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Sample records for topical oral syrup

  1. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Topical morphine for oral mucositis in children

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Aagaard, Gitte; Henneberg, Steen W;

    2012-01-01

    Systemic opioids for painful chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children often result in unsatisfactory pain relief and a high frequency of side effects. Opioids applied topically can produce analgesia by binding to opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. These receptors...

  4. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider.

  5. Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.

  6. Difficulty in diagnosing oral paracoccidioidomycosis after topical nystatin usage.

    Sperandio, Felipe Fornias; Giudice, Fernanda Salgueiredo; Coelho, Ana Patricia Carneiro Goncalves Bezerra; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Martins, Marilia Triervelier

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and is a disseminated, systemic disorder that involves the lungs and other organs but presents characteristic oral lesions as the prominent feature. This article reports an unusual case of a 56-year-old man who had symptomatic granulomatous lesions in the oral cavity. The patient had received a nystatin-based treatment that masked the presence of fungi and made the diagnosis of PCM difficult. Although nystatin is normally used to treat oral fungal infections such as candidiasis, its topical usage is not appropriate for management of PCM. Once the patient received the correct treatment, he demonstrated a full recovery.

  7. Comparative efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, topical ivermectin, and oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies

    Sunita B Chhaiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ivermectin has opened a new era in the management of scabies as orally effective drug. However, topical route has been little explored for ivermectin. Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, oral ivermectin, and topical ivermectin in the treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Methods: This was an open-label, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 315 patients, randomly allocated to 3 groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200 mcg/kg as single dose, and third group received ivermectin 1% lotion as single application. All the patients received anti-histaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. Primary efficacy variable was clinical cure of lesions. Statistical analysis was done by chi square test and one way ANOVA test using SPSS version 12. Results: At the end of first week, cure rate was 74.8% in permethrin group, 30% in oral ivermectin group, and 69.3% in topical ivermectin group (P < 0.05. At the end of second week, cure rate was 99% in permethrin group, 63% in oral ivermectin group, and 100% in topical ivermectin group (P < 0.05. At the end of third week, 100% cure rate was observed in permethrin and topical ivermectin group while 99% in oral ivermectin group (P = 0.367. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Permethrin and topical ivermectin were equally effective against scabies while oral ivermectin was significantly less effective up to 2 weeks. Topical ivermectin can be used as an alternative to permethrin.

  8. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.

  9. Management of oral Graft versus Host Disease with topical agents: A systematic review

    Albuquerque, Rui; Khan, Zahid; Poveda, Ana; Higham, Jonathan; Richards, Andrea; Monteiro,Luís Silva; Jane Salas, Enric; López López, José, 1958-; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral Graft-versus-Host Disease (oGvHD) is a common complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Choosing the right topical application to be used intra orally can be a challenge. Consequently, the aim of this work is to review the effectiveness and safety of topical agents currently used in the management of the inflammatory mucosal lesions encountered in oGVHD. Material and Methods We carried out electronic searches of publications up to May 2015 of the databases Pubm...

  10. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  11. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for two years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment was done in 50 male patients aged 20-40 years with AGA. All the patients had been initially treated with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for a period of two years, after which the oral finasteride was replaced with topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. Five of 50 patients had discontinued the treatment for a period of 8-12 months and were then resumed with only topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. The patients′ case sheets and photographs were reviewed by independent observers and the efficacy of minoxidil-finasteride combination was assessed. Results: Of the 45 patients who underwent a continuous treatment for AGA, 84.44% maintained a good hair density with topical minoxidil-finasteride combinatio. Of the five patients who discontinued oral finasteride for 8-12 months, four demonstrated good improvement in hair density when treatment was resumed with topical minoxidil-finasteride combination. Conclusion: Topical finasteride can be considered for hair density maintenance after initial improvement with oral finasteride, thereby obviating the indefinite use of oral finasteride.

  12. Experimental studies of new topical anaesthetics on the oral mucosa.

    Holst, A; Evers, H

    1985-01-01

    In order to reduce pain by injection, a frequently used topical anaesthetic is Xylocaine 5% ointment. This preparation, however, has certain limits in effectiveness. A new topical anaesthetic formulation, EMLA (Eutectic Mixture Local Anaesthetics), has been developed. Promising local anaesthetic properties on intact skin made it interesting to investigate the clinical usefulness of EMLA on mucous membranes and to find a suitable time of application. 30 volunteers, 20-40 yr, took part in the study. In two experimental double blind series, the topical anaesthetic effect was compared for EMLA 5% cream, Xylocaine 5% ointment, placebo cream, dry EMLA emulsion in cellulose discs and placebo discs. Application times were 2 and 5 minutes for the first three preparations, 2 minutes for the cellulose discs. The application areas were the alveolar mucosa in the lower buccal fold and the palatal mucosa. The pain by insertion of 27 or 30 gauge dental needles through the mucosa was registered. Xylocaine 5% and EMLA 5% reduced pain perception compared to placebo. For both Xylocaine 5% and EMLA 5% an application time of 2 minutes was found to be enough to produce a high degree of mucosal analgesia in the lower buccal fold. In the palatal area, however, the pain was not totally blocked by any of the investigated preparations but after 5 minutes of application EMLA showed a higher degree of analgesia. EMLA 5% creams was poorly localized at the applied area while the cellulose EMLA discs seemed to be more useful. No side effects were noticed.

  13. Clinical efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies.

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2016-01-01

    Many medications are available for scabies treatment including oral and topical ivermectin. However, studies comparing these two forms as a scabies treatment are few. This study compares efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin as scabies treatment. The study included 62 confirmed uncomplicated scabies patients, divided into: Group I (32 patients, received topical ivermectin) and Group II (30 patients, received oral ivermectin). Patients were assessed, clinically and by KOH smear at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. Treatment was repeated after one week in patients with persistent infection. Adverse events were recorded. Most patients (87.5% and 73.5% in group I and group II respectively) were symptom free after a single treatment. A second treatment was required in 4 patients of group I and 8 patients of group II. However, 2 weeks after treatment symptoms and signs completely resolved in all cases with no recurrence at 4 weeks. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin are safe and equally effective in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Single treatment, whether topical or oral, is associated with high cure rate in a week post treatment. However, repeating treatment after one week may be required to achieve 100% cure.

  14. Topical Tacrolimus with Custom Trays in the Treatment of Severe Oral cGVHD Refractory to a Potent Topical Steroid Therapy: A Case Report

    Brown, Ronald S.; Edwards, Dean; Walsh-Chocolaad, Tracey; Childs, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The authors present a case demonstrating the success of topical tacrolimus (TAC) therapy with custom trays in the treatment of oral chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD). The 41 year-old male patient initially responded to topical steroid therapy (clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment) applied both topically and with flexible carrier trays, but later became refractory to this potent topical agent. Topical TAC therapy with flexible carrier trays and systemic prednisone therapy was initiated. Results The patient responded favorably with the change to topical TAC therapy with custom trays (and oral prednisone). His oral cGVHD lesions resolved within a period of four weeks. The improvement has remained stable at 14 month follow-up. Clinical Implications This is the first case reported with regard to the successful resolution of steroid recalcitrant cGVHD successfully treated with topical TAC with custom trays. PMID:23102802

  15. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    Roth SH; Fuller P

    2011-01-01

    Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversia...

  16. Topical and systemic therapies for oral and perioral herpes simplex virus infections.

    Stoopler, Eric T; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2013-04-01

    Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in healthy individuals often present with signs and symptoms that are clearly recognized by oral health care providers (OHCPs). Management of these infections is dependent upon a variety of factors and several agents may be used for treatment to accelerate healing and decrease symptoms associated with lesions. This article will review the pertinent aspects of topical and systemic therapies of HSV infections for the OHCP.

  17. A clinical comparative study of oral and topical ginger on severity and duration of primary dysmenorrhea

    P. Shirooye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Primary dysmenorrhea has remained a health problem. This study has compared the effect of oral and topical ginger on severity and duration of primary dysmenorrhea.  Methods: A single-blind randomized trial was conducted on 70 female students with moderate and severe primary dysmenorrhea. The participants were stratified randomized between two groups of oral and topical ginger. The oral group received 250 mg capsules of ginger powder and the topical group applied five drops of ginger oil topically every 6 hours from two days before through the first three days of menstruation for three cycles. The severity and duration of pain, and the number of mefenamic acid consumption were assessed in each cycle. Before-after changes were evaluated in each group and were compared between two groups. Results: The reduction of pain severity was 3(±3.2 in the topical compared to 2.6(±3.4 in the oral group (p

  18. Comparison of Topical Nifedipine With Oral Nifedipine for Treatment of Anal Fissure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Golfam, Farzaneh; Golfam, Parisa; Golfam, Babak; Pahlevani, Puyan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medical sphincterotomy has gained popularity as a treatment for anal fissure. Calcium channel blockers in topical forms could also be appropriate with low adverse effects. Objectives: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial to compare topical and oral nifedipine in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at two centers of Shahed University. One hundred and thirty patients with chronic anal fiss...

  19. The Effectiveness of Topical Pimecrolimus in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    Mehmet Kamil Mülayim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that affects the skin and the mucosa, especially the oral mucosa. Several therapeutic agents have been investigated for the treatment of OLP. All agents used in the OLP therapy are palliative. Potent topical steroids are used as the conventional therapy for OLP. Since side-effects or steroid resistance may be encountered, alternative treatments may be necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the topical pimecrolimus in the treatment of OLP. Methods: Seventeen patients with OLP were recruited into this study. Topical pimecrolimus 1% cream was applied twice a day to the affected areas. Patients were followed up for 3-6 months. Photographs of the lesions were taken and analyzed for areas of ulceration, erythema, and reticulation in every clinical examination. Results: We found that topical pimecrolimus 1% cream was an effective treatment for OLP. Two patients could not complete the treatment protocol because of the side effects such as local irritation and nausea. Conclusion: Topical pimecrolimus may be a valuable second treatment choice for patients with steroid-related side-effects or steroid-resistant OLP. However further randomized controlled studies have to be conducted to compare conventional treatment of topical corticosteroid with topical pimecrolimus.

  20. Analgesic effect of topical oral capsaicin gel in burning mouth syndrome

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of repeated topical application of oral capsaicin gel in two different concentrations for relief of burning/stinging sensations in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized double-blind cross-over study included 2...

  1. Oral Language Development as a Precursor to Literacy. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.

    Smith, Carl B., Ed.

    Research suggests that oral language development is directly related to literacy, and is crucial for success in learning to be literate. This topical bibliography and commentary discusses language acquisition theories, components of language, phonology in literacy, and a first-grade classroom study that explored "literate talk" in the classroom…

  2. Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Topical Application of Black Raspberries on High At-Risk Mucosa

    Warner, Blake M.; Casto, Bruce C.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Accurso, Brent T.; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preclinical efficacy of topical administration of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) to inhibit the progression of premalignant oral lesions and modulate biomarkers of cancer development in high at-risk mucosa (HARM). Study Design Hamster cheek pouches (HCPs) were treated with carcinogen for six weeks to initiate a HARM microenvironment. Subsequently, right HCPs were topically administered a BRB suspension in short-term or long-term studies. After 12 weeks, SCC multiplicity, SCC incidence, and cell proliferation rates were evaluated. mRNA expression was measured in short-term treated pouches for selected oral cancer biomarkers. Results SCC multiplicity (−41.3%), tumor incidence (−37.1%), and proliferation rate (−6.9%) were reduced in HCPs receiving BRBs. Topical BRBs correlated with an increase in Rb1 expression in developing oral lesions. Conclusion Topical BRBs inhibit SCC development when targeted to HARM tissues. These results support the translational role of BRBs to prevent oral cancer development in humans. PMID:25457886

  3. Management of oral Graft versus Host Disease with topical agents: A systematic review

    Khan, Zahid; Poveda, Ana; Higham, Jonathan; Richards, Andrea; Monteiro, Luis; Jané-Salas, Enric; Lopez-Lopez, José; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral Graft-versus-Host Disease (oGvHD) is a common complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Choosing the right topical application to be used intra orally can be a challenge. Consequently, the aim of this work is to review the effectiveness and safety of topical agents currently used in the management of the inflammatory mucosal lesions encountered in oGVHD. Material and Methods We carried out electronic searches of publications up to May 2015 of the databases Pubmed, National Library of Medicine’s Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials to identify potentially relevant studies (keywords: “oral”, “graft”, “versus”, “host”, “disease” and “treatment”). The main inclusion criterion was the reported use of a topical agent which was not intentionally swallowed when used for the treatment of oGVHD. A 3-point grading system, described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, was used to rate the methodological quality of the papers. Results From the 902 entries identified in the search, 7 studies qualifying for inclusion were analysed. Overall, there is limited evidence with regards to the effectiveness of topical steroids for oGVHD. However, the studies showed some effect of Budesonide alone and when combined with dexamethasone. Topical tacrolimus also appears to have some effect and clobetasol propionate mouthwash had a significantly better clinical response than dexamethasone mouthwash in treating oGVHD. Conclusions As the number of clinical trials conducted is limited, there is little evidence to support the use of topical therapies to treat the inflammatory mucosal lesions found in oGVHD. High quality randomised control trials are needed in order to measure the effectiveness of any topical application for the treatment of the inflammatory mucosal lesions found in oGVHD. Key words:Oral

  4. Systematic review of antibiotic resistance in acne: an increasing topical and oral threat.

    Walsh, Timothy R; Efthimiou, John; Dréno, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Topical and oral antibiotics are routinely used to treat acne. However, antibiotic resistance is increasing, with many countries reporting that more than 50% of Propionibacterium acnes strains are resistant to topical macrolides, making them less effective. We reviewed the current scientific literature to enable proposal of recommendations for antibiotic use in acne treatment. References were identified through PubMed searches for articles published from January, 1954, to March 7, 2015, using four multiword searches. Ideally, benzoyl peroxide in combination with a topical retinoid should be used instead of a topical antibiotic to minimise the impact of resistance. Oral antibiotics still have a role in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne, but only with a topical retinoid, benzoyl peroxide, or their combination, and ideally for no longer than 3 months. To limit resistance, it is recommended that benzoyl peroxide should always be added when long-term oral antibiotic use is deemed necessary. The benefit-to-risk ratio of long-term antibiotic use should be carefully considered and, in particular, use alone avoided where possible. There is a need to treat acne with effective alternatives to antibiotics to reduce the likelihood of resistance.

  5. Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor

    Nagpal V

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90% out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80% out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in two patients of the systemic ketoconazole group and six patients of the topical ketoconazole group during the follow-up period of three months.

  6. Topical MMP beacon enabled fluorescence-guided resection of oral carcinoma.

    Burgess, Laura; Chen, Juan; Wolter, Nikolaus E; Wilson, Brian; Zheng, Gang

    2016-03-01

    Each year almost 300,000 individuals worldwide are diagnosed with oral cancer, more than 90% of these being oral carcinoma [N. Engl. J. Med.328, 1841993]. Surgical resection is the standard of care, but accurate delineation of the tumor boundaries is challenging, resulting in either under-resection with risk of local recurrence or over-resection with increased functional loss and negative impact on quality of life. This study evaluates, in two pre-clinical in vivo tumor models, the potential of fluorescence-guided resection using molecular beacons activated by metalloproteinases, which are frequently upregulated in human oral cancer. In both models there was rapid (beacon activation upon local application, allowing clear fluoresecence imaging in vivo and confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence microscopy and HPLC, with minimal activation in normal oral tissues. Although the tissue penetration was limited using topical application, these findings support further development of this approach towards translation to first-in-human trials.

  7. Flurbiprofen concentration in soft tissues is higher after topical application than after oral administration

    Kai, Shuken; Kondo, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare tissue concentrations of flurbiprofen resulting from topical application and oral administration according to the regulatory approved dosing guidelines. Method Sixteen patients were included in this study. Each patient was randomly assigned to the topical application or oral administration group. In each group, a pair of tapes or a tablet, containing a total of 40 mg flurbiprofen, was administered twice at 16 and 2 h before the surgery. Results The flurbiprofen concentration in the fat, tendon, muscle and periosteum tissues was significantly higher (P < 0.0330) after topical application (992 ng g−1 [95% CI 482, 1503], 944 [95% CI 481, 1407], 492 [95% CI 248, 735], and 455 [95% CI 153, 756], respectively) than after oral administration (150 ng g−1 [95% CI 84, 217], 186 [95% CI 118, 254], 82 [95% CI 49, 116],and 221 [95% CI, 135, 307], respectively). Conclusion Topical application is an effective method to deliver flurbiprofen to the human body, particularly to soft tissues near the body surface. PMID:22822928

  8. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity.

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products). Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking.The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion.In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations). Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) deficiency.After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants) relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur.As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of

  9. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well

  10. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    Roth SH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial.Methods: Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo with oral diclofenac (ODiclo. Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs, recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation.Results: AEs occurred in 312 (67.1% patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5% of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001. Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001 and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055 AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all.Conclusions: These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile.Keywords: diclofenac, gastropathy

  11. Drowning in concentrated syrup.

    Talwar, Vandana; Sood, Nishant; Verma, P K

    2009-04-01

    Drowning is one of the two leading causes of accidental death in children. Most of the cases can be attributed to fresh or salt water drowning. We report an unusual case of acute respiratory distress syndrome in a one year old child following drowning in concentrated sugar syrup, in whom timely intervention and early supportive therapy resulted in a favorable outcome.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of orpanoxin administered orally and topically to rodents.

    Brooks, R R; Bonk, K R; Decker, G E; Miller, K E

    1985-07-01

    Orpanoxin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) lacking gastric ulcerogenic effects in the therapeutic dose range in rats, was compared with six reference NSAIDs for oral activity in the rat paw carrageenin-induced edema assay. Tested NSAIDs were ranked on the basis of oral mg/kg ED50 values: piroxicam, 0.55; orpanoxin, 35.6; diflunisal, 59.6; benoxaprofen, greater than 300; tolmetin sodium, greater than 300; and sulindac, greater than 300. Zomepirac sodium was inactive. Only the three most potent compounds produced greater than 60% inhibition of edema. Inhibition was generally greater at 4 h than at 6 h post carrageenin for all compounds. Oral activity of orpanoxin was also demonstrated in the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model (ED50 = 24.2 mg/kg p.o. when given 1 h before irradiation) and in the mouse ear croton oil induced edema test (ED50 value = 131 mg/kg p.o.). Topical activity of orpanoxin was assessed in both the guinea-pig and mouse models. In the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model, application (1 h after u.v.) of 1, 5, and 10% (w/v) orpanoxin creams (containing 10% urea) significantly inhibited erythema at 2, 3, and 4 h post-irradiation. Orpanoxin, mefenamic acid, and indomethacin as 1% creams inhibited total erythema scores 70, 92 and 74%, respectively. Evidence for topical activity in the mouse ear assay was also obtained for orpanoxin in diethyl ether or 10% urea cream, but not in dimethylsulfoxide. It was concluded that orpanoxin has anti-inflammatory activity comparable to reference NSAIDs in the rat paw edema test, is active orally in rat, mouse, and guinea-pig models, and shows topical activity in the guinea-pig and the mouse.

  13. Comparative oral and topical decongestant effects of phenylpropanolamine and d-pseudoephedrine.

    Erickson, C H; McLeod, R L; Mingo, G G; Egan, R W; Pedersen, O F; Hey, J A

    2001-01-01

    Nonselective adrenergic alpha-agonists such as phenylpropanolamine and d-pseudoephedrine are widely used as decongestants to treat nasal congestion associated with a variety of nasal diseases. Although the activity of these drugs is well established in clinical studies, a direct comparison of their nasal decongestant effect as determined by changes in nasal cavity dimensions and nasal architecture has not been studied. Using acoustic rhinometry, we evaluated the effects of these drugs on nasal cavity volume, minimum cross-sectional area (Amin), and the distance from the nosepiece to the Amin (Dmin) in a feline, pharmacological model of nasal congestion. Administration of topical compound 48/80 (1%), a mast cell histamine liberator, into the left nasal passageway decreased nasal volume by 66%, reduced Amin by 51%, and increased Dmin by 116%. The congestive responses to compound 48/80 (1%) were reproducible through six weeks. In a subset of cats, the nasal cavity volume effect of repetitive exposure to compound 48/80, given once every two weeks for six weeks, was not different from the nasal responses after the initial exposure to compound 48/80. Pretreatment with oral phenylpropanolamine (10 mg/kg) or oral d-pseudoephedrine (10 mg/kg) attenuated the nasal effects of compound 48/80, but were associated with a pronounced increase in systolic blood pressure of +51 and +82 mmHg, respectively. A similar decongestant profile was observed with phenylpropanolamine (1%) and d-pseudoephedrine (1%) when given topically. Topical phenylpropanolamine (1%) and d-pseudoephedrine (1%) 45 minutes after dosing increased blood pressure +44 and +17 mmHg, respectively, over control animals. We conclude that oral and topical phenylpropanolamine and d-pseudoephedrine display equieffective nasal decongestant activity and produce similar cardiovascular profiles characterized by significant increases in blood pressure.

  14. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  15. Efficacy of Topical Tacrolimus for Erosive Oral Lichen Planus:A Meta-analysis

    Chun-lan Guo; Ji-zhi Zhao; Jie Zhang; Hai-tao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP). Methods Literatures published up to December 2013 were searched from PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE). All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of topical tacrolimus for EOLP which compared with other interventions or a placebo were considered in this Meta-analysis. Two researchers collected data independently. The assessment of methodological quality was based on Cochrane Handbook and the materials were analyzed with the software Revman 5.2.5. The primary outcome measures were the symptoms (e.g. pain, discomfort) complained by patients. The secondary outcome measures included the improvement rate of clinical signs assessed by the investigators and the incidence of adverse effects (e.g. clinical candidiasis). Results A total of 9 RCTs involving 476 patients were finally included. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of clinical improvement for topical tacrolimusvs. topical corticosteroids was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-2.22,I2: 44%]. Regarding to 0.1% tacrolimus and 0.03% tacrolimus, the pooledOR were 1.87 (95 %CI: 0.60-5.82) and 1.47 (95 %CI: 0.14-16.04) respectively in subgroup analysis. No serious adverse events were reported in topical tacrolimus group. Conclusions There was no evidence to support that topical tacrolimus for EOLP was more effective and safer than topical corticosteroids in this Meta-analysis. Clinical assessment criteria should be established and accepted by clinicians and researchers before further RCTs are undertaken.

  16. Lesions of the oral mucosa in cocaine users who apply the drug topically.

    Gandara-Rey, J M; Diniz-Freitas, M; Gandara-Vila, P; Blanco-Carrion, A; Garcia-Garcia, A

    2002-01-01

    The use and abuse of cocaine is increasingly frequent in many countries, and the associated problems are increasingly evident. The effects of cocaine in the oral cavity vary depending on the form used and the route of self-administration. In the present study we describe the lesions observed in four patients with a history of topical self-application of cocaine to the oral and/or nasal mucosa, with the aim of relieving pain produced by cocaine-induced cluster headache. In three of the four patients this practice has led to erythematous lesions, while the remaining patient showed gingival recession and bone sequestration. These lesions can probably be attributed to the vasoconstrictor activity of cocaine, and to its caustic effects on the mucosa.

  17. To study cost effectiveness of topical permethrin versus oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies

    Sunita B. Chhaiya

    2013-12-01

    Methods: This was an open label randomized comparative study conducted in 210 patients, randomly allocated to two groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200mcg/kg as single dose. All the patients received antihistaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of one, two, three and four weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. The cost effectiveness was calculated on the basis of total expenditure incurred on therapy. Results: At the end of first week cure rate was 74.8% in permethrin group, 30% in oral ivermectin group. At the end of second week cure rate was 99% in permethrin group, 60% in oral ivermectin group. At the end of third week 100% cure rate was observed in permethrin while 99% in oral ivermectin group. The total cost of treatment shows that cost of tab. ivermectin was less compared to permethrin 5% but the cost to relieve itching and cost of transport was higher than permethrin 5%. Conclusions: Topical permethrin is more cost effective than oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 799-803

  18. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial. Methods Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo) with oral diclofenac (ODiclo). Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs), recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation. Results AEs occurred in 312 (67.1%) patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5%) of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001). Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055) AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile. PMID:21811391

  19. Topical Tacrolimus and Periodontal Therapy in the Management of a Case of Oral Chronic GVHD Characterized by Specific Gingival Localization

    Davide Conrotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement.

  20. Topical tacrolimus and periodontal therapy in the management of a case of oral chronic GVHD characterized by specific gingival localization.

    Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement.

  1. Microsporidial Stromal Keratitis: Successful Treatment with Topical Voriconazole and Oral Itraconazole

    Kim, James; Shenoy, Sudhir; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Kapur, Manuj

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of microsporidial stromal keratitis successfully treated with topical voriconazole and oral itraconazole. A 30-year-old Hispanic male construction worker who wears contacts lenses presented with left eye erythematous, epiphora, and mild pain increasing over few days after failing previous antibiotics treatment. His best corrected visual acuity in the left eye was count fingers at three feet, and the slit lamp examination showed 3+ conjunctival injection, a circular central corneal ulcer 3.2 mm in diameter, stromal thinning, and an anterior chamber with white cells, flair, and 0.1 mm hypopyon. A cornea punch biopsy identified microsporidial organisms with some features suggestive of Vittaforma corneae. After treatment with topical voriconazole and oral itraconazole for eight weeks, the patient had complete resolution with no recurrence for over 12 months of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful treatment of microsporidial stromal keratitis with antifungals. PMID:28123915

  2. The Efficacy of Topic Familiarity on Oral Presentation: Extensive Speaking Assessment Task of Iranian EFL Learners in TBLT

    Seyyed Ali Kazemi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to communicate effectively, EFL learners require considering a variety of linguistic, contextual, cultural, and interactional aspects of complex communicative process of English learning along with receiving appropriate tasks. The tasks of speaking assessment are of paramount importance in EFL settings. The current study focused on one main factor that has been proposed in TBLT, i.e. topic familiarity to investigate the effect of topic familiarity on EFL oral presentations. The participants were 30 female intermediate participants ranged from 14 to 18 year old studying at one English language institute in Shiraz, Iran. A sample model of Oxford Placement Test was used to determine the participants' level of English proficiency. Then, the participants were asked to give impromptu presentations about unfamiliar topics. Their oral presentations were evaluated as pre-tests. In order to administer post-tests participants were asked to work on a new topic for the subsequent session. All oral presentations were evaluated through Brown and Abeywickrama (2010 checklist. Using SPSS software, paired- sample t-test was used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that there was significant difference between mean scores of pre-tests and post-tests. The findings of this study indicate that topic familiarity has an influence on learners' oral presentations.Keywords: task-based language teaching (TBLT, topic familiarity, extensive speaking task, oral presentation 

  3. Treatment of ocular rosacea: comparative study of topical cyclosporine and oral doxycycline

    Aysegul; Arman; Duriye; Deniz; Demirseren; Tamer; Takmaz

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A emulsion with that of oral doxycycline for rosacea associated ocular changes and dry eye complaints.METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with rosacea were screened. Thirty-eight patients having rosacea associated eyelid and ocular surface changes and dry eye complaints were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: nineteen patients were given topical cyclosporine twice daily and nineteen patients were given oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for the first month and once daily for the following two months. Symptom and sign scores, ocular surface disease index questionnarie and tear function tests were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 3mo. Three months after results were compared with that of baseline.RESULTS: Mean values of symptom, eyelid sign and corneal/conjunctival sign scores of each treatment group at baseline and 3mo after treatments were compared and both drugs were found to be effective on rosacea associated ocular changes(P <0.001). Cyclosporine was more effective in symptomatic relief and in the treatment of eyelid signs(P =0.01). There was statistically significant increase in the mean Schirmer score with anesthesia and tear break up time scores in the cyclosporine treatment group compared to the doxycycline treatment group(P <0.05).CONCLUSION: Cyclosporine as a topical drug can be used in the treatment of rosacea associated ocular complications because it is more effective than doxycycline. In addition ocular rosacea as a chronic disease requires long term treatment and doxycycline has various side effects limiting its long term usage.

  4. The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies.

    Panahi, Yunes; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. The itching is caused by an allergic reaction to the mites. The treatment of choice is still controversial. It is commonly treated with topical insecticides. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Open Grey and WHO ICTRP) up to September 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared the efficacy of ivermectin with other medications in the treatment of scabies. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. The author intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. It has been sated that ivermectin was as effective as permethrin in the treatment of scabies. In comparison to other medications such as lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton and malathion, ivermectin was more effective in the treatment of scabies. Ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection.

  5. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats.

  6. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Najmeh Showraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10 and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4. On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000. Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Keywords ● 5- fluorouracil ● Anti-inflammatory ● Antioxidant ● Olive Leaf ● Oral Mucositis

  7. Faster onset of action with topical levocabastine than with oral cetirizine

    Michel A. Drouin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This international multicentre, open-label, parallel-group trial was undertaken to compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of topical levocabastine and oral cetirizine in patients with perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, with particular reference to the comparative onset of action of the two drugs. A total of 207 patients were randomized to receive either levocabastine nasal spray (0.5 mg/ml, two sprays in each nostril twice daily plus levocabastine eye drops as required (0.5 mg/ml, one drop in each eye twice daily p.r.n. or cetirizine orally (10 mg once daily with a treatment duration of 2 weeks. Onset of action was found to be significantly more rapid with levocabastine than with cetirizine for both nasal and ocular symptoms (p < 0.001. Within 15 min of study drug administration, 36% of levocabastine-treated patients reported relief from nasal symptoms and 32% relief from ocular symptoms compared with 10% and 17% of patients on cetirizine, respectively. At 1 h, the percentages of patients reporting relief were 76% and 38% for nasal symptoms, and 81% and 48% for ocular symptoms in the levocabastine and cetirizine treatment groups, respectively. At 8 h there were no differences between the two treatments. Overall therapeutic efficacy was found to be comparable in the two treatment groups over the 2-week study period with no significant intergroup differences in symptom severity or global therapeutic efficacy. Both drugs were well tolerated with no significant differences in the incidence or type of adverse reactions between the two groups. In conclusion, levocabastine eye drops and nasal spray are as effective and well tolerated as oral cetirizine for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with the advantage of a significantly faster onset of action for both nasal and ocular symptoms.

  8. Topical levocabastine—a review of therapeutic efficacy compared with topical sodium cromoglycate and oral terfenadine on days with high pollen counts

    Marianela de Azevedo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Levocabastine is a new H1-receptor antagonist specifically developed for the topical treatment of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Clinical experience to date clearly demonstrates that levocabastine eye drops and nasal spray are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of this allergic disorder. Analysis of data from a number of comparative trials reveals that topical levocabastine is at least as effective as sodium cromoglycate and the oral antihistamine terfenadine, even on days with high pollen counts (≥ 50 pollen particles/m3 when symptoms are severe. Coupled with a rapid onset of action and twice daily dosing, these findings make topical levocabastine an attractive alternative to other therapeutic approaches as a first-line therapy for the treatment, of this common condition.

  9. The Efficacy of Topic Familiarity on Oral Presentation: Extensive Speaking Assessment Task of Iranian EFL Learners in TBLT

    2015-01-01

    In order to communicate effectively, EFL learners require considering a variety of linguistic, contextual, cultural, and interactional aspects of complex communicative process of English learning along with receiving appropriate tasks. The tasks of speaking assessment are of paramount importance in EFL settings. The current study focused on one main factor that has been proposed in TBLT, i.e. topic familiarity to investigate the effect of topic familiarity on EFL oral presentations. The parti...

  10. Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

    Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Zhang, Xian-Wei; Yu, Hong-Xing; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Jian-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

  11. pH-activated nanoparticles for controlled topical delivery of farnesol to disrupt oral biofilm virulence.

    Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2015-03-24

    Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharides-matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ∼21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (∼244 L-mmol(-1)) to negatively charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ∼22 wt %. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2 = 7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Strikingly, treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free

  12. Hot Topics in Clinical Oral Implants Research: Recent Trends in Literature Coverage

    Vesela Valkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review looks at thematic trends in clinical research publications on dental implants. For this purpose, MEDLINE electronic searches as well as additional hand searches of six main journals in the field were conducted. A total of 2875 clinical studies published between 2001 and 2012 met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to statistical analysis. Hot topics in dental implant literature included immediate loading (14.3%, bone substitutes (11.6%, cross-arch full bridges (8.0%, and immediate implant placement (7.5%. A significant increase in scientific interest for immediate loading (+6.3%, p = 0.001, platform switching (+2.9%, p = 0.001, guided implant surgery (+1.9%, p = 0.011, growth factors (p = 0.014, +1.4%, piezoelectric surgery (+1.3%, p = 0.015, and restorative materials (+0.7%, p = 0.011 was found. A declining scientific interest in onlay grafting (−0.3%, p = 0.042 was recorded. The findings regarding current clinical oral implants research tie in with better-informed consumers and increased patient demands. Our results demonstrate an increasing interest in techniques that avoid complicated procedures such as bone grafting and that reduce treatment duration.

