WorldWideScience

Sample records for topical anti-fungal cream

  1. Cream formulation impact on topical administration of engineered colloidal nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Santini

    Full Text Available In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics.

  2. Comparative evaluation of topical Sodium fusidate cream in common pyodermas with topical gentamicin ointment and systemic antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy AK

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One hundred cases of common pyodermas consisting of four groups, namely impetigo, furunculosis and chronic folliculitis were taken. Each group containing twenty five cases were divided again into three subgroups. From each group, 15 were treated with 2 percent Sodium fusidate cream, 5 were with 0.1 percent Gentamycin sulphate cream and the rest 5 with systemic Erythromycin stearate. In the group of Impetigo, Bockhart′s Impetigo and Furunculosis, topical Sodium fusidate cream showed excellent result, better than Gentamycin topical and equal to that of systemic Erythromycin stearate.

  3. Topical anesthesia with eutetic mixture of local anesthetics cream in vasectomy: 2 randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Krogh, J; Rye, B

    1992-01-01

    Two paired randomized trials testing topical anesthesia with a eutetic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA cream*) in vasectomy were performed. In 1 trial EMLA cream was applied on 1 side of the scrotum, while infiltration anesthesia into the skin and subcutaneous tissue with mepivacaine was used...... on the contralateral side. All but 1 of the 13 patients (p less than 0.05) preferred infiltration anesthesia because of pain as the incision reached the subcutaneous tissue. In the other trial 29 patients received EMLA cream on 1 side of the scrotum before bilateral mepivacaine infiltration. There was significantly...... less pain on the sides with the anesthetic cream (p less than 0.001). Many patients would pay the price of the cream. In conclusion, EMLA cream cannot replace but it can supplement infiltration anesthesia during vasectomy....

  4. Topical Sucralfate Versus Hydrocortisone Cream In The Management Of Diaper Dermatitis : A Randomized, Doubleblind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical corticosteroids are currently used for treatment of diaper dermatitis. Previous studies have shown the efficacy of sucralfate in the treatment of diaper dermatitis and contact dermatitis in peri-stomal areas. To evaluate the efficacy of topical sucralfate in comparison with hydrocortisone cream in the treatment of diaper dermatitis, the present study was under taken. In a double â€"blind randomized clinical trial, 64 patients with diaper dermatitis were treated with sucralfate cream 4% or hydrocortisone cream randomly. The duration of the treatment wad 8 weeks and the patients were evaluated every two weeks until complete healing. The results were evaluated by chi-square test. Complete healing (more than 50% improvement occurred in 90.6% and partial healing (20-25% improvement in rest of the patients in each group (p>0.05. Topical sucralfate is an effective, cheap therapeutic intervention for diaper dermatitis. Which has equal efficacy with topical hydrocortisone cream.

  5. Treatment of cutaneous tumors with topical 5% imiquimod cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sisto Alessi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are various approaches to the treatment of cutaneous tumors; one of them is treatment with imiquimod, a synthetic toll-like receptor agonist with a low molecular weight that offers a topical, noninvasive, and non-surgical therapeutic option. The main objective of our study was to provide data on 89 patients who used a 5% imiquimod cream for the treatment of cutaneous tumors at the Cutaneous Oncology Group of the Dermatology Department of Hospital das Clinicas from 2003 to 2008. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we present our experience in the treatment of 123 cutaneous tumors of various types, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Paget's disease, and trichoepithelioma, with 5% imiquimod cream from 2003 to 2008 in the Cutaneous Oncology Group of the Dermatology Department of Hospital das Clinicas. Patients were divided into two separate groups according to their diagnosis and comorbidities; these comorbidities included epidermodysplasia verruciformis, xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism, basal cell nevus syndrome, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, HIV, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and kidney transplantation. Treatment duration, response to imiquimod, follow-up, recurrence, and local and systemic reactions associated with use of the drug were analyzed. Epidemiological data were obtained and cure rates were calculated. RESULTS: The ratio of women to men was 1.28:1, and the mean age was 63.1 years. Tumors were located mainly on the face, back, trunk, and legs. For patients with comorbidities, the overall cure rate was 38%. These specific patients demonstrated cure rates of 83.5% for superficial BCC and 50% for Bowen's disease. Aggressive BCC and superficial and nodular BCC did not present a good response to treatment. Trichoepitheliomas and nodular BCC showed a partial response, and erythroplasia of Queyrat showed a complete response. For patients without

  6. Use of EMLA cream as a topical anaesthetic before venepuncture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Needle phobia is a recognised medical disorder, affecting approximately 10% of the world population and resulting in fear and avoidance behaviour.[12] In the current study, 13.0% of the children who received EMLA cream were anxious about the procedure v. 60.0% in the control group. In an era when health of children.

  7. Treating infants for umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Nielsen, Tove; Mølgaard, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    , such as suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as we did not investigate this. However, the risk of meaningful systemic side effects may be considered negligible, as only a small amount of cream, of between 2-5 mg per application, was applied to a very small surface area. This article is protected...

  8. Effect of topical application of melatonin cream 12.5% on cognitive parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is an increasing problem in modern dermatology. Earlier studies have shown protective effects against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin damage by topical treatment with melatonin. However, the potential sedative effects of full body topical application of melatonin...... have never been investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the degree of cognitive dysfunction when using melatonin cream as full body topical application. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study in healthy volunteers, the degree of cognitive...... dysfunction when using cream containing 12.5% melatonin as full body application was assessed. A group of ten volunteers had melatonin cream 12.5% applied on 80% of their body surface area, and degree of cognitive dysfunction was assessed using a test battery consisting of Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS...

  9. Granulomatous Inflammation of the Penis and Scrotum Following Application of Topical Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir Ishaq; Mehta, Akanksha; Sekhar, Aarti; Ellis, Carla L

    2017-05-01

    Granulomas are collections of histiocytes that develop as an inflammatory response to bacterial and fungal infections, as well as foreign substances. We discuss here the case of a 49-year-old male who presented with a penile and scrotal mass with granulomatous inflammation, after application of a topical cream for enhancement of erectile function. While granuloma formation can often be seen with penile injections, this case presents the rare development of a foreign body granuloma after topical cream application on the penis and scrotum.

  10. Granulomatous Inflammation of the Penis and Scrotum Following Application of Topical Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ishaq Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Granulomas are collections of histiocytes that develop as an inflammatory response to bacterial and fungal infections, as well as foreign substances. We discuss here the case of a 49-year-old male who presented with a penile and scrotal mass with granulomatous inflammation, after application of a topical cream for enhancement of erectile function. While granuloma formation can often be seen with penile injections, this case presents the rare development of a foreign body granuloma after topical cream application on the penis and scrotum.

  11. Granulomatous Inflammation of the Penis and Scrotum Following Application of Topical Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Amir Ishaq; Mehta, Akanksha; Sekhar, Aarti; Ellis, Carla L.

    2017-01-01

    Granulomas are collections of histiocytes that develop as an inflammatory response to bacterial and fungal infections, as well as foreign substances. We discuss here the case of a 49-year-old male who presented with a penile and scrotal mass with granulomatous inflammation, after application of a topical cream for enhancement of erectile function. While granuloma formation can often be seen with penile injections, this case presents the rare development of a foreign body granuloma after topic...

  12. Cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Student Bachelor project. The film takes place in a doctor's waiting room, where soothing music and the opportunity to enjoy an ice cream bring an alleviating atmosphere. What could possibly go wrong in this health care institution where help is nearby? The cold and ugly sides of human nature...... are revealed, as it touches on the cycle of birth and death and the absurdity of life. Let's hope the doctor can help. During 2017 the film was screened in the following festivals: 1.Anima Mundi, Brazil, 2017 July 26-30 2.Fest Anča International Animation Festival,Slovacia, 2017 June 29 – July 2 3.Odense Film...... Festival, Denmark, 2017 August 28 – September 3 4.Fredikstad Animation Festival 2017, Norway, 2017 November 9-12 5.Nordisk Panorama, Sweden, 2017 September 21 -26 6.Animateka 2017, Slovenia, 2017 December 4-10 7.Anifilm International Festival of Animated Films, Czeck Republic, 2017 May 2-7 8.Animafest...

  13. The efficacy and safety of topical EMLA cream application for minor surgery of the adult penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostis I Gyftopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The topical anesthetic EMLA cream is a useful, efficient and safe tool for minor surgical procedures of the penis at the office setting, with the exception of circumcision, where an additional type of anesthesia is likely to be necessary. Side effects can be kept to a minimum when the suggested doses are respected (especially at mucosal application and the time allowed for action is carefully tailored to the site of application and the type of procedure.

  14. In vitro-in vivo correlation study for the dermatopharmacokinetics of terbinafine hydrochloride topical cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeheng, Suwadee; Nosoongnoen, Wichit; Varothai, Supenya; Sathirakul, Korbtham

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between dermatopharmacokinetic (DPK) tape stripping from in vitro and in vivo using 1% terbinafine hydrochloride topical cream as the model formulation. In vitro and in vivo tape strippings were conducted on separated pig ear skin used as a biological membrane for franz diffusion cell testing and the non-hairy skin area at the ventral forearms of healthy volunteers, respectively. Terbinafine (1%) topical cream was applied to the skin for 0.5, 2, and 4 h. The drug profiles of terbinafine across the stratum corneum were determined immediately (time 0 h), and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after removing the formulation. The amounts of terbinafine were analyzed by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. The area under the curve (AUC) and the maximum amounts of terbinafine absorption (Q(max)) were obtained from pharmacokinetic software. Partition coefficient (K(SC/veh)) and diffusion parameter (D/L²) were derived from the Fick's second law equation. During the schedule time of 8 h, the deviations of in vitro and in vivo data were 6.61 and 30.46% for AUC and Q(max), respectively. There was insignificant difference of the K(SC/veh) and the D/L² between excised pig ear and human skin. In addition, K(SC/veh) and D/L² at T(max) of 2 h were used to predict the AUC presented the value of 4.7481 %h whereas the true value calculated from pharmacokinetic software provided the value of 5.9311 %h differing from each other in approximate of 20%. In vitro tape stripping using the separated pig ear skin as a viable membrane of the franz diffusion cell testing demonstrates the potential to represent in vivo tape stripping in human for topical bioavailability/bioequivalence study of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% topical cream.

  15. Topical symphytum herb concentrate cream against myalgia: a randomized controlled double-blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horàcek, Ondrej; Kàlal, Jan; Kucera, Alexander; Hladìkova, Marie

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness and tolerability of the topical Symphytum product Traumaplant (Harras Pharma Curarina, München, Germany) (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous-ethanolic pressed concentrate of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [Symphytum uplandicum Nyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream) in the treatment of patients with myalgia (n=104) were tested against a 1% reference product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n=111). The primary efficacy parameter in this double-blind, reference- controlled, randomized, multicenter study of 215 patients with pain in the lower and upper back was pain in motion, assessed with the aid of a visual analogue scale. Secondary efficacy parameters included pain at rest, pain on palpation, and functional impairment. With high concentrations of the treatment product, amelioration of pain on active motion (P<5 x 10 -9 ), pain at rest (P<.001), and pain on palpation (P=5 x 10 -5 ) was significantly more pronounced than that attained with the reference product and was clinically highly relevant. A number needed to treat of 3.2 was calculated from the study results. Global efficacy was significantly better (P=1 x 10 -8 ) and onset of effects was faster (P=4 x 10 -7 ) with the high-concentration product. Tolerability of the highly concentrated study product was good to excellent in all patients. Study results confirm the known anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of topical (Symphytum cream. As a new finding, applicability in certain forms of back pain can be concluded.

  16. Immune-mediated changes in actinic keratosis following topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Shalini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to identify the molecular processes responsible for the anti-lesional activity of imiquimod in subjects with actinic keratosis using global gene expression profiling. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was conducted to evaluate gene expression changes in actinic keratosis treated with imiquimod 5% cream. Male subjects (N = 17 with ≥ 5 actinic keratosis on the scalp applied placebo cream or imiquimod 3 times a week on nonconsecutive days for 4 weeks. To elucidate the molecular processes involved in actinic keratosis lesion regression by imiquimod, gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide arrays and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed on shave biopsies of lesions taken before and after treatment. Results Imiquimod modulated the expression of a large number of genes important in both the innate and adaptive immune response, including increased expression of interferon-inducible genes with known antiviral, anti-proliferative and immune modulatory activity, as well as various Toll-like receptors. In addition, imiquimod increased the expression of genes associated with activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells, as well as activation of apoptotic pathways. Conclusion Data suggest that topical application of imiquimod stimulates cells in the skin to secrete cytokines and chemokines that lead to inflammatory cell influx into the lesions and subsequent apoptotic and immune cell-mediated destruction of lesions.

  17. Photodegradation of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in topical cream formulations and its photostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Anna; Marchetti, Nicola; Scalia, Santo

    2011-12-05

    The aim of the study was to examine the photostability of the major catechin of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which possesses important antioxidant and skin photoprotective properties. In order to simulate realistic conditions of use of topical preparations, the photolysis studies were performed in model creams (oil-in-water emulsions) containing 1% (w/w) EGCG and exposed to a solar simulator at an irradiance corresponding to natural sunlight. The extent of photodegradation was measured by HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI-MS. EGCG was found to decompose by 68.9±2.3%, after 1h irradiation. Addition of the coantioxidants, vitamin E or butylated hydroxytoluene to the emulsion formulation, significantly enhanced the photolability of the catechin, the EGCG loss reached 85.7±1.3% and 80.5±1.4%, respectively. On the other hand, inclusion of the UVB (290-320nm) filter, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate in the cream produced a small but significant reduction of EGCG photodegradation to 61.0±2.9%, while the UVA (320-400nm) filter, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane was ineffective (EGCG degradation, 67.8±1.5%). A more marked decrease in the light-induced decomposition of EGCG to 51.6±2.7% was achieved, under the same conditions, using the water-soluble UVB filter, benzophenone-4 (BP-4). This effect was concentration dependent, maximal EGCG photostabilization (catechin loss, 29.4±2.2%) was attained in the presence of 2.1% (w/w) BP-4. Therefore, BP-4 represents a useful additive to improve the light stability of EGCG in topical formulations for skin photoprotection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A self-controlled study of intralesional injection of diprospan combined with topical timolol cream for treatment of thick superficial infantile hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Yu, Qian; Huang, Huizhen; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Wei

    2018-04-30

    Topical application of timolol cream is effective and convenient for treating superficial infantile hemangiomas. Intralesional injection of corticosteroids, such as diprospan, is useful for the treatment of superficia infantile hemangiomas without systemic side effects. We conducted a self-controlled study to investigate whether a combination of intralesional injection of diprospan with topical timolol 0.5% cream would be more efficient than timolol cream alone in thick superficial infantile hemangiomas. Thirty-eight patients with 39 thick superficial infantile hemangiomas were recruited. Each lesion was randomly divided into two equal parts: one part was treated with topical timolol 0.5% cream (timolol cream group), while the other part was treated with injection of diprospan combined with topical timolol 0.5% cream (combined treatment group). Infants were followed every 4 weeks to determine whether injections should be continued, and timolol cream was applied four times daily for 5 months. During 5 months of treatment, three specialist physicians were invited to evaluate the therapeutic effects. The combined treatment group showed better lesion involution than did the timolol cream group regarding lesion thickness and color of lesions. The combination of intralesional injection of diprospan with topical timolol 0.5% cream is a suitable and safe strategy for thick superficial infantile hemangiomas. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison of topical sucralfate and silver sulfadiazine cream in second degree burns in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Akram; Shafigh, Younes; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah; Samiee-Rad, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Shafigh, Navid

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent topical treatment for partial thickness burns is silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD). Recent studies have shown that the healing of partial thickness burns is delayed with the use of SSD. One of the potential burn dressings is sucralfate. With this study the authors have aimed to analyze comparatively the effects of sucralfate and SSD on second degree burn wounds in rats. Forty-eight male rats were divided into three equal groups. A burn model was constituted on the back of all rats. The burned areas in the first, second and third groups were covered daily with sucralfate, SSD and cold cream (control), respectively. At the end of the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day, the rats were anesthetized and the burned skin tissue samples were collected for histopathological examination. At the end of the study, the epidermis and horny layer was completely formed in the SSD and sucralfate group; however the appendix of skin was just formed in the sucralfate group. Also the percentage of wound healing was calculated at 76%, 91% and 100% respectively in the control, silver sulfadiazine and sucralfate groups. Sucralfate is known to have multiple beneficial effects on wound healing. Using topical sucralfate accelerates the burn wound healing process in comparison with both the control and SSD groups and can be used as an adjunctive or alternative agent in the future.

