABAQUS finite element code. Experimental analysis has been carried out on a full scale model and natural frequencies have been measured. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and theoretical eigenvalues has been found
Toroidal Superheavy Nuclei in Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2009-01-01
Within the self-consistent constraint Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS model (SHF+BCS), we found equilibrium toroidal nuclear density distributions in the region of superheavy elements. For nuclei with a sufficient oblate deformation (Q 20 < -200 b), it becomes energetically favorable to change the genus of nuclear surface from 0 to 1, i.e., to switch the shape from a biconcave disc to a torus. The energy of the toroidal (genus=1) SHF+BCS solution relative to the compact (genus=0) ground state energy is strongly dependent both on the atomic number Z and the mass number A. We discuss the region of Z and A where the toroidal SHF+BCS total energy begins to be a global minimum
Leana, Frank C.
1994-01-01
Describes three case vignettes of college freshmen who are unhappy with their choice of schools early in their freshman years. Considers problems in dormitory living, academic pressures, and interpersonal problems. Discusses change in the campus environment in recent decades and the need for adult involvement in campus life. (NB)
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaun, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell`s equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models` resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs.
Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MUNTEANU, A.
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.
On the longitudinal coupling impedance of a toroidal beam tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, H.; Tepikian, S.
1990-01-01
In this paper, the longitudinal coupling impedance of a smooth toroidal beam tube is derived. By treating the torus as a slow-wave structure, the well-known method of describing the impedance in terms of cavity resonances can be used. A simple analytical expression for the coupling impedance of a toroidal beam tube with square cross section valid in the low-frequency limit is obtained. The results from the present study are compared with previously published solutions and qualitative differences are pointed out. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Tokamak configuration analysis with the method of toroidal multipoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micozzi, P.; Alladio, F.; Crisanti, F.; Marinucci, M.; Tanga, A.
1989-01-01
In the study of tokamak machines able to sustain plasmas of thermonuclear interest (JIT, IGNITOR, NET, CIT, ET), there is a strong quest for engineering optimization of the circuital components close to the plasma. We have developed a semianalytical axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code based on the technique of the poloidal ψ flux function expansion in toroidal harmonic series. This code is able to optimize the necessary currents in the poloidal circuits in order to sustain a plasma of fixed shape (also x-point configuration), toroidal current and poloidal β. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs
Development and verification of printed circuit board toroidal transformer model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pejtersen, Jens; Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Knott, Arnold
2013-01-01
by comparing calculated parameters with 3D finite element simulations and experimental measurement results. The developed transformer model shows good agreement with the simulated and measured results. The model can be used to predict the parameters of printed circuit board toroidal transformer configurations......An analytical model of an air core printed circuit board embedded toroidal transformer configuration is presented. The transformer has been developed for galvanic isolation of very high frequency switch-mode dc-dc power converter applications. The theoretical model is developed and verified...
Heat removal in INTOR via a toroidal limiter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mioduszewski, P.
1981-01-01
In the present paper the potential of removing about 100 MW of thermal plasma power via a toroidal limiter in INTOR is studied. The heat flux distributions on various limiter configurations are calculated and the thermal response of a graphite tile limiter is estimated on the base of a one-dimensional heat conduction approach. The evaporation rates which have to be expected for the given energy flux densities and radiation cooled graphite tiles are evaluated. According to the present understanding it should be possible to remove 100 MW power from the INTOR plasma via a radiation cooled toroidal limiter. (author)
Neoclassical diffusion in toroidal three-cut magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemov, V.V.; Shishkin, A.A.
1975-01-01
Quasi-classical diffusion is investigated in the regime of toroidal drift of 'bananas' in a three cut magnetic field. Unlike previous papers, it is supposed that the inhomogeneity of a helical magnetic field epsilonsub(k) is of the same order or less than that of the toroidal inhomogeneity epsilonsub(t). The case is considered when the efficient frequency of particle collisions exceeds that of the 'banana' precession around the magnetic axis. Expressions for diffusion flows and coefficients are obtained that transform into available ones at epsilonsub(h) > > epsilonsub(t) [ru
A direct calculation of current drive in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.
1998-01-01
The magnitude and radial profiles of noninductive currents driven by fast magnetosonic waves in tokamaks have been calculated directly from the wave-induced quasilinear flux in a toroidal geometry and a Green's function for the current. An expression for the quasilinear flux has been derived which accounts for coupling between modes in the spectrum of waves launched from the antenna. A Fokker-Planck code for the Green's function and a full wave code for the electric field in the quasilinear flux are used to evaluate the current in a specified toroidal geometry
Current drive by asymmetrical heating in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gahl, J.M.
1986-01-01
This report describes the first experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions. A unidirectional fast Alfven wave launched by a slow-wave antenna inside the Texas Tech Tokamak, asymmetrically heated the ions. Measurements of the asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current with probes at the top and bottom of the toroidal plasma column confirmed the current generation indirectly. Current generation, obtained in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, is a phenomenon which had not been predicted previously. Calculations of the dispersion relation for the fast Alfven wave near the fundamental cyclotron resonance in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, using warm plasma theory, support the experimental results
Effects of 3D magnetic perturbations on toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
2011-01-01
Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field perturbations have many interesting and possibly useful effects on tokamak and quasi-symmetric stellarator plasmas. Plasma transport equations that include these effects, most notably on diamagnetic-level toroidal plasma flows, have recently been developed. The 3D field perturbations and their plasma effects can be classified according to their toroidal mode number n: low n (say 1-5) resonant (with field line pitch, q = m/n) and non-resonant fields, medium n (∼20, due to toroidal field ripple) and high n (due to microturbulence). Low n non-resonant fields induce a neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) that damps toroidal rotation throughout the plasma towards an offset rotation in the counter-current direction. Recent tokamak experiments have generally confirmed and exploited these predictions by applying external low n non-resonant magnetic perturbations. Medium n toroidal field ripple produces similar effects plus possible ripple-trapping NTV effects and ion direct losses in the edge. A low n (e.g. n = 1) resonant field is mostly shielded by the toroidally rotating plasma at and inside the resonant (rational) surface. If it is large enough it can stop plasma rotation at the rational surface, facilitate magnetic reconnection there and lead to a growing stationary magnetic island (locked mode), which often causes a plasma disruption. Externally applied 3D magnetic perturbations usually have many components. In the plasma their lowest n (e.g. n = 1) externally resonant components can be amplified by kink-type plasma responses, particularly at high β. Low n plasma instabilities (e.g. resistive wall modes, neoclassical tearing modes) cause additional 3D magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas. Tearing modes in their nonlinear (Rutherford) regime bifurcate the topology and form magnetic islands. Finally, multiple resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can, if not shielded by plasma rotation effects, cause local magnetic
Electron diamagnetism and toroidal coupling of tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.
1987-10-01
Using a simple model for the layer of the tearing mode, we demonstrate that toroidally coupled tearing modes with two rational surfaces are most unstable when the ω*'s of the electrons at the rational surfaces are equal. The onset of instability may then occur because of the tuning of ω* rather than the passage of Δ'-like quantities through zero. This mechanism for the onset of instability is sharp since the resonance is narrow. The effect of toroidal rotation is also discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs
Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1979-07-01
A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)
Transient eddy currents on finite plane and toroidal conducting surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weissenburger, D.W.; Christensen, U.R.
1979-04-01
this report applies a previously presented mesh analysis method to calculate transient eddy currents in conducting surfaces. Example calculations are presented for a planar conducting sheet of finite dimensions and also for a toroidal conducting surface which represents the vacuum vessel of the TFTR. For the toroidal sheet, branch inductances are initially calculated by num erically integrating the vector potential function, then the branch matrix is transformed into a mesh matrix. For the flat sheet, an analytic expression is given which enables direct calculation of the mesh inductance matrix. Streamline plots of the eddy current distributions are shown at successive time steps for each example.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podesta, M; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; LeBlanc, B P; Heidbrink, W W; Crocker, N A; Kubota, S
2010-08-19
The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)]. The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podesta, M.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Crocker, N.A.; Kubota, S.; Yuh, H.
2010-01-01
The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) (M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)). The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Kolomiyets, K.
2013-01-01
Results are presented of a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction survey along a profile between the Pannonian Basin (PB) and the East European Craton (EEC) called PANCAKE. The P- and S-wave velocity model derived can be divided into three sectors: the PB; the Carpathians, including the Transca......Results are presented of a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction survey along a profile between the Pannonian Basin (PB) and the East European Craton (EEC) called PANCAKE. The P- and S-wave velocity model derived can be divided into three sectors: the PB; the Carpathians, including...... the Transcarpathian Depression and the Carpathian Foredeep; and the south-western part of the EEC, including the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ). Seismic data support a robust model of the Vp velocity structure of the crust. In the PB, the 22-23km thick crust consists of a 2-5km thick sedimentary layer (Vp=2...... of the lower crust towards the Ukrainian Shield, where a high velocity lower crust (Vp>7.2km/s) is observed. Two low-velocity lenses in the upper crust of the EEC are interpreted beneath major sedimentary troughs (Lviv and Volyn-Podolsk). Mantle reflectors are observed at depths of ~45km and ~75km below the PB...
Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sovinec, Carl
2016-01-01
The study entitled, 'Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems,' (TDTFS) applied analytical theory and numerical computation to investigate topics of importance to confining plasma, the fourth state of matter, with magnetic fields. A central focus of the work is how non-thermal components of the ion particle distribution affect the 'sawtooth' collective oscillation in the core of the tokamak magnetic configuration. Previous experimental and analytical research had shown and described how the oscillation frequency decreases and amplitude increases, leading to 'monster' or 'giant' sawteeth, when the non-thermal component is increased by injecting particle beams or by exciting ions with imposed electromagnetic waves. The TDTFS study applied numerical computation to self-consistently simulate the interaction between macroscopic collective plasma dynamics and the non-thermal particles. The modeling used the NIMROD code [Sovinec, Glasser, Gianakon, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] with the energetic component represented by simulation particles [Kim, Parker, Sovinec, and the NIMROD Team, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 448 (2004)]. The computations found decreasing growth rates for the instability that drives the oscillations, but they were ultimately limited from achieving experimentally relevant parameters due to computational practicalities. Nonetheless, this effort provided valuable lessons for integrated simulation of macroscopic plasma dynamics. It also motivated an investigation of the applicability of fluid-based modeling to the ion temperature gradient instability, leading to the journal publication [Schnack, Cheng, Barnes, and Parker, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062106 (2013)]. Apart from the tokamak-specific topics, the TDTFS study also addressed topics in the basic physics of magnetized plasma and in the dynamics of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration. The basic physics work contributed to a study of two
Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sovinec, Carl [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2016-09-07
The study entitled, "Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems," (TDTFS) applied analytical theory and numerical computation to investigate topics of importance to confining plasma, the fourth state of matter, with magnetic fields. A central focus of the work is how non-thermal components of the ion particle distribution affect the "sawtooth" collective oscillation in the core of the tokamak magnetic configuration. Previous experimental and analytical research had shown and described how the oscillation frequency decreases and amplitude increases, leading to "monster" or "giant" sawteeth, when the non-thermal component is increased by injecting particle beams or by exciting ions with imposed electromagnetic waves. The TDTFS study applied numerical computation to self-consistently simulate the interaction between macroscopic collective plasma dynamics and the non-thermal particles. The modeling used the NIMROD code [Sovinec, Glasser, Gianakon, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] with the energetic component represented by simulation particles [Kim, Parker, Sovinec, and the NIMROD Team, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 448 (2004)]. The computations found decreasing growth rates for the instability that drives the oscillations, but they were ultimately limited from achieving experimentally relevant parameters due to computational practicalities. Nonetheless, this effort provided valuable lessons for integrated simulation of macroscopic plasma dynamics. It also motivated an investigation of the applicability of fluid-based modeling to the ion temperature gradient instability, leading to the journal publication [Schnack, Cheng, Barnes, and Parker, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062106 (2013)]. Apart from the tokamak-specific topics, the TDTFS study also addressed topics in the basic physics of magnetized plasma and in the dynamics of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration. The basic physics work contributed to a study of two-fluid effects on interchange dynamics, where
FURNACE 2. Toroidal geometry neutronic program system method. Description and users manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verschuur, K.A.
1995-10-01
FURNACE2 is a 3-dimensional neutron/photon-transport program system for toroidal geometries. It uses ray-tracing and double-differential reflection-and transmission-coefficients and flux-kernels to calculate the angular-flux spectra inside the torus of a fusion-reactor. FURNACE2 is an extended version of FURNACE, developed for application to the neutron-diagnostics at JET, which was supported financially by JET. It is used at JET to calculate the foil-activation for the KN2 diagnostics, the angular-fluxes on the lines of sight of the KN3 profile monitors, and general background fluxes and activation of the vessel. The program is used along with MCNP, combining the advantages of each of the programs and for mutual checks. (orig.)
Collisionless two-fluid theory of toroidal ηi stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondt, J.; Weiland, J.
1989-01-01
A collisionless two-fluid theory based on a fourteen-moment generalization of the 'double-adiabatic' equations is developed to lowest order in the Larmor radius parameter, and applied to derive the toroidal η i stability boundary for all values of the ratio of the density gradient scale length divided by the field curvature length. The present model is an improvement over existing collisional two-fluid models in view of the collisionless nature of the η i instability, while retaining the advantage over kinetic theory of the practability of mode-coupling simulations. The linear stability boundary, linear growth rate and real frequency agree fairly accurately with draft-kinetic theory
The Superconducting Toroid for the New International AXion Observatory (IAXO)
Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; Wagner, U.; ten Kate, H.H.J.
2013-01-01
IAXO, the new International AXion Observatory, will feature the most ambitious detector for solar axions to date. Axions are hypothetical particles which were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. This detector aims at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions to detectable X-ray photons. Inspired by the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroid is being designed. The toroid comprises eight, one meter wide and twenty one meters long racetrack coils. The assembled toroid is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length and its mass is about 250 tons. The useful field in the bores is 2.5 T while the peak magnetic field in the windings is 5....
Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in Tokamaks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tala, T.; Andrew, Y.; Giroud, C.
2007-01-01
The present status of understanding of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in tokamaks is presented in this paper. Similar energy confinement and momentum confinement times, i.e. τE/τφ ≈ 1 have been reported on several tokamaks. It is more important though, to study the local transport both ...
Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tala, T.; Andrew, Y.; Crombe, K.
2007-01-01
This paper reports on the recent studies of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in JET. The ratio of the global energy confinement time to the momentum confinement is found to be close to tau(E)/tau(phi) = 1 except for the low density or low collisionality discharges where the ratio is tau(E...
Toroidal bubbles with circulation in ideal hydrodynamics: A variational approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruban, V.P.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
2003-01-01
Incompressible, inviscid, irrotational, unsteady flows with circulation Gamma around a distorted toroidal bubble are considered. A general variational principle that determines the evolution of the bubble shape is formulated. For a two-dimensional (2D) cavity with a constant area A, exact...
Preparing an ATLAS toroid magnet end-cap for lowering
Claudia Marcelloni
2007-01-01
One of the two 13-m high toroid magnet end-caps for the ATLAS experiment being transported from the construction hall to the experimental area. The end-cap will be lowered into the ATLAS cavern and attached to an end of the detector.
The problem of evolution of toroidal plasma equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostomarov, D.; Zaitsev, F.; Shishkin, A.
1999-03-01
This paper is devoted to an advanced mathematical model for a self-consistent description of the evolution of free boundary toroidal plasmas, with a description of numerical algorithms for the solution of the appropriate non-linear system of integro-differential equations, and discussion of some results from the model. (author)
Barrel Toroid fully charged to nominal field, and it works!
Herman ten Kate
After a few weeks of testing up to intermediate currents, finally, on Thursday evening November 9, the current in the Barrel Toroid was pushed up to its nominal value of 20500 A and even 500 A beyond this value to prove that we have some margin. It went surprisingly well. Of course, the 8 coils forming the toroid were already tested individually at the surface but still, some surprise may have come from those parts added to the toroid in the cavern for the first time like the 8 cryoring sections linking the coils as well as the valve box at the bottom in sector 13 regulating the helium flow or the current lead cryostat on the top in sector 5. No training quenches, nothing to worry about, and the test was concluded with a fast dump triggered at 00:40 in the very early morning of November 10. (left) The toroid current during the evening and night of November 9. (right) The test crew oscillated between fear and hope while looking at the control panels as the current approached 21kA. Big relief was in the...
Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ~1011 cm−3, ~4 × 1010 cm −3 and ~2 × 1010 cm −3 respectively. The experimental investiga- tion of time-averaged plasma parameter reveals that their profiles remain insensitive to ion mass and suggests that ...
Construction and initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyon, J.F.; Bigelow, T.S.; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C.; Dunlop, J.L.; England, A.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Harris, J.H.; Hills, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Murakami, M.; Neilson, G.H.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rome, J.A.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; White, T.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bell, G.L. (Auburn Univ., AL (USA)); Bell, J.D.; Morris, R.N.; Whitson, J.C. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Computing and Telecommunications Div., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Benson, R.D.; Chipley, K.K.; Cole, M.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Nelson, B.E.; Thompson, P.B.; White, J.A. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Div., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Wade, M.R. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA))
1990-01-01
The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron was designed on a physics basis for access to the second stability regime and on an engineering basis for independent fabrication of high-accuracy components. The actual construction, assembly, and initial operation of ATF are compared with the characteristics expected during the design phase.
Evidence of Inward Toroidal Momentum Convection in the JET Tokamak
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tala, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Ferreira, J.
2009-01-01
Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude an...
Theoretical studies of non inductive current drive in compact toroids
Farengo, R; Lifschitz, AF; Caputi, KI; Arista, NR; Clemente, RA
Three non inductive current drive methods that can be applied to compact toroids axe studied. The use of neutral beams to drive current in field reversed configurations and spheromaks is studied using a Monte Carlo code that includes a complete ionization package and follows the exact particle
Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in tokamaks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tala, T.; Crombé, K.; Vries, P.C. de
2007-01-01
The present status of understanding of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in tokamaks is presented in this paper. Similar energy confinement and momentum confinement times, i.e. τE/τφ ≈ 1 have been reported on several tokamaks. It is more important though, to study the local transport both ...
Calculation of quasispherical liner compression in a compact toroid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belikov, V.V.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Kurtmullaev, R.Kh.; Semenov, V.N.
This work considers the evolution of a compact toroid as the volume and shape of the cavity changes, all the way up to the values of the degree of compression K which are of practical interest, i.e., K approx. = 1000, at which thermonuclear plasma parameters can be achieved
Dynamical conservation of invariants by toroidal trajectories of guiding centres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.
1992-03-01
The classical problem of calculating toroidal trajectories is treated here by comparing the results of two different methods in a given magnetic configuration, a standard divergence-free magnetic field model. The present work consists of adapting the analytical criteria of MERCIER et al. for classical toroidal trajectories, and to examine numerically the dynamical conservation of the toroidal invariant. The first method is based on the evolution equations for the guiding centres. These equations are then solved numerically (code TRATORIA) and the trajectories are drawn for different initial conditions. We use a modified standard model for the magnetic field, which insures a manifestly divergence-free field. Moreover we take into account the contribution of the poloidal field to the total strength of the magnetic field. These corrections contribute to the analytical expression of the conserved toroidal momentum. The latter is verified to be conserved by the present numerical simulation with a precision generally of the order of 10 -14 . The second method is based on the analytical treatment of the invariants to yield a semi-analytical (semi graphical) determination of the intersection point of a given trajectory with the equatorial plane. Both methods allows one to recover well-known toroidal trajectories with passing and trapped particles (bananas). The present analysis brings a clear description of some other, less well-known types of trajectories, namely the stagnation orbits, the smallest D-shape banana, some small circulating de-flated bananas, some huge classical bananas (potatoes), and the largest puffed bananas which exhibit only local mirroring, along with several kind of escaping or open trajectories which are of importance for fast ion losses and target damages in the machines
Achieving a high-Q response in metamaterials by manipulating the toroidal excitations
Fan, Yuancheng; Zhang, Fuli; Shen, Nian-Hai; Fu, Quanhong; Wei, Zeyong; Li, Hongqiang; Soukoulis, Costas M.
2018-03-01
The excitation of toroidal multipoles in metamaterials is investigated for a high-Q response at a subwavelength scale. In this paper, we explore the optimization of toroidal excitations in a planar metamaterial comprised of asymmetric split ring resonators (ASRRs). It is found that the scattering power of a toroidal dipole can be remarkably strengthened by adjusting the characteristic parameter of ASRRs: an asymmetric factor. Interestingly, the improvement in toroidal excitation accompanies an increment of the Q factor of the toroidal metamaterial; it is shown that both the scattering power of the toroidal dipole and the Q factor increase more than one order by changing the asymmetric factor of ASRRs. The optimization in the excitation of a toroidal multipole provides an opportunity to further increase the Q factor of the metamaterial and boost light-matter interactions at the subwavelength scale for potential applications in low-power nonlinear processing and sensitive photonic applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slobodan Babic
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Bitter coils are electromagnets used for the generation of extremely strong magnetic fields superior to 30 T. In this paper we calculate the mutual inductance and the magnetic force between Bitter disk (pancake coil with the nonlinear radial current and the circular filamentary coil with the azimuthal current. The close form expressed over complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kind as well as Heuman’s Lambda function is obtained for this configuration either for the mutual inductance or for the magnetic force. The results of this method are compared with those obtained by the improved modified filament method for the presented configuration. All results are in an excellent agreement.
Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.L.; Hassam, A.B.; Waltz, R.E.
1995-01-01
Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation is demonstrated using a shifted circle equilibrium model. A generalized ballooning mode representation is used to eliminate the fast Alfven wave, and an initial value code solves the resulting equations. The s-α diagram (magnetic shear versus pressure gradient) of ballooning mode theory is extended to include rotational shear. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq, where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is approximately one-quarter to one-half the Alfven frequency, ω A =V A /qR. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Shock absorbing properties of toroidal shells under compression, 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugita, Yuji
1985-01-01
The author has previously presented the static load-deflection relations of a toroidal shell subjected to axisymmetric compression between rigid plates and those of its outer half when subjected to lateral compression. In both these cases, the analytical method was based on the incremental Rayleigh-Ritz method. In this paper, the effects of compression angle and strain rate on the load-deflection relations of the toroidal shell are investigated for its use as a shock absorber for the radioactive material shipping cask which must keep its structural integrity even after accidental falls at any angle. Static compression tests have been carried out at four angles of compression, 10 0 , 20 0 , 50 0 , 90 0 and the applications of the preceding analytical method have been discussed. Dynamic compression tests have also been performed using the free-falling drop hammer. The results are compared with those in the static compression tests. (author)
Toroidal coupling in the kinetic response to edge magnetic perturbations
Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; Scarin, P.; White, R. B.; Schmitz, O.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.
2017-12-01
The magnetic topology of the stochastic edge of a helical reversed-field pinch, with helicity m/n , shows to be deeply influenced by higher harmonics (m +/- 1)/ n , with the same n, due to toroidal coupling. As a consequence, by measuring kinetic quantities in a particular θ, φ location, one can incur in substantial errors or mis-interpretations of the kinetic plasma response: only a full 3D coverage of θ, φ angles can reveal the real topology of the plasma. This can be a caveat for MP application in tokamaks, because it shows that toroidal and poloidal sidebands, though smaller than the base mode by a factor ∼ \
Compact toroid injection experiment in JFT-2M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, T.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.
2001-01-01
Compact toroid (CT)injection experiments with H-mode plasmas were carried out for the first time in JFT-2M. The soft x-ray emission profile shows central penetration of CT in H-mode plasma heated by 1.2 MW NBI as well as in OH plasmas, with toroidal magnetic field of 0.8 T. The line-averaged electron density rapidly increased by Δn-bar e ∝0.2x10 19 m -3 at a rate of 4x10 21 m -3 /s in H-mode and the fuelling efficiency was roughly 20%.The asymmetrical radial profile in the soft x-ray emission was produced for ∝ 50 μs by the central penetration of CT. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymmetric systems with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansur, N.L.P.
1986-01-01
A model for studying magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymetrically confined plasma with toroidal rotation, extended to the Grad. Shafranov equation is presented. The expression used for the scalar pressure is modifiec, and the influence of toroidal magnetic field is included, The equation for general motion of axisymetrically confined plasma, particularizing for rotation movements is described. Two cases are compared: one supposes the entropy as a function of poloidal magnetic flux and other supposes the temperature as a function of flux. The equations for these two cases obtaining a simplified expression by others approximations are established. The proposed model is compared with Shibata model, which uses density as function of flux, and with the ideal spheromak model. A set of cases taking in account experimental data is studied. (M.C.K.) [pt
A toroidal inductor integrated in a standard CMOS process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vandi, Luca; Andreani, Pietro; Temporiti, Enrico
2007-01-01
This paper presents a toroidal inductor integrated in a standard 0.13 um CMOS process. Finite-elements preliminary simulations are provided to prove the validity of the concept. In order to extract fundamental parameters by means of direct calculations, two different and well-known approaches are......H and 1.1 nH up to 20 GHz (physical limit for the measurement equipment) and a quality factor approaching 10 at 15 GHz. No self-resonance is observed within the measurement range.......This paper presents a toroidal inductor integrated in a standard 0.13 um CMOS process. Finite-elements preliminary simulations are provided to prove the validity of the concept. In order to extract fundamental parameters by means of direct calculations, two different and well-known approaches...
A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1988-09-01
The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field generated by currents in a set of external conductors. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap geometry is made in this paper. As compared to toroidal systems, linear geometry has the advantages of relative simplicity and of a current drive by means of electrodes. Linear devices are convenient for basic studies of Extrap, at moderately high pinch currents and plasma temperatures. Within the parameter ranges of experiments at high pinch currents and plasma temperatures, linear systems have on the other hand some substantial disadvantages, on account of the plasma interaction with the end regions. This results in a limitation of the energy confinement time, and leads in the case of an ohmically heated plasma to excessively high plasma densities and small pinch radii which also complicate the introduction of the external conductors. (author)
Kinetic global analysis of Alfven eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, A.
2002-01-01
Systematic study on low to medium n (toroidal mode number) Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in tokamaks and helical systems is presented. Linear stability of AE in the presence of energetic ions was studied using the kinetic full-wave code TASK/WM.We have reproduced the destabilizing effect of toroidal co-rotation on TAE for JT-60U parameters. We have found the existence of reversed-shear-induced Alfven eigenmode (RSAE) which localizes near the q minimum in a reversed magnetic shear configuration. Two kinds of mode structures are identified for energetic particle mode (EPM) below the TAE frequency gap. The coupling to lower-frequency modes such as drift waves and MHD modes as well as the effect of trapped particles are also taken into account. For a helical plasma, the existence of GAE in the central region and TAE in the off-axis region was confirmed. (author)
Control and monitoring of the Tore Supra toroidal superconducting coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prou, M.
1989-07-01
Light nuclei controlled fusion reactions are seen as a possible way to produce nuclear energy. For this reason, the interest in hot plasma researches in tokamaks has increased. The Tore Supra main characteristic is related to the superconducting magnet coils. They allow a suitable energy balance, however, they require an accurate and preventive fault detection. The Tore Supra machine and the different methods to detect a transition (from superconducting to normal mode) in the toroidal coils are described. The voltage of the coils, the pressure of the helium superfluid at 1.8 K and the electric current in the circuit parallel resistances, are measured. A computer aided control system allows the toroidal field monitoring (current in the coils, fault detection). The superconducting magnet configuration chosen for Tore Supra seems to be suitable for future large Tokamak devices [fr
Generation of DC toroidal current by a travelling wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuura, K.; Fukuda, M.; Hirano, K.; Mohri, A.; Fukao, M.; Midzuno, Y.
1974-01-01
An rf field travelling along the torus is observed to induce a dc toroidal current in a magnetized plasma. The travelling field is applied to the plasma by employing a delay-line wound around the toroidal glass discharge tube. The phase velocity of the field is approximately equal to the electron thermal velocity. The direction of the current is opposite to that of the wave, indicating that the electrons are trapped in the magnetic mirrors composed of the travelling wave. The density of the trapped electrons reaches 10 percent of the background plasma density at an optimum condition. On the basis of the electron trapping model, the required rf power for current sustaining in a Tokamak fusion reactor is estimated and found to be reasonably small in comparison with the output power of the reactor
Broadening of the lower hybrid kparallel spectrum by toroidal effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbato, E.; Romanelli, F.
1990-01-01
Toroidal geometry affects the evolution of k parallel (the component of the wave vector parallel to the magnetic field) along the lower hybrid, (LH) wave trajectories. In this paper such variations are investigated both analytically and numerically. The main parameters governing this phenomenon are found and how k parallel upshift can occur within this scheme is elucidated. As a figure of merit a k parallel - upshift factor is defined and discussed in a dimensionless parameter space in which all the LH experiments can be represented. Finally, a discussion of whether and when toroidal effects can fill the gap between the high phase velocity of the injected LH waves and the electron thermal velocity is presented by analyzing different experimental situations
Variation of magnetic properties of toroidal cores with magnetizing frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derebasi, N.; Rygal, R.; Moses, A.J.; Fox, D.
2000-01-01
AC magnetic properties of toroidal cores made from six different soft magnetic materials were measured. A solid steel core exhibited the highest remanance, coercivity and core loss as expected whereas a nanocrystalline core had the lowest remanance of the cores tested. Increase in dynamic core loss with frequency in steel particle and iron powder cores was low compared with the other cores but was low in permeability
Force-free field inside a toroidal magnetic cloud
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Romashets, E. P.; Vandas, Marek
2003-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 20 (2003), s. 2065, /SSC 8-1 - SSC 8-4/ ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1003006; GA ČR GA205/03/0953 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : magnetic clouds * toroid al flux rope * analytical solution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.422, year: 2003
A numerical solution for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hintz, E.; Sudano, J.P.
1982-01-01
The iterative techniques alternating direction implicit (ADI), sucessive ove-relaxation (SOR) and Gauss-Seidel are applied to a nonlinear elliptical second order differential equation (Grand-Shafranov). This equation was solve with the free boundary conditions plasma-vacuum interface over a rectangular section in cylindrical coordinates R and Z. The current density profile, plasma pressure profile, magnetic and isobaric surfaces are numerically determined for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium. (L.C.) [pt
Theory of the rippling instability in toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.
1985-04-01
The theory of the rippling instability is developed for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas including ion viscosity and parallel electron heat conduction, but assuming that the growth rate is small compared to the wave angular frequency. Parallel electron heat conduction is stabilizing but ion viscosity broadens the instability domain. Under certain conditions, an important top-bottom asymmetry of the density fluctuation spectrum may arise. (orig./GG)
Goya - an MHD equilibrium code for toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
1984-09-01
A description of the GOYA free-boundary equilibrium code is given. The non-linear Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal MHD is solved in a toroidal geometry for plasmas with purely poloidal magnetic fields. The code is based on a field line-tracing procedure, making storage of a large amount of information on a grid unnecessary. Usage of the code is demonstrated by computations of equi/libria for the EXTRAP-T1 device. (Author)
Operating tokamaks with steady-state toroidal current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1981-04-01
Continuous operation of a tokamak requires, among other things, a means of continuously providing the toroidal current. Various methods have been proposed to provide this current including methods which utilize radio-frequency waves in any of several frequency regimes. Here we elaborate on the prospects of incorporating these current-drive techniques in tokamak reactors, concentrating on the theoretical minimization of the power requirements
Modular invariant partition functions for toroidally compactified bosonic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ardalan, F.; Arfaei, H.