  13. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (phamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27942549

  14. Targeted localized use of therapeutic antibodies: a review of non-systemic, topical and oral applications.

    Jones, Russell G A; Martino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    gangrenosum, antibiotic resistant bacterial infections or ulcerated wounds. Diseases confined to the gastrointestinal tract can be targeted directly by applying antibody via the injection-free peroral route. The gastrointestinal tract is unusual in that its natural immuno-tolerant nature ensures the long-term safety of repeatedly ingesting heterologous antiserum or antibody materials. Without the stringent regulatory, purity and clean room requirements of manufacturing parenteral (injectable) antibodies, production costs are minimal, with the potential for more direct low-cost targeting of gastrointestinal diseases, especially with those caused by problematic antibiotic resistant or toxigenic bacteria (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Helicobacter pylori), viruses (e.g. rotavirus, norovirus) or inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease). Use of the oral route has previously been hindered by excessive antibody digestion within the gastrointestinal tract; however, this limitation may be overcome by intelligently applying one or more strategies (i.e. decoy proteins, masking therapeutic antibody cleavage sites, pH modulation, enzyme inhibition or encapsulation). These aspects are additionally discussed in this review and novel insights also provided. With the development of new applications via local injections, topical and peroral routes, it is envisaged that an extended range of ailments will increasingly fall within the clinical scope of therapeutic antibodies further expanding this market.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Mucoadhesive Film Containing Acmella oleracea Extract for Oral Mucosa Topical Anesthesia

    Santana de Freitas-Blanco, Verônica; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Serpe, Luciano; Oliveira Sousa, Ilza Maria; Guilherme Damasio, Viviane Aparecida; Yamane, Lais Thiemi; de Paula, Eneida; Ferreira Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop an anesthetic mucoadhesive film containing Acmella oleracea (jambu) extract for topical use on oral mucosa. Methods Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of jambu were prepared by maceration. Pigment removal was obtained by adsorption with activated carbon. Three mucoadhesive films were developed using a film casting method: 10 or 20% of crude jambu extract (10% JB and 20% JB), and 10% of crude jambu extract treated with activated carbon (10% JBC). The mucoadhesive films were characterized regarding their uniformity, thickness, pH, and spilanthol content, and their stability was evaluated during 120 days. Gas chromatography was used to quantify the amount of spilanthol. In vitro tests determined the permeation of spilanthol across pig esophageal epithelium mucosa in Franz diffusion cells. Topical anesthetic efficacy was assessed in vivo using a tail flick test in mice. Results The three mucoadhesive films showed physical stability and visual appearances suitable for use on oral mucosa. The permeation study revealed that the spilanthol from 10% JBC presented higher flux and permeability coefficient values, compared to 10% or 20% JB (p < 0.001). Moreover, 10% JBC showed better topical anesthetic efficacy than the other films (p < 0.01). Conclusion Mucoadhesive film containing crude extract of jambu treated with activated carbon is a potential alternative for oral, topical use, encouraging future clinical studies. PMID:27626796

  16. Original article title: "Comparison of therapeutic efficacy of topical corticosteroid and oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid combination in the treatment of vitiligo patients: a clinical trial"

    Omidian Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is the most prevalent pigmentary disorder which occurs worldwide, with an incidence rate between 0.1-4 percent. It is anticipated that the discovery of biological pathways of vitiligo pathogenesis will provide novel therapeutic and prophylactic targets for future approaches to the treatment and prevention of vitiligo. The purposes of this study were evaluating the efficacy of supplemental zinc on the treatment of vitiligo. Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted for a period of one year. Thirty five patients among 86 participants were eligible to entrance to the study. The patients in two equal randomized groups took topical corticosteroid and combination of oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid. Results The mean of responses in the corticosteroid group and the zinc sulfate-corticosteroid combination group were 21.43% and 24.7%, respectively. Conclusion Although, the response to corticosteroid plus zinc sulfate was more than corticosteroid, there was no statistically significant difference between them. It appeared that more robust long-term randomized controlled trials on more patients, maybe with higher doses of zinc sulfate, are needed to fully establish the efficacy of oral zinc in management of vitiligo. Trial Registration chiCTRTRC10000930

  17. Fifty-six Cases of Stubborn Eczema Treated by Oral Administration and Topical Application of Herbal Medicine

    罗维丹; 邬成霖

    2001-01-01

    @@ Eczema is a kind of very common dermatopathy. The cases with a long course of illness and hard to be cured are termed as stubborn eczema. We have obtained good results in its treatment since 1995 with the Chu Shi Tang (除湿汤Dampness-Clearing Decoction) for oral intake and the Fu Fang Ku Shen Xi Ye (复方苦参洗液) for topical application. The following is a clinical report for treating 56 patients with stubborn eczema.

  18. Topical permethrin and oral ivermectin in the management of scabies: A prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled study

    Reena Sharma; Archana Singal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scabies is a highly contagious and intensely pruritic parasitic infestation. It is a re-emerging infection in the new millennium especially with HIV pandemic and a significant health problem in developing countries. Various treatment modalities have been used since time immemorial but the search for an ideal scabicide is ongoing. Aims: In this study, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of single application of topical 5% permethrin with oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg/dose) in a singl...

  19. Benefits of oral and topical administration of ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. on skin inflammation and wound healing in mice.

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Duffaud, Anais; Nejdi, Amine; Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Helene; Rozan, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to the risk of traumatic lesions. Chlorella is a green microalgae enriched with nutrients, vitamins, minerals and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) was investigated by oral administration (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cutaneous application (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%) to evaluate its impact in two dermatological disorder models in mice: skin inflammation and wound healing. For skin inflammation, it was administered during 14 days starting one week before the induction of chronic skin inflammation by repeated cutaneous application of 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). For wound healing the microalgae was administered by topical application after scarification of the skin until complete wound healing. Results indicated that oral and topical administrations of the two higher doses of RCs had significant effects on macroscopic score of skin inflammation with an efficient effect on microscopic score with cutaneous application. The microalgae had also efficient effect on healing process and duration of wound healing for both administration routes and particularly at the two highest doses of RCs. These findings suggest that administration of RCs by both oral and topical routes appeared to have beneficial effects on skin lesions.

  20. The effect of diode laser and topical steroid on serum level of TNF-alpha in oral lichen planus patients

    Othman, Nagwa-Abdelhamid; Shaker, Olfat-Gamil; Abd-Elmoniem, Wessam; Eldin, Amany-Mohy; Fakhr, Mariam-Yehia

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory mucosal disease with a multifactorial etiology. It is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease in which the cytotoxic CD8+T cells trigger apoptosis of the basal cells of oral epithelium. Various treatment regimens have been employed for management of symptomatic OLP. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of topical steroids as well as laser on the clinical signs and symptoms detected by reticular, atrophic, erosive score (RAE score) and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) level in the serum of patients with symptomatic OLP. Material and Methods The study was conducted on twenty-four patients (18 females and 6 males) with symptomatic OLP that were allocated into two groups. Each included twelve patients. The first group treated either with diode laser (970nm SIROLaser Advance class IIIb, SIRONA The Dental Company, Germany) twice weekly with maximum of ten sessions while the second group were treated with topical corticosteroids (0.1% triamcinolone acetonide orabase, Kenacort-A Orabase Pomad, DEVA HOLDING A.Ș, Istanbul, Turkey) for four weeks. Results Corticosteroids group showed less clinical signs and symptoms of reticular, atrophic, erosive RAE score (p=0.02) and TNF-α serum level (p=0.028) than diode laser group with no reported therapy side effects or complications in any of the treated patients. Conclusions Topical steroids reduce pain, reticular, atrophic, erosive RAE score and TNF-α serum level more than laser treatment. Moreover, laser treatment can be used as an alternative treatment when steroids are contraindicated for the treatment of symptomatic OLP. Key words:Oral lichen planus, diode laser, topical steroid, RAE score, TNF-α. PMID:27957272

  1. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    ... easily Thinning of the skin and poor wound healing Skin Ask your healthcare provider about how acne ... Treatment Other Devices Oxygen Therapy Transtracheal Oxygen Therapy Phases of Care Using the Acapella Choice® (Green) Using ...

  2. Herpes simplex virus keratitis: an update of the pathogenesis and current treatment with oral and topical antiviral agents.

    Tsatsos, Michael; MacGregor, Cheryl; Athanasiadis, Ioannis; Moschos, Marilita M; Hossain, Parwez; Anderson, David

    2016-12-01

    Ophthalmic herpes simplex viral keratitis is responsible for a range of ocular manifestations from superficial epithelial disease to stromal keratitis and endotheliitis. The Herpetic Eye Disease Study has guided the management of herpetic eye disease for almost twenty years, but newer medications such as valacyclovir are now available and are considered to have better bioavailability than acyclovir. In this review, we examine the existing evidence on the pathogenesis of different ophthalmic herpes simplex viral keratitis disease modalities and the role of oral and topically administered antiviral drugs in the treatment of herpes simplex viral keratitis.

  3. 异丙托溴铵、布地奈德雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆辅助治疗小儿肺炎支原体肺炎的临床观察%Ipratropium Bromide Nebulized Budesonide Inhalation Plus Oral Acute Bronchitis Syrup Auxiliary Treatment of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia Clinical Observation

    王丽珍; 李飞平; 罗芳; 张梅娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To study the budesonide, ipratropium bromide Stock aerosol inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup efficacy of mycoplasma pneumonia in children. Method; from May 2011 to May 2012 in our hospital diagnosed with pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, aged 3 to 14 years old, 69 cases of hospitalized children, 35 cases were randomly divided into a control group and a test group of 34 patients. Test group application budesonide, ipratropium bromide atomizing inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup, observation and comparison of the two groups on the basis of given antibiotics. Experimental group, children with cough disappeared time, of pulmonary rales disappear and hospitalization time there was significantly shorter (P<0.01) than the control group, the total effective rate in the test group than the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion:Budesonide, ipratropium bromide oxygen drive to the aerosol inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup can be used as auxiliary treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia treatment.%目的:研究布地奈德、异丙托溴铵联合雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆对小儿支原体肺炎的疗效.方法:将2011年5月-2012年5月在我院诊断为肺炎支原体肺炎,年龄3~14岁的69例住院患儿,随机分为对照组35例与试验组34例.在给予抗感染的基础上试验组应用布地奈德、异丙托溴铵氧气驱动雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆,观察比较两组疗效.结果:试验组患儿咳嗽消失时间、肺部罗音消失时间及住院时间均比对照组有极显著缩短(P<0.01),试验组总有效率比对照组高(P<0.01).结论:布地奈德、异丙托溴铵氧气驱动雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆可以作为治疗小儿支原体肺炎的辅助治疗方式.

  4. The Clinical Observation of Levofloxacin Injection Combined with Cough Syrup Oral Liquid in the Treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia%左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎的临床观察

    史广超; 邢亚恒; 李景钊

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎的临床疗效。方法:对140例细菌性肺炎患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组各70例。两组均给予同种抗生素左氧氟沙星注射液,治疗组加用咳露口服液,疗程均为10 d。结果:治疗组总有效率为100%,对照组总有效率为87%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎临床效果明显,且安全性高,无明显不良反应。%Objective:To observe clinical curative effect of levofloxacin injection combined with cough syrup oral liquid in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia.Method:140 bacterial pneumonia patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,70 patients in each group.The two groups were given levofloxacin injection,the treatment group was added with cough syrup oral liquid,both groups were treated for 10 days. Result:The total effective rate of treatment group 100%,control group in the total efficiency of 87%,the total effective rate of two groups had significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion:Levofloxacin injection combined with cough syrup oral liquid in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia have good clinical effect,and high safety,and no obvious adverse reaction.

  5. The case for advanced physics topics in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

    2014-10-01

    Research in oral and maxillofacial surgery has focused mainly on principles founded in the biological and chemical sciences, which have provided excellent answers to many questions. However, recent technologic advances have begun to gain prominence in many of the medical sciences, providing clinicians with more effective tools for diagnosis and treatment. The era of modern physics has led to the development of diagnostic techniques that could provide information at a more basic level than many of the current biochemical methods used. The goal of this report is to introduce 2 of these methods and describe how they can be applied to oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  6. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mo...

  7. A comparison of oral and topical vitamin A supplementation in African foam-nesting frogs (Chiromantis xerampelina).

    Sim, Richard R; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Valdes, Eduardo V; Fleming, Gregory J; Terrell, Scott P

    2010-09-01

    Vitamin A is essential for a variety of functions, including cellular differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, vision, immune response, and reproduction. A captive population of African foam-nesting frogs (Chiromantis xerampelina) with a known history of vitamin A deficiency had higher than expected incidence of sudden death, bacterial osteomyelitis, and stunted growth. Due to the high prevalence and untreatable nature of the diseases in the population, euthanasia of the population was recommended. Before euthanasia, the population was entered into a study to compare oral dietary supplementation of vitamin A to topical treatment with water-miscible vitamin A palmitate (AQUASOL A Parenteral, Mayne Pharma Inc., Paramus, New Jersey 07652, U.S.A.). Eighty-four frogs, weighing 2-7 g, were divided into a control and three treatment groups of 21 frogs per group, with normalized weight distribution. The control group received standard daily nutrition of crickets dusted with a supplement containing 342,000 international units (IU) vitamin A/kg. The treatment groups consisted of oral supplementation with crickets dusted with a fortified supplement containing 822,510 IU vitamin A/kg; topical vitamin A palmitate 50 IU every other day; and topical vitamin A palmitate 50 IU once a week. After 30 days, all frogs were euthanized, and 12 frogs from each group were analyzed for whole-body vitamin A levels. The control and treatment groups 1, 2, and 3 had average whole-body vitamin A levels of 1371.4 IU/kg (SE 284.4), 908.7 IU/kg (SE 186.5), 6385.9 IU/kg (SE 675.9), and 3521.8 IU/kg (SE 575.1), respectively. These results suggest that oral supplementation using a product high in vitamin A may be ineffective at raising whole-body vitamin A levels above those achieved with standard nutrition. Topical administration of vitamin A on an every other day and once a week dosing schedule achieved levels 4.5- and 2.5-fold higher than standard nutrition, respectively.

  8. Comparative assessment of the therapeutic effects of the topical and systemic forms of Hypericum perforatum extract on induced oral mucositis in golden hamsters.

    Tanideh, N; Namazi, F; Andisheh Tadbir, A; Ebrahimi, H; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O

    2014-10-01

    Oral mucositis is a common and irritating complication of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignancies. Current treatments have failed to achieve complete remission of this complication. The St. John's wort plant (Hypericum perforatum) has long been known for its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the topical and systemic administration of H. perforatum extract on oral mucositis. Oral mucositis was induced in 72 male golden hamsters by administration of 5-fluorouracil (60mg/kg), on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, H. perforatum extract topical gel 10%, oral H. perforatum extract (300mg/kg), and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Weights and blood samples were evaluated, biopsies from buccal lesions were examined histopathologically, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Both of the H. perforatum extract treatment groups saw a significant relief in oral mucositis compared to the control and base gel groups; the systemic form was superior to the topical form. H. perforatum extract, administered orally or topically, expedited the healing of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

  9. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis.

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Treldal, Charlotte; Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Kristensen, Claus Andrup; Jacobsen, Jette; Kreilgaard, Mads; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate systemic exposure after administration of a novel bupivacaine lozenge in healthy individuals with normal mucosa and in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with oral mucositis. A lozenge containing 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg bupivacaine, respectively, was administered as single dose to 10 healthy individuals, and a lozenge containing 25 mg bupivacaine was administered as single dose to 10 HNC patients with oral mucositis and as multiple doses to five patients with HNC. Blood samples were collected for 6 hr from the healthy individuals and 3 hr from the patients with HNC, respectively, after administration. The plasma concentration-time profiles of bupivacaine were fitted to pharmacokinetic models using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, evaluating demographics and health status as covariates. The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of bupivacaine lozenge was best described by a two-compartment distribution model with absorption transit compartments. All the observed plasma concentrations were well below the bupivacaine concentrations (2000-2250 ng/ml) which have caused toxic symptoms. The PK model suggested that relative bioavailability was two times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 1-2 and three times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 3-4 than in the healthy individuals. Simulations showed that the plasma concentrations would be below the toxic limit after repeated dosing every second hour with 25 mg bupivacaine for five days. The 25-mg bupivacaine lozenges were safe without systemic toxic levels of bupivacaine or risk of side effects. Based on PK simulations of repeated doses of 25 mg every two hours for 16 hr a day, the lozenges can be administered with minimum risk of exceeding the toxic limit.

  10. Histatin 5-spermidine conjugates have enhanced fungicidal activity and efficacy as a topical therapeutic for oral candidiasis.

    Tati, Swetha; Li, Rui; Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Davidow, Peter; Edgerton, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of fungicidal activity of saliva. However, Hsts are rapidly degraded in vivo, limiting their usefulness as therapeutic agents despite their lack of toxicity. We constructed a conjugate peptide using spermidine (Spd) linked to the active fragment of Hst 5 (Hst 54-15), based upon our findings that C. albicans spermidine transporters are required for Hst 5 uptake and fungicidal activity. We found that Hst 54-15-Spd was significantly more effective in killing C. albicans and Candida glabrata than Hst 5 alone in both planktonic and biofilm growth and that Hst 54-15-Spd retained high activity in both serum and saliva. Hst 54-15-Spd was not bactericidal against streptococcal oral commensal bacteria and had no hemolytic activity. We tested the effectiveness of Hst 54-15-Spd in vivo by topical application to tongue surfaces of immunocompromised mice with OPC. Mice treated with Hst 54-15-Spd had significant clearance of candidal tongue lesions macroscopically, which was confirmed by a 3- to 5-log fold reduction of C. albicans colonies recovered from tongue tissues. Hst 54-15-Spd conjugates are a new class of peptide-based drugs with high selectivity for fungi and potential as topical therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  11. In vitro activity of inexpensive topical alternatives against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients.

    Traboulsi, Rana S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2008-03-01

    The use of inexpensive topical alternatives, e.g. oil of melaleuca (tea tree oil (TTO)), chlorhexidine (CHX), povidone iodine (PI) and gentian violet (GV), to treat oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has been proposed in resource-poor countries. However, pre-clinical studies comparing the antifungal activity of these agents are lacking. This study compared the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TTO, GV, PI, CHX and fluconazole (FLZ) against 91 clinical Candida strains using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methodology. Isolates were obtained from the oral cavity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Among the topical agents examined, GV showed the most potent activity against all Candida isolates tested (MIC range, MIC for 50% of the organisms (MIC(50)) and MIC for 90% of the organisms (MIC(90)) of 0.03-0.25 microg/mL, 0.06 microg/mL and 0.1 2microg/mL, respectively). CHX was 64 times less active than GV (MIC range, MIC(50) and MIC(90) of 0.5-16 microg/mL, 4 microg/mL and 8 microg/mL, respectively). The lowest antifungal activity was seen for PI (MIC(90)=0.25%). Moreover, GV, unlike the other topical agents tested, was fungicidal (minimum fungicidal concentration=1 microg/mL) against Candida albicans isolates (n=83). In addition, GV showed activity against FLZ-resistant C. albicans (n=3). The combination of GV and FLZ was not antagonistic and there was no interaction between the two compounds. GV possesses potent antifungal activity against FLZ-susceptible and -resistant Candida strains and is not antagonistic when used in combination with FLZ. In vivo evaluation is warranted.

  12. Efficacy of laser phototherapy in comparison to topical clobetasol for the treatment of oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial

    Dillenburg, Caroline Siviero; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Marques, Márcia Martins; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2014-06-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease and a search for novel therapeutic options has been performed. We sought to compare the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) to topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% for the treatment of atrophic and erosive OLP. Forty-two patients with atrophic/erosive OLP were randomly allocated to two groups: clobetasol group (n=21): application of topical clobetasol propionate gel (0.05%) three times a day; LPT group (n=21): application of laser irradiation using InGaAlP diode laser three times a week. Evaluations were performed once a week during treatment (Days 7, 14, 21, and 30) and in four weeks (Day 60) and eight weeks (Day 90) after treatment. At the end of treatment (Day 30), significant reductions in all variables were found in both groups. The LPT group had a higher percentage of complete lesion resolution. At follow-up periods (Days 60 and 90), the LPT group maintained the clinical pattern seen at Day 30, with no recurrence of the lesions, whereas the clobetasol group exhibited worsening for all variables analyzed. These findings suggest that the LPT proved more effective than topical clobetasol 0.05% for the treatment of OLP.

  13. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  14. Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life

    Serap Kayhan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per week and the patients in group 2 received doxycycline (100 mg daily for 12 weeks. Topical adapalene gel was added to the systemic treatment in both groups. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and at the end of first, second and third months. Side effects were recorded. Quality of life in patients was measured with Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale before treatment and at the end of third month. Results: At the end of the treatment, the patients in the two treatment groups had clinical improvement of more than 50%. Twenty-one patients in the azithromycin-adapalene group and 23 patients in the doxycycline-adapelene group had more than 80% clinical improvement. There was not any statistically significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the two combinations. Both treatment regimens were safe with minimal side effects. There was statistically significant difference in Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale scores at baseline and at the end of the treatment (p0.05. Conclusion: Both treatments were efficient and safe. There was significant improvement in quality of life scale scores in both groups.

  15. Topical permethrin and oral ivermectin in the management of scabies: A prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled study

    Reena Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scabies is a highly contagious and intensely pruritic parasitic infestation. It is a re-emerging infection in the new millennium especially with HIV pandemic and a significant health problem in developing countries. Various treatment modalities have been used since time immemorial but the search for an ideal scabicide is ongoing. Aims: In this study, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of single application of topical 5% permethrin with oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg/dose in a single-dose and a two-dose regimen in patients with scabies. Methods: 120 clinically diagnosed cases of scabies (>5 years of age and/or >15 kg were randomized into three treatment groups A, B, C of 40 patients each; receiving either topical 5% permethrin (group A or oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg/dose in a single dose (group B or double dose regimen (group C repeated at 2 weeks interval. Patients were followed up at 1, 2, and 4 weeks interval. At each visit, cure rate (>50% improvement in lesion count and pruritus and negative microscopy was assessed and compared. Results: Cure rate in three treatment groups at the end of 4 weeks was 94.7% (A, 90% (B, 89.7%(C, and thus all three treatment modalities were equally efficacious. However, at 1 week follow up, group A patients reported better improvement in both lesion count and pruritus. Conclusions: Both permethrin and ivermectin in both single and two dose regimen are equally efficacious and well tolerated in scabies. However, permethrin has a rapid onset of action.

  16. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence

    Fuller P; Roth SH

    2011-01-01

    Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for ...

  17. Use of compounded dispersing media for extemporaneous pediatric syrups with candesartan cilexetil and valsartan

    Musko Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Available tablets or capsules for adults are often used to prepare extemporaneously formulated medicines appropriate for children. The most acceptable drug forms in pediatric population are oral liquids and pharmacists use commercial dispersing media to compound syrups from an active substance or from tablets available on the market. In many countries ready-to-use dispersing media are not available or refunded, but pharmacists can use other compounded media, providing their compatibility and stability are proven. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the stability of syrups with candesartan cilexetil (1 mg mL-1 and valsartan (4 mg mL-1 extemporaneously prepared using commercial tablets (Diovan® and Atacand®. The following three different suspending media, which could be easily made in a pharmacy, were investigated: V1 - with xanthan gum (0.5 %, V2 - the USP/NF vehicle for oral solution and V3 - the medium based on a simple sucrose syrup. The stability of preparations was studied during 35 days of storage in a dark place at controlled temperature of 25 and 4 °C. During the study, microscopic observation was carried out and pH, viscosity, and concentration of candesartan cilexetil and valsartan were analyzed. Syrups with valsartan prepared with V2 and V3 media were stable for 3 or 4 weeks when stored at 25 °C, while syrups with candesartan were stable for as long as 35 days. For syrups prepared using V1 medium, the 14-day expiry date was not achieved because of microbial deterioration.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  19. Topical polyethylene glycol as a novel chemopreventive agent for oral cancer via targeting of epidermal growth factor response.

    Ramesh K Wali

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is a major cause of morbidity and mortality underscoring the need for safe and effective chemopreventive strategies. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is attractive in that it is an early critical event in HNSCC pathogenesis. However, current agents lack efficacy or have unacceptable toxicity. Several groups have demonstrated that the over-the-counter medication, polyethylene glycol (PEG has remarkable chemopreventive efficacy against colon carcinogenesis. Importantly, we reported that this effect is mediated through EGFR internalization/degradation. In the current study, we investigated the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent against HNSCC, using both the well validated animal model 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide rat model and cell culture with the human HNSCC cell line SCC-25. We demonstrated that daily topical application of 10% PEG-8000 in the oral cavity (tongue and cavity wall post 4NQO initiation resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden (both, tumor size and tumors/tumor bearing rat without any evidence of toxicity. Immunohistochemical studies depicted decreased proliferation (number of Ki67-positive cells and reduced expression of EGFR and its downstream effectors cyclin D1 in the tongue mucosa of 4NQO-rats treated with PEG. We showed that EGFR was also markedly downregulated in SCC-25 cells by PEG-8000 with a concomitant induction of G1-S phase cell-cycle arrest, which was potentially mediated through upregulated p21(cip1/waf1. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time, that PEG has promising efficacy and safety as a chemopreventive efficacy against oral carcinogenesis.

  20. Comparative efficacy of oral rifampin and topical chloramphenicol in eradicating conjunctival carriage of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.

    Perkins, B A; Tondella, M L; Bortolotto, I M; Takano, O A; da Silva, G A; Irino, K; Brandileone, M C; Harrison, L H; Wenger, J D; Broome, C V

    1992-09-01

    Persistent conjunctival carriage of the Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) strain (BPF clone) responsible for Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) has been documented. Topical chloramphenicol is routinely used to treat conjunctivitis in areas affected by BPF in Brazil. Although the BPF clone is susceptible to chloramphenicol, we observed a number of children treated with topical chloramphenicol for conjunctivitis who still developed BPF. During an investigation of an outbreak of BPF in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, we compared oral rifampin (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) with topical chloramphenicol for eradication of conjunctival carriage of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius among children with presumed BPF clone conjunctivitis. Conjunctival samples were taken for culture on the day treatment was initiated and a mean of 8 and 21 days later. At 8 days the eradication rates for oral rifampin and topical chloramphenicol were 100 and 44%, respectively (P = 0.003); at 21 days they were 100 and 50% (P = 0.01). Oral rifampin was more effective than topical chloramphenicol for eradication of the BPF clone and may be useful in prevention of BPF.

  1. Oral, topical, and inhalation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 to treat inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs

    Carolina de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x, dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Aims: To describe different routes of M8 administration associated with oral pyroxican (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat dogs with IMC. Methodology: Three female dogs with 10 years old median age were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (HV-UFPR with cytological and clinical diagnosis of IMC. Patients were treated with oral (0.5 mL,q12h, topical (q12h and inhalatory (2 mL, q24h, through an ultrasonic inhalation device M8, and oral pyroxican (0.3mg/kg, q24h.Thoracic radiographs showed pulmonary metastasis in all dogs. Results: 7 days after initiating treatment all patients had clinical improvement. It was observed reduction on mammary glands inflammation and decreased pain sensitivity. One patient had 8 month of complete remission. The other two patients died 1 and 2 month after initial treatment. However none of the patients had pulmonary progressive disease, showed by radiographic examinations. Owners revealed treatment satisfaction in regards to quality of life improvement, easy M8 administration, good M8

  2. Effect of topical cromoglycate solution on atopic dermatitis: combined treatment of sodium cromoglycate solution with the oral anti-allergic medication, oxatomide.

    Kimata, H; Hiratsuka, S

    1994-02-01

    The effect of topically applied sodium cromoglycate solution in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in children aged 4-14 years was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized group-comparative trial. One group of patients was treated with topical sodium cromoglycate solution and oral oxatomide whereas the other group was treated with topical placebo solution and oral oxatomide. After 4 weeks, AD improved significantly in the group treated with the sodium cromoglycate solution and oxatomide combination while marginal improvement was noted in the placebo. In addition, spontaneous IgE production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased significantly in the sodium cromoglycate group but not in the placebo group. These results suggest that sodium cromoglycate solution may be very effective in combination with anti-allergic medication in the treatment of moderate to severe AD in children.

  3. Single-dose oral fluconazole versus topical clotrimazole in patients with pityriasis versicolor: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Dehghan, Mohammad; Akbari, Negin; Alborzi, Nazila; Sadani, Somayeh; Keshtkar, Abas A

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effects of topical clotrimazole and systemic fluconazole in pityriasis versicolor. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out in the dermatological clinic of Gorgan, northern Iran, between April 2006 and May 2007. All consecutive patients with pityriasis versicolor were included and randomly divided into two groups. In the first group (G1), patients underwent treatment with a single dose of fluconazole capsule (400 mg) and placebo cream. In the second group (G2), patients underwent treatment with clotrimazole cream (twice daily) and placebo capsule. The course of treatment was 2 weeks. All subjects were re-evaluated 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the end of the therapeutic course. After 2 weeks, the rate of complete resolution of disease was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (49.1% vs 30%). After 4 weeks, 41 patients (81.2%) of G1 and 52 patients (94.9%) of G2 showed complete resolution. After 12 weeks, 46 patients (92%) in G1 and 45 patients (81.8%) in G2 showed complete resolution. Recurrence rate in G1 and G2 were 6% and 18.2%, respectively. No complications were seen in either group. In this study, clinical response at week 4 was greater in the clotrimazole group than the fluconazole group. Recurrence at week 12 after treatment was less with oral fluconazole than clotrimazole cream. So, for better evaluation, more studies need to be done.

  4. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  5. Pharmacological in-vitro investigation for digestive property and in-vivo anti-ulcer activity of Pep-Up Syrup

    Hardik Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in-vitro digestive property and in-vivo anti-ulcer activity of Pep-Up Syrup in aspirin-induced acute gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: The in-vitro investigation for digestive property was performed by means of evaluating amylolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activity in comparison with blank. For in-vivo evaluation of Pep-Up Syrup, aspirin-induced acute gastric ulcer model in rats was used. Selected animals were divided in to three groups where each group was consisting of six animals. Group-I, II and III was considered as normal control, disease control and Pep-Up Syrup treated, respectively. Pep-Up Syrup (3 mL/kg/day treatment was provided for 7 days orally. Ulcer index, gastric wall mucus content, lipid peroxidation level in stomach tissue and tissue antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione and catalase enzyme activity were carried out. Histopathology of stomach tissue was also performed. Statistical Analysis: Statistical calculations were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni′s test and results were expressed as Mean ± SEM. Results and Discussion: Pep-Up Syrup showed noticeable amylolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activity. Pre-treatment of Pep-Up Syrup showed significant protection against ulceration and aspirin-induced loss of gastric wall mucus content. Pre-treatment of Pep-Up Syrup also showed significant increase in tissue antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed that Pep-Up Syrup provides significant cyto-protection against aspirin-induced mucosal damage. Conclusions: On the basis of study data it can be concluded that Pep-Up Syrup possesses property of digesting starch, lipids and proteins. Data also revealed that Pep-Up Syrup has antiulcer activity against aspirin-induced acute gastric ulcer.

  6. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    ... Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Street names: Candy, Drank, Robo Print What Are Cough and Cold Medicines? Also known as: robotripping, robo, ...

  7. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns?

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What is high-fructose corn syrup? What are the health concerns? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. High-fructose corn syrup is a common sweetener in ...

  8. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  9. Topical Steroids and CO2 Laser in the Treatment of Refractory Oral Lichenoid Drug Reaction and Lichenoid Contact Lesion: a Case Report.

    Thongprasom, Kobkan; Sessririsombat, Somchai; Singkharotai, Kanjana; Vathanasanti, Achara; Subbalek, Keskanya

    2014-09-01

    A 54-year-old female presented with severe pain on the gingiva and buccal mucosa. Oral findings revealed generalized fiery red gingiva, ulcerative with white striae covered by pseudo-membranes on both buccal mucosae. She had hypertension, dyslipidemia, subclinical hypothyroidism and arthritis. She was treated with atorvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan, levothyroxine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). Her oral lesions were a slight improvement from a previous treatment with pimecrolimus cream, triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% orabase and injection. After diclofenac was replaced with tenoxicam and oral lesions were treated with various topical steroids, the lesions showed marked improvement. The biopsy from the buccal mucosa revealed oral lichen planus. Patch test showed positivity to mercury, gold sodium thiosulfate and palladium. One year later the left buccal mucosa showed red, round papillomatous-like lesions. The histopathological report showed a non-specific ulcer with chronic inflammation. The lesions flared up after replacing amalgam with crowns. After CO2 laser treatment, the lesions showed some improvement. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence of the lesions proved to be negative. This first case report showed that the palliative treatment of refractory oral lichenoid lesions with potent topical steroids for 7 years had no side-effects. CO2 laser can be an alternative treatment of refractory lesion in this case.

  10. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    Bahrami A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make

  11. Topical application of 1% ZnSO4 on oral ulcers increases the number of macrophages in normal or diabetic conditions of wistar rats

    Rochman Mujayanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Therapy for chronic ulcer in diabetic patient is by modifying local inflammation response using drugs that acts as immunomodulator, neuromodulator and growth factors stimulator. Topical zinc is one of drug that can modifiy local inflammation response, immunostimulation or immunosuppresion. Purpose: This study was to prove about the number of macrophage in oral ulcer between normal and diabetes microscopically and the difference if treated by 1% ZnSO4 gel topically. Method: Ulcer in lower labial mucosa was made in normal and diabetic Wistar rats (induced by STZ, then applied 1% ZnSO4 gel and CMC-Na gel as control. They were decapitated in third and fifth day and specimen was made by processing lower labial mucosa Result: Microscopically, the result showed the number of macrophages in oral ulcer in diabetic condition was significantly higher than normal and the application of 1% ZnSO4 increased the number of macrophages in fifth day. Conclusion: The number of macrophages was higher in diabetic than normal condition, and was proven that topical application of 1% ZnSO4 increased the number macrophages of oral ulcer diabetic and normal condition.