  20. Comparing topical hydrocortisone cream with Hai's Perianal Support in managing symptomatic hemorrhoids in pregnancy: a preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Soo; Yu, Chye Wah; Aw, Lin Da

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of hemorrhoids among pregnant women is high in late pregnancy. This study was to evaluate the efficacy between drug treatment with Procort (topical hydrocortisone cream 1%) and mechanical treatment with a Hai's Perianal Support (HPS) toilet seat device in managing symptomatic hemorrhoids during the third trimester of pregnancy. A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted on 23 pregnant women with gestation above the 28th week and presented with symptomatic hemorrhoids. Pre- and post-interventional assessment was carried out to obtain data on symptoms of pain, itching, swelling, discomfort and bleeding associated with hemorrhoids. The control group was treated with topical hydrocortisone cream 1% and the test group was provided and taught to use a HPS, a posterior perineal support toilet seat device (Colorec). The results showed improvement in symptoms of pain, swelling, bleeding, itching and discomfort in both the test and control groups. However, statistically significant differences were found on symptoms of pain, swelling and discomfort between the test and control groups. There was also a statistically significant difference in well-being and overall improvement between the test and control groups. HPS has to a certain extent significantly reduced the symptoms of hemorrhoids in pregnancy and improved the well-being of pregnant women in comparison with topical treatment with hydrocortisone cream. However, more clinical trials need to be carried out to recomfirm the role of HPS in hemorrhoids in pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Caregivers' willingness‑to‑pay for a topical anesthetic cream for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-17

    Sep 17, 2013 ... Caregivers' willingness‑to‑pay (WTP) for the cream is necessary for its deployment. Objective: To .... Variables. N=188. Percentage. Gender. Male. 28. 14.9. Female. 160. 85.1 .... Table 4: Socioeconomic status discrepancies in.

  2. Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic dune soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Lafeber, P.; Janse, J.H.; Spit, B.E.; Woldendorp, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic soil bacteria may enable them to compete successfully for chitin with fungi. Additionally, the production of chitinase may be part of a lytic system that enables the bacteria to use living hyphae rather than chitin as the actual growth substrate, since chitin

  3. Treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome type 1 with palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine cream: modulation of nonneuronal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 David J Kopsky21Institute for Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, The Netherlands; 2Institute for Neuropathic Pain, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS can be intractable to treat and patients sometimes suffer for many years. Therefore, new treatment strategies are needed to alleviate symptoms in CRPS patients. This case report describes a patient suffering from intractable CRPS type 1 for 13 years. Due to her swollen painful feet and left knee she is wheelchair-bound. The combination of palmitoylethanolamide and ketamine 10% cream reduced her pain by more than 50% after 1 month of treatment, and a marked reduction in swelling and skin discoloration was noticed. Furthermore, she could walk independently again and she experienced no side effects. Thus, palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine could be a combination therapy option for treating CRPS patients.Keywords: palmitoylethanolamide, ketamine, cream, CRPS, endocannabinoid, sudeck, mast cells

  4. Formulation of a topical sun protection cream for people with albinism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this investigation was to design and develop a sun protection product for people with albinism that is affordable, applicable to their specific skin condition, and provide them with the maximum sun protection possible. To achieve the required Sun Protection Factor value of > 20, simple creams were combined with ...

  5. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of safety and plasma concentrations of diclofenac in healthy neonatal foals after repeated topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Susan E; Sellon, Debra C; Hines, Melissa T; Seino, Kathy K; Knych, Heather K

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics and safety of 1% diclofenac sodium cream applied topically to neonatal foals every 12 hours for 7 days. ANIMALS Twelve 2- to 14-day old healthy Arabian and Arabian-pony cross neonatal foals. PROCEDURES A 1.27-cm strip of cream containing 7.3 mg of diclofenac sodium (n = 6 foals) or an equivalent amount of placebo cream (6 foals) was applied topically to a 5-cm square of shaved skin over the anterolateral aspect of the left tarsometatarsal region every 12 hours for 7 days. Physical examination, CBC, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, gastric endoscopy, and ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys and right dorsal colon were performed before and after cream application. Venous blood samples were collected at predefined intervals following application of the diclofenac cream, and plasma diclofenac concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS No foal developed any adverse effects attributed to diclofenac application, and no significant differences in values of evaluated variables were identified between treatment groups. Plasma diclofenac concentrations peaked rapidly following application of the diclofenac cream, reaching a maximum of diclofenac sodium cream to foals as described appeared safe, and low plasma concentrations of diclofenac suggested minimal systemic absorption. Practitioners may consider use of this medication to treat focal areas of pain and inflammation in neonatal foals.

  6. Imiquimod 5% cream in topical treatment of facial basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Svetlana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC is a non-melanocytic skin neoplasm originating from the cells in the basal epidermal layer, hair follicle shell or other skin adnexa. It is the most frequent skin malignancy. Treatment is surgical or nonsurgical. Cases reports: Herein we present 2 patients with superficial type of BCC and actinic keratosis of the face. The patients have been diagnosed by dermoscopy DermLite dermatoscope by 3Gen Inc. manufacturer, and skin biopsy has been performed for histopathological examination. The superficial BCC of the face has been treated with 5% Imiquimod cream once a day for 5 days in a week, during 4 weeks, with erosions and crusts until complete skin restoration. Conclusion: Based on these case reports, it could be concluded that 5% Imiquimod cream is safe and effective treatment for superficial BCC and represents an optimal treatment to achieve good clinical and esthetic effect for the patients.

  7. Intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent for recurrent maxillary fungal rhinosinusitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunmade Adekunle D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognized entity both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Treatment has been via use of either surgical or medical modalities, or a combination of the two. Here, we present a case of utilization of intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent in the management of recurrent fungal sinusitis in an indigent Nigerian patient. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old West African Yoruba man, an indigent Nigerian clergyman, who presented to our facility with a history of recurrent nasal discharge (about one year, recurrent nasal blockage (about five months, and right facial swelling (about one week. After intra-nasal antrostomy for debulking with a systemic anti-fungal agent, our patient had a recurrence after four months. Our patient subsequently had an intra-antral application of flumetasone and clioquinol (Locacorten®-Vioform® weekly for six weeks with improvement of symptoms and no recurrence after six months of follow-up. Conclusions We conclude that topical intra-antral application of anti-fungal agents is effective in patients with recurrent fungal maxillary sinusitis after surgical debulking.

  8. A comparison of dioctahedral smectite and iodine glycerin cream with topical mouth rinse in treatment of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Xiang; Fan, Zu-Yan; Lin, Qu; Wu, Dong-Hao; Wu, Xiang-Yuan; Chen, Yan-Ru; Fang, Heng-Ying; Wu, Dong-Bing; Wen, Jing-Yun; Dong, Min; Ma, Xiao-Kun; Wan, Xiang-Bo

    2015-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of dioctahedral smectite and iodine glycerin (DSIG) cream with topical mouth rinse (composed of saline, gentamicin and Vitamin B12) in treatment of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis (OM). A total of 130 intensive chemotherapy or stem cells transplantation induced OM patients were recruited. Among these patients, 67 patients received topical mouth rinse and 63 patients received DSIG cream treatment. The OM would be treated on the OM appearance and sustained for 5 days. OM severity was measured daily using The American Oncology Nursing Society recommended Oral Assessment Guideline (OAG) score system. Compared with topical mouth rinse treatment, a significant lower OAG score was observed in DSIG cream treated patients. Specifically, the OAG scores were respectively 12.1 ± 1.1, 12.0 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3 and 10.4 ± 1.3 from day 2 to day 5 in topical mouth rinse treatment subgroup. Correspondingly, the OAG scores were respectively 10.2 ± 1.0, 9.3 ± 0.9, 8.5 ± 0.6 and 8.0 ± 0.2 for DSIG cream treatment subset (all P < 0.05). Importantly, compared with topical mouth rinse treatment, the DSIG cream significantly shortened OM repair time (4.68 ± 0.98 vs. 8.76 ± 1.80 days, P < 0.001). After 5 days treatment, 54 patients (85.7%) obtained complete regression with an OAG score ≤8, and 7 patients (11.1%) had partial regression with an OAG score of 9-10 in DSIG cream treatment subgroup. However, only 2 patients (3.0%) obtained completed regression and 32 patients (47.8%) had partial regression in topical mouth rinse treatment cohort. Moreover, no serious side-effect was observed in both cohorts. Compared with topical mouth rinse, DSIG cream significantly lowered the OAG score and shortened OM duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Are marketed topical metronidazole creams bioequivalent? Evaluation by in vivo microdialysis sampling and tape stripping methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia Elodia; Hansen, S H; Shah, Surendra P.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence.......To evaluate the bioequivalence of 3 marketed topical metronidazole formulations by simultaneous dermal microdialysis and stratum corneum sampling by the tape stripping methodology, and to compare the techniques as tools for the determination of bioequivalence....

  10. A comparison between the effects of topical piroxicam and EMLA cream on fistula cannulation pain in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohseni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with end-stage renal failure, consider recurrent fistula cannulation pain as the most severe stress, resulted from the treatment process, and a major concern of their life. Nurses as one of the main targets of their actions, have a duty to relieve the pain. Accordingly, this study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of two topical piroxicam and EMLA on fistula cannulation pain intensity in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 75 patients referred to dialysis ward in Khorramabad Shohada hospital in 2013. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A (piroxicam, group B (EMLA and group C (placebo. Data collection tools included demographic information, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and a checklist for possible side effects of the drugs. Pain intensity during fistula cannulation was measured in the three groups on two occasions, before and after the intervention. The collected data were then analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and SPSS19 software. Results: The median pain intensity before and after the intervention in the three groups, was significantly different (p <0/001. The highest median pain intensity reduction was in the EMLA, piroxicam and placebo groups respectively. In addition, a short term side effect (blanching in 16% of the subjects was detected in EMLA group. Conclusion:The results showed that EMLA cream was more effective than piroxicam gel in reducing the pain intensity of fistula cannulation in dialysis patients. Therefore, our study recommends to use EMLA cream as an easy method with ability to work by patients, to reduction pain during fistula cannulation in hemodialysis patients.

  11. ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF m-IODOBENZOIC ACID AND SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-fungal activities of alkali and alkaline earth metal iodobenzoates were studied. Calcium iodobenzoate exhibited the highest anti-fungal activities of 74.60% inhibition for 15 ppm while sodium iodobenzoate exhibited the least inhibition of 61.64%. An optimum concentration of all the metal complexes for inhibition ...

  12. Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonavane, K.; Phillips, J.; Lakshmaiah, R. R.; Ekshyyan, O.; Moore-Medlin, T.; Rong, X.; Nathan, C. O.; Ekshyyan, O.; Moore-Medlin, T.; Rong, X.; Nathan, C.O.; Gill, J. R.; Clifford, J. L.; Abreo, F.; Boudreaux, D.; Nathan, C. O.

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (ρ< 0.05 compared to control). Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15 mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tumor growth compared to control (ρ=0.004). Inhibition of pAKT, pS6, p-4EBP1, pSTAT3, and pERK 1/2 was noted in SRB12-p9 cells post-curcumin treatment compared to control (ρ<0.05). Inhibition of pSTAT3 and pERK 1/2 was also noted in curcumin-treated groups in vivo. IHC analysis revealed human tumor specimens that expressed significantly more activated pERK ( ρ=0.006) and pS6 (ρ< 0.0001) than normal skin samples. This is the first study to compare topical curcumin to oral curcumin. Our data supports the use of curcumin as a chemo preventive for skin SCC where condemned skin is a significant problem. Prevention strategies offer the best hope of future health care costs in a disease that is increasing in incidence due to increased sun exposure.

  13. Addition of pimecrolimus cream 1% to a topical corticosteroid treatment regimen in paediatric patients with severe atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Michael; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Ho, Vincent; Potter, Paul C; Werfel, Thomas; Hultsch, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Pimecrolimus and topical corticosteroids (TCS) combination therapy may provide an alternative treatment for patients with severe atopic dermatitis (AD), with faster clearance of disease flares, consequently reducing the duration of TCS treatment. To assess the safety profile of pimecrolimus cream 1% combined with fluticasone versus fluticasone alone in paediatric patients with severe AD. Patients (n = 376) were randomized to a combination of pimecrolimus cream 1% with fluticasone or vehicle plus fluticasone for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the frequency of clinically relevant pre-defined adverse events (AEs) associated with the topical use of corticosteroids in patients with severe AD. Erythematous rash was the only AE, occurring more frequently in the combination group, while there were no noticeable differences in the frequency of other AEs of clinical interest between treatment groups. Efficacy variables were comparable between the two groups. A trend for greater time to relapse was observed for the combination of pimecrolimus cream 1% with fluticasone in patients who were clear at the end of treatment, with a marked improvement in facial AD. In paediatric patients with severe AD the overall safety profile of pimecrolimus cream 1% combined with fluticasone was similar to that of fluticasone alone.