1988-06-01
We systematically find all the modular invariant partition functions for the toroidally compactified closed bosonic string defined on a subset of a simply laced simple Lie algebra lattice, or equivalently for the closed bosonic string moving on a group manifold with the WZW coefficient k=1. We examine the relation between modular invariance of partition function and the possibility of describing it by an even Lorentzian self dual lattice in our context. (author). 23 refs
The control system of the RFX toroidal power supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toigo, V.; Piovan, R.; Zanotto, L.; Perna, M.; Coffetti, A.; Freghieri, M.; Povolero, M.
2005-01-01
This paper describes the control system of the toroidal power supply of the RFX experiment and outlines its specific hardware and software structure, which allowed to cope with the numerous requirements of the application with a compact hardware arrangement. The active fault protection strategies, implemented in the control system, are also discussed; finally, a special part of the control, which greatly simplified the long and complex commissioning of the power section of the system, is described
Miniature anastigmatic spectrometer design with a concave toroidal mirror.
Dong, Jianing; Chen, He; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan
2016-03-01
An advanced optical design for a low-cost and astigmatism-corrected spectrometer with a high resolution is presented. The theory and method of astigmatism correction are determined with the use of a concave toroidal mirror. The performances of a modified spectrometer and a traditional spectrometer are compared, and the analysis is verified. Experimentally, the limiting resolution of our spectrometer is 0.1 nm full width at half-maximum, as measured for 579.1 nm.
CPRF/ZTH toroidal conducting shell design and fabrication considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballard, E.O.; Gomez, T.; Smith, R.L.; Weldon, D.M.
1987-01-01
The authors discuss design in progress of a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be fabricated and assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 86-92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the front-end ZTH torus. The ZTH consists oof an Inconel 625 vacuum liner supported by an external electrically conducting shell. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shells external surface
Curvature-induced electrostatic drift modes in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venema, M.
1985-01-01
This thesis deals with a number of problems in the theory of linear stability of a hot, fully ionized plasma immersed in a strong magnetic field. The most widely used system to magnetically confine a plasma is the tokamak. This is a toroidal, current carrying device with a strong, externally imposed, magnetic field. The author discusses the linear theory of unstable, low-frequency waves in the gradient region, restricted to electrostatic waves. In that case the resulting radial fluxes of particles and energy are due to electric cross-field drifts. In the presence of magnetic fluctuations and small-scale reconnection phenomena, radial transport could also be predominantly along field lines. At present, it is not clear which of the two mechanisms is the dominant feature of the observed anomalous transport. First, the author introduces the theory of drift waves in toroidal geometry. Next, the electrostratic drift modes in toroidal geometry (weakly collisional regime), the equations for low-frequency waves in the strongly collisional regime and the electrostatic drift modes (strongly collisional regime) are discussed. (Auth.)
Plasma confinement of Nagoya high beta toroidal pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.; Kitagawa, S.; Wakatani, M.; Kita, Y.; Yamada, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sato, K.; Aizawa, T.; Osanai, Y.; Noda, N.
1976-01-01
Two different types of high β toroidal pinch experiments, STP and CCT, have been done to study the confinement of the plasma produced by theta-pinch. The STP is an axisymmetric toroidal pinch of high β tokamak type, while the CCT is multiply connected periodic toroidal traps. Internal current carrying copper rings are essential to the CCT. Since both apparatuses use the same fast capacitor bank system, they produce not so different plasma temperatures and densities. The observed laser scattering temperature and density is about 50 eV and 4 x 10 15 /cm 3 , respectively, when the filling pressure is 5 m torr. In the experiment of STP, strong correlations are found between the βsub(p) value and the amplitude of m = 2 mode. It has a minimum around the value of βsub(p) of 0.8. The disruptive instability is observed to expand the pinched plasma column without lowering the plasma temperature. Just before the distruption begins, the q value around the magnetic axis becomes far less than 1 and an increase of the amplitude of m = 2 mode is seen. The CCT also shows rapid plasma expansion just before the magnetic field reaches its maximum. Then the trap is filled up with the plasma by this irreversible expansion and the stable plasma confinement is achieved. The energy confinement time of the CCT is found to be about 35 μsec. (orig.) [de
Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmet YILDIZ
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature
Toroidal plasma reactor with low external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beklemishev, A.D.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Petviashvili, V.I.; Tajima, T.; Gordin, V.A.; Tajima, T.
1991-01-01
A toroidal pinch configuration with safety factor q < 0.5 decreasing from the center to periphery without field reversal is proposed. This is capable of containing high pressure plasma with only small toroidal external magnetic field. Sufficient conditions for magnetohydrodynamic stability are fulfilled in this configuration. The stability is studied by constructing the Lyapunov functional and investigating its extrema both analytically and numerically. Comparison of the Lyapunov stability conditions with the conventional linear theory is carried out. Stable configurations are found with average β near 15%, with magnetic field associated mainly with plasma current. The β value calculated with the external magnetic field can be over 100%. Fast charged particles produced by fusion reactions are asymmetrically confined by the poloidal magnetic field (and due to the lack of strong toroidal field). They thus generate a current in the noncentral part of plasma to reinforce the poloidal field. This current drive can sustain the monotonic decrease of q with radius. 20 refs., 9 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1996-08-01
Transport processes and resultant entropy production in magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for toroidally rotating systems with electrostatic turbulence. A new gyrokinetic equation is derived for rotating plasmas with large flow velocities on the order of the ion thermal speed. Neoclassical and anomalous transport of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum are systematically formulated from the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the gyrokinetic equation. As a conjugate pair of the thermodynamic force and the transport flux, the shear of the toroidal flow, which is caused by the radial electric field shear, and the toroidal viscosity enter both the neoclassical and anomalous entropy production. The interaction between the fluctuations and the sheared toroidal flow is self-consistently described by the gyrokinetic equation containing the flow shear as the thermodynamic force and by the toroidal momentum balance equation including the anomalous viscosity. Effects of the toroidal flow shear on the toroidal ion temperature gradient driven modes are investigated. Linear and quasilinear analyses of the modes show that the toroidal flow shear decreases the growth rates and reduces the anomalous toroidal viscosity. (author)
Status of the cold test facility for the JT-60SA tokamak toroidal field coils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdel Maksoud, Walid, E-mail: walid.abdelmaksoud@cea.fr; Bargueden, Patrick; Bouty, André; Dispau, Gilles; Donati, André; Eppelle, Dominique; Genini, Laurent; Guiho, Patrice; Guihard, Quentin; Joubert, Jean-Michel; Kuster, Olivier; Médioni, Damien; Molinié, Frédéric; Sinanna, Armand; Solenne, Nicolas; Somson, Sébastien; Vieillard, Laurence
2015-10-15
Highlights: • The 5 K cryogenic loop includes a 500 W refrigerator and a She cold pump. • The coils are energized thanks to a 25.7 kA power supply and HTS current leads. • Temperature margin tests between 5 K and 7.5 K will be made on each coil. • A magnet safety system protects each double pancake of the coil in case of quench. • Instrumentation is monitored on a 1 Hz to 10 kHz fast acquisition system. - Abstract: JT-60SA is a fusion experiment which is jointly constructed by Japan and Europe and which shall contribute to the early realization of fusion energy, by providing support to the operation of ITER, and by addressing key physics issues for ITER and DEMO. In order to achieve these goals, the existing JT-60U experiment will be upgraded to JT-60SA by using superconducting coils. The 18 TF coils of the JT-60SA device will be provided by European industry and tested in a Cold Test Facility (CTF) at CEA Saclay. The coils will be tested at the nominal current of 25.7 kA and will be cooled with supercritical helium between 5 K and 7.5 K to check the temperature margin against a quench. The main objective of these tests is to check the TF coils performance and hence mitigate the fabrication risks. The most important components of the facility are: a 11.5 m × 6.5 m large cryostat in which the TF coils will be thermally insulated by vacuum; a 500 W helium refrigerator and a valve box to cool the coils down to 5 K and circulate 24 g/s of supercritical helium through the winding pack and through the casing; a power supply and HTS current leads to energize the coil; the control and instrumentation equipment (sensors, PLC's, supervision system, fast data acquisition system, etc.) and the Magnet Safety System (MSS) that protects the coils in case of quench. The paper will give an overview of the design of this large facility and the status of its realization.
Microscopic Description of Electric and Magnetic Toroidal Multipoles in Hybrid Orbitals
Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki
2018-03-01
We derive the quantum-mechanical operator expressions of multipoles under the space-time inversion group. We elucidate that electric and magnetic toroidal multipoles, in addition to ordinary non-toroidal ones, are fundamental pieces to express arbitrary electronic degrees of freedom. We show that electric (magnetic) toroidal multipoles higher than the dipole (monopole) can become active in a hybridized-orbital system. We also demonstrate emergent cross-correlated couplings between the electric, magnetic, and elastic degrees of freedom, such as magneto-electric and magneto(electro)-elastic coupling, under toroidal multipole orders.
The comparative analysis of the different mechanisms of toroidal rotation in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabot, R. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-07-01
The toroidal plasma rotation appears as one the possible mechanism for suppression of plasma turbulence. Several mechanisms are believed to contribute to the toroidal plasma rotation. The results of numerical simulation of the toroidal rotation on JET are presented, where are taken into consideration the following effects: the neoclassical viscosity due to banana and ripple trapped particles, the anomalous viscosity due to plasma turbulence, the momentum input by NBI (neutron beam injection) and ion momentum loss near the separatrix due to prompt ion losses. The NBI appeared to be the principal source of toroidal plasma rotation. 6 refs., 2 figs.
Modeling the shape of a noncircular toroidal field coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, V.N.; Marshall, N.H.
1983-01-01
Operating and transient forces acting on toroidal field coils may cause conductors and insulation to slide or break and may lead to quenching of the coil. Therefore, it is essential that each individual turn of the coil be modeled for detailed analysis of the coil structure. For this, a special purpose computer program is needed. As a first step in developing such a computer program, the authors present a finite element analysis of a turn of noncircular coil subjected to electromagnetic loading. A turn of superconducting coil is represented by a thin ring modeled by curved finite elements. Of the several curved beam elements reported in the literature, the strain element with two nodes, six degrees-of-freedom, and constant radius of curvature converges fastest for thin-deep arches whose geometrical characteristics are similar to those of a turn of toroidal field coil. They present an algorithm to model a noncircular ring using the number of strain elements satisfying the continuity of slopes at their nodes. This paper verifies the finite element model of a coil shape subjected to a toroidal magnetic field by solving three problems: circular and elliptic coils with the same inner and outer radii, a D-shaped coil, and a compound coil consisting of C- and D-shaped segments. The first problem shows that the resultant vertical force in the upper half of the coil is independent of coil shape. The remaining two problems calculate stresses that represent the constant tension in the D-shaped coil and in each segment of the compound coil. The results of the three problems compare well with the analytical results
Direct measurement of the damping of toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasoli, A.; Lister, J.B.; Moret, J.M.; Lavanchy, P.; Marmillod, P.; Sharapov, S.; Borba, D.; Bosia, G.; Campbell, D.J.; Dobbing, J.A.; Gormezano, C.; Jacquinot, J.; Santagiustina, A.
1995-01-01
This paper presents the first direct experimental measurements of the damping of toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), carried out in the JET tokamak. These measurements were obtained during the first experiments to drive these modes with antennas external to a tokamak plasma. Different regimes corresponding to different dominant TAE absorption mechanisms with a wide range of damping rates, 10 -3 ≤γ/ω≤10 -1 , have been identified in ohmically heated plasma discharges using this new active diagnostic for Alfven eigenmodes. (author) 5 figs., tabs., 25 refs
Transport mechanisms acting in toroidal devices: a theoretician's view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.
1992-01-01
Understanding the basic mechanisms of transport in toroidal confinement devices remains one of the more challenging scientific issues in magnetic confinement. At the same time, it is a critical issue for the magnetic fusion program. Recent progress in understanding fluctuations and transport has been fostered by the development and use of new diagnostics, bringing new perspectives on these studies. This has stimulated new theoretical developments. A view of the most recent issues and progress in this area is given. The role of long wavelengths in core transport and the relation between shear flows and turbulence at the plasma edge are the primary topics considered. (Author)
Simulated and experimental compression of a compact toroid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, J N; Hwang, D Q; Horton, R D; Evans, R W; Owen, J M
2009-05-06
We present simulation results and experimental data for the compression of a compact toroid by a conducting nozzle without a center electrode. In both simulation and experiment, the flow of the plasma is greatly obstructed by even modest magnetic fields. A simple mechanism for this obstruction is suggested by our simulations. In particular, the configuration of the plasmoid's magnetic field plays a significant role in the success of the experiment. We analyze two types of plasma configurations under compression and demonstrate that the results from the simulations matches those from the experiments, and that the mechanism predicts the different behaviors observed in the two cases.
Experimental progress on zonal flow physics in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujisawa, A.; Ido, T.; Shimizu, A.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Hamada, Y.; Nakano, H.; Ohshima, S.; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Shinohara, Koji; Miura, Yukitoshi
2006-10-01
Present status of experiments on zonal flows is overviewed. Innovative use of traditional and modern diagnostics has revealed unambiguously the existence of zonal flows, their spatio-temporal characteristics, their relationship with turbulence, and their effects on confinement. Particularly, a number of observations have been accumulated on the oscillatory branch of zonal flows, dubbed geodesic acoustic modes, suggesting necessity of theories to give their proper description. In addition to these basic properties of zonal flows, several new methods have elucidated the zonal flow generation processes from turbulence. Further investigation of relationship between zonal flows and confinement is strongly encouraged as cross-device activity including low temperature toroidal and linear devices. (author)
Toroidal transformer design program with application to inverter circuitry
Dayton, J. A., Jr.
1972-01-01
Estimates of temperature, weight, efficiency, regulation, and final dimensions are included in the output of the computer program for the design of transformers for use in the basic parallel inverter. The program, written in FORTRAN 4, selects a tape wound toroidal magnetic core and, taking temperature, materials, core geometry, skin depth, and ohmic losses into account, chooses the appropriate wire sizes and number of turns for the center tapped primary and single secondary coils. Using the program, 2- and 4-kilovolt-ampere transformers are designed for frequencies from 200 to 3200 Hz and the efficiency of a basic transistor inverter is estimated.
Analytical solution of the toroidal constant tension solenoid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gralnick, S.L.; Tenney, F.H.
1975-01-01
The coil shape is determined by requiring that the curvature of the flexible conductor be proportional to the distance from the toroidal axis. The resulting second order differential equation for the coil coordinates can be integrated once but for the second and final integration no closed form has been found and the integration has been done numerically. This solution of this differential equation is analytical in terms of an absolutely and uniformly convergent infinite series. The series converges quite rapidly and in practice ignoring all but the first five terms of the series introduces an error of less than 2 percent
Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q'/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same α in all its force-free regions and with a positive q'/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked α's
Position indicating split toroid for the RACE experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurst, B.; Folkman, K.
2007-01-01
Aspects of the recent reactor accelerator coupled experiments (RACE) carried out at University of Texas Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory will be discussed. In particular, a compact instrument that allowed a continuous non-invasive means of determining the relative electron beam position was developed. The operation of the instrument is similar to an inductive current pick up toroid except that the core is sectioned radially, which allows spatial information to be derived from the induced voltages. Results of initial tests, both in beam and with a pulser, will be presented along with plans to optimize future designs
Fluctuations and stability in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, J.H.; Charlton, L.A.; Bell, J.D.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carreras, B.A.; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C.; Dominguez, N.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; England, A.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hillis, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Menon, M.M.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Uckan, T.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R.; Bell, G.L.; Crocker, N.A.; Hanson, G.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Wade, M.R.; Ritz, C.P.
1990-01-01
We present the results of experimental and theoretical studies of fluctuations and instabilities in the ATF torsatron, a type of stellarator. Measurements of globally coherent magnetic fluctuations in high-β plasmas with narrow pressure profiles produced by a field error show evidence of self-stabilization ('second stability'); the trends are compatible with theoretical analysis of self-stabilization of resistive curvature-driven instabilities, but there are discrepancies between the absolute experimental and theoretical fluctuation amplitudes. Fluctuation measurements in plasma with broad pressure profiles reveal new phenomena--specifically, toroidally localized magnetic fluctuations, whose amplitudes increase with plasma pressure, and coherent density fluctuations with significant radial width
Atomic physics effects on dissipative toroidal drift wave stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beer, M.A.; Hahm, T.S.
1992-02-01
The effects of atomic physics processes such as ionization, charge exchange, and radiation on the linear stability of dissipative drift waves are investigated in toroidal geometry both numerically and analytically. For typical TFTR and TEXT edge parameters, overall linear stability is determined by the competition between the destabilizing influence of ionization and the stabilizing effect due to the electron temperature gradient. An analytical expression for the linear marginal stability condition, η e crit , is derived. The instability is most likely to occur at the extreme edge of tokamaks with a significant ionization source and a steep electron density gradient
System design of toroidal field power supply of CDD tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Zheng Zhi
1996-12-01
This report deals with system design of Toroidal Field Power Supply of CDD tokamak (CDD-TFPS). The general design philosophy and design variations are introduced. After the outline of CDD-TFPS, the short-circuit calculation, the evaluation of converter parameters, the compatibility of converter and line are carried out. the specifications of major components, semi-conductor devices and accessories are given. High attention is paid to protection system. The design of sub-control and grounding system are described too. Some more general material for power supply design are attached in appendices for reference. (author). 30 tabs., 21 figs.
Components and system tests on the RFX toroidal power supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toigo, V.; Zanotto, L.; Gaio, E.; Perna, M.; Bordignon, P.; Coffetti, A.; Novaro, R.; Bertolotto, P.; Rinaldi, E.; Villa, G.
2005-01-01
The paper deals with the component and system tests performed on the new toroidal power supply system of the RFX experiment. The high technological innovation of the system required a deep experimental characterization and validation campaign; special factory tests were performed on prototypes of single components aimed at verifying the most critical design aspects. Consequently an articulated series of tests were performed, based on a step-by-step approach to achieve the desired coordinate operation of the whole system. The test procedures and the most significant results are described in the paper
Toroidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (TMSNPs) and related protocells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lin, Yu-Shen
2018-01-02
In one aspect, the invention provides novel monodisperse, colloidally-stable, toroidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (TMSNPs) which are synthesized from ellipsoid-shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) which are prepared using an ammonia basecatalyzed method under a low surfactant conditions. Significantly, the TMSNPs can be loaded simultaneously with a small molecule active agent, a siRNA, a mRNA, a plasmid and other cargo and can be used in the diagnosis and/or treatment of a variety of disorders, including a cancer, a bacterial infection and/or a viral infection, among others. Related protocells, pharmaceutical compositions and therapeutic and diagnostic methods are also provided.
Nonlinear hybrid simulation of toroidicity-induced alfven eigenmode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Park, W.
1994-11-01
Gyrokinetic/Magnetohydrodynamics hybrid simulations have been carried out using MH3D-K code to study the nonlinear saturation of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode driven by energetic particles in a tokamak plasma. It is shown that the wave particle trapping is the nonlinear saturation mechanism for the parameters considered. The corresponding density profile flattening of hot particles is observed. The saturation amplitude is proportional to the square of linear growth rate. In addition to TAE modes, a new n = 1, m = 0 global Alfven eigenmode is shown to be excited by the energetic particles
Coupling to fast MHD eigenmodes in a toroidal cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paoloni, F.J.
1975-05-01
The coupling to fast MHD waves in toroidal-like geometry is calculated when eigenmodes exist in the plasma. The torus is considered to be a resonant cavity into which energy is coupled by a half turn loop. The cavity Q is calculated for the minority heating process, for cyclotron harmonic damping, electron transit-time magnetic pumping, wall loading, and Coulomb collisional damping. The problem of sustaining the eigenmode as the plasma conditions change with time is also discussed. One method that seems to be practical is a feedback scheme that varies the plasma major radius by a small amount as the conditions change. (U.S.)
Acquisition system for the diagnostics data from a toroidal machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moulin, B.
1976-01-01
The data acquisition system 'ARIANE' has been conceived by the SIG (Service d'Ionique Generale), for physical measurements on the toroidal machines PETULA and WEGA, which were designed to study the H.F. heating of pulsed plasmas. These systems are constitued of electronic modules which permit them to be adapted to different kinds of measurements, either by analogue channels or by pulse counting. The programmation of these systems, are achieved, either by multiswitches accessible manually on front panels, or by a computer which performs the numerical computations [fr
Toroidal Dipole Moment of the Lightest Neutralino in the MSSM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabral-Rosetti, L G; Mondragon, M; Perez, E Reyes
2011-01-01
In order to characterize one of the most favored candidates for dark matter, we calculate the anapole form factor of the lightest neutralino in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) at the one-loop level. As a Majorana fermion, this particle only shows one electromagnetic property, the toroidal dipole moment, which is directly related to the anapole form factor. We obtain the result analitically in terms of two- and three-points Passarino-Veltman scalar functions and evaluate it for a given spectrum of supersymmetric masses and matrix elements. This work is part of a broader project still in progress.
Implications of polarized DT plasmas for toroidal fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micklich, B.J.; Jassby, D.L.
1983-05-01
Spin polarization of the deuterons and tritons in a reacting plasma can result in an increase in the fusion reactivity and variation of the angular distribution of emission of the fusion neutrons. The increased fusion reactivity relaxes the confinement-temperature conditions for breakeven and ignition. We have determined the effect of varying the angular distribution of the fusion neutrons on the spatial distribution of fusion neturon current and flux at the first wall, on the global tritium breeding ratio, and on the first-wall radiation damage in low-aspect-ratio toroidal geometry
Compact toroid injection system for JFT-2M
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukumoto, N. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukumotn@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Ogawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nagata, M. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Uyama, T. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Shibata, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kusama, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)
2006-11-15
The compact toroid (CT) injection system for JFT-2M is composed of a CT injector, a gas delivery and vacuum system, a power supply system, and a diagnostics system. In particular, the power supply system delivers high performance for CT formation and acceleration. The CT formation capacitor bank unit achieved a formation current of 350 kA with a rise time less than 10 {mu}s. Although the CT acceleration bank units are equipped with 14 ignitron switches instead of gap switches to attenuate the discharge noise level, an acceleration current of 400 kA with a short rise time of 9 {mu}s is controlled within a jitter of much less than 1 {mu}s. The resulting CT velocity and mass density satisfy the requirements for CT penetration into the tokamak plasma core at a toroidal field of 1 T. This CT injection system is thus suitable for CT injection in a middle-sized tokamak plasma such as the JFT-2M tokamak.
Pareto optimal design of sectored toroidal superconducting magnet for SMES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhunia, Uttam; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The optimization approach minimizes both the magnet size and necessary cable length of a sectored toroidal SMES unit. • Design approach is suitable for low temperature superconducting cable suitable for medium size SMES unit. • It investigates coil parameters with respect to practical engineering aspects. - Abstract: A novel multi-objective optimization design approach for sectored toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage coil has been developed considering the practical engineering constraints. The objectives include the minimization of necessary superconductor length and torus overall size or volume, which determines a significant part of cost towards realization of SMES. The best trade-off between the necessary conductor length for winding and magnet overall size is achieved in the Pareto-optimal solutions, the compact magnet size leads to increase in required superconducting cable length or vice versa The final choice among Pareto optimal configurations can be done in relation to other issues such as AC loss during transient operation, stray magnetic field at outside the coil assembly, and available discharge period, which is not considered in the optimization process. The proposed design approach is adapted for a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system using low temperature niobium–titanium based Rutherford type cable. Furthermore, the validity of the representative Pareto solutions is confirmed by finite-element analysis (FEA) with a reasonably acceptable accuracy
Absence of toroidal moments in 'aromagnetic' anthracene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alborghetti, S; Coey, J M D [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Puppin, E; Brenna, M; Pinotti, E; Zanni, P [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)], E-mail: alborgs@tcd.ie
2008-06-15
Colloidal suspensions of anthracene and other aromatic compounds have been shown to respond to a magnetic field as if they possessed a permanent magnetic moment. This phenomenon was named 'aromagnetism' by Spartakov and Tolstoi, and it was subsequently attributed to the interaction of an electric toroidal moment with a time-varying magnetic field. However, there has been no independent confirmation of the original work. Here, we have selected purified anthracene crystallites which respond to a low magnetic field and investigate how this response depends on the gradient and the time derivative of the field. We conclude that the anomaly cannot be attributed to a toroidal interaction but is due to a constant magnetic moment of the particles. Close examinations using magnetometry and scanning electron microscopy reveal metallic clusters of Fe and Ni up to a few hundred nanometres in size embedded in the anomalous crystallites. These inclusions represent 1.8 ppm by weight of the sample. The observed presence of ferromagnetic inclusions in the ppm range is sufficient to explain the anomalous magnetic properties of micron-sized anthracene crystals, including the reported optical properties of the colloidal suspensions.
Influence of toroidal magnetic field in multi-accreting tori
Pugliese, D.; Montani, G.
2018-02-01
We analyzed the effects of a toroidal magnetic field in the formation of several magnetized accretion tori, dubbed as ringed accretion disks (RADs), orbiting around one central Kerr supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) in AGNs, where both corotating and counterotating disks are considered. Constraints on tori formation and emergence of RADs instabilities, accretion onto the central attractor and tori collision emergence, are investigated. The results of this analysis show that the role of the central BH spin-mass ratio, the magnetic field and the relative fluid rotation and tori rotation with respect the central BH, are crucial elements in determining the accretion tori features, providing ultimately evidence of a strict correlation between SMBH spin, fluid rotation and magnetic fields in RADs formation and evolution. More specifically we proved that magnetic field and disks rotation are in fact strongly constrained, as tori formation and evolution in RADs depend on the toroidal magnetic fields parameters. Eventually this analysis identifies specific classes of tori, for restrict ranges of magnetic field parameter, that can be observed around some specific SMBHs identified by their dimensionless spin.
Studies of plasma self-organization in toroidal pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamano, T.; Bard, W.D.; LaHaye, R.J.; Schaffer, M.J.; Taylor, P.L.
1987-01-01
Plasma self-organizations of toroidal pinch plasmas were observed in the OHTE device. The reversed field pinch discharges were sustained for about 15 ms longer than the shell time constant of 1.5 ms although linear MHD theories predict that MHD instabilities grow on the resistive shell time scale. Detailed studies of MHD activities led to the discovery of a toroidally localized kink mode. The slinky mode is the result of the phase locking of several internal kink modes due to non-linear coupling, and plays an important role in achieving the Taylor relaxed state. This is described in the first part of this lecture. Such phase lockings were observed not only for poloidal mode number m = -1 modes, but also for m = 0 and m = 1 modes. This provides some insight into how a tangled discharge can be formed. Tangled discharge models have been discussed by Rusbridge and others. However, the models do not provide a clean picture. The introduction of localized plasma deformation due to phase locking gives a simplified view of a tangled discharge. This is discussed in the second part of this lecture. The third part of this lecture describes another interesting plasma self-organization observed in the ultra low q regime. The plasma tend to maintain a constant current and shows a ''staircase''-like current behavior. 9 refs., 10 figs
Protection of toroidal field coils using multiple circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thome, R.J.; Langton, W.G.; Mann, W.R.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Tarrh, J.M.
1983-01-01
The protection of toroidal field (TF) coils using multiple circuits is described. The discharge of a single-circuit TF system is given for purposes of definition. Two-circuit TF systems are analyzed and the results presented analytically and graphically. Induced currents, maximum discharge voltages, and discharge time constants are compared to the single-circuit system. Three-circuit TF systems are analyzed. In addition to induced currents, maximum discharge voltages, and time constants, several different discharge scenarios are included. The impacts of having discharge rates versus final maximum coil temperatures as requirements are examined. The out-of-plane forces which occur in the three-circuit system are analyzed using an approximate model. The analysis of multiplecircuit TF systems is briefly described and results for a Toroidal Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) scale device are given based on computer analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of using multiple-circuit systems are summarized and discussed. The primary disadvantages of multiple circuits are the increased circuit complexity and potential for out-of-plane forces. These are offset by the substantial reduction in maximum discharge voltages, as well as other design options which become available when using multiple circuits
Last End Cap Toroid installation : The Pharaonic enterprise
Arnaud Foussat
After the successful and impressive transport feat from Building 191 to Point 1 was carried out by the Friderici crew on 28th June, the second and last Toroid End Cap, ECT-C, was transferred into the surface building, SX1, on 2nd July. The ECT-C was installed in the ATLAS cavern on the C-side on 12th July. As the person responsible for the project, in my opinion, one of the crucial points of this project was to design all the tooling and installation sequences taking into account the building infrastructure dimensional constraints. View of the ECT installation tooling and preparation for the ECT-C descent into the ATLAS 80m-shaft by the ATLAS magnet group and DBS teams. The movement of the 240-ton magnet and 12-m diameter toroid end-cap was achieved in collaboration with SCALES, a subcontractor company, using a hydraulic gantry able to lower the ECT inside the shaft by 5m below the floor level . This allowed the DBS team to attach the end-cap with the 2 x 140 tons overhead crane and lower it onto the c...
The toroidal field magnet concept of ASDEX Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jandl, O.; Kollotzek, H.; Springmann, E.; Streibl, B.
1983-01-01
ASDEX Upgrade (UG), a divertor tokamak with a minor plasma radius of a = 0.5 m and a plasma current of 1.2 to 1.5 MA, is intended to succeed ASDEX. A major target of this experiment is to investigate a reactor-compatible plasma boundary. This requires according to a toroidal field (B 0 ) at the plasma centre normalized to the aspect ratio (A) of B 0 /A approximately = 1.2. The optimum with due allowance for physical requirements and technical constraints of the complete tokamak system was obtained in this case for B 0 = 3.9 T (A = 3.25) and a plasma radius of 1.63 m. The toroidal field (TF) magnet designed to meet these requirements is presented. Aspects of its turnover structure such as force transfer, coil housing and access to the plasma vessel are described. The coil concept developed in collaboration with industry is also presented, in particular the conductor concept and the current terminals and water manifold designs. Finally, the results of the cooling and stress analysis are summarized. (author)
Cryogenic Characteristics of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Superconducting Magnet
Pengo, R; Delruelle, N; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Passardi, Giorgio; Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H
2008-01-01
ATLAS, one of the experiments of the LHC accelerator under commissioning at CERN, is equipped with a large superconducting magnet the Barrel Toroid (BT) that has been tested at nominal current (20500 A). The BT is composed of eight race-track superconducting coils (each one weights about 45 tons) forming the biggest air core toroidal magnet ever built. By means of a large throughput centrifugal pump, a forced flow (about 10 liter/second at 4.5 K) provides the indirect cooling of the coils in parallel. The paper describes the results of the measurements carried out on the complete cryogenic system assembled in the ATLAS cavern situated 100 m below the ground level. The measurements include, among other ones, the static heat loads, i.e., with no or constant current in the magnet, and the dynamic ones, since additional heat losses are produced, during the current ramp-up or slow dump, by eddy currents induced on the coil casing.
Advanced transport modeling of toroidal plasmas with transport barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, A.; Murakami, S.; Honda, M.; Izumi, Y.; Yagi, M.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Ozeki, T.