  12. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence

    Fuller P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Three studies showed that TDiclo is superior to placebo and vehicle control with respect to pain, physical function, and perception of osteoarthritis symptoms. Two studies showed that benefits are similar to those of oral diclofenac, with one study demonstrating statistical equivalence. The most common adverse event associated with TDiclo in these studies was dry skin. Incidences of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal levels of liver enzymes were lower with TDiclo compared with oral diclofenac in active-controlled studies. Based on these studies, TDiclo represents a practical, evidence-based option for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee.Keywords: osteoarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, topical analgesic

  13. Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa

    Gehrisch, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Experimental Center, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 {mu}g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED{sub 50} (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 {+-} 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED{sub 50} to 17.7 {+-} 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 {+-} 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 {+-} 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 11.5 {+-} 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED{sub 50} of 10.0 {+-} 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 {+-} 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED{sub 50} to 10.5 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 9.1 {+-} 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 {+-} 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the

  14. Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR-induced pain and inflammation

    Rother M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC twice daily (bid in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED, whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE

    Patel Hirenjal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

  16. Topical diclofenac does not affect the antiplatelet properties of aspirin as compared to the intermediate effects of oral diclofenac: A prospective, randomized, complete crossover study.

    Rowcliffe, M; Nezami, B; Westphal, E S; Rainka, M; Janda, M; Bates, V; Gengo, F

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adversely interact with aspirin, diminishing its antiplatelet effect and potentially placing patients at an increased risk for recurrent thrombotic events. This crossover study aimed to determine whether the topical NSAID diclofenac epolamine 1.3% patch or oral diclofenac 50 mg interfered with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin 325 mg. Twelve healthy men and women aged 18-50 were included. Participants were randomized into 5 treatment arms: aspirin, diclofenac potassium 50 mg, diclofenac patch, diclofenac potassium plus ASA 325 mg, and diclofenac patch plus aspirin. Platelet responsiveness was determined using whole-blood impedance aggregation (WBA) to collagen 1 μg/mL and arachidonic acid (AA) 0.5 mM and was sampled every 2 hours. No significant difference in platelet function was observed following the diclofenac patch and aspirin vs aspirin alone. Oral diclofenac produced a mixed effect with significant reduction in platelet inhibition at hour 2 and hour 8 following aspirin administration. Topical diclofenac does not significantly interfere with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin and may be a safer alternative to the oral formulation.

  17. Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma in a 13-Year-Old Boy Dramatically Improved with Oral Doxycycline and Topical Metronidazole: Evidence for a Link with Childhood Rosacea

    Camille Orion

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea.

  18. Efficacy of Benzocaine 20% Topical Anesthetic Compared to Placebo Prior to Administration of Local Anesthesia in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    de Freiras, Guilherme Camponogara; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha; Blaya, Diego Segatto; Moreira, Carlos Heitor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a topical anesthetic to a placebo on pain perception during administration of local anesthesia in 2 regions of the oral cavity. A split-mouth, double-blind, randomized clinical trial design was used. Thirty-eight subjects, ages 18-50 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II, received 4 anesthetic injections each in regions corresponding to the posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSA) and greater palatine nerve (GPN), totaling 152 sites analyzed. The side of the mouth where the topical anesthetic (benzocaine 20%) or the placebo was to be applied was chosen by a flip of a coin. The needle used was 27G, and the anesthetic used for administration of local anesthesia was 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. After receiving the administration of local anesthesia, each patient reported pain perception on a visual analog scale (VAS) of 100-mm length. The results showed that the topical anesthetic and the placebo had similar effects: there was no statistically significant VAS difference between the PSA and the GPN pain ratings. A higher value on the VAS for the anesthesia of the GPN, relative to the PSA, was observed for both groups. Regarding gender, male patients had higher values on the VAS compared with female patients, but these differences were not meaningful. The topical anesthetic and the placebo had similar effects on pain perception for injection of local anesthesia for the PSA and GPN.

  19. Comparing the effects of cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas versus topical corticosteroids in the treatment of oral lichen planus

    Dariush Amanat

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas is as effective as topical triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of OLP with no systemic side effects and needs less patient compliance. It can be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapy in OLP patients to reduce the use of treatments with adverse effects.

  20. Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis

    Prasad PVS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk. After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

  1. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  2. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  3. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Anjali Srinivasan; Prashanth Shenai; Laxmikanth Chatra; Veena KM; Prasanna Kumar Rao

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that ...

  4. Microbial production of glucose/fructose syrups

    Matur, A.; Saglam, N.

    1982-04-01

    With the ever-increasing demand for sugar and the trend in rising price, rapid progress in research on new and/or alternative sweeteners has been inevitable during the past decade or so. Pure glucose, glucose/fructose, glucose/maltose syrups are often called isosyrups. Isosyrups have been recognized as a good alternative sources of sugar. These are used today in the manufacture of soft drinks, jams and jellies, confectionary, baking fermentation, dietetic and infant food, ice-cream, pharmaceutical processes, etc. Isosyrups are produced by hydrolysis of starch and cellulocis raw materials have been utilized for the production of isosyrups.

  5. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

  6. TOIB Study. Are topical or oral ibuprofen equally effective for the treatment of chronic knee pain presenting in primary care: a randomised controlled trial with patient preference study. [ISRCTN79353052

    Parsons Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older people have chronic knee pain. Both topical and oral non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used to treat this. Oral NSAIDS are effective, at least in the short term, but can have severe adverse effects. Topical NSAIDs also appear to be effective, at least in the short term. One might expect topical NSAIDs both to be less effective and to have fewer adverse effects than oral NSAIDs. If topical NSAIDs have fewer adverse effects this may outweigh both the reduction in effectiveness and the higher cost of topical compared to oral treatment. Patient preferences may influence the comparative effectiveness of drugs delivered via different routes. Methods TOIB is a randomised trial comparing topical and oral ibuprofen, with a parallel patient preference study. We are recruiting people aged 50 or over with chronic knee pain, from 27 MRC General Practice Research Framework practices across the UK. We are seeking to recruit 283 participants to the RCT and 379 to the PPS. Participants will be followed up for up to two years (with the majority reaching one year. Outcomes will be assessed by postal questionnaire, nurse examination, laboratory tests and medical record searches at one and two years or the end of the study. Discussion This study will provide new evidence on the overall costs and benefits of treating chronic knee pain with either oral or topical ibuprofen. The use of a patient preference design is unusual, but will allow us to explore how preference influences response to a medication. In addition, it will provide more information on adverse events. This study will provide evidence to inform primary care practitioners, and possibly influence practice.

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE

    Patel Hirenjal; Upadhyay Umesh; Upadhyay Siddhi; Soni Hardik; Patel Prateek

    2013-01-01

    Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  9. Detecting adulterated commercial sweet sorghum syrups with ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles

    Some commercial sweet sorghum syrups can be fraudulently or accidently adulterated with inexpensive sugar syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or corn syrup, and sold at a relatively low market price or even mis-branded. This undermines the economic stability of the current small-sc...

  10. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.

  11. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    Qingjie Sun

    Full Text Available The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA and Texture profile analysis (TPA tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.

  12. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  13. Repeated topical treatment, in contrast to single oral doses, with Vitamin A-containing preparations does not affect plasma concentrations of retinol, retinyl esters or retinoic acids in female subjects of child-bearing age

    Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Shapiro, S.; Schulte, S.; Steiling, W.; Bausch, J.; Gerber, E.; Sasa, H.; Nau, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is widely used in cosmetic preparations. Given that oral Vitamin A and its metabolites present a potential reproductive risk, the present study investigated the effect of topical Vitamin A on human endogenous plasma levels of Vitamin A and its metabolites. Methods: Two groups o

  14. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    Mokaberinejad Roshanak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

  15. A comparative study of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy versus topical corticosteroids in the treatment of erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus: a randomized clinical controlled trial.

    Jajarm, Hasan Hoseinpour; Falaki, Farnaz; Sanatkhani, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Meysam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Shafaee, Hooman

    2015-07-01

    Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suggested as a new treatment option that is free from side effects for erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus (OLP). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy (TB-PDT) with local corticosteroids on treatment of erosive-atrophic OLP. In this randomized clinical trial, 25 patients with keratotic-atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus were allocated randomly into two groups. Group 1 (experimental): topical application of toluidine blue with micropipette was applied, and after 10 min, the patients were treated with a 630-nm GaAlAs laser (power density: 10 mW/cm(2)) during two visits. Group 2 (control) used mouthwash diluted with dexamethasone (tab 0/5 in 5 ml water) for 5 min, and then, it was spat out, and after 30 min, the mouth was rinsed with 30 drops of nystatin 100,000 units for 5 min and again spat out. Demographic data, type, and severity of the lesions and pain were recorded before and after treatment and then at the 1-month follow-up visit. Response rate was defined based on changes in intensity of the lesions and pain. In the experimental and control groups, sign scores of changes significantly reduced after treatment respectively (p = 0.021) and (p = 0.002), but between the two groups, no significant difference was observed (p = 0.72). In the experimental (p = 0.005) and control groups (p = 0.001), the intensity of lesions significantly reduced after treatment and there was a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.001). The mean amount of improvement in pain was significantly greater in the control group compared with the experimental group (p < 0.001) (α = 0.05). Our study showed that TB-PDT with laser was effective in the management of OLP.

  16. Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup.

    Tetik, Nedim; Turhan, Irfan; Oziyci, Hatice R; Karhan, Mustafa

    2011-09-01

    Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45.07, 152.44 ± 21.72 and 162.03 ± 21.45 g/kg dry weight, respectively. Carob syrup has a considerable amount of d-pinitol compared with the other d-pinitol-including legumes. Consequently, this study showed that carob syrup may be a suitable source of d-pinitol for medical use and d-pinitol may be an indicator for the detection of any adulteration in carob syrup.

  17. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells

    YAMAMOTO, TETSUSHI; Uemura, Kentaro; MORIYAMA, KAHO; Mitamura, Kuniko; TAGA, ATSUSHI

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classif...

  18. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2014-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Alo...

  19. Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.

    Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact.

  20. Flavors disinfection decoction ingested orally plus topical treatment for 35 cases of acne vulgaris%五味消毒饮内服外敷治疗寻常性痤疮35例临床观察

    游俊; 王英夫

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical efficacy of disinfection decoction taken orally and flavors used topically for the treatment of acne vulgaris. METHODS 60 cases of acne vulgaris were randomly divided into two groups: Treatment group 35 cases, disinfection decoction taken orally and flavors used topically. Control group 25 cases, oral ingestion of metronidazole tablets, vitamin A acid cream used topically before going to bed . RESULTS In treatment group, the recovery rate was 51.4%, the total effective rate was 97. 1 %. In control group, the basic recovery rate was 24.0%, the total effective rate was 80. 0%. The differences of recovery rate and the total effective rate between the two groups were significant differences (P< 0. 05). CONCLUSION Disinfection decoction taken orally and flavors used topically for the treatment of acne vulgaris has a significant effect, the security is good.%目的:观察五味消毒饮加减内服外敷治疗寻常性痤疮临床疗效.方法:60例痤疮患者随机分为两组,治疗组35例,采用五味消毒饮加减内服外敷联合治疗方法.对照组25例,口服甲硝唑片,睡前外用维A酸乳膏.结果:治疗组痊愈率51.4%.总有效率97.1%;对照组痊愈率24.0%.总有效率800.0%.两组痊愈率与总有效率比较,差异均有显著性(P<0.05).结论:五味消毒饮加减内服外敷法治疗寻常性痤疮有显著疗效,安全性好.

  1. The first use of N-carbamylglutamate in a patient with decompensated maple syrup urine disease.

    Kalkan Ucar, Sema; Coker, Mahmut; Habif, Sara; Saz, Eylem Ulas; Karapinar, Bulent; Ucar, Hakan; Kitis, Omer; Duran, Marinus

    2009-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a defect in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Affected patients may also develop hyperammonaemia of unknown etiology. This report describes a four-year-old girl with MSUD, who presented with decompensated hyperleucinaemia with hyperammonaemia. The oral administration of the N-acetylglutamate analogue, N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), 200 mg/kg/day as a loading dose, and 100 mg/kg/day as a maintenance dose, in combination with standard therapy resulted in a significant decrease of plasma ammonia levels. This observation suggests that NCG may be an important adjunct to standard therapy in the management of decompensated MSUD patients with high leucine and ammonia levels. Supportive evidence from either randomized controlled trials or a large prospective cohort study is needed to confirm this interesting finding.

  2. Efficacy and tolerability of a topical NSAID patch (local action transcutaneous flurbiprofen) and oral diclofenac in the treatment of soft-tissue rheumatism.

    Martens, M

    1997-01-01

    flurbiprofen patches reported a total of nine adverse effects (AEs) (mainly local, mild skin irritations), vs 9/52 (17%) patients receiving diclofenac, who reported 12 AEs. Most AEs in the enteric-coated diclofenac group were of a gastrointestinal nature (one of which was severe). In terms of the proportion of patients reporting AEs related to the digestive system, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of flurbiprofen LAT (p = 0.011). In conclusion, local treatment of soft-tissue rheumatism with flurbiprofen LAT was demonstrably superior to benchmark oral therapy with diclofenac sodium over a 2-week period in terms of both efficacy and gastrointestinal tolerability. Flurbiprofen LAT provided both an effective and convenient form of topical SAID treatment.

  3. A randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free ultra-deformable Sequessome™ vesicles (TDT 064) for the treatment of muscle soreness following exercise.

    Seidel, Egbert J; Rother, Matthias; Regenspurger, Katja; Rother, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles (FLEXISEQ(®) Sport; TDT 064) in reducing calf muscle soreness. One hundred and sixty eight healthy individuals with a pain score ≥ 3 (10-point scale) 12-16 h post-exercise (walking down stairs with an altitude of 300-400 m) were randomised to receive IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (two dose groups), oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064, or TDT 064 plus oral placebo. The primary endpoint was muscle soreness reduction from pre-dosing to Day 7. Higher pain scores were recorded with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean ± s 462.4 ± 160.4) versus IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (434.7 ± 190.8; P = 0.2931) or TDT 064 plus oral placebo (376.2 ± 159.1; P = 0.0240) in the 7 days post-exercise. Recovery from muscle soreness was longer with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean 91.0 ± 19.5 h) versus IDEA-033 plus placebo (mean 81.4 ± 22.9 h; P = 0.5964) or TDT 064 plus placebo (mean 78.9 ± 22.8 h; P = 0.0262). In conclusion, ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles ± ketoprofen did not retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 improves osteoarthritis-related pain and could be of interest as a treatment for joint pain during and post-exercise.

  4. Bimatoprost Topical

    Topical bimatoprost is used to treat hypotrichosis (less than the normal amount of hair) of the eyelashes by promoting ... growth of longer, thicker, and darker lashes. Topical bimatoprost is in a class of medications called prostaglandin ...

  5. Mentha Longifolia Syrup in Secondary Amenorrhea: a Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trials

    Roshanak Mokaberinejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study.Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001. The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup.ConclusionIn conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

  6. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    2012-01-01

    Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID

  7. 中医内服加外敷疗法治疗膝关节骨性关节炎对照观察%Control observation on treating KOA by TCM oral and topical therapy

    盖宗怀

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical effects of the TCM oral and topical therapy in treating knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods: 144 patients were divided into two groups. The treated group were taken orally the tiger force San capsule plus topical the Tongluo bone Ning cream treatment. The control group was treated with meloxicam capsule treatment. Results: 72 cases in the treated group, 48 cases were markedly effective, 19 cases were effective, 5 cases were ineffect, the total efficiency was 93.10%. Conclusion:TCM oral and topical therapy has effect on treating knee osteoarthritis, there are good prospects in the treatment of KOA.%  目的:探讨中医内服加外敷疗法治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效。方法:将144例膝关节炎患者分为两组。治疗组采用内服虎力散胶囊+外敷通络骨质宁膏治疗。对照组口服美洛昔康胶囊治疗。结果:治疗组72例中,显效48例,有效19例,无效5例,总有效率93.10%。结论:中医内服加外敷疗法治疗膝关节骨性关节炎效果显著,在治疗膝关节骨性关节炎方面有很好的前景。

  8. Oral fluoride retention after professional topical application in children with caries activity: comparison between 1.23% fluoride foam and fluoride gel

    Cecília Claudia Costa Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated fluoride retention in the saliva of children with caries activity after topical fluoride application in the form of gel and foam. Methods: A cross-sectional, blind and randomized study, conducted with ten caries-active children aged between 8 and 10 years, in two stage, with a washout interval of two weeks between them. The treatments consisted of: a application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the gel type in a mold and b application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the foam type in a mold. After the washout, the treatments were inverted. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from the children at the times of 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after topical fluoride application. For statistical analysis the Student’s-t test was used, with a level of significance of 5%. Results: Saliva analysis was performed using a fluoride-specific electrode (ISE25F/ Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark at the Aquatic Science Center of the Federal University of Marana, which revealed differences after 5 minutes (p=0.0055 and 15 minutes (p=0.0208. The topical application of fluoride in the gel form revealed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva. Conclusion: There were differences in the retention of fluoride in the saliva of children with caries activity after the topical application of fluoride gel and the topical application of fluoride foam after 5 and 15 minutes of their application. The topical application of fluoride foam is recommended, on the basis of the lower probability of toxicity during its use.

  9. Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-06-15

    Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis.

  10. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy.

  11. Topical treatment of melasma

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  12. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  13. Pharmacokinetics and Local Tissue Disposition of Piroxicam Following Topical and Oral Application in Rats%吡罗昔康口服和局部给药后药物动力学和局部组织的分布

    李英剑; 潘妍; 徐晖; 魏刚; 郝劲松; 郑俊民

    2002-01-01

    目的研究大鼠吡罗昔康局部给药的药物传递和机理.方法大鼠分别局部给药和口服4mg吡罗昔康后,用HPLC法测定局部给药部位的皮肤、肌肉、关节和血液的药物浓度.结果口服给药后,Tjoint/Plasms和Tmus/Plasma比值保持恒定,大部分的时间其值介于0.06和0.2.比较而言,局部给药后,Tjoing/Plasma和Tmus/Plasma比值分别介于0.2到1.26和1.89到5.4之间.比值远远大于口服给药.结论数据表明局部给药后,到达局部深层组织的吡罗昔康来自于药物的直接渗透;当药物的靶向部位在局部时局部给药优于口服给药.%Objective To investigate the drug delivery and mechanism of topical administration of piroxicam in rats .Methods Four milligrams of piroxicam were administered to Wistar rats by either oral or topical routes. The drug concentrations in plasma, local tissues were determined by HPLC. Results After oral application, the Tjoint/Plasma and Tmulcle/Plasma ratios kept unchanged. During most of the experimental time(0- 24 h), the values varied between 0.06 and 0.2. In contrast,the Tjoing/Plasma and Tmuscle/Plasma ratios after local application varied from 0.2 to 1.26 and from 1.89 to 5.4 respectively and were much higher than the ones by oral application. Conclusion The results showed that most piroxicam reaching the local deep tissues was attributed to the direct penetration and topical delivery is superior to oral application when the drug's target is local tissues under skin.

  14. Clindamycin Topical

    ... topical clindamycin.you should know that abrasive or medicated soaps and skin products that contain alcohol may ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  15. Tretinoin Topical

    ... lotions, astringents, and perfumes); they can sting your skin, especially when you first use tretinoin.Do not use any other topical medications, especially benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid (wart remover), and dandruff shampoos containing sulfur or ...

  16. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  17. THE PURIFICATION OF GLUCOSE SYRUP FROM TAPIOCA BY USING ABSORPTION METHOD AND THE CONCENTRATION PROCESS BY VACUUM EVAPORATOR

    Zainal; Laga, Amran; Bastian, Februadi

    2013-01-01

    The glucose syrupe production from tapioca needs to remove dirt and the colour. The water content should also be reduced. The aobjectives of this research were to identify the efffectiveness of glucose syrup purification by using the combination of activated charcoal and zeolit, and to determine the optimal evaporation time on the concentration process of glucose syrup to produce high glucose syrup. The materials were tapioca, activated charcoal, and zeolit. The research was started with conv...

  18. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Yi-Chieh Li

    Full Text Available Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  20. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  1. Testosterone Topical

    ... and dependence of testosterone and other AAS.The Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 placed AAS, including testosterone, ... Apridra, Humalog, Humulin, Lantus, Novolin, others); and oral steroids ... doctor if you have breast cancer or have or may have prostate cancer. Your ...

  2. Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

    2007-12-01

    The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

  3. Worldwide production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose.

    Vuilleumier, S

    1993-11-01

    High-fructose syrups (HFS) are now manufactured and used in many countries throughout the world. They are produced from a variety of starch raw materials including corn, rice, tapioca, wheat, cassava, and sugar beet pulp. Production of HFS is highly dependent on local sucrose and economics of agricultural raw materials. HFS is produced and consumed in the largest quantity in the United States by using corn starch as the raw material. Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Asia are major growth areas for HFS production. Crystalline fructose is now being used in a growing number of food applications but its production represents a small percentage of total fructose sweeteners.

  4. Topical ketoprofen patch.

    Mazières, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Although oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment of a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions, their use may be associated with serious systemic adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal disorders. In order to minimise the incidence of systemic events related to such agents, topical NSAIDs have been developed. Topical NSAIDs, applied as gels, creams or sprays, penetrate the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle in amounts that are sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect on peripheral and central mechanisms in the absence of high plasma concentrations. Data indicate that topical NSAIDs are effective at relieving pain in a number of acute and chronic pain indications. This review article discusses the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of a new formulation of ketoprofen available as a topical patch. The topical patch containing ketoprofen 100mg as the active principle has been developed using a novel delivery system that dispenses therapeutic doses of the drug directly to the site of injury. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that although plasma levels of ketoprofen are higher when the drug is administered as a patch versus a gel, the total systemic bioavailability of ketoprofen 100 mg administered via a patch is no more than 10% of that reported for ketoprofen 100 mg administered orally. Because the patch facilitates ketoprofen delivery over a 24-hour period, the drug remains continually present in the tissue subjacent to the site of application. High tissue but low plasma ketoprofen concentrations mean that while tissue concentrations are high enough to exert a therapeutic effect, plasma concentrations remain low enough to not result in systemic adverse events caused by elevated serum NSAID levels. Phase III clinical trials in patients with non-articular rheumatism and traumatic painful soft tissue injuries showed that the topical ketoprofen patch was significantly more effective than placebo at

  5. The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease

    Abdullah M Kaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD. He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment modality allowed a comprehensive rehabilitation program to be completed and it lasted longer than 9 months.

  6. Topical anesthesia

    Mritunjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  7. Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures.

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2011-03-28

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience with each solution they switched to sucrose preference. Approximating the composition of HFCS with a mixture of fructose and glucose (55:45) yielded a solution that was less attractive than sucrose or HFCS. However, HFCS contains a small amount of glucose polymers, which are very attractive to rats. A 55:42:3 mixture of fructose, glucose and glucose polymers (Polycose) was equally preferred to HFCS and was treated similarly to HFCS in comparisons vs. sucrose. Post-oral effects of sucrose, which is 50% fructose and 50% glucose, may be responsible for the shift in preference with experience. This shift, and the relatively small magnitude of differences in preference for HFCS and sucrose, suggest that palatability factors probably do not contribute to any possible difference in weight gain responses to these sweeteners.

  8. Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from banana starch.

    Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Moreno-Damían, Esther; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F

    2002-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated to obtain maltodextrin by enzymatic hydrolysis with a heat-stable alpha-amylase. The maltodextrin obtained had a dextrose equivalent (DE) between 7-11 and showed suitable chemical characteristics for food application. Additionally, banana maltodextrin had a greater white color value and total color difference (delta E) than a sample of commercial maltodextrin. Further saccharification of the maltodextrins was carried out with amyloglucosidase and pullulanase at 60 degrees C during 24 h obtaining a glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of banana glucose syrup were compared with those of a commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Nevertheless, the color of banana glucose syrup was clearer than the one of a sample of commercial syrup. However, it showed lower color stability than the commercial sample, i.e., the color of banana glucose syrup changed as a function of storage time. Banana starch may be used to obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize starch. Particularly, the color of banana maltodextrin is adequate for its use in food products.

  9. 推拿拔罐结合养阴清肺糖浆治疗小儿阴虚肺热咳嗽80例%Massage and Cupping Combined with Yangyin Qingfei Syrup Treating 80 Cases of Children with Yin Deficiency and Lung Heat Cough

    胡沛铎; 马军虎

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of massage and cupping combined with Yangyin Qingfei syrup for the treatment of yin deficiency and lung heat cough. Methods:There were 160 cases randomly di-vided into the treatment group and the control group. In the control group patients were treated with Yangyin Qingfei syrup,while in the treatment group patents were give massage and cupping combined with Yangyin Qingfei syrup. Effects were compared after the treatment. Results:The total effective rate of the massage and cupping combined with oral administration of Yangyin Qingfei syrup was 91.3%,obviously supe-rior to oral administration of Yangyin Qingfei syrup alone. Conclusion:massage and cupping combined with Yangyin Qingfei syrup in treatment of children with yin deficiency and lung heat cough was of obvious ef-fect.%目的:观察推拿拔罐结合养阴清肺糖浆治疗阴虚肺热咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:将160例患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组采用口服养阴清肺糖浆,治疗组在对照组基础上与推拿拔罐结合,治疗后进行疗效比较.结果:推拿拔罐结合口服养阴清肺糖浆总有效率91.3%,疗效明显优于单纯口服养阴清肺糖浆.结论:推拿拔罐结合养阴清肺糖浆治疗小儿阴虚肺热咳嗽效果显著.

  10. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  11. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  12. Zincovit syrup ameliorates oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    S. M. Satyam

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The present findings revealed that ZVT syrup may be useful in oxidative stress associated tissue damage as a nutritional food supplement. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 449-452

  13. Influence of thermal effect on sugars composition of Mexican Agave syrup

    Muniz-Marquez, D.B.; Contreras, J. C.; Rodriguez, R.; Mussatto, S.I.; Wong-Paz, J.E.; J.A. Teixeira; Aguilar, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Agave syrup is a fermentable by-product from the Agave industry that is used for pulque production, a typical Mexican fermented beverage. However, to date, the information available on its physicochemical composition is scarce, with this study being one of the first contributions on the subject. Here the influence of thermal treatment at 121ºC/15 min on the physicochemical composition of agave syrup was studied. The chemical composition based on sugar content was evaluated by thin-layer chrom...

  14. Canada's maple syrup industry%加拿大枫糖业

    2005-01-01

    Maple syrup is a natural product with no coloring agents or additives. Canada produces about 85 per cent of the world's maple syrup. Marketing has evolved from selling to traditional markets to more value added markets such as blends with other products (cereals, yogurt, etc.). This industry contributes to Canada's value added exports, since more than 60 per cent of maple exports are now shipped in pre packaged containers.

  15. Movement Disorders in Adult Surviving Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Carecchio, M.; Schneider, S. A.; Chan, H; Lachmann, R.; Lee, P. J.; Murphy, E.; Bhatia, K P

    2011-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic enceph...

  16. Movement Disorders in Adult Surviving Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Carecchio, Miryam; Susanne A. Schneider; Chan, Heidi; Lachmann, Robin; Lee, Philip J; Murphy, Elaine; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2011-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic encephalop...

  17. Oral candidiasis.

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  18. Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.

    Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K

    2014-03-01

    Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products.

  19. Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.

    Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David

    2015-08-17

    Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH 6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89 °Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25 °C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study.

  20. Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors

    Louis Duchesne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001–2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter, the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions.

  1. Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD.

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

    2015-01-15

    Agave syrups are gaining popularity as new natural sweeteners. Identification, classification and discrimination by infrared spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics (NIR-MIR-SIMCA-PCA) and HPAEC-PAD of agave syrups from natural sweeteners were achieved. MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to classify the natural sweeteners according to their natural source. Natural syrups exhibited differences in the MIR spectra region 1500-900 cm(-1). The agave syrups displayed strong absorption in the MIR spectra region 1061-1,063 cm(-1), in agreement with their high fructose content. Additionally, MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to differentiate among syrups from different Agave species (Agavetequilana and Agavesalmiana). Thin-layer chromatography and HPAEC-PAD revealed glucose, fructose, and sucrose as the principal carbohydrates in all of the syrups. Oligosaccharide profiles showed that A. tequilana syrups are mainly composed of fructose (>60%) and fructooligosaccharides, while A. salmiana syrups contain more sucrose (28-32%). We conclude that MIR-SIMCA-PCA and HPAEC-PAD can be used to unequivocally identify and classified agave syrups.

  2. EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF URAL SYRUP

    Thakkar Tejas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are considerable amount of scientific evidences available for diuretic activity of individual ingredients of a polyherbal formulation Ural Syrup however no evidence has been found which proves overall safety and efficacy of the formulation. The present study was undertaken to investigate safety as well as Diuretic activity of this polyherbal formulation- Ural Syrup. Acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD Guideline 420. The Ural syrup (1.8mL/kg and 3.6mL/kg was tested for its diuretic activity on rat model. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ (10mg/kg was used as positive control in study. The diuretic effect of the Ural syrup was evaluated by measuring urine volume, pH and excretion of sodium and potassium content. In result, significant increase in urine volume was observed at both dosage levels of Ural syrup in comparison to normal control group. There was no significant change observed in pH of urine. The excretion of Sodium was also found significantly increased at both dosage levels but more in TEDx2 group with respect to TED group. Potassium excretion was found increased only at TEDx2 group as compared to normal control group. It can be concluded that Ural syrup produced considerable diuretic effect which appeared to be comparable to that produced by the reference diuretic HCTZ. There was no lethality and toxic reaction found among the tested animals. The present study provides scientific support that Ural syrup can be employed as a safe and effective diuretic drug.

  3. The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis

    Barker, G.; Loftus, L.; Cuddy, P.; Barker, B. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis.

  4. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

  5. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines

    Shu-Xun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12–16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%–31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  6. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines.

    Liu, Shu-Xun; Yang, Hang-Yu; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yue; Li, Teng; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Zhang, Bo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12-16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%-31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  7. A randomized triple-blind clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of topical triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and tacrolimus orabase (0.03%) in the management of oral lichen planus

    Sivaraman, Shivakumar; Santham, Krishnamoorthy; Nelson, Aruldoss; Laliytha, Bijaykumar; Azhalvel, Pandian; Deepak, John Hearty

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is believed to result from an abnormal T-cell mediated immune response. The most useful agent in the treatment is corticosteroids. The present study will be aimed at evaluation of therapeutic efficiency of two corticosteroids triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%) and clobetasol propionate with tacrolimus orabase (0.03%), an immunomodulator in the management of OLP. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of topical triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and tacrolimus orabase (0.03%) in the management of OLP and also to compare which has less recurrence. Study Design: The study comprises 30 patients, all were diagnosed with OLP clinically and histopathologically. They are randomly divided into three groups: Group A - triamcinolone acetonate (0.1%), Group B - clobetasol propionate (0.05%), and Group C - tacrolimus (0.03%). A formal informed consent was obtained from all of them who participated in the study. Results and Conclusion: Subjects in the Group A (triamcinolone 0.1%) and Group B (clobetasol 0.05%) show a significant reduction in lesion size than that of Group C (tacrolimus 0.03%). Group B (clobetasol 0.05%) shows a better significant reduction in lesion size than that of Group A (triamcinolone 0.1%). The overall treatment response was significant better in the Group B (clobetasol 0.05%). No recurrence was observed in any of the three groups at the end of 3 months. It is concluded that clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment has higher efficacy when compared to triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% ointment and tacrolimus ointment 0.03% in the management of OLP. It was also inferred that triamcinolone 0.1% has better effects than tacrolimus 0.03%. PMID:27829754

  8. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    Brunson Dominque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world’s high fructose syrup (HFS. There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6±0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P<0.05 mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups’ peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of gold glyconanoparticles functionalized with sugars of sweet Sorghum syrup.

    Kumar, C Ganesh; Mamidyala, Suman Kumar; Sreedhar, Bojja; Reddy, Belum V S

    2011-01-01

    Gold glyconanoparticles were synthesized by a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly method by using sweet Sorghum syrup for application in biomedicine and biotechnology. The nanostructures of the prepared gold nanoparticles were confirmed by using UV-visible absorbance, TEM, SAED, FTIR, EDAX, XRD, and photoluminescence analyses. The formation of gold nanoparticles at both room and boiling temperatures and kinetics of the reaction were monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM studies. TEM analysis revealed that the obtained nanoparticles were mono-dispersed and spherical in shape with an average particle size of 7 nm. The size of the nanoparticles was influenced by the concentration of Sorghum syrup. The presence of elemental gold was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Based on the FTIR analysis, it was observed that the sugars present in the Sorghum syrup possibly acts as capping agents. The zeta potential analysis revealed that the glyconanoparticles were negatively charged with a potential of -25 mV. The XRD and SAED patterns also suggest that the nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and these particles were found to exhibit visible photoluminescence. Fructose and glucose present in sweet Sorghum syrup were demonstrated as responsible sugars for the reduction of gold ions, and sucrose stabilized the formed nanoparticles. The proposed mechanism for the formation and stabilization of gold glyconanoparticles is based on the phenomenon of "macromolecular crowding." This is the first report on the use of sweet Sorghum syrup for the green synthesis of gold glyconanoparticles at both room and boiling temperatures.

  10. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup.