  14. The Impact of a Topical Sexual Enhancement Cream on the Female Sexual Response and Its Relationship to Clitoral Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Michael; Stofman, Guy M; Niren, Neil

    2016-12-13

    The aim of this investigation was to determine, through two Investigational Review Board (IRB)-approved studies, if a new topical vasodilating cream (NTVC; Life Science Enhancement Corporation, Pittsburgh PA) could improve female sexual response. Study I subjectively evaluated sexual female response as accessed by a modification of the Female Intervention Efficacy Index (FIEI). FIEI was developed at the University of California as an immediate outcome measure of medical intervention to treat female sexual dysfunction.1 In Study II, 10 randomly selected positive responders from Study I were subsequently analyzed objectively with clitoral plethysmography in order to determine the effect of the NTVC and placebo on blood flow.2 RESULTS: In the subjective Study I (81 patients ranging in age from 18 to 63), a positive response trend for the NTVC was demonstrated compared to the placebo. In the objective Study II, 10 randomly selected patients who responded positive in Study I were objectively evaluated for response of increased blood flow in the clitoris after application of both the NTVC and placebo. The clitoral blood flow was shown to have increased with statistical significance for the NTVC in all 10 patients compared to the placebo, with the NTVC exhibiting an average 69% increase in clitoral blood flow. The female sexual response is complex. In the subjective Study I, the NTVC demonstrated positive trends for enhanced lubrication, genital sensation, intercourse, and overall sexual experience. In the objective Study II, 10 of the positive subjective responders from Study I were randomly selected to evaluate their response to the NTVC compared to the placebo. This was done via Doppler plethysmography (DP). All 10 patients demonstrated a statistically significant response rate for increase in clitoral blood flow using the NTVC compared to the placebo, with an average blood flow increase of 69%. This portion of the investigation demonstrates a significant positive end

  15. Effects of pimecrolimus cream 1% in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis who demonstrate a clinical insensitivity to topical corticosteroids: a randomized, multicentre vehicle-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D Y M; Hanifin, J M; Pariser, D M; Barber, K A; Langley, R G; Schlievert, P M; Abrams, B; Hultsch, T

    2009-08-01

    Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis (AD) is often associated with worsening of clinical symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus produces superantigens that contribute to cutaneous inflammation and corticosteroid (CS) resistance. To investigate the relationship between CS insensitivity, S. aureus colonization and superantigen production in AD, and to explore the efficacy of pimecrolimus cream in CS-insensitive AD. This was a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre, parallel-group study. Seventy-three patients with AD, aged 2-49 years, who had a documented clinical insensitivity to topical CS, were recruited. The primary efficacy parameters combined laboratory (including S. aureus colonization, superantigens) and clinical assessments [including Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), whole body Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA), pruritus assessment score, patient's assessment score of disease control]. An increase in S. aureus counts correlated with worsening of clinical score (week 6 vs. baseline) when assessed by IGA, pruritus severity and patient assessment. The presence of superantigens correlated with this worsening. During the 6-week double-blind phase, disease improvement in the pimecrolimus cream group was demonstrated by decreasing EASI scores compared with vehicle. Mean EASI scores for the head and neck showed greater improvement in the pimecrolimus cream group than in the vehicle group at all observed time points. In a cohort of patients with clinical insensitivity to CS there was a significant positive correlation between S. aureus and disease severity. Results suggest that for some of these patients, treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% is useful, especially in the head/neck area.

  16. Systemic bioavailability and safety of twice-daily topical ozenoxacin 1% cream in adults and children with impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Savion; Cepero, Ana Luisa; Santos, Benjamin; Kruger, Dawie

    2014-01-01

    In this Phase I open-label study, the systemic absorption, clinical response, safety and tolerability of multiple-dose ozenoxacin 1% cream were evaluated in children (≥ 2 months of age) and adults with impetigo. A single (evening) dose of ozenoxacin 1% cream on day 1 was followed by twice-daily application for 4 days (every 12 h), and then a final single (morning) dose on day 6. A total of 46 patients were enrolled in the study. The majority of ozenoxacin plasma samples were below the limit of quantification (no systemic absorption). Approximately half (22/45) of the evaluable patients achieved clinical success (skin lesions were cured). No patients were withdrawn from the study because of a lack of healing or worsening of a lesion. Ozenoxacin was well tolerated in all patients.

  17. The Paget Trial: A Multicenter, Observational Cohort Intervention Study for the Clinical Efficacy, Safety, and Immunological Response of Topical 5% Imiquimod Cream for Vulvar Paget Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Michelle; Meeuwis, Kim; van Hees, Colette; van Dorst, Eleonora; Bulten, Johan; Bosse, Tjalling; IntHout, Joanna; Boll, Dorry; Slangen, Brigitte; van Seters, Manon; van Beurden, Marc; van Poelgeest, Mariëtte; de Hullu, Joanne

    2017-09-06

    Vulvar Paget disease is a rare skin disorder, which is most common in postmenopausal Caucasian women. They usually present with an erythematous plaque that may show fine or typical "cake icing" scaling or ulceration that may cause itching, pain, irritation, or a burning sensation. Although most cases are noninvasive, vulvar Paget disease may be invasive or associated with an underlying vulvar or distant adenocarcinoma. The histological evidence of so-called "Paget cells" with abundant pale cytoplasm in the epithelium confirms the diagnosis. The origin of these Paget cells is still unclear. Treatment of choice is wide local excision with negative margins. Obtaining clear surgical margins is challenging and may lead to extensive and mutilating surgery. Even then, recurrence rates are high, ranging from 15% to 70%, which emphasizes the need for new treatment options. A number of case reports, retrospective case series, and one observational study have shown promising results using the topical immune response modifier imiquimod. This study aims to investigate the efficacy, safety, and immunological response in patients with noninvasive vulvar Paget disease using a standardized treatment schedule with 5% imiquimod cream. Topical 5% imiquimod cream might be an effective and safe treatment alternative for vulvar Paget disease. The Paget Trial is a multicenter observational cohort study including eight tertiary referral hospitals in the Netherlands. It is ethically approved by the Medical-Ethical Committee of Arnhem-Nijmegen and registered in the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO) Register by as NL51648.091.14. Twenty patients with (recurrent) noninvasive vulvar Paget disease will be treated with topical 5% imiquimod cream three times a week for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome is the reduction in lesion size at 12 weeks after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are safety, immunological response, and quality of life. Safety will be

  18. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fitostimoline in Two Different Forms (Soaked Gauzes and Cream and Citrizan Gel in the Topical Treatment of Second-Degree Superficial Cutaneous Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Martini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 227 patients (mean age 41.3 years, 52% females with at least one second-degree superficial cutaneous burn of thermal origin of a smallest transverse diameter ≥20 mm and a largest transverse diameter ≤90 mm were randomised to receive the topical application of aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (Fitostimoline in two different forms (soaked gauzes and cream or catalase of horse origin in form of gel (Citrizan Gel, given up to healing or to a maximum of 20 days. The rate of lesion healing at end of study was significantly higher in patients treated with Fitostimoline (gauzes 97.3%, cream 91.5% than in those receiving catalase (84.5%. The pooled Fitostimoline groups were also significantly more effective than catalase gel in reducing total symptoms score, pain at medication, pain at rest, and burning at end of study. Both formulations of Fitostimoline and catalase gel were well tolerated in terms of adverse effects in the site of application.

  19. Efficacy and safety of topically applied Symphytum herb extract cream in the treatment of ankle distortion: results of a randomized controlled clinical double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horácek, Ondrej; Kováriková, Jaroslava; Kucera, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    In a controlled, double blind, randomized multicentre study, the efficacy and safety of the topical comfrey product Traumaplant (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous ethanolic pressed juice of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb (Symphytum x uplandicum NYMAN), corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream; n = 104) was tested against a 1% product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n = 99) in 203 patients with acute ankle distortion. With the high concentration, decrease of the scores for pain on active motion, pain at rest and functional impairment was highly significant and clinically relevant on days T3-4 as well as T7 (p < 0.001). Amelioration of swellings as compared to reference was also significant on day 3-4 (p < 0.01). Efficacy was judged good to excellent in 85.6% of cases with verum and in 65.7% of cases with reference on day 3-4. Overall tolerability was excellent.

  20. Anti-Fungal activity of essential oil from Baeckea frutescens L against Pleuratus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemi, Renhart; Barus, Ade Irma; Nuwa, Sarinah, Luhan, Gimson

    2017-11-01

    Ujung Atap is an herb that have distinctive odor on its leaves. The plant's essential oil contains bioactive compounds but has not been investigated its anti-fungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus. Essential oil from Ujung Atap leaves is one environmentally friendly natural preservative. This study consisted of distillation Ujung Atap leaves with boiled method, determining the number of acid, essential oil ester, and anti-fungal activity against Pleurotus ostreatus. Analysis of the data to calculate anti-fungal activity used probit analysis method to determine the IC50. Results for the distillation of leaves Ujung Atap produce essential oil yield of 0.071% and the average yield of the acid number and the ester of essential oils Ujung Atap leaves are 5.24 and 12.15. Anti-fungal activity Pleurotus ostreatus at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, 75 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL BA defunct or fungi was declared dead, while at a concentration of 25 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL still occur inhibitory processes. Results obtained probit analysis method IC50 of 35.48 mg/mL; means the essential oil of Ujung Atap leaf can inhibit fungal growth by 50 percent to 35.48 µg/mL concentration.

  1. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  2. Development of a Controlled Release of Salicylic Acid Loaded Stearic Acid-Oleic Acid Nanoparticles in Cream for Topical Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Woo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release.

  3. Injury Thresholds for Topical Cream-Coated Skin of Hairless Guinea Pigs (Cavia Procellus) in Near Infrared Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stolarski, David J; Zohner, Justin J; Imholte, Michelle L; Chavey, Lucas J; Pocock, Ginger M; Buchanan, Kelvin C; Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Thomas, Robert J; Rockwell, Benjamin A

    2006-01-01

    .... Hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in vivo were used to evaluate how the minimum visible lesion threshold for single-pulse laser exposure is changed with a topical agent applied to the skin...

  4. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  5. Exceptionally High Protection of Photocarcinogenesis by Topical Application of (--Epi gal locatechin-3-Gal late in Hydrophilic Cream in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse Model: Relationship to Inhibition of UVB-Induced Global DNA Hypomethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Mittal

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin-3-gal late (EGCG has been shown to have potent antiphotocarcinogenic activity, but it was required to develop a cream-based formulation for topical application. For topical application, we tested hydrophilic cream as a vehicle for EGCG. Treatment with EGCG (≈ 1 mg/cm2 skin area in hydrophilic cream resulted in exceptionally high protection against photocarcinogenesis when determined in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor size in a SKI-11-11 hairless mouse model. EGCG also inhibited malignant transformation of ultraviolet B (UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas. In order to determine the mechanism of prevention of photocarcinogenesis, we determined the effect of EGCG on global DNA methylation pattern using monoclonal antibodies against 5-methyl cytosine and DNA methyltransferase in the long-term UV-irradiated skin because altered DNA methylation silencing is recognized as a molecular hallmark of human cancer. We found that treatment with EGCG resulted in significant inhibition of UVBinduced global DNA hypomethylation pattern. Longterm application of EGCG did not show any apparent sign of toxicity in mice when determined in terms of skin appearance, lean mass, total bone mineral content, and total bone mineral density but showed reduction in fat mass when analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. These data suggest that hydrophilic cream could be a suitable vehicle for topical application of EGCG, and that EGCG is a promising candidate for future cancer therapies based on its influence on the epigenetic pathway.

  6. Exploring the antioxidant potentiality of two food by-products into a topical cream: stability, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Amaral, M Helena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-01-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS), a food by-product of the coffee roasting industry, has been studied as an active ingredient for skin care products due to its high potential of antioxidant activity and low cytotoxicity. Another food waste used as ingredient with promising characteristics is obtained from Medicago sativa (MS), which antioxidants and isoflavones content is high. The aim of this study is to evaluate and characterize a new body formulation containing two food by-products extracts. Different parameters (such as pH, rheological behavior, color, antioxidant content and microbiological analysis) of a body cream formulation containing by-products (CSMS) and a formulation without extracts (F) were evaluated under a stability study during 180 days at different temperatures. Moreover, the in vitro cell toxicity and the in vivo skin safety and protective effects were also assessed. Formulation showed stable physical properties and antioxidant activity during 180 days of storage. In vitro toxicity was screened in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) and any toxicity was reported. The in vivo test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, CSMS formulation can be regarded as safe for topical application and the skin hydratation improved after 30 days of its use. Also, considering the consumer acceptance, more than 90% of volunteers classified it as very pleasant. CSMS formulation is stable and safe for topical use as no adverse and/or side effects were observed during the application period of testing, improving skin protective properties.

  7. Chain scission and anti fungal effect of electron beam on cellulose membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanichapichart, Pikul; Taweepreeda, Wirach; Nawae, Safitree; Choomgan, Pastraporn; Yasenchak, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Two types of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes were produced under a modified H and S medium using sucrose as a carbon source, with (CCB) and without (SHB) coconut juice supplement. Both membranes showed similar crystallinity of 69.24 and 71.55%. After being irradiated with E-beams under oxygen limited and ambient condition, the results from water contact angle showed that only the irradiated membrane CCB was increased from 30 to 40 degrees, and irradiation under oxygen ambient condition provided the greatest value. Comparing with the control membranes, smaller water flux was the cases after electron beam irradiation which indicated a reduction of membrane pore area. However, the results from molecular weight cut off (MWCO) revealed that chain scission was greater for membrane SHB and its cut off was increased from 28,000 Da to more than 35,000 Da. FTIR analysis revealed some changes in membrane functional groups, corresponding with the above results. These changes initiated new property of cellulose membranes, an anti-fungal food wrap. - Highlights: ► Electron beam irradiation increased membrane hydrophobicity and molecular weight cut off. ► The irradiation caused chain scissoring and anti fungal property of cellulose membrane. ► FT-IR studies revealed changes in functional groups causing a decrease in membrane moisture. ► Anti fungal test of cellulose membrane showed the same shelf life as polyethylene sheet.

  8. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  9. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) produces anti-fungal natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa K; Schwan, Adrian; Davidson, Jeffrey; Strange, Philip; Liu, Huaizhi; Zhou, Ting; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes) that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s) from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp.) was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol, and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  10. Assessing the anti-fungal efficiency of filters coated with zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decelis, Stephen; Sardella, Davide; Triganza, Thomas; Brincat, Jean-Pierre; Gatt, Ruben; Valdramidis, Vasilis P.