2005-01-01
Transport modeling of toroidal plasmas is one of the most important issue to predict time evolution of burning plasmas and to develop control schemes in reactor plasmas. In order to describe the plasma rotation and rapid transition self-consistently, we have developed an advanced scheme of transport modeling based on dynamical transport equation and applied it to the analysis of transport barrier formation. First we propose a new transport model and examine its behavior by the use of conventional diffusive transport equation. This model includes the electrostatic toroidal ITG mode and the electromagnetic ballooning mode and successfully describes the formation of internal transport barriers. Then the dynamical transport equation is introduced to describe the plasma rotation and the radial electric field self-consistently. The formation of edge transport barriers is systematically studied and compared with experimental observations. The possibility of kinetic transport modeling in velocity space is also examined. Finally the modular structure of integrated modeling code for tokamaks and helical systems is discussed. (author)
Photoelastic analyses of stresses in toroidal magnetic field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pih, H.
1977-02-01
Several two-dimensional photoelastic stress analyses were made on models of circular and oval toroidal magnetic field coils for fusion reactors. The circumferential variation of each coil's in-plane magnetic force was simulated by applying different pressures to 16 segmented regions of the inner surface of the models. One special loading fixture was used for the model of each shape and size. Birefringence and isoclinic angles were measured in a transmission polariscope at selected points on the loaded model. Boundary stresses in the cases of known boundary conditions were determined directly from the isochromatics. Separate principal stresses were calculated using the combination of photoelastic information and isopachic data obtained by the electrical analogy method from the solution of Laplace's equation. Comparisons were made between experimental results and those computed using the finite element method. The stress distribution between theoretical and experimental agrees very well, although the finite element method yielded slightly higher stresses than the photoelastic method; further work is needed to resolve this difference. In this investigation several variations of coil geometry and methods of support were evaluated. Based on experimental results, optimum structural designs of toroidal field coils were recommended
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siemon, R.E.
1981-03-01
This document contains papers contributed by the participants of the Third Symposium on Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Subjects include reactor aspects of compact toroids, energetic particle rings, spheromak configurations (a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields), and field-reversed configurations
ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Corbett, W.J.; Moyer, R.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardtke, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Gauster, W.B.
1989-04-01
The Advanced Limiter Test (ALT-II) is a toroidal belt pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak. ALT-II is composed of 8 blade segments which form an axisymmetric toroidal belt of 3.4 m/sup 2/ exposed surface area, located on the outside of the torus at 45/sup 0/ below the horizontal midplane. Ohmic plasma operation with ALT-II as the main limiter is characterized by a line-averaged density range of 5x10/sup 12/ to 5.5x10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ at B/sub T/=2 T and I/sub p/=340 kA, Z/sub eff/=1.1 to 2 and typically 40 to 95% of the power radiated depending on the plasma density. ICRH heating of the plasma with up to 2.6 MW of incident power has been achieved, which modifies the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the pump limiter performance. The recycling coefficient in TEXTOR is normally close to one, but helium RG conditioning and baking of the limiter at 400/sup 0/C is found to lower the recycling coefficient to 0.8 for the order of 10 shots. Measurements by arrays of probes in the SOL and thermocouples in the limiter tiles indicate the flow to the limiter is toroidally symmetric and poloidally asymmetric. The asymmetries result in different power and particle fluxes to the ion and electron drift sides of the limiter. The density and power scrape-off lengths are on the order of 1 cm and significantly longer on the outside of the torus. In spite of the flow asymmetry favoring the ion drift side near the tangency point, the longer e-folding lengths on the electron side in the SOL result in equal or higher particle collection by the electron side. The probe arrays indicate that during ohmic heating a total of 15 to 20% of the core efflux is incident on the neutralizer plates located in scoops beneath the blades. More particles are collected during ICRH auxiliary heating due to changes in the SOL profiles and shorter particle confinement times. (Abstract Truncated)
Instability of Toroidal Magnetic Field in Jets and Plerions
Begelman, Mitchell C.
1998-01-01
Astrophysical jets and pulsar-fed supernova remnants (plerions) are expected to develop highly organized magnetic structures dominated by concentric loops of toroidal field, Bφ. It has been argued that such structures could explain the polarization properties of some jets and contribute to their lateral confinement through magnetic tension forces. A concentric toroidal field geometry is also central to the Rees-Gunn model for the Crab Nebula, the archetypal plerion, and leads to the deduction that the Crab pulsar's wind must have a weak magnetic field. Yet this kind of equilibrium between magnetic and gas pressure forces, the ``equilibrium Z-pinch'' of the controlled fusion literature, is well known to be susceptible to disruptive localized instabilities, even when the magnetic field is weak and/or boundary conditions (e.g., a dense external medium) slow or suppress global modes. Thus, the magnetic field structures imputed to the interiors of jets and plerions are unlikely to persist for very long. To determine the growth rates of Z-pinch instabilities under astrophysical conditions, I derive a dispersion relation that is valid for the relativistic fluids of which jets and plerions may be composed, in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) limit. The dominant instabilities are kink (m = 1) and pinch (m = 0) modes. The former generally dominate, destroying the concentric field structure and probably driving the system toward a more chaotic state in which the mean field strength is independent of radius (and in which resistive dissipation of the field may be enhanced). I estimate the timescales over which the field structure is likely to be rearranged and relate these to distances along relativistic jets and radii from the central pulsar in a plerion. I conclude that the central tenet of the Rees-Gunn model for the Crab Nebula, the existence of a concentric toroidal field well outside the pulsar wind's termination shock, is physically unrealistic. With this assumption
Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tala, T [Association EURATOM-Tekes, VTT, PO Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Crombe, K [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University (Belgium); Vries, P C de [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] (and others)
2007-12-15
The present status of understanding of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in tokamaks is presented in this paper. Similar energy confinement and momentum confinement times, i.e. {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub {phi}} {approx} 1 have been reported on several tokamaks. It is more important though, to study the local transport both in the core and edge plasma separately as, for example, in the core plasma, a large scatter in the ratio of the local effective momentum diffusivity to the ion heat diffusivity {chi}{sub {phi}}{sub eff}/{chi}{sub i,eff} among different tokamaks can be found. For example, the value of effective Prandtl number is typically around {chi}{sub {phi}}{sub eff}/{chi}{sub i,eff} {approx} 0.2 on JET while still {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub {phi}} {approx} 1 holds. Perturbative NBI modulation experiments on JET have shown, however, that a Prandtl number {chi}{sub {phi}}{sub /}{chi}{sub i} of around 1 is valid if there is an additional, significant inward momentum pinch which is required to explain the amplitude and phase behaviour of the momentum perturbation. The experimental results, i.e. the high Prandtl number and pinch, are in good qualitative and to some extent also in quantitative agreement with linear gyro-kinetic simulations. In contrast to the toroidal momentum transport which is clearly anomalous, the poloidal velocity is usually believed to be neo-classical. However, experimental measurements on JET show that the carbon poloidal velocity can be an order of magnitude above the predicted value by the neo-classical theory within the ITB. These large measured poloidal velocities, employed for example in transport simulations, significantly affect the calculated radial electric field and therefore the E x B flow shear and hence modify and can significantly improve the simulation predictions. Several fluid turbulence codes have been used to identify the mechanism driving the poloidal velocity to such high values. CUTIE and TRB turbulence codes and also
Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in tokamaks
Tala, T.; Crombé, K.; de Vries, P. C.; Ferreira, J.; Mantica, P.; Peeters, A. G.; Andrew, Y.; Budny, R.; Corrigan, G.; Eriksson, A.; Garbet, X.; Giroud, C.; Hua, M.-D.; Nordman, H.; Naulin, V.; Nave, M. F. F.; Parail, V.; Rantamäki, K.; Scott, B. D.; Strand, P.; Tardini, G.; Thyagaraja, A.; Weiland, J.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Contributors, JET-EFDA
2007-12-01
The present status of understanding of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in tokamaks is presented in this paper. Similar energy confinement and momentum confinement times, i.e. τE/τphi ≈ 1 have been reported on several tokamaks. It is more important though, to study the local transport both in the core and edge plasma separately as, for example, in the core plasma, a large scatter in the ratio of the local effective momentum diffusivity to the ion heat diffusivity χphieff/χi,eff among different tokamaks can be found. For example, the value of effective Prandtl number is typically around χphieff/χi,eff ≈ 0.2 on JET while still τE/τphi ≈ 1 holds. Perturbative NBI modulation experiments on JET have shown, however, that a Prandtl number χphi/χi of around 1 is valid if there is an additional, significant inward momentum pinch which is required to explain the amplitude and phase behaviour of the momentum perturbation. The experimental results, i.e. the high Prandtl number and pinch, are in good qualitative and to some extent also in quantitative agreement with linear gyro-kinetic simulations. In contrast to the toroidal momentum transport which is clearly anomalous, the poloidal velocity is usually believed to be neo-classical. However, experimental measurements on JET show that the carbon poloidal velocity can be an order of magnitude above the predicted value by the neo-classical theory within the ITB. These large measured poloidal velocities, employed for example in transport simulations, significantly affect the calculated radial electric field and therefore the E × B flow shear and hence modify and can significantly improve the simulation predictions. Several fluid turbulence codes have been used to identify the mechanism driving the poloidal velocity to such high values. CUTIE and TRB turbulence codes and also the Weiland model predict the existence of an anomalous poloidal velocity, peaking in the vicinity of the ITB and driven dominantly
Commercial tokamak reactors with resistive toroidal field magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bombery, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Jassby, D.L.
1984-01-01
Scaling relations and design concepts are developed for commercial tokamak reactors that use watercooled copper toroidal field (TF) magnets. Illustrative parameters are developed for reactors that are scaled up in size from LITE test reactor designs, which use quasi-continuous copper plate magnets. Acceptably low magnet power requirements may be attainable in a moderate beta (β = 0.065) commercial reactor with a major radius of 6.2 m. The shielding thickness and magnet size are substantially reduced relative to values in commercial reactors with superconducting magnets. Operation at high beta (β = 0.14) leads to a reduction in reactor size, magnet-stored energy, and recirculating power. Reactors using resistive TF magnets could provide advantages of physically smaller devices, improved maintenance features, and increased ruggedness and reliability
Ballooning instabilities in tokamaks with sheared toroidal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waelbroeck, F.L.; Chen, L.
1990-11-01
The stability of ballooning modes in the presence of sheared toroidal flows is investigated. The eigenmodes are shown to be related by a Fourier transformation to the non-exponentially growing Floquet solutions found by Cooper. It is further shown that the problem cannot be reduced further than to a two dimensional partial differential equation. Next, the generalized ballooning equation is solved analytically for a circular tokamak equilibrium with sonic flows, but with a small rotation shear compared to the sound speed. With this ordering, the centrifugal forces are comparable to the pressure gradient forces driving the instability, but coupling of the mode with the sound wave is avoided. A new stability criterion is derived which explicitly demonstrates that flow shear is stabilizing at constant centrifugal force gradient. 34 refs
Fabrication of the KSTAR toroidal field coil structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, C.H.; Sa, J.W.; Park, H.K.; Hong, K.H.; Shin, H.; Kim, H.T.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S.; Kwak, J.H.; Moon, H.G.; Yoon, H.H.; Lee, J.W.; Lee, S.K.; Song, J.Y.; Nam, K.M.; Byun, S.E.; Kim, H.C.; Ha, E.T.; Ahn, H.J.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, J.S.; Park, K.H.; Hong, C.D.
2005-01-01
The KSTAR toroidal field (TF) coil structure is under fabrication upon completion of engineering design and prototype construction. The prototype TF coil structure has been fabricated within allowable tolerances. Encasing of the prototype TF coil (TF00) in the prototype structure has been carried out through major processes involving a coil encasing, an enclosing weld, a vacuum pressure impregnation, and an outer surface machining. During the enclosing weld of the TF00 coil structure, we have measured temperatures and stresses on the coil surface. Assembly test had been performed with the TF00 coil structure. We have chosen Type 316LN as material of the TF coil structure. We used the narrow-gap TIG welding method. Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Company (DHI) will complete the fabrication of the TF coil structure in Feb. 2006. (author)
MHD Stability of Free Boundary Toroidal Z Pinch
Sugisaki, Kiwamu
1990-06-01
The Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of a free boundary toroidal Z pinch plasma is investigated. Equilibrium field profiles are chosen so that μ is nearly uniform in the central region, μ and dμ/dr vanish on the boundary and Suydam’s criterion is satisfied throughout the plasma. The stability of the equilibrium is examined for the ratio b of the conducting wall radius to the plasma radius and plasma pressure. The stability of non-resonant ideal modes is determined mainly from the safty factor on the axis. Non-resonant modes are dominant for low plasma pressure, whereas resonant modes are dominant for high plasma pressure. Tearing modes are stable only for b below 1.04. The width of the magnetic islands produced from the tearing modes is evaluated. As b increases, overlap of the magnetic islands occurs over a wide area in the plasma.
Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kritz, A.H.
1993-03-01
The Principal Investigator has continued to work on problems associated both with the deposition and with the emission of electron cyclotron heating power electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas. Inparticular, the work has focused on the use of electron cyclotron heating to stabilize q = 1 and q = 2 instabilities in tokamaks and on the use of electron cyclotron emission as a plasma diagnostic. The research described in this report has been carried out in collaboration with scientists at Princeton, MIT and Livermore. The Principal Investigator is now employed at Lehigh University, and a small group effort on electron cyclotron heating in plasmas has begun to evolve at Lehigh involving undergraduate and graduate students. Work has also been done in support of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive program at the Center for Research in Plasma Physics in Lausanne, Switzerland.
Interactions of toroidally coupled tearing modes in the KSTAR tokamak
Kim, Gnan; Yun, Gunsu S.; Woo, Minho; Park, Hyeon K.; KSTAR team2, the
2018-03-01
The evolutions of toroidally coupled radially-distant and radially-adjacent tearing modes are visualized in 2D in detail on the Korea superconducting tokamak for advanced research. The coupled tearing modes are in-phase on the out-board mid-plane and become destabilized or compete with each other depending on their spatial separation. When two coupled tearing modes are far apart, both are increasingly destabilized. On the other hand, when they become close to each other, one becomes stabilized while the other becomes destabilized. In such cases, an additional tearing mode is often formed on outer rational flux surface and the three tearing modes compete. The competitions suggest that spatial overlap (merging) of coupled magnetic islands is difficult.
Characteristics of toroidal energy deposition asymmetries in ASDEX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, T.E.; Neuhauser, J.; Leuterer, F.; Mueller, E.R.
1990-01-01
Large toroidal and poloidal asymmetries with characteristics which are sensitively dependent on q a , the vertical position of the plasma, and the type of additional heating are observed in the energy flow to the ASDEX divertor target plates. The largest asymmetries and total energy depositions are observed during lower hybrid wave injection experiments with approximately 50% of the input energy going to the combined divertor targets and shields. A maximum localized energy density loading of 10 MJ/m 2 is typical under these conditions. Measurements of the asymmetries are consistent with a model in which magnetic islands and ergodicity due to intrinsic magnetic perturbations dominate the energy transpot across the primary magnetic separatrix. The results emphasize the essential role of resonant magnetic perturbations in determining the performance of tokamaks and demonstrate that non-axisymmetric effects caused by small perturbations become increasingly important in determining the transport properties as the injected power is increased. (orig.)
Effect of loss cone on confinement in toroidal helical device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Fukuyama, A.; Hanatani, K.
1988-12-01
Analytical estimation is given on the loss cone in the toroidal helical devices in the presence of the radial electric field and the modulation of the helical ripple. The minimum energy of particles entering the loss cone is calculated. The modulation is not always effective in reducing the loss in the presence of the radial electric field. The plasma loss due to the loss cone is estimated in the collisionless limit. The radial electric field is estimated in the presence of the loss cone. It is found that the transition to the solution with positive radial electric field, which is necessary to achieve the high-ion-temperature mode, becomes difficult. This difficulty is large for the systems with the small helical ripple. (author)
Manufacturing aspects of toroidal field magnets for tokamak power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, G.E.
1977-01-01
The manufacturing aspects of two different toroidal field (TF) coils are discussed briefly. The first of these is the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) TF coil, which is presently in the design phase at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The second coil configuration reflects a reference design for a large experimental power reactor (EPR) which originated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This configuration was used by the Grumman Aerospace Corporation of Bethpage, N.Y. as the basis for an investigation of the manufacturing aspects of a large superconducting TF coil, the results of which are summarized. For each of these coils, the major characteristics of the design are first briefly described and the significant manufacturing aspects are then summarized
Elastomer seal for a large toroidal vacuum chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skellett, S.; Casey, F.; Blake, H.
1978-07-01
An aluminium toroidal vacuum chamber for use at 10(-6) torr, whose overall diameter is in the region of 5 metres, was built from 4 component parts which resulted in joint lines in the horizontal and vertical planes crossing each other in 4 places. A viton seal was developed which allows a vacuum tight joint to be made without the need for tightly toleranced fitting of the mating faces and also overcomes the difficulty of ensuring a reliable seal at cross-over joints. Ease of maintenance and repair in situ are important factors of the design. An assembly which presented the geometry of the sealing problem was tested and is described here. Various adhesives for bonding viton were examined for the manufacture of the seal. The most suitable adhesive was found to be Loctite S496, chosen for its bond strength and convenience in use. A device for preparing and bonding the viton in situ is described. (author)
Defects in an active nematic confined to a toroid
Ellis, Perry; Pearce, Dan; Giomi, Luca; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto
Active materials are driven far from the ground state by the motion of their constituent particles, thereby making them inherently non-equilibrium materials. For an active nematic, this results in a continuous creation and annihilation of +/- 1 / 2 defect pairs. Here, we confine an active nematic to the surface of a toroid and show that the topological charge of the defects couples to the Gaussian curvature of the underlying surface. However, in our experiments this defect unbinding happens on average, illustrating that despite subtle differences, the role of activity is reminiscent of the role of temperature in conventional nematics. This is confirmed by computer simulations which clearly illustrate that defect unbinding depends on activity. Overall, our results illustrate the role of confinement and curvature on the defect behavior of active nematic liquid crystals. PWE is supported by FLAMEL under Grant NSF 1258425.
Density Measurement of Compact Toroid with Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Endrizzi, Doug; Brookhart, Matt; Flanagan, Ken; Forest, Cary
2016-10-01
Utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) built by Tri Alpha Energy, a dense compact toroid (CT) is created and injected at high speed into the Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) vessel. A modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer from the Line-Tied Reconnection Experiment (LTRX) provides an absolute measurement of electron density. The interferometer is located such that the beam intersects the plasma across the diameter of the MCPG drift region before the CT enters the vessel. This placement ensures that the measurement is taken before the CT expand. Results presented will be used to further analyze characteristics of the CT. Funding provided by DoE, NSF, and WISE Summer Research.
Overview, Progress, and Plans for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment
Hartwell, G. J.; Allen, N. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Howell, E. C.; Johnson, C. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; Kring, J. D.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Ross, K. G.; Schmitt, J. C.; Traverso, P. J.; Williamson, E. N.
2017-10-01
The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) is an l = 2 , m = 5 torsatron/tokamak hybrid (R0 = 0.75 m, ap 0.2 m, and | B | plasma current for heating and disruption studies. The main goals of the CTH experiment are to study disruptive behavior as a function of applied 3D magnetic shaping, and to test and advance the V3FIT reconstruction code and NIMROD modeling of CTH. The disruptive density limit is observed to exceed the Greenwald limit as the vacuum transform is increased with no observed threshold for avoidance. Low-q operations (1.1 eliminate the vertical drift of elongated discharges. Internal SXR diagnostics, in conjunction with external magnetics, extend the range of reconstruction accuracy into the plasma core. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.
Roles of electric field on toroidal magnetic confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Sanuki, Heiji; Fukuyama, Atsushi.
1992-11-01
Theoretical research on the influence of the electric field on the toroidal magnetic confinement is surveyed. The static electric field is first described. Physics pictures on the generation of the radial electric field and the influence on the confinement are shown. Neoclassical effects as well as the nonclassical processes are discussed. Emphasis is made on the connection with the improved confinement. Convective cell, i.e. the nonuniform potential on the magnetic surface is also discussed. The roles of the fluctuating electric field are then reviewed. The progress in the recent theories on the anomalous transport is addressed. Through these surveys, the impact of the experiments using the heavy ion beam probes on the modern plasma physics is illustrated. (author) 66 refs
Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in JET
Tala, T.; Andrew, Y.; Crombé, K.; de Vries, P. C.; Garbet, X.; Hawkes, N.; Nordman, H.; Rantamäki, K.; Strand, P.; Thyagaraja, A.; Weiland, J.; Asp, E.; Baranov, Y.; Challis, C.; Corrigan, G.; Eriksson, A.; Giroud, C.; Hua, M.-D.; Jenkins, I.; Knoops, H. C. M.; Litaudon, X.; Mantica, P.; Naulin, V.; Parail, V.; Zastrow, K.-D.; contributors, JET-EFDA
2007-08-01
This paper reports on the recent studies of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in JET. The ratio of the global energy confinement time to the momentum confinement is found to be close to τE/τphi = 1 except for the low density or low collisionality discharges where the ratio is τE/τphi = 2-3. On the other hand, local transport analysis of around 40 discharges shows that the ratio of the local effective momentum diffusivity to the ion heat diffusivity is χphi/χi ap 0.1-0.4 (averaged over the radial region r/a = 0.4-0.7) rather than unity, as expected from the global confinement times and used often in ITER predictions. The apparent discrepancy in the global and local momentum versus ion heat transport can be at least partly explained by the fact that momentum confinement within edge pedestal is worse than that of the ion heat and thus, momentum pedestal is weaker than that of ion temperature. In addition, while the ion temperature profile shows clearly strong profile stiffness, the toroidal velocity profile does not exhibit stiffness, as exemplified here during a giant ELM crash. Predictive transport simulations with the self-consistent modelling of toroidal velocity using the Weiland model and GLF23 also confirm that the ratio χphi/χi ap 0.4 reproduces the core toroidal velocity profiles well and similar accuracy with the ion temperature profiles. Concerning poloidal velocities on JET, the experimental measurements show that the carbon poloidal velocity can be an order of magnitude above the neo-classical estimate within the ITB. This significantly affects the calculated radial electric field and therefore, the E × B flow shear used for example in transport simulations. Both the Weiland model and GLF23 reproduce the onset, location and strength of the ITB well when the experimental poloidal velocity is used while they do not predict the formation of the ITB using the neo-classical poloidal velocity in time-dependent transport simulation. The most
Toroidal deuteron accelerator for Mo-98 neutron activation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Araujo, Wagner L., E-mail: wagner.leite@ifnmg.edu.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais (IFN-MG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil); Campos, Tarcisio P.R. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear
2017-07-01
The radionuclide Tc-{sup 99m} is the most useful radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It can be produced by the Mo-99 beta minus decay. Mo-99 has often been produced in a high- flux nuclear reactor through radioactive neutron capture reactions on Mo-98. The present paper provides a preliminary design of a toroidal transmutation system (TTS) based on a toroidal compact deuteron accelerator, which can provide the Mo-98 transmutation into Mo-99. This system is essentially composed of a multi-aperture plasma electrode and a target, submitted to 180 kV, where a positive deuteron beam is accelerated toward a titanium-target loaded with deuterium in which nuclear d-d fusion reactions are induced. The Particle Studio package of the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software was applied to design, simulate and optimize the deuteron beam on the target. MCNP code provided to neutronic analysis. Based on electromagnetic and neutronic simulations, the neutron yield and reaction rates were estimated. The simulated data allowed appraising the Mo-99 activity. A TTS, in a specific configuration, could produce a total deuterium current of 1.6 A at the target and a neutron yield of 10{sup 13} n.s{sup -1}. In a arrangement of 30 column samples, TTS provides 230 mCi s{sup -1} Mo{sup 99} in each column, which represents 80% of Tc-99m in secular equilibrium. As conclusion, the system holds potential for generating Mo-99 and Tc-99m in a suitable activity in secular equilibrium. (author)
Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herring, J.S.
1990-01-01
Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round-trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code has been written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have 'D' shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. This paper presents designs for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 t to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils have been divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport. 8 refs., 5 tabs
Ohdachi, S.
2016-11-01
A new type of wavelet-based analysis for the magnetic fluctuations by which toroidal mode number can be resolved is proposed. By using a wavelet, having a different phase toroidally, a spectrogram with a specific toroidal mode number can be obtained. When this analysis is applied to the measurement of the fluctuations observed in the large helical device, MHD activities having similar frequency in the laboratory frame can be separated from the difference of the toroidal mode number. It is useful for the non-stationary MHD activity. This method is usable when the toroidal magnetic probes are not symmetrically distributed.
Manifestation of the cyclo-toroid nuclear moment in anomalous conversion and Lamb shift
Tkalya, E. V.
2005-01-01
We offer the hypothesis that atomic nuclei, nucleons, and atoms possess a new type of electromagnetic moment, that we call a ``cyclo-toroid moment''. In nuclei, this moment arises when the toroid dipole (anapole) moments are arrayed in the form of a ring, or, equivalently, when the magnetic moments of the nucleons are arranged in the form of rings which, in turn, constitute the surface of a torus. We establish theoretically that the cyclo-toroid moment plays a role in the processes of the ato...
Program for development of toroidal superconducting magnets for fusion research, May 1975
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, H.M.; Lubell, M.S.
1975-11-01
The objective of this program is a tested magnet design which demonstrates the suitability and reliability needed to qualify toroidal superconducting magnets for fusion research devices in a time compatible with the D-T burning experiments time frame. The overall applied development program including tasks, manpower, and cost estimates is detailed here, but for the full toroidal system only the cost and time frame are outlined to show compatibility with the present program. The details of the full toroidal system fall under major device fabrication and will be included in a subsequent document
Theoretical studies of possible toroidal high-spin isomers in the light-mass region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Staszczak Andrzej
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We review our theoretical knowledge of possible toroidal high-spin isomers in the light mass region in 28≤A≤52 obtained previously in cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations. We report additional toroidal high-spin isomers in 56Ni with I=114ħ and 140ħ, which follow the same (multi-particle–(multi-hole systematics as other toroidal high-spin isomers. We examine the production of these exotic nuclei by fusion of various projectiles on 20Ne or 28Si as an active target in time-projection-chamber (TPC experiments.
Identification of Optical Component of North Toroidal Source of Sporadic Meteors and its Origin
Hashimoto, T.; Watanabe, J.; Sato, M.; Ishiguro, M.
2011-01-01
We succeeded to identify the North Toroidal source by optical observations performed by the SonotaCo Network, which is a TV observation network coordinated by Japanese amateurs. This source has been known only for radar observations until now. The orbits of the optical meteors in the North Toroidal source are relatively large eccentricity and semi-major axis, compared with those of the radar meteors. In this paper, we report the characteristics of this North Toroidal source detected by optical observations, and discuss the possible origin and evolution of this source.
Vanmeter, Patrick; Reusch, Lisa; Franz, Paolo; Sarff, John; Goetz, John; Delgado-Aparicio, Louis; den Hartog, Daniel
2017-10-01
The soft X-ray tomography (SXT) system on MST uses four cameras in a double-filter configuration to measure the emitted brightness along forty distinct lines of sight. These measurements can then be inverted to determine the emissivity, which depends on physical properties such as temperature, density, and impurity content. The SXR emissivity should correspond to the structure of the magnetic field; however, there is a discrepancy between the phase of the emissivity inversions and magnetic field reconstructions when using the typical cylindrical approximation to interpret the signal from the toroidal magnetics array. This discrepancy was measured for two distinct plasma conditions using all four SXT cameras, with results supporting the interpretation that it emerges from physical effects of the toroidal geometry. In addition, a new soft x-ray measurement system based on the PILATUS3 photon counting detector will be installed on MST. Emitted photons are counted by an array of pixels with individually adjustable energy cutoffs giving the device more spectral information than the double-filter system. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award Numbers DE-FC02-05ER54814 and DE-SC0015474.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, X. Z.
2000-01-01
Subtleties of implementing the standard perfectly conducting wall boundary condition in a general toroidal geometry are clarified for a mixed scalar magnetic field representation. An iterative scheme based on Ohm's law is given
Current generation by unidirectional lower hybrid waves in the ACT-1 toroidal device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.L.; Horton, R.; Ono, M.
1980-05-01
An unambiguious experimental observation of current generation by unidirectional lower hybrid waves in a toroidal plasma is reported. Up to 10 amperes of current was driven by 500 watts of rf power at 160 MHz
Calculation of modification to the toroidal magnetic field of the Tokamak Novillo. Part II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melendez L, L.; Chavez A, E.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Gaytan G, E.
1992-03-01
In a cylindrical magnetic topology. the confined plasma experiences 'classic' collisional transport phenomena. When bending the cylinder with the purpose of forming a toro, the magnetic field that before was uniform now it has a radial gradient which produces an unbalance in the magnetic pressure that is exercised on the plasma in the transverse section of the toro. This gives place to transport phenomena call 'neo-classicist'. In this work the structure of the toroidal magnetic field produced by toroidal coils of triangular form, to which are added even of coils of compensation with form of half moon is analyzed. With this type of coils it is looked for to minimize the radial gradient of the toroidal magnetic field. The values and characteristics of B (magnetic field) in perpendicular planes to the toro in different angular positions in the toroidal direction, looking for to cover all the cases of importance are exhibited. (Author)
Engineering status of the superconducting end cap toroid magnets for the ATLAS experiment at LHC
Baynham, D Elwyn; Carr, F S; Courthold, M J D; Cragg, D A; Densham, C J; Evans, D; Holtom, E; Rochford, J; Sole, D; Towndrow, Edwin F; Warner, G P
2000-01-01
The ATLAS experiment at LHC, CERN will utilise a large, superconducting, air-cored toroid magnet system for precision muon measurements. The magnet system will consist of a long barrel and two end-cap toroids. Each end-cap toroid will contain eight racetrack coils mounted as a single cold mass in cryostat vessel of ~10 m diameter. The project has now moved from the design/specification stage into the fabrication phase. This paper presents the engineering status of the cold masses and vacuum vessels that are under fabrication in industry. Final designs of cold mass supports, cryogenic systems and control/protection systems are presented. Planning for toroid integration, test and installation is described. (3 refs).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H.; Nishimura, S.
2002-05-01
A novel method to obtain the full neoclassical transport matrix for general toroidal plasmas by using the solution of the linearized drift kinetic equation with the pitch-angle-scattering collision operator is shown. In this method, the neoclassical coefficients for both poloidal and toroidal viscosities in toroidal helical systems can be obtained, and the neoclassical transport coefficients for the radial particle and heat fluxes and the bootstrap current with the non-diagonal coupling between unlike-species particles are derived from combining the viscosity-flow relations, the friction-flow relations, and the parallel momentum balance equations. Since the collisional momentum conservation is properly retained, the well-known intrinsic ambipolar condition of the neoclassical particle fluxes in symmetric systems is recovered. Thus, these resultant neoclassical diffusion and viscosity coefficients are applicable to evaluating accurately how the neoclassical transport in quasi-symmetric toroidal systems deviates from that in exactly-symmetric systems. (author)
Safety analysis of superconducting toroidal field magnet for tokamak experimental fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-02-01
Safety analysis of the superconducting toroidal field magnet for a Tokamak experimental fusion reactor has been carried out. Works were accident classification, FMEA and FTA analyses, coil stability and quench behavior calculations, failure detection and coil protection system designs, structure analysis, fracture and fatigue studies, and earthquake response analysis. Accident analysis of cryostat and refrigeration system was also performed. The objective of this work is to reveal technological problems of the toroidal field magnet by safety analysis. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chavez A, E.; Melendez L, L.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Gaytan G, E
1991-07-15
The charged particles that constitute the plasma in the tokamaks are located in magnetic fields that determine its behavior. The poloidal magnetic field of the plasma current and the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak possess relatively big gradients, which produce drifts on these particles. These drifts are largely the cause of the continuous lost of particles and of energy of the confinement region. In this work the results of numerical calculations of a modification to the 'traditional' toroidal magnetic field that one waits it diminishes the drifts by gradient and improve the confinement properties of the tokamaks. (Author)
Hughson, K.; Russell, C. T.; Schmidt, B. E.; Chilton, H.; Scully, J. E. C.; Sizemore, H. G.; Byrne, S.; Platz, T.; Raymond, C. A.