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  11. The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107

    Laochareonsuk, T.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

  12. 舒肺止咳糖浆治疗感染后咳嗽的临床观察%Clinical observation on treating post infectious cough with cough syrup

    朱颖文; 缪晓路

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察舒肺止咳糖浆对感染后咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:选择感染后咳嗽患者75例,给予强力安喘通口服3d后,联用舒肺止咳糖浆口服,治疗3d,观察临床疗效.结果:第1个疗程后总有效率为66.7%;第2个疗程后总有效率为82.5%.两个疗程总有效率比较有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:联用舒肺止咳糖浆对感染后咳嗽有较好的疗效.%Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of cough syrup in treating post infectious cough. Methods: 75 cases of post infectious cough patients were selected, given Asmeton’strong’ Capsules orally for 3 days and given cough syrup for another 3 days. Results: The total effective rate after the first course of treatment was 66.7%, and that of the second course of treatment was 82.5%. A significant difference were detected between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combination use of cough syrup had an expected effect in treating post infectious cough.

  13. Effect of High Fructose Syrup Diet Exposure on the Activities of Detoxifying Enzymes in Honey Bees Apis mellifera ligustica%饲喂果葡糖浆对意大利蜜蜂解毒酶的影响

    孟丽峰; 靳三省; 刁青云

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨果葡糖浆饲喂蜜蜂的安全性,以意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica)为实验材料,蔗糖作为对照,饲喂果葡糖浆2个月后,检测意大利蜜蜂体内解毒酶的变化情况.结果表明:饲喂果葡糖浆后,意大利蜜蜂大幼虫体内细胞色素P450比活力、成年工蜂腹部谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶和羧酸酯酶比活力均与对照无显著差异.短期饲喂果葡糖浆对蜜蜂是安全的,长期影响还有待于继续研究.%The activities of Cytochrome-P450,glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase in the worker bees of Apis mellifera ligustica were investigated after the bees were fed orally with high fructose syrup in two consecutive months.The results showed that compared with sucrose diet,high fructose syrup diet did not significantly affect the activities of three detoxifying enzymes.Feeding with high fructose syrups is safe to Apis mellifera ligustica in short time and long-time effects need further research.The results can be used to assess the security of high fructose syrups used as bee feed.

  14. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  15. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions.

  16. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup.

  17. Glycemic effect of nutritive sweeteners: Honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup

    Controversy currently exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Using a randomized, crossover design we evaluated the effects of chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) on glucose tolerance in overweigh...

  18. Influence of thermal effect on sugars composition of Mexican Agave syrup

    Muniz-Marquez, D.B.; Contreras, J.C.; Rodriguez, R.; Mussatto, S.I.; Wong-Paz, J.E.; Teixeira, J.A.; Aguilar, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Agave syrup is a fermentable by-product from the Agave industry that is used for pulque production, a typical Mexican fermented beverage. However, to date, the information available on its physicochemical composition is scarce, with this study being one of the first contributions on the subject. Her

  19. Movement disorders in adult surviving patients with maple syrup urine disease.

    Carecchio, Miryam; Schneider, Susanne A; Chan, Heidi; Lachmann, Robin; Lee, Philip J; Murphy, Elaine; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2011-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic encephalopathy, with complete resolution after appropriate dietary treatment. Movement disorders in patients surviving childhood are not well documented. We assessed 17 adult patients with maple syrup urine disease (mean age, 27.5 years) with a special focus on movement disorders. Twelve (70.6%) had a movement disorder on clinical examination, mainly tremor and dystonia or a combination of both. Parkinsonism and simple motor tics were also observed. Pyramidal signs were present in 11 patients (64.7%), and a spastic-dystonic gait was observed in 6 patients (35.2%). In summary, movement disorders are common in treated adult patients with maple syrup urine disease, and careful neurological examination is advisable to identify those who may benefit from specific therapy. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Case Study: Commercialization of sweet sorghum juice clarification for large-scale syrup manufacture

    The precipitation and burning of insoluble granules of starch from sweet sorghum juice on heating coils prevented the large scale manufacture of syrup at a new industrial plant in Missouri, USA. To remove insoluble starch granules, a series of small and large-scale experiments were conducted at the...

  1. In vivo neuroprotective effect of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in maple syrup urine disease

    Mescka, Caroline; Moraes, Tarsila; Rosa, Andrea; Mazzola, Priscila; Piccoli, Bruna; Jacques, Carlos; Dalazen, Giovana; Coelho, Juliana; Cortes, Marcelo; Terra, Melaine; Regla Vargas, Carmen; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S

    2011-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme complex branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and val

  2. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  3. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup...... resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer’s yeast metabolism and the influence of the type...... of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer....

  4. Topical report review status

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

  5. Efficacy observation of compound Huangbai liquid and Loratadine syrup in treatment of infantile eczema%复方黄柏液联合氯雷他定糖浆治疗小儿湿疹疗效观察

    周桂林; 杨伯艳; 窦海忠

    2014-01-01

    目的::观察复方黄柏液联合氯雷他定糖浆治疗小儿湿疹的临床疗效。方法:将152例湿疹患儿随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组76例患儿。治疗组患儿给予氯雷他定糖浆口服,急性湿疹有渗出糜烂者用复方黄柏液冷湿敷;亚急性湿疹,结痂肥厚者直接外搽;对照组患儿给予氯雷他定糖浆口服,急性湿疹有渗出糜烂者用2%~3%硼酸溶液冷湿敷患处;亚急性湿疹,结痂肥厚者用硼酸氧化锌软膏外搽。比较两组疗效。结果:总有效率治疗组和对照组患儿分别为88.16%、61.84%,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01)。结论:复方黄柏液联合氯雷他定糖浆治疗小儿湿疹疗效好,不良反应小,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To observe clinical efficacy of compound Huangbai liquid and Loratadine syrup in treatment of infantile eczema. Methods:152 cases of eczema were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. 76 cases in treatment group o-rally took Loratadine syrup oral: acute eczema patients with exudation erosion were treated by wet and cold liquid of compound Huang-bai; those with subacute eczema and scabs hypertrophy were coated with compound Huangbai liquid directly. 76 cases in control group orally took Loratadine syrup: the acute eczema patients with exudation erosion were treated by wet and cold 2% -3% boric acid solution on skin; those with subacute eczema and scabs hypertrophy were coated with zinc oxide ointment. The efficacies of the two groups were compared. Results: The total effective rates of treatment group and control group were 88. 16% and 61. 84% , respectively, and the difference was significant (P<0. 01). Conclusions: Compound Huangbai liquid and Loratadine syrup in the treatment of infantile ecze-ma can get a good efficacy, reduce side effects, and be worthy of clinical application.

  6. Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of topical tacrolimus in treatment of erosive oral li-chen planus%他克莫司软膏治疗顽固性糜烂型口腔扁平苔藓的利弊分析

    王翔剑; 周红梅

    2014-01-01

    口腔扁平苔藓( oral lichen planus ,OLP)是一种常见的口腔黏膜慢性炎性疾病,部分糜烂型OLP对糖皮质激素治疗不敏感甚至无效。他克莫司软膏是一种免疫抑制类局部制剂,学者们用于治疗顽固性糜烂型OLP取得一定疗效,但同时也发现一些值得注意的问题。本文对他克莫司软膏用于治疗顽固性糜烂型OLP的利弊进行分析,为临床医师更合理地应用该类制剂提供参考。%Oral lichen planus ( OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa .Some of erosive OLP pa-tients show resistance or even invalidity to glucocorticoid therapy .As a topical immunosuppressive agent ,tacrolimus ointment treatment of intractable erosive OLP has been demonstrated to have some effective ,but scholars also identified some notable problems .In this pa-per,the pros and cons of topical tacrolimus treatment of erosive OLP will be analyzed .It could provide a reference to clinicians for a more rational application of such formulations .

  7. Control of pain with topical plant medicines

    James; David; Adams; Jr.; Xiaogang; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Pain is normally treated with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. These drugs are dangerous and are responsible for many hospitalizations and deaths. It is much safer to use topical preparations made from plants to treat pain, even severe pain. Topical preparations must contain compounds that penetrate the skin, inhibit pain receptors such as transient receptor potential cation channels and cyclooxygenase-2, to relieve pain. Inhibition of pain in the skin disrupts the pain cycle and avoids exposure of internal organs to large amounts of toxic compounds. Use of topical pain relievers has the potential to save many lives, decrease medical costs and improve therapy.

  8. Exercise and the oxidation and storage of glucose, maize-syrup solids and sucrose determined from breath 13CO2.

    Leese, G P; Thompson, J; Scrimgeour, C M; Rennie, M J

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine which of maize syrup solids, glucose and sucrose were more readily oxidised during exercise and least readily oxidised afterwards, the rates of oxidation of three almost identical isoenergetic solutions of carbohydrates (330 ml of 18.5% w/v solutions of glucose, maize syrup solids and sucrose, 989-1050 kJ total energy) naturally enriched with 13C were examined at rest and during and after 1 h uphill walking at 75% maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in nine subjects [mean (SEM) VO2max, 45.4 (0.9) ml.kg-1.min-1]. Rates of production of expired 13CO2 were used to estimate rates of oxidation of each exogenous substrate. Energy expenditure and the contributions from total carbohydrate and fat oxidation were calculated from whole-body gas exchange. At rest, maize syrup solids were oxidised less than sucrose during the 1st h [glucose 2.7 (0.2) g.h-1, maize syrup solids 1.9 (0.3) g.h-1, sucrose 3.7 (0.2) g.h-1; maize syrup solids vs sucrose P glucose 8.3 (0.5) g.h-1, maize syrup solids 7.7 (0.5) g.h-1, sucrose 8.1 (0.4) g.h-1]. During exercise, all the carbohydrates were oxidised to the same extent [glucose 23.0 (2.8) g.h-1, maize syrup solids 23.9 (3.4) g.h-1, sucrose 27.5 (2.6) g.h-1) but during 4 h of recovery after exercise, maize syrup solids were oxidised least [glucose 4.6 (0.1) g.h-1, maize syrup solids 3.7 (0.1) g.h-1, sucrose 6.4 (0.1) g.h-1; P glucose, maize syrup solids and sucrose solutions were equally well oxidised during exercise. During recovery from exercise maize syrup solids were oxidised less than glucose, which in turn was oxidised less than sucrose.

  9. Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup

    Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration

  10. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger

    Mostafa, Yasser S.; Alamri, Saad A.

    2012-01-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appear...

  11. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar loaf and MD2 pineapple varieties were evalu- ated. Organic side-stream pineapple syrup developed from MD2 recorded the highest moisture content with a corre- sponding water activity. The colour ch...

  12. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    Diclofenac topical gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the ... the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain ...

  13. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year...

  14. Hypovolemic shock due to severe gastrointestinal bleeding in a child taking an herbal syrup

    Paola Angela Moro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 4-years-old boy who was admitted with hypovolemic shock due to a severe gastrointestinal bleeding. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS showed hiatus hernia, erosions and ulcerations of the lower esophagus, possibly due to a gastroesophageal reflux, and a small duodenal erosion. The child was previously healthy and he had never shown any symptoms related to this condition. The only product taken by the child in the previous days was a syrup containing several herbs, among which Filipendula ulmaria (L. Maxim. and Salix spp. (known to contain salicylates, marketed as food and prescribed by his paediatrician to treat a mild cold accompanied by fever. Quali-quantitative analysis confirmed the presence of salicylates in the syrup. Naranjo algorithm showed a probable correlation between the onset of symptoms and the consumption of the herbal remedy. The child recovered after receiving intensive care. The product was withdrawn from Italian market.

  15. Optimization of the production of maltose syrups by different enzyme combinations

    Tegge, G.; Richter, G.; Richter, G.

    1986-02-01

    Maltose syrups are of importance for the production of many sweets and baking goods. These starch hydrolysates show reduced browning capacity, retarded crystallization phenomena, and are less sweet, less viscous and less hygroscopic in comparison with syrups of higher glucose content. Enzymatic preparation of such products with regard to the influence of substrate and enzyme concentration, reaction time and added calcium on maltose formation by fungal-..cap alpha..-amylase or barley-..beta..-amylase was investigated. For increasing the maltose content pullulanase as a debranching enzyme was applied. Commercial maltodextrin was used as substrate. The maltogenic enzymes showed different substrate tolerances. High amounts of enzyme did not lead to the expected high amounts of maltose. On the other hand, low enzyme concentrations could not be compensated by extended reaction times. Different substrate tolerances also appeared when mixtures of maltogenic and debranching enzymes came into use.

  16. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Patel Girish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

  17. Agave syrup as a substrate for inulinase production by Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571

    Luana Paula de Azevedo de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The factorial planning was used to plan and optimize inulinase production by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. The experiments were conducted using a Central Composite Design (CCD 22, at different concentrations of agave syrup (3.6 to 6.4% and yeast extract (2.2 to 3.0%. After 96 hours of fermentation, the best condition for the inulinase production was 5% agave syrup and 2.5% yeast extract, which yielded an average of 129.21 U mL-1 of inulinase. Partial characterization of the crude enzyme showed that the optimal pH and temperature were 4.0 and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme showed thermal stability at 55°C for 4 hours.

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease

    Heindel, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Kugel, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wendel, U. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Roth, B. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Benz-Bohm, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized {sup 1}H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

  19. Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.

    Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

    2013-02-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products.

  20. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct....... The grammatical relation of the topic is expressed by a voice-like inflection of the verb, here called orientation. While subject-orientation is morphologically unmarked, object-oriented and adjunct-oriented verbs are marked by a subject suffix or by a suffix indicating that the topic is not subject, and adjunct......-orientation differs from object-orientation by a marked tone pattern. Topic choice largely reflects information structure by indicating topic continuity. The topic also plays a crucial role in relative clauses and in clauses with contrastive constituent focus, in that objects and adjuncts can only be relativized...

  1. Fourier transform infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic methods for the detection of toxic Diethylene Glycol (DEG) contaminant in glycerin based cough syrup

    Ahmed, M. Khalique; McLeod, Michael P.; Nézivar, Jean; Giuliani, Allison W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently there have been reports of the contamination of cough syrups with Diethylene Glycol (DEG). The consumption of such cough syrups has devastating effects on the health. In this paper we report evidence that Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic techniques are viable, simple, cost effective, rapid and fool proof methods for the identification and quantification of DEG in glycerin based cough syrups. The FT-IR and NIR spectra of the glycerin based cough...

  2. Development of High Fructose Syrup in the US and its Implications for Australia

    Niall, D. Jane; Smith, Rhonda L.

    1983-01-01

    Sugar is an important agricultural export for Australia, hence developments affecting the world market are of concern. Alternative sweeteners, in particular High Fructose Syrups, are making inroads into the United States sugar market, one of the traditional destinations for Australia sugar exports. With sugar currently in oversupply on the world market Australia is affected by this development both through erosion of her markets and through lower prices. In this paper the development of the H...

  3. Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City

    Abdullah Al Mamun; Tapas Kumar Shaha; Md. Murad Khan; Md. Shahidul Kabir

    2014-01-01

    The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol ...

  4. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease

    P.S. Atwal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods.

  5. Methylglyoxal is associated with bacteriostatic activity of high fructose agave syrups.

    Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gomez Ojeda, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Magana, Armando Alcazar; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2014-12-15

    Three α-ketoaldehydes, potentially present in high fructose agave syrups (HFASs) as intermediates of the Maillard reaction, were determined. A previously reported HPLC-FLD procedure based on pre-column derivatisation with 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine was adopted, yielding the method quantification limits 0.11 mg/kg, 0.10mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg for glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGo) and diacetyl, respectively. The obtained results revealed high concentrations of methylglyoxal in HFASs (average 102 ± 91 mg/kg, range 15.6-315 mg/kg) as compared to commercial Mexican bee honeys or corn syrups. Hydrogen peroxide was generated in all HFASs upon dilution, yet to less extent than in bee honeys. HFASs presented bacteriostatic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; catalase addition had minimum effect on the assay results in syrups with elevated MGo. Principal component analysis revealed direct association between growth inhibition and MGo. It is concluded that elevated concentration of MGo in HFASs is at least in part responsible for their non-peroxide bacteriostatic activity.

  6. Major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles of agave syrup. Application of this data to authenticity analysis.

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2012-09-05

    Nineteen pure agave syrups representing the three major production regions and four processing facilities in Mexico were analyzed for their major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles, as well as their physicochemical properties (pH, °Brix, total acidity, percent total titratable acidity, and color). Additionally, the detection of intentional debasing of agave syrup with four commercial nutritive sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, DE 42 and sucrose) was afforded by oligosaccharide profiling employing both high performance anion exchange liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID). Results showed that the major carbohydrate and polyol in agave syrups were fructose and inositol with mean concentrations of 84.29% and 0.38%, respectively. Oligosaccharide profiling was extremely successful for adulteration detection with detection limits ranging from 0.5 to 2.0% for the aforementioned debasing agents. Also, all four of these possible adulterants could be detected within a single chromatographic analysis.

  7. Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch

    Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring agents, followed by ultrafiltration of the syrup. The last step (concentration is done by vacuum evaporation. The results showed that separation, centrifuging and sedimation reached 50% yield whilst filtration and ultrafiltration achieved 78% and 98% respectively. It was found that adsorbent agents such as activated carbon and diatomaceous earth were effective in removing colour during the purification stage. The most suitable alternative for separation can be suggested from the foregoing, allowing a syrup to be obtained having similar characteristics and propierties to the commercial product. The most appropriate technological module for carrying out the operation is also represented.

  8. Preparation of high-fructose syrup from the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Fleming, S E; GrootWassink, J W

    1979-11-01

    Fructose has recently received much attention due to renewed interest in natural sweeteners. In addition, fructose has some advantages to sucrose in sweetness, solubility, viscosity, and dental health characteristics. Fructose is deposited as storage fructans of the inulin (beta-1,2) type in tubers and rhizomes of the Compositae family. The utilization of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tuber as a source of fructose syrup is discussed. This plant has the potential to produce more sugar per acre than corn or sugar beets. In addition, the artichoke has higher frost resistance and lower heat unit requirements than corn and is somewhat more tolerant to low moisture conditions than sugar beets. A high quality fructose syrup can be produced from artichoke tubers. The extraction step was found to be particularly important since development of adverse colors and flavors must be prevented. The fructans may be acid or enzyme hydrolyzed but the latter method gave a higher quality syrup. Ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal were effective in removing coloring and flavoring materials, and also reduced other noncarbohydrate constituents. Since the enzymatic hydrolysis of the fructans is an attractive alternative to acid hydrolysis, a process was developed for producing and purifying a special beta-fructofuranosidase (inulase) from Saccharomyces fragilis. Inulase has a much higher specificity for fructans than commerically available beta-fructofuranosidase (invertase).

  9. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups.

  10. Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study

    Gaurao Vasant Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. Results: The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05 in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic. However, highly significant (P < 0.01 difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2 and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3 which was statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.

  11. Women's Health Topics

    ... Health Diabetes Healthy Aging Heart Health Mammograms Caregiving Menopause Pregnancy Safe Medication Use Other Topics like cosmetics and nutrition Other Resources womenshealth.gov Federal Citizen Information Center ...

  12. [Topical therapy of rosacea].

    Schöfer, H

    2013-07-01

    Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control.

  13. Review of topical beta blockers as treatment for infantile hemangiomas.

    Painter, Sally L; Hildebrand, Göran Darius

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of infantile hemangiomas changed from the use of oral corticosteroids to oral propranolol on the serendipitous discovery of propanolol's clinical effectiveness in 2008. Since then, clinicians have begun to use topical beta blockers--in particular, timolol maleate 0.5% gel forming solution--with good effect. Topical beta blockers are now used for lesions with both deep and superficial components and those that are amblyogenic. When initiated in the proliferative phase of the lesion, the effectiveness of the treatment can be seen within days. There is no consensus on dosing, treatment bioavailability, or clinical assessment of lesions, but these are topics for future research.

  14. Topic Identification in Discourse

    Chen, K

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a corpus-based language model for topic identification. We analyze the association of noun-noun and noun-verb pairs in LOB Corpus. The word association norms are based on three factors: 1) word importance, 2) pair co-occurrence, and 3) distance. They are trained on the paragraph and sentence levels for noun-noun and noun-verb pairs, respectively. Under the topic coherence postulation, the nouns that have the strongest connectivities with the other nouns and verbs in the discourse form the preferred topic set. The collocational semantics then is used to identify the topics from paragraphs and to discuss the topic shift phenomenon among paragraphs.

  15. Comparing the therapeutic effect of oral doxycycline,topical tretinoin and their combination therapy in treatment of rosacea%多西环素及维A酸霜与两者联合使用治疗酒渣鼻的疗效比较研究

    赖劲东; 杨娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨比较口服多西环素、外用维A酸霜以及两者联合使用治疗酒渣鼻的疗效和安全性.方法:将就诊于我院的酒渣鼻患者共60名,随机分为三组:口服多西环素治疗组、外用维A酸霜治疗组及两者联合治疗组,观察比较三组治疗前后炎症损害数目、红斑评分、毛细血管扩张严重程度的变化情况.结果:治疗12周后,联合治疗组的疗效优于另外两组(P0.05),三组中仅发生5例短暂轻微的副作用.结论:多西环素和维A酸外用制剂治疗酒渣鼻均能达到很好的疗效,发生的副作用轻微且短暂,两者联合应用的疗效更为显著,但均无改善毛细血管扩张症状的作用.%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect and security of oral doxycycline, topical tretinoin and their combination therapy in treatment of rosacea.Methods 60 patients who suffered rosacea were randomly divided into three groups:the oral Doxycycline treatment group,topical tretinoin cream treatment group and their combination treatment group.We compared the changes in the number of inflammatory lesions,erythema scores and the severity of telangiectasia before and after the treatment.Results After 12 weeks of treatment,we found that the therapeutic effect of combination group was better than the other two groups(P<0.05), and a considerable therapeutic effect was achieved in both doxycycline group and tretinoin group (P>0.05).there were only 5 cases involved in transient and minor adverse effect.Conclusions Excellent therapeutic effect with mild and transient adverse could be achieved by oral doxycycline and topical tretinoin, and their combination therapy was better, but they had no improvement in telangiectasia.

  16. Rheology and density of glucose syrup and honey: Determining their suitability for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic models of geological processes

    Schellart, W. P.

    2011-06-01

    Analogue models of lithospheric deformation and fluid dynamic models of mantle flow mostly use some kind of syrup such as honey or glucose syrup to simulate the low-viscosity sub-lithospheric mantle. This paper describes detailed rheological tests and density measurements of three brands of glucose syrup and three brands of honey. Additional tests have been done for one brand of glucose syrup that was diluted with water to various degrees (2%, 5% and 10% by weight). The rheological tests have been done to test the effect of shear strain, shear rate and temperature on the dynamic viscosity of the syrup. The results show that the viscosity of all glucose syrups and honeys is independent of shear strain (i.e. no strain hardening or softening). The viscosity of the glucose syrups is independent of shear rate (γ˙), i.e. linear-viscous or Newtonian, in the range γ˙=10-4-10 s with stress exponents that are almost identical to one ( n = 0.995-1.004). All the honeys show a very weak, but consistent, decrease in viscosity with increasing shear rate of 7-14% from 10 -3 to 10 0 s -1 and have stress exponents more distinct from one ( n = 1.007-1.026). All syrups have a viscosity that is strongly dependent on temperature in the range 0-50 °C, where viscosity decreases with increasing temperature. Such decrease can be fitted with exponential and Arrhenius functions, with the latter giving the best results. Furthermore, the viscosity of glucose syrup decreases approximately exponentially with increasing water content. Oscillation tests indicate that the rheology of all the syrups is entirely dominated by viscous behaviour and not by elastic behaviour at frequencies of 10 -3-10 2 Hz. Finally, the density investigations show that the density of glucose syrup and honey decreases approximately linearly with increasing temperature in the range 10-70 °C, with coefficients of thermal volumetric expansion at 20 °C of 3.89-3.95 × 10 -4 °C -1 and 4.57-4.81 × 10 -4 °C -1 for

  17. Sugar composition and yield of syrup production from the pulp of Moroccan carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.

    H. El Batal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to provide a process for obtaining natural carob syrup of Morocco carob pods and their total and reducing sugar. Samples were collected from different regions in the agro-forestry system of Morocco. The total sugar and reducing sugar in pods obtained from different regions were 31.5–50.1 and 10.2–14.6 g/100 g “%w/w”, respectively. The yield of syrup from the different regions varies between 28.76 and 37.22 g/100 g “%w/w”. Populations from Essaouira and Beni-mellal have higher levels of sugar and yield of syrup. The values obtained vary according to the origin of the samples.

  18. Biological hydrogen production from corn-syrup waste using a novel system

    Hafez, H.; Nakhla, G.; El Naggar, H. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 {sup o}C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2-2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Mary's wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada) was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 {sup o}C for 30 min to inhibit methanogenesis. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H{sub 2}/L{center_dot}d to 34 L H{sub 2}/L{center_dot}d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR) from 26 to 81 gCOD/L{center_dot}d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H{sub 2}/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H{sub 2}/gCOD. (author)

  19. [Acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease in a school boy].

    Qu, Su-Qing; Yang, Li-Cai; Luan, Zuo; Du, Kan; Yang, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a common amino acids metabolic disease. In most patients, onset occurs in the neonatal period and infancy. In this study, the case of a school boy with acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease is summarized. The boy (8.5 years) was admitted because of acute encephalopathy after suffering from infection for two days at the age of eight and a half years. Metabolic acidosis, hyperuricemia and decreased protein level in cerebrospinal fluid were found by general laboratory tests. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed signal intensity abnormalities in the bilateral cerebellum dentate nucleus, brainstem, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus and cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. On T1WI and T2WI scanning, hyperintensive signal was found. Blood leucine and valine were significantly elevated. Urinary 2-hydroxy isovaleric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-keto isovaleric acid, and 2-keto acid also increased. Both the blood amino acid and urine organic acid profiles led to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease. In the acute period, the patient was treated with a large dose of vitamin B1, glucose, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet. The patient's condition improved significantly after five days of treatment, and he recovered completely two days later. Afterwards, treatment with vitamin B1, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet (1 g/kg/day) was continued. One and a half months later, blood amino acids and urine organic acids returned to normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain also indicated a great improvement. It was concluded that inborn metabolic disease should be considered in the patients with an onset similar to acute encephalopathy. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent brain damage and improve prognosis.

  20. Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System

    George Nakhla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobicaly-digested sludge from the St. Mary’s wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 °C for 30 min to inhibit methanogens. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H2/L·d to 34 L H2/L·d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR from 26 to 81 gCOD/L·d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H2/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H2/gCOD.

  1. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Alexander L. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

  2. Oral Medication

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  3. Effect of Honey Vinegar Syrup on Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile in Healthy Subjects

    Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group). Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25709798

  4. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  5. Simultaneous Estimation of Four Antitussive Components from Herbal Cough Syrup by HPTLC

    Sharada L Deore; Jaju, Payal S.; Bhushan A Baviskar

    2014-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole in herbal cough syrup. The retention factors of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole are 0.53, 0.44, 0.75, and 0.77, respectively. Chromatography was performed on 60F254 percolated TLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate : glacial acetic acid (8.5 : 1.0 : 0.5 v/v/v). Methods are validated a...

  6. Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy and Tolerance of Khasceeze –SF Cough Syrup

    S Satam; Jain, R; J Dagaonkar; C Chotalia; Suthar, A.; Joshi, R

    2011-01-01

    Fifty patients of either sex aged 15 - 65 years entered the study to test the efficacy and tolerability of a herbal preparation known as Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup. They were studied for cough and related symptoms such as sore throat, sneezing, breathlessness and fever. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough and other symptoms was noted over 84% out of 50 patients and fair response in 11.64%. Only 4.10% patients showed poor relief in symptoms hence suggest...

  7. Conversion of mango kernel starch to glucose syrups by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Velan, M. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Krishnan, M.R.V. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Lakshmanan, C.M. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-05-01

    In the present investigation, the possibility of utilizing the starch present in mango seed (which are thrown away as waste) kernels for the production of glucose syrups by enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis has been studied. Under the conditions of operation, particles less than 90 microns in size showed maximum conversion at (i) {alpha}-amylase concentration = 0.06% (v/v), pH = 6.5 and temperature 95 C and (ii) glucoamylase concentration = 0.8% (v/v), pH = 4.5 and temperature = 60 C. (orig.)

  8. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    Filippone, Antonino

    1999-01-01

    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature...

  9. Supplemental topics on voids

    Rood, H.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several topics concerning voids are presented, supplementing the report of Rood (1988). The discovery of the Coma supercluster and void and the recognition of the cosmological significance of superclusters and voids are reviewed. Galaxy redshift surveys and redshift surveys for the Abell clusters and very distant objects are discussed. Solar system and extragalactic dynamics are examined. Also, topics for future observational research on voids are recommended. 50 references.

  10. Topical and peripheral ketamine as an analgesic.

    Sawynok, Jana

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, produces systemic analgesia in chronic pain settings, an action largely attributed to block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord and inhibition of central sensitization processes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors also are located peripherally on sensory afferent nerve endings, and this provided the initial impetus for exploring peripheral applications of ketamine. Ketamine also produces several other pharmacological actions (block of ion channels and receptors, modulation of transporters, anti-inflammatory effects), and while these may require higher concentrations, after topical (e.g., as gels, creams) and peripheral application (e.g., localized injections), local tissue concentrations are higher than those after systemic administration and can engage lower affinity mechanisms. Peripheral administration of ketamine by localized injection produced some alterations in sensory thresholds in experimental trials in volunteers and in complex regional pain syndrome subjects in experimental settings, but many variables were unaltered. There are several case reports of analgesia after topical application of ketamine given alone in neuropathic pain, but controlled trials have not confirmed such effects. A combination of topical ketamine with several other agents produced pain relief in case, and case series, reports with response rates of 40% to 75% in retrospective analyses. In controlled trials of neuropathic pain with topical ketamine combinations, there were improvements in some outcomes, but optimal dosing and drug combinations were not clear. Given orally (as a gargle, throat swab, localized peritonsillar injections), ketamine produced significant oral/throat analgesia in controlled trials in postoperative settings. Topical analgesics are likely more effective in particular conditions (patient factors, disease factors), and future trials of topical ketamine should include a consideration of factors that could predispose

  11. Implicit stage topics

    Karen Lahousse

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Il a souvent été proposé que les éléments spatio-temporels en position initiale de phrase spécifient le cadre de l’événement dénoté par la proposition et ont une interprétation thématique ou topicale. Alors que les topiques spatio-temporels explicites ont souvent été étudiés, Erteschik-Schir (1997, 1999 propose l’idée que les topiques spatio-temporels, ou topiques scéniques (stage topics peuvent aussi être implicites.Dans cet article, nous offrons des arguments en faveur de la notion de topique scénique implicite. Nous montrons qu’un certain nombre de cas d’inversion nominale en français, une configuration syntaxique qui est favorisée par la présence d’un topique scénique explicite, s’expliquent par la présence d’un topique scénique implicite. Le fait que les topiques scéniques implicites interagissent avec la structure syntaxique de la même façon que les topiques scéniques explicites constitue un argument empirique en faveur de leur existence.It has often been proposed that sentence-initial spatio-temporal elements specify the frame in which the whole proposition takes place and are topical (i.e. thematic. Whereas considerable attention has been paid to explicit spatio-temporal topics, Erteschik-Shir (1997, 1999 argues that spatio-temporal topics, or stage topics, can also be implicit.In this article we provide evidence in favour of the notion of implicit stage topic. We show that a certain number of nominal inversion cases in French, a syntactic configuration which is triggered by the presence of an explicit stage topic, are explained by the presence of an implicit stage topic. The fact that implicit stage topics interact with syntactic structure the same way explicit stage topics do constitutes a strong empirical argument in favour of their existence.

  12. Identification of polyphenols and their metabolites in human urine after cranberry-syrup consumption.

    Iswaldi, Ihsan; Arráez-Román, David; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Contreras, María Del Mar; Uberos, José; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    As the beneficial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be partly attributed to its phenolic composition, the evaluation of the physiological behaviour of this fraction is crucial. A rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been used to identify phenolic metabolites in human urine after a single dose of cranberry syrup. Prior to the analysis, metabolites were extracted using an optimised solid-phase extraction procedure. All possible metabolites were investigated based on retention time, accurate mass data and isotope and fragmentation patterns. Free coumaroyl hexose (isomer 1 and 2), dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeoyl glucose, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-β-d-glucuronide, methoxyquercetin 3-O-galactoside, scopoletin, myricetin and quercetin, together with other 23 phase-I and phase-II metabolites, including various isomers, could be tentatively identified in the urine. Afterwards, the metabolites were simultaneously screened in the urine of different subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6h after the ingestion of cranberry syrup by Target Analysis(TM) software.

  13. Development of bacoside enriched date syrup juice and its evaluation for physical endurance.

    Anand, T; Prakash, K Bhanu; Pandareesh, M D; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-12-01

    Bacoside rich juice (BRJ) was developed using date syrup as base. BRJ was evaluated for physicochemical, sensory attributes and its effect on physical endurance. Overall acceptability of BRJ and date syrup juice (DSJ) was good according to hedonic scale/ratings. Twenty four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6). Sedentary (Group I) and control (Group II) group rats were allowed to drink water whereas DSJ and BRJ group rats were provided free access to drink DSJ (Group III) and BRJ (Group IV) for 14 days and were subjected to weight-loaded forced swim test (WFST) for every alternate day in order to evaluate the physical endurance. Both BRJ and DSJ group rats swimming efficiency was improved by 3 and 2 folds respectively in comparison with control group on day- 15. Improved physical endurance in BRJ group is due to reduced malondialdehyde levels in brain, liver and muscle tissues by 16.50 %, 17.88 % and 30.20 %, respectively, compared to DSJ group (p < 0.01). In addition, administration of BRJ significantly protected the hepatic and muscle glycogen levels and reduced the levels of lactic acid in comparison to DSJ group. Hence, the present study clearly indicates that BRJ is an effective anti-fatigue drink ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance.