    2017-05-01

    Air filters support fungal growth, leading to generation of conidia and volatile organic compounds, causing allergies, infections and food spoilage. Filters that inhibit fungi are therefore necessary. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have anti-fungal properties and therefore are good candidates for inhibiting growth. Two concentrations (0.012 M and 0.12 M) were used to coat two types of filters (melt-blown and needle-punched) for three different periods (0.5, 5 and 50 min). Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium expansum isolated from spoiled pears were used as test organisms. Conidial suspensions of 105 to 103 spores ml-1 were prepared in Sabouraud dextrose agar at 50°C, and a modified slide-culture technique was used to test the anti-fungal properties of the filters. Penicillium expansum was the more sensitive organism, with inhibition at 0.012 M at only 0.5 min coating time on the needle-punched filter. The longer the coating time, the more effective inhibition was for both organisms. Furthermore, it was also determined that the coating process had only a slight effect on the Young's Moduli of the needle-punched filters, while the Young's Moduli of the melt-blown filters is more susceptible to the coating method. This work contributes to the assessment of the efficacy of filter coating with ZnO nanopaticles aimed at inhibiting fungal growth.

  11. Sports cream overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  12. Effect of Cream Formulation of Fenugreek Seed Extract on Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: A water-in-oil emulsion cream base without fenugreek seed extract which served as control, ... Results: The results indicate that the effects of the creams on skin mechanical ..... Dreher F, Maibach H. Protective effects of topical.

  13. The effect of pre-operative topical anaesthetic cream on the ablative width and coagulative depth of ablative fractional resurfacing laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyaratabandhu, Preawphan; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Sitthinamsuwan, Panitta; Phothong, Weeranut; Eimpunth, Sasima; Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2017-02-01

    Topical anaesthetic cream (TAC) is commonly used as a pre-treatment of ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) laser. Most of anaesthetic cream contains distilled water as major component. Therefore, pre-operative TAC may interfere the photothermal reaction in the skin treated with fractional carbon-dioxide (FCO 2 ) laser and fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (FEr:YAG) laser. The objective of the study was to compare the ablative width (AW) and coagulative depth (CD) of AFR laser with and without pre-treatment with TAC. Four Thai females who underwent abdominoplasty were included in the study. The excised skin of each subject was divided into four areas. TAC (eutectic mixture of local anaesthesia; EMLA) with 1-h occlusion was applied only on the first and second areas. The first and third areas were treated with FCO 2 at 15 mj and 5% density. The second and fourth areas were treated with FEr:YAG at 28 J/cm 2 and 5% density. Six biopsied specimens were obtained from each area. A total of 96 specimens (24 specimens from each area) were collected from four patients and examined randomly by two dermatopathologists. The ablative width and coagulative depth from each specimen were determined. In FCO 2 -treated specimens, the mean AW of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 174.86 ± 24.57 and 188.52 ± 41.32 μm. The mean CD of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 594.96 ± 111.72 and 520.03 ± 147.40 μm. There were no significant differences in AW and CD between both groups (p = 0.53 and p = 0.15). In FEr:YAG-treated specimens, the mean AW of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 381.11 ± 48.02 and 423.65 ± 60.16 μm. The mean CD of the specimens that were pre-treated with TAC and control was 86.03 ± 29.44 and 71.59 ± 18.99 μm. There were no significant differences in AW and CD between both groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.24). The pre

  14. Circadian rhythm of anti-fungal prenylated chromene in leaves of Piper aduncum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandim, Andreia de A; Bergamo, Débora Cristina B; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Furlan, Maysa

    2005-01-01

    Leaves of Piper aduncum accumulate the anti-fungal chromenes methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The enzymatic formation of 2 from dimethylallyl diphosphate and 1 was investigated using cell-free extracts of the title plant. An HPLC assay for the prenylation reaction was developed and the enzyme activity measured in the protein extracts. The prenyltransferase that catalyses the transfer of the dimethylallyl group to C-2' of 1 was soluble and required dimethylallyl diphosphate as the prenyl donor. In the leaves, the biosynthesis of the prenylated chromene 2 was time-regulated and prenyltransferase activity depended upon circadian variation. Preliminary characterisation and purification experiments on the prenyltransferase from P. aduncum have been performed.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinshan; Wang, Wei; Hu, Jianqing; Xie, Denghui; Gerhard, Ethan; Nisic, Merisa; Shan, Dingying; Qian, Guoying; Zheng, Siyang; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections in the use of surgical devices and medical implants remain a major concern. Traditional bioadhesives fail to incorporate anti-microbial properties, necessitating additional anti-microbial drug injection. Herein, by the introduction of the clinically used and inexpensive anti-fungal agent, 10-undecylenic acid (UA), into our recently developed injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives (iCMBAs), a new family of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal iCMBAs (AbAf iCs) was developed. AbAf iCs not only showed strong wet tissue adhesion strength, but also exhibited excellent in vitro cyto-compatibility, fast degradation, and strong initial and considerable long-term anti-bacterial and anti-fungal ability. For the first time, the biocompatibility and anti-microbial ability of sodium metaperiodate (PI), an oxidant used as a cross-linking initiator in the AbAf iCs system, was also thoroughly investigated. Our results suggest that the PI-based bioadhesives showed better anti-microbial properties compared to the unstable silver-based bioadhesive materials. In conclusion, AbAf iCs family can serve as excellent anti-bacterial and anti-fungal bioadhesive candidates for tissue/wound closure, wound dressing, and bone regeneration, especially when bacterial or fungal infections are a major concern. PMID:26874283

  16. Use of an in vitro human skin permeation assay to assess bioequivalence of two topical cream formulations containing butenafine hydrochloride (1%, w/w).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amitava; Kim, Nanhye; Spark, Darren; Toner, Frank; Craig, Susan; Roper, Clive; Meyer, Thomas A

    2016-12-01

    The primary objective of this work was to investigate, using an in vitro human skin permeation study, whether changes in the excipients of butenafine hydrochloride cream would have any effect on bioperformance of the formulation. Such in vitro data would be a surrogate for any requirement of a bioequivalence (BE) study to demonstrate formulation similarity. A LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of butenafine in various matrices was developed and validated. A pilot study was performed to validate the in vitro skin permeation methodology using three cream formulations containing butenafine hydrochloride at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/w). Finally, a definitive in vitro human skin permeation study was conducted, comparing the extent of butenafine hydrochloride permeation from the new formulation to that from the current formulation. The results of the study comparing the two formulations showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the extent of butenafine permeation into human skin. In conclusion, these in vitro data demonstrated that the formulation change is likely to have no significant impact on the bioperformance of 1% (w/w) butenafine hydrochloride cream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Different Co-Antioxidants on the Photochemical- and Functional-Stability of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate in Topical Creams Exposed to Simulated Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Scalia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The catechin (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG exhibits high antioxidant activity and it has been reported to provide protection of the skin against damage induced by solar UV radiation. However, EGCG is highly unstable under sunlight. The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the co-antioxidant agents vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, vitamin C and a-lipoic acid for their potential to protect the catechin from photochemical degradation. Model creams (oil-in-water emulsions containing EGCG (1%, w/w alone or combined with equimolar concentrations of co-antioxidant were exposed to a solar simulator at an irradiance corresponding to natural sunlight. Photodegradation was evaluated by HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Addition of the co-antioxidants vitamin C and a-lipoic acid to the formulation significantly reduced the light-induced decomposition of EGCG from 76.9 ± 4.6% to 20.4 ± 2.7% and 12.6 ± 1.6%, respectively. Conversely, butylated hydroxytoluene had no effect (EGCG loss, 78.1 ± 4.6% and vitamin E enhanced the EGCG photolysis to 84.5 ± 3.4%. The functional stability of the catechin in the creams exposed to the solar simulator was also evaluated by measuring the in vitro antioxidant activity. Following irradiation, the reduction of the EGCG formulation antioxidant power was lower (21.8% than the extent of degradation (76.9%, suggesting the formation of photoproducts with antioxidant properties. The influence of the examined co-antioxidants on the functional stability of the catechin under simulated sunlight paralleled that measured for the EGCG photodecomposition, a-lipoic acid exerting the greatest stabilising effect (antioxidant activity decrease, 1.4%. These results demonstrated that a-lipoic acid is an effective co-antioxidant agent for the stabilization of EGCG in dermatological products for skin photoprotection.

  18. The Comparison of vaginal cream of mixing yogurt, honey and clotrimazole on symptoms of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Maryam; Jahdi, Fereshteh; Hamzegardeshi, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Saied; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-04-03

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is known as one of the most common fungal infection among women of reproductive age and considered as an important public health problem. In recent years, due to resistance to common antifungal medication, the use of traditional medicine of anti-fungal and herbal treatment increased. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of vaginal cream, mixture of yogurt and honey and comparing it with clotrimazole vaginal cream on symptoms of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients. In this randomized, triple blind clinical trial of 70 non-pregnant women infected with Candidal vulvovaginitis were placed in two groups of Vaginal cream mixed of yogurt and honey recipients (N=35) and clotrimazole vaginal cream (N=35). Both groups were treated for 7 days. At the beginning of study, Clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms were registered 7 and 14 days after treatment by questionnaire, observation form and secretions culture results. Data by chi-square test, t test, McNemar tests were analyzed by SPSS version 21. Significance level of 0.05 was considered. The result of present study reveals the significant differences in symptom improvement of ' yogurt and honey, than clotrimazole group (P0.05) CONCLUSION: This study indicated that he therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. Therefore, the use of this product can be suggested as an herbal remedy for candida infection treatment.

  19. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase for anti-fungal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer R. Hayek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans (C. albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens.

  20. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  1. The Effect of Topical Use of Petroselinum Crispum (Parsley) Versus That of Hydroquinone Cream on Reduction of Epidermal Melasma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravan, Shahla; Alami, Ali; Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Ramezani, Vahide

    Melasma disfigures the skin and thus influences people's self-image and self-concept. Therefore, melasma influences emotional and psychosocial health in addition to physical health. This clinical trial was performed to assess the effect of the topical use of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) on reduction of the severity of epidermal melasma.

  2. Skin treatment with bepanthen cream versus no cream during radiotherapy. A randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loekkevik, E.; Skovlund, E.; Oslo Univ.; Reitan, J.B.; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo; Hannisdal, E.; Tanum, G.

    1996-01-01

    In several radiotherapy departments, dexpanthenol cream (Bepanthen 'Roche') has been used extensively to ameliorate acute radiotherapy skin reactions. The evidence base for this practice is obscure as no randomized trials have been performed. In the present clinical prospective study of 86 patients we have compared Bepanthen cream with no topical ointment at all. The cream was applied on randomly selected parts of treatment fields in laryngeal and breast cancer patients, and so each patient acted as his own control. Seven patients were widthdrawn from analysis. Scoring of skin reactions in 16 laryngeal and 63 breast cancer patients was performed without knowledge of which are that had been given cream or not. Endpoints were a modified skin reaction grading according to EORTC/RTOG, and itching/apin in treated fields. The study did not indicate any clinically important benefits of using Bepanthen cream for ameliorating radiogenic skin reactions under the conditions applied. (orig.)

  3. Discovery of a novel dual fungal CYP51/human 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor: implications for anti-fungal therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K Hoobler

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of a novel dual inhibitor targeting fungal sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51 or Erg11 and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX with improved potency against 5-LOX due to its reduction of the iron center by its phenylenediamine core. A series of potent 5-LOX inhibitors containing a phenylenediamine core, were synthesized that exhibit nanomolar potency and >30-fold selectivity against the LOX paralogs, platelet-type 12-human lipoxygenase, reticulocyte 15-human lipoxygenase type-1, and epithelial 15-human lipoxygenase type-2, and >100-fold selectivity against ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygnease-2. The phenylenediamine core was then translated into the structure of ketoconazole, a highly effective anti-fungal medication for seborrheic dermatitis, to generate a novel compound, ketaminazole. Ketaminazole was found to be a potent dual inhibitor against human 5-LOX (IC50 = 700 nM and CYP51 (IC50 = 43 nM in vitro. It was tested in whole blood and found to down-regulate LTB4 synthesis, displaying 45% inhibition at 10 µM. In addition, ketaminazole selectively inhibited yeast CYP51 relative to human CYP51 by 17-fold, which is greater selectivity than that of ketoconazole and could confer a therapeutic advantage. This novel dual anti-fungal/anti-inflammatory inhibitor could potentially have therapeutic uses against fungal infections that have an anti-inflammatory component.

  4. Studies on the antimicrobial properties of formulated creams and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their performances were compared with those of standard antiseptic creams and ointments. The results of agar diffusion studies on cream and ointment formulations revealed that the topical bases used to disperse the medicaments could significantly affect the antimicrobial effectiveness of the formulation. Formulations ...

  5. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of topical clindamycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide with nadifloxacin cream and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris and assessment of the effects of these treatments on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Kırkağaç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disase of the pilosebaceous unit. Topical antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatment are used for mild and moderate acne. Clindamycin is frequently used for acne treatment, altough nadifloxacin is a relatively new agent. There are few studies evaluating nadifloxacin efficacy. It's impact on quality of life has not been determined previously. In this study, it is aimed to compare the effect of these two agents, and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on quality of life. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with mild-moderate acne vulgaris were divided in two groups of 40 people that had no difference in terms of age, gender and acne severity. The combination of topical clindamycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel twice a day was given to group 1 for 12 weeks. The combination of nadifloxacin cream and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel twice a day was given to group 2 for 12 weeks. The number of the inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions were recorded at baseline and on weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 and side effects were recorded and evaluated. Global improvement was evaluated separately by patients and doctor after the treatment. Before and after the treatment, the quality of life of the patients were evaluated with Skindex-29. Results: Both treatment group regimens were significantly effective on inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions and were well tolerated by patients in terms of side effects. It was also observed that there was statistically significant recovery after treatment in terms of clinical severity and quality of life. There was not any statistically significant difference between two treatment methods in terms of effectiveness, side effect and quality of life. Conclusion: Nadifloxacin and 5% benzoyl peroxide combination is effective in the treatment and improvement of quality of life in acne patients.

  6. Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touba, Eslaminejad Parizi; Zakaria, Maziah; Tahereh, Eslaminejad

    2012-02-01

    Crude extracts of seven spices, viz. cardamom, chilli, coriander, onion, garlic, ginger, and galangale were made using cold water and hot water extraction and they were tested for their anti-fungal effects against the three Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani using the 'poisoned food technique'. All seven spices studied showed significant anti-fungal activity at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30% of the crude extract) in-vitro. The cold water extract of garlic exhibited good anti-fungal activity against all three tested fungi. In the case of the hot water extracts, garlic and ginger showed the best anti-fungal activity. Of the two extraction methods, cold water extraction was generally more effective than hot water extraction in controlling the pathogens. Against P. exigua, the 10% cold water extracts of galangale, ginger, coriander and cardamom achieved total (100%) inhibition of pathogen mycelial growth. Total inhibition of F. nygamai mycelial growth was similarly achieved with the 10% cold water extracts garlic. Against R. solani, the 10% cold water extract of galangale was effective in imposing 100% inhibition. Accordingly, the 10% galangale extract effectively controlled both P. exigua and R. solani in vitro. None of the hot water extracts of the spices succeeded in achieving 100% inhibition of the pathogen mycelial growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Butoconazole Vaginal Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... comes as a cream to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime. Follow ...