2017-12-01
During the Survey, High Altitude Mapping Orbit, and Low Altitude Mapping Orbit phases of the primary mission Dawn's Framing Camera observed a multitude of globally distributed lobate deposits. These flows were broadly interpreted as either similar to ice-cored/ice-cemented flows (Type 1 flows) on Earth and Mars, long run-out terrestrial or martian landslides (Type 2 flows), or highly mobile fluidized ejecta-like deposits (Type 3 flows) (Buczckowski et al., 2016; Schmidt et al., 2017). The Type 3 flows are morphologically similar to layered/pancake ejecta found on Mars and Ganymede where they are thought to be caused by impacts into ground ice rich substrates (Mouginis-Mark, 1979; Boyce et al., 2010). We assess the effects of target material strength, sliding friction, and vapor entrainment on the production of these features by comparing the ejecta mobility (EM: the ratio of the radius of the ejecta blanket to the radius of the parent crater) values for all Type 3 cerean flows to a ballistic/kinematic sliding model similar to the one developed by Weiss et al. (2014) to model EM for impacts into a variety of ground ice rich substrates of differing volatile content on Mars. Initial results suggest that, in order for these features to form, the cerean surface requires a large coefficient of sliding friction (>0.1), and that significant amounts of water be vaporized during impact. However, the model does not tightly constrain the strength of the target material (best-fit values range from granite-like to unconsolidated-sand-like). These results are consistent with a largely dry, rough, and thin surface layer underlain by material rich in pore-filling ground ice, even at low latitudes. Additionally, before the Fall Meeting we will attempt to constrain the thickness of the ice-poor surface layer. This will be done through a combined analysis of model results and morphometric parameters of individual Type 3 flows. Future implementation of this model will further
Compact toroid injection fueling in a large field-reversed configuration
Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Gota, H.; Sekiguchi, J.; Edo, T.; Garate, E.; Takahashi, Ts.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.
2017-07-01
A repetitively driven compact toroid (CT) injector has been developed for the large field-reversed configuration (FRC) facility of the C-2/C-2U, primarily for particle refueling. A CT is formed and injected by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) exclusively developed for the C-2/C-2U FRC. To refuel the particles of long-lived FRCs, multiple CT injections are required. Thus, a multi-stage discharge circuit was developed for a multi-pulsed CT injection. The drive frequency of this system can be adjusted up to 1 kHz and the number of CT shots per injector is two; the system can be further upgraded for a larger number of injection pulses. The developed MCPG can achieve a supersonic ejection velocity in the range of ~100 km s-1. The key plasma parameters of electron density, electron temperature and the number of particles are ~5 × 1021 m-3, ~30 eV and 0.5-1.0 × 1019, respectively. In this project, single- and double-pulsed counter CT injection fueling were conducted on the C-2/C-2U facility by two CT injectors. The CT injectors were mounted 1 m apart in the vicinity of the mid-plane. To avoid disruptive perturbation on the FRC, the CT injectors were operated at the lower limit of the particle inventory. The experiments demonstrated successful refueling with a significant density build-up of 20-30% of the FRC particle inventory per single CT injection without any deleterious effects on the C-2/C-2U FRC.
Talebi, Nahid; Guo, Surong; van Aken, Peter A.
2018-01-01
Dipole selection rules underpin much of our understanding in characterization of matter and its interaction with external radiation. However, there are several examples where these selection rules simply break down, for which a more sophisticated knowledge of matter becomes necessary. An example, which is increasingly becoming more fascinating, is macroscopic toroidization (density of toroidal dipoles), which is a direct consequence of retardation. In fact, dissimilar to the classical family of electric and magnetic multipoles, which are outcomes of the Taylor expansion of the electromagnetic potentials and sources, toroidal dipoles are obtained by the decomposition of the moment tensors. This review aims to discuss the fundamental and practical aspects of the toroidal multipolar moments in electrodynamics, from its emergence in the expansion set and the electromagnetic field associated with it, the unique characteristics of their interaction with external radiations and other moments, to the recent attempts to realize pronounced toroidal resonances in smart configurations of meta-molecules. Toroidal moments not only exhibit unique features in theory but also have promising technologically relevant applications, such as data storage, electromagnetic-induced transparency, unique magnetic responses and dichroism.
First End Cap Toroid knocking on the door of SX1
Herman Ten Kate
On Tuesday May 29, the first Toroid End Cap for the A-side was transported from its test station next to B180 to the front of the ATLAS surface building SX1. The 240-ton and 12-m high toroid end-cap moved on a special trailer at walking speed, got over various slopes and survived the difficult turn left in front of the entrance at gate B. The toroid had to wait for almost two months to commence its journey to its destination as the cryogenic test down to 80K was already successfully completed by early April. In the next days, the toroid will slide into the SX1 building, turn around its axes by 90 degrees and then gently slide over the first shaft and land on top of the A-side shaft on Wednesday. There, it will descend by 5 m into the shaft using special lifting tooling before it can be connected to the 2x140 tons overhead cranes which will let the toroid go further down to the cavern. End Cap Toroid A on the trailer on its way to the cavern at Point 1. Crossing the main road near entrance A while t...
Dielectric tensor operator of hot plasmas in toroidal axisymmetric systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.
1992-08-01
Kinetic theory is used to develop equations describing dynamics of small-amplitude electromagnetic perturbations in toroidal axisymmetric plasmas. The closed Vlasov-Maxwell equations are first solved for a hot stationary plasma using the expansion in the small parameter ε e =ρ/L, where ρ is the Larmor radius and L a characteristic length scale of the stationary state. The ordering and additional assumptions are specified so as to obtain the well-known Grad-Shafranov equation. The dielectric tensor of such a plasma is then derived. The Vlasov equation for the perturbed distribution function is solved by the expansion in the small parameters ε e and ε p =ρ/λ, where λ is a characteristic wavelength of the perturbing electromagnetic field. The solution is obtained up to the first order in ε e and the second order in ε p . By integrating the resulting distribution function over velocity space, an explicit expression for the tensor is derived in the form of a two-dimensional partial differential operator. The operator is shown to possess the proper symmetry corresponding to the energy conservation law. (author) 6 refs
Design study of toroidal magnets for tokamak experimental power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stekly, Z.J.J.; Lucas, E.J.
1976-12-01
This report contains the results of a six-month study of superconducting toroidal field coils for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to be built in the late 1980s. The designs are for 8 T and 12 T maximum magnetic field at the superconducting winding. At each field level two main concepts were generated; one in which each of the 16 coils comprising the system has an individual vacuum vessel and the other in which all the coils are contained in a single vacuum vessel. The coils have a D shape and have openings of 11.25 m x 7.5 m for the 8 T coils and 10.2 m x 6.8 m for the 12 T coils. All the designs utilize rectangular cabled conductor made from copper stabilized Niobium Titanium composite which operates at 4.2 K for the 8 T design and at 2.5 K for the 12 T design. Manufacturing procedures, processes and schedule estimates are also discussed
Rotating liquid blanket for a toroidal fusion reator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moir, R.W.
1987-01-01
A novel blanket concept is presented for toroidal geometry in which many of the limitations imposed by a first wall are avoided by not having a first wall in the usual sense. The blanket consists of a rapidly rotating, low-vapor-pressure liquid that has a sharp boundary with the vacuum region. Nozzles inject ja continuous layer of cool liquid on the inner surface. The noncentricity of the plasma is maintained so that the plasma scrape-off region intersects the rotating liqid in a localized region. This noncentricity allows sufficient space so that the scrape-off plasma layer will not bombard the nozzles, whch penetrate through the rotating liquid. This liquid ''first wall'' is bombarded by the plasma, resulting in heat deposition, sputtering, and evaporation during the short time before the exposed liquid is covered by fresh, cool liquid from the nozzles. The advantages of this reactor concept appear to be very high wall loadings (speculated to be over 10 MW/m 2 ) and long component lifetime, both crucial economic factors. The nozzles are designed for easy replacement. The reactor's disatvantage is its enormous potential for plasma contamination by impurities. (orig.)
Linear theory of the tearing instability in axisymmetric toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.; Singh, R.
1988-08-01
We derive a very general kinetic equation describing the linear evolution of low m/l modes in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with arbitrary cross sections. Included are: Ion sound, inertia, diamagnetic drifts, finite poloidal beta, and finite ion Larmor radius effects. Assuming the magnetic surfaces to form a set of nested tori with circular cross sections of shifted centers, and introducing adequate simplifications justified by our knowledge of experimental tokamak plasmas, we then obtain explicitely the sets of equations describing the coupling of the quasimodes 0/1, 1/1, 2/1, and, for m≥2, m/1, (m+1)/1. By keeping finite aspect ratio effects into account when calculating the jump of the derivative of the eigenfunction, it is shown that the theory can explain the rapid evolution, within one sawtooth period, of the growth rate of the sawteeth precursors from resistive values to magnetohydrodynamic ones. The characteristics thus theoretically required from current profiles in sawtoothing discharges have clearly been observed. Other aspects of the full theory could be relevant to the phenomenon of major disruptions. (orig.)
Structural analysis of the NET toroidal field coils and conductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, N.; Collier, D.; Gori, R.
1989-01-01
The NET toroidal field coils will utilise A15-type superconductor at 4.2 K to generate fields up to 11.5 T. The superconductor strands themselves are sensitive to strain, which causes degradation of their current carrying capacity, and thus the detailed behaviour of the coil conductor must be analysied so that the strian can be minimised. This analysis must include the manufacturing processes of the conductor as well as the normal and abnormal loperational loads. The conductor will be insulated and bonded by glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin, with limited bonding shear strength, and the overall support of the complete coil system must be designed to reduce these shear stresses. The coils will be subjected to pulse loads form the poloidal field coils, and analysis of the slip between the various coil components, such as conductors and the coil case, giving rise to frictional heating and possible loss of superconducting properties is another important factor, which has been investigated by a number of stress analyses. The manufacturing, thermal and normal magnetic loads on the coils and the analysis leading to the proposed structural design are described. In addition to the normal operating conditions, there is a range of abnormal load conditions which could result from electrical or mechanical faults on the coils. The effect of these potential faults has been analysed and the coil design modified to prevent catastrophic structural failure. (author). 13 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab
Fluid models for kinetic effects in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyakov, A.I.; Hirose, A.; Yagi, M.; Callen, J.D.
1995-01-01
Fluid models for toroidal plasma are considered paying particular attention to the effects of particle motion along the equilibrium magnetic field. It is shown that the basic fluid equations can be obtained either as moments of the drift-kinetic equation, or from the standard fluid equations by expanding them in 1/B small parameter. It is shown that the collisionless gyroviscosity accounts for the effects of the particle magnetic drift in the parallel component of the momentum balance equation. Simple truncated model of the plasma response for arbitrary ω D (magnetic drift frequency) and k parallel V t (parallel transit frequency) is proposed. In the absence of resonances, which can be inhibited by the particle magnetic drift, this model recovers the exact kinetic results with satisfactory accuracy. In general case, the kinetic closure for the effects of the particle motion along the magnetic field is suggested in terms of the parallel viscosity and the heat flux. They are directly calculated from the linear drift-kinetic equation. Simplified expressions in the different asymptotic limits are derived
Wall conditioning and leak localization in the Advanced Toroidal Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langley, R.A.; Glowienka, J.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Murakami, M.; Rayburn, T.F.; Simpkins, J.E.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Yarber, J.L.
1990-01-01
The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel and its internal components have been conditioned for plasma operation by baking, discharge cleaning with hydrogen and helium, and gettering with chromium and titanium. The plasma-facing surface of ATF consists mainly of stainless steel with some graphite; the outgassing area is dominated by the graphite because of its open porosity. Since this situation is somewhat different from that in other fusion plasma experiments, in which a single material dominates both the outgassing area and the plasma-facing area, different cleaning and conditioning techniques are required. The situation was aggravated by air leaks in the vacuum vessel, presumably resulting from baking and from vibration during plasma operation. The results of the various cleaning and conditioning techniques used are presented and compared on the basis of residual gas analysis and plasma performance. A technique for detecting leaks from the inside of the vacuum vessel is described. This technique was developed because access to the outside of the vessel is severely restricted by external components
Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.
1987-01-01
The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure
MHD simulation study of compact toroid injection into magnetized plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Yoshio; Kishimoto, Yasuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hayashi, Takaya [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2000-06-01
To understand the fuelling process in a fusion device by a compact toroid (CT) plasmoid injection method, we have carried out MHD numerical simulations where a spheromak-like CT (SCT) is injected into a magnetized target plasma region. So far, we revealed that the penetration depth of the SCT plasma becomes shorter than that estimated from the conducting sphere (CS) model, because in the simulation the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field sequentially decelerates the injected SCT while in the CS model only the magnetic pressure force acts as the deceleration mechanism. In this study, we represent the new theoretical model where the injected SCT is decelerated by both the magnetic pressure force and the magnetic tension force (we call it the non-slipping sphere (NS) model) and investigate in detail the deceleration mechanism of the SCT by comparison with simulation results. As a result, it is found that the decrease of the SCT kinetic energy in the simulation coincides with that in the NS model more than in the CS model. It means that not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force acts as the deceleration mechanism of the SCT. Furthermore, it is revealed that magnetic reconnection between the SCT magnetic field and the target magnetic field plays a role to relax the SCT deceleration. (author)
Toroidal coil for torus type nuclear fusion device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, Daisaburo; Jinbo, Kensaku.
1976-01-01
Object: To facilitate clamping operation in the joint section of a toroidal coil in the nuclear fusion device even if the device has a narrow central space. Structure: A clamp bolt for joining upper and lower coil conductors comprises a first bolt, which is provided in one end portion with a thread for fitting a clamp nut, has a hollow intermediate portion and is provided at the other end with an opening of a smaller diameter than that of the hollow intermediate portion and also with an inner receiving surface, and a second bolt, which is provided in one end portion with a thread for fitting a clamp nut and in the other end portion with a raised portion and is adapted to be inserted on the raised portion side into the hollow intermediate portion of the first bolt such that it is extendable in the axial direction. When inserting this clamp bolt into a see-through hole in the conductor joint section its length is reduced, and at the time of clamping it is extended with the raised portion of the second bolt locked by the receiving surface of the first bolt. (Horiuchi, T.)
Control of Compact-Toroid Characteristics by External Copper Shell
Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Gota, H.; Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Cordero, M.; Garate, E.; Kinley, J.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; the TAE Team
2015-11-01
A collaborative research project by Tri Alpha Energy and Nihon University has been conducted for several years, which led to the development of a new compact toroid (CT) injector for efficient FRC particle refueling in the C-2U experiment. The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), consisting of coaxial cylindrical electrodes. In CT formation via MCPG, the magnetic helicity content of the generated CT is one of the critical parameters. A bias coil is inserted into the inner electrode to generate a poloidal flux. The resultant bias magnetic field is spread out of MCPG with time due to its low-frequency bias current. To obtain a more effectively distributed bias magnetic field as well as to improve the voltage breakdown between electrodes, the MCPG incorporates a novel ~ 1 mm thick copper shell mounted outside of the outer electrode. This allows for reliable and controlled operation and more robust CT generation. A detailed discussion of the copper shell and experimental test results will be presented.
Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs
Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team
2014-10-01
Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.
Studies on Plasmoid Merging using Compact Toroid Injectors
Allfrey, Ian; Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Roche, Thomas; Gota, Hiroshi; Edo, Takahiro; Asai, Tomohiko; Sheftman, Daniel; Osin Team; Dima Team
2017-10-01
C-2 and C-2U experiments have used magnetized coaxial plasma guns (MCPG) to inject compact toroids (CTs) for refueling the long-lived advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. This refueling method will also be used for the C-2W experiment. To minimize momentum transfer from the CT to the FRC two CTs are injected radially, diametrically opposed and coincident in time. To improve understanding of the CT characteristics TAE has a dedicated test bed for the development of CT injectors (CTI), where plasmoid merging experiments are performed. The test bed has two CTIs on axis with both axial and transverse magnetic fields. The 1 kG magnetic fields, intended to approximate the magnetic field strength and injection angle on C-2W, allow studies of cross-field transport and merging. Both CTIs are capable of injecting multiple CTs at up to 1 kHz. The resulting merged CT lives >100 μs with a radius of 25 cm. More detailed results of CT parameters will be presented.
Validation of Helium Inlet Design for ITER Toroidal Field Coil
Boyer, C; Hamada, K; Foussat, A; Le Rest, M; Mitchell, N; Decool, P; Savary, F; Sgobba, S; Weiss, K-P
2014-01-01
The ITER organization has performed design and its validation tests on a helium inlet structure for the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coil under collaboration with CERN, KIT, and CEA-Cadarache. Detailed structural analysis was performed in order to optimize the weld shape. A fatigue resistant design on the fillet weld between the shell covers and the jacket is an important point on the helium inlet structure. A weld filler material was selected based on tensile test at liquid helium temperature after Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment. To validate the design of the weld joint, fatigue tests at 7 K were performed using heat-treated butt weld samples. A pressure drop measurement of a helium inlet mock-up was performed by using nitrogen gas at room temperature in order to confirm uniform flow distribution and pressure drop characteristic. These tests have validated the helium inlet design. Based on the validation, Japanese and European Union domestic agencies, which have responsibilities of the TF coil procurement, are pr...
Superconducting toroidal field coil current densities for the TFCX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalsi, S.S.; Hooper, R.J.
1985-04-01
A major goal of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) study was to minimize the size of the device and achieve lowest cost. Two key factors influencing the size of the device employing superconducting magnets are toroidal field (TF) winding current density and its nuclear heat load withstand capability. Lower winding current density requires larger radial build of the winding pack. Likewise, lower allowable nuclear heating in the winding requires larger shield thickness between the plasma and coil. In order to achieve a low-cost device, it is essential to maximize the winding's current density and nuclear heating withhstand capability. To meet the above objective, the TFCX design specification adopted as goals a nominal winding current density of 3500 A/cm 2 with 10-T peak field at the winding and peak nuclear heat load limits of 1 MW/cm 3 for the nominal design and 50 MW/cm 3 for an advanced design. This study developed justification for these current density and nuclear heat load limits
Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan
1994-01-01
Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime
Inductive Eigenmodes of a resistive toroidal surface in vacuum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lo Surdo, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione
1999-07-01
In this paper it has been studied the Electro-Magnetic (EM) Eigenmodes, sufficiently slow as to legitimate the pre-Maxwell approximation of Maxwell's system (or inductive Eigenmodes), of a given smooth, toroidal-un knotted, electrically resistive surface {tau} with given smooth (surface) resistivity 0 < {rho}{sub d}egree < {infinity}, and lying in the (empty) R{sup 3}. Within the above limitations (to be made more precise), the geometry of {tau} is arbitrary. With the eigenvalue associated with the generic Eigenmode being defined as the opposite of its logarithmic time-derivative, one expects that the resulting spectrum be discrete and strictly positive. It shall be interested into the degenerate case where {tau} be cut (i.e. electrically broken) along one or more of its irreducible cycles. This case will be analyzed autonomously, rather than as a limit (for {rho}{sub d}egree {yields} {infinity} along the cuts) of the regular case. Without cuts, the Eigenproblem under consideration is nothing but the two-dimensional (2-dim) generalization of the classical case of a smooth, unknotted, electrically conductive, simple coil in infinite vacuum. Its analysis hinges on the classical potential theory, and turns out to be a special application of the linear, integrodifferential (elliptic) equation theory on a compact, multiply connected, 2-dim manifold. The attention and approach will be confined to strong (or classical) solutions, both in {tau} and C {tau} = R{sup 3} / {tau}. This study is divided in two parts: a General Part (Sects 1 divided 4) is devoted to the case of generic {tau} and {rho}{sub d}egree (within the convenient smoothness requirements), whereas a Special Part (Sects 5 divided 7) deals with the (more or less formal) discussion of a couple of particular cases ({tau} {identical_to} a canonical torus), both of which with uniform {rho}{sub d}egree. Some propaedeutical/supplementary information is provided in a number of Appendices. [Italian] Il presente
JT-60SA Toroidal Field Coils test cryostat development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamotton, Pierre, E-mail: pjamotton@ulg.ac.be [Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL), Université de Liège Avenue du Pré-Aily, B-4031 Angleur (Belgium); Wanner, Manfred [F4E Broader Fusion Development Dept., Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Massaut, Vincent [SCK/CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Génini, Laurent; Maksoud, Walid Abdel [CEA/DSM/IRFU CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Collin, Bill; Delrez, Christophe [Ateliers de la Meuse (ALM), Rue Ernest Solvay, 107, B-4000 Sclessin (Belgium)
2013-10-15
Highlights: ► Large vacuum vessels. ► FEM mechanical design. ► Cryogenic thermal design. ► Full development process: design, manufacturing, assembly, test. -- Abstract: Within the Broader Approach Agreement, Fusion for Energy will deliver to the Japanese Atomic Energy Association, amongst other components, the 18 Toroidal Field Coils (TFCs) for the superconducting Tokamak JT-60SA [1]. These coils will be individually tested at cryogenic temperatures and at the nominal current in a test cryostat. This cryostat is provided as an in-kind contribution by Belgium and is being developed jointly with CEA-Saclay/France. The vessel is large, oval shaped with an overall length of 11 m, a width of 7.2 m and a height of 6.5 m. To reduce the heat load to the coils the cryostat is covered by LN{sub 2} cooled thermal shields. In addition to the cryostat, three test frames for the coils, the valve box vessel and the insulation vacuum system are also provided by Belgium. The Belgian contribution is design, manufacturing, assembly and test of the vacuum chamber, thermal shield and test frames by the Belgian company Ateliers de la Meuse (ALM), with the support of Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL). The TF coil test facility is assembled and the coil tests are performed by CEA/Saclay. The Belgian contribution, namely the design, manufacturing, assembly and test of the vacuum vessel, the thermal shields, and the test frames as well as of the vacuum pumping system are described in the presentation.
Inductive Eigenmodes of a resistive toroidal surface in vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo Surdo, C.
1999-01-01
In this paper it has been studied the Electro-Magnetic (EM) Eigenmodes, sufficiently slow as to legitimate the pre-Maxwell approximation of Maxwell's system (or inductive Eigenmodes), of a given smooth, toroidal-unknotted, electrically resistive surface Τ with given smooth (surface) resistivity 0 d egree 3 . Within the above limitations (to be made more precise), the geometry of Τ is arbitrary. With the eigenvalue associated with the generic Eigenmode being defined as the opposite of its logarithmic time-derivative, one expects that the resulting spectrum be discrete and strictly positive. It shall be interested into the degenerate case where Τ be cut (i.e. electrically broken) along one or more of its irreducible cycles. This case will be analyzed autonomously, rather than as a limit (for ρ d egree → ∞ along the cuts) of the regular case. Without cuts, the Eigenproblem under consideration is nothing but the two-dimensional (2-dim) generalization of the classical case of a smooth, unknotted, electrically conductive, simple coil in infinite vacuum. Its analysis hinges on the classical potential theory, and turns out to be a special application of the linear, integrodifferential (elliptic) equation theory on a compact, multiply connected, 2-dim manifold. The attention and approach will be confined to strong (or classical) solutions, both in Τ and C Τ = R 3 / Τ. This study is divided in two parts: a General Part (Sects 1 divided 4) is devoted to the case of generic Τ and ρ d egree (within the convenient smoothness requirements), whereas a Special Part (Sects 5 divided 7) deals with the (more or less formal) discussion of a couple of particular cases (Τ ≡ a canonical torus), both of which with uniform ρ d egree. Some propaedeutical/supplementary information is provided in a number of Appendices [it
Toroidal reactor designs as a function of aspect ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, C.P.C.; Wesley, J.C.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Cheng, E.T.
2001-01-01
This paper presents a 'common basis' systems study of superconducting (SC) and normal-conducting (NC) DT-burning fusion power and materials testing reactor designs. Figures-of-merit for power and materials-testing reactors are respectively; projected cost-of-electricity (COE) and direct cost (DC). A common 0-D plasma modeling basis is used and the plasma geometry and engineering aspects of the SC and NC designs are treated in an equivalent manner that is consistent with the limitations of their respective magnet technologies and other design constraints. Aspect ratios A in the range 1.2≤A≤6 and plasma elongations in the range 1≤κ≤3 are explored and a MHD stability (beta limit) physics basis that accurately describes the increase of normalized beta β N and toroidal beta β T with a decreasing A and/or increasing κ is incorporated. With this MHD basis taken into account and with the usual reactor geometry, physics and engineering constraints and costing bases applied, the results of the study show that for power reactors the minimum COE is pointing towards lower A∼2 than generally found in previous studies. The minimum is broader with higher κ. For test reactors with similar fusion power output, the direct cost for NC options is significantly lower than for SC coil options. With the NC category, testing designs that combine intermediate A and higher elongation show promise as a D-T burn next step device that could provide scientific and testing data to support future SC and NC reactors. For example, a NC coil design with A∼2, κ=3 could produce 200 MW fusion power at 1.23MW/m 2 average neutron wall loading at a total direct cost of about $643 M. This NC design with a fissile blanket could also convert ∼1270kg of fission reactor waste per full power year. (author)
Pinch effects and chaotic motion in toroidal confinement devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spizzo, G.; White, R. B.; Cappello, S.; Marrelli, L.; Sattin, F.
2007-07-01
Particle transport in toroidal confinement devices is often described in terms of a diffusion constant and an inward pinch velocity: this phenomenological description can be justified by a probabilistic approach (random walk) that simplifies the particle dynamics when the orbits are small enough compared to the system size. This results in a diffusive expression for particle flux. Then, the convective part of the particle flux can be related, for example, to spatial inhomogeneities in temperature or field curvature. When magnetic chaos is present, but the system is not too far from the stochastic threshold, diffusion and pinch can be actually an expression of the sub diffusive nature of the transport, brought about by the presence of a spectrum of long-distance Levy flights. This effect is shown by numerical modelling of the magnetic structure and associated particle transport in conditions relevant for the reversed-field pinch experiment RFX-mod based at Consorzio RFX, Padova. Simulations reproduce the particle motion through guiding center calculations of particle orbits embedded in the magnetic topology, obtained by 3D MHD simulations (code SpeCyl). Results have been used to produce the probability distribution functions (p.d.f.) of jump lengths and waiting times, providing the kernel to integrate in the Montroll equation, which governs the evolution of particle density in the Continuous-time random walk (CTRW) approach. This means that we obtain a transport equation using the knowledge of the kernel which comes directly from the actual particle dynamics. The difference of behavior between trapped and passing particles has also been considered, and has a relevance comparable to sub diffusion in determining the pinch effect. Similar results can be applied to other systems with chaos induces particle transport, e.g. electron transport in Tokamaks. This work was partially supported by DoE contract No. DE-FG03-94ER54271. (Author)
Representation of magnetic fields with toroidal topology in terms of field-line invariants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, H.R.
1990-01-01
Beginning with Boozer's representation of magnetic fields with toroidal topology [Phys. Fluids 26, 1288 (1983)], a general formalism is presented for the representation of any magnetic field with toroidal topology in terms of field-line invariants. The formalism is an application to the magnetic field case of results developed recently by Lewis et al. (submitted for publication to J. Phys. A) for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with one degree of freedom. Every magnetic field with toroidal topology can be associated with time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with one degree of freedom and every time-dependent Hamiltonian system with one degree of freedom can be associated with magnetic fields with toroidal topology. In the Hamiltonian context, given any particular function I(q,p,t), Lewis et al. derived those Hamiltonians for which I(q,p,t) is an invariant. In addition, for each of those Hamiltonians, they derived a function canonically conjugate to I(q,p,t) that is also an invariant. They applied this result to the case where I(q,p,t) is expressed as a function of two canonically conjugate functions. This general Hamiltonian formalism provides a basis for representing magnetic fields with toroidal topology in terms of field-line invariants. The magnetic fields usually contain plasma with flow and anisotropic pressure. A class of fields with or without rotational symmetry is identified for which there are magnetic surfaces. The formalism is developed for application to the case of vacuum magnetic fields
Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcus, F.B.
1978-01-01
A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux
Approximations to the non-adiabatic particle response in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schep, T.J.; Braams, B.J.
1981-08-01
The non-adiabatic part of the particle response to low-frequency electromagnetic modes with long parallel wavelengths is discussed. Analytic approximations to the kernels of the integrals that relate the amplitudes of the perturbed potentials to the non-adiabatic part of the perturbed density in an axisymmetric toroidal configuration are presented and the results are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that both in the plane slab and in toroidal geometry the kernel contains a logarithmic singularity. This singularity is associated with particles with vanishing parallel velocity so that, in toroidal geometry, it is related with the behaviour of trapped particles near their turning points. In contrast to the plane slab, in toroidal geometry this logarithmic singularity is mainly real and associated with non-resonant particles. Apart from this logarithmic term, the kernel contains a complex regular part arising from resonant as well as from non-resonant particles. The analytic approximations that will be presented make the dispersion relation of drift-type modes in toroidal geometry amenable to analytic as well as to simpler numerical calculation of the growth rate and of the spatial mode structure
INSTABILITY OF NON-UNIFORM TOROIDAL MAGNETIC FIELDS IN ACCRETION DISKS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro, E-mail: hirabayashi-k@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2016-05-10
We present a new type of instability that is expected to drive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence from a purely toroidal magnetic field in an accretion disk. It is already known that in a differentially rotating system, the uniform toroidal magnetic field is unstable due to magnetorotational instability (MRI) under a non-axisymmetric and vertical perturbation, while it is stable under a purely vertical perturbation. Contrary to the previous study, this paper proposes an unstable mode completely confined to the equatorial plane, driven by the expansive nature of the magnetic pressure gradient force under a non-uniform toroidal field. The basic nature of this growing eigenmode, which we name “magneto-gradient driven instability,” is studied using linear analysis, and the corresponding nonlinear evolution is then investigated using two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations. Although a single localized magnetic field channel alone cannot provide sufficient Maxwell stress to contribute significantly to the angular momentum transport, we find that the mode coupling between neighboring toroidal fields under multiple localized magnetic field channels drastically generates a highly turbulent state and leads to the enhanced transport of angular momentum, which is comparable to the efficiency seen in previous studies on MRIs. This horizontally confined mode may play an important role in the saturation of an MRI through complementray growth with the toroidal MRIs and coupling with magnetic reconnection.
Observations of toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostek, C.A.