  14. Determination of ethanol content in medicated syrups by static headspace gas chromatography.

    Huzar, Elźbieta; Wodnicka, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Liquid drug preparations are the most convenient for pediatric patients. Unfortunately, these formulations very often contain ethanol, which may have an impact on children development. Moreover, medicines containing alcohol may cause undesirable interactions in conjunction with other drugs. This work reports complete validated method for the quantitation of ethanol in commercial medicated syrups. For determination of ethanol headspace gas chromatography and different methods of quantitative analysis were used. The analyzed samples of commercial medicated syrups available on the home marked contained from 3.37 to 8.65% (v/v) of ethanol. The estimated theoretical values of blood ethanol concentration for children after single recommended dose ingestion were at least twice lower than 0.125 g/mL. The process of validation showed that the applied GC method is selective, sensitive, linear and precise. The use of internal standard makes it accurate. The developed method could be considered as an analytical tool for the quality control of various liquid drug preparations.

  15. Characters and Topical Diversity

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature...... is largely ignored by the critics. Thus, the article tests how topics may work in creative nonfiction. Two Danish bestsellers belonging to the genre, Frank’s Mit smukke genom ( My Beautiful Genome), about genomics, and Buk-Swienty’s Slagtebænk Dybbøl ( ‘Slaughter-bench Dybbøl’), a history book, are chosen...... as cases and analysed using a slightly modified motif model by Johansen. The result is that in both books the main topic is treated from a double perspective, but also that six out of seven secondary topics, or motifs, are treated as well. It is concluded that also in a topical sense creative nonfiction...

  16. 鼻渊糖浆治疗分泌性中耳炎临床效果观察%Clinical efficacy of nasosinusitis syrup in the treatment of secretory otitis media

    孙文青

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of nasosinusitis syrup in the treatment of secretory otitis media. Meth-ods 50 patients with secretory otitis media were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated with nasosinusitis syrup,clarithromycin capsules,oral and nasal corticosteroid for 10 days. The con-trol group was treated with sinupret drops,clarithromycin capsules,oral and nasal cotristeroids for 10 days. The clinical efficacy was observed. Results The effective rates in treatment group and control group were 89. 29% and 86. 20% respectively. There was no significant difference in the effective rates between two groups(P﹥0. 05). Conclusion Nasosinusitis syrup has a good effect in the treatment of secretory otitis media with high safety. It deserves the clinical expansion.%目的:观察鼻渊糖浆治疗分泌性中耳炎的临床疗效。方法选取50例分泌性中耳炎患者,随机分为治疗组和对照组,各25例。治疗组采用鼻渊糖浆、克拉霉素胶囊、口服及鼻用激素治疗10 d,对照组采用欧龙马滴剂、克拉霉素胶囊、口服及鼻用激素治疗10 d,观察两组的临床疗效。结果治疗组治疗总有效率为89.29%,对照组为86.20%;治疗组治疗总有效率明显高于对照组,差异无统计学意义(P﹥0.05)。结论鼻渊糖浆治疗分泌性中耳炎效果良好,安全性高,值得临床推广。

  17. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts.

    Piddocke, Maya P; Kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-09-01

    High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer's yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer's strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer's yeast metabolism and the influence of the type of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer.

  18. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar

  19. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia. Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 – 108,78%, pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 – 109,07%, and triprolidine HCl (98,20 – 104,19% were recorded. Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana’a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

  20. Rosacea-like eruption due to topical pimecrolimus.

    El-Heis, S; Buckley, D A

    2015-05-18

    Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been used outside their approved indications for a number of conditions, including topical steroid-induced rosacea. However, tacrolimus ointment itself has been reported to trigger rosacea in a small number of cases. We report a case of a rosacea-like eruption in a 39-year-old woman occurring after the use of pimecrolimus cream for 12 months for atopic dermatitis. Withdrawal of pimecrolimus combined with treatment with oral lymecycline, topical metronidazole, and an emollient resulted in resolution of the eruption. There have been 5 previously reported cases of a topical pimecrolimus-induced rosacea-like eruption suggesting that this rare side-effect may be a class effect of all topical calcineurin inhibitors. Dermatologists prescribing these drugs should be aware of this uncommon complication and may wish to warn patients of its occurrence as a potential side-effect when using topical calcineurin inhibitors in facial skin in adults.

  1. Characters and Topical Diversity

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature i...

  2. Selected topics in magnetism

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  3. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  4. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  5. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  6. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  7. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger.

    Mostafa, Yasser S; Alamri, Saad A

    2012-04-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid.

  8. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  9. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  10. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  11. Clinical Analysis of Serious Kaliopenia Induced by Abuse of Anticol Cough Syrup Addict%滥用联邦止咳露糖浆致低钾性麻痹的临床分析

    黄晓勇; 朱信云; 黄志军; 单爱军; 彭朝林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inducing causes and clinical characteristics in patients with hypokalemia paralysis attributed to Anticol Cough Syrup abuse. Methods The clinical data of 16 patients of hypokalemia paralysis attributed to Anticol Cough Syrup abuse were retrospectively analyzed. Results The time of Anticol Cough Syrup Addicts abuse of 16 patients were 3-30 months, who took large doses of Anticol Cough Syrup within 24 h before the symptom disappeared. All the patients suffered from ex tremity myodynamia paralysis, and couldnf walk. Proximal end was severer than distal end, and those of lower extremity were seve rer than that of upper extremity, and there were recurrent attacks of paralysis. Tendon reflexes were normal or weakened, without sensory disturbances. Pathological syndrome was negative. 2 patients had mild psychiatric symptoms such as insomnia, excitement, and transient visual hallucination, 3 patients had serious diarrhea. The blood kalium of 16 patients were 1.4-2.3 mmol/L. Creatine kinase were a little higher than normal value, and ECG showed changes in U Wave, long Q-T, and ST segment depression. After kalium was given intravenously or orally, the patients recovered quickly. Conclusion Abuse of Anticol Cough Syrup may cause se rious hypokalemia, so physicians and patients should be cautioned against it.%目的 探讨滥用联邦止咳露糖浆诱发低钾性麻痹的原因及临床特点.方法 对滥用联邦止咳露糖浆导致的低钾性麻痹16例的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 本组联邦止咳露糖浆滥用时间3~30个月,发作前24h内均有明确的大量饮用联邦止咳露糖浆史.所有病例均有四肢肌力迟缓性瘫痪,不能行走,近端重于远端,下肢重于上肢,且反复发作.腱反射正常或减退,无感觉障碍,病理征阴性,其中2例伴失眠、亢奋、一过性幻视等轻度精神症状,3例合并严重腹泻.16例血钾1.4~ 2.3 mmol/L;心肌酶检测肌酸激酶均稍高于正常

  12. Safety of topical medications for scabies and lice in pregnancy

    Viral M Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medications should be employed with caution in women of childbearing age. Topical medications have little systemic absorption. Therefore, they are considered safer than oral or parenteral agents and less likely to be embryotoxic or fetotoxic. However, their safety profile must be assessed cautiously as the available data are limited. In this article, we aggregate human and animal studies to provide recommendations on using topical anti-scabies and anti-lice therapy in pregnancy.

  13. Oral myiasis

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  14. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  15. Novel Topic Authorship Attribution

    2011-03-01

    cross-validation, genre shift, vector projection, singular value decomposition, principal component analysis Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified...by eight students. Each student wrote a total of 24 documents in three different genres about three different topics. They found that compensating for...Baayen, H. Halteren, A. Neijt, and F. Tweedie, “Outside the cave of shadows: Using syntactic annotation to enhance authorship attribution,” Literary

  16. Hypokalemic paralysis and respiratory failure due to excessive intake of licorice syrup

    Mehmet Oguzhan Ay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has a herbal ingredient, glycyrrhizic acid. Excessive intake of licorice may cause a hypermineralocorticoidism-like syndrome characterized by sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, low-renin activity, and hypoaldosteronism. In this paper, an 34 years old man who admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure and marked muscle weakness of all extremities that progressed to paralysis after excessive intake of licorice syrup was presented. It was aimed to draw attention to the necessity of questioning whether there is excessive intake of licorice or not in patients who admitted to emergency department with paralysis and dyspnea. Plasma potassium concentration of the patient was 1.4 mmol/L. The patient\\'s respiratory distress and loss of muscle strength recovered completely after potassium replacement. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 387-391

  17. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  18. Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.

    Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

    2013-09-01

    A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas.

  19. Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons.

    Mudoga, H L; Yucel, H; Kincal, N S

    2008-06-01

    Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined. The color removal capabilities of all carbons were measured at 1/100 (w/w) dosage, and isotherms were determined on better samples. The two commercial activated carbons showed different decolorization efficiencies; which could be related to their physical and chemical properties. The decolorization efficiency of beet pulp carbon prepared at 750 degrees C and activated for 5h using CO2 was much better than the others and close to the better one of the commercial activated carbons used. It is evident that beet pulp is an inexpensive potential precursor for activated carbons for use in sugar refining.

  20. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    H.L. Chin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation.

  1. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  2. Oral cancer

    ... Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or as a mouth ulcer . Men develop oral ... use and safe drinking Cancer Dental care - adult Leukoplakia Metastasis Mouth ulcers Patient Instructions Dry mouth during ...

  3. Oral Thrush

    ... feeding mothers In addition to the distinctive white mouth lesions, infants may have trouble feeding or be fussy ... candidiasis (yeast infection) patient information. American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/oral-candidiasis.php. ...

  4. Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Synthetic Color(s) by Derivative Spectroscopy in Syrup Formulations and Validation by HPLC: Exposure Risk of Colors to Children

    Rastogi, Shanya Das; Dixit, Sumita; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2014-01-01

    Color additives are used in pediatric syrup formulations as an excipient; though not pre-requisite, but pediatric syrup formulations are normally colored. An attempt has been made to measure simultaneously the single drug, acetaminophen (AT), along with the colors, carmoisine (CA), erythrosine (ET), and sunset yellow FCF (SSY) added in it by three derivative spectroscopy methods namely, 1st order, ratio, and differential derivative methods. Moreover, evaluation has been made for the exposure ...

  6. Oral perception in tongue thrust and other oral habits.

    Dahan, J S; Lelong, O; Celant, S; Leysen, V

    2000-10-01

    Oral stereognosis is the ability of the mouth to recognize shape and texture. Oral shape recognition is sensitive to repetition and to topical mucosal anesthesia. Age, upper and lower arch perimeter, and labiolingual dysfunction also interact with oral stereognosis. The purpose of this investigation was to define the influence of age, arch size, and oral dysfunction on oral stereognosis when submitted to repeated trials. Fifty subjects were selected before orthodontic treatment. Each subject underwent 4 trials: T1 and T4 without anesthesia and strictly similar, T2 with topical anesthesia of the tongue, and T3 with topical anesthesia of the palate. Five test pieces or stimuli were used. The recognition time (RT) of each stimulus, the perimeter of upper and lower anterior dental arch, and the labiolingual dysfunction index (LLDI) were the main variables statistically evaluated. Subjects with a mild degree of dysfunction needed more time to recognize the stimuli in T3 when compared with T2. The number of RT3 > RT2 was 2.5 +/- 1.12 in the group with a low LLDI (12 +/- 1.5), and 1.57 +/- 0.63 in the group with an LLDI of 16 +/- 2.5 (P >.05). This may be attributed to different manipulation of the test pieces between the 2 groups, which could have been modified through sensory deprivation. Bolus recognition before the swallowing act needs to be paralleled to stereognostic performance.

  7. Topics in Operator Theory

    Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

    2010-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

  8. Topics in field theory

    Karpilovsky, G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

  9. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum.

    Kragelund, C; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J; Hadler-Olsen, E; Johannessen, A C; Kenrad, B; Nylander, K; Puranen, M; Salo, T; Syrjänen, S; Søland, T M; van der Waal, I; van der Wal, J E; Warfvinge, G

    2012-11-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine.

  10. GROUP ORAL PRESENTATION IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION B

    Hong-Nguyen, NGUYEN

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentations are becoming more and more important in language learning process, especially in the university environment. In Business Communication B course at Kanazawa Institute of Technology (KIT), students also have a chance learn how to do group oral presentation on some business-related topics and this is one of the most important parts in the assessment process of Business Communication B course. In this paper, a review of the literature will illustrate how this oral activity coul...

  11. Oral Communication across the Curriculum

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

  12. The effect on plasma lipids of the isoenergetic replacement of table sucrose by dried glucose syrup (maize-syrup solids) in the normal diet of adult men over a period of 1 year.

    Lock, S; Ford, M A; Bagley, R; Green, L F

    1980-03-01

    1. Eighteen males (31-62 years) who habitually consumed significant amounts of table sucrose (approximately 25% of total carbohydrate intake) were supplied with their usual intake of sucrose for consumption in conjunction with their normal diet for 1 year, and a record kept of the amount consumed. The sucrose was then replaced isoenergetically by dried glucose syrup (55 D.E.) which contained saccharin to equate the sweetness to that of sucrose. 2. Fasting blood samples were taken every 4 weeks during the 2 years, and the plasma analysed for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipid-P by automated colorimetric methods. Dietary questionnaires were issued every 3 months to confirm the subjects were not substantially altering their diets. 3. In subjects whose weight remained unchanged and in those who lost weight there was a significant fall in cholesterol (P less than 0.025) and phospholipid.P (P less than 0.025) in the glucose-syrup period compared with the sucrose period; triglycerides did not change. In subjects who gained weight there was a significant increase in triglycerides (P less than 0.05), but no change in cholesterol; phospholipid-P fell significantly (P less than 0.0005). 4. The dietary modification in this experiment was sufficiently long to ensure that subjects had adapted, and the results obtained show stable changes in blood lipids which may be attributed to the isoenergetic replacement of table sucrose by glucose syrup.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ORAL CLONIDINE AND ORAL MIDAZOLAM AS PREMEDICANT IN CHILDREN

    Gurudatta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Majority of Paediatric patients experience significant anxiety in the preoperative holding area and during induction of anesthesia. Such anxiety often prolongs the induction of Anesthesia, increases post - operative pain and produces negative behavioral changes in chil dren. Effective premedication is the answer, which permits less traumatic separation of child from parents and facilitates smooth induction of anesthesia. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of oral clonidine v/s oral midazolam adm inistered as a pre medicant in children. METHODS: 100 patients of ASA group I/II of either sex between the age group 4 years to 12 years scheduled for elective surgery were divided into two groups. (1 Group C received tablet oral clonidine 4μg/kg mixed wi th 5 ml of water 90 minutes before the induction. (2 Group M – received oral midazolam syrup 0.5mg/kg 45 minutes before the induction. Both the groups were assessed for: (1 drug acceptance (2 sedation score (3 anxiety score (4 onset of sedation (5 ma sk acceptance (6 Cardio respiratory scoring (7 OPS scoring (8 Parental acceptance. The results were statistically analysed. CONCLUSION: Premedication with oral clonidine is a suitable alternative to oral midazolam. It has several advantages compared to oral midazolam, like better acceptance of the drug by the children, adequate sedation and anxiolysis, easy acceptance of mask and I.V. cannulation, minimal side effects, adequate analgesia, good parental satisfaction. One disadvantage of clonidine is slowe r onset of action

  14. Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Sammataro, Diana; Weiss, Milagra

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup (SS) vs. high fructose corn syrup, or HFCS) could be measured between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, there was a significant difference in mean wax production between the treatment groups and a significant interaction between time and treatment for the colonies confined in a flight arena. On average, the colonies supplied with SS built 7916.7 cm(2) ± 1015.25 cm(2) honeycomb, while the colonies supplied with HFCS built 4571.63 cm(2) ± 786.45 cm(2). The mean mass of bees supplied with HFCS was 4.65 kg (± 0.97 kg), while those supplied with sucrose had a mean of 8.27 kg (± 1.26). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in terms of brood rearing. Differences in brood production were complicated due to possible nutritional deficiencies experienced by both treatment groups. In the second experiment, colonies supplemented with SS through the winter months at a remote field site exhibited increased spring brood production when compared to colonies fed with HFCS. The differences in adult bee populations were significant, having an overall average of 10.0 ± 1.3 frames of bees fed the sucrose syrup between November 2008 and April 2009, compared to 7.5 ± 1.6 frames of bees fed exclusively on HFCS. For commercial queen beekeepers, feeding the right supplementary carbohydrates could be especially important, given the findings of this study.

  15. Hot topics for leadership development.

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management.

  16. A combined administration of Aragvādādi kaṣāyam and Syrup Talekt induced skin rashes

    Manjunath Ajanal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a common notion among people in India that herbal or Ayurvedic products are safe and do not produce any adverse effect. This is not true since Ayurveda has evaded many adverse effects which occur by combination of herbs. This axiom is potentiated by our report that occurs in the form of skin rashes. A 20-year-old South Indian female of Pittakapha prakṛti (constitution after beginning therapy with Aragvādādi kaṣāyam (ARK (poly-herbal formulation and Syrup Talekt (poly-herbal patent formulation for the treatment of recurrent incidence of abscess. Rash disappeared after stopping the suspected drug and treatment with Vibhîtakî kaṣāyam (decoction of Terminilia bellarica and Śatadhauta ghṛtam . Possible and probable (score 6 were the causality according to WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo′s Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale and grouped under type-B reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of skin rashes which seen after administration of ARK and Syrup Talekt. This report highlights the need of implementation of pharmacovigilance center in the hospital level and additional research in the field of skin toxicity of ARK and Syrup Talekt.

  17. Determination of 20 synthetic dyes in chili powders and syrup-preserved fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method is developed to simultaneously determine 20 synthetic dyes (New Coccine, Indigo Carmine, Erythrosine, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Dimethyl Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC, Para Red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red G in food samples. This method offers high sensitivity and selectivity through the selection of two fragment ion transitions under multiple reaction monitoring mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. Using LC-MS/MS, the newly developed extraction protocol used in this study is rapid and simple and does not require the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges. The linearities and recoveries of the method are observed at the concentration range of 0.10–200 μg/kg and more than 90% for all dyes, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to screen 18 commercial chili powders and six commercial syrup-preserved fruits purchased from retail establishments in Taipei City. The results show that three legal food dyes, Tartrazine, and/or Sunset Yellow FCF, and/or New Coccine, are present in some syrup-preserved fruits. Amaranth, an illegal food dye in certain countries but declared illegal in Taiwan, is found in an imported syrup-preserved fruit.

  18. Evaluation of Honey and Rice Syrup as Replacements for Sorbitol in the Production of Restructured Duck Jerky.

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of natural humectants such as honey and rice syrup to replace sorbitol in the production of restructured duck jerky. Each humectant was mixed at 3%, 6%, and 10% (wt/wt) concentrations with the marinating solution. The values of water activity and the moisture-to-protein ratio of all of the samples were maintained below 0.75. Jerky samples treated with honey retained more moisture than those exposed to other treatments. Among all samples, those treated with 10% sorbitol produced the highest processing yield and the lowest shear force values. The highest L* value and the lowest b* value were observed for the sorbitol-treated sample, followed by the rice syrup- and honey-treated samples. Duck jerky samples treated with 10% honey showed the highest scores for the sensory parameters evaluated. The overall acceptability scores of samples treated with rice syrup were comparable with those of samples treated with sorbitol. Microscopic observation of restructured duck jerky samples treated with honey showed stable forms and smaller pores when compared with other treatments.

  19. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy.

  20. Topics in orbit equivalence

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  1. Topics in atomic physics

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  2. Oral histoplasmosis

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  3. [Therapeutic experience with cefadroxil syrup in acute infections, especially scarlet fever, in pediatric field (author's transl)].

    Minamitani, M; Hachimori, K; Nakazawa, H; Tomori, N

    1981-02-01

    Clinical effects were investigated on cefadroxil powder for syrup (containing 100 mg of cefadroxil per 1 g) for acute bacterial infections (mostly scarlet fever) in the field of pediatrics, and the results were obtained as follows. Cefadroxil was applied in 100 cases of scarlet fever. Among 49 cases administered 30-39 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 34 cases and good in 15 cases, efficacy ratio being thus 100%. Among 38 cases administered 40-49 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 33 cases, and good in 5 cases, efficacy ratio being thus 100%. Out of 4 cases administered 20-29 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 3 cases and good in 1 case, while out of 9 cases administered 50-59 mg/kg/day, excellent in 4 cases and good in 5 cases. Among 78 cases of scarlet fever from which beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was proven from swab liquid of palatal tonsil, 67 cases received cefadroxil at a daily dose of 30-49 mg/kg, and the bacteria turned to negative the next day of administration in 72 cases, 2 days later in 6 cases. Cefadroxil was administered at a daily dose of 46 mg/kg for 7 days in 1 case of SSS syndrome of which Staphylococcus aureus was proven from skin lesion, and local bacteria turned to negative, as well as clinical effect was excellent. No pathogen was proven in 1 case of acute tonsillitis, maybe because ampicillin (ABPC) and cefazolin (CEZ) were administered before cefadroxil treatment, and yet a clinical efficacy was judged by administering cefadroxil at a daily dose of 46 mg/kg, though no clinical improvement was observed with the prior antibiotics. As to the side effects of cefadroxil in 102 cases, a slight vomiting was noticed in 6 cases, though the administration could be continued, and a slight rise of GOT or GPT was observed respectively in 3 cases and 1 case, all of which were recovered without abnormal clinical findings. Among the patients of scarlet fever, after beta-hemolytic Streptococcus became negative, reelimination or recurrence

  4. Advanced verification topics

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  5. Topics in statistical mechanics

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  6. Superconcentration and related topics

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  7. Researching Distressing Topics

    Sharon Jackson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative researchers who explore sensitive topics may expose themselves to emotional distress. Consequently, researchers are often faced with the challenge of maintaining emotional equilibrium during the research process. However, discussion on the management of difficult emotions has occupied a peripheral place within accounts of research practice. With rare exceptions, the focus of published accounts is concentrated on the analysis of the emotional phenomena that emerge during the collection of primary research data. Hence, there is a comparative absence of a dialogue around the emotional dimensions of working with secondary data sources. This article highlights some of the complex ways in which emotions enter the research process during secondary analysis, and the ways in which we engaged with and managed emotional states such as anger, sadness, and horror. The concepts of emotional labor and emotional reflexivity are used to consider the ways in which we “worked with” and “worked on” emotion. In doing so, we draw on our collective experiences of working on two collaborative projects with ChildLine Scotland in which a secondary analysis was conducted on children’s narratives of distress, worry, abuse, and neglect.

  8. Syrup production via enzymatic conversion of a byproduct (broken rice from rice industry

    Wilma Aparecida Spinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a hydrothermal process for the gelatinization of the rice starch, it was studied the rate of hydration, temperature and time. An incomplete 33 factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of temperature, enzyme/substrate relation and liquefaction time, with dextrose equivalent (DE as the response variable. The maximum value obtained was 14.69% DE at 89ºC, with 0.21% (w/w of enzyme to substrate in 22 minutes. For saccharification, it was studied enzyme/substrate ratios (0.6, 2.4, 4.2 and 6.0% (w/w at 60ºC at a pH of 4.30, yielding 49.23, 69.65, 65.12 and 74.67% DE, respectively, after 72 hours. The syrup had a content of 12.78, 16.87, 15.96 and 17.87% of glucose (w/v, pH 2.60 - 2.71. The starch content converted into glucose after liquefaction was 61.80% and after saccharification ranged from 75.16 to 77.05% for the relation enzymes substrate tested.

  9. Controlled release of thiamin in a glassy κ-carrageenan/glucose syrup matrix.

    Panyoyai, Naksit; Bannikova, Anna; Small, Darryl M; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-01-22

    The work dealt with the diffusional mobility of thiamin embedded in a high-solid matrix of κ-carrageenan with glucose syrup. It utilized thermomechanical analysis in the form of modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-deformation dynamic oscillation in shear, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The structural properties of the matrix were assessed in a temperature induced rubber-to-glass transformation. A thiamin-dye binding assay was employed to monitor the diffusion process of the vitamin from the high-solid preparation to ethylene glycol. The relationship between mechanical properties of the carbohydrate matrix and vitamin mobility was assessed via the application of the combined framework of the free volume theory and the predictions of the reaction rate theory. Results argue that the transport of the micronutrient is governed by the structural relaxation of the high-solid matrix. These were further treated with the concept of Fickian diffusion coefficient to provide the rate of the bioactive compound mobility within the present experimental settings.

  10. Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Kristiansen, Rikke M.; Madsen, Mikkel G.

    2014-01-01

    Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other...... preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were...... of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively.Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1500ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z...

  11. Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?

    Morgan, R E

    2013-08-01

    The consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) beverages has increased since the 1970s. At the same time, childhood obesity is on the rise, causing children to be at risk of heart disease, diabetes and other diseases. Healthcare providers have attributed childhood obesity to the consumption of HFCS in the form of beverages. This article will look at the available research and determine if there is scientific evidence underlying the idea that sweetened soft drinks, especially those containing HFCS, could cause or contribute to childhood obesity. A thorough literature search was performed using the ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed and Scopus databases within the years 2006-2012. The search generated 19 results. The articles were screened, and six were deemed eligible: four systematic reviews and two meta-analyses. Two systematic reviews found that there is no relationship between consumption of HFCS beverages and obesity in children. The other two systematic reviews found possible links between HFCS and childhood obesity. The meta-analysis articles found that consumption of HFCS beverages can contribute to childhood obesity, and limitation of sweetened beverages may help decrease obesity in children. Available research studies demonstrate inconclusive scientific evidence definitively linking HFCS to obesity in children.

  12. Maple syrup urine disease in Brazil: a panorama of the last two decades

    Silvani Herber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize a sample of Brazilian patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients were identified through a national reference laboratory for the diagnosis of MSUD and through contact with other medical genetics services across Brazil. Data were collected by means of a chart review. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients from 75 families were enrolled in the study (median age, 3 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.57-7. Median age at onset of symptoms was 10 days (IQR 5-30, whereas median age at diagnosis was 60 days (IQR 29-240, p = 0.001. Only three (3.6% patients were diagnosed before the onset of clinical manifestations. A comparison between patients with (n = 12 and without (n = 71 an early diagnosis shows that early diagnosis is associated with the presence of positive family history and decreased prevalence of clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, but not with a better outcome. Overall, 98.8% of patients have some psychomotor or neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, patients with MSUD are usually diagnosed late and exhibit neurological involvement and poor survival even with early diagnosis. We suggest that specific public policies for diagnosis and treatment of MSUD should be developed and implemented in the country.

  13. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  14. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): screening for known mutations in Italian patients.

    Parrella, T; Surrey, S; Iolascon, A; Sartore, M; Heidenreich, R; Diamond, G; Ponzone, A; Guardamagna, O; Burlina, A B; Cerone, R

    1994-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease due to deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) caused by a large number of mutations. In the present study, DNA from Italian patients and their relatives was examined for three point mutations (Y393N in the E1 alpha gene, T841G and G1031A in the E2 gene) and two deletions (-G at the intron/exon border of exon 8 in the E2 gene and an 11 bp deletion in exon 1 of the E1 beta gene) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization, gene-scanning size analysis of fluorescent-tagged PCR products and/or automated DNA sequence analysis. Our results show that two different mutations account for 7 of the 20 mutant MSUD alleles. Two unrelated affected children, two of their parents and one sibling were carriers for the 11 bp deletion in the E1 beta gene, one patient and her mother were heterozygous for Y393N in E1 alpha, while T841G, G1031A and the -G deletion in E2 were not detected. This study is the first attempt to characterize at a nucleic acid level MSUD mutations in Italy. Our results indicate that additional defects are present in the Italian population and that, unlike the Mennonites, a number of different MSUD mutations exist in Italians.

  15. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    Michael J Paul

    Full Text Available By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM, as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689 and allergies (r = 0.810 temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534 and obesity (r =  -.631 related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  16. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis.

    Barthel, H Richard; Axford-Gatley, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainstays of the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) but have dose- and age-related risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse events (AEs). As a result, US and international guidelines recommend caution when prescribing oral NSAIDs, particularly in older patients and those with significant comorbidities. For OA of the hands and knees, topical NSAIDs provide efficacy similar to oral NSAIDs, with far less systemic distribution. Treatment-related cardiovascular, renal, and other serious AEs with topical NSAIDs have not been reported. At present, only 2 topical NSAIDs are approved in the United States for the treatment of OA: diclofenac sodium 1% gel for hand or knee OA and diclofenac sodium 1.5% in 45.5% dimethylsulfoxide solution for knee OA. Clinical trial data for these products have demonstrated efficacy superior to placebo or similar to oral diclofenac with AE profiles similar to placebo, except for application site reactions. In large double-blind trials, gastrointestinal AEs were infrequent and did not include ulcers, perforations, or bleeding. The purpose of this brief review is to examine the data from controlled double-blind trials evaluating the use of topical NSAIDs in patients with OA. Articles included were identified via a search of PubMed covering the period from January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2010. Reference lists from OA treatment guidelines and meta-analyses were reviewed for additional citations of importance.

  17. In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract

    Babos, Magor [University of Szeged, Faculty of Science (Hungary); Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: babosmagor@yahoo.com; Schwarcz, Attila [University of Pecs, Department of Neurosurgery, Pecs Diagnostic Institute, 7624 Pecs, Retu. 2 (Hungary)], E-mail: attila.schwarcz@aok.pte.hu; Randhawa, Manjit Singh [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: majyaal@hotmail.com; Marton, Balazs [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: balazsmarton@freemail.hu; Kardos, Lilla [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: medlis@tiszanet.hu; Palko, Andras [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary); University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: palko@radio.szote.u-szeged.hu

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 {+-} 5 ms, T2 = 86 {+-} 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 {+-} 3 ms, T2 = 39 {+-} 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 {+-} 4 ms, T2 = 87 {+-} 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 {+-} 8 ms, T2 = 168 {+-} 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 {+-} 21 ms, T2 = 81 {+-} 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI

  18. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  19. Oral leukoplakia

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  20. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  1. Ways to Improve Oral English

    张婧婧

    2015-01-01

    Speaking has been the bottom of the list in college English teaching since last few decades. This dissertation focus on this topic and it is mainly divided into following parts:Firstly, it analyses why college students make no significant progress in oral English. Secondly, it argues how to reform college English teaching to change this situation. It is concluded that teachers should em⁃phasize the importance of oral English in commercial lives and incent students to make great effort to improve speaking. Finally, ways to improve students' English speaking skill both in and outside the classroom are suggested.

  2. Herpes - oral

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000606.htm Herpes - oral To use the sharing features on this page, ... 374. Read More Atopic dermatitis Cancer Fever Genital herpes Mouth ulcers Vesicles Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated ...

  3. Oral pathology.

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  4. Disparities in Oral Health

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  5. 电渗析在葡萄糖浆脱盐中的应用%Application of Electrodialysis on Demineralization of Glucose Syrup

    武睿; 于秋生; 陈正行; 郭贯新

    2012-01-01

    电渗析技术应用于葡萄糖浆的脱盐效果显著。研究表明,脱盐最佳条件为:操作电压30V,糖浆流量25L/h,糖浆浓度30%;该条件下,糖浆脱盐率94.69%,糖浆得率77.84%。%Electrodialysis (ED) demineralization of glucose syrup was applied in this research. The results showed that electrodialysis was feasible for glucose syrup demineralization. The optimal operating parameters under experimental working condition were: 30 v applied voltage, 25 L/h flow rate and 30% syrup concentration. After the treatment with these operating parameters, the demineralization ratio was reached to 94.69% and the sugar component retention was 77.84%.

  6. The topical treatment of psoriasis.

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Vissers, W.H.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    According to the patients, improvement of efficacy, long-term safety and improvement of compliance are needed. The topical treatment has been innovated during the last decade. Most important are the introduction of two new classes of treatments: topical vitamin D(3) analogues and the retinoid tazaro

  7. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  8. The role of natural supplement of apple vinegar and syrup in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Bećir Heljić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increased risk of coronary artery disease in diabetics could be explained by the lipoprotein irregularities associated with diabetes mellitus. The primary aim of this study is to examine the role of apple vinegar and syrup in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: The interventional study included 500 participants (195 men and 305 women with dyslipidemia and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 50-70 years, living in Sarajevo area. Patients were recruited from 5 outpatient diabetes counselling departments and treated with natural apple vinegar and syrup supplementation over a period of five weeks. The patients have been evaluated before treatment and 5 weeks after the treatment. During the study, dosage of drugs for diabetes or prediabetes was not changed.Results: After 5 weeks of supplementation with apple vinegar and syrup waist circumference (p=0.016, total cholesterol (p=0.01, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (p=0.008 and triglycerides (p=0.019 were significantly reduced, as well as blood pressure (-14%. Study results show decrease of mean fasting blood levels of glucose, but statistically not significant (p=0.058. The body mass index also decreased insignificantly (p=0.089. The high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not increased significantly after supplementation (p=0.26.Conclusion: According to our results, apple vinegar has important role in reduction of total cholesterol levels, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes. Also, it has positive effect on blood pressure.

  9. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada.

    Daniel Houle

    Full Text Available Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999-2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88 using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A. A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15-19 days earlier on average in the 2080-2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low.