  8. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  9. Comparison of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream for local anaesthesia during laser treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae and tattoo removal: Results of two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Greveling (Karin); E.P. Prens (Errol); ten Bosch, N.; M.B.A. van Doorn (Martijn)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pain is a common adverse effect of dermatological laser procedures. Currently, no standard topical anaesthetic cream exists for deeper dermal laser procedures. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream in reducing

  10. Efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream vs eberconazole nitrate 1% cream in localised tinea corporis and tinea cruris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv V Choudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study and compare the efficacy and safety of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and eberconazole nitrate 1% cream in localized tinea corporis and cruris. Methods and Materials: Patients were randomized after considering various inclusion and exclusion criteria into two groups. Group A (treated with terbinafine 1% cream for 3 weeks and group B (treated with eberconazole 1% cream for 3 weeks. The sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in each group. Assessment of clinical improvement, KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to assess complete cure. Results: On comparison between the two groups, it was observed that eberconazole nitrate 1% cream was as effective as terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream at the end of first (Non-sisgnificant (NS; P = 0.608, 1.00, second (NS; P = 0.291,0.55, and third (P = 1.00, 1.00 weeks with statistically nonsignificant clinical and mycological values. In both the groups, clinically no significant local side effects were noticed. Conclusions: The newer fungistatic eberconazole nitrate 1% cream was as effective as the fungicidal terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream. Both the drugs showed good tolerability with no adverse effects.

  11. Treatment of oral dysplasia with 5% imiquimod cream: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, R; Ansell, M; Laverick, S

    2016-11-01

    We report what we think is the first treatment of oral dysplasia with 5% imiquimod cream. A 60-year-old man presented with varying degrees of dysplasia on the soft palate. A cover plate was fabricated and the patient was prescribed 5% imiquimod cream, a topical imunomodulator, for six weeks. The lesion improved and histological examination of an incisional biopsy found no features of dysplasia. This case highlights the efficacy of imiquimod cream in the treatment of dysplasia, and the need for development of a preparation suitable for the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Genes Required for the Anti-Fungal Activity of a Bacterial Endophyte Isolated from a Corn Landrace Grown Continuously by Subsistence Farmers Since 1000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan R Shehata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes are known to combat pathogens. The corn (maize landrace Chapalote has been grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, without the use of fungicides, and the crop remains highly valued by farmers, in part for its natural tolerance to pests. We hypothesized that the pathogen tolerance of Chapalote may, in part, be due to assistance from its endophytes. We previously identified a bacterial endophyte from Chapalote seeds, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, for its ability to combat a diversity of crop pathogens, including Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the most important fungal disease of creeping bentgrass, a relative of maize used here as a model system. Strain 3A12 represents a unique opportunity to understand the anti-fungal activities of an endophyte associated with a crop variety grown by subsistence farmers since ancient times. Here, microscopy combined with Tn5-mutagenesis demonstrates that the anti-fungal mode of action of 3A12 involves flagella-dependent swarming towards its pathogen target, attachment and biofilm-mediated microcolony formation. The mutant screen revealed that YajQ, a receptor for the secondary messenger c-di-GMP, is a critical signaling system that mediates this endophytic mobility-based defence for its host. Microbes from the traditional seeds of farmers may represent a new frontier in elucidating host-microbe mutualistic interactions.

  13. An alternative anionic bio-sustainable anti-fungal agent: Investigation of its mode of action on the fungal cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbæk, Jonas; Löf, David; Falkman, Peter; Jensen, Bo; Cárdenas, Marité

    2017-07-01

    The potential of a lactylate (the sodium caproyl lactylate or C10 lactylate), a typical food grade emulsifier, as an anionic environmental friendly anti-fungal additive was tested in growth medium and formulated in a protective coating for exterior wood. Different laboratory growth tests on the blue stain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were performed and its interactions on a model fungal cell membrane were studied. Promising short term anti-fungal effects in growth tests were observed, although significant but less dramatic effects took place in coating test on wood panels. Scanning electron microscope analysis shows clear differences in the amount of fungal slime on the mycelium of Aureobasidium pullulans when the fungus was exposed of C10 lactylate. This could indicate an effect on the pullulan and melanin production by the fungus. Moreover, the interaction studies on model fungal cell membranes show that C10 lactylate affects the phospholipid bilayer in a similar manner to other negative charged detergents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wrinkle Creams: Your Guide to Younger Looking Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including prescription creams, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections or skin-resurfacing techniques. Nolan KA, et al. Over-the-counter topical skincare products: A review of the literature. Journal of Drugs in ... anti-aging skin care products. American Academy of Dermatology. http://www. ...

  15. Teaching Process Engineering Principles Using an Ice Cream Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaletunc, Gonul; Duemmel, Kevin; Gecik, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The ice cream laboratory experiment is designed to illustrate and promote discussion of several engineering and science topics including material and energy balances, heat transfer, freezing, mass transfer, mixing, viscosity, and freezing point depression in a sophomore level engineering class. A pre-lab assignment requires the students to develop…

  16. The physics of ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Chris

    2003-05-01

    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  17. Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Activity of Xanthones Obtained via Semi-Synthetic Modification of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Narasimhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination in food packaging has been a major concern that has paved the way to search for novel, natural anti-microbial agents, such as modified α-mangostin. In the present study, twelve synthetic analogs were obtained through semi-synthetic modification of α-mangostin by Ritter reaction, reduction by palladium-carbon (Pd-C, alkylation, and acetylation. The evaluation of the anti-microbial potential of the synthetic analogs showed higher bactericidal activity than the parent molecule. The anti-microbial studies proved that I E showed high anti-bacterial activity whereas I I showed the highest anti-fungal activity. Due to their microbicidal potential, modified α-mangostin derivatives could be utilized as active anti-microbial agents in materials for the biomedical and food industry.

  18. Efficacy of topical azathioprine and betamethasone versus betamethasone-only emollient cream in 2-18 years old patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraji, Fariba; Farhadi, Sadaf; Faghihi, Gita; Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Basiri, Akram; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a considerable burden especially among children. To circumvent the problems related to oral azathioprine (AZT) we aimed to evaluate its topical variant and assess its efficacy in patients aged 2–18. Materials and Methods: In a single-blind trial, we randomized the patients into two groups, one treated with topical emollient containing AZT and betamethasone (BM), and the other treated solely with topical emollient of BM. The treatments were administered twice a day for 8 weeks in both groups. The efficacy, recurrence, and the presence of side effects were evaluated using SPSS 20. Results: The amount of reduction in severity scoring for atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) score was significantly greater in the group treated with the topical AZT (P = 0.024). Incidentally, there were no difference between two treatments in difference in proportions of recurrence and adverse effects as well as SCORAD reduction in subgroups of sex and age (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed the superiority of topical AZT over BM with a low recurrence and adverse effects. No expectation of severe side effects, like those of oral AZT, is the major advantage of topical AZT. The sample size was an issue in uncovering the value of AZT in the subgroups. Conducting prolonged studies of quality-of-life and comparing the topical AZT potency relative to the common alternatives are recommended areas of future work. PMID:26623403

  19. Topical ketoconazole therapy in a recalcitrant case of seborrhoeic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishya B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole 2% cream and 2% shampoo were found to be effective in controlling seborrhoeic dermatitis in a recalcitrant case. This topical ketoconazole therapy seems to be better than other conventional topical preparations prescribed in seborrhoeic dermatitis.

  20. Stimulation with lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shivashni S; Virassamy, Balaji; Halliday, Catriona; Clancy, Leighton; Chen, Sharon; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C; Gottlieb, David J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. We previously published a method to expand Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cells for clinical cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated expansion of T cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal T-cell product. Fungal strains selected were those frequently observed in the clinical hematology setting and included Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Lomentospora/Scedosporium. Four T-cell cultures specific to each fungus were established. We selected lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae to expand panfungal T cells. Allelic restriction of anti-fungal activity was determined through the use of specific major histocompatibility complex class II-blocking antibodies. Individual T-cell cultures specific to each fungus could be expanded in vitro, generating predominantly CD4(+) T cells of which 8% to 20% were fungus-specific. We successfully expanded panfungal T cells from the peripheral blood (n = 8) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-primed stem cell products (n = 3) of normal donors by using a combination of lysates from Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae. Anti-fungal activity was mediated through human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR alleles and was maintained when antigen-presenting cells from partially HLA-DRB1-matched donors were used to stimulate T cells. We demonstrate a method to manufacture panfungal T-cell products with specificity against a range of clinical fungal pathogens by use of the blood and stem cells of healthy donors as the starting material. The safety and efficacy of these products will need to be tested clinically. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Pimecrolimus Cream 1% Compared with Triamcinolone Acetonide Paste in Treatment of Atrophic-Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive types of OLP often have symptoms of soreness, and require proper treatment. The main treatment for OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl cream (triamcinolone acetonide in orabase with topical pimecrolimus cream for the treatment of erosive OLP.   Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with OLP were enrolled in a single blind clinical trial and assigned to either a pimecrolimus 1% cream group or an adcortyl 0.1% cream group. The medication was applied every day for 2 months and patients were assessed every 2 weeks.   Results: The mean lesion size and mean pain and burning sensation scores did not differ between the pimecrolimus and adcortyl cream groups. The pimecrolimus cream was well tolerated. No clinical drug-related adverse events were observed.   Conclusion:  Topical pimecrolimus cream may be recommended as a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of OLP. Pimecrolimus cream is as effective as adcortyl cream in managing the signs and symptoms of OLP.

  2. Recent advances in topical anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthetics act on the peripheral nerves and reduce the sensation of pain at the site of application. In dentistry, they are used to control local pain caused by needling, placement of orthodontic bands, the vomiting reflex, oral mucositis, and rubber-dam clamp placement. Traditional topical anesthetics contain lidocaine or benzocaine as active ingredients and are used in the form of solutions, creams, gels, and sprays. Eutectic mixtures of local anesthesia cream, a mixture of various topical anesthetics, has been reported to be more potent than other anesthetics. Recently, new products with modified ingredients and application methods have been introduced into the market. These products may be used for mild pain during periodontal treatment, such as scaling. Dentists should be aware that topical anesthetics, although rare, might induce allergic reactions or side effects as a result of an overdose. Topical anesthetics are useful aids during dental treatment, as they reduce dental phobia, especially in children, by mitigating discomfort and pain. PMID:28879311

  3. Phenytoin Cream for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kopsky

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain can be disabling, and is often difficult to treat. Within a year, over half of all patients stop taking their prescribed neuropathic pain medication, which is most probably due to side effects or disappointing analgesic results. Therefore, new therapies are needed to alleviate neuropathic pain. As such, topical analgesics could be a new inroad in the treatment of neuropathic pain. In 2014, we developed a new topical formulation containing either phenytoin or sodium phenytoin. After optimization of the formulation, we were able to reach a 10% concentration and combine phenytoin with other co-analgesics in the same base cream. OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of 70 neuropathic pain patients who were treated with phenytoin cream. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases treated with phenytoin 5% or 10% creams were gathered. The mean onset of pain relief, the duration of effect, and reduction in pain intensity measured on the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS were all studied. A single-blind response test with phenytoin 10% and placebo creams was conducted on 12 patients in order to select responders prior to prescribing the active cream. Plasma phenytoin concentrations were measured in 16 patients. RESULTS: Nine patients applied phenytoin 5% cream, and 61 patients used phenytoin 10% cream. After grouping the effects of all of the patients, the mean onset of pain relief was 16.3 min (SD: 14.8, the mean duration of analgesia was 8.1 h (SD: 9.1, and the mean pain reduction on the NRS was 61.2% (SD: 25.0. The mean pain reduction on the NRS while using phenytoin cream was statistically significant compared with the baseline, with a reduction of 4.5 (CI: 4.0 to 5.0, p < 0.01. The 12 patients on whom a single-blind response test was performed experienced a statistically significant reduction in pain in the area where the phenytoin 10% cream was applied in comparison to the area where the placebo cream was applied (p < 0.01. Thirty

  4. Terconazole Vaginal Cream, Vaginal Suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat fungal and yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... a cream and suppository to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime for ...

  5. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  6. Optimal Bypass and Cream Skimming.

    OpenAIRE

    Laffont, Jean-Jacques; Tirole, Jean

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops a normative model of regulatory policy toward bypass and cream skimming. It analyzes the effects of bypass on second-degree price discrimination, on the rent of the regulated firm, and on the welfare of low-demand customers. It shows that pricing under marginal cost may be optimal for the regulated firm, excessive cream skimming occurs if access to the bypass technology is not regulated, and the prohibition of bypass may increase or decrease the regulated firm's rent. Copy...

  7. RHEOLOGIC BEHAVIOR OF PASTRY CREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Vizireanu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased social and economic importance of ready–made food production, together with the complexity of production technology, processing, handling and acceptance of these fragile and perishable products requires extensive knowledge of their physical properties. Viscoelastic properties play an important role in the handling and quality attributes of creams.Our study was to investigate the rheological properties of different confectionary creams, by scanning the field of shear rates at constant temperature and frequency, angular frequency scanning at small deformations and quantification of rheological changes during application of deformation voltages. The creams tested were made in the laboratory using specific concentrates as fine powders, marketed by the company “Dr. Oetker” compared with similar creams based on traditional recipes and techniques. Following the researches conducted we could conclude that both traditional creams and the instant ones are semi fluid food products with pseudoplastic and thixotropic shear flow behavior, with structural viscosity. Instant and traditional creams behaved as physical gels with links susceptible to destruction, when subjected to deformation forces.