1983-01-01
The macroscopic rotation of plasma in a toroidal containment device is an important feature of the equilibrium. Toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II is measured experimentally by examining the Doppler shift of the 4685.75 A He II line emitted from the plasma. The toroidal flow at an average velocity of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed, moves in the same direction as the toroidal plasma current. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic current direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec. In view of certain ordering parameters, the toroidal flow is compared with predictions from neoclassical theory in the collosional, Pfirsch-Schluter regime. The poloidal motion, however results from an E x B drift in a positive radial electric field, approaching a stable ambipolar state. This radial electric field is determined from theory by using the measured poloidal velocity. Mechanisms for the time evolution of rotation are also examined. It appears that the circulation damping is governed by a global decay of the temperature and density gradients which, in turn, may be functions of radiative cooling, loss of equilibrium due to external field decay, or the emergence of a growing instability, occasionally observed in CO 2 interferometry measurements
Optimization of Shielded PCB Air-Core Toroids for High-Efficiency DC-DC Converters
Orlandi, S; Buso, S; Michelis, S; Fuentes, C A; Kayal, M; Faccio, F; Spiazzi, G
2011-01-01
The paper describes the design of optimized printed circuit board (PCB) air-core toroids for high-frequency dc-dc converters with strict requirements in terms of volume and noise. The effect of several design parameters on the overall inductor volume, on dc and ac winding resistance, and on the radiated noise will be investigated. PCB toroids are compared to standard air-core solenoids and other state-of-the-art air-core toroids both theoretically and experimentally: at first, using ANSOFT Maxwell and ANSOFT Q3D simulation tools, and subsequently, with laboratory measurements (irradiated noise, efficiency, and frequency response) on several prototypes. These very flexible and rather easy to manufacture inductors appear very attractive for compact high-frequency dc-dc converters where high efficiency, low volume, and low noise are of primary concern.
Neoclassical Drift of Circulating Orbits Due toToroidal Electric Field in Tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Qin; Guan, Xiaoyin; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-07-19
In tokamaks, Ware pinch is a well known neoclassical effect for trapped particles in response to a toroidal electric field. It is generally believed that there exists no similar neoclassical effect for circulating particles without collisions. However, this belief is erroneous, and misses an important effect. We show both analytically and numerically that under the influence of a toroidal electric field parallel to the current, the circulating orbits drift outward toward the outer wall with a characteristic velocity O ({var_epsilon}{sup -1}) larger than the E x B velocity, where {var_epsilon} is the inverse aspect-ratio of a tokamak. During a RF overdrive, the toroidal electric field is anti-parallel to the current. As a consequence, all charged particles, including backward runaway electrons, will drift inward towards the inner wall.
Co-toroidal plasma rotation with electron cyclotron power in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassie, J.S. de; Baker, D.R.; Luce, T.C.; Petty, C.C.; Prater, R.; Brennan, D.
2001-01-01
RF electron heating and current drive in DIII-D are observed to typically reduce the core toroidal rotation velocity and core ion temperature when added to target discharges with rotation established by neutral beam heating. Two cases are noted here in which electron cyclotron heating and current drive are observed to increase co-toroidal rotation in different discharge regimes. In the first case electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) is used to stabilize a 3/2 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) and the stabilization is accompanied by an increase in rotation, ion temperature and plasma beta. In the second case electron cyclotron heating (ECH) added to a nominally Ohmic target discharge results in an increase in the co-toroidal rotation
Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, V. V.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A.
2013-01-01
Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles
Neoclassical Drift of Circulating Orbits Due toToroidal Electric Field in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, Hong; Guan, Xiaoyin; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
In tokamaks, Ware pinch is a well known neoclassical effect for trapped particles in response to a toroidal electric field. It is generally believed that there exists no similar neoclassical effect for circulating particles without collisions. However, this belief is erroneous, and misses an important effect. We show both analytically and numerically that under the influence of a toroidal electric field parallel to the current, the circulating orbits drift outward toward the outer wall with a characteristic velocity O ((var e psilon) -1 ) larger than the E x B velocity, where (var e psilon) is the inverse aspect-ratio of a tokamak. During a RF overdrive, the toroidal electric field is anti-parallel to the current. As a consequence, all charged particles, including backward runaway electrons, will drift inward towards the inner wall.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, D.J.; Bondeson, A.
1994-01-01
In recent work we have shown that it is possible to completely stabilize low n, pressure-driven external modes in tokamaks by the combined effect of resistive walls and toroidal plasma rotation. We have used numerical computation to study the wall stabilization in toroidal geometry. The spectral codes MARS and NOVA have been modified to include a resistive shell in the vacuum region surrounding the plasma. Rigid toroidal rotation was modeled by making the resistive shell rotate with an externally imposed frequency ω rot while the equilibrium was static. The plasma was treated as ideally conducting and ω rot was some fraction of the sound frequency. Furthermore, the time-constant of the resistive wall, τ ω , was taken much larger than any ideal-MHD timescale. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs
The control on the deformation of the ATLAS barrel toroid warm structure
Bauer, F; Giraud, P F; Védrine, P; Guyot, C; Levesy, B; Ponsot, P; Schune, P; Sun, Z
2007-01-01
The ATLAS barrel toroid warm structure supports the barrel toroid and the muon detectors. The warm structure is about 26 meters long with an outer diameter of 20 meters. In order to ensure the physics performance of the muon detectors, the deformation of the warm structure is minimised during the design phase. The barrel toroid assembly has been carried out in the cavern of the ATLAS experiment since end of 2004. In September 2005, the warm structure has been completely released. The release has been followed-up in real time using optical alignment sensors. Good agreement has been found within 1 mm, between the alignment system measurement, the geometer survey and the predicted values according to the finite element analyses results.
A Mathematical Method for Eliminating Spin Losses in Toroidal Traction Drives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingtao Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The efficiency of the original Toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT is limited due to the spin losses caused by the different speed distribution in the contact area. To overcome this drawback, this paper replaces the original working surface with a new surface derived from a differential equation and proposes a novel Logarithmic CVT. Equations and ranges of the transmission ratio range, half-cone-angle, and conformity ratio, which are essential geometrical parameters of the Logarithmic CVT, are derived. A set of geometrical parameters is further recommended. With such geometrical parameters, the transmission ratio range of the Logarithmic CVT is as wide as that of the Half-Toroidal CVT. The two types of CVTs are compared with each other in terms of efficiency based on a widely accepted computational model. The results show that efficiency of the Logarithmic CVT is higher than that of Half-Toroidal CVT except for some particular situations because of the thrust bearing losses.
Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit calculation for toroidal plasmas of arbitrary cross section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, R.B.; Chance, M.S.
1984-02-01
A Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit formalism is developed which permits the efficient calculation of particle trajectories in toroidal devices of arbitrary cross section with arbitrary plasma ..beta... The magnetic field is assumed to be a small perturbation from a zero order toroidal equilibrium field possessing either axial or helical symmetry. The equilibrium field can be modelled analytically or obtained numerically from equilibrium codes. A numerical code based on the formalism is used to study particle orbits in circular and bean-shaped tokamak configurations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ap Kuiroukidis
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a generalized Grad–Shafranov equation (GGSE in a triangularity-deformed axisymmetric toroidal coordinate system and solve it numerically for the generic case of ITER-like and JET-like equilibria with non-parallel flow. It turns out that increase of the triangularity improves confinement by leading to larger values of the toroidal beta and the safety factor. This result is supported by the application of a criterion for linear stability valid for equilibria with flow parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the parallel flow has a weaker stabilizing effect.
Up-down symmetry of the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Peeters, Arthur G.
2011-01-01
Two symmetries of the local nonlinear δf gyrokinetic system of equations in tokamaks in the high flow regime are presented. The turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum changes sign under an up-down reflection of the tokamak and a sign change of both the rotation and the rotation shear. Thus, the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum must vanish for up-down symmetric tokamaks in the absence of both rotation and rotation shear. This has important implications for the modeling of spontaneous rotation.
High #betta# and toroidal effects on the internal kink mode in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmalz, R.
1982-09-01
The inclusion of high-#betta# and first-order toroidal terms in the reduced set of (resistive) MHD equations affords the possibility of improving the study of tokamak plasma behaviour by three-dimensional numerical simulation. A new code, GALA, based on the reduced equations is developed. It is used to analyse the linear and nonlinear behaviour of the internal kink mode in equilibria which are generated by a simple relaxation procedure. We find that the inclusion of toroidal effects in high-#betta# equilibria provides considerable stabilization. (orig.)
A flexible code based on a scalar representation of toroidal MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denton, R.E.; Maschke, E.K.; Urquijo, G.
1994-01-01
An exact representation of magneto-hydrodynamics in terms of stream functions and potentials allows to write systems of reduced MHD equations of various complexity, depending on the problem to be investigated. Using this feature of the scalar representation, we develop a code for the nonlinear evolution of solutions of arbitrary reduced systems or of the complete MHD equations. The equations are written in general toroidal flux coordinates r, θ, C. In the present phase of development the code solves three evolutions equations for the vorticity density w, the flux Ψ and the pressure p in toroidal or cylindrical geometry. First results on tearing modes will be presented. (authors). 8 refs., 2 figs
Perturbation treatment of the longitudinal coupling impedance of a toroidal beam tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, H.; Tepikian, S.
1991-01-01
A simple analytical expression for the longitudinal coupling impedance of a toroidal beam tube below the resonance region has been derived by expanding the electromagnetic fields of the toroidal beam tube in a power series in curvature and substituting directly into Maxwell's equations. The resulting expression consists of the impedance of the straight beam pipe plus a correction terms due to the curvature. It has been verified that this result gives excellent agreement to the exact solution below the first resonance. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs
Effect of toroidal plasma flow and flow shear on global MHD modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Jensen, T.H.; Miller, R.L.; Bondeson, A.; Johnson, R.W.; Mauel, M.E.
1995-01-01
The effect of a subsonic toroidal flow on the linear magnetohydrodynamic stability of a tokamak plasma surrounded by an external resistive wall is studied. A complex non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem for the stability of general kink and tearing modes is formulated, solved numerically, and applied to high β tokamaks. Results indicate that toroidal plasma flow, in conjunction with dissipation in the plasma, can open a window of stability for the position of the external wall. In this window, stable plasma beta values can significantly exceed those predicted by the Troyon scaling law with no wall. Computations utilizing experimental data indicate good agreement with observations
Observation of Cocurrent Toroidal Rotation in the EAST Tokamak with Lower-Hybrid Current Drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Yuejiang; Xu Guosheng; Wang Fudi; Wang Mao; Fu Jia; Li Yingying; Zhang Wei; Zhang Wei; Chang Jiafeng; Lv Bo; Qian Jinping; Shan Jiafang; Liu Fukun; Ding Siye; Wan Baonian; Lee, Sang-Gon; Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth
2011-01-01
Lower-hybrid waves have been shown to induce a cocurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 40 km/s in the L-mode plasma core region and 20 km/s in the edge of the EAST tokamak. This modification of toroidal rotation develops on different time scales. For the edge, the time scale is no more than 100 ms, but for the core the time scale is around 1 s. A simple model based on turbulent equipartition and thermoelectric pinch predicts the experimental results.
Hydrogen transport in a toroidal plasma using multigroup discrete-ordinates methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wienke, B.R.; Miller, W.F. Jr.; Seed, T.J.
1979-01-01
Neutral hydrogen transport in a fully ionized two-dimensional tokamak plasma was examined using discrete ordinates and contrasted with earlier analyses. In particular, curvature effects induced by toroidal geometries and ray effects caused by possible source localization were investigated. From an overview of the multigroup discrete-ordinates approximation, methodology in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry is detailed, mesh and plasma zoning procedures are sketched, and the piecewise polynomial solution algorithm on a triangular domain is obtained. Toroidal effects and comparisons as related to reaction rates and perticle spectra are examined for various model and source configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, H.T.
1976-03-01
A preliminary comparison of several different coil protection and electrical connection schemes for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems (STMS) is carried out. The tentative recommendation is to rely on external dump resistors for coil protection and to connect the coils in the toroidal magnet in several parallel loops (e.g., every fourth coil is connected into a single series loop). For the fault condition when a single coil quenches, the quenched coil should be isolated from its loop by switching devices. The magnet, as a whole, should probably be discharged if more than a few coils have quenched
Stability properties of a toroidal z-pinch in an external magnetic multipole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, H.G.
1987-01-01
MHD stability of m=1, axisymmetric, external modes of a toroidal z-pinch immersed in an external multipole field (Extrap configuration) is studied. The description includes the effects of a weak toroidicity, a non-circular plasma cross-section and the influence of induced currents in the external conductors. It is found that the non-circularity of the plasma cross-section always has a destabilizing effect but that the m=1 mode can be stabilized by the external feedback if the non-circularity is small. (author)
Yang, S. X.; Hao, G. Z.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Hu, Y. J.; Zhu, J. X.; He, H. D.; Wang, A. K.
2018-04-01
The toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE), excited by trapped energetic particles (EPs), is numerically investigated in a tokamak plasma, using the non-perturbative magnetohydrodynamic-kinetic hybrid formulation based MARS-K code (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503). Compared with the fixed boundary condition at the plasma edge, a free boundary enhances the critical value of the EPs kinetic contribution for driving the TAE. Free boundary also induces finite perturbations at the plasma edge as expected. An anisotropic distribution of EPs, in the particle pitch angle space, strongly enhances the instability and results in a more global mode structure, compared with the isotropic case. The plasma resistivity is also found to play a role in the EPs-destabilized TAE. In particular, the mode stability domain is mapped out, in the 2D parameter space of the plasma resistivity and a quantity defining the width of the particle distribution in pitch angle (for anisotropic distribution). A resonance layer in the poloidal mode structure, with the layer width increasing with the plasma resistivity, appears at the large width of the particle distribution in pitch angle space. A mode conversion, from the modified ideal kink by the EPs kinetic effect to the TAE, is also observed while increasing the birth energy of EPs. Computational results suggest that the TAE mode structure can be modified by certain key plasma parameters, such as the EPs kinetic contribution, the equilibrium pressure, the plasma resistivity, the distribution of EPs, as well as the birth energy of EPs. Such modification of the eigenmode structure can only be obtained following the non-perturbative hybrid approach (Wang et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 145003, Wang et al 2015 Phys. Plasmas 22 022509), as adopted in this study. More importantly, numerical results show that near the marginal stability point, the dominant poloidal harmonics of the TAE overlap with each other, and are localized at the tip positions of
Anderson, J. E.
1974-01-01
An experimental program was conducted for the purpose of evaluating propellant behavior characteristics in spinning toroidal tanks. The effects of typical mission requirements, and related phenomena upon propellant slosh and settling, and orientation and stability of the ullage were investigated in a subscale model tank under both one-g and low-g acceleration environments. Specific conditions included were axial acceleration, spin rate, spinrate change, and spacecraft wobble, both singly and in combination. Methanol and water in combination with appropriate spin-rates and accelerations of the scale model system were used to simulate the behavior of fluorine, nitrogen tetroxide, monomethylhydrazine, and hydrazine. The experimental results indicate that no major fluid behavior problems would be encountered with the use of toroidal tanks containing any of the four propellants in a proposed spin-stabilized orbiter spacecraft.
Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D. [Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA/DSM/DRFC, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G. [Association Euratom-N.A.S.T.I., Dept. of Physics, University of Craiova (Romania); Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F. [Association Euratom-N.A.S.T.I., National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R. [Association Euratom-Etat Belge sur la Fusion, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
2002-02-01
Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier. Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as L{<=}1). For values of L{>=}1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable {psi} asymptotically grows in a diffuse manner as (L{sup 2}t) with a L{sup 2} scaling as expected, but that the average radial position r{sub m}(t) asymptotically grows as (L{sup 2}t){sup 1/4} while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a sub-diffusive manner as (L{sup 2}t){sup 1/2}. This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t{sub {phi}} of the order of the escape time defined by x{sub m}(t{sub {phi}}) {approx}1, the motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1974-11-01
The lectures of a Varenna Summer School about the theme Instabilities and Confinement in toroidal Plasmas are given. The topics included are: high-beta toroidal pinches, non-MHD instabilities and anomalous transport, analogy between turbulent transfer in velocity space and plasma collisioned transport in real space, the magnetohydrodynamic approach of plasma confinement in closed magnetic configurations, properties of isodynamical equilibrium configurations and their generalization, transport theory for toroidal plasmas, plasma physics, low-β toroidal machines, the neoclassical theory of transit time magnetic pumping, radio frequency heating of toroidal plasmas, plasma heating at lower hybrid frequency, RF-plasma heating with L-structures, numerical simulation, dynamical stabilization of low frequency waves in inhomogeneous plasmas, dynamic and feedback stabilization of plasmas and problems with nuclear fusion reactors
Toroidally symmetric/asymmetric effect on the divertor flux due to neon/nitrogen seeding in LHD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Tanaka
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Toroidal distributions of divertor particle flux during neon (Ne and nitrogen (N2 seeded discharges were investigated in the Large Helical Device (LHD. By using 14 toroidally distributed divertor probe arrays, which were positioned at radially inner side where the divertor flux concentrates in the inward-shifted magnetic axis configuration, it is found that Ne puffing leads to toroidally quasi-uniform reduction of divertor particle fluxes; whereas toroidally localized reductions were observed with N2 puffing. The toroidally asymmetric reduction pattern with N2 puffing is strongly related to the magnetic field structure around the N2 puffing port. Assuming that nitrogen particles do not recycle, EMC3-EIRENE simulation shows similar reduction pattern with the experiment around the N2 puffing port.
Toroidal-Core Microinductors Biased by Permanent Magnets
Lieneweg, Udo; Blaes, Brent
2003-01-01
The designs of microscopic toroidal-core inductors in integrated circuits of DC-to-DC voltage converters would be modified, according to a proposal, by filling the gaps in the cores with permanent magnets that would apply bias fluxes (see figure). The magnitudes and polarities of the bias fluxes would be tailored to counteract the DC fluxes generated by the DC components of the currents in the inductor windings, such that it would be possible to either reduce the sizes of the cores or increase the AC components of the currents in the cores without incurring adverse effects. Reducing the sizes of the cores could save significant amounts of space on integrated circuits because relative to other integrated-circuit components, microinductors occupy large areas - of the order of a square millimeter each. An important consideration in the design of such an inductor is preventing magnetic saturation of the core at current levels up to the maximum anticipated operating current. The requirement to prevent saturation, as well as other requirements and constraints upon the design of the core are expressed by several equations based on the traditional magnetic-circuit approximation. The equations involve the core and gap dimensions and the magnetic-property parameters of the core and magnet materials. The equations show that, other things remaining equal, as the maximum current is increased, one must increase the size of the core to prevent the flux density from rising to the saturation level. By using a permanent bias flux to oppose the flux generated by the DC component of the current, one would reduce the net DC component of flux in the core, making it possible to reduce the core size needed to prevent the total flux density (sum of DC and AC components) from rising to the saturation level. Alternatively, one could take advantage of the reduction of the net DC component of flux by increasing the allowable AC component of flux and the corresponding AC component of current
Toroidal rotation braking with n = 1 magnetic perturbation field on JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Y; Liang, Y; Koslowski, H R
2010-01-01
A strong toroidal rotation braking has been observed in plasmas with application of an n = 1 magnetic perturbation field on the JET tokamak. Calculation results from the momentum transport analysis show that the torque induced by the n = 1 perturbation field has a global profile. The maximal value...
Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; ten Kate, H.H.J.
2013-01-01
The International AXion Observatory (IAXO) will incorporate a new generation detector for axions, a hypothetical particle, which was postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP problem. The new IAXO experiment is aiming at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current state-of-the-art detector, represented by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions into x-ray photons. Utilizing the designs of the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroidal magnet is currently being designed at CERN to provide the required magnetic field. The new toroid will be built up from eight, one meter wide and 20 m long, racetrack coils. The toroid is sized about 4 m in diameter and 22 m in length. It is designed to realize a peak magnetic field of 5.4 T with a ...
Optimizing dc-resistance of a foil wounded toroidal inductor combining matlab and comsol
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold
2013-01-01
An optimization routine is presented to optimize the shape of a foil winding of a toroid inductor in terms of the DC resistance. MATLAB was used to define the geometry of the foil winding and COMSOL was used to import the geometry and create a 3D finite element model. The initial parameters...
Excitation adjustable system of toroidal field waveform for tokamak HL-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Juqian; Yu Xianrong; Xie Yongzhong
1989-11-01
The closed-loop adjusting system of the toroidal field waveform is described. Technical measures have been taken to improve the stability of the system and the repetitiveness of wave adjustment. Meanwhile the wiring and technical characteristics of the system are discussed and the level of the system attained is compared with that of the original system
Collisional boundary layer analysis for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shaing, K.C.; Cahyna, Pavel; Bécoulet, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Chu, M.S.
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 8 (2008), 082506-1-7 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma boundary layers * plasma toroidal confinement * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2969434
Internal Field of Homogeneously Magnetized Toroid Sensor for Proton Free Precession Magnetometer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Primdahl, Fritz; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter
2005-01-01
The shift of the NMR spectral line frequency in a proton free precession absolute scalar magnetometer using the omni-directional toroid container for a proton-rich liquid depends on the magnetic susceptibility of the liquid and on the direction of the external field relative to the axis of the to......The shift of the NMR spectral line frequency in a proton free precession absolute scalar magnetometer using the omni-directional toroid container for a proton-rich liquid depends on the magnetic susceptibility of the liquid and on the direction of the external field relative to the axis...... of the toroid. The theoretical shift is estimated for water by computing the additional magnetic field from the magnetization of the liquid and comparing it to the theoretical field in a spherical container. Along the axis the estimated average shift is -0.08 nT and perpendicular to the axis the shift is +0.......08 nT relative to that of a spherical sensor. The field inhomogeneity introduced by the toroid shape amounts to 0.32 nT over the volume of the sensor and is not expected to significantly affect the signal decay time, when considering the typical water line width of about 2.5 InT....
On the fundamental mode of the optical resonator with toroidal mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serednyakov, S.S.; Vinokurov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
1995-12-31
The fundamental mode of the optical resonator with the toroidal mirrors is investigated. The losses in such resonator with the on-axis holes are low in compare with the case of spherical mirrors. The use of this type of optical resonator is briefly discussed.
The effect of toroidal plasma rotation on low-frequency reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes in tokamaks
Haverkort, J. W.
2012-01-01
The influence of toroidal plasma rotation on the existence of reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs) near their minimum frequency is investigated analytically. An existence condition is derived showing that a radially decreasing kinetic energy density is unfavourable for the existence of RSAEs.
Momentum transport studies in JET H-mode discharges with an enhanced toroidal field ripple
de Vries, P. C.; Versloot, T. W.; Salmi, A.; Hua, M. D.; Howell, D. H.; Giroud, C.; Parail, V.; Saibene, G.; Tala, T.
2010-01-01
In this study, enhancement of the toroidal field (TF) ripple has been used as a tool in order to reveal the impact of the momentum pinch on the rotation profiles in H-mode JET discharges. The analysis showed that flatter rotation profiles were obtained in discharges with a high TF ripple, attributed
Vortex-vortex interactions in toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Schulte, T.; Santos, L.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.
2002-01-01
We analyze the vortex dynamics and vortex-vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in toroidal traps. We show that this particular geometry strongly distorts the vortex dynamics. The numerically calculated vortex trajectories are well explained by an analytical calculation based on image method and conformal mapping. Finally, the dissipation effects are discussed.
Elastic stability and vibration of toroidal magnets for fusion reactors. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, F.C.; Swanson, C.
1975-09-01
The vibration and elastic stability of a set of discrete superconducting toroidal field magnets arranged to form a ''bumpy'' torus is examined. The mutual destabilizing magnetic forces between magnet pairs are calculated using a numerical differential inductance technique. It is shown that the mutual attractive magnetic forces can produce elastic buckling of the entire toroidal set. The vibration modes of the set are also found as functions of the coil current. The response of the set of magnets to an earthquake type motion of the toroidal base is calculated. The calculations have been incorporated in a computer code which accompanies the report. Measurements are made of the lateral stiffness of a flexible, planar, superconducting coil between two rigid coils in series. These tests show a dramatic decrease in the natural bending frequency with subsequent elastic instability or ''buckling'' at a critical value of the current in the coils. These observations support a magnetoelastic analysis which shows that proposed designs, of toroidal field coils for Tokamak fusion reactors, have insufficient lateral support for mechanical stability of the magnets
STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN A TOROIDAL RING SECTOR SUBJECTED TO BENDING AND TWISTING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaşar PALA
1997-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, stress analysis in a toroidal ring sector with an elliptical cross section composed of two confocal ellipses is considered. Göhner's method is used in the analysis. The results obtained for the case of pure torsion is superposed with those corresponding to pure bending in order to reach to the case of combined loading.
Los Alamos compact toroid, fast-liner, and high-density Z-pinch programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, A.R.; Hammel, J.E.
1981-03-01
The Compact Toroid (CT) and High Density Z-Pinch (HDZP) are two of the plasma configurations presently being studied at Los Alamos. The purpose of these two programs, plus the recently terminated (May 1979) Fast Liner (FL) program, is summarized in this section along with a brief description of the experimental facilities. The remaining sections summarize the recent results and the experimental status.
Comment on radial structure of high-mode-number toroidal modes in general equilibrium profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-01-01
The comment express the disagreement of the authors with the results claimed in the paper 'Radial Structure of High-Mode-Number Toroidal Modes in General Equilibrium Profiles' by J-Y.Kim and M.Wakatani, Phys.Rev.Lett.73, 2200 (1994) concerning the 2D structure (ballooning theory) of the modes in an axisymmetric torus. 5 refs
Investigation of a Hybrid Winding Concept for Toroidal Inductors using 3D Finite Element Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Mønster, Jakob Døllner
2013-01-01
This paper investigates a hybrid winding concept for a toroidal inductor by simulating the winding resistance as a function of frequency. The problem of predicting the resistance of a non-uniform and complex winding shape is solved using 3D Finite Element Modeling. A prototype is built and tested...
An analysis of plasma ion toroidal rotation during large amplitude MHD activity in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snipes, J.A.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Lazzaro, E.; Stork, D.; Hellermann, M. von; Galvao, R.; Hender, T.C.; Zasche, D.
1989-01-01
A detailed study of plasma ion toroidal rotation in JET during large amplitude MHD activity has revealed a strong viscous force that couples plasma ions to MHD modes. Depending on the MHD modes present, this force can couple across all of the plasma cross section, across only the central region, roughly within the q=1 surface, or across only the outer region outside the q=1.5 surface. The force acts to flatten the ion toroidal rotation frequency profile, measured by the JET active charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic, across the coupled region of plasma. The frequency of rotation in this region agrees with the MHD oscillation frequency measured by magnetic pick-up coils at the wall. The strength of the force between the ions and modes becomes evident during high power NBI when the mode locks and drags the ion toroidal rotation frequency to zero, within the errors of the measurements. The present theories of plasma rotation either ignore MHD effects entirely, consider only moderate n toroidal field ripple, or low n ripple effects. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs
Effect of continuous eigenvalue spectrum on plasma transport in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamagishi, Tomejiro
1993-03-01
The effect of the continuous eigenvalue of the Vlasov equation on the cross field ion thermal flux is investigated. The continuum contribution due to the toroidal drift resonance is found to play an important role in ion transport particularly near the edge, which may apply to the interpretation of the sharp increase of ion heat conductivity near the periphery observed in large tokamaks. (author)
Effects of Toroidal Magnetic Fields on the Thermal Instability of Thin ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Effects of Toroidal Magnetic Fields on the Thermal Instability of Thin Accretion Disks. Sheng-Ming Zheng1, Feng Yuan2, Wei-Min Gu1,∗. & Ju-Fu Lu1. 1Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics,. Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China. 2Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies ...
The toroidal moment in condensed-matter physics and its relation to the magnetoelectric effect
Spaldin, Nicola A.; Fiebig, Manfred; Mostovoy, Maxim
2008-01-01
The concept of toroidal moments in condensed-matter physics and their long-range ordering in a so-called ferrotoroidic state is reviewed. We show that ferrotoroidicity as a form of primary ferroic order can be understood both from microscopic (multipole expansion) and macroscopic (symmetry-based
Some characteristics of the superconducting magnetic system of toroidal spectrometer STORS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, S.V.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Kakurin, S.I.
1993-01-01
A superconducting toroidal spectrometer (STORS) has been suggested to provide precision measurements of structure functions in muon beams. In this paper we present the calculation of the magnet induction and forces influencing the elements of the magnet, requirements to the reliability and rigidity of the carrying elements of the magnet construction. (author.) 14 refs.; 50 figs.; 4 tabs
Aurora T: a Monte Carlo code for transportation of neutral atoms in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bignami, A.; Chiorrini, R.
1982-01-01
This paper contains a short description of Aurora code. This code have been developed at Princeton with Monte Carlo method for calculating neutral gas in cylindrical plasma. In this work subroutines such one can take in account toroidal geometry are developed
Toroidally asymmetric particle transport caused by phase-locking of MHD modes in RFX-mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorenzini, R.; Terranova, D.; Auriemma, F.; Cavazzana, R.; Innocente, P.; Martini, S.; Serianni, G.; Zuin, M.
2007-01-01
The particle and energy transport in reversed field pinch experiments is affected by the locking in phase of the tearing modes, also dubbed dynamo modes, that sustain the magnetic configuration. In standard RFP pulses many m = 1 and m = 0 resonant modes have a relatively large amplitude (a spectrum dubbed MH for multiple helicity). The locking in phase of m = 1 tearing modes produces a helical deformation (locked mode (LM)) of the magnetic surfaces in a region of approximately 40 toroidal degrees. The region of the LM is characterized by a strong plasma-wall interaction and by high losses of energy and particles that account for a significant fraction of the input power and of the total particle outflux. The locking in phase of m = 0 modes modifies the plasma radius, shrinking and enlarging the plasma cross section in two wide toroidal regions of about 100 0 . The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent the locking in phase of m = 0 modes introduces toroidal asymmetries in the transport properties of the plasma. This study has been carried out investigating the shape of the density profile in the RFX-mod experiment. The analyses show that the profile exhibits a dependence on the toroidal angle, which is related to the deformation of the plasma column due to the locking in phase of m = 0 modes: the least steep density gradients at the edge are found in the region where the plasma column is shrunk, entailing that in this region the particle transport is enhanced. An analogous asymmetry also characterizes the density and magnetic fluctuations at the edge, which are enhanced in the same toroidal region where the particle transport also is enhanced. This result can be considered the first experimental evidence of an instability localized where the plasma column is shrunk
Structure and damping of toroidal drift waves (and their implications for anomalous transport)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, J.B.; Connor, J.; Wilson, H.R.
1993-05-01
The conventional theory of high-n toroidal drift waves, based on the ballooning representation, indicates that shear-damping is generally reduced in a torus compared to its plane-slab value. It therefore describes the most unstable class of toroidal drift waves. However, modes of this type occur only i f the diamagnetic frequency ω*(r) has a maximum in r, and they affect only a small fraction, Ο(1/n l/2 ), of the plasma radius around this maximum. Consequently they may produce little anomalous transport. In the present work we show that, within the ballooning description, there is another class of toroidal drift waves with very different properties to the conventional ones. The new modes have greater shear-damping (closer to that in a plane-slab) than the conventional ones and so have a higher instability threshold. However, they occur for any plasma profile and at all radii, and they have larger radial extent. Consequently they may produce much greater anomalous transport than the possibly benign conventional modes. This suggests a picture of anomalous transport in which the plasma profile is determined by marginal stability, but marginal to the new class of modes not to the conventional ones. This might explain why marginally stable profiles calculated for drift waves with plane-slab damping sometimes agree well with the profiles in toroidal experiments. It is also consistent with the fact that experimental profiles may exceed conventional toroidal instability thresholds. The new modes may also be related to the tong radial structures which appear in some plasma simulations and in experiments
Suppression of m = 0 in a RFP by toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, D.; Robertson, S.