  10. Resveratrol prevents high-fructose corn syrup-induced vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in rats.

    Babacanoglu, C; Yildirim, N; Sadi, G; Pektas, M B; Akar, F

    2013-10-01

    Dietary intake of fructose and sucrose can cause development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The consequences of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a commonly consumed form of fructose and glucose, have poorly been examined. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether HFCS intake (10% and 20% beverages for 12 weeks) impacts vascular reactivity to insulin and endothelin-1 in conjunction with insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA/proteins levels in aorta of rats. At challenge, we tested the effectiveness of resveratrol (28-30 mg/kg body weight/day) on outcomes of HFCS feeding. HFCS (20%) diet feeding increased plasma triglyceride, VLDL, cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels, but not body weights of rats. Impaired nitric oxide-mediated relaxation to insulin (10⁻⁹ to 3×10⁻⁶ M), and enhanced contraction to endothelin-1 (10⁻¹¹ to 10⁻⁸ M) were associated with decreased expression of IRS-1 and eNOS mRNA and protein, but increased expression of iNOS, in aortas of rats fed with HFCS. Resveratrol supplementation restored many features of HFCS-induced disturbances, probably by regulating eNOS and iNOS production. In conclusion, dietary HFCS causes vascular insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction through attenuating IRS-1 and eNOS expressions as well as increasing iNOS in rats. Resveratrol has capability to recover HFCS-induced disturbances.

  11. 胸腺五肽局部应用对口腔溃疡患者血清IL-2及SOD的影响%Effects of topical administration of thymopentin on the serum level of IL-2 and SOD in patients with recurrent oral aphthous ulcer

    刘捷; 迟强; 栾中山; 杨志

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of topical administration of thymopentin on the serum level of IL-2 and SOD in patients with recurrent oral aphthous ulcer(ROU).Methods:80 cases of ROU and 40 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study.All the cases were divided into two groups:40 were treated by topical administration of thymopentin and another 40 by Bingpeng powder.Ulcer healing and pain relief in the patients were observed.Serum IL-2 and SOD levels were measured before and after treatment.Results:The serum levels of IL-2 and SOD in thyonopentin treated patients were increased 3 days after treatment(P < 0.01),but lower than those in the healthy controls (P < 0.05).The serum levels of IL-2 and SOD in bingpeng powder treated patients were unchanged(P > 0.05).87.5% and 82.5% cases obtained pain relief and ulcer healing in thymopentin group,whereas 60% and 45% in bingpeng powder group,respectively(P < 0.01).Conclusion:Thymopentin is effective in the pain control and promotion of ROU healing,and the effects might be related to elevateion serum IL-2 and SOD.%目的:考察口腔溃疡患者应用胸腺五肽局部治疗后,血清白细胞介素-2(IL-2)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的变化情况.方法:选择本院门诊确诊的口腔溃疡期患者80例,随机分为胸腺五肽治疗组40例,冰硼散治疗组40例.同时另选40例同期在年龄、性别方面差异无显著性的本院门诊健康体检者作为正常对照组.观察患者的溃疡愈合情况,记录疼痛缓解情况,测定各组在初诊和复诊时血清IL-2和SOD的含量.结果:胸腺五肽治疗3d后,血清IL-2和SOD有明显提高(P<0.01),但仍低于正常对照组.冰硼散组治疗前后患者血清IL-2和SOD水平无明显变化(P>0.05).胸腺五肽组疼痛缓解率和溃疡愈合率分别达到87.5%和82.5%,而冰硼散组分别为60%和45%.结论:胸腺五肽治疗口腔溃疡能够有效缓解疼痛和加速愈

  12. Penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical Imiquimod

    Santosh P Rathod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum(PG is a rare ulcerating inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. Genital involvement has been rarely reported. We report such a case of 24- year- old, male patient living with HIV/AIDS(PLHIV who presented with progressive genital ulceration, not responding to oral antibiotics and aciclovir, gradually increasing in size over 15-18 months. Repeated biopsies showed acute on chronic inflammation. The lesion partially responded to oral and topical corticosteroids but soon increased in size after tapering the dosage of the steroids.Then patient was given Imiquimod 5% cream to be applied over the lesion once daily for 2-4 weeks. Lesion cleared completely in 4 weeks and is in remission since last 6 months. The case report highlights the successful use of topical Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of penile PG.

  13. A Comparative Study on the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture

    Hojjat DERAKHSHANFAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Derakhshanfar H, Modanlookordi M, Amini A, Shahrami A. A Comparative Study of the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:11-16. ObjectiveLumbar puncture (LP essentially is a painful and stressful procedure that indicated for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes. One way to reduce the anxiety is to administer an oral premedication. The aim of this study is to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and oral promethazine in LP.Materials & MethodsThis prospective randomized controlled clinical trial study wasperformed on 80 children aged 2-7 years that were candidate for LP. They were divided into two randomized equal groups. First group received oral midazolam syrup 0.5 mg/kg and the other group received oral promethazine syrup 1mg/kg. Level of sedation, hemodynamic changes and any other complications were monitored every 5 minutes from 30 minutes before the start of the procedure.ResultsMidazolam group and promethazine group were similar in age, gender and weight. Midazolam had significantly shorter onset of sedation and also shorter duration to maximal sedation. The two groups were similar with respect to sedative effect at all time. The only complication that was significantly more in midazolam group was nausea and vomiting.ConclusionMidazolam syrup and promethazine syrup have same sedative effect in children. Both of these medications are easy to use in preschool children and none of them appeared to be superior to another. References1. Ellenby MS, Tegtmeyer K, Lai S, Braner DA. Lumbar Puncture. N Engl J Med 2006;28;355(13:e12.2. Crock C, Olsson C, Phillips R, Chalkiadis G, Sawyer S, Ashley D, et al. General anesthesia or conscious sedation for painful procedures in childhood cancer: The family’s perspective. Arch Dis Child 2003;88(3:253−7.3. Holdsworth MT, Raisch DW, Winter SS, Frost JD, Moro MA, Doran NH, et al. Pain and

  14. Novel topical therapies for distal colitis

    Ian; Craig; Lawrance

    2010-01-01

    Distal colitis(DC) can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents.Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure.Used in combination with oral 5ASAs,the control of the inflammation is even more effective.Unfortunately,resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage.In these patients,the use of steroids,immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents are often required.These,however,can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective.The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent.Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate,cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus,ecabet sodium,arsenic,lidocaine,rebamipide and Ridogrel enemas.Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts.Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials.This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

  15. A Review of Topical Diclofenac Use in Musculoskeletal Disease

    Bindu Nair; Regina Taylor-Gjevre

    2010-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in humans and its prevalence rises with age. Oral NSAIDs have potential associated toxicities that must be monitored for and can limit the use of these drugs in certain populations including people of older age. Topical NSAIDs are now being recognized as an option for the treatment strategy of osteoarthritis. We r...

  16. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    Louis Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics identification (TI is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM. We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  17. Assessment of a low dose of IV midazolam used orally for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry

    M Mortazavi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Midazolam is preferably used in pediatric dentistry for quick onset of action and recovery. The aim of this prospective, observer-blind and placebo-controlled study was to assess the efficacy of a low dose of oral midazolam in modification of  the behavior of young pediatric dental patients. Methods: Forty children aged 3 to 5 years who displayed ratings 1 or 2 on the Frankl Scale and  were healthy by the American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 20 each. All children required pulpotomy and restoration of D and E teeth and received either 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup or the syrup alone. Subjects were continuously observed and monitored with pulse oximetry. Houpt's Behavioral Ratings was used to determine the overall behavior, the degree of crying and movement during treatment. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results and major conclusion: Patients who received 0.25mg/kg of the prepared oral midazolam significantly behaved better during treatment than the placebo controls (P<0.05. In comparison with the placebo group, reduced movement and crying were observed in the midazolam group (P<0.05. No adverse effects were observed and treatments were completed successfully. A low dose of 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup was found to be effective in conscious sedation of young pediatric dental patients.

  18. Ocular Safety of Topical Naltrexone

    2013-04-01

    eligible. Women of child bearing age must be taking birth control pills or have been sterilized for other reasons. Men must be using contraceptives . 2...sterile and who are not using oral contraceptive , or men not using contraceptive . c. Previous corneal or other ocular surface disease d. Systemic...must be taking an oral contraceptive to participate in the study. Males also must use contraception . IRB Protocol No. 29780 Version Date: 2/22/10 5

  19. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  20. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  1. Study on purification of syrup by electrocoagulation%糖汁电絮凝提纯的研究

    黄永春; 关瑞晨; 杨锋; 何仁

    2011-01-01

    采用电絮凝法对糖汁进行提纯,考察了电絮凝时间、电流密度、温度、电极间距以及初始pH对糖汁提纯效果的影响。结果表明,用铝做电极材料,电絮凝法处理糖汁的最佳工艺条件为:电絮凝时间16min、电流密度700A·m-2、温度50℃、电极间距10mm、初始pH4~9,在此条件下糖汁的简纯度提高率可以达到4.12%。%Treating of syrup by electrocoagulation method was studied. The factors affecting efficient of treatment,such as electrocoagulation time,current density,temperature,inter-electrode distance,initial pH were investigated. It was found that the optimal conditions using aluminum as electrode material:electrocoagulation time was 16min,current density was 700A·m-2,the temperature was 50℃,inter-electrode distance was 10mm and initial pH was 4~9. The percentage of increase of syrup apparent purity was 4. 12% under the optimal conditions.

  2. In-depth proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic beverages with peptide ligand libraries. I: Almond milk and orgeat syrup.

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-06-10

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, both commercial and home-made, have been adopted to investigate the proteome of non-alcoholic beverages, in order to assess their genuineness and detect also trace proteins, in search of potential allergens. Two such beverages have been studied: almond milk and orgeat syrup. In the first product we have been able to identify 132 unique protein species, the deepest investigation so far of the almond proteome. In the second beverage, a handful of proteins (just 14) have been detected, belonging to a bitter almond extract. In both cases, the genuineness of such products has been verified, as well as the fact that almond milk, judging on the total protein and fat content, must have been produced with 100g ground almonds per litre of beverage, as required by authorities. On the contrary, cheap orgeat syrups produced by local supermarkets and sold as their own brands, where found not to contain any residual proteins, suggesting that they contained only synthetic aromas and no natural plant extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the myriad of beverages that in the last decades have invaded the shelves of supermarkets the world over, whose genuineness and natural origin have never been properly assessed.

  3. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin ...

  4. Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of clindamycin ...

  5. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

    ... Videos E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Asbestos Asbestos This page requires that javascript be enabled for ... Hazards and Toxic Substances Hazardous Waste What is asbestos? Asbestos is the name given to a group ...

  6. Oral myiasis

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  7. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    2010-09-01

    class of corpora and would help monolingual users to explore and understand multilingual corpora. In this chapter, we develop multilingual LDAWN, an... Multilingual Priors As in the case of a monolingual walk over the concept hierarchy, we want to provide guidance to the multilingual model as to which parts...topic models for new datasets, such as unaligned multilingual corpora, and combine topic models with other sources of information about documents’ context

  8. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  9. Topics in modern differential geometry

    Verstraelen, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    A variety of introductory articles is provided on a wide range of topics, including variational problems on curves and surfaces with anisotropic curvature. Experts in the fields of Riemannian, Lorentzian and contact geometry present state-of-the-art reviews of their topics. The contributions are written on a graduate level and contain extended bibliographies. The ten chapters are the result of various doctoral courses which were held in 2009 and 2010 at universities in Leuven, Serbia, Romania and Spain.

  10. Clinical Effects of Topical Tacrolimus on Fox-Fordyce Disease

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fox-Fordyce Disease (FFD is a rare, chronic, pruritic, inflammatory disorder of apocrine glands. It is characterized by dome-shaped, firm, discrete, skin-colored, and monomorphic perifollicular papules. The most common sites of involvement are axillae and anogenital and periareolar regions which are rich in apocrine sweat glands. Treatment is difficult. Topical, intralesional steroids, topical tretinoin, adapalene, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, oral contraceptives, isotretinoin, phototherapy, electrocauterisation, excision-liposuction and curettage, and fractional carbon dioxide laser are among the treatment options. In the literature, there are articles reporting beneficial effects of pimecrolimus in FFD. Nevertheless, there have not been any reports about the use of tacrolimus in FFD. We report two patients diagnosed with FFD by clinical and histopathologic examination and discussed therapeutic effects of topical tacrolimus on FFD in the light of literature.

  11. Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production.

    Marvig, Cecilie L; Kristiansen, Rikke M; Madsen, Mikkel G; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2014-08-18

    Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by sequencing of their 16S rRNA, 26S rRNA (D1/D2-region) or calmodulin genes. Further, for several species the identity was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of additional genes. In total 677 isolates were identified as belonging to ten different bacteria species, six yeast species and ten mould species with yeast being the most frequently isolated. Bacteria and moulds were found in low numbers, whereas yeast were found in numbers up to 10(7)CFU/g. The most frequently isolated yeast, bacteria and moulds belonged to the species of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively. Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1,500 ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z. rouxii was overall the most tolerant organism to the stress factors and grew within the same range of environmental conditions as found in chocolate pralines. It was able to grow at water activities down to 0.70, ethanol concentrations up to 6.0%, pH down to pH2.0, sorbic acid concentrations up to 1,500 ppm and at all temperatures tested. Eurotium amstelodami also showed high tolerance towards all the stress factors except for ethanol. None of the bacteria were able to grow at

  12. [The effect of various types of dry starch syrup on the rate of glucose utilization in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein components of rat liver].

    Antonova, Zh V; Virovets, O A; Gapparov, M M

    1994-01-01

    Effect of a diet, containing dextran maltose and dry starch syrup, on some patterns of liver tissue metabolism were studied in young Wistar rats within 30 days. The animals of Control Group 1 were kept on a diet containing corn starch as a source of carbohydrates; in Group 2 the starch was replaced by the dry starch syrup enriched with disaccharides and especially with maltose; the dry starch syrup added into the Group 3 diet containing mainly oligosaccharides and polymers with high levels of glucose residues. The label mixtures of 6-3N- and 6-14C-glucose as well as of 6-3H- and I-14C-glucose were administered into the animals on the day of death. Analysis of the findings has shown that the products of starch hydrolysis may the specific parameters of glucose metabolism. Incorporation of the label into liver tissue lipids was similar to the control values in the group of animals kept on a diet enriched with maltose as compared with group 3. The glycolytic pathway of glucose utilization was more activated than the pentosephosphate pathway after substituting starch for dry starch syrup as shown by differences in the rates of carbon incorporation at positions 1 and 6 of a glucose molecule.

  13. Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultivation using sugarcane molasses and glucose syrup from cassava starch.

    Win, S S; Impoolsup, A; Noomhorm, A

    1996-02-01

    Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose syrup from cassava starch and sugarcane molasses were studied using batch and fed-batch cultivation. The optimum temperature and pH required for growth were 30 degrees C and pH 5.5, respectively. In batch culture the productivity and overall cell yield were 0.31 g L-1 h-1 and 0.23 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on glucose syrup and 0.22 g L-1 h-1 and 0.18 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on molasses. In fed-batch cultivation, a productivity of 3.12 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.52 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in glucose syrup cultivation and a productivity of 2.33 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.46 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in molasses cultivation by controlling the reducing sugar concentration at its optimum level obtained from the fermentation model. By using an on-line ethanol sensor combined with a porous Teflon tubing method in automating the feeding of substrate in the fed-batch culture, a productivity of 2.15 g L-1 h-1 with a yield of 0.47 g cells g-1 sugar was achieved using glucose syrup as substrate when ethanol concentration was kept at a constant level by automatic control.

  14. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  15. Oral Cancer

    ... treatment by an SLP are important to restore speech intelligibility and swallowing skills. Treatment often includes helping people ... 8255 Read More Site Help | A–Z Topic Index | Privacy Statement | Terms of Use © 1997-2017 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

  16. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient

    Pramod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral Myiasis is a rare disease that is mostly reported in developing countries. It is primarily caused by the invasion of the human body by fly larvae. The phenomenon is well-documented in the skin, especially among animals. This case report describes the presentation of Oral Myiasis caused by Musca Nebulo (common house fly, in a 28-year-old patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal of the larvae, after topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement and oral therapy with Ivermectin.

  17. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain: a meta-analysis

    Derry Sheena

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in acute conditions like sprains and strains, with differences between individual drugs for efficacy. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bias, and a reclassification of certain drugs necessitate a new review. Methods Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and writing to manufacturers. We selected randomised double blind trials comparing topical NSAID with either placebo or another active treatment in adults with acute pain, and extracted dichotomous information approximating to a 50% reduction in pain at one week, together with details of adverse events and withdrawals. Relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat (NNT, and relative risk and number-needed-to-harm (NNH were calculated, with sensitivity analyses where appropriate to investigate differences between individual drugs and aspects of trial design. Results Twenty-six double blind placebo controlled trials had information from 2,853 patients for evaluation of efficacy. Topical NSAID was significantly better than placebo in 19 of the 26 trials, with a pooled relative benefit of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7, and NNT of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.4 to 4.4 compared with placebo for the outcome of half pain relief at seven days. Results were not affected by outcome reported, or condition treated, but smaller trials yielded a larger estimate of efficacy. Indirect comparisons of individual topical NSAIDs showed that ketoprofen was significantly better than all other topical NSAIDs, while indomethacin was barely distinguished from placebo. Three trials, with 433 patients, compared topical with oral NSAID (two trials compared the same drug, one compared different drugs and found no difference in efficacy. Local adverse events, systemic adverse events, or withdrawals due to an adverse event were rare, and no different between topical

  18. Selecting a Topic in Public Speaking

    刘玉霞

    2013-01-01

    The first step in speechmaking is choosing a topic, which will decide the success of the speech. In the paper, we are go⁃ing to discuss how to select a topic in public speaking, and we’ll mainly talk about the following: the speaker, the occasion and the audience, selecting a topic, specific methods for choosing a topic and available topics.

  19. Topical agents in burn care

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  20. Oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast in hospitalised and medically compromised patients: a systematic review.

    Lam, Otto L T; Bandara, H M H N; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W

    2012-03-01

    Yeast are major aetiological agents of localised oral mucosal lesions, and are also leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on the prevalence and incidence of these opportunistic oral pathogens in hospitalised and medically compromised patients. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast. Chlorhexidine delivered in a variety of oral hygiene products appeared to have some effect on oral yeast, although some studies found equivocal effects. Although a wide array of other compounds have also been investigated, their clinical effectiveness remains to be substantiated. Likewise, the utility of mechanical oral hygiene interventions and other oral health promotion measures such as topical application of salivary substitute, remains unsettled. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against oral yeast, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remains to be confirmed by further high-quality randomised controlled trials. This is pertinent, given the recent emergence of yeast resistance to conventional antifungal agents.

  1. 小儿智力糖浆治疗儿童失眠的临床疗效观察%Observation on Clinical Efficacy of Xiaoer Zhili Syrup for the Treatment of Children with In-somnia

    黄艳军; 蒋娇; 郑帼; 郭虎; 金加萍; 陈静; 吴春风; 何燕

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察小儿智力糖浆治疗儿童失眠的临床疗效。[方法]将本院符合失眠标准的患儿50例随机分为两组,每组25例。治疗组给予小儿智力糖浆口服,每天3次,每次10~15 m L。对照组口服地西泮,每晚1次,每次2 mg ,两组均治疗4周为1个疗程。1个疗程结束后随访1个月,比较两组治疗效果。[结果]近期治疗效果显示治疗组总的有效率为88.00%(22/25),对照组为56.00%(14/25);远期疗效显示治疗组总有效率为88.00%(22/25),对照组为52.00%(13/25),两组近期、远期疗效相比较,差异均有显著性( P <0.05)。[结论]小儿智力糖浆可改善儿童失眠症状,疗效可,且无明显不良反应,安全性好。%[Objective]To observe the clinical efficacy of Xiaoer Zhili syrup for the treatment of children with in-somnia .[Methods] A total of 50 children with insomnia were randomly divided into two groups with 25 cases in each group .The treatment group was treated with oral administration of Xiaoer Zhili syrup ,10~15 mL per time for three times a day ,while the control group was treated with diazepam tablets ,2 .5mg once every night for 4 weeks a course . After 1 course ,follow up visits were made for 1 month .The efficacy was compared between two groups .[Results]The short-term total effectiveness rate of treatment group and control group was 88 .00% (22/25) and 56 .00% (14/25) ,respectively .The long-term total effectiveness rate of treatment group and control group was 88 .00% (22/25) and 52 .00% (13/25) ,respectively .There was significant difference in short-term efficacy and long-term efficacy be-tween two groups( P<0 .05) .[Conclusion]Xiaoer Zhili syrup can improve insomnia in children ,and has fair cura-tive efficacy and good safety with no obvious adverse reactions .

  2. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  3. 生化糖浆对药物致不完全流产早孕大鼠子宫内膜血管新生及作用机制研究%Effect of Shenghua syrup on angiogenesis of medicine-induced incomplete-abortion in early pregnancy rats and its mechanisms

    苌凤锦; 梁杰; 彭代银; 陈孟夏; 孙学勤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Shenghua syrup on angiogenesis of medicine-induced incomplete-abortion in early pregnancy rats and the related mechanisms. Methods Early pregnancy rats were intragastrically administered with misoprostol and mifepris-tong to establish the incomplete-abortion model. The incomplete-abortion rats were randomly divided into the model group,the positive control group and Shenghua syrup-treated groups. After the successive oral administration for 7 days,blood was collected from aorta abdominalis, and rat uterine tissues were collected. The content of serum Ang-1 and Ang-2 were detected by ELISA;the levels of Tie-2 and MVD in uter-ine tissues were detected by SP immunohistochemistry. Results Endometrial rat model groupˊs MVD and Tie-2 integrated absorbance and se-rum Ang-1,Ang-2 levels were significantly lower than those of the normal control group(P < 0. 05). In positive control group,biochemical syrup dose group,endometrial rat biochemical syrup,MVD in the high dose group and Tie-2 integrated absorbance and serum Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels were significantly higher than those of the model group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion Shenghua syrup has the effect of markedly promoting angiogenesis in incomplete-abortion rats. Its mechanism may be related to the regulation of concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 in serum and Tie-2 in uterine tissues.%目的研究生化糖浆对药物致不完全流产早孕大鼠子宫内膜血管新生及作用机制。方法将受孕7 d 的早孕大鼠灌胃米非司酮和米索前列醇,复制不完全流产模型,将不完全流产模型大鼠分为模型组、阳性对照组、生化糖浆低剂量组、生化糖浆中剂量组和生化糖浆高剂量组,将正常受孕大鼠作为正常对照组。采用免疫组化法检测大鼠子宫内膜中微血管密度(MVD)和酪氨酸激酶受体(Tie-2),采用酶联吸附法检测血清中促血管生成素-1(Ang-1)和促血管生成素-2(Ang-2

  4. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis.

  5. Topics in current aerosol research

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  6. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  7. Automatic Labelling of Topics with Neural Embeddings

    Bhatia, Shraey; Lau, Jey Han; Baldwin, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Topics generated by topic models are typically represented as list of terms. To reduce the cognitive overhead of interpreting these topics for end-users, we propose labelling a topic with a succinct phrase that summarises its theme or idea. Using Wikipedia document titles as label candidates, we compute neural embeddings for documents and words to select the most relevant labels for topics. Compared to a state-of-the-art topic labelling system, our methodology is simpler, more efficient, and ...

  8. INDUCTION OF ENZYME COCKTAILS BY LOW COST CARBON SOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MONOSACCHARIDE-RICH SYRUPS FROM PLANT MATERIALS

    Caroline T. Gilleran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and starch-degrading enzymes by the thermophilic aerobic fungus Talaromyces emersonii under liquid state culture on various food wastes was investigated. A comprehensive enzyme screening was conducted, which resulted in the identification of spent tea leaves as a potential substrate for hydrolytic enzyme production. The potent, polysaccharide-degrading enzyme-rich cocktail produced when tea leaves were utilised as sole carbon source was analysed at a protein and mRNA level and shown to exhibit high level production of key cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes. As presented in this paper, the crude enzyme preparation produced after 120 h growth of Talaromyces emersonii on used tea leaves is capable of hydrolysing other lignocellulosic materials into their component monosaccharides, generating high value sugar syrups with a host of industrial applications including conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  9. Comparison of physical and chemical properties of high pressure- and heat-treated Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in syrup

    Dajanta, Katekan; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Somsang, Soontaree

    2012-03-01

    Lychee usually has white flesh, but its flesh is very sensitive to thermal and enzymatic impairment and ultimately changes in color. This investigation was intended to study the magnitude of color change in lychee by high pressure and thermal processing. The lychee was packed in syrup prior to being processed. Pressurized lychee was performed at 600 MPa at 30°C or 50°C for 20 min, while the pasteurized sample was heated at 90°C for 3 min. It was found that pressurization induced lower color L*, a* and b* values, including low anthocyanin content. For enzymatic activities, high pressure could reduce the activity of polyphenoloxidase by 33-51%, whereas pasteurization markedly reduced that activity by 90%.

  10. Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial

    Uberos J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jose Uberos,1 Mercedes Nogueras-Ocana,2 Verónica Fernandez-Puentes,1 Rocio Rodriguez-Belmonte,1 Eduardo Narbona-López,1 Antonio Molina-Carballo,1 Antonio Munoz-Hoyos11Paediatric Clinical Management Unit, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain; 2Paediatric Urology, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, SpainObjectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI.Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial.Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain.Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months, associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%. Six patients (6.3% were male and 20 (21.1% were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3% receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8

  11. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  12. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  13. Topics in combinatorial pattern matching

    Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    This dissertation studies problems in the general theme of combinatorial pattern matching. More specifically, we study the following topics: Longest Common Extensions. We revisit the longest common extension (LCE) problem, that is, preprocess a string T into a compact data structure that supports...

  14. Feasibility study of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.

    Benali, Sonia; Benamara, Salem; Bigan, Muriel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three Algerian raw materials, namely date (Phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (OAP) in lemon juice (LJ) was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. The cooking temperature (X1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time (X 2), taken for heating the initial fruit mixture in the oil bath (from ambient temperature without fixing however, the final temperature), were found to be the most influent factors, compared to °Brix of date syrup (X3) and temperature (X4) of the cooling stage following the cooking process. Results have also shown that the second-degree polynomial models correctly fit experimental data (R(2), adjusted R(2) (R(2) adj) and cross-validation (Q(2)) ≈ 1). Considering textural properties of commercial jellies as a reference, it was found that the cooking temperature of 155 °C for 10 min gave a jelly with suitable textural properties. On the other hand, FT-IR spectra revealed that the structure of such jelly was partially close to that of pectin molecules. Finally, the color analysis in the CIELab system of the fruit mixture over the cooking process showed that both lightness (L(*)) and a*/b* ratio were not affected by the experienced temperature range (80-155 °C).

  15. Aceclofenac topical dosage forms: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    Dua, Kamal; Pabreja, Kavita; Ramana, Malipeddi Venkata

    2010-12-01

    Aceclofenac is a new generation non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug showing effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. It is available in the form of tablets of 100 mg. Importance of aceclofenac as a NSAID has inspired development of topical dosage forms. This mode of administration may help avoid typical side effects associated with oral administration of NSAIDs, which have led to its withdrawal. Furthermore, aceclofenac topical dosage forms can be used as a supplement to oral therapy for better treatment of conditions such as arthritis. Ointments, creams, and gels containing 1% (m/m) aceclofenac have been prepared. They were tested for physical appearance, pH, spreadability, extrudability, drug content uniformity, in vitro diffusion and in vitro permeation. Gels prepared using Carbopol 940 (AF2, AF3) and macrogol bases (AF7) were selected after the analysis of the results. They were evaluated for acute skin irritancy, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects using the carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema method. AF2 was shown to be significantly (p < 0.05) more effective in inhibiting hyperalgesia associated with inflammation, compared to AF3 and AF7. Hence, AF2 may be suggested as an alternative to oral preparations.

  16. Systemic vs. Topical Therapy for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Sebastian Faro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 75% of all women will experience at least 1 episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC during their lifetimes. Most patients with acute VVC can be treated with short-term regimens that optimize compliance. Since current topical and oral antifungals have shown comparably high efficacy rates, other issues should be considered in determining the most appropriate therapy. It is possible that the use of short-duration narrow-spectrum agents may increase selection of more resistant organisms which will result in an increase of recurrent VVC (RVVC. Women who are known or suspected to be pregnant and women of childbearing age who are not using a reliable means of contraception should receive topical therapy, as should those who are breast-feeding or receiving drugs that can interact with an oral azole and those who have previously experienced adverse effects during azole therapy. Because of the potential risks associated with systemic treatment, topical therapy with a broad-spectrum agent should be the method of choice for VVC, whereas systemic therapy should be reserved for either RVVC or cases where the benefits outweigh any possible adverse reactions.

  17. A pharmacokinetic model to document the actual disposition of topical ivermectin in cattle

    Laffont, Céline M.; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Bralet, David; Alvinerie, Roger; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ivermectin is a worldwide-used antiparasitic drug largely administered to cattle as a topical formulation (pour-on). The actual plasma and faecal disposition of pour-on ivermectin in cattle was documented using an original pharmacokinetic model, and taking into account the oral ingestion of the topical drug following physiological licking as a secondary route of exposure. Six pairs of monozygotic twin cattle received successively one i.v. and two pour-on administration...

  18. Oral contraceptives.

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  19. Hot topics in functional neuroradiology.

    Faro, S H; Mohamed, F B; Helpern, J A; Jensen, J H; Thulborn, K R; Atkinson, I C; Sair, H I; Mikulis, D J

    2013-12-01

    Functional neuroradiology represents a relatively new and ever-growing subspecialty in the field of neuroradiology. Neuroradiology has evolved beyond anatomy and basic tissue signal characteristics and strives to understand the underlying physiologic processes of central nervous system disease. The American Society of Functional Neuroradiology sponsors a yearly educational and scientific meeting, and the educational committee was asked to suggest a few cutting-edge functional neuroradiology techniques (hot topics). The following is a review of several of these topics and includes "Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Pediatric Spinal Cord"; "Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging"; "From Standardization to Quantification: Beyond Biomarkers toward Bioscales as Neuro MR Imaging Surrogates of Clinical End Points"; Resting-State Functional MR Imaging"; and "Current Use of Cerebrovascular Reserve Imaging."

  20. Retapamulin: A newer topical antibiotic

    D Dhingra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application.

  1. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  2. Topics on nonlinear generalized functions

    Colombeau, J F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give the text of a recent introduction to nonlinear generalized functions exposed in my talk in the congress gf2011, which was asked by several participants. Three representative topics were presented: two recalls "Nonlinear generalized functions and their connections with distribution theory", "Examples of applications", and a recent development: "Locally convex topologies and compactness: a functional analysis of nonlinear generalized functions".

  3. Topical Ocular Delivery of NSAIDs

    Ahuja, Munish; Avinash S Dhake; Sharma, Surendra K; Dipak K Majumdar

    2008-01-01

    In ocular tissue, arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase to prostaglandins which are the most important lipid derived mediators of inflammation. Presently nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are being used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs used in ophthalmology, topically, are salicylic-, indole acetic-, aryl acetic-, aryl propionic- and enolic acid derivatives. NSAIDs are weak acids with pKa mostly between 3.5 a...

  4. Topic Detection in Online Chat

    2009-09-01

    including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...you. “ … Of making many books there is no end, and much study is a weariness of the flesh.” Ecclesiastes 12:12 , ESV xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...topic detection," Online Information Review , vol. 30, pp. 496–516, 2006. [2] D. Jurafsky and J. H. Martin, Speech and Language Processing : An

  5. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 3 focuses on the continuity, integrability, and differentiability of random functions, including operator theory, measure theory, and functional and numerical analysis. The selection first offers information on the qualitative theory of stochastic systems and Langevin equations with multiplicative noise. Discussions focus on phase-space evolution via direct integration, phase-space evolution, linear and nonlinear systems, linearization, and generalizations. The text then ponders on the stability theory of stochastic difference systems and Marko

  6. Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    Ustunel, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The Silvri Workshop was divided into a short summer school and a working conference, producing lectures and research papers on recent developments in stochastic analysis on Wiener space. The topics treated in the lectures relate to the Malliavin calculus, the Skorohod integral and nonlinear functionals of white noise. Most of the research papers are applications of these subjects. This volume addresses researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and theoretical physics.

  7. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  8. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1979-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 2 focuses on the integrability, continuity, and differentiability of random functions, as well as functional analysis, measure theory, operator theory, and numerical analysis.The selection first offers information on the optimal control of stochastic systems and Gleason measures. Discussions focus on convergence of Gleason measures, random Gleason measures, orthogonally scattered Gleason measures, existence of optimal controls without feedback, random necessary conditions, and Gleason measures in tensor products. The text then elaborates on an

  9. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  10. 阿片类止咳糖浆的安全使用预警%Warning on the safety in using of opioid-containing cough syrups

    闫赋琴; 李霞; 曹军平

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years , the adverse reactions of opioid -containing cough syrups always occurred because of the improper using . Combined with researches on related papers , this review analyzes the pharmacology and the potential risks , hoping to provide a reference for the clinical using of opioid-containing cough syrups .%近年来,常有因过度使用含阿片类止咳糖浆导致成瘾或其他不良反应的发生,本文结合相关文献调查,针对阿片类止咳糖浆概述其临床药理学特点和潜在风险,讨论其在临床治疗中如何安全使用,以促进阿片类止咳糖浆在社会人群中的合理使用。

  11. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  12. Oral dirofilariasis

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  13. [Oral pain].