  8. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral and topical antibiotics for children with clinically infected eczema in the community: the ChildRen with Eczema, Antibiotic Management (CREAM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Nick A; Ridd, Matthew J; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Shepherd, Victoria; Butler, Christopher C; Hood, Kerenza; Huang, Chao; Addison, Katy; Longo, Mirella; Marwick, Charis; Wootton, Mandy; Howe, Robin; Roberts, Amanda; Haq, Mohammed Inaam-ul; Madhok, Vishnu; Sullivan, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Secondary skin infection is common during eczema exacerbations and many children are treated with antibiotics when this is suspected, although there is little high-quality evidence to justify this practice. To determine the clinical effectiveness of oral and topical antibiotics, in addition to standard treatment with emollients and topical corticosteroids, in children with clinically infected eczema. Multicentre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. General practices and dermatology clinics in England, Wales and Scotland. Children (aged 3 months to children (36 to oral antibiotic, 37 to topical antibiotic and 40 to placebo), which was fewer than our revised target sample size of 282. A total of 103 (92.0%) children had one or more clinical features suggestive of infection and 78 (69.6%) children had Staphylococcus aureus cultured from a skin swab. Oral and topical antibiotics resulted in a 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) -1.35 to 4.40] and 1.49 (95% CI -1.55 to 4.53) increase (worse subjective severity) in POEM score at 2 weeks, relative to placebo and controlling for baseline POEM score. Eczema Area and Severity Index (objective severity) scores were also higher (worse) in the intervention groups, at 0.20 (95% CI -0.12 to 0.52) and 0.42 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.75) for oral and topical antibiotics, respectively, at 2 weeks. Analyses of impact on the family, quality of life, daily symptom scores, and longer-term outcomes were all consistent with the finding of no or limited difference and a trend towards worse outcomes in the intervention groups. Sensitivity analyses, including adjusting for compliance and imputation for missing data, were consistent with the main findings. Our data suggest that oral and topical antibiotics have no effect, or a harmful effect, on subjective eczema severity in children with clinically infected eczema in the community. The CIs around our estimates exclude a meaningful beneficial effect (published minimal clinically

  9. Efficacy of cryotherapy plus topical Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb cream versus cryotherapy plus placebo in the treatment of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: A triple-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi; Handjani, Farhad; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Hatam, Gholamreza; Nimrouzi, Majid; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Hamidizadeh, Nasrin; Khorrami, Hamid Reza; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the highly prevalent endemic diseases in the Middle East and North Africa. Many treatment modalities have been recommended for this condition but success rates remain limited. Herbal remedies have also been used for treatment but evidence-based clinical trials with these products are sparse. In-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown the anti-leishmanial and curative effects of extract of fruits and leaves of Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of topical J. excelsa M. Bieb extract as an adjuvant to cryotherapy for the treatment of human CL. This study was designed as a two-arm triple-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial using a parallel design. Seventy-two patients with clinical diagnosis of CL confirmed by leishmania smears were allocated to receive either a topical formulation of leaf of J. excelsa extract (group A) or placebo (group B) for 3 months. Both groups received cryotherapy as baseline standard treatment. Patients were evaluated before and weekly after the intervention was initiated until complete cure. Overall, 82% of patients in group A, experienced complete cure and 9% of them had partial cure. On the other hand, 34% in group B reported complete cure, while 14% of them had partial cure at the end of treatment protocol with a significant difference between the two groups (Pcryotherapy for accelerating the time to cure in addition to increasing the complete cure rate in CL. ClinicalTrials.gov IRCT2015082523753N1.

  10. Heavy Metal Presence in Two Different Types of Ice Cream: Artisanal Ice Cream (Italian Gelato) and Industrial Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, D; Alberghini, L; Bissacco, E; Ferioli, M; Giaccone, V

    2017-03-01

    Ice cream, a popular product worldwide, is usually a milk-based product with other types of ingredients (fruit, eggs, cocoa, dried fruit, additives, and others). Different materials are used to obtain the desired taste, texture, consistency, and appearance of the final product. This study surveyed ice cream products available in Italy for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin, and arsenic). The differences between artisanal and industrial ice cream were also investigated because of the importance in the Italian diet and the diffusion of this ready-to-eat food. Ice cream sampling was performed between October 2010 and February 2011 in the northeast of Italy. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from different sources: 50 industrial samples produced by 19 different brands were collected in coffee bars and supermarkets; 50 artisanal ice cream samples were gathered at nine different artisanal ice cream shops. Ten wooden sticks of industrial ice cream were analyzed in parallel to the ice cream. All samples were negative for arsenic and mercury. None of the artisanal ice cream samples were positive for lead and tin; 18% of the industrial ice cream samples were positive. All positive lead samples were higher than the legal limit stated for milk (0.02 mg/kg). All industrial ice cream samples were negative for cadmium, but cadmium was present in 10% of the artisanal ice cream samples. Chromium was found in 26% of the artisanal and in 58% of the industrial ice cream samples. The heavy metals found in the wooden sticks were different from the corresponding ice cream, pointing out the lack of cross-contamination between the products. Considering the results and the amount of ice cream consumed during the year, contamination through ice cream is a low risk for the Italian population, even though there is need for further analysis.

  11. Topical therapy of recurrent herpes - acyclovir versus tromantidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bhushan

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty men with recurrent genital herpes were treated with either acyclovir 5% cream or tromantidine 1 % ointment applied topically. Acyclovir cream was applied 5 times and tromantidine cream 4 times daily for 5 days. At least one pre-treatment episode was observed by one of the authors. Self assessment charts were provided to the patients to record prodromal symptoms and healing time. For comparison at least 3 post treatment episodes were observed and com-pared with mean healing time of 3 pre-treatment episodes. Both acyclovir cream and tromantidine ointment significantly reduced the duration of prodrome, hastened healing and so reduced mean healing time.

  12. Non-ablative fractional resurfacing in combination with topical tretinoin cream as a field treatment modality for multiple actinic keratosis: a pilot study and a review of other field treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prens, Sebastiaan P; de Vries, Karin; Neumann, H A Martino; Prens, Errol P

    2013-06-01

    Actinic keratoses (AK) are premalignant lesions occurring mainly in sun-damaged skin. Current topical treatment options for AK and photo-damaged skin such as liquid nitrogen and electrosurgery are not suitable for field treatment. Otherwise, therapies suitable for field treatment bring along considerable patient discomfort. Non-ablative fractional resurfacing has emerged as a logical treatment option especially for field treatment of AK. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of fractional laser therapy for clearing AK and improving skin quality. To compare patient friendliness of the "fractional" therapy with those reported for other field treatment modalities. Ten patients with Fitzpatrick skin type I to III with multiple AK and extensive sun-damaged skin, received 5-10 sessions with a 4-week interval using a 1550 nm Erbium-Glass Fractionated laser (Sellas, Korea). Four weeks and 24 weeks after the last treatment the clinical results were evaluated by an independent physician. The mean degree of improvement, in terms of reduction in the number of AK and improvement of skin texture, was 54% on a 4 point PGA scale, and persisted for approximately 6 months. The biggest advantage of fractional laser treatment, besides the eradication of AK and a clear rejuvenation effect, is the absence of "downtime". Fractional non-ablative resurfacing induces significant reduction in the number of AK and improves the skin quality. Also all patients preferred fractional laser therapy above other AK treatment modalities.

  13. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.160 Sour cream. (a... of analysis. Referenced methods in paragraph (c) (1) and (2) of this section are from “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is...

  14. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  15. The White-Nose Syndrome Transcriptome: Activation of Anti-fungal Host Responses in Wing Tissue of Hibernating Little Brown Myotis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kenneth A; Johnson, Joseph S; Lilley, Thomas M; Reeder, Sophia M; Rogers, Elizabeth J; Behr, Melissa J; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2015-10-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) in North American bats is caused by an invasive cutaneous infection by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). We compared transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression using RNA-Seq on wing skin tissue from hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) with WNS to bats without Pd exposure. We found that WNS caused significant changes in gene expression in hibernating bats including pathways involved in inflammation, wound healing, and metabolism. Local acute inflammatory responses were initiated by fungal invasion. Gene expression was increased for inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17C, IL-20, IL-23A, IL-24, and G-CSF and chemokines, such as Ccl2 and Ccl20. This pattern of gene expression changes demonstrates that WNS is accompanied by an innate anti-fungal host response similar to that caused by cutaneous Candida albicans infections. However, despite the apparent production of appropriate chemokines, immune cells such as neutrophils and T cells do not appear to be recruited. We observed upregulation of acute inflammatory genes, including prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (cyclooxygenase-2), that generate eicosanoids and other nociception mediators. We also observed differences in Pd gene expression that suggest host-pathogen interactions that might determine WNS progression. We identified several classes of potential virulence factors that are expressed in Pd during WNS, including secreted proteases that may mediate tissue invasion. These results demonstrate that hibernation does not prevent a local inflammatory response to Pd infection but that recruitment of leukocytes to the site of infection does not occur. The putative virulence factors may provide novel targets for treatment or prevention of WNS. These observations support a dual role for inflammation during WNS; inflammatory responses provide protection but excessive inflammation may contribute to mortality, either by

  16. The White-Nose Syndrome Transcriptome: Activation of Anti-fungal Host Responses in Wing Tissue of Hibernating Little Brown Myotis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS in North American bats is caused by an invasive cutaneous infection by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd. We compared transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression using RNA-Seq on wing skin tissue from hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus with WNS to bats without Pd exposure. We found that WNS caused significant changes in gene expression in hibernating bats including pathways involved in inflammation, wound healing, and metabolism. Local acute inflammatory responses were initiated by fungal invasion. Gene expression was increased for inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins (IL IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17C, IL-20, IL-23A, IL-24, and G-CSF and chemokines, such as Ccl2 and Ccl20. This pattern of gene expression changes demonstrates that WNS is accompanied by an innate anti-fungal host response similar to that caused by cutaneous Candida albicans infections. However, despite the apparent production of appropriate chemokines, immune cells such as neutrophils and T cells do not appear to be recruited. We observed upregulation of acute inflammatory genes, including prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (cyclooxygenase-2, that generate eicosanoids and other nociception mediators. We also observed differences in Pd gene expression that suggest host-pathogen interactions that might determine WNS progression. We identified several classes of potential virulence factors that are expressed in Pd during WNS, including secreted proteases that may mediate tissue invasion. These results demonstrate that hibernation does not prevent a local inflammatory response to Pd infection but that recruitment of leukocytes to the site of infection does not occur. The putative virulence factors may provide novel targets for treatment or prevention of WNS. These observations support a dual role for inflammation during WNS; inflammatory responses provide protection but excessive inflammation may contribute to mortality

  17. The effect of ice-cream-scoop water on the hygiene of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I. G.; Heaney, J. C.; Weatherup, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of unopened ice cream, ice cream in use, and ice-cream-scoop water (n = 91) was conducted to determine the effect of scoop water hygiene on the microbiological quality of ice cream. An aerobic plate count around 10(6) c.f.u. ml-1 was the modal value for scoop waters. Unopened ice creams generally had counts around 10(3)-10(4) c.f.u. ml-1 and this increased by one order of magnitude when in use. Many scoop waters had low coliform counts, but almost half contained > 100 c.f.u. ml-1. E. coli was isolated in 18% of ice creams in use, and in 10% of unopened ice creams. S. aureus was not detected in any sample. Statistical analysis showed strong associations between indicator organisms and increased counts in ice cream in use. EC guidelines for indicator organisms in ice cream were exceeded by up to 56% of samples. PMID:9287941

  18. Non-steroidal topical immunomodulators provide skin-selective, self-limiting treatment in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jan D.

    2003-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for atopic dermatitis; however, their clinical utility is limited by potential side effects. Recently, the steroid-free topical immunomodulators; tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream have become available. These agents provide effective

  19. Preliminary stop of the TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, M. M.; Kruse, Arnold-Jan; Kooreman, L. F. S.; zur Hausen, Axel; Hopman, Anton H N; Sep, S. J. S.; Van Gorp, T.; Slangen, B. F. M.; van Beekhuizen, H. J.; de Sande, Michiel A. J. van; Gerestein, Cornelis G.; Nijman, H. W.; Kruitwagen, R. F. M. P.

    2017-01-01

    The "TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia" (TOPIC) trial was stopped preliminary, due to lagging inclusions. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy and clinical applicability of imiquimod 5% cream in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

  20. Prophylaxis of radiation dermatitis with a topical cortisone cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potera, M.E.; Lookingbill, D.P.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Nineteen cancer patients receiving radiation therapy to the head, neck, chest wall, or abdomen were evaluated in a double-blind study to determine the effectiveness of 0.2% hydrocortisone valerate vs. placebo in reducing acute radiation dermatitis. Patients applied hydrocortisone valerate to one-half of the irradiated area and the placebo to the other half beginning two weeks after the initiation of radiotherapy and continuing until three weeks after completion. Left and right sides were scored each week with respect to erythema, dry desquamation, moist desquamation, ulceration, and the duration and intensity of symptoms such as soreness, burning, and itching. No statistically significant difference was found between the 0.2% hydrocortisone valerate and the placebo in the acute skin response or the symptoms of radiation dermatitis. The patients were evaluated three months following radiotherapy for evidence of skin atrophy. There were no differences found between hydrocortisone valerate and the placebo with respect to the late effects of radiation therapy

  1. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  2. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    OpenAIRE

    SS Khoramrooz; M Sarikhani; SA Khosravani; M Farhang Falah; Y Mahmoudi; A Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cros...

  3. Effect of Capsaicin Cream on the Secretion of the Submandibular and Parotid Gland in the General Population with Different Chilli-eating Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Guang Yan; Tang, Zhan Gui; Hu, Ji An

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of capsaicin cream on the secretion of the submandibular gland (SMG) and the parotid gland (PG) in the general population, with different chilli-eating habits. In two groups with different chilli-eating habits, the salivary flow rate of the SMG and the PG was detected at statics and different times, after application of capsaicin cream. In both groups, the topical application of capsaicin cream could significantly increase the salivary secretion of SMG (P 0.05). On the other hand, although the salivary flow rate of PG also increased after stimulation, the increase had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The application of capsaicin cream can effectively promote the secretion of the SMG and the PG, and its effect is independent of chilli-eating habits, which indicates that topical application of capsaicin cream can be considered as a potential treatment for the hypofunction of the salivary gland.

  4. A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial of EMLA® Cream (Eutectic Lidocaine/Prilocaine Cream) for Analgesia Prior to Cryotherapy of Plantar Warts in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Hui; Pakdeethai, Janthorn; Toh, Matthias P H S; Aw, Derrick C W

    2014-10-01

    Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen is an effective, safe and convenient form of treatment for plantar warts. EMLA® cream (eutectic mixture of lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) is a topical local anaesthetic agent that has proven to be effective and well tolerated in the relief of pain associated with various minor interventions in numerous clinical settings. In a single-centre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 64 subjects were randomised into 2 groups. The subjects had a thick layer of EMLA® cream or placebo cream applied to pared plantar wart(s) and onto the surrounding margin of 1 mm to 2 mm under occlusion for 60 minutes prior to receiving cryotherapy. The pain of cryotherapy was evaluated by the subjects using a self-administered Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) immediately after the cryotherapy. There was no statistical difference between the mean VAS score for EMLA® cream (47.0 ± 21.4 mm) and placebo (48.9 ± 22.0 mm). Those with more than 1 wart had a significantly higher VAS score than those with only 1 wart (59.1 ± 21.8 vs. 44.3 ± 20.4, P cryotherapy. We conclude that the application of EMLA® cream prior to cryotherapy does not reduce the pain associated with cryotherapy.