1993-01-01
The Reversatron RFP is normally operated with the toroidal field coils connected in series. The time-integrated voltage applied to the circuit determines the sum of the fluxes linking each turn but not the flux within each turn. Each winding may have a different flux determined by the external drive and by currents within the plasma. A parallel connection of the field coils results in the flux within each coil being determined by the volt-seconds applied to the windings; thus the toroidal flux is the same within each coil. This configuration suppresses any toroidal variation in the toroidal flux and effectively reduces the level of the m = 0 component of the radial field. The m = 0 fluctuations are expected to arise due to nonlinear coupling of the m = 1 modes. A parallel connection of field coils is impractical due to the low impedance required for driving the coils. The authors have tested the effect of parallel connected coils by adding an auxiliary set of 36 coils. These are connected in parallel but are not connected to any supply. The toroidal flux is generated by the series-connected coils which generate voltage but not current in the parallel-connected coils. With the auxiliary coils, the discharge duration is increased from 500 to 550 μsec, the plasma current is increased from 50 kA to 60 kA, F is more negative, Θ is larger, and there is less shot-to-shot variation in the discharges. The m = 0 fluctuations measured by 43 surface coils are, however, only slightly reduced
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilman, Peter A., E-mail: gilman@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)
2017-06-20
We present results from an MHD model for baroclinic instability in the solar tachocline that includes rotation, effective gravity, and toroidal field that vary continuously with height. We solve the perturbation equations using a shooting method. Without toroidal fields but with an effective gravity declining linearly from a maximum at the bottom to much smaller values at the top, we find instability at all latitudes except at the poles, at the equator, and where the vertical rotation gradient vanishes (32.°3) for longitude wavenumbers m from 1 to >10. High latitudes are much more unstable than low latitudes, but both have e -folding times that are much shorter than a sunspot cycle. The higher the m and the steeper the decline in effective gravity, the closer the unstable mode peak to the top boundary, where the energy available to drive instability is greatest. The effect of the toroidal field is always stabilizing, shrinking the latitude ranges of instability as the toroidal field is increased. The larger the toroidal field, the smaller the longitudinal wavenumber of the most unstable disturbance. All latitudes become stable for a toroidal field exceeding about 4 kG. The results imply that baroclinic instability should occur in the tachocline at latitudes where the toroidal field is weak or is changing sign, but not where the field is strong.
Multicoincidence measurements of double photoionization in helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huetz, A.; Andric, L.; Selles, P.; Mazeau, J.; Lablanquie, P.
1994-01-01
A new toroidal analyser has been used to study the double photoionization of helium, for energies down to 4 eV above threshold. The two electrons are detected with equal energies, and coincidences between them for various angles of emission can be obtained simultaneously. The plane of detection contains the photon beam, in contrast with recent experiments performed in the plane perpendicular to the photon beam. The angular correlation function is extracted directly from the present measurements, which are shown to be insensitive to the Stokes parameters of the photon beam. The width of that function is not observed to vary significantly from 4 eV to 17.6 eV above threshold. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René
2017-01-01
We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success........ Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2006-05-15
The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.
Honda, M.; Satake, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Yoshida, M.; Narita, E.; Nakata, M.; Aiba, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Hayashi, N.; Matsunaga, G.; Matsuyama, A.; Ide, S.
2017-11-01
Capabilities of the integrated framework consisting of TOPICS, OFMC, VMEC and FORTEC-3D, have been extended to calculate toroidal rotation in fully non-axisymmetric perturbed magnetic fields for demonstrating operation scenarios in actual tokamak geometry and conditions. The toroidally localized perturbed fields due to the test blanket modules and the tangential neutral beam ports in ITER augment the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) substantially, while do not significantly influence losses of beam ions and alpha particles in an ITER L-mode discharge. The NTV takes up a large portion of total torque in ITER and fairly decelerates toroidal rotation, but the change in toroidal rotation may have limited effectiveness against turbulent heat transport. The error field correction coils installed in JT-60SA can externally apply the perturbed fields, which may alter the NTV and the resultant toroidal rotation profiles. However, the non-resonant n=18 components of the magnetic fields arising from the toroidal field ripple mainly contribute to the NTV, regardless of the presence of the applied field by the coil current of 10 kA , where n is the toroidal mode number. The theoretical model of the intrinsic torque due to the fluctuation-induced residual stress is calibrated by the JT-60U data. For five JT-60U discharges, the sign of the calibration factor conformed to the gyrokinetic linear stability analysis and a range of the amplitude thereof was revealed. This semi-empirical approach opens up access to an attempt on predicting toroidal rotation in H-mode plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noterdaeme, J.M.
1983-05-01
Applying the constraints to the design of a helical axis stellarator we find a limit on the combination of toroidal field, current density and major radius. Another major constraint for this concept is the ability to obtain the plasma physics parameters dictated by similarity considerations. This depends on the heating method used. A minimum scale experiment with 2 periods and no linkage of the toroidal and poloidal coils, would have a major radius of 1.2m, a toroidal field of 3.5T and 2MW of ECRH power (for β = 1% nu 2 = 10)
In-the-plane design of an off-axis ophthalmic adaptive optics system using toroidal mirrors.
Liu, Zhuolin; Kocaoglu, Omer P; Miller, Donald T
2013-01-01
Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopes have garnered increased clinical and scientific use for imaging the microscopic retina. Unlike conventional ophthalmoscopes, however, AO systems are commonly designed with spherical mirrors that must be used off-axis. This arrangement causes astigmatism to accumulate at the retina and pupil conjugate planes, degrading AO performance. To mitigate this effect and more fully tap the benefit of AO, we investigated a novel solution based on toroidal mirrors. Derived 2(nd) order analytic solutions along with commercial ray tracing predict performance benefit of toroidal mirrors for ophthalmoscopic use. For the Indiana AO ophthalmoscope, a minimum of three toroids is required to achieve performance criteria for retinal image quality, beam displacement, and beam ellipticity. Measurements with fabricated toroids and retinal imaging on subjects substantiate the theoretical predictions. Comparison to off-the-plane method is also presented.
Toroidally Resolved Structure of Divertor Heat Flux in RMP H-mode Discharges on DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakubowski, M.W.; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Lasnier, C.J.; Wolf, R.C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Boedo, J.A.; Burrell, K.H.; DeGrassie, J.S.; Gohil, P.; Mordijck, S.; Laengner, R.; Leonard, A.W.; Moyer, R.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Rhodes, T.L.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schmitz, O.; Snyder, P.B.; Stoschus, H.; Osborne, T.H.; Orlov, D.M.; Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Watkins, J.G.
2011-01-01
As shown on DIII-D edge localized modes (ELMs) can be either completely eliminated or mitigated with resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields. Two infrared cameras, separated 105 degrees toroidally, were used to make simultaneous measurements of ELM heat loads with high frame rates. Without the RMP fields ELMs display a variety of different heat load dynamics and a range of toroidal variability that is characteristic of their 3D structure. Comparing radial averages there is no asymmetry between two toroidal locations. With RMP-mitigated ELMs, the variability in the radially averaged power loads is significantly reduced and toroidal asymmetries in power loads are introduced. In addition to RMP ELM suppression scenarios an RMP scenario with only very small ELMs and very good confinement has been achieved.
Looped star polymers show conformational transition from spherical to flat toroidal shapes
Reiss, Pascal; Fritsche, Miriam; Heermann, Dieter W.
2011-11-01
Inspired by the topological organization of the circular Escherichia coli chromosome, which is compacted by separate domains, we study a polymer architecture consisting of a central ring to which either looped or linear side chains are grafted. A shape change from a spherical to a toroidal organization takes place as soon as the inner ring becomes large enough for the attached arms to fit within its circumference. Building up a torus, the system flattens, depending on the effective bending rigidity of the chain induced by entropic repulsion of the attached loops and, to a lesser extent, linear arms. Our results suggest that the natural formation of a toroidal structure with a decreased amount of writhe induced by a specific underlying topology could be one driving force, among others, that nature exploits to ensure proper packaging of the genetic material within a rod-shaped, bacterial envelope.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ha, B. N.; Stoneking,, M. R.; Marler, Joan
2009-01-01
Measurements of the image charge induced on electrodes provide the primary means of diagnosing plasmas in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II (LNT II) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155001 (2008)]. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques that determine characteristics of the electron plasma from...... features of the induced image charge signal. This paper presents a numerical study which finds that the frequency of the image charge signal due to the toroidal version of the m=1 diocotron mode is proportional to the total trapped charge and inversely proportional to magnetic field strength......, as in the cylindrical case. In the toroidal case, additional information about the m=1 motion of the plasma can be obtained by analysis of the image charge signal amplitude and shape. Finally, results from the numerical simulations are compared to experimental data from the LNT II and plasma characteristics...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.
2016-02-19
A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogister, A.; Hasselberg, G.; Waelbroeck, F.; Weiland, J.
1987-12-01
A self-consistent transport code is used to evaluate how plasma confinement in tokamaks is influenced by the microturbulent fields which are excited by the dissipative trapped electron (DTE) instability. As shown previously, the saturation theory on which the code is based has been developed from first principles. The toroidal coupling resulting from the ion magnetic drifts is neglected; arguments are presented to justify this approximation. The numerical results reproduce well the neo-Alcator scaling law observed experimentally - e.g. in TEXTOR - in non detached ohmic discharges, the confinement degradation which results when auxiliary heating is applied, as well as a large number of other experimental observations. We also assess the possible impact of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode on energy confinement by estimating the ion thermal flux with the help of the mixing length approximation. (orig./GG)
Influence of the magnetic toroidal field on the design of magnet systems for future fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duchateau, J.L.
2006-01-01
It is often stated that an increase of the toroidal magnetic field on the plasma axis of tokamaks could be beneficial for future fusion reactors and will help in the economic viability of this new source of energy. After the development associated with ITER magnets regarding prototype conductors, joints and model coils, it is now possible to have a realistic approach of the design of magnet systems for fusion application and in particular of the toroidal field (TF) conductor design. This approach is meaningful since the ITER size is relevant to that of future fusion reactors. A demonstration reactor, the construction of which is supposed to start in 20 years would likely not be very different of ITER as for the magnet system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galkowski, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1994-12-31
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad`s ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs.
Photoelastic and analytical investigation of stress in toroidal magnetic field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pih, H.; Gray, W.H.
1975-01-01
A series of two-dimensional photoelastic stress analyses on circular and oval toroidal magnetic field coils for fusion reactors were made. The circumferential variation of the coil's magnetic force was simulated by applying different pressures to sixteen segmented regions of the inner surface of the models. Isochromatics and isoclinics were measured at selected points on the loaded model in a transmission polariscope using a microphotometer. Separate principal stresses were obtained using the combination of photoelastic information and isopachic data measured from the solution of Laplace's equation by the electrical analog method. Analysis of the same coil geometries, loadings, and boundary conditions were made using the finite element method. General agreement between theory and experiment was realized. From this investigation several variations of coil geometry and methods of support were evaluated. Based upon this experiment, suggestions for optimum structural design of toroidal field coils are presented
An integral equation-based numerical solver for Taylor states in toroidal geometries
O'Neil, Michael; Cerfon, Antoine J.
2018-04-01
We present an algorithm for the numerical calculation of Taylor states in toroidal and toroidal-shell geometries using an analytical framework developed for the solution to the time-harmonic Maxwell equations. Taylor states are a special case of what are known as Beltrami fields, or linear force-free fields. The scheme of this work relies on the generalized Debye source representation of Maxwell fields and an integral representation of Beltrami fields which immediately yields a well-conditioned second-kind integral equation. This integral equation has a unique solution whenever the Beltrami parameter λ is not a member of a discrete, countable set of resonances which physically correspond to spontaneous symmetry breaking. Several numerical examples relevant to magnetohydrodynamic equilibria calculations are provided. Lastly, our approach easily generalizes to arbitrary geometries, both bounded and unbounded, and of varying genus.
Conceptual design of a high heat flux toroidal pumped limiter for Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doceul, L.; Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, Ph.; Chatelier, M.; Cocat, J.P.; Deck, C.; Faisse, F.; Grosman, A.; Mitteau, R.; Tonon, G.
1994-01-01
In the frame of the Tore-Supra upgrade, where it is planned to inject up to 25 MW during a time up to 1000 s, a complete toroidal pumped limiter covered of CFC (Carbon Fiber Composite) tiles is being designed. The design is based on the important experience gained from the operation on Tore Supra of actively cooled plasma facing components and pumped limiters. This toroidal limiter covers 7.5 m 2 of the bottom part of the inner vessel and is composed of 576 elementary components. Each element is built from dispersion strengthened copper (DSCu) protected by brazed CFC flat tiles and cooled by pressurised water at 150 deg C. This limiter is designed to sustain 15 MW of convective power. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs., 3 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glasser, A.H.; Swanson, D.G.; Wersinger, J.M.
1982-01-01
The continuation of a program of theoretical studies of the heating of toroidal plasmas with radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation is proposed. Funding for this project first began on September 3, 1981, and will expire on April 2, 1982. A summary of the principal accomplishments of the first five months of the project is presented. These include the acquisition of computer terminals and modems, the implementation of existing codes on the MFECC C Cray Computer, the extension of the LHTOR lower hybrid toroidal ray tracing code to the full electromagnetic dispersion relation, the implementation of graphic output from the code, the beginning of extensive parameter studies, the beginning of an analytical treatment of the mode conversion layer associated with singular harmonic absorption, and the introduction of a graduate student into the program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, Katsumi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Itoh, Sanae
1994-10-01
Radial structures of plasma rotation and radial electric field are experimentally studied in tokamak, heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices. The perpendicular and parallel viscosities are measured. The parallel viscosity, which is dominant in determining the toroidal velocity in heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices, is found to be neoclassical. On the other hand, the perpendicular viscosity, which is dominant in dictating the toroidal rotation in tokamaks, is anomalous. Even without external momentum input, both a plasma rotation and a radial electric field exist in tokamaks and heliotrons/torsatrons. The observed profiles of the radial electric field do not agree with the theoretical prediction based on neoclassical transport. This is mainly due to the existence of anomalous perpendicular viscosity. The shear of the radial electric field improves particle and heat transport both in bulk and edge plasma regimes of tokamaks. (author) 95 refs
Diocotron and Trivelpiece-Gould mode behavior in toroidal electron plasma
Stoneking, M. R.; Darrell, J. W.; Exarhos, S. A.; Patterson, A. S.; Price, M. J.; Wright, A. H.
2013-03-01
Electron plasma confined in a purely toroidal magnetic field supports analogs of the electrostatic normal modes observed in cylindrical traps - namely diocotron and Trivelpiece-Gould waves. The Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II (LNT II) device is used to study such waves. Electron plasma with densities in the range of 107 cm-3 persisting for about 1 second are produced in LNT II with high vacuum conditions (G. The plasma is diagnosed by monitoring image charge flow to sectors of the symmetric conducting boundary (major radius of 18 cm and minor radius of 3.8 cm). Damping of the m=1 (k=0) diocotron mode is explored to assess the extent to which rotational and/or magnetic pumping transport mechanisms are operative in toroidal electron plasma. Resonant standing wave plasma modes (m=0) are excited in order to determine the Trivelpiece-Gould dispersion relation. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant PHY-0812893.
Experimental study of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) stability at high q(0)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States); Spong, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others
1995-07-01
Experiments to destabilize the Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) by energetic alpha particles were performed on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor using deuterium and tritium fuel. To decrease the alpha particle pressure instability threshold, discharges with an elevated value of q(0) > 1.5 were used. By raising q(0), the radial location of the low toroidal-mode-number TAE gaps moves toward the magnetic axis and into alignment with the region of maximum alpha pressure gradient, thereby (in theory) lowering the value of {beta}{sub {alpha}}(0) required for instability. No TAE activity was observed when the central alpha particle {beta}{sub {alpha}} reached 0.08% in a discharge with fusion power of 2.4 MW. Calculations show that the fusion power is within a factor of 1.5 to 3 of the instability threshold.
Highlights from the assembly of the helical field coils for the Advanced Toroidal Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benson, R.D.
1985-01-01
The helical field (HF) coils in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) device consist of a set of 24 identical segments connected to form a continuous pair of helical coils wrapped around a toroidal vacuum vessel. Each segment weighs approximately 1364 kg (3000 lb) and is composed of 14 water-cooled copper plate conductors bolted to a cast stainless steel structural support member with a T-shape cross section (known as the structural tee). The segment components are electrically insulated with Kapton adhesive tape, G-10, Tefzel, and rubber to withstand 2.5 kV. As a final insulator and structural support, the entire segment is vacuum impregnated with epoxy. This paper offers a brief overview of the processes used to assemble the component parts into a completed segment, including identification of items that required special attention. 4 figs
Transport and dynamcis in toroidal fusion systems. Final report, 1992--1995
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnack, D.D.
1995-01-01
This document is organized as follows. Discussions are presented on the properties of structured and unstructured meshes, and the data structures useful for describing them. Issues related to the triangulation of an arbitrary set of points in a plane are also discussed. A derivation is made of a finite volume approximation to the resistive MHD equations suitable for use on an unstructured, triangular mesh in toroidal geometry. Boundary conditions are discussed. The specific MHD model, and its implementation on the unstructured mesh, is discussed. A discussion is presented of methods of time integration, and descriptions are given for implementation of semi-implicit and fully implicit algorithms. Examples of the application of the method are given. Included are standard, two- dimensional hydrodynamic and MHD shock problems, as well as applications of the method to the equilibrium and stability of toroidal fusion plasmas in two and three dimensions. The initial results with mesh adaptation are also described
Observation of a new toroidally localized kink mode and its role in reverse-field--pinch plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamano, T.; Bard, W.D.; Chu, C.; Kondoh, Y.; La Haye, R.J.; Lee, P.S.; Saito, M.; Schaffer, M.J.; Taylor, P.L.
1987-01-01
A new type of toroidally localized kink instability, which we named the ''slinky mode,'' was observed in a reversed-field--pinch plasma in the OHTE (Ohmic heating toroidal experiment) device. It is found that the slinky mode is the result of the phase locking of several internal kink modes due to nonlinear coupling and is an effective way to approach the Taylor relaxed state
Ideal toroidal stability β limits and shaping effects for reversed field pinch configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paccagnella, R.; Bondeson, A.; Luetjens, H.
1991-05-01
The influence of shaping and toroidicity on the ideal MHD stability of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is investigated both with respect to current and pressure driven modes. It is found that triangularity and x-point shaping does not significantly modify the operational limits of RFP, while ellipticity and D-shaping is destabilizing. A simple relation for the stability of current driven modes is also given. (author) 12 figs., 17 refs
NOVA: a nonvariational code for solving MHD stability of axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.
1986-04-01
A nonvariational approach for determining the ideal MHD stability of axisymmetric toroidal confinement systems is presented. The code (NOVA) employs cubic B-spline finite elements and Fourier expansion in a general flux coordinate (psi, theta, zeta) system. Better accuracy and faster convergence were obtained in comparison with the variational PEST and ERATO codes. The nonvariational approach can be extended to problems having non-Hermitian eigenmode equations where variational energy principles cannot be obtained
Fuelling effect of tangential compact toroid injection in STOR-M Tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onchi, T.; Liu, Y., E-mail: tao668@mail.usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Dreval, M. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Inst. of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); McColl, D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Asai, T. [Inst. of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); Wolfe, S. [Nihon Univ., Dept. of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Xiao, C.; Hirose, A. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)
2012-07-01
Compact torus injection (CTI) is the only known candidate for directly fuelling the core of a tokamak fusion reactor. Compact torus (CT) injection into the STOR-M tokamak has induced improved confinement accompanied by an increase in the electron density, reduction in Hα emission, and suppression of the saw-tooth oscillations. The measured change in the toroidal flow velocity following tangential CTI has demonstrated momentum injection into the STOR-M plasma. (author)
Macroscopic angular-momentum stages of Bose-Einstein condensates in toroidal traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benakli, M.; Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S.R.
2001-03-01
We study the stability of a rotating repulsive-atom Bose-Einstein condensate in a toroidal trap. The resulting macroscopic angular-momentum states with integer vorticity l spread radially, lowering rotational energies. These states are robust against vorticity-lowering decays, with estimated metastability barriers capable of sustaining large angular momenta (1 < or ∼ 10) for typical parameters. We identify the centrifugally squashed l-dependent density profile as a possible signature of condensate rotation and superfluidity. (author)
Frassetto, F; Trabattoni, A; Anumula, S; Sansone, G; Calegari, F; Nisoli, M; Poletto, L
2014-10-01
We have developed a novel attosecond beamline designed for attosecond-pump/attosecond probe experiments. Microfocusing of the Extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is obtained by using a coma-compensated optical configuration based on the use of three toroidal mirrors controlled by a genetic algorithm. Trains of attosecond pulses are generated with a measured peak intensity of about 3 × 10(11) W/cm(2).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elfimov, A.G.; Nekrasov, F.M.
1992-07-01
A method for the analytical treatment of the toroidal plasma electron dielectric permeability tensor is developed. Simple expressions for some limiting cases are obtained. Electron Landau and TTMP absorption of the fast waves in tokamaks are discussed in terms of 'nonlocality' effects, including the effect of trapped and untrapped particles bounce resonances. Additional dissipation of the fast waves in tokamaks is founded in a comparison with cylindrical model Landau damping. (orig.)
Hu, Q.
2016-12-01
We will present an extension of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction technique of cylindrical flux-rope structures to the geometry of a torus. Benchmark test cases on analytic solutions to the GS equation in such a geometry are shown to illustrate the procedures. Applications to events of multi-spacecraft in-situ observations will be attempted, especially to the two events in May and November 2007. In each event, a Magnetic Cloud (MC) was observed simultaneously by three spacecraft, Wind, STEREO-A (ST-A) and B. In the November event, the ST-A and B were separated from Wind by about 20 degrees on either side. We applied the toroidal GS reconstruction procedures to the Wind spacecraft data, which exhibit the strongest signatures of a flux-rope configuration. The toroidal GS reconstruction results showed that both ST-A and B spacecraft were glancing across the upper and lower edge, not the main body of the flux rope reconstructed. Therefore whether or not the flux-rope structure maintained a coherent toroidal configuration of significant lateral extent (>0.05 AU in minor radius) over an angular span of about 40 degrees in this event remains an open question. This study demonstrated the new way to examine ICME flux rope structure transformation over a relatively large spatial extent by combining multi-spacecraft observations and the GS reconstruction technique, taking into account, at times, a more favorable toroidal geometry. We will also release the code and make it known to the community for wider usage and validation of this new tool.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, S C; Teo, L P
2008-01-01
Quartic self-interacting fractional Klein-Gordon scalar massive and massless field theories on toroidal spacetime are studied. The effective potential and topologically generated mass are determined using zeta-function regularization technique. Renormalization of these quantities are derived. Conditions for symmetry breaking are obtained analytically. Simulations are carried out to illustrate regions or values of compactified dimensions where symmetry-breaking mechanisms appear
Radial diffusion of toroidally trapped particles induced by lower hybrid and fast waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krlin, L.
1992-10-01
The interaction of RF field with toroidally trapped particles (bananas) can cause their intrinsic stochastically diffusion both in the configuration and velocity space. In RF heating and/or current drive regimes, RF field can interact with plasma particles and with thermonuclear alpha particles. The aim of this contribution is to give some analytical estimates of induced radial diffusion of alphas and of ions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenwood, D.E.
1987-01-01
SAMS performs much of the synchronization of the distributed data acquisition system for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). SAMS is responsible for propagating shot information and managing te data system directories and logical names. This paper describes how SAMS communicates with other processes, both within the VAX cluster that supports most of the ATF data acquisition and on VAXes that are connected to the cluster via DECnet. 3 refs
Effects of orbit squeezing on neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shaing, K.C.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Chu, M.S.; Bécoulet, M.; Cahyna, Pavel
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 8 (2008), 082505-1-082505-8 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma boundary layers * plasma instability * plasma magnetohydrodynamics * plasma toroidal confinement * plasma transport processes * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2965146
Expansion of parameter space for Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode experiments in TFTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, K.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Chang, Z.Y.; Fredrickson, E.; Hammett, G.W.; Bush, C.; Nazikian, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Snipes, J.; Taylor, G.
1993-05-01
Several techniques were used to excite toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at magnetic fields above 10 kG. These involve pellet injection to raise the plasma density, variation of plasma current to change the energetic ion orbit and the q-profile, and ICRF heating to produce energetic hydrogen ions at velocities comparable to 3.5 MeV alpha particles. These experimental results are presented and relevance to fusion reactors are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazzucato, E.
2000-01-01
The next step in the demonstration of the scientific feasibility of a tokamak fusion reactor is a DT burning plasma experiment for the study and control of self-heated plasmas. In this paper, the authors examine the role of the toroidal magnetic field on the confinement of a tokamak plasma in the ELMy H-mode regime--the operational regime foreseen for ITER
Ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) mobile ignition test reactor facility concept study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masson, L.S.; Watts, K.D.; Piscitella, R.R.; Sekot, J.P.; Drexler, R.L.
1983-02-01
This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the use of an existing nuclear test complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the assembly, testing, and remote maintenance of the ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) compact reactor. The portable reactor concept is described and its application to OHTE testing and maintenance requirements is developed. Pertinent INEL facilities are described and several test system configurations that apply to these facilities are developed and evaluated
Study of a multi-hadron facility for 'PEP' based on toroidal field magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spillantini, P.
1974-01-01
A facility based on magnetic fields with toroidal structure is proposed for the study of the e + e/sup /minus// annihilation into multi-hadrons. Evaluations are carried out for a scheme with three toroidal superconducting coils (the 'central' coil and two 'small θ' coils) covering a 96%*4π solid angle. Very forward angles are kept free for the possible addition of two other toroidal coils covering down to /approximately/0.7/degree/. The choice of the geometrical dimensions of the 'central' and 'small θ' coils is discussed. The evaluations are made for two different geometries of the central coil, one 'large' and the other one 'compact'. The weight of the coils is very low (.3--1.5t) while a /approximately/2.5 Tesla maximum field can be obtained (/approximately/3.5 Tesla for the 'compact' central coil). A complete detection apparatus requires for the central coil ('large' version) about 600 drift wires, 1000 proportional wires, 150 photomultipliers, 40 TOF channels; from another proposal the cost of a 'MPWC+ lead glass TAC' γ-detection system can be scaled to $650K or $1100K, depending on the possible inclusion of a high pressure gas cerenkov in the apparatus. Each 'small θ' spectrometer requires /approximately/1/4 of all this. The 'compact' coil reduces the cost for the central spectrometer by a factor of 1.5--2
Superconducting toroidal combined-function magnet for a compact ion beam cancer therapy gantry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robin, D.S.; Arbelaez, D.; Caspi, S.; Sun, C.; Sessler, A.; Wan, W.; Yoon, M.
2011-01-01
A superconducting, combined-function, 5 T, 90°, toroidal magnet with a large bore is described in this paper. This magnet is designed to be the last and most difficult part of a compact superconducting magnet-based carbon gantry optics for ion beam cancer therapy. The relatively small size of this toroidal magnet allows for a gantry the size of which is smaller or at least comparable to that of a proton gantry. The gantry design places the toroidal magnet between the scanning magnets and the patient, that is the scanning magnets are placed midway through the gantry. By optimizing the coil winding configuration of this magnet, near point-to-parallel optics is achieved between the scanning magnets and the patient; while at the same time there is only a small distortion of the beam-shape when scanning. We show that the origin of the beam-shape distortion is the strong sextupole components, whose effects are greatly pronounced when the beam is widely steered in the magnet. A method to correct such an undesirable effect is suggested and demonstrated by a numerical particle tracking through the calculated three-dimensional magnetic field.
Hybrid simulation of toroidal Alfvén eigenmode on the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, D., E-mail: deyongl@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fu, G. Y.; Podestà, M.; Breslau, J. A.; Fredrickson, E. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Crocker, N. A.; Kubota, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angles, California 90095 (United States)
2015-04-15
Energetic particle modes and Alfvén eigenmodes driven by super-Alfvénic fast ions are routinely observed in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX). These modes can significantly impact fast ion transport and thus cause fast ion redistribution or loss. Self-consistent linear simulations of Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAEs) in NSTX plasmas have been carried out with the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic hybrid code M3D-K using experimental plasma parameters and profiles including plasma toroidal rotation. The simulations show that unstable TAEs with n=3,4, or 5 can be excited by the fast ions from neutral beam injection. The simulated mode frequency, mode radial structure, and phase shift are consistent with measurements from a multi-channel microwave reflectometer diagnostic. A sensitivity study on plasma toroidal rotation, safety factor q profile, and initial fast ion distribution is performed. The simulations show that rotation can have a significant destabilizing effect when the rotation is comparable or larger than the experimental level. The mode growth rate is sensitive to q profile and fast ion distribution. Although mode structure and peak position depend somewhat on q profile and plasma rotation, the variation of synthetic reflectometer response is within experimental uncertainty and it is not sensitive enough to see the difference clearly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapin, D.L.
1976-03-01
Differences in neutron fluxes and nuclear reaction rates in a noncircular fusion reactor blanket when analyzed in cylindrical and toroidal geometry are studied using Monte Carlo. The investigation consists of three phases--a one-dimensional calculation using a circular approximation to a hexagonal shaped blanket; a two-dimensional calculation of a hexagonal blanket in an infinite cylinder; and a three-dimensional calculation of the blanket in tori of aspect ratios 3 and 5. The total blanket reaction rate in the two-dimensional model is found to be in good agreement with the circular model. The toroidal calculations reveal large variations in reaction rates at different blanket locations as compared to the hexagonal cylinder model, although the total reaction rate is nearly the same for both models. It is shown that the local perturbations in the toroidal blanket are due mainly to volumetric effects, and can be predicted by modifying the results of the infinite cylinder calculation by simple volume factors dependent on the blanket location and the torus major radius
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wahlberg, C, E-mail: Christer.Wahlberg@fysast.uu.s [Department of Physics and Astronomy, EURATOM/VR Fusion Association, PO Box 516, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)
2009-08-15
This paper analyses low-frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes, especially the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), in toroidal plasmas with large aspect ratio and circular cross section, including the effects of toroidal plasma rotation. A system of equations describing MHD modes with frequency of the order of the sound frequency in such plasmas is derived from the Frieman-Rotenberg equation, using a technique where the plasma perturbation xi and the perturbed magnetic field Q are expanded separately in the inverse aspect ratio epsilon = r/R, where r and R denote the minor and major radii of the plasma torus, respectively. The large-scale, ideal MHD properties of the GAM induced by toroidal rotation (Wahlberg 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 115003) are thereafter analysed in more detail employing this system of equations. It is shown that both the axisymmetric GAMs existing in rotating plasmas are localized on a specific magnetic surface only to leading order in epsilon, and that a 'halo' consisting of finite components of both xi and Q with dominant poloidal mode numbers m = +-2 appears outside this magnetic surface to higher orders in epsilon.