    Benslama, Lotfi

    2002-02-15

    Pain, a major symptom of stomatological disease, usually leads to a specialist consultation. Most commonly it is caused by dental caries and differs in nature and in intensity according to the stage of disease: dentinitis, pulpitis, desmodontitis and dental abscess. Added to this is peridental pain and the pre- and post-operative pains related to these diseases. Almost all oral-maxillary pathology is painful, be it boney such as in osteomyelitis and fractures, mucosal in gingivo-stomatitis and aphthous ulcers, or tumourous. However, besides the "multidisciplinary" facial pains such as facial neuralgia and vascular pain, two pain syndromes are specific to stomatology: pain of the tempero-mandibular joint associated with problems of the bite and glossodynia, a very common somatic expression of psychological problems.

  14. Preliminary Pharmacodynamic Study of Xingsu Zhike Syrup%杏苏止咳糖浆的药效学研究

    张士勇; 程军; 彭代银; 高家荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the expectorant, anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory effects of xingsu zhike syrup. Methods Mice were divided into five groups at random, including normal control, kechuanning group (3.0 mL · kg-1 ), and three groups received with low dose, middle dose and high dose of xingsu zhike syrup( 1. 5,3. 0, 6. 0 mL · kg-1 ), respectively. The rat model with cough by ammonia, mouse model for testing phenol red excretion, mouse model of histamine-acetylcholine induced asthma and that with celiac capillary permeation by acetic acid were created to explore effect of xingsu zhike syrup. Results Cough frequency within 2 minutes of the medium, low dose groups of xingsu zhike syrup, and blank control were( 40.50±9. 53 ),( 36.73±10. 40 ),( 36. 54±7. 24 ),( 28. 07±4. 83 ),( 44. 72±6. 97 )times, respectively. The latent period of cough induced was( 24. 56 ± 10. 83 ),(26. 22±9. 17 ), ( 26. 92±8. 69 ), ( 28. 62± 11. 58 ), ( 18. 49±5. 56) s,respectively. The latent period of incubation induced was( 64. 8±17. 9 ),( 68.4±18. 3 ),(75.8±20. 7 ),( 73. 6±17. 8 ),( 49. 8± 15. 4 ) s , respectiYely. The absorbency reflecting phenol red discharge was( 0. 096±0. 025 ),( 0. 103±0. 021 ),( 0. 110±0. 035 ), (0.110±0.032),(0. 083 ±0.022), respectively, that for capillary permeability was( 0. 107 ±0. 034 ),( 0. 103 ±0.027 ), (0.090±0.024),( 0. 099±0. 031 ), ( 0. 121 ±0. 037 ), respectiYely. Conclusion Xingsu zhike syrup has significant expectorant, anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory effects.%目的 探讨杏苏止咳糖浆止咳、化痰、平喘、抗炎的功效.方法将实验小鼠随机分为5组:杏苏止咳糖浆低、中、高剂量组,先声咳喘宁组,空白对照组.杏苏止咳糖浆低、中、高剂量组分别给予杏苏止咳糖浆1.5,3.0,6.0 mL·kg-1,先声咳喘宁组给予先声咳喘宁3.0 mL·kg-1,空白对照组给予等量0.9%氯化钠注射液.观察杏苏止咳糖浆对小鼠氨水引咳法模型、

  15. Oral Lichen Planus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  17. Oral Health Glossary

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health Mouth Breathing Can Cause Major Health Problems Over ... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Oral Health Glossary Article Chapters Oral Health Glossary print full ...

  18. A comparison of the efficacy, adverse effects, and patient compliance of the sena-graph®syrup and castor oil regimens for bowel preparation.

    Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Jafari, Mahmood-Reza; Shams, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Sena-Graph syrup has recently been formulated by an Iranian pharmaceutical company for being used in bowel evacuation before radiography, colonoscopy and surgery. This study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and patient compliance of two bowel preparation regimens with castor oil and Sena-Graph syrup in of outpatients for Intravenous Urography (IVU). One hundred and fourteen consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive either the standard bowel preparation with 60 mL of castor oil or the test method with 60 mL of Sena-Graph syrup before IVU examination. Demographic data of patients and their prior bowel preparation experience were collected before the examination. Two radiologists, blinded to the method of bowel preparation, reviewed the radiographs and graded the bowel preparation. The compliance and acceptability of both regimens were assessed by using structured questionnaires filled by the patients. The Numbers, ages, weights and gender distribution of patients and their prior bowel preparation experience in the two groups did not differ significantly. The cleanliness scores for the castor oil and Sena-Graph group were 3.97 ± 0.971 and 4.87 ± 0.917, respectively. The results indicated that Sena-Graph syrup causes a better bowel cleansing compared castor oil. Adverse effects in Sena-Graph groups were significantly lower than the castor oil group. Acceptability of the regimen in patients who used Sena-Graph was higher than the other group. The Sena-Graph regimen is significantly more effective and better tolerated than of Castor oil regimen in bowel cleansing. The incidence and severity of the adverse effects from Castor oil was higher than Sena-Graph.

  19. Clinical assessment of the warming sensation accompanying flavor 316282 in a cold and cough syrup containing paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin

    Rowland Furcha; Joëlle Monnet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by flavor 316282 in a cold and cough product in the target population. Methods: A single-cohort, single-treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30-mL dose of syrup containing flavor 316282, paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessment of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, textur...

  20. A Prospective, Open Label, Observational Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Cough Syrup Mykoff® in Patients Suffering from Cough of Varied Aetiologies

    Mangesh Bhalerao; Pradip Awale; Abhijeet Sawle; Dhananjay Sangle; Devendra B Sonawane; Vilas Chavan

    2013-01-01

    A prospective, open label, observational study was conducted at general outpatient clinic to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal cough syrup Mykoff® in patients suffering from cough of varied aetiologies. The patients of either sex, age > 3yrs, suffering from cough due to common cold, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, allergic cough and smoker’s cough were enrolled. The safety was evaluated by means of an analysis of adverse events. In addition, efficacy and tolerabili...

  1. The effects of intraruminal infusions of urea, casein, glucose syrup and a mixture of casein and glucose syrup on nitrogen digestion in the rumen of cattle receiving grass-silage diets.

    Rooke, J A; Lee, N H; Armstrong, D G

    1987-01-01

    In an incomplete 5 X 5 Latin square experiment, four cattle were given grass silage in two meals per d to satisfy 1.15 maintenance energy requirements. In addition, water or casein (21 g nitrogen and 0.17 kg organic matter (OM)/d) or urea (U; 28 g N/d) or a glucose syrup (G; 0.87 kg OM/d) or casein and glucose syrup (CG; 17 g N and 0.93 kg OM/d) were infused intraruminally at a constant rate. A 24 h collection of duodenal digesta was made using chromic oxide for flow estimation and 35S as a marker of microbial N entering the small intestine. Samples of rumen fluid were also taken for estimation of rumen pH, and concentrations of ammonia-N and volatile fatty acids. The intraruminal infusions had no significant effects on rumen pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acids or their molar proportions. Infusion of either C or U significantly (P less than 0.05) increased rumen NH3-N concentrations whereas infusions of either G or CG lowered rumen NH3-N concentrations. Infusions of C or U had no significant effect on the quantities of OM, acid-detergent fibre (ADF) or N constituents which entered the small intestine. Infusions of G or CG increased the quantities of OM (G P less than 0.05, CG P less than 0.01), ADF (CG P less than 0.05), non-NH3-N (G P less than 0.05, CG P less than 0.01), amino acid N (G P less than 0.05, CG P less than 0.01) and microbial N (G P less than 0.05, CG P less than 0.01) which entered the small intestine. The efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis was unchanged by the infusion of C, U or G (P greater than 0.05) but increased significantly (P less than 0.05) when CG were infused.

  2. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  3. In house validation from direct determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) in Brazilian corn and cane syrups samples by HPLC-UV.

    de Andrade, Jucimara K; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Torres, Yohandra R; da Rosa, Marcos R; Felsner, Maria L

    2016-01-01

    In this work the development and in house validation of the HMF direct determination in corn and cane syrups by HPLC-UV was carried out for the first time. The separation was done with isocratic elution of a mobile phase comprising water (with 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) on Phenomenex C18 column (5.0 μm, 4.6 × 150 mm), at 30 °C, flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) and detection at 285 nm. The validated method showed excellent performance with low limits (LOD and LOQ of 0.09 and 0.26 mg L(-1), respectively), good accuracy (recovery rates between 100% and 104%) and precision (RSD's for repeatability and intermediate precision between 0.57% and 6.43%). Good selectivity and linearity were also observed. HMF contents in both foods were very high (406.6-2121.3 mg kg(-1) for corn syrup and 109.2-893.1 mg kg(-1) for cane syrup), which arouses concern about food safety of these products.

  4. Two Oral Midazolam Preparations in Pediatric Dental Patients: A Prospective Randomised Clinical Trial

    Katayoun Salem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological sedation is an alternative behavior management strategy in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral and physiologic effects of “commercially midazolam syrup” versus “orally administered IV midazolam dosage form (extemporaneous midazolam (EF” in uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Eighty-eight children between 4 to 7 years of age received 0.2–0.5 mg/kg midazolam in this parallel trial. Physiologic parameters were recorded at baseline and every 15 minutes. Behavior assessment was conducted objectively by Houpt scale throughout the sedation and North Carolina at baseline and during injection and cavity preparation. No significant difference in behavior was noted by Houpt or North Carolina scale. Acceptable behavior (excellent, very good, and good was observed in 90.9% of syrup and 79.5% of EF subjects, respectively. Physiological parameters remained in normal range without significant difference between groups and no adverse effect was observed. It is concluded that EF midazolam preparation can be used as an acceptable alternative to midazolam syrup.

  5. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  6. Potential theory—selected topics

    Aikawwa, Hiroaki

    1996-01-01

    The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

  7. Topics in atomic collision theory

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  8. The use of topical fluoride to prevent or reverse dental caries.

    Jacobsen, Peter; Young, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Topical fluoride has been the main stay of caries prevention for many decades. There are several mechanisms which make it beneficial including inhibiting demineralization, enhancing remineralization, and inhibiting bacterial growth. Topical fluoride is available in many different forms. The concentrations of various fluoride preparations range from 225 parts per million (ppm) fluoride in over-the-counter oral rinses to 22,600 ppm in the fluoride varnishes. The clinician must decide which type of topical preparation is best suited for their patient. Patients with high caries risk may benefit from prescription strength fluorides (along with the other chemical and dietary therapies described in this issue of Special Care in Dentistry). The application of fluoride varnish is an excellent topical form for those patients who have access to dental care and for whom it is difficult to comply with the use of other topical forms.

  9. Successful treatment of plasma cell cheilitis with topical tacrolimus: report of two cases.

    Hanami, Yuka; Motoki, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-15

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an uncommon chronic inflammatory dermatitis that presents with flat to slightly elevated erosive erythematous plaques. It is histologically characterized by plasma cell infiltrates into the mucosa. Other than the lip, genital areas are often involved, which is called plasma cell balanitis or vulvitis. Plasma cell cheilitis is sometimes resistant to conventional topical corticosteroid therapy. Other choices include oral griseofulvin, topical cyclosporine, and intralesional corticosteroid injection, all of which occasionally fail to produce satisfactory results. Recent reports show that topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective for plasma cell cheilitis, balanitis, and vulvitis. However, there are so far only 2 reports of plasma cell cheilitis successfully treated with topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. We present herein two cases of plasma cell cheilitis, in which topical tacrolimus showed beneficial effects, suggesting that this immunomodulatory agent is a promising option for plasma cell cheilitis.

  10. Topical cidofovir for plantar warts.

    Padilla España, Laura; Del Boz, Javier; Fernández Morano, Teresa; Arenas Villafranca, Javier; de Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Plantar warts are a common reason for dermatological consultations and their treatment can occasionally be a challenge. Plantar warts are benign lesions produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that often fail to respond to habitual treatment. Cidofovir is a potent antiviral drug that acts competitively, inhibiting viral DNA polymerase. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of cidofovir cream for the treatment of viral plantar warts. We undertook a retrospective observational study of patients with plantar warts who received treatment with topical cidofovir between July 2008 and July 2011 at the Dermatology Service of the Hospital Costa del Sol, Marbella, Spain. Data about the rate of treatment response, the adverse effects, and recurrences, as well as the characteristics of the patient cohort, were recorded. We identified 35 patients who had received some previous treatment. The usual concentration was 3% (in 33 of 35 cases), applied twice a day (in 31 of 35 cases). A greater or lesser response was noted in 28 cases. There were two recurrences. Topical cidofovir seems to be a useful alternative for the therapeutic management of recalcitrant plantar common warts that fail to respond to usual treatment.

  11. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient

    Grandim Balarama Gupta Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture.

  12. A Comparative Clinical Trial of Topical Triamcinolone (Adcortyle and a Herbal Solution for the Treatment of Minor Aphthous Stomatitis

    F Rad

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of topical Myrtus communis (myrtle solution with topical triamcinolone (Adcortyle in the treatment of minor apotheosis. Materials & Methods: This clinical-trial study was conducted at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. 100 patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. The 1st group received topical myrtle solution. The 2nd group received topical trimcinolone (Adcortyle. After one week, patients' declaration about time of the recovery of the pain and deterioration of oral lesion was recorded. The gathered data was then analyzed using the SPSS statistical software using t-test and chi-square. Results: After treatment, both groups showed response to topical medications with no significant difference between them (p>0.05. Conclusion: results of this study showed that topical myrtle solution is effective in the treatment of minor aphthous stomatitis and its therapeutic effect is comparable with topical triamcinolone (Adcortyle.

  13. Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs.

  14. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Phoney, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations.

  15. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... rare, have ranged from mild to severe chemical burns with use of such brand-name topical muscle ...

  16. Human-competitive automatic topic indexing

    Medelyan, Olena

    2009-01-01

    Topic indexing is the task of identifying the main topics covered by a document. These are useful for many purposes: as subject headings in libraries, as keywords in academic publications and as tags on the web. Knowing a document’s topics helps people judge its relevance quickly. However, assigning topics manually is labor intensive. This thesis shows how to generate them automatically in a way that competes with human performance. Three kinds of indexing are investigated: term assignment, a task commonly performed by librarians, who select topics from a controlled vocabulary; tagging, a popular activity of web users, who choose topics freely; and a new method of keyphrase extraction, where topics are equated to Wikipedia article names. A general two-stage algorithm is introduced that first selects candidate topics and then ranks them by significance based on their properties. These properties draw on statistical, semantic, domain-specific and encyclopedic knowledge. They are combined using a machine learn...

  17. Topics in Banach space theory

    Albiac, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...

  18. Topics in computational linear optimization

    Hultberg, Tim Helge

    2000-01-01

    of high quality solvers and the use of algebraic modelling systems to handle the communication between the modeller and the solver. This dissertation features four topics in computational linear optimization: A) automatic reformulation of mixed 0/1 linear programs, B) direct solution of sparse unsymmetric...... branch-and-bound algorithms depends heavily on the formulation of the problem. In seeking a better formulation, automatic reformulation employs a range of different techniques for obtaining an equivalent formulation of a given pure or mixed integer programming problem, such that the new formulation has...... a tighter LP-relaxation than the original formulation. The first paper surveys the use of automatic reformulation techniques for general mixed 0-1 linear programs. An implementation, Spiky, of a direct method for solving large sparse unsymmetric systems of linear equations is presented in the second paper...

  19. Topics in Open Topological Strings

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is based on some selected topics in open topological string theory which I have worked on during my Ph.D. It comprises an introductory part where I have focused on the points most needed for the later chapters, trading completeness for conciseness and clarity. Then, following [12], we discuss tadpole cancellation for topological strings where we mainly show how its implementation is needed for ensuring the same "odd" moduli decoupling encountered in the closed theory. Next we move to analyse how the open and closed effective field theories for the B model interact writing the complete Lagrangian. We first check it deriving some already known tree level amplitudes in term of target space quantities, and then we extend the recipe to new results; later we implement open closed duality from a target field theory perspective. This last subject is also analysed from a worldsheet point of view extending the analysis of [13]. Some ideas for future research are briefly reported.

  20. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  1. Synergetics introduction and advanced topics

    Haken, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    This book is an often-requested reprint of two classic texts by H. Haken: "Synergetics. An Introduction" and "Advanced Synergetics". Synergetics, an interdisciplinary research program initiated by H. Haken in 1969, deals with the systematic and methodological approach to the rapidly growing field of complexity. Going well beyond qualitative analogies between complex systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, biology, sociology and economics, Synergetics uses tools from theoretical physics and mathematics to construct an unifying framework within which quantitative descriptions of complex, self-organizing systems can be made. This may well explain the timelessness of H. Haken's original texts on this topic, which are now recognized as landmarks in the field of complex systems. They provide both the beginning graduate student and the seasoned researcher with solid knowledge of the basic concepts and mathematical tools. Moreover, they admirably convey the spirit of the pioneering work by the founder of ...

  2. 基于Topic Circle的大学英语口语教学实践

    何湘君

    2016-01-01

    Topic circle is a cooperative learning mode for oral English, which can help improve the fluency of oral expression in communication within a short period by obtaining a large amount of unknown information and en-riching the amount of information in oral expression. Topic circle can strengthen the content of students' oral ex-pression, thus fully stimulating students' enthusiasm for oral practice. Besides, due to its wide usage, it is an effec-tive oral English teaching mode for big classes of college.%Topic Circle是一种口语合作学习形式,它可以帮助学生在短时间的口语交际中,提高口语表达的流利性,获取大量未知信息,从而丰富口语表达的信息量。Topic Circle能深化学生口语表达的内容,从而充分调动学生口语表达的积极性,而且它的覆盖面广,是一种有效的大班口语教学形式。

  3. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using informati

  4. Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know?

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2013-03-01

    Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a possible unique link between HFCS consumption and obesity. Since then, a broad scientific consensus has emerged that there are no metabolic or endocrine response differences between HFCS and sucrose related to obesity or any other adverse health outcome. This equivalence is not surprising given that both of these sugars contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose, contain the same number of calories, possess the same level of sweetness, and are absorbed identically through the gastrointestinal tract. Research comparing pure fructose with pure glucose, although interesting from a scientific point of view, has limited application to human nutrition given that neither is consumed to an appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Whether there is a link between fructose, HFCS, or sucrose and increased risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, or fatty infiltration of the liver or muscle remains in dispute with different studies using different methodologies arriving at different conclusions. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to resolve many of these issues. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose.

  5. Mutation of zebrafish dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase E2 results in motor dysfunction and models maple syrup urine disease

    Timo Friedrich

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of zebrafish mutants that demonstrate abnormal locomotive behavior can elucidate the molecular requirements for neural network function and provide new models of human disease. Here, we show that zebrafish quetschkommode (que mutant larvae exhibit a progressive locomotor defect that culminates in unusual nose-to-tail compressions and an inability to swim. Correspondingly, extracellular peripheral nerve recordings show that que mutants demonstrate abnormal locomotor output to the axial muscles used for swimming. Using positional cloning and candidate gene analysis, we reveal that a point mutation disrupts the gene encoding dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase E2 (Dbt, a component of a mitochondrial enzyme complex, to generate the que phenotype. In humans, mutation of the DBT gene causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, a disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism that can result in mental retardation, severe dystonia, profound neurological damage and death. que mutants harbor abnormal amino acid levels, similar to MSUD patients and consistent with an error in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. que mutants also contain markedly reduced levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate within the brain and spinal cord, which probably contributes to their abnormal spinal cord locomotor output and aberrant motility behavior, a trait that probably represents severe dystonia in larval zebrafish. Taken together, these data illustrate how defects in branched-chain amino acid metabolism can disrupt nervous system development and/or function, and establish zebrafish que mutants as a model to better understand MSUD.

  6. Effect of high-fructose corn syrup on Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression and on tooth demineralization.

    Sun, Minmin; Kang, Qiongyi; Li, Tingting; Huang, Lili; Jiang, Yuntao; Xia, Wenwei

    2014-06-01

    High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been widely welcomed in recent years as a substitute for sucrose on the basis of its favourable properties and price. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of HFCS-55 on the expression of Streptococcus mutans UA159 virulence genes and on tooth demineralization. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) and microhardness evaluations were performed to examine gene expression and enamel demineralization, respectively, after treatment with HFCS-55 and/or sucrose. Significant up-regulation of glucosyltransferase B (gtfB) by HFCS-55 was found. A mixture of HFCS-55 and sucrose could positively enhance expression of glucan-binding protein (gbp) genes. Regarding acidogenicity, expression of the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene was unaffected by HFCS-55. A notable finding in this study was that 5% HFCS-55 significantly enhanced expression of the intracellular response gene of the two-component VicRK signal transduction system (vicR). Demineralization testing showed that the microhardness of teeth decreased by a greater extent in response to HFCS-55 than in response to sucrose. The results indicate that HFCS-55 can enhance S. mutans biofilm formation indirectly in the presence of sucrose and that HFCS-55 has a more acidogenic potential than does sucrose. Summing up the real-time PCR and demineralization results, HFCS-55 appears to be no less cariogenic than sucrose in vitro - at least, not under the conditions of our experiments.

  7. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CHLORPHINERAMINE MALEATE, DEXTROMETHORPHAN HBR AND PHENYLEPHRIN HCL IN CODILAR SYRUP USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Nora H. Al-Shaalan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple, selective, sensitive and precise, simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of syrup containing Chlorphineramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl was described. Good chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax C18 (4.6 cm x 250 mm, 5 µm and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer pH 3.5 (15:85, v/v at a flow rate 0.9 mL/min. The ultraviolet detector was set at wavelength 280 nm. Chlorphineramine Maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl were measured at 2.789, 3.645 and 13.521 min, respectively. The linear ranges for chlorphineramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and phenylephrin HCl were 10-50, 10-50 and 5-45 µg/mL, respectively. The recoveries of chlorphineramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and phenylephrin HCl in pharmaceutical preparation were all greater than 98% and their relative standard deviations were less than 2.0%. The limits of detection were 2.57, 0.19 and 0.003 µg/mL for Chlorphineramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl, respectively.

  8. A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup

    Ayman Khdair

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40∘C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%, 860 : 140 : 2 v/v and solvent B (acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%, 998 : 2 v/v was used, at gradient conditions, at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Analysis was performed using UV-detection (205 nm. The method was linear over the range (0.03–0.15 mg/mL of hederacoside C (=0.9992. Repeatability and intermediate precision were acceptable (RSD <2%. Limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ were 0.011 and 0.032 mg/mL, respectively. Percentage recovery was found to lie between 99.69% and 100.90% (RSD <2%. The method was also proved to be specific (peak-purity coefficient=0.996.

  9. Microencapsulation of steviol glycosides (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by a spray drying method – Evaluation of encapsulated products and prepared syrups

    Charikleia Chranioti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to encapsulate the steviol glycosides (SGs, derived from Stevia rebaudiana (Bert Bertoni leaves, by applying a spray-drying method. The purpose was to minimize the bitter aftertaste of the SGs as well as to ameliorate/improve their properties. The encapsulation agents used were maltodextrin (19 DE and inulin in a ratio of 80 : 20, while three levels of SGs in total solids (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % were studied. The encapsulated SGs products were evaluated for their hygroscopicity, solubility, moisture content and microencapsulation efficiency (MEE %. Also, syrups prepared with encapsulated SGs, at 1 % w/v, were tested for their viscosity, refractive index, turbidity and sensory properties. Significant differences (P<0.05  in MEE %, moisture content, hygroscopicity and solubility values of the encapsulated SGs products were observed depending on the level of SGs in total solids. In particular, the MEE %, the hygroscopicity and the solubility values ranged from 62.36, 82.46 to 94.67 %, 21.51, 26.67 and 24.25 % and 99.93, 97.50 to 96.03 % for encapsulated SGs products produced with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % SGs in total solids, respectively. The encapsulated product produced with 2.5 % steviol glycosides in total solids presented the most appealing sensory and quality characteristics.

  10. Neutron transport simulation (selected topics)

    Vaz, P.

    2009-10-01

    Neutron transport simulation is usually performed for criticality, power distribution, activation, scattering, dosimetry and shielding problems, among others. During the last fifteen years, innovative technological applications have been proposed (Accelerator Driven Systems, Energy Amplifiers, Spallation Neutron Sources, etc.), involving the utilization of intermediate energies (hundreds of MeV) and high-intensity (tens of mA) proton accelerators impinging in targets of high Z elements. Additionally, the use of protons, neutrons and light ions for medical applications (hadrontherapy) impose requirements on neutron dosimetry-related quantities (such as kerma factors) for biologically relevant materials, in the energy range starting at several tens of MeV. Shielding and activation related problems associated to the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, emerging space-related applications and aircrew dosimetry-related topics are also fields of intense activity requiring as accurate as possible medium- and high-energy neutron (and other hadrons) transport simulation. These applications impose specific requirements on cross-section data for structural materials, targets, actinides and biologically relevant materials. Emerging nuclear energy systems and next generation nuclear reactors also impose requirements on accurate neutron transport calculations and on cross-section data needs for structural materials, coolants and nuclear fuel materials, aiming at improved safety and detailed thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage studies. In this review paper, the state-of-the-art in the computational tools and methodologies available to perform neutron transport simulation is presented. Proton- and neutron-induced cross-section data needs and requirements are discussed. Hot topics are pinpointed, prospective views are provided and future trends identified.

  11. Neutron transport simulation (selected topics)

    Vaz, P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: pedrovaz@itn.pt

    2009-10-15

    Neutron transport simulation is usually performed for criticality, power distribution, activation, scattering, dosimetry and shielding problems, among others. During the last fifteen years, innovative technological applications have been proposed (Accelerator Driven Systems, Energy Amplifiers, Spallation Neutron Sources, etc.), involving the utilization of intermediate energies (hundreds of MeV) and high-intensity (tens of mA) proton accelerators impinging in targets of high Z elements. Additionally, the use of protons, neutrons and light ions for medical applications (hadrontherapy) impose requirements on neutron dosimetry-related quantities (such as kerma factors) for biologically relevant materials, in the energy range starting at several tens of MeV. Shielding and activation related problems associated to the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, emerging space-related applications and aircrew dosimetry-related topics are also fields of intense activity requiring as accurate as possible medium- and high-energy neutron (and other hadrons) transport simulation. These applications impose specific requirements on cross-section data for structural materials, targets, actinides and biologically relevant materials. Emerging nuclear energy systems and next generation nuclear reactors also impose requirements on accurate neutron transport calculations and on cross-section data needs for structural materials, coolants and nuclear fuel materials, aiming at improved safety and detailed thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage studies. In this review paper, the state-of-the-art in the computational tools and methodologies available to perform neutron transport simulation is presented. Proton- and neutron-induced cross-section data needs and requirements are discussed. Hot topics are pinpointed, prospective views are provided and future trends identified.

  12. Development of oxybutynin chloride topical gel for overactive bladder

    Lucente VR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vincent R Lucente1, David R Staskin2, Elise De31Institute of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Allentown, PA, USA; 2Division of Urology, St Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Urological Institute of Northeastern New York, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is an age-related syndrome often associated with urinary incontinence. Symptoms of OAB, such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, can be treated effectively with inhibitors of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Antimuscarinic agents promote relaxation of the detrusor muscle and may modulate afferent neuronal signals involved in the regulation of the micturition reflex. Despite the availability of an increasing number of oral antimuscarinic agents, treatment persistence among patients with OAB generally appears to be low. This may be attributed, at least in part, to the common occurrence of anticholinergic adverse effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, and dizziness. Oxybutynin is a well-established antimuscarinic agent that is available in a variety of formulations. Transdermal formulations have been developed to avoid the first-pass hepatic and gastrointestinal drug metabolism responsible for the anticholinergic adverse effects often observed with oral delivery of oxybutynin. Oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG is a formulation of oxybutynin that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009. OTG was the result of a systematic evidence-based effort to develop a formulation that preserves the efficacy of oral oxybutynin formulations while eliminating most of their anticholinergic adverse effects. Additional emphasis was put on creating a transdermal formulation with minimal potential for application-site skin reactions. The formulation and pharmacokinetic properties of OTG are reviewed in the context of recently published efficacy and tolerability data from a large multicenter, placebo

  13. Oral contraceptives in the treatment of acne.

    Tan, J K; Degreef, H

    2001-02-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) can reduce acne by lowering the production of adrenal and ovarian androgens, by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, which in turn, reduces the levels of dihydrotestosterone, and by stimulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thus reducing the levels of free testosterone. In newer OCs, such as Tricyclen and Diane-35, the progestin component is minimally androgenic and anti-androgenic respectively, thereby enhancing the favorable profile of these products in the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders, including acne. The efficacy of these agents and their long-term safety profile supports their use in various grades of acne in females: * As adjunctive therapy to topical agents for women with mild non-scarring acne desiring oral contraception * As primary therapy for patients with moderate non-scarring acne in combination with topical therapy and systemic antibiotics * As one of two preferred methods of contraception in patients with scarring and severe inflammatory acne being treated with systemic isotretinoin.

  14. Multilingual Topic Models for Unaligned Text

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We develop the multilingual topic model for unaligned text (MuTo), a probabilistic model of text that is designed to analyze corpora composed of documents in two languages. From these documents, MuTo uses stochastic EM to simultaneously discover both a matching between the languages and multilingual latent topics. We demonstrate that MuTo is able to find shared topics on real-world multilingual corpora, successfully pairing related documents across languages. MuTo provides a new framework for creating multilingual topic models without needing carefully curated parallel corpora and allows applications built using the topic model formalism to be applied to a much wider class of corpora.

  15. Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.

    Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

    2013-10-01

    To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis.

  16. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  17. Oral Gabapentin for Photorefractive Keratectomy Pain

    2011-02-01

    uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, corneal topography , intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, cycloplegic refraction, and posterior...alternative for the correction of low to moder- ate myopia or hyperopia. This is especially true for eyes that have reduced central corneal thickness or...postoperative corneal haze are considered drawbacks to PRK compared with LASIK,4,5 the primary disadvantage of PRK is postoperative pain. Topical and oral

  18. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  19. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  20. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  1. 高果糖玉米糖浆致龋性的动物实验研究%Cariogenicity of high fructose corn syrup: an experimental study on rats

    肖天鸣; 夏文薇

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过观察大鼠进食含高果糖玉米糖浆(high fructose corn syrups,HFCS)饲料后牙齿的患龋情况,评价HFCS的致龋性.方法:选择适龄SPF级远交群大鼠(Spraque-Dawley,SD)30只,抑制口腔固有菌群后接种变异链球菌UA159,并随机分为3组,分别用不含糖饲料、含蔗糖饲料和含HFCS饲料喂养3个月.3个月后截取上下颌骨,体视显微镜观察磨牙颊舌面龋损;制作磨牙纵磨片,荧光染色后用荧光显微镜观察(牙合)面和邻面龋损情况,并根据Keyes评分法评价龋损程度.结果:3组大鼠的患龋率均为100%.HFCS组与蔗糖组的龋损程度无统计学差异(P>0.05);蔗糖组各牙面的龋齿记分均显著高于不含糖饲料组(P<0.05);HFCS组中,窝沟龋全层、平滑面龋釉质和牙本质外层1/4的龋齿记分均明显高于不含糖饲料组(P<0.05),而平滑面龋损深度超过牙本质厚度1/4的龋齿记分与不含糖饲料组比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:含HFCS的饮食能导致SD大鼠发生龋病,其龋损程度与蔗糖相近.%AIM:To evaluate the cariogenicity of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS).METHODS:30 SPF Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans UA159 were randomly divided into 3 groups and were respectively provided with non-sugar,sucrose-containing and HFCS-containing diets.After 3 months,the Jaw bones were removed.A binocular microscope was used to examine the teeth for buccal and lingual caries.Grinding sections were then prepared,stained with Rhodamine B,and examined for proximal and fissure caries by fluorescence microscope.The caries lesions were assessed by Keyes method.RESULTS:The prevalence of dental caries was 100% in all 3 groups.Keyes caries scores in sucrose group were similar to those in HFCS group(P > 0.05) and significantly higher than in non-sugar group(P < 0.05).While no significant difference was observed in the levels of lesions extending into the inner 3/4 of dentine on smooth

  2. Recent Advances In Topical Therapy In Dermatology

    Mohan Thappa Devinder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With changing times various newer topical agents are introduced in the field of dermatology. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are immunisuppressants, which are effective topically and are tried in the management of atopic dermatitis as well as other disorders including allergic contact dermatitis, atrophic lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is presently in use for genital warts but has potentials as anti- tumour agent and in various other dermatological conditions when used topically. Tazarotene is a newer addition to the list of topical reginoids, which is effective in psoriasis and has better effect in combination with calcipotriene, phototherapy and topical costicosteroids. Tazarotene and adapelene are also effective in inflammatory acne. Calcipotriol, a vitamin D analogue has been introduced as a topical agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Steroid components are also developed recently which will be devoid of the side effects but having adequate anti-inflammatory effect. Topical photodynamic therapy has also a wide range of use in dermatology. Newer topical agents including cidofovir, capsaicin, topical sensitizers, topical antifungal agents for onychomycosis are also of use in clinical practice. Other promising developments include skin substitutes and growth factors for wound care.

  3. Oral perfomances in a (post-) literate society

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The attempt of the present paper is to introduce the following question: How is it possible to still talk about “oral performances” in a literate, indeed “postliterate” society? In order to stress the relevance of such a topic, I will examine some achievements in research fields both dealing...... with literary studies and musicological enquiry. Taking into account some instances of oral musical traditions gathered during ethnomusicological fieldwork, e.g. the singing of mandinàdhes (couplets of improvised rhymed verses) from Crete and the Byzantine liturgical chant of the Albanians of Sicily, I...... will analyse the process both of (re)writing a poetic-formulaic tradition by adapting itself to the modern multimedia technology (i.e. the “media literate poets” case on Crete) and developing techniques of oral safeguarding without the usage of musical notation (i.e. the case of the Sicilian-Albanian community...