  5. Local anesthetic effects of Lidocaine cream: randomized controlled trial using a standardized prick pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberger, Katharina; Krause, Karoline; Maier, Kristina; Zschocke, Ina; Radtke, Marc; Augustin, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    ELA-max (4% lidocaine) and EMLA cream (lidocaine-prilocaine 2.5%) are topicals used for superficial anesthesia. Only few studies have been published on their comparative effectiveness in close-to-practice pain models. (1) To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of lidocaine cream compared with lidocaine-prilocaine cream and placebo. (2) To assess the safety and tolerability. Randomized, three-arm, double-blind trial in 40 healthy volunteers comparing the anesthetic effects of Lidocaine and lidocaine-prilocaine cream to placebo at various time points (0-120 min). A standardized pain was induced by lancet pricks and measured by a visual analogue scale. Intra-individual comparison between the test areas was performed in a cross-over design. Lidocaine showed significantly reduced pain compared to placebo at all assessment points. Pain reduction was achieved significantly earlier using lidocaine occlusively (30 min). No significant differences were found concerning the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine and lidocaine-prilocaine cream. There were no relevant adverse events. This study confirms that a topical preparation with 4% lidocaine is an effective and safe treatment option for superficial anesthesia. It supports the claim that an occlusive application is more rapid in action. 4% lidocaine is of value as a rapidly-acting local anesthetic for the treatment of minor surgical procedures.

  6. Anti-aging potential of a cream containing milk thistle extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to formulate and evaluate antı-agıng effects of a topical cream (water in oil (w/o) emulsion) containig extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against its vehicle (Base) as control. Base containing no extract and a formulation containing 4% concentrated extract of Silybum marianum was developed ...

  7. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  8. Oxymetazoline hydrochloride cream for facial erythema associated with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nupur U; Shukla, Shweta; Zaki, Jessica; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-10-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin condition characterized by transient and persistent erythema of the central face. The symptom of persistent erythema can be particularly frustrating for both patients and physicians as it is difficult to treat. Areas covered: Current treatment options for the treatment of rosacea include metronidazole, azelaic acid, sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur, and brimonidine. Until recently, brimonidine gel was the only option approved specifically for the treatment of facial erythema. However, oxymetazoline hydrochloride 1% cream is a newly FDA approved topical medication for adult rosacea patients. A primarily alpha-1a agonist, oxymetazoline hydrochloride (HCl) is thought to diminish erythema through vasoconstriction. Our paper seeks to evaluate evidence for topical oxymetazoline HCl with respect to its efficacy and safety for its approved indication of treating the persistent erythema associated with rosacea. Expert commentary: While assessment of available clinical trial data indicates that the medication is as effective as other available treatment for controlling rosacea-associated erythema with minimal risk of adverse effects, studies of long-term duration and direct comparison will be necessary to establish its place in treatment guidelines and clinical practice. As further evidence becomes available, the real-world clinical potential of topical oxymetazoline cream will become clearer.

  9. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet, pleasing...

  10. Pimecrolimus Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lymphoma (cancer in a part of the immune system). There is not enough information available to tell whether pimecrolimus cream caused these patients to develop cancer. Studies of transplant patients and laboratory animals and an understanding of the way pimecrolimus works ...

  11. Meatotomy using topical anesthesia: A painless option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Use of topical anesthesia in form of Prilox (EMLA cream for meatotomy is safe and effective method that avoids painful injections and anxiety related to it and should be considered in most of such patients as an alternative of conventional penile blocks or general anesthesia.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...... an aggravating effect on the dermatitis in spite of its immunosuppressive effects. The initial clinical appearance of the patient's widespread dermatitis was atypical with resemblance to subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Even though emulsifiers are widely used in topical products, contact allergic...

  13. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and desirable, and characteristic of the fresh milk and cream and the particular flavoring used. (b) Body and texture...

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Terbinafine Hydrochloride 1% Cream vs. Sertaconazole Nitrate 2% Cream in Tinea Corporis and Tinea Cruris: A Comparative Therapeutic Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sv; Bisati, S; Singh, Al; Koley, S

    2013-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, till date no study comparing the efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream has been done in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris. This clinical trial was carried out to study and compare the efficacy of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris and to know the adverse effects of these antifungal creams. In this prospective, single blind, randomized control trial with two arms, patient were randomized into two groups Group A (treatment with terbinafine cream) and Group B (treatment with sertaconazole cream). A total of 38 patients were enrolled for the study, 20 patients in group A and 18 patients in group B. But five patients of group A and three patients of group B were lost for follow-ups. Therefore sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in group A and group B each. Patients in group A and B were treated with twice daily topical 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 2% sertaconazole nitrate cream respectively for a total duration of three weeks. Clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of each clinical parameter, namely itching, erythema, papules, pustules, vesicles, and scaling were graded weekly and clinical cure was assessed. KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to access mycological cure. Fungal culture was done on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Statistical analysis was done using students paired and unpaired t-tests from the data obtained. Comparison between Group A and Group B for complete cure (clinical and mycological) showed that at the end of 3 weeks both terbinafine and sertaconazole groups had 100% complete cure. When the two groups were compared for complete cure, at the end of 1(st) and 2(nd) week, statistically non-significant results were observed (P = 0.461 and P = 0.679 respectively). However, at the end of 2(nd) week

  15. Efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream vs. sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in tinea corporis and tinea cruris: A comparative therapeutic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To the best of our knowledge, till date no study comparing the efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream has been done in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris. Aims: This clinical trial was carried out to study and compare the efficacy of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris and to know the adverse effects of these antifungal creams. Settings and Design: In this prospective, single blind, randomized control trial with two arms, patient were randomized into two groups Group A (treatment with terbinafine cream and Group B (treatment with sertaconazole cream. A total of 38 patients were enrolled for the study, 20 patients in group A and 18 patients in group B. But five patients of group A and three patients of group B were lost for follow-ups. Therefore sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in group A and group B each. Materials and Methods: Patients in group A and B were treated with twice daily topical 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 2% sertaconazole nitrate cream respectively for a total duration of three weeks. Clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of each clinical parameter, namely itching, erythema, papules, pustules, vesicles, and scaling were graded weekly and clinical cure was assessed. KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to access mycological cure. Fungal culture was done on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using students paired and unpaired t-tests from the data obtained. Results: Comparison between Group A and Group B for complete cure (clinical and mycological showed that at the end of 3 weeks both terbinafine and sertaconazole groups had 100% complete cure. When the two groups were compared for complete cure, at the end of 1 st and 2 nd week, statistically non

  16. Comparative assessment of the efficacy and safety of sertaconazole (2%) cream versus terbinafine cream (1%) versus luliconazole (1%) cream in patients with dermatophytoses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerajani, Hr; Janaki, C; Kumar, Sharath; Phiske, Meghana

    2013-01-01

    Sertaconazole is a new, broad spectrum, fungicidal and fungistatic imidazole with added antipruritic and anti-inflammatory activity that would provide greater symptomatic relief and hence would be beneficial in improving the quality of life for the patient with dermatophytoses. To compare efficacy and safety of sertaconazole, terbinafine and luliconazole in patients with dermatophytoses. 83 patients with tinea corporis and tinea cruris infections were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open label parallel study. The initial 'Treatment Phase' involved three groups receiving either sertaconazole 2% cream applied topically twice daily for four weeks, terbinafine 1% cream once daily for two weeks, luliconazole 1% cream once daily for two weeks. At the end of treatment phase, there was a 'Follow-up Phase' at end of 2 weeks, where the patients were assessed clinically and mycologically for relapse. Of the 83 patients, 62 completed the study, sertaconazole (n = 20), terbinafine (n = 22) and luliconazole (n = 20). The primary efficacy variables including change in pruritus, erythema, vesicle, desquamation and mycological cure were significantly improved in all the three groups, as compared to baseline, in the Treatment and Follow-up phase. Greater proportion of patients in sertaconazole group (85%) showed resolution of pruritus as compared to terbinafine (54.6%); and luliconazole (70%), (P terbinafine). There was a greater reduction in mean total composite score (pruritus, erythema, vesicle and desquamation) in sertaconazole group (97.1%) as compared to terbinafine (91.2%) and luliconazole (92.9%). All groups showed equal negative mycological assessment without any relapses. All three study drugs were well tolerated. Only one patient in sertaconazole group withdrew from the study due to suspected allergic contact dermatitis. Sertaconazole was better than terbinafine and luliconazole in relieving signs and symptoms during study and follow up period. At the end of

  17. Clinical Evaluation Of A New Emollient Cream In Cry Skin Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla V A

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry skin is a common problem both in healthy individuates and in patients with skin diseases. In all cases, emollients play important role in rehydrating the stratum corneum. To evaluate the efficacy of a new emollient, thirty-six patients with symptomatic dry skin disorders were enrolled. They were given the test emollient cream for topical application twice daily for 3 weeks and followed up weekly. Subjective complaints included pruritus and discomfort while objective parameters included scaling, erythema, roughness of skin, fissuring and hypopigmentation. Treatment with the test emollient cream reduced the severity in a majority of patients. Moreover, being free of perfume, co lour, urea and lanolin, the test cream was well tolerated by all participants.

  18. CREAM: Results, Implications and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) balloon-borne experiment has accumulated ∼161 days of exposure during six successful flights over Antarctica. Energy measurements are made with a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter. Charge measurements are made with timing scintillators, pixelated Si, and Cherenkov detectors to minimize the effect of backscattered particles. High energy cosmicray data were collected over a wide energy range from ∼ 1010 to ∼ 1015 eV at an average altitude of ∼ 38.5 km, with ∼ 3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. All cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Recent results from the ongoing analysis including the discrepant hardening of elemental spectra at ∼ 200 GeV/n are presented and their implications on cosmic-ray origin, acceleration and propagation are discussed. The project status and plans are also presented.

  19. Development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of clotrimazole and beclomethasone dipropionate in lotion and cream dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal R Dhudashia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The combination of Clotrimazole and Beclomethasone dipropionate is used as anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory for external use in the form of cream and lotion. Aim: A simple, specific, economic, precise, and accurate reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method development for the simultaneous estimation of clotrimazole (CT and beclomethasone dipropionate (BD in lotion and cream formulations. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kromasil C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm analytical column. A mixture of acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v was used as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detector wavelength at 254 nm. The validation of the proposed method was carried out for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and system suitability test as per ICH guideline. Results: The retention time of CT and BD was found to be 5.4 and 4 min, respectively. The linear dynamic ranges were from 2-16 μg/ml and 80-640 μg/ml for BD and CT, respectively. Limit of detection and quantification for BD were 0.039 and 0.12 μg/ml, for CT 1.24 and 3.77 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: The developed method was validated and found to be simple, specific, accurate and precise and can be used for routine quality control analysis of titled drugs in combination in lotion and cream formulation.

  20. EMLA cream does not influence efficacy and pain reduction during pulsed-dye laser treatment of port-wine stain: a prospective side-by-side comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Wang, Tianyou; Zhu, Jiafang; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Yang, Xi; Hu, Xiaojie; Chang, Lei; Chen, Yijie; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-04-01

    EMLA cream was developed to reduce pain during pulsed-dye laser (PDL) treatment; however, no standard assessment for the therapeutic outcomes of PDL with EMLA creams thus far available. This comparative, prospective clinical trial evaluates laser efficacy and pain reduction during PDL treatment with EMLA cream for local topical anesthesia. Nineteen patients with untreated port-wine stain (PWS) were treated using PDL and examined in this study. Treatment specifications included Vbeam® PDL (Candela Corp.), 595-nm wavelength, 9 J/cm 2 radiant exposure, 0.45 ms pulse duration, 10 mm spot size, and cryogen spray cooling (40 ms cooling plus a 20 ms delay). A topical anesthetic (EMLA cream: 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine) and a placebo were applied to two respective testing areas on all patients prior to treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for pain assessment. Clinical therapeutic outcomes were evaluated by visual evaluation and with the use of a chromameter 2 months after 3PDL treatments. The average VAS scores were 3.15 ± 0.95 and 8 ± 0.57 for the EMLA cream site and the placebo site, respectively, at a significance level p < 0.001. The EMLA cream site and the placebo site had clearance or fading rates of 45.08 and 44.12%, respectively (p < 0.05). No serious side effects were reported. Patients reported a consistent decrease in pain during PDL treatment when the topical anesthetic EMLA cream was administered. Treatment of PWS by PDL with EMLA cream does not lead to a decrease in efficacy or an increase in side effects; instead, it significantly reduces pain during treatment. EMLA cream is a safe and effective local topical anesthetic for PWS treatment by PDL.

  1. Skin protection by sucralfate cream during electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiche, A.

    1994-01-01

    We performed a double-blind randomized study to compare the efficacy of sucralfate cream to a base cream in 50 breast cancer patients receiving postoperative electron beam therapy to their chest wall. The acute radiation reaction of the skin was statistically significantly prevented by the sucralfate cream. The recovery of the skin was also significantly faster in the sucralfate cream group. Side-effects due to the cream were rare. (orig./MG)

  2. Skin protection by sucralfate cream during electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiche, A. (Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology); Isokangas, O.P. (Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology); Groehn, P. (Deaconess Hospital, Helsinki (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    We performed a double-blind randomized study to compare the efficacy of sucralfate cream to a base cream in 50 breast cancer patients receiving postoperative electron beam therapy to their chest wall. The acute radiation reaction of the skin was statistically significantly prevented by the sucralfate cream. The recovery of the skin was also significantly faster in the sucralfate cream group. Side-effects due to the cream were rare. (orig./MG).

  3. Estimation of Dermatological Application of Creams with St. John’s Wort Oil Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Runjaić-Antić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleum Hyperici, the oil extract of St. John’s Wort (SJW, is one of the oldest folk remedies, traditionally used in the topical treatment of wounds, bruises, ulcers, cuts, burns, hemorrhoids and also as an antiseptic. Considering the advantageous characteristics of emulsion applications, in the present study we have formulated three O/W creams containing 15% (w/v of SJW oil extract as an active ingredient. The aim was to estimate dermatological application of the prepared creams for the abovementioned indications. The extracts were prepared according to the prescriptions from traditional medicine, however with different vegetable oils used as an extractant, namely: Olive, palm and sunflower oil. The investigated O/W creams demonstrated significant antiinflammatory effects in an in vivo double-blind randomized study, using a sodium lauryl sulphate test. Both skin parameters assessed in the study (electrical capacitance and erythema index, were restored to the baseline value after a seven-day treatment with the tested creams. Almost all investigated SJW oil extracts and corresponding creams displayed the same antimicrobial activity against the most of the investigated microorganisms with obtained minimal inhibitory concentrations values of 1,280 µg/mL, 2,560 µg/mL or >2,560 µg/mL.

  4. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Sung Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. (Lamiaceae and C. asiatica (L. Urban (Umbelliferae were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9% showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness.