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma
A full wave code for ion cyclotron waves in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1996-02-01
The code TORIC solves the finite Larmor radius wave equations in the ion cyclotron frequency range in arbitrary axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The model used describes the compressional and torsional Alfven waves (or, depending on the parallel phase velocity, the kinetic counterpart of the latter), and ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion near the first ion cyclotron harmonic. In the ion response the broadening of the absorption regions due to the finite width of the cyclotron resonance of individual ions in toroidal geometry is taken into account. The parallel component of the wave electric field is evaluated on the same footing as the transverse ones; the response of the electrons includes Landau damping, Transit Time damping and the mixed term. The numerical approach uses a spectral representation of the solution in the poloidal angle θ, and cubic finite elements in the radial variable ψ. Great flexibility is provided in the way ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion are damped when their wavelength becomes comparable with the ion Larmor radius, in the regularization of Alfven resonances, and in the treatment of the outer plasma layers. As an option, we have also implemented the Order Reduction Algorithm, which provides a particularly fast, yet accurate evaluation of the power deposition profiles in toroidal geometry. Thee present report describes the model and its numerical implementation, and provides the information needed to use the code. A few examples illustrating applications of TORIC are also included. (orig.)
Plasma confinement of Nagoya high-beta toroidal-pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.; Kitagawa, S.; Wakatani, M.; Kita, Y.; Yamada, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sato, K.; Aizawa, T.; Osanai, Y.; Noda, N.
1977-01-01
Two different types of high-β toroidal pinch experiments, STP [1] and CCT [2,3], have been done to study the confinement of the plasma produced by a theta-pinch. The STP is an axisymmetric toroidal pinch of high-β tokamak type, while the CCT consists of multiply connected periodic toroidal traps. Internal current-carrying copper rings are essential to the CCT. Since both apparatuses use the same fast capacitor bank system, they produce rather similar plasma temperatures and densities. The observed laser scattering temperature and density is about 50 eV and 4x10 15 cm -3 , respectively, when the filling pressure is 5 mtorr. In the STP experiment, strong correlations are found between the βsub(p) value and the amplitude of m=2 mode. It has a minimum around the value of βsub(p) of 0.8. The disruptive instability is observed to expand the pinched plasma column without lowering the plasma temperature. Just before the disruption begins, the q value around the magnetic axis becomes far less than 1 and an increase of the amplitude of m=2 mode is seen. The CCT also shows rapid plasma expansion just before the magnetic field reaches its maximum. Then the trap is filled up with the plasma by this irreversible expansion and stable plasma confinement is achieved. The energy confinement time of the CCT is found to be about 35 μs. (author)
Investigation of zonal flows with toroidal correlation analysis in TJ-K
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erofeev, Ivan; Schmid, Bernhard; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)
2014-07-01
In toroidal fusion plasmas, zonal potential perturbations associated with zonal flows can appear. These potential structures have toroidal and poloidal symmetry. Zonal flows are intrinsically connected to flow shear and interact with drift-wave turbulence through the shearing of eddies. By this mechanism, the zonal flow gains energy and the transport through drift-wave turbulence is reduced. Zonal flows have been found to evolve naturally in the drift-wave dominated turbulence of low-temperature plasmas in the stellarator TJ-K. In order to capture their long-range feature through the symmetry properties, Langmuir-probe measurements are performed at two well separated toroidal positions. Long-range correlations are studied with respect to their spatio-temporal properties. In a first step, the radial structure is analyzed by means of a rake-like probe with radially separated pins. Thereby, the influence of zonal flows on radial correlation lengths of the ambient turbulence is shown. Furthermore, a stationary poloidal probe array is used in combination with a 2D-movable probe system in order to uncover the turbulent dynamics in the full poloidal cross-section, conditionally, when zonal flows evolve.
Design study of superconducting toroidal magnet for tokamak experimental fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-10-01
Design study of the superconducting toroidal magnet for the Tokamak experimental fusion reactor has been carried out. Performed here were conductor design, magnetic field calculation, design of coil support, stress analysis, design of refrigeration system and safety analysis. The maximum toroidal field at the coil is 12.0 T, providing 6.0 T at the plasma center. The coil bore is 7.3 x 11.2 m, and the coil shape is deformed constant-tension D-shape. 16 coil design was chosen, considering the necessity for good access for the evacuation port or the support structure of blanket and shield. The maximum field ripple obtained in the plasma region is 0.47%. The operational current is 25,100 amperes, and the cryogenic stabilization is fulfilled. Nb 3 Sn superconductor was chosen in spite of its brittleness, to attain a toroidal field of 12 T which is higher than a practical limit for NbTi superconductor. The development of large Nb 3 Sn coil technology would be necessary to realize an economic fusion power reactor. (auth.)
New Superconducting Toroidal Magnet System for IAXO, the International AXion Observatory
Shilon, I; Silva, H; Wagner, U; Kate, H H J ten
2013-01-01
Axions are hypothetical particles that were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. The new International AXion Observatory (IAXO) will incorporate the most promising solar axions detector to date, which is designed to enhance the sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling by one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current state-of-the-art detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions into X-ray photons. Inspired by the successful realization of the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a very large superconducting toroid is currently designed at CERN to provide the required magnetic field. This toroid will comprise eight, one meter wide and twenty one meter long, racetrack coils. The system is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length. Its peak magnetic field is 5.4 T with a stored e...
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma
2017-01-01
Abstract This study investigates health concerns and access to health services for Roma from Romania who live in homelessness in Copenhagen, Denmark. They collect refundable bottles and call themselves “badocari,” which in Romanian refers to “people who work with bottles.” Homeless Roma in Denmark have not previously been studied through ethnographic research. The study stresses the importance of a syndemic approach towards understanding badocari health concerns. Syndemics is understood as co-occurring diseases, which unfold within contexts of social injustice. The case of the badocari is argued to be a case of “doubling syndemics” since the co-occurring diseases are further multiplied and enhanced by an ongoing mobility between dual contexts of precarious livelihoods in Romania and Denmark, respectively. The study complements the approach to syndemics with a perspective on human rights. It sheds light on the limited possibilities that exist for addressing health concerns of the badocari, both in Romania and in Denmark, and argues that the universal human right to health is not realized in the everyday lives of destitute EU migrants such as the badocari. Rather, they experience lack of access to adequate medical treatment and follow-up care, both as citizens of a member state and as co-citizens of the European Union. PMID:29302164
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.
1986-04-01
The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig
Interaction of a spheromak-like compact toroid with a high beta spherical tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, D.Q.; McLean, H.S.; Baker, K.L.; Evans, R.W.; Horton, R.D.; Terry, S.D.; Howard, S.; Schmidt, G.L.
2000-01-01
Recent experiments using accelerated spheromak-like compact toroids (SCTs) to fuel tokamak plasmas have quantified the penetration mechanism in the low beta regime; i.e. external magnetic field pressure dominates plasma thermal pressure. However, fusion reactor designs require high beta plasma and, more importantly, the proper plasma pressure profile. Here, the effect of the plasma pressure profile on SCT penetration, specifically, the effect of diamagnetism, is addressed. It is estimated that magnetic field pressure dominates penetration even up to 50% local beta. The combination of the diamagnetic effect on the toroidal magnetic field and the strong poloidal field at the outer major radius of a spherical tokamak will result in a diamagnetic well in the total magnetic field. Therefore, the spherical tokamak is a good candidate to test the potential trapping of an SCT in a high beta diamagnetic well. The diamagnetic effects of a high beta spherical tokamak discharge (low aspect ratio) are computed. To test the penetration of an SCT into such a diamagnetic well, experiments have been conducted of SCT injection into a vacuum field structure which simulates the diamagnetic field effect of a high beta tokamak. The diamagnetic field gradient length is substantially shorter than that of the toroidal field of the tokamak, and the results show that it can still improve the penetration of the SCT. Finally, analytic results have been used to estimate the effect of plasma pressure on penetration, and the effect of plasma pressure was found to be small in comparison with the magnetic field pressure. The penetration condition for a vacuum field only is reported. To study the diamagnetic effect in a high beta plasma, additional experiments need to be carried out on a high beta spherical tokamak. (author)
Magnetic Axis Drift and Magnetic Spot Formation in Neutron Stars with Toroidal Fields
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Hollerbach, Rainer
2018-01-01
We explore magnetic field configurations that lead to the formation of magnetic spots on the surface of neutron stars and the displacement of the magnetic dipole axis. We find that a toroidally dominated magnetic field is essential for the generation of a single spot with a strong magnetic field. Once a spot forms, it survives for several million years, even after the total magnetic field has decayed significantly. We find that the dipole axis is not stationary with respect to the neutron star’s surface and does not in general coincide with the location of the magnetic spot. This is due to non-axisymmetric instabilities of the toroidal field that displace the poloidal dipole axis at rates that may reach 0.°4 per century. A misaligned poloidal dipole axis with the toroidal field leads to more significant displacement of the dipole axis than the fully aligned case. Finally we discuss the evolution of neutron stars with such magnetic fields on the P{--}\\dot{P} diagram and the observational implications. We find that neutron stars spend a very short time before they cross the Death Line of the P{--}\\dot{P} diagram, compared to their characteristic ages. Moreover, the maximum intensity of their surface magnetic field is substantially higher than the dipole component of the field. We argue that SGR 0418+5729 could be an example of this type of behavior, having a weak dipole field, yet hosting a magnetic spot responsible for its magnetar behavior. The evolution on the pulse profile and braking index of the Crab pulsar, which are attributed to an increase of its obliquity, are compatible with the anticipated drift of the magnetic axis.
Spatial Variations of Poloidal and Toroidal Mode Field Line Resonances Observed by MMS
Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Kepko, L.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Torbert, R. B.
2017-12-01
Field line resonances (FLRs) are magnetosphere's responses to solar wind forcing and internal instabilities generated by solar wind-magnetospheric interactions. They are standing waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines oscillating in either poloidal or toroidal modes. The two types of waves have their unique frequency characteristics. The eigenfrequency of FLRs is determined by the length of the field line and the plasma density, and thus gradually changes with L. For toroidal mode oscillations with magnetic field perturbations in the azimuthal direction, ideal MHD predicts that each field line oscillates independently with its own eigenfrequency. For poloidal mode waves with field lines oscillating radially, their frequency cannot change with L easily as L shells need to oscillate in sync to avoid efficient damping due to phase mixing. Observations, mainly during quiet times, indeed show that poloidal mode waves often exhibit nearly constant frequency across L shells. Our recent observations, on the other hand, reveal a clear L-dependent frequency trend for a long lasting storm-time poloidal wave event, indicating the wave can maintain its power with changing frequencies for an extended period [Le et al., 2017]. The spatial variation of the frequency shows discrete spatial structures. The frequency remains constant within each discrete structure that spans about 1 REalong L, and changes discretely. We present a follow-up study to investigate spatial variations of wave frequencies using the Wigner-Ville distribution. We examine both poloidal and toroidal waves under different geomagnetic conditions using multipoint observations from MMS, and compare their frequency and occurrence characteristics for insights into their generation mechanisms. Reference: Le, G., et al. (2017), Global observations of magnetospheric high-m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 3456-3464, doi:10.1002/2017GL073048.
Evidence for Toroidal B-Field Components in AGN Jets on Kiloparsec Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian Knuettel
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Though helical magnetic fields are generally believed to arise when the jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are launched, it is still unclear what role they play (and if they survive to the largest jet scales. A helical or toroidal B-field may contribute substantially to the collimation of the jet. This B-field structure can be detected in images of the Faraday rotation measure (RM—a measure of the change in polarisation angle of an electromagnetic wave as it passes through a magneto-ionic medium. The Faraday rotation measure is directly proportional to the line-of-sight magnetic field; therefore a monotonic gradient in the RM transverse to the jet indicates similar behaviour of the line-of-sight B-field component. This type of analysis has mostly been done on parsec scales using VLBI observations at centimetre wavelengths, while relatively few studies have probed decaparsec to kiloparsec scales. The detection of RM gradients with significances of 3 σ or more on such large scales can demonstrate the presence of a toroidal field component, which may be associated with a helical field that has persisted to these distances from the centre of the AGN. We present the results of new Faraday rotation analyses for 2 AGN on kiloparsec scales based on multiwavelength VLA observations, with robust transverse RM gradients detected in both. Furthermore, the direction of the inferred toroidal B-fields on the sky supports previous results indicating a predominance of outward currents in the jets on kiloparsec scales.
Toroidal Variable-Line-Space Gratings: The Good, the Bad and The Ugly
West, Edward A.; Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Gary, Allen; Davis, John; Reader, Joseph
2009-01-01
Toroidal variable-line-space (VLS) gratings are an important factor in the design of an efficient VUV solar telescope that will measure the CIV (155nm) and MgII (280nm) emissions lines in the Sun's transition region. In 1983 Kita and Harada described spherical VLS gratings but the technology to commercially fabricate these devices is a recent development, especially for toroidal surfaces. This paper will describe why this technology is important in the development of the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program (the good), the delays due to the conversion between the TVLS grating design and the optical fabrication (the bad), and finally the optical testing, alignment and tolerancing of the gratings (the ugly). The Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation, SUMI, has been reported in several papers since this program began in 2000. The emphasis of this paper is to describe SUMI's Toroidal Variable-Line-Space (TVLS) gratings. These gratings help SUMI meet its scientific goals which require both high spectral resolution and high optical efficiency for magnetic field measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength band of the solar spectrum (the good). Unfortunately, the technology readiness level of these gratings has made their implementation difficult, especially for a sounding rocket payload (the bad). Therefore, this paper emphasizes the problems and solutions that were developed to use these gratings in SUMI (the ugly). Section 2 contains a short review of the scientific goals of SUMI and why this mission is important in the understanding of the 3D structure of the magnetic field on the Sun. The flight hardware that makes up the SUMI payload is described in Section 3 with emphasis on those components that affect the TVLS gratings. Section 4 emphasizes the alignment, testing and optical modeling that were developed to optimize the performance of these gratings.
Transport and dynamics in toroidal fusion systems. Report of second year progress, 1993--1994
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnack, D.D.
1994-01-01
In this document the author describes an extension of the spatial gridding techniques to an MHD model suitable for the description of the dynamics of toroidal fusion devices. Since the dominant MHD modes in these devices have relatively long toroidal wavelength, the toroidal coordinate is approximated with finite Fourier series. The unstructured, triangular mesh is used to describe the details of the poloidal geometry. With some exceptions, the hydrodynamic variables are treated in a manner analogous to that used in CFD. These quantities (mass, energy, and momentum) are volume based densities that satisfy scalar or vector conservation laws. The electromagnetic variables (the magnetic flux density B and the electric current density J) are area based densities that satisfy pseudo-vector conservation laws, and have no counterpart in fluid dynamics. These variables are also constrained to remain solenoidal. These quantities are represented on the triangular mesh in a new manner that is an extension of that used on rectangular, structured meshes. In this work the author has chosen to solve the primitive MHD equations in order to make the resulting codes and techniques more generally applicable to problems beyond the narrow scope of tokamak plasmas. The temporal stiffness problems inherent in this description of tokamak dynamics that motivate the reduced MHD model are addressed here with the semi-implicit method of time integration. Finally, the author remarks that, while the present work deals strictly with the MHD equations, other volume based fluid descriptions, such as diffusive transport could easily be adapted to these techniques and coupled with the description of the electromagnetic field presented here
Investigation of the toroidal dependence of first wall conditions in the Large Helical Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hino, T.; Ashikawa, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Sagara, A.; Komori, A.; Yamauchi, Y.; Nobuta, Y.; Matsunaga, Y.
2010-11-01
The non-uniform wall conditions such as the fuel hydrogen retention and the erosion/deposition have been investigated in the Large Helical Device (LHD) by using toroidally and poloidally distributed material probes. They were installed in every experimental campaign from 2003 to 2010, and the evolutions of the wall conditions were clearly obtained. The wall conditions significantly depended on the operational procedures and the positions of in-vessel devices such as anodes for glow discharge and the ICRF antennas. The toroidal profiles for the amounts of retained hydrogen and helium, and the depth of wall erosion, were systematically measured. The hydrogen, helium and neon glow discharges have been conducted by using two anodes before and after the hydrogen or helium main discharges. The amount of retained hydrogen was large in the vicinity of the anodes, and drastically decreased as increase of the campaign number. This reduction well corresponds to the time period used for the hydrogen glow discharge conditioning. The erosion depth was large at the walls relatively close to the anodes, which is owing to the sputtering during the helium and neon glow discharges. The depositions of carbon and boron also depended on the positions of NBI and diborane gas inlet used for boronization, respectively. The amount of the retained helium was large at the walls close to the anodes owing to the helium glow discharge. The amount of retained helium became large at the walls close to the ICRF antennas owing to the implantation of high energy helium during the helium main discharge with the ICRF heating. In the present study, the toroidal dependences of the gas retention and the erosion/deposition in LHD were obtained, and the effects of the in-vessel devices on these plasma wall interactions were clarified. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatthong, B.; Picha, R.; Poolyarat, N.; Onjun, T.
2014-01-01
This work aims to study effects of toroidal flow on the L-H transition phenomenon in tokamak plasmas using bifurcation concept. Two-field (thermal and particle) transport equations with both neoclassical and turbulent effects included are solved simultaneously. The transport suppression mechanism used in this work is flow shear, which is assumed to affect only the turbulent transport. The flow shear can be calculated from the force balance equation with toroidal flow as a main contributor. The toroidal velocity profile is calculated using three different models. The first model is an empirical model in which the velocity is dependent on local ion temperature. The second model is based on neoclassical toroidal viscosity theory in which the velocity is driven by ion temperature gradient. In the third model, the velocity is dependent on current density flow in plasma. The two transport equations are solved both analytically and numerically using MATLAB to study the criteria for H-mode formation, pedestal width and its dynamics. The results from three toroidal velocity models are compared and analyzed with respect to bifurcation behavior and plasma performance.
Development of high-mechanical strength electrical insulations for tokamak toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, C.
1977-01-01
The electrical insulation for the TF (Toroidal Field) coils is subjected to a high interlaminar shear, tensile and compressive stresses. Two candidate epoxy/glass fiber systems using prepreg and vacuum impregnation techniques were evaluated. Specimens were prepared and processed under controlled conditions to simulate specification manufacturing procedures. The strengths of the insulation were measured in interlaminar shear, tension, compression, and combined shear and compression statically. Shear modulus determinations were also made. Various techniques of surface treatments to increase bond strengths with three resin primers were tested
Summary of US-Japan Exchange 2004 New Directions and Physics for Compact Toroids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Intrator, T; Nagata, M; Hoffman, A; Guo, H; Steinhauer, L; Ryutov, D; Miller, R; Okada, S
2005-08-15
This exchange workshop was an open meeting coordinated by the P-24 Plasma Physics Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We brought together scientists from institutions in the US and Japan who are researching the various and complementary types of Compact Toroids (CT). Many concepts, including both experimental and theoretical investigations, are represented. The range spans Field Reversed Configuration (FRC), spheromak, Reversed Field Pinch (RFP), spherical tokamaks, linear devices dedicated to fundamental physics studies, and hybrid transitions that bridge multiple configurations. The participants represent facilities on which significant experiments are now underway: FRC Injection experiment (FIX), Translation Confinement experiment (TCS), Nihon-University Compact Torus Experiment (NUCTE), HITSI (Helicity Injection experiment, Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (HIT-SIHI)), Field Reversed Configuration experiment-Liner (FRX-L), TS-3/4, Sustained Spheromak Experiment (SSPX), Relaxation Scaling Experiment (RSX), HIST, Caltech Spheromak, or in the design process such as MRX-FRC (PPPL), Pulsed High Density experiment (PHD at UW). Several new directions and results in compact toroid (CT) research have recently emerged, including neutral-beam injection, rotating magnetic fields, flux build up from Ohmic boost coils, electrostatic helicity injection techniques, CT injection into other large devices, and high density configurations for applications to magnetized target fusion and translational compression of CT's. CT experimental programs in both the US and Japan have also shown substantial progress in the control and sustainment of CT's. Both in theory and experiment, there is increased emphasis on 3D dynamics, which is also related to astrophysical and space physics issues. 3D data visualization is now frequently used for experimental data display. There was much discussion of the effects of weak toroidal fields in FRC's and possible implications
The continous spectrum and the time evolution of propagating disturbances in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida Ferreira, A.C. de
1982-01-01
It is shown that the continuous spectrum of shear-Alfven waves and slow magnetoacoustic waves can be obtained from the asymptotic solutions of the ordinary differential equations that describe the ideal low frequency, large toroidal number modes. Because of the periodicities of the equilibrium, a multiple scale averaging method is required to perform the asymptotic analysis. By using a specific equilibrium solution, analytical expressions for the local dispersion relation, that spcifies the location of the resonant layers, are given in the vicinity of the axis. The temporal evolution of stable pertubations on the basis of the global characteristics of the normal eigenmodes is discussed briefly. (Author) [pt
Turbulence simulations of blob formation and radial propagation in toroidally magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2006-01-01
of particles and heat, which is coupled to a scrape-off layer with linear damping terms for all dependent variables corresponding to transport along open magnetic field lines. The formation of blob structures is related to profile variations caused by bursting in the global turbulence level, which is due......Two- dimensional numerical fluid turbulence simulations demonstrating the formation and radial propagation of blob structures in toroidally magnetized plasmas are presented and analysed in detail. A salient feature of the model is a linearly unstable edge plasma region with localized sources...
Nonaxisymmetric Rossby vortex instability with toroidal magnetic fields in structured disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Cong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We investigate the global nonaxisymmetric Rossby vortex instability (RVI) in a differentially rotating, compressible magnetized accretion disk with radial density structures. Equilibrium magnetic fields are assumed to have only the toroidal component. Using linear theory analysis, we show that the density structure can be unstable to nonaxisymmetric modes. We find that, for the magnetic field profiles we have studied, magnetic fields always provide a stabilizing effect to the unstable RVI modes. We discuss the physical mechanism of this stabilizing effect. The threshold and properties of the unstable modes are also discussed in detail. In addition, we present linear stability results for the global magnetorotational instability when the disk is compressible.
Analysis of toroidal vacuum vessels for use in demonstration sized tokamak reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Culbert, M.E.
1978-07-01
The vacuum vessel component of the tokamak fusion reactor is the subject of this study. The main objective of this paper was to provide guidance for the structural design of a thin wall externally pressurized toroidal vacuum vessel. The analyses are based on the available state-of-the-art analytical methods. The shortcomings of these analytical methods necessitated approximations and assumptions to be made throughout the study. A principal result of the study has been the identification of a viable vacuum vessel design for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) and The Next Step (TNS) Reactor
Spectrally Efficient OFDMA Lattice Structure via Toroidal Waveforms on the Time-Frequency Plane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sultan Aldirmaz
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the performance of frequency division multiplexed (FDM signals, where multiple orthogonal Hermite-Gaussian carriers are used to increase the bandwidth efficiency. Multiple Hermite-Gaussian functions are modulated by a data set as a multicarrier modulation scheme in a single time-frequency region constituting toroidal waveform in a rectangular OFDMA system. The proposed work outperforms in the sense of bandwidth efficiency compared to the transmission scheme where only single Gaussian pulses are used as the transmission base. We investigate theoretical and simulation results of the proposed methods.
FURNACE; a toroidal geometry neutronic program system method description and users manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verschuur, K.A.
1984-12-01
The FURNACE program system performs neutronic and photonic calculations in 3D toroidal geometry for application to fusion reactors. The geometry description is quite general, allowing any torus cross section and any neutron source density distribution for the plasma, as well as simple parametric representations of circular, elliptic and D-shaped tori and plasmas. The numerical method is based on an approximate transport model that produces results with sufficient accuracy for reactor-design purposes, at acceptable calculational costs. A short description is given of the numerical method, and a user manual for the programs of the system: FURNACE, ANISN-PT, LIBRA, TAPEMA and DRAWER is presented
Spatially resolved charge exchange flux calculations on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter of Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marandet, Y.; Tsitrone, E.; Boerner, P.; Reiter, D.; Beaute, A.; Delchambre, E.; Escarguel, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Genesio, P.; Gunn, J.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.
2009-01-01
A spatially resolved calculation of the charge exchange particle and energy fluxes on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is presented, as a first step towards a better understanding and modelling of carbon erosion, migration, as well as deuterium codeposition and bulk diffusion of deuterium in Tore Supra. The results are obtained with the EIRENE code run in a 3D geometry. Physical and chemical erosion maps on the TPL are calculated, and the contribution of neutrals to erosion, especially in the self-shadowed area, is calculated.
Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata
1978-01-01
The relation between the current generated by RF travelling field and the absorbed power is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gap pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (author)
Toroidal Nuclear Matter Distributions of Superheavy Nuclei from Constrained Skyrme-HFB Calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosior, Amelia [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Poland; Staszczak, A. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Poland; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL
2017-01-01
Using the Hartree Fock Bogoliubov (HFB) self-consistent mean-field theory with the SkM* Skyrme energy-density functional, we study nuclear structure properties of even even superheavy nuclei (SHN) of Z = 120 isotopes and N = 184 isotones. The shape of the nucleus along the lowest energy curve as a function of the quadrupole moment Q20 makes a sud- den transition from the oblate spheroids (biconcave discs) to the toroidal shapes, in the region of large oblate quadrupole moments.
Far-infrared laser scattering in the ACT-I toroidal device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goree, J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.
1984-12-01
A far-infrared laser scattering diagnostic has been built for the ACT-I toroidal device. The optical system uses a passively stabilized 447-..mu..m CH/sub 3/I laser. A polyethylene etalon is the beam splitter. The vacuum windows are plastic (TPX), which we found has the vacuum property Q 6.5 x 10/sup -9/ torr-liter/sec/cm/sup 2/. Using paraboloidal and ellipsoidal mirrors for detection optics improves the signal strength and allows a better rf enclosure design for the detector. The diagnostic was tested by scattering from an ion Bernstein wave, a technique which can be used for ion temperature diagnostics.
Mechanical stress calculations for toroidal field coils by the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soell, M.; Jandl, O.; Gorenflo, H.
1976-09-01
After discussing fundamental relationships of the finite element method, this report describes the calculation steps worked out for mechanical stress calculations in the case of magnetic forces and forces produced by thermal expansion or compression of toroidal field coils using the SOLID SAP IV computer program. The displacement and stress analysis are based on the 20-node isoparametric solid element. The calculation of the nodal forces produced by magnetic body forces are discussed in detail. The computer programs, which can be used generally for mesh generation and determination of the nodal forces, are published elsewhere. (orig.) [de
Simulation study of toroidal phase-locking mechanism in reversed-field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusano, Kanya; Tamano, Teruo; Sato, Tetsuya.
1991-02-01
The toroidal phase locking process of kink modes in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma is investigated in detail by means of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. The physical mechanism of phase locking is clarified. The most dominant two linearly unstable kink modes rule over the evolution of other kink modes whereby phase locking takes place. It is confirmed that the phase locking process is not a special phenomenon subject to the resistive boundary condition, but a common feature of the MHD relaxation process in the RFP. The relation between the phase locking and MHD relaxation processes is briefly discussed. (author)
Little strings, quasi-topological sigma model on loop group, and toroidal Lie algebras
Ashwinkumar, Meer; Cao, Jingnan; Luo, Yuan; Tan, Meng-Chwan; Zhao, Qin
2018-03-01
We study the ground states and left-excited states of the Ak-1 N = (2 , 0) little string theory. Via a theorem by Atiyah [1], these sectors can be captured by a supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model on CP1 with target space the based loop group of SU (k). The ground states, described by L2-cohomology classes, form modules over an affine Lie algebra, while the left-excited states, described by chiral differential operators, form modules over a toroidal Lie algebra. We also apply our results to analyze the 1/2 and 1/4 BPS sectors of the M5-brane worldvolume theory.
Little strings, quasi-topological sigma model on loop group, and toroidal Lie algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meer Ashwinkumar
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We study the ground states and left-excited states of the Ak−1 N=(2,0 little string theory. Via a theorem by Atiyah [1], these sectors can be captured by a supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model on CP1 with target space the based loop group of SU(k. The ground states, described by L2-cohomology classes, form modules over an affine Lie algebra, while the left-excited states, described by chiral differential operators, form modules over a toroidal Lie algebra. We also apply our results to analyze the 1/2 and 1/4 BPS sectors of the M5-brane worldvolume theory.
Effect of toroidal mirror on spatial coherence of synchrotron hard X-ray beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Hua; Yan Shuai; Yan Fen; Mao Chengwen; Liang Dongxun; He Yan; Jiang Sheng; Li Aiguo; Yu Xiaohan
2012-01-01
The Gaussian Schell-model source theory is used to describe the hard X-ray micro focusing beamline with an undulator of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Based on the model and general Huygens-Fresnel principle, propagation of cross-spectral density function in free space is studied. Equivalent source hypothesis is proposed and the effect of toroidal mirror on spatial coherence of the hard X-ray beams is studied. The theoretical results are consistent with the experimental results. Only divergence angles of the incident and outgoing X-rays are considered in the equivalent source hypothesis, hence an easy extension of the hypothesis to other beamline optical elements. (authors)
Global kink and ballooning modes in high-beta systems and stability of toroidal drift modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, R.M.O.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Rem, J.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Schep, T.J.; Venema, M.
1983-01-01
A numerical code (HBT) has been developed which solves for the equilibrium, global stability and high-n stability of plasmas with arbitrary cross-section. Various plasmas are analysed for their stability to these modes in the high-beta limit. Screw-pinch equilibria are stable to high-n ballooning modes up to betas of 18%. The eigenmode equation for drift waves is analysed numerically. The toroidal branch is shown to be destabilized by the non-adiabatic response of trapped and circulating particles. (author)
Composite coils for toroidal field coils and method of using same
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, R. G.; Trujillo, S. M.
1985-01-01
A composite toroidal field (TF) generating means consisting of segmented magnetic coil windings is disclosed. Each coil winding of the TF generating means consists of a copper or copper alloy conductor segment and an aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor segment. The conductor segments are joined at a high strength, low electrical resistance joint and the joint may either be a mechanical or metallurgical one. The use of the aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor segments improves the neutron economy of the reactor with which the TF coil is associated and reduces TF coil nuclear heating and heating gradients, and activation in the TF coils
Experimental simulation of pulsed field losses in tokamak toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.
1976-01-01
Experiments have been carried out to measure loss in a twisted multifilamentary composite superconductor when exposed to a transient longitudinal field. We investigate the variation of losses both as a function of transverse applied field and of sample transport current. Losses are probed mainly by measurement of the dynamic resistivity of the sample during the longitudinal pulse. Experimental results are compared with theories for the zero transport current case. The extension of theory to include transport current is also discussed, and the impact on tokamak toroidal field coil design is considered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buncher, B.R.; Chi, J.W.H.; Fernandez, R.
1976-01-01
This report documents the principal results of a Conceptual Design Study for the Superconducting Toroidal Field System for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor. Two concepts are described for peak operating fields at the windings of 8 tesla, and 12 tesla, respectively. The design and manufacturing considerations are treated in sufficient detail that cost and schedule estimates could be developed. Major uncertainties in the design are identified and their potential impact discussed, along with recommendations for the necessary research and development programs to minimize these uncertainties. The minimum dimensions of a sub-size test coil for experimental qualification of the full size design are developed and a test program is recommended
The attenuation of Love waves and toroidal oscillations of the earth.
Jackson, D. D.