  4. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  5. Topical ocular delivery of NSAIDs.

    Ahuja, Munish; Dhake, Avinash S; Sharma, Surendra K; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2008-06-01

    In ocular tissue, arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase to prostaglandins which are the most important lipid derived mediators of inflammation. Presently nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are being used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs used in ophthalmology, topically, are salicylic-, indole acetic-, aryl acetic-, aryl propionic- and enolic acid derivatives. NSAIDs are weak acids with pKa mostly between 3.5 and 4.5, and are poorly soluble in water. Aqueous ophthalmic solutions of NSAIDs have been made using sodium, potassium, tromethamine and lysine salts or complexing with cyclodextrins/solubilizer. Ocular penetration of NSAID demands an acidic ophthalmic solution where cyclodextrin could prevent precipitation of drug and minimize its ocular irritation potential. The incompatibility of NSAID with benzalkonium chloride is avoided by using polysorbate 80, cyclodextrins or tromethamine. Lysine salts and alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate disrupt corneal integrity, and their use requires caution. Thus a nonirritating ophthalmic solution of NSAID could be formulated by dissolving an appropriate water-soluble salt, in the presence of cyclodextrin or tromethamine (if needed) in mildly acidified purified water (if stability permits) with or without benzalkonium chloride and polyvinyl alcohol. Amide prodrugs met with mixed success due to incomplete intraocular hydrolysis. Suspension and ocular inserts appear irritating to the inflamed eye. Oil drop may be a suitable option for insoluble drugs and ointment may be used for sustained effect. Recent studies showed that the use of colloidal nanoparticle formulations and the potent COX 2 inhibitor bromfenac may enhance NSAID efficacy in eye preparations.

  6. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption.

  7. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  8. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.

    Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1β and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development.

  9. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  10. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup.

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-10-01

    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process.

  11. Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't.

    White, John S

    2008-12-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a fructose-glucose liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (common table sugar) first introduced to the food and beverage industry in the 1970s. It is not meaningfully different in composition or metabolism from other fructose-glucose sweeteners like sucrose, honey, and fruit juice concentrates. HFCS was widely embraced by food formulators, and its use grew between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s, principally as a replacement for sucrose. This was primarily because of its sweetness comparable with that of sucrose, improved stability and functionality, and ease of use. Although HFCS use today is nearly equivalent to sucrose use in the United States, we live in a decidedly sucrose-sweetened world: >90% of the nutritive sweetener used worldwide is sucrose. Here I review the history, composition, availability, and characteristics of HFCS in a factual manner to clarify common misunderstandings that have been a source of confusion to health professionals and the general public alike. In particular, I evaluate the strength of the popular hypothesis that HFCS is uniquely responsible for obesity. Although examples of pure fructose causing metabolic upset at high concentrations abound, especially when fed as the sole carbohydrate source, there is no evidence that the common fructose-glucose sweeteners do the same. Thus, studies using extreme carbohydrate diets may be useful for probing biochemical pathways, but they have no relevance to the human diet or to current consumption. I conclude that the HFCS-obesity hypothesis is supported neither in the United States nor worldwide.

  12. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  13. Energy and Fructose From Beverages Sweetened With Sugar or High-Fructose Corn Syrup Pose a Health Risk for Some People 1 2

    Bray, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabet...

  14. The occurrence of abscisic acid in inhibitors B1 and C from immature fruit of Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) and in commercial carob syrup.

    Most, B H; Gaskin, P; Macmillan, J

    1970-03-01

    The presence of abscisic acid in the inhibitors B1 and C from immature carob fruit, whole and minus seed, has been established by thin-layer and gas chromatography and by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Abscisic acid has been identified in commercial carob syrup by the same means. Most, if not all, of the growth inhibitory activity in these fractions is accounted for as abscisic acid by quantitative gas chromatography as the methyl ester. Trimethylsilylation of abscisic acid with bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamide in pyridine gives two isomeric tris(trimethylsilyl) derivatives.

  15. Intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks is associated with prevalent chronic bronchitis in U.S. Adults, ages 20–55 y

    DeChristopher, Luanne Robalo; Uribarri, Jaime; Tucker, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Background High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) sweetened soft drink intake has been linked with asthma in US high-schoolers. Intake of beverages with excess free fructose (EFF), including apple juice, and HFCS sweetened fruit drinks and soft drinks, has been associated with asthma in children. One hypothesis for this association is that underlying fructose malabsorption and fructose reactivity in the GI may contribute to in situ formation of enFruAGEs. EnFruAGEs may be an overlooked source of adv...

  16. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  17. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效随机对照分析%The comparative analysis on the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound pholcodine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection

    王冰; 徐洁; 唐新业; 姚红兵

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选择急性细菌性上呼吸道感染患儿160例,分为治疗组(80例)和对照组(80例),治疗组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+复方福尔可定口服溶液,对照组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+肺力咳糖浆。治疗疗程均为7 d,比较治疗前后两组细菌清除率、口腔分泌性 SIgA 和总有效率。结果细菌清除率两组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后实验组患儿口腔分泌性 SIgA 较治疗前有升高(P <0.05),而对照组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗组总有效率93.75%。显著高于对照组86.25%(P <0.05),两组患儿均无严重的不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染疗效显著。%Objective To observe the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound phol-codine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.Methods One hundred and sixty chil-dren with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection were chosen,and divided into treatment group(80 cases) and control group(80 cases)randomly.Amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with compound pholcodine syrup were enrolled in the treatment group,while amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with lung cough syrup were in the con-trol group.The bacterial clearance rate,oral secretory SIgA and total effective rate were compared before and after the treatment for 7 days.Results There was no significant difference in the bacterial clearance rate in the two groups (P >0.05).The oral secretory SigA increased after treatment comparing with that before treatment(P 0.05)in the control one.The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that

  18. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated.

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    ... Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... and Deadlines Grant Application Forms Application Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ... of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892-2190 301-496-4261 NIH… ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  4. 小儿智力糖浆对注意缺陷多动障碍患儿的疗效观察%Observation on the curative effect of infantile intelligence syrup for treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    李一民

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察小儿智力糖浆对注意缺陷多动障碍患儿的疗效.方法:将86例注意缺陷多动障碍患儿随机分成对照组和治疗组各43例.对照组给予0.3~0.5 mg·kg-1 ·d-1的利他林片口服,每天2次;治疗组给予10 ~ 15 ml/次的小儿智力糖浆口服,每天3次.两组均连续治疗3个月,评价临床疗效,监测不良反应.结果:治疗后两组患儿在品行问题、冲动多动、多动指数等五个方面评分均有明显改善(P<0.05).治疗组有效率为88.37%,对照组有效率74.42%.治疗组患儿血钙和血锌含量均较治疗前提高(P<0.05);对照组仅血锌水平明显增加.治疗组不良反应发生率低于对照组.结论:小儿智力糖浆治疗注意缺陷多动障碍患儿疗效确切且安全性好,值得推广使用.%Objective; To observe the curative effect of infantile intelligence syrup for treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD) . Methods; A total of 86 children with ADHD were randomly divided into control group and treatment group, 43 children in each group. The children in control group were treated with oral administration of Ritalin tablets (0. 3 - 0. 5 mg · kg-1 · d-1 ) , twice a day; the children in treatment group were treated with oral administration of infantile intelligence syrup, 10 - 15 ml per time, three times a day. The children in the two groups were treated consecutively for 3 months, the clinical curative effects were evaluated and the adverse reactions were monitored. Results: After treatment, the scores of five aspects (including morality, impulsion, and hyperactivity, etc. ) in the two groups increased significantly (P <0. 05) . The effective rates in treatment group and control group were 88. 37% and 74. 42% , respectively. The contents of blood calcium and zinc in treatment group after treatment were statistically significantly higher than those before treatment ( P < 0. 05) ; while in control group, only blood zinc

  5. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  6. HAD Oral History Project

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  7. Topical drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus isolated to the hands

    Ramachandran, Sarika M; Leventhal, Jonathan S; Franco, Loren G; Mir, Adnan; Walters, Ruth F; Franks, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a well-defined subtype of lupus erythematosus, characterised by photosensitivity, annular and/or psoriasiform lesions, variable systemic involvement and presence of circulating SSA/anti-Ro antibodies. SCLE may be idiopathic or drug-induced. Both the idiopathic and drug-induced forms of SCLE are analogous in their clinical, serological and histological features. Drug-induced SCLE has been reported with various oral agents, but to our knowledge this is the first reported case due to a topical medication. A 34-year-old female foot masseuse presented with a 2-month history of scaly, erythematous lesions isolated to the dorsal hands and interdigital spaces. She had used topical terbinafine, a topical antifungal cream, to her clients’ feet for a number of years. ANA and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies were positive. Physical examination, serology and histopathology were consistent with SCLE. We propose that our patient's unique presentation of SCLE may be explained by a prolonged occupational exposure to topical terbinafine as a foot masseuse. While oral terbinafine is a drug known to cause drug-induced SCLE, to our knowledge, this is the first topically induced form of the disease. PMID:28331627

  8. Oral Health and Aging

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... years. He spoke with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about oral health issues common in older adults. What has been ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A– ... Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ...

  10. Nuffield Advanced Chemistry Courses Topic 10

    Education in Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents an alternative series of investigations replacing the propanone-trichloromethane system (Topic 10) in the Nuffield A-Level course. A trichloromethane-ethyl ethanoate (acetate) system presented in four experiments give good results and removed the dangers arising from the other system. Topic 10 need not be re-written, just the replacement…

  11. Topic Maps Based Project Knowledge Management

    Wu Xiaofan; Zhou Liang; Zhang Lei; Li Lingzhi; Ding Qiulin

    2006-01-01

    Based on topic maps, a preprocessing scheme using similarity comparision is presented and applied in knowledge management.Topic and occurrence-oriented merging algorithm is also introduced to implement knowledge integration for the sub-system. An Omnigator-supported example from an aeroaustic institute is utilised to validate the preprocessing method and the result indicates it can speed up the research schedule.

  12. Severe photosensitivity reaction induced by topical diclofenac

    Akat, Pramod B.

    2013-01-01

    Albeit uncommon, photosensitivity reaction induced by diclofenac can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as a topical analgesic. We here present a case of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to diclofenac, employed as a topical analgesic for low backache. The lesions healed with conservative management without extensive scarring or other complications.

  13. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  14. Prioritizing dermatoses: rationally selecting guideline topics

    Borgonjen, R.J.; Everdingen, J.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Spuls, P.I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guideline (CPG) development starts with selecting appropriate topics, as resources to develop a guideline are limited. However, a standardized method for topic selection is commonly missing and the way different criteria are used to prioritize is not clear. OBJECTIVES:

  15. Severe photosensitivity reaction induced by topical diclofenac

    Pramod B Akat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit uncommon, photosensitivity reaction induced by diclofenac can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as a topical analgesic. We here present a case of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to diclofenac, employed as a topical analgesic for low backache. The lesions healed with conservative management without extensive scarring or other complications.

  16. Corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline

    R. Lapid-Gortzak; C.P. Nieuwendaal; A.R. Slomovic; L. Spanjaard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report a case of corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline. Methods: A patient with crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus viridans after corneal transplantation was treated topically with tetracycline eye drops, based on results of

  17. Psoriasis: improving adherence to topical therapy.

    Feldman, S.R.; Horn, E.J.; Balkrishnan, R.; Basra, M.K.; Finlay, A.Y.; McCoy, D.; Menter, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2008-01-01

    Topical therapy has an important role in psoriasis treatment. It is efficacious and has a favorable safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials. However, poor treatment outcomes from topical therapy regimens likely result from poor adherence and ineffective use of the medication. The Internati

  18. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  19. Histiocytosis X: treatment with topical nitrogen mustard.

    Berman, B; Chang, D L; Shupack, J L

    1980-07-01

    The case histories of two elderly patients with cutaneous histiocytosis X treated topically with nitrogen mustard are presented. The cutaneous lesions cleared within 2 to 3 weeks, and remission was maintained with daily topical administration of nitrogen mustard. The clinical impression of improvement was substantiated by light and electron microscopic studies prior to and after therapy.

  20. Generating focused topic-specific sentiment lexicons

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; Weerkamp, W.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for automatically generating focused and accurate topic-specific subjectivity lexicons from a general purpose polarity lexicon that allow users to pin-point subjective on-topic information in a set of relevant documents. We motivate the need for such lexicons in the field of medi

  1. Oral steroid contraception.

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  2. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  3. Correlated Topic Model for Web Services Ranking

    Mustapha AZNAG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of published Web services providing similar functionalities, it’s very tedious for a service consumer to make decision to select the appropriate one according to her/his needs. In this paper, we explore several probabilistic topic models: Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA and Correlated Topic Model (CTM to extract latent factors from web service descriptions. In our approach, topic models are used as efficient dimension reduction techniques, which are able to capture semantic relationships between word-topic and topic-service interpreted in terms of probability distributions. To address the limitation of keywords-based queries, we represent web service description as a vector space and we introduce a new approach for discovering and ranking web services using latent factors. In our experiment, we evaluated our Service Discovery and Ranking approach by calculating the precision (P@n and normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCGn.

  4. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants.

  5. Effect of oral cephalexin in the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis.

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Taremiha, Alireza; Ghorani, Najmeh; Esmailzadehha, Neda

    2014-06-01

    Lymphadenitis and abscess formation are the most common side effects of vaccination with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). The lower the child's age at the time of vaccination, the higher the incidence of BCG lymphadenitis tends to be. Although various therapeutic approaches are in use for the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis, there is no consensus on which of them is optimal. This study aimed to determine whether oral cephalexin treatment hastens recovery from BCG lymphadenitis. The study involved 40 children (24 boys and 16 girls) with BCG lymphadenitis who were referred to Qazvin Children's Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences between December 2008 and the end of September 2009. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 patients each (12 boys and 8 girls in each group): group A patients did not receive any treatment and served as controls, and group B patients were treated with 50 mg/kg/day cephalexin syrup, administered in four doses, for 10 days. In all patients, clinical examination was normal, except for lymphadenitis. In all patients, BCG vaccination had been performed at birth, and polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for tuberculous bacilli. The recovery period and requirement of fine needle aspiration did not significantly differ between the two groups (P 0.05). This study showed that treatment with cephalexin does not hasten recovery from BCG lymphadenitis.

  6. A Novel Production Method for High-Fructose Glucose Syrup from Sucrose-Containing Biomass by a Newly Isolated Strain of Osmotolerant Meyerozyma guilliermondii.

    Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Kodaki, Tsutomu

    2016-04-28

    One osmotolerant strain from among 44 yeast isolates was selected based on its growth abilities in media containing high concentrations of sucrose. This selected strain, named SKENNY, was identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions and partial D1/D2 large-subunit domains of the 26S ribosomal RNA. SK-ENNY was utilized to produce high-fructose glucose syrup (HFGS) from sucrose-containing biomass. Conversion rates to HFGS from 310-610 g/l of pure sucrose and from 75-310 g/l of sugar beet molasses were 73.5-94.1% and 76.2-91.1%, respectively. In the syrups produced, fructose yields were 89.4-100% and 96.5-100% and glucose yields were 57.6-82.5% and 55.3-79.5% of the theoretical values for pure sucrose and molasses sugars, respectively. This is the first report of employing M. guilliermondii for production of HFGS from sucrose-containing biomass.

  7. A Prospective, Open Label, Observational Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Cough Syrup Mykoff® in Patients Suffering from Cough of Varied Aetiologies

    Mangesh Bhalerao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, open label, observational study was conducted at general outpatient clinic to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal cough syrup Mykoff® in patients suffering from cough of varied aetiologies. The patients of either sex, age > 3yrs, suffering from cough due to common cold, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, allergic cough and smoker’s cough were enrolled. The safety was evaluated by means of an analysis of adverse events. In addition, efficacy and tolerability were analysed from the following grades by patients and confirmed by doctor. Of 50 patients, 63% were diagnosed with cough due to upper respiratory tract infections, 17% common cold, 12% allergic cough and 8% smoker’s cough. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough was noted in 42 (84% out of 50 patients and fair response in another 4 (8%. Only 4 out of 50 patients showed no relief in symptoms. Most of the patients (98% accepted the remedy well. Only one adverse event was reported. However, a relation to the medication was classified to be unlikely. The test drug Mykoff® is an effective and safe cough syrup that is highly acceptable for patients with cough of short duration.

  8. Study of high fructose corn syrup substituted sucrose in beverage%果葡糖浆替代饮料中蔗糖的研究

    葛静微; 帅斌; 李发财

    2011-01-01

    以果葡糖浆替代饮料中的部分蔗糖,以及用高倍甜味剂与果葡糖浆复配替代饮料中的部分蔗糖进行试验,对其口感、甜度等进行感官评价.结果表明:当甜度一定时,饮料中果葡糖浆替代蔗糖比例为30%~40%时,其口感与单独添加蔗糖时差别最小,对产品风味影响最小.%The sucrose quantity substituted by high fructose corn syrup and high fructose corn syrup formulated with soucralose were investigated in beverage.we did sensory evaluation with the substitued beverage.Results showed that:after sweetness was determined, the best taste of beverage was the substituted proportion of sucrose was 30% ~ 40%,this substituted proportion can influnce the flavor minimum.

  9. Detection of sugar syrups in apple juice by delta(2)H per thousand and delta(13)C per thousand analysis of hexamethylenetetramine prepared from fructose.

    Kelly, Simon D; Rhodes, Christopher; Lofthouse, Janice H; Anderson, Dominic; Burwood, Christine E; Dennis, M John; Brereton, Paul

    2003-03-26

    An improved procedure for determining (13)C and (2)H isotope ratios, using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), has been developed for identifying the addition of low cost commercial sugar syrups to apple juices and related products. Isotopic techniques are commonly used to identify the addition of low cost sugars to fruit juices and are difficult to circumvent as it is not economically viable to change the isotopic ratios of the sugars. The procedure utilizes the derivative hexamethylenetetramine, which is produced through chemical transformation of a sugar degradation product and provides position-specific (13)C and (2)H ratios that relate to the parent sugar molecule. The new procedure has advantages over methods using nitro-sugar derivatives in terms of analysis time and sensitivity. The differences between the delta(2)H per thousand and delta(13)C per thousand values of the 100 authentic apple juices and beet and cane commercial sugar syrups permit their addition to be reliably detected.

  10. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. Chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the

  11. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently

  12. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently

  13. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. Chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the

  14. Aproveitamento industrial do umbu: processamento de geléia e compota Industrial use of umbu: jelly and fruit-in-syrup processing

    Marília I. S. Folegatti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. é uma fruta nativa da Região Nordeste do Brasil. Ainda não devidamente caracterizado, particularmente no que se refere ao seu potencial para industrialização, o umbu demanda pesquisas. Atualmente, esses frutos são consumidos restritamente na região Nordeste, principalmente na forma in natura, preparados como refresco, sorvete ou "umbuzada" (polpa do umbu cozida com leite e açúcar. Objetivou-se com este trabalho adequar a tecnologia convencional de processamento de geléia e compota para o umbu, avaliando a aceitação sensorial e as características físico-químicas desses produtos. Para o processamento de geléia, utilizaram-se duas proporções polpa/açúcar: 50:50 e 40:60, e três concentrações de sólidos insolúveis da polpa: 0%, 50% e 100% do teor de sólidos original da polpa. Para a compota, elaboraram-se produtos com diferentes teores de sólidos solúveis finais, 25°Brix, 30°Brix e 35°Brix, adicionados de 1% de cloreto de cálcio. As polpas, geléias e compotas dos diferentes tratamentos foram submetidas a análises físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais. No processamento da geléia de umbu, os produtos obtidos apresentaram valores de acidez total titulável entre 0,60% e 0,90% e de sólidos soúveis totais entre 66,3°Brix e 68,6°Brix. Os tratamentos com proporção polpa:açúcar 50:50 foram significativamente (p The umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Northeast region.. The umbu demands research as it is not adequately characterized, particularly considering its potential for industrialization. Nowadays, these fruits are consumed, at the Northeast region, mainly in natura, prepared as juice, ice cream or "umbuzada" (pulp of the umbu cooked with milk and sugar. The objective of this work was to adapt conventional technology to process umbu jelly and fruit-in-syrup, by evaluating the sensorial acceptance and the physicochemical

  15. Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural

    G. Luis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals. Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%, glucose (9.50% and fructose (4.80%, respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%. Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Además, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa

  16. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  17. Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2012-07-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major α-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, α-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified α-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the α-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the α-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major α-DC with concentrations up to 730 μg/mL HFCS. The total α-DC content ranged from 293 μg/mL to 1,130 μg/mL HFCS. Significantly different α-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the

  18. Successful treatment of hydroquinone-resistant melasma using topical methimazole.

    Malek, Joelle; Chedraoui, Adele; Nikolic, Damian; Barouti, Neda; Ghosn, Samer; Abbas, Ossama

    2013-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentation skin disorder in sun-exposed areas. It occurs almost exclusively over the face, and is most commonly seen in women. Several depigmenting agents have been used for the treatment of melasma among which hydroquinone has been the most widely used due to its efficacy and safety in short-term use. However, hydroquinone is recently reported to be a cytotoxic and mutagenic compound in mammalian cells and is thus banned in several countries. Hydroquinone ban has caused investigators to search for alternative depigmenting agents for the treatment of melasma in recent years. Methimazole is an antithyroid agent orally used in humans since several decades and has been shown that when applied topically, it inhibits melanin synthesis and causes skin depigmentation in lab animals as well as human subjects. Herein, we report two hydroquinone-resistant melasma patients who were successfully treated with methimazole cream. Application of 5% methimazole cream once daily resulted in significant improvement of melasma in both patients after 8 weeks. The efficacy of methimazole for melasma treatment as well as its advantages over other known depigmenting compounds (non-mutagenicity, non-cytotoxicity and high tolerability profile) suggests that topical methimazole should be added to the armamentarium of anti-melasma treatment.

  19. Topical alprostadil cream for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    Becher, Edgardo

    2004-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has serious negative consequences on both sexual experience and emotional well being and affects a broad range of age groups. The prevalence of ED is associated with increasing age and has been reported to be as high as 70%. Although the disorder is common and underdiagnosed, its treatment can significantly improve patients' quality of life. Systemic treatment with oral phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors is the current standard of care for patients with ED. Some patients, however, have absolute contraindications for PDE-5 inhibitors. In addition, these agents can be associated with adverse effects. Furthermore, because PDE-5 inhibitors are not as effective in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy or who have severe vascular disease, a substantial unmet medical need exists among patients who have ED as a result of these conditions. Consequently, PDE-5 inhibitor therapy is associated with a high rate of discontinuation, as are intracavernosal or transurethral therapies, which are inconvenient and invasive. Several studies, including four double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase II trials, show that alprostadil topical cream is efficacious and well-tolerated in ED in patients with mild-to-severe symptoms, in those undergoing treatment for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes and in otherwise healthy ED patients. Thus, alprostadil topical cream is a potential first-choice alternative for ED in patients who do not respond or who cannot tolerate or do not accept PDE-5 inhibitor therapy.

  20. Successful Treatment of Cutaneous Botryomycosis with a Combination of Minocycline and Topical Heat Therapy

    Masaya Ishibashi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous botryomycosis is a chronic focal infection characterized by a granulomatous inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment requires antibiotic therapy and may also require surgical debridement. We employed topical heat therapy and oral minocycline. The lesions became flattened and pigmented after 1 month. We consider that this simple treatment can be an effective and harmless complementary therapy for cutaneous botryomycosis.

  1. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extrac...

  2. 纳秒脉冲电场灭菌对舒心糖浆质量影响的初步研究%The Preliminary Study of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Sterilization on Quality of Shuxin Syrup

    李玉美; 陈新梅; 徐溢明; 葛陈元; 樊梦萦; 王宇

    2015-01-01

    To discuss effect of nanosecond pulsed electric field sterilization on shuxin syrup' s quality of varia-tion. According to character, density, pH ,content of active ingredient-Astragaloside IV ,shuxin syrup sterilized by nanosecond pulsed electric field was examined quality of variation. By comparison ,shuxin syrup had little obvious var-iation on character density pH content of Astragaloside IV before and after sterilization. Nanosecond pulsed electric field sterilization has no effect on the quality of shuxin syrup,and it can be made as a new way of sterilization to be studied in further.%探讨纳秒脉冲电场灭菌对舒心糖浆质量变化的影响作用. 以性状、密度、pH值、有效成分黄芪甲苷含量为质量评价指标,考察纳秒脉冲电场灭菌对舒心糖浆的影响作用. 舒心糖浆在经纳秒脉冲电场灭菌前后在外观、密度、pH值、黄芪甲苷含量均无明显变化. 纳秒脉冲电场灭菌对舒心糖浆质量无影响,可作为一种新型灭菌方式来继续深入研究.

  3. Topical retapamulin in the management of infected traumatic skin lesions

    Ribhi Shawar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribhi Shawar1, Nicole Scangarella-Oman1, MaryBeth Dalessandro2, John Breton2, Monique Twynholm3, Gang Li4, Harmony Garges51Infectious Disease Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 2Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 3Infectious Diseases Medicine Development Centre Europe, GlaxoSmithKline, Greenford, Middlesex, UK; 4MDC BDS – Infectious Disease, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 5Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: Retapamulin is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic specifically designed for use as a topical agent. The unique mode of action by which retapamulin selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis differentiates it from other nonpleuromutilin antibacterial agents that target the ribosome or ribosomal factors, minimizing the potential for target-specific cross-resistance with other antibacterial classes in current use. In vitro studies show that retapamulin has high potency against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and coagulase-negative staphylococci commonly found in skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs, including S. aureus strains with resistance to agents such as macrolides, fusidic acid, or mupirocin, and other less common organisms associated with SSSIs, anaerobes, and common respiratory tract pathogens. Clinical studies have shown that twice-daily topical retapamulin for 5 days is comparable to 10 days of oral cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions. A 1% concentration of retapamulin ointment has been approved for clinical use as an easily applied treatment with a short, convenient dosing regimen for impetigo. Given the novel mode of action, low potential for cross-resistance with established antibacterial agents, and high in vitro potency against many bacterial pathogens

  4. Topical versus systemic diclofenac in the treatment of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction symptoms.

    Di Rienzo Businco, L; Di Rienzo Businco, A; D'Emilia, M; Lauriello, M; Coen Tirelli, G

    2004-10-01

    The most frequent symptom of craniomandibular dysfunction is pain in the preauricular area or in the temporo-mandibular joint, usually localized at the level of the masticatory musculature. Patients sometimes also complain of reflect otalgia, headaches and facial pain. Osteoarthrosis is a frequent degenerative debilitating chronic disorder that can affect the temporomandibular joint. It causes pain and articular rigidity, a reduction in mobility, and radiological alterations are visible in stratigraphy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a topically applied non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug that has recently become commercially available (diclofenac sodium in a patented carrier containing dimethyl sulfoxide, that favours transcutaneous absorption) which is commonly used to alleviate pain in knee or elbow joints, versus oral diclofenac, in the treatment of symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint was diagnosed in 36 adult patients. The patients were randomized in two age- and gender -matched groups. Group A (18 patients) received oral diclofenac sodium administered after a meal in 50-mg tablets twice a day for 14 days. Group B (18 patients) received 16 mg/ml topical diclofenac (diclofenac topical solution, 10 drops 4 times a day for 14 days). All patients completed a questionnaire at the start and end of therapy. Patients were asked to quantify on a graded visual analogue scale and to reply to questions about the pain and tenderness of the temporomandibular joint and the functional limitation of mouth opening. Patients were also requested to report side-effects of the treatment. All patients showed relief from pain after treatment: the difference between the two groups was not significant (p > 0.05). Post-treatment, 16 patients of group A had epigastralgic symptoms. Three patients treated with topical diclofenac showed a modest irritation of the temporomandibular joint region, and disappeared

  5. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  6. Large scale topic modeling made practical

    Wahlgreen, Bjarne Ørum; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number of docume......Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number...... topics at par with a much larger case specific vocabulary....

  7. Pracital examination in biochemistry: topics and procedures?

    Vocke, Nils-Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the new revision of the German licensing regulations for physicians ("Approbationsordnung" the rules for the first national examinations (i.e. "Physikum", equivalent to medical school entrance exams have been changed. In addition to the written exam a novel "oral-practical" part is required. Here we describe the implications of this oral-practical exam on the examination procedures in the field of biochemistry/molecular biology. A strategy for its realization is proposed.

  8. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  9. Topical voriconazole therapy of Purpureocillium lilacinum keratitis that occurred in disposable soft contact lens wearers.

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Yamada, Norihiro; Fukuchi, Mariko; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe 2 cases of keratitis caused by Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) that occurred in disposable contact lens users, which were successfully treated with topical voriconazole. Case 1 was a healthy 44-year-old woman, who wore weekly disposable contact lenses and had developed a superficial corneal infection in her right eye. For diagnosis, corneal scraping and molecular identification of the cultured pathogen were performed. A corneal smear revealed the presence of fungi. The pathogen was identified as P. lilacinum by traditional morphological identification of fungal culture, and this identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence. Therapy with topical fluconazole, topical pimaricin (natamycin), and oral itraconazole were ineffective. Topical voriconazole showed a significant effect, and the keratitis was successfully treated. Case 2 was a 43-year-old woman with bilateral recurrent peripheral corneal ulcers by meibomian gland dysfunction, who used therapeutic bandage contact lenses on her left eye. However, a corneal abscess with hypopyon occurred in the eye after 3 months. The microbial smear examination showed the presence of fungi and the fungal culture, and the DNA sequence of ITS region revealed that the causative agent was P. lilacinum. The susceptibility testing against antifungal agents showed that voriconazole was effective. The lesion improved gradually by topical voriconazole. As a conclusion, P. lilacinum keratitis can occur in disposable soft contact lens wearer. Early and accurate detection of the pathogenic organism is essential. Topical voriconazole was effective against P. lilacinum keratitis.

  10. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... Related Issues Breathing and Relaxation (National Jewish Health) DANCE Your Way to Healthier Lungs (American Association for Respiratory Care) Exercises (National Jewish Health) Oxygen Therapy: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) Also ...

  11. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  12. Topical cidofovir for refractory verrucae in children.

    Gupta, Monique; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R

    2013-01-01

    Warts are common and are a challenge to treat in some children, especially immunocompromised children and those who fail or cannot tolerate salicylic acid preparations and cryotherapy. Cidofovir, a nucleotide analogue with antiviral activity, has demonstrated promising results when compounded into a topical form to treat refractory warts. We present a retrospective institutional review of 12 children with refractory verrucae treated with 1% to 3% topical cidofovir compounded in an unscented moisturizing cream, applied every other day to daily. In our institutional series, only three patients (25%) demonstrated complete clearance of their verrucae. An additional four patients (33%) demonstrated partial clearance. Our experience using topical cidofovir has been less successful than previous institutional reviews, possibly because we used a lower concentration and less-frequent dosing. More studies are needed to better characterize the efficacy, safety, and dosing of topical cidofovir for the treatment of refractory warts.

  13. Diabetes: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Prevention and Risk Factors Choose More than 50 Ways to Prevent Type ... Resources for Living Well (National Diabetes Education Program) Diabetic Diet: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) ...

  14. Teenage Pregnancy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... Tips for Parents to Help Their Children Avoid Teen Pregnancy (National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy) - PDF Living With Pregnancy and Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) Also ...

  15. Mining Concurrent Topical Activity in Microblog Streams

    Panisson, A; Quaggiotto, M; Cattuto, C

    2014-01-01

    Streams of user-generated content in social media exhibit patterns of collective attention across diverse topics, with temporal structures determined both by exogenous factors and endogenous factors. Teasing apart different topics and resolving their individual, concurrent, activity timelines is a key challenge in extracting knowledge from microblog streams. Facing this challenge requires the use of methods that expose latent signals by using term correlations across posts and over time. Here we focus on content posted to Twitter during the London 2012 Olympics, for which a detailed schedule of events is independently available and can be used for reference. We mine the temporal structure of topical activity by using two methods based on non-negative matrix factorization. We show that for events in the Olympics schedule that can be semantically matched to Twitter topics, the extracted Twitter activity timeline closely matches the known timeline from the schedule. Our results show that, given appropriate techn...

  16. Pain Relievers: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... Physicians) Also in Spanish Medicines for Pain: From Osteoarthritis to Muscle Pain (National Center for Farmworker Health, ... Institutes of Health Page last updated on 16 March 2017 Topic last reviewed: 29 December 2016

  17. Hip Replacement: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... damage. The most common cause of damage is osteoarthritis . Osteoarthritis causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your ... Institutes of Health Page last updated on 17 March 2017 Topic last reviewed: 31 August 2016

  18. MedlinePlus Health Topic Web Service

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A search-based Web service that provides access to disease, condition and wellness information via MedlinePlus health topic data in XML format. The service accepts...

  19. Sports Safety: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... exercise injuries Returning to sports after a back injury Sports physical Related Health Topics Sports Fitness Sports Injuries Water Safety (Recreational) Languages Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (Русский) ...

  20. Helpful Contacts - Agency List By Topic

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A database of agencies listed by state and topic to provide you with contact information for specific organizations or help you get answers to your Medicare related...