1971-01-01
An attempt has been made to invert a large set of attenuation data for Love waves and toroidal oscillations in the earth, using a recent method by Backus and Gilbert. The difficulty in finding an acceptable model of internal friction which explains the data, under the assumption that the internal friction is independent of frequency, casts doubt on the validity of this assumption. A frequency-dependent model of internal friction is presented which is in good agreement with the seismic data and with recent experimental measurements of attenuation in rocks.
Fast mega pixels video imaging of a toroidal plasma in KT5D device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Min; Wang Zhijiang; Lu Ronghua; Sun Xiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Wang Jun; Xiao Delong; Yu Yi; Zhu Zhenghua; Hu Linyin
2005-01-01
A direct imaging system, viewing visible light emission from plasmas tangentially or perpendicularly, has been set up on the KT5D toroidal device to monitor the real two-dimensional profiles of purely ECR generated plasmas. This system has a typical spatial resolution of 0.2 mm (1280x1024 pixels) when imaging the whole cross section. Interesting features of ECR plasmas have been found. Different from what classical theories have expected, a resonance layer with two or three bright spots, rather than an even vertical band, has been observed. In addition, images also indicate an intermittent splitting and drifting character of the plasmas
The essential spectrum of an operator relative to the stability of a toroidal plasma
Descloux, J.; Geymonat, G.
1980-05-01
The essential spectrum of the self-adjoint Hilbert space operator of the linearized equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics which determines equilibrium stability is analyzed for the case of a toroidally confined plasma. The essential spectrum relative to the magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic energy equations is defined in terms of an isolated eigenvalue of finite multiplicity, and the solution of the eigenvalue problem of a system of two second-order ordinary differential equations with periodic boundary conditions is shown to correspond to the essential spectrum.
A representation of toroidal MHD in terms of stream functions and potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maschke, E.K.; Morros Tosas, J.
1988-03-01
An exact representation of toroidal magneto-hydrodynamics is proposed, in which the electromagnetic and the velocity fields are represented in terms of stream functions and potentials, without assuming any spatial symmetries. Two important features of this representation are the use of a time-independent but otherwise arbitrary reference field B O , and the fact that the vector product of the velocity V with B 0 , and not V itself, is represented in terms of stream functions. In this way the equations take a form, which allows relatively easy physical interpretation and is well suited for deriving reduced MHD equations for particular stability problems
First Toroidal Rotation Measurements of Protons and Impurities in the TJ-II Stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapisarda, D.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.
2006-01-01
First absolute toroidal rotation measurements in the TJ-II stellarator, by using passive emission spectroscopy, are presented. The wavelength calibration is performed by using a spectral system which combines the spectra coming from the plasma and from a lamp in real time. Measurements have been made both for protons and some impurity ions (C4+, He+), in discharges created by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and in discharges with neutral beam injection heating. In addition, a description of the systems as well as the calibration procedures an data analysis is addressed. (Author) 10 refs
Double hard scattering without double counting
Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Schönwald, Kay
2017-06-01
Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.
Double hard scattering without double counting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2017-02-15
Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Paulo; Bizarro, Joao P. S. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2013-04-15
The axisymmetry condition and two of Maxwell's equations are used to show that, in general, there are no nested magnetic surfaces around a poloidal-magnetic-field null for a sufficiently small value of the toroidal current density flowing there. Hence, the toroidal current density at the axis of a magnetic configuration with extreme shear reversal cannot continuously approach zero unless nested surfaces are first broken or particular values are assigned to boundary conditions and other plasma parameters. The threshold of the toroidal current-density at which the topology changes is shown to be set by such parameters, and some examples of the predicted topology transition are presented using analytical solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation.
Toroidal Ampere-Faraday Equations Solved Consistently with the CQL3D Fokker-Planck Time-Evolution
Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.
2013-10-01
A self-consistent, time-dependent toroidal electric field calculation is a key feature of a complete 3D Fokker-Planck kinetic distribution radial transport code for f(v,theta,rho,t). In the present CQL3D finite-difference model, the electric field E(rho,t) is either prescribed, or iteratively adjusted to obtain prescribed toroidal or parallel currents. We discuss first results of an implementation of the Ampere-Faraday equation for the self-consistent toroidal electric field, as applied to the runaway electron production in tokamaks due to rapid reduction of the plasma temperature as occurs in a plasma disruption. Our previous results assuming a constant current density (Lenz' Law) model showed that prompt ``hot-tail runaways'' dominated ``knock-on'' and Dreicer ``drizzle'' runaways; we will examine modifications due to the more complete Ampere-Faraday solution. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-ER54744.
Rotation and toroidal magnetic field effects on the stability of two-component jets
Millas, Dimitrios; Keppens, Rony; Meliani, Zakaria
2017-09-01
Several observations of astrophysical jets show evidence of a structure in the direction perpendicular to the jet axis, leading to the development of 'spine and sheath' models of jets. Most studies focus on a two-component jet consisting of a highly relativistic inner jet and a slower - but still relativistic - outer jet surrounded by an unmagnetized environment. These jets are believed to be susceptible to a relativistic Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, depending on the effective inertia ratio of the two components. We extend previous studies by taking into account the presence of a non-zero toroidal magnetic field. Different values of magnetization are examined to detect possible differences in the evolution and stability of the jet. We find that the toroidal field, above a certain level of magnetization σ, roughly equal to 0.01, can stabilize the jet against the previously mentioned instabilities and that there is a clear trend in the behaviour of the average Lorentz factor and the effective radius of the jet when we continuously increase the magnetization. The simulations are performed using the relativistic MHD module from the open source, parallel, grid adaptive, mpi-amrvac code.
Toroidal surface complexes of bacteriophage φ12 are responsible for host-cell attachment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Katz, Garrett; Wei Hui; Alimova, Alexandra; Katz, A.; Rice, William J.; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Hu Guobin; Stokes, David L.; Gottlieb, Paul
2011-01-01
Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging are utilized to determine that the bacteriophage φ12, a member of the Cystoviridae family, contains surface complexes that are toroidal in shape, are composed of six globular domains with six-fold symmetry, and have a discrete density connecting them to the virus membrane-envelope surface. The lack of this kind of spike in a reassortant of φ12 demonstrates that the gene for the hexameric spike is located in φ12's medium length genome segment, likely to the P3 open reading frames which are the proteins involved in viral-host cell attachment. Based on this and on protein mass estimates derived from the obtained averaged structure, it is suggested that each of the globular domains is most likely composed of a total of four copies of P3a and/or P3c proteins. Our findings may have implications in the study of the evolution of the cystovirus species in regard to their host specificity. - Research Highlights: → Subtomogram averaging reveals enhanced detail of a φ12 cystovirus surface protein complex. → The surface protein complex has a toroidal shape and six-fold symmetry. → It is encoded by the medium-size genome segment. → The proteins of the surface complex most likely are one copy of P3a and three copies of P3c.
Toroidal fusion reactor design based on the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagenson, R.L.
1978-07-01
The toroidal reversed-field pinch (RFP) achieves gross equilibrium and stability with a combination of high shear and wall stabilization, rather than the imposition of tokamak-like q-constraints. Consequently, confinement is provided primarily by poloidal magnetic fields, poloidal betas as large as approximately 0.58 are obtainable, the high ohmic-heating (toroidal) current densities promise a sole means of heating a D-T plasma to ignition, and the plasma aspect ratio is not limited by stability/equilibrium constraints. A reactor-like plasma model has been developed in order to quantify and to assess the general features of a power system based upon RFP confinement. An ''operating point'' has been generated on the basis of this plasma model and a relatively detailed engineering energy balance. These results are used to generate a conceptual engineering model of the reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR) which includes a general description of a 750 MWe power plant and the preliminary consideration of vacuum/fueling, first wall, blanket, magnet coils, iron core, and the energy storage/transfer system
Dynamics of spheromak-like compact toroids in a drift tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Hayashi, T.
2001-01-01
In order to supply plasma fuel confined in spheromak-like compact toroids (SCTs) to a fusion device, the SCTs must be successfully guided through a drift tube region, in which they might be influenced by the magnetic field leaking from the fusion device. To reveal the SCT dynamics in a drift tube, MHD numerical simulations, where the SCTs are accelerated in a co-axial perfectly conducting cylinder with an external magnetic field, are carried out. In addition, the effect of an extended central electrode is examined by changing the length of the inner conducting cylinder. It is revealed that the SCT penetration depth is shorter than that estimated from the conventional conducting sphere model and that the SCTs are further decelerated by extending the inner conducting cylinder. These results are consistent with the results of the compact toroid injection experiment performed on the TEXT Upgrade tokamak. Finally, the deceleration mechanism of the SCTs is discussed by comparing the simulation result with the proposed theoretical model. (author)
Evaluation of mechanical strength of the joints in JT-60 toroidal field coil conductors
Nishio, S.; Ohkubo, M.; Sasajima, H.
1980-04-01
Toroidal field (TF) coils of JT-60 produce a toroidal field of 45 KG at a plasma axis, they have an inner bore of 3.90 m and a weight of about 80 metric tons per coil. Eighteen TF coils are located around a torus axis at regular intervals. TF coil conductors are mostly jointed by high frequency induction brazing, the rest jointed by welding. In deciding the details of the jointing procedures, the conductor size and the requested mechanical strength are mainly taken into consideration. Described are non-destructive inspection methods for the brazed joints, strength evaluation, and the inspection criteria. Ultrasonic testing method is found to be the most effective in evaluation of mechanical properties of the brazed joints especially in terms of fatigue strength. The ultrasonic inspection method and the detectability of this apparatus are described in detail, and the defects of known size are compared with the indication values and display figures. The apparatus developed for JT-60 is operated automatically also recording the inspection results. Mechanical strength of the brazed joints with initial defects is discussed.
Entropy production and onsager symmetry in neoclassical transport processes of toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1995-07-01
Entropy production and Onsager symmetry in neoclassical transport processes of magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for general toroidal systems including nonaxisymmetric configurations. We find that the flux surface average of the entropy production defined from the linearized collision operator and the gyroangle-averaged distribution function coincides with the sum of the inner products of the thermodynamic forces and the conjugate fluxes consisting of the Pfirsch-Schlueter, banana-plateau, nonaxisymmetric parts of the neoclassical radial fluxes and the parallel current. We prove from the self-adjointness of the linearized collision operator that the Onsager symmetry is robustly valid for the neoclassical transport equations in the cases of general toroidal plasmas consisting of electrons and multi-species ions with arbitrary collision frequencies. It is shown that the Onsager symmetry holds whether or not the ambipolarity condition is used to reduce the number of the conjugate pairs of the transport fluxes and the thermodynamic forces. We also derive the full transport coefficients for the banana-plateau and nonaxisymmetric parts, separately, and investigate their symmetry properties. The nonaxisymmetric transport equations are obtained for arbitrary collision frequencies in the Pfirsch-Schlueter and plateau regimes, and it is directly confirmed that the total banana-plateau and nonaxisymmetric transport equations satisfy the Onsager symmetry. (author).
Wlodarczyk, Krystian L; Thomson, Ian J; Baker, Howard J; Hall, Denis R
2012-09-10
We report a new technique for the rapid fabrication of microstripe cylindrical and toroidal mirrors with a high ratio (>10) of the two principal radii of curvature (RoC(1)/RoC(2)), and demonstrate their effectiveness as mode-selecting resonator mirrors for high-power planar waveguide lasers. In this process, the larger radius of curvature (RoC(1)) is determined by the planar or cylindrical shape of the fused silica substrate selected for laser processing, whilst the other (RoC(2)) is produced by controlled CO(2) laser-induced vaporization of the glass. The narrow stripe mirror aperture is achieved by applying a set of partially overlapped laser scans, with the incident laser power, the number of laser scans, and their spacing being used to control the curvature produced by laser evaporation. In this work, a 1 mm diameter laser spot is used to produce grooves of cylindrical/toroidal shape with 240 μm width and 16 mm length. After high reflectance coating, these grooves are found to provide excellent mode selectivity as resonator mirrors for a 150 μm core Yb:YAG planar waveguide laser, producing high brightness output at more than 300 W. The results show clearly that the laser-generated microstripe mirrors can improve the optical performance of high-power planar waveguide lasers when applied in a low-loss mode-selective resonator configuration.
Resonant Transparency and Non-Trivial Non-Radiating Excitations in Toroidal Metamaterials
Fedotov, V. A.; Rogacheva, A. V.; Savinov, V.; Tsai, D. P.; Zheludev, N. I.
2013-01-01
Engaging strongly resonant interactions allows dramatic enhancement of functionalities of many electromagnetic devices. However, resonances can be dampened by Joule and radiation losses. While in many cases Joule losses may be minimized by the choice of constituting materials, controlling radiation losses is often a bigger problem. Recent solutions include the use of coupled radiant and sub-radiant modes yielding narrow asymmetric Fano resonances in a wide range of systems, from defect states in photonic crystals and optical waveguides with mesoscopic ring resonators to nanoscale plasmonic and metamaterial systems exhibiting interference effects akin to electromagnetically-induced transparency. Here we demonstrate theoretically and confirm experimentally a new mechanism of resonant electromagnetic transparency, which yields very narrow isolated symmetric Lorentzian transmission lines in toroidal metamaterials. It exploits the long sought non-trivial non-radiating charge-current excitation based on interfering electric and toroidal dipoles that was first proposed by Afanasiev and Stepanovsky in [J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 28, 4565 (1995)]. PMID:24132231
Shot noise in a toroidal carbon nanotube coupled with Majorana fermion states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Hong-Kang; Wang, Qing
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The toroidal carbon nanotube interferometer coupled with Majorana fermions is considered. • The terminal current and shot noise have been investigated through equation of motion method. • The Andreev and cross-Andreev reflections contribute to the current and shot noise. • The enhancement of shot noise is generated by the application of Majorana fermions. • The periodic oscillations versus Aharonov–Bohm flux exhibit the controlling of Majorana fermions. - Abstract: The shot noise of a toroidal carbon nanotube (TCN) interferometer coupled with Majorana fermions is deduced from evaluating the current correlation. Many novel channels are opened for electrons to transport, and the energy gap of the semiconducting TCN becomes narrower. The Majorana fermions cause additional current correlations among the normal tunneling currents and Andreev reflection currents, and hence the shot noise and Fano factor are enhanced. The conductance, current, and shot noise are modified by Majorana fermions to exhibit different oscillation and resonance structures. The detailed behaviors of these quantities are quite different from the metal and semiconducting TCNs.
Simulation Study of an Extended Density DC Glow Toroidal Plasma Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Benitez-Read, J. S.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J. O.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.
2006-01-01
Conventional wisdom assigns the DC glow discharge regime to plasma currents below ∼500 mA values, beyond which the discharge falls into the anomalous glow and the turbulent arc regimes. However, we have found evidence that, during toroidal discharges, this barrier can be ostensibly extended up to 800 mA. Thus, a computer simulation has been applied to the evolution of the main electrical characteristics of such a glow discharge plasma in a toroidal vessel in order to design and construct a respective voltage/current controlled source. This should be able to generate a DC plasma in the glow regime with which currents in the range 10-3-100 A can be experimented and 109-1010 cm-3 plasma densities can be achieved to PIII optimization purposes. The plasma is modelled as a voltage-controlled current source able to be turned on whenever the breakdown voltage is reached across the gap between the anode and the vessel wall. The simulation outcome fits well our experimental measurements showing that the plasma current obeys power laws that are dependent on the power current and other control variables such as the gas pressure
Toroidal magnetic field system for 2-MA reversed-field pinch experiment
Melton, J. G.; Linton, T. W.
The engineering design of the toroidal magnetic field (TF) system for a 2-MA Reversed Field Pinch experiment (ZT-H) is described. ZT-H is designed with major radius 2.15 meters, minor radius 0.40 meters, and a peak toroidal magnetic field of 0.85 Tesla. The requirement for highly uniform fields, with spatial ripple 0.2% leads to a design with 72 equally spaced circular TF coils, located at minor radius 0.6 meters, carrying a maximum current of 9.0 MA. The coils are driven by a 12-MJ capacitor bank which is allowed to ring in order to aid the reversal of magnetic field. A stress analysis is presented, based upon calculated loop tension, centering force, and overturning moment, treating these as a combination of static loads and considering that the periodic nature of the loading causes little amplification. The load transfer of forces and moments is considered as a stress distribution resisted by the coils, support structures, wedges, and the structural shell.
Study of plasma equilibrium in toroidal fusion devices using mesh-free numerical calculation method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasouli, C.; Abbasi Davani, F. [Radiation Application Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rokrok, B. [Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection Group, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-08-15
Plasma confinement using external magnetic field is one of the successful ways leading to the controlled nuclear fusion. Development and validation of the solution process for plasma equilibrium in the experimental toroidal fusion devices is the main subject of this work. Solution of the nonlinear 2D stationary problem as posed by the Grad-Shafranov equation gives quantitative information about plasma equilibrium inside the vacuum chamber of hot fusion devices. This study suggests solving plasma equilibrium equation which is essential in toroidal nuclear fusion devices, using a mesh-free method in a condition that the plasma boundary is unknown. The Grad-Shafranov equation has been solved numerically by the point interpolation collocation mesh-free method. Important features of this approach include truly mesh free, simple mathematical relationships between points and acceptable precision in comparison with the parametric results. The calculation process has been done by using the regular and irregular nodal distribution and support domains with different points. The relative error between numerical and analytical solution is discussed for several test examples such as small size Damavand tokamak, ITER-like equilibrium, NSTX-like equilibrium, and typical Spheromak.
Geometrical and profile effects on toroidicity and ellipticity induced Alfven eigenmodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villard, L.; Fu, G.Y.
1992-04-01
The wave structures, eigenfrequencies and damping rates of toroidicity and ellipticity induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE, EAE) of low toroidal mode numbers (n) are calculated in various axisymmetric ideal MHD equilibria with the global wave finite element code LION. The importance of safety factor (q) and density (ρ) profiles on continuum damping rates is analysed. For realistic profiles several continuum gaps exist in the plasma discharge. Frequency misalignment of these gaps yields continuum damping rates γ/ω of the order of a few percent. Finite β pol lowers the TAE eigenfrequency. For β values below the Troyon limit the TAE enters the continuum and can thus be stabilized. Finite elongation allows the EAE to exist but triangularity can have a stabilizing effect through coupling to the continuum. The localization of TAE and EAE eigenfunctions is found to increase with the shear and with n. Therefore large shear, through enhanced Landau and collisional damping, is a stabilizing factor for TAE and EAE modes. (author) 16 figs., 28 refs
Radial thermal diffusivity of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao
2012-04-01
We investigate how the radial thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift kinetic simulation code for calculating the thermal diffusivity in the perturbed region. The perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and around the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. It has been found that the radial thermal diffusivity χ r in the perturbed region is represented as χ r = χ r (0) {1 + c r parallel 2 >}. Here r parallel 2 > 1/2 is the strength of the RMPs in the radial directions, means the flux surface average defined by the unperturbed (i.e., original) magnetic field, χ r (0) is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity, and c is a positive coefficient. In this paper, dependence of the coefficient c on parameters of the toroidal plasma is studied in results given by the δ f simulation code solving the drift kinetic equation under an assumption of zero electric field. We find that the dependence of c is given as c ∝ ω b /ν eff m in the low collisionality regime ν eff b , where ν eff is the effective collision frequency, ω b is the bounce frequency and m is the particle mass. In case of ν eff > ω b , the thermal diffusivity χ r evaluated by the simulations becomes close to the neoclassical thermal diffusivity χ r (0) . (author)
Advances in the simulation of toroidal gyro Landau fluid model turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R.E.; Kerbel, G.D.; Milovich, J.; Hammett, G.W.
1994-12-01
The gyro-Landau fluid (GLF) model equations for toroidal geometry have been recently applied to the study ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence using the 3D nonlinear ballooning mode representation (BMR). The present paper extends this work by treating some unresolved issues conceming ITG turbulence with adiabatic electrons. Although eddies are highly elongated in the radial direction long time radial correlation lengths are short and comparable to poloidal lengths. Although transport at vanishing shear is not particularly large, transport at reverse global shear, is significantly less. Electrostatic transport at moderate shear is not much effected by inclusion of local shear and average favorable curvature. Transport is suppressed when critical ExB rotational shear is comparable to the maximum linear growth rate with only a weak dependence on magnetic shear. Self consistent turbulent transport of toroidal momentum can result in a transport bifurcation at suffciently large r/(Rq). However the main thrust of the new formulation in the paper deals with advances in the development of finite beta GLF models with trapped electron and BMR numerical methods for treating the fast parallel field motion of the untrapped electrons
Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume II. Toroidal vessel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-01-01
The Toroidal Vessel provides the vacuum enclosure for containing the high temperature steady state plasma. In addition, the Toroidal Vessel must provide several viewing ports for plasma diagnostics, vacuum pumping ports for both high vacuum and roughing vacuum, feed-through ports for ECRH waveguides, limiter feed throughs for cooling and supporting the limiters, and ports for ion gages. The vessel must operate in an intense environment comprised of x-rays, microwaves, magnetic fields and plasma heat loads as well as the atmosphere pressure and gravity loads and the internal thermal stress loads due to heating and cooling of the torus. A key issue addressed was the choice of vacuum vessel seal and wall materials. In addition, during the course of the study, ORNL requested that horsecollar diagnostic ports be incorporated in the design. A comprehensive trade study was performed considering the vessel material issues in concert with the impact of the horsecollar port design. A change in baseline from an aluminum vessel with elastomer seals and circular diagnostic ports to austenitic stainless steel vessel with metal seals and horsecollar ports was agreed upon by both MDAC and ORNL towards the end of Title I
A gas puff experiment for partial simulation of compact toroid formation on MARAUDER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Englert, S.E.; Englert, T.J.; Degnan, J.H.; Gahl, J.M.
1994-01-01
Preliminary results will be reported of a single valve gas puff experiment to determine spatial and spectral distribution of a gas during the early ionization stages. This experiment has been developed as a diagnostic test-bed for partial simulation of compact toroid formation on MARAUDER. The manner in which the experimental hardware has been designed allows for a wide range of diagnostic access to evaluate early time evolution of the ionization process. This evaluation will help contribute to a clearer understanding of the initial conditions for the formation stage of the compact toroid in the MARAUDER experiment, where 60 of the same puff valves are used. For the experiment, a small slice of the MARAUDER cylindrical gas injection and expansion region geometry have been re-created but in cartesian coordinates. All of the conditions in the experiment adhere as closely as possible to the MARAUDER experiment. The timing, current rise time, capacitance, resistance and inductance are appropriate to both the simulation of one of the 60 puff valves and current delivery to the load. Both time-resolved images and spectral data have been gathered for visible light emission of the plasma. Processed images reveal characteristics of spatial distribution of the current. Spectral data provide information with respect to electron temperature and density, and entrainment of contaminants
Compact toroids generated by a magnetized coaxial source in the CTX experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherwood, A.R.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; McKenna, K.F.; Linford, R.K.; Marshall, J.; Platts, D.A.
1981-01-01
Compact toroids containing both toroidal and poloidal magnetic field (Spheromak-type) have been generated in CTX using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. These CTs tear loose from the gun by magnetic field line reconnection, and they are trapped in flux conservers having various geometries. In a straight cylindrical flux conserver the CTs are observed to be unstable to a gross tilting mode. Stability to the tilting mode has been demonstrated in flux conservers having an oblate trapping region; however, the geometry of the entrance region leading to the trapping volume can also have important effects. Lifetimes of about 150 μs for the CTs are typically observed. Interferometric measurements give a value of about 2 x 10 14 cm -3 for the initial plasma density. The plasma temperature measured at a single spot near the minor magnetic axis decreases to around 10 eV by the time the magnetic reconnection is complete. Spectrographic measurements and pressure probe results are in agreement with this temperature. A snipper coil has been installed to induce the CT to tear loose from the gun sooner. The use of this coil is observed to speed up the magnetic field reconnection process by about a factor of 2
SV40 late protein VP4 forms toroidal pores to disrupt membranes for viral release.
Raghava, Smita; Giorda, Kristina M; Romano, Fabian B; Heuck, Alejandro P; Hebert, Daniel N
2013-06-04
Nonenveloped viruses are generally released from the cell by the timely lysis of host cell membranes. SV40 has been used as a model virus for the study of the lytic nonenveloped virus life cycle. The expression of SV40 VP4 at later times during infection is concomitant with cell lysis. To investigate the role of VP4 in viral release and its mechanism of action, VP4 was expressed and purified from bacteria as a fusion protein for use in membrane disruption assays. Purified VP4 perforated membranes as demonstrated by the release of fluorescent markers encapsulated within large unilamellar vesicles or liposomes. Dynamic light scattering results revealed that VP4 treatment did not cause membrane lysis or change the size of the liposomes. Liposomes encapsulated with 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-3-indacene-labeled streptavidin were used to show that VP4 formed stable pores in membranes. These VP4 pores had an inner diameter of 1-5 nm. Asymmetrical liposomes containing pyrene-labeled lipids in the outer monolayer were employed to monitor transbilayer lipid diffusion. Consistent with VP4 forming toroidal pore structures in membranes, VP4 induced transbilayer lipid diffusion or lipid flip-flop. Altogether, these studies support a central role for VP4 acting as a viroporin in the disruption of cellular membranes to trigger SV40 viral release by forming toroidal pores that unite the outer and inner leaflets of membrane bilayers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shishkin, Alexander A. [Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)
2001-02-01
A new method of particle motion control in toroidal magnetic traps with rotational transform using the estafette of drift resonances and stochasticity of particle trajectories is proposed. The use of the word estafette' here means that the particle passes through a set of resonances in consecutive order from one to another during its motion. The overlapping of adjacent resonances can be moved radially from the center to the edge of the plasma by switching on the corresponding perturbations in accordance with a particular rule in time. In this way particles (e.g. cold alpha-particle) can be removed from the center of the confinement volume to the plasma periphery. For the analytical treatment of the stochastic behaviour of particle motion the stochastic diffusion coefficients D{sub r,}r, D{sub r,{theta}}, D{sub {theta}}{sub ,{theta}} are introduced. The new approach is demonstrated by numerical computations of the test helium particle trajectories in the toroidal trap Large Helical Device. (author)
The upgraded JET toroidal Alfvén eigenmode diagnostic system
Puglia, P.; Pires de Sa, W.; Blanchard, P.; Dorling, S.; Dowson, S.; Fasoli, A.; Figueiredo, J.; Galvão, R.; Graham, M.; Jones, G.; Perez von Thun, C.; Porkolab, M.; Ruchko, L.; Testa, D.; Woskov, P.; Albarracin-Manrique, M. A.; Contributors, JET
2016-11-01
The main characteristics of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) have been successfully investigated in JET (Joint European Torus) using the scheme of sweeping-frequency external excitation with tracking of the synchronously-detected resonances. However, due to technical limitations, only modes with low values of the toroidal mode number n≤slant 7 could be effectively excited and unambiguously identified by the Alfvén Eigenmode Active Diagnostic (AEAD) system. This represents a serious restriction because theoretical models indicate that medium-n Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) are the most prone to be destabilized by energetic particles in ignited plasmas and, therefore, reliable measurement of their damping rates remains a relevant issue to properly access their effect in ignited plasmas. For this reason, a major upgrade of the AEAD system has been carried out aiming at providing a state-of-the-art excitation and real-time detection system for the planned DT campaign in JET. This required the development of a new type of radio frequency amplifier and filter, not commercially available, and also a control system. In this paper, details of the concepts that are relevant to understand the operation of the new system in the next experimental campaigns are presented, as are the results of numerical simulations to model its performance.
The common cryogenic test facility for the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroid magnets
Delruelle, N; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O
2004-01-01
The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW@4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific requ...
The CERN Cryogenic Test Facility for the Atlas Barrel Toroid Magnets
Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann
1999-01-01
The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroidal magnets (ECT) and the barrel toroid magnet (BT) made of eight coils symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. The magnets will be tested individually in a 5000 m2 experimental area prior to their final installation at an underground cavern of the LHC Collider. For the BT magnets, a dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed which is currently under the construction and commissioning phase. A liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit and a 1200 W@4.5K refrigerator will allow flexible operating conditions via a rather complex distribution and transfer line system. Flow of two-phase helium for cooling the coils is provided by centrifugal pumps immersed in a saturated liquid helium bath. The integration of the pumps in an existing cryostat required the adoption of novel mechanical solutions. Tests conducted permitted the validation of the technical design of the cryostat and its ins...
The Common Cryogenic Test Facility for the Atlas Barrel and End-Cap Toroid Magnet
Delruelle, N; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O
2004-01-01
The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having a 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW@4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific re...
The CERN cryogenic test facility for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets
Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann
2000-01-01
The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroidal magnets (ECT) and the barrel toroid magnet (BT) made of eight coils symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. The magnets will be tested individually in a 5000 m/sup 2/ experimental area prior to their final installation at an underground cavern of the LHC Collider. For the BT magnets, a dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed which is currently under the construction and commissioning phase. A liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit and a 1200 W@4.5K refrigerator will allow flexible operating conditions via a rather complex distribution and transfer line system. Flow of two-phase helium for cooling the coils is provided by centrifugal pumps immersed in a saturated liquid helium bath. The integration of the pumps in an existing cryostat required the adoption of novel mechanical solutions. Tests conducted permitted the validation of the technical design of the cryostat and i...
Oksala, M. E.; Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; the MiMeS Collaboration
2018-01-01
Previous studies of the chemically peculiar Bp star 36 Lyn revealed a moderately strong magnetic field, circumstellar material and inhomogeneous surface abundance distributions of certain elements. We present in this paper an analysis of 33 high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution Stokes IV observations of 36 Lyn obtained with the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Bernard Lyot Telescope at Pic du Midi Observatory. From these data, we compute new measurements of the mean longitudinal magnetic field, Bℓ, using the multiline least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique. A rotationally phased Bℓ curve reveals a strong magnetic field, with indications for deviation from a pure dipole field. We derive magnetic maps and chemical abundance distributions from the LSD profiles, produced using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging code INVERSLSD. Using a spherical harmonic expansion to characterize the magnetic field, we find that the harmonic energy is concentrated predominantly in the dipole mode (ℓ = 1), with significant contribution from both the poloidal and toroidal components. This toroidal field component is predicted theoretically, but not typically observed for Ap/Bp stars. Chemical abundance maps reveal a helium enhancement in a distinct region where the radial magnetic field is strong. Silicon enhancements are located in two regions, also where the radial field is stronger. Titanium and iron enhancements are slightly offset from the helium enhancements, and are located in areas where the radial field is weak, close to the magnetic equator.
Dynamics of spheromak-like compact toroids in a drift tube
Suzuki, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Kishimoto, Y.
2001-06-01
In order to supply plasma fuel confined in spheromak-like compact toroids (SCTs) to a fusion device, the SCTs must be successfully guided through a drift tube region, in which they might be influenced by the magnetic field leaking from the fusion device. To reveal the SCT dynamics in a drift tube, MHD numerical simulations, where the SCTs are accelerated in a co-axial perfectly conducting cylinder with an external magnetic field, are carried out. In addition, the effect of an extended central electrode is examined by changing the length of the inner conducting cylinder. It is revealed that the SCT penetration depth is shorter than that estimated from the conventional conducting sphere model and that the SCTs are further decelerated by extending the inner conducting cylinder. These results are consistent with the results of the compact toroid injection experiment performed on the TEXT Upgrade tokamak. Finally, the deceleration mechanism of the SCTs is discussed by comparing the simulation result with the proposed theoretical model.