  5. Improving the outcome of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing using a probiotic skin cream: Preliminary clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Giovanni; Cinque, Benedetta; La Torre, Cristina; Lombardi, Francesca; Palumbo, Paola; Romano, Lucia; Mattei, Antonella; Orsini, Gino; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Giuliani, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    As known, fractional CO 2 resurfacing treatments are more effective than non-ablative ones against aging signs, but post-operative redness and swelling prolong the overall downtime requiring up to steroid administration in order to reduce these local systems. In the last years, an increasing interest has been focused on the possible use of probiotics for treating inflammatory and allergic conditions suggesting that they can exert profound beneficial effects on skin homeostasis. In this work, the Authors report their experience on fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing and provide the results of a new post-operative topical treatment with an experimental cream containing probiotic-derived active principles potentially able to modulate the inflammatory reaction associated to laser-treatment. The cream containing DermaACB (CERABEST™) was administered post-operatively to 42 consecutive patients who were treated with fractional CO 2 laser. All patients adopted the cream twice a day for 2 weeks. Grades were given according to outcome scale. The efficacy of the cream containing DermaACB was evaluated comparing the rate of post-operative signs vanishing with a control group of 20 patients topically treated with an antibiotic cream and a hyaluronic acid based cream. Results registered with the experimental treatment were good in 22 patients, moderate in 17, and poor in 3 cases. Patients using the study cream took an average time of 14.3 days for erythema resolution and 9.3 days for swelling vanishing. The post-operative administration of the cream containing DermaACB induces a quicker reduction of post-operative erythema and swelling when compared to a standard treatment.

  6. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology,. Kumasi, Ghana. ABSTRACT. The use of mercury containing skin toning creams is becoming ..... Country of Origin. Colour. Aleo Whitening Milk. 0.013. China. White.

  7. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  8. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  9. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. These food products shall be pasteurized, sweet, have a pleasing and desirable flavor and be free from objectionable flavors, and shall be obtained from milk which complies with the quality requirements as specified...

  11. Study on the efficacy of ELA-Max (4% liposomal lidocaine) compared with EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) using thermosensory threshold analysis in adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M B Y; Goon, A T J; Goh, C L

    2004-04-01

    ELA-Max and EMLA cream are topical anesthetics that have been shown to have similar anesthetic efficacy in previous studies. To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ELA-Max in comparison with EMLA cream using a novel method of thermosensory threshold analysis. A thermosensory analyzer was used to assess warmth- and heat-induced pain thresholds. No statistically significant difference was found in pain thresholds using either formulation. However, EMLA cream increased the heat-induced pain threshold to a greater extent than ELA-Max. Thermosensory measurement and analysis was well tolerated and no adverse events were encountered. EMLA cream may be superior to ELA-Max for heat-induced pain. This study suggests that thermosensory measurement may be another suitable tool for future topical anesthetic efficacy studies.

  12. Control of a nonlinear ice cream crystallization process

    OpenAIRE

    Casenave, Céline; Dochain, Denis; Alvarez, Graciela; Arellano, Marcela; Benkhelifa, Hayat; Leducq, Denis

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the ice cream industry, the type of final desired product (large cartons (sqrounds) or ice creams on a stick) determine the viscosity at which the ice cream has to be produced. One of the objectives of the ice cream crystallization processes is therefore to produce an ice cream of specified viscosity. In this paper, a nonlinear control strategy is proposed for the control of the viscosity of the ice cream in a continuous crystallizer. It has been designed on the bas...

  13. Release and antimicrobial activity of silver sulphadiazine from different creams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saene, J.J.M.; Trooster, J.F.G.; Meulenhoff, A.M.C.; Lerk, C.F.; Bult, A.

    The release and antimicrobial activity of silver sulphadiazine from five different creams were studied: unguentum emulsilicans aquosum, unguentum hydrophy. licum non ionogenicum, paraffin cream (15 per cent), a homemade preparation and a commercially available preparation (Flamazine). A diffusion

  14. Influence of full cream milk powder on the characteristics of sweet potato puree instant cream soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Marleen; Djali, Mohamad; Dwiastuti, Intan Btari

    2018-02-01

    A ready to use food such as instant cream soup become the most suitable choice for those who prefer being practical and also can be applied in any emergency situation such as areas affected by disaster. The adding of milk powder as the main ingredient in cream soup creates a complex bounding of fat and starch which complicates the rehydration process and affects other physical appearance. This research was aimed to find the proper concentration of full cream milk powder concentration to obtain the best characteristics of instant cream soup of dried sweet potato puree. The method used in this research was randomized block design with 6 treatments (12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5% and 25%, with an addition of full cream milk powder) and twice repetition. Instant cream soup with 20% of full cream milk powder concentration gave the best physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical characteristic shows that it has 6% water content, 95.47% rehydration value, 18% protein, 20.7% fat, 1080.25 cP viscosity and 30.5% rendement.

  15. Population dose assessment: characteristics of PC CREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Maria T.; Curti, Adriana R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of the PC CREAM, a program for performing radiological impact assessments due to radioactive discharges into the environment during the operation of radioactive and nuclear facilities. PC CREAM is a suite of six programs that can be used to estimate individual and collective radiation doses. The methodology of PC CREAM is based on updated environmental and dosimetric models, including ICRP 60 recommendations. The models include several exposure pathways and the input files are easy to access. The ergonomics of the program improves the user interaction and makes easier the input of local data. This program is useful for performing sensitivity analysis, siting studies and validation of model comparing the activity concentration output data with environmental monitoring data. The methodology of each module is described as well as the output data. (author)

  16. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Khoramrooz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cross sectional study was performed on 64 samples.The samples were taken from the ice cream and confectionery shops in Yasuj city and keep on cold box then the samples were transported in sterile conditions, to the department of medical microbiology laboratory in medical university of yasuj and  microbial contamination rate evaluated by national standard method. Collected data analysed with SPSS software for data description,from central dispersion and table frequency and draw chart.  RESULTS: The survey results showed that 40% o traditional ice cream,cream suit were infected by Staph aurous, Escherichia coli and salmonella respectly (6.7,87 and 0,(50,30 and 0.(0,0 and0 present, and no seen any bacteria on olowye. Conclusion: Due to our research contamination rate traditional ice cream,cream suit and olowye were by Staph aurous, Escherichia coli and salmonella were very high . therefore using different ways to control bacterial growth especaly E.coli the mostly transmited by fecal oral including the use of healthly and safe raw material for promoting health awareness of people involved in the food preparation and production is essential.

  17. Bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Emami; Alisha Akya; Anis 1Hossain Zadeh; Sodabeh Barkhordar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ice cream is a dairy product that is very popular during warm seasons. Ice cream can be contaminated with various microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria if hygienic procedures are not followed during preparation, distribution and preservation processes. This may put the health of people using ice cream at risk. Our study aimed to examine the bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah city during 2008. Methods: During summer 2008, 80 samples of tradit...

  18. The Use of Creams in Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, May-Lin; Frost, Else; Bergmansen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: At the Danish wards for radiotherapy there are different rules regarding the intervals that have to pass from the moment the patients applies moisturizer until they can be treated. This is due to the fact that it is unclear whether the cream can cause bolus effect, thereby...... causing the dose to move towards the skin. This would increase the damages to the patient’s skin during the radiotherapy. There is no evidence on the use of moisturizers. Materials and Methods: We have carried out an experimental trial testing whether creams cause bolus effect. We used two pieces of pork...

  19. Comparative assessment of the efficacy and safety of sertaconazole (2% cream versus terbinafine cream (1% versus luliconazole (1% cream in patients with dermatophytoses: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H R Jerajani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Sertaconazole is a new, broad spectrum, fungicidal and fungistatic imidazole with added antipruritic and anti-inflammatory activity that would provide greater symptomatic relief and hence would be beneficial in improving the quality of life for the patient with dermatophytoses. Aims and Objectives : To compare efficacy and safety of sertaconazole, terbinafine and luliconazole in patients with dermatophytoses. Materials and Methods : 83 patients with tinea corporis and tinea cruris infections were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open label parallel study. The initial ′Treatment Phase′ involved three groups receiving either sertaconazole 2% cream applied topically twice daily for four weeks, terbinafine 1% cream once daily for two weeks, luliconazole 1% cream once daily for two weeks. At the end of treatment phase, there was a ′Follow-up Phase′ at end of 2 weeks, where the patients were assessed clinically and mycologically for relapse. Results : Of the 83 patients, 62 completed the study, sertaconazole (n = 20, terbinafine (n = 22 and luliconazole (n = 20. The primary efficacy variables including change in pruritus, erythema, vesicle, desquamation and mycological cure were significantly improved in all the three groups, as compared to baseline, in the Treatment and Follow-up phase. Greater proportion of patients in sertaconazole group (85% showed resolution of pruritus as compared to terbinafine (54.6%; and luliconazole (70%, (P < 0.05 sertaconazole vs terbinafine. There was a greater reduction in mean total composite score (pruritus, erythema, vesicle and desquamation in sertaconazole group (97.1% as compared to terbinafine (91.2% and luliconazole (92.9%. All groups showed equal negative mycological assessment without any relapses. All three study drugs were well tolerated. Only one patient in sertaconazole group withdrew from the study due to suspected allergic contact dermatitis. Conclusion : Sertaconazole was

  20. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad A Awad El-Gied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L. is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L. The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  1. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A.; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M.; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:25878974

  2. Effectiveness of topical steroids in the control of radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glees, J.P.; Mameghan-Zadeh, H.; Sparkes, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dermatitis often presents as a problem for patients and radiotherapists during treatment. Topical corticosteroids have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect in the treatment of many skin diseases and are commonly prescribed during a course of radiation treatment. A comparison of two different steroid creams, 1% hydrocortisone cream and 0.05% clobetasone butyrate (Eumovate), in a double blind trial was carried out in 54 patients undergoing radiation therapy for breast cancer. 'The cream' was administered when patients reached a given dose of 2000 rad (or earlier if required) whether a skin reaction was present or not. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the general effectiveness of steroids in controlling radiation dermatitis and whether one type of cream was superior to the other. The majority of patients using either cream derived benefit in its soothing effect. There was, however, a significant difference in the intensity of reactions seen, patients using clobetasone butyrate developed more severe radiation reactions despite both groups having similar radiation doses. The possibility of two differing populations having different responses to radiation is discussed as is the 'breakthrough phenomenon' described in the literature. It is concluded that neither cream should be used as first choice in the control of radiation dermatitis. (author)

  3. Natural Oil-Based Emulsion Containing Allantoin Versus Aqueous Cream for Managing Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions in Patients With Cancer: A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Raymond Javan, E-mail: email.rchan@gmail.com [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove (Australia); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove (Australia); Mann, Jennifer; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Keogh, Samantha [National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Nursing, Centre for Health Practice Innovation–Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Nathan (Australia); Poole, Christopher [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Walsh, Christopher [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for preventing and managing radiation-induced skin reactions. Methods and Materials: A total of 174 patients were randomized and participated in the study. Patients received either cream 1 (the natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin) or cream 2 (aqueous cream). Skin toxicity, pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life scores were collected for up to 4 weeks after radiation treatment. Results: Patients who received cream 1 had a significantly lower average level of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events at week 3 (P<.05) but had statistically higher average levels of skin toxicity at weeks 7, 8, and 9 (all P<.001). Similar results were observed when skin toxicity was analyzed by grades. With regards to pain, patients in the cream 2 group had a significantly higher average level of worst pain (P<.05) and itching (P=.046) compared with the cream 1 group at week 3; however, these differences were not observed at other weeks. In addition, there was a strong trend for cream 2 to reduce the incidence of grade 2 or more skin toxicity in comparison with cream 1 (P=.056). Overall, more participants in the cream 1 group were required to use another topical treatment at weeks 8 (P=.049) and 9 (P=.01). Conclusion: The natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin seems to have similar effects for managing skin toxicity compared with aqueous cream up to week 5; however, it becomes significantly less effective at later weeks into the radiation treatment and beyond treatment completion (week 6 and beyond). There were no major differences in pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life. In light of these results, clinicians and patients can base their decision on costs and preferences. Overall, aqueous cream seems to be a more preferred option.

  4. Natural Oil-Based Emulsion Containing Allantoin Versus Aqueous Cream for Managing Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions in Patients With Cancer: A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Mann, Jennifer; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae; Keogh, Samantha; Poole, Christopher; Walsh, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for preventing and managing radiation-induced skin reactions. Methods and Materials: A total of 174 patients were randomized and participated in the study. Patients received either cream 1 (the natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin) or cream 2 (aqueous cream). Skin toxicity, pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life scores were collected for up to 4 weeks after radiation treatment. Results: Patients who received cream 1 had a significantly lower average level of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events at week 3 (P<.05) but had statistically higher average levels of skin toxicity at weeks 7, 8, and 9 (all P<.001). Similar results were observed when skin toxicity was analyzed by grades. With regards to pain, patients in the cream 2 group had a significantly higher average level of worst pain (P<.05) and itching (P=.046) compared with the cream 1 group at week 3; however, these differences were not observed at other weeks. In addition, there was a strong trend for cream 2 to reduce the incidence of grade 2 or more skin toxicity in comparison with cream 1 (P=.056). Overall, more participants in the cream 1 group were required to use another topical treatment at weeks 8 (P=.049) and 9 (P=.01). Conclusion: The natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin seems to have similar effects for managing skin toxicity compared with aqueous cream up to week 5; however, it becomes significantly less effective at later weeks into the radiation treatment and beyond treatment completion (week 6 and beyond). There were no major differences in pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life. In light of these results, clinicians and patients can base their decision on costs and preferences. Overall, aqueous cream seems to be a more preferred option

  5. The ICE-CREAM Project : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    The ICE-CREAM project has been investigating how to make compelling experiences for end-users based on enabling technologies for interactive media, such as DVB-MHP, Internet and MPEG-4. The goals of the project were to extend the notion of interaction, to exploit domestic activities and familiar

  6. Filtrates and Residues: Ice Cream: Delicious Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, James

    1983-01-01

    An experiment involving preparation of ice cream is conducted after students complete units on solutions, atomic structure, molecular architecture, and bonding. The laboratory gives practical illustration of relation of physical properties to bond type and solution theory developed. Materials needed, procedures used, and questions asked are…

  7. The Effects of Aloe vera Cream on the Expression of CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes in Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, Yos Adi; Kurniasih

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of topical application of Aloe vera on skin wound healing. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-200 grams were divided into four groups. All groups were anesthetized, shaved, and exposed to round full-thickness punch biopsy on the back: group I (control); group II (treated with 1% Aloe vera cream); group III (treated with 2% Aloe vera cream); and group IV (treated with madecassol®). The treatments were given once a day. Macroscopic and microscopic examination were observed at 5, 10, and 15 days after skin biopsy. Skin specimens were prepared for histopathological study using H&E stain and IHC stain against CD4 + and CD8 + lymphocytes. All the data were analyzed using SPSS16. The result showed that topical application of 1% and 2% Aloe vera cream significantly reduced the percentage of the wound, leucocytes infiltration, angiogenesis, and expression of CD8 + lymphocytes and increased the epidermal thickness and the expression of CD4 + lymphocytes ( p ≤ 0,05). There was no significant difference in the number of fibroblasts in all groups. Topical application of 1% and 2% Aloe vera cream has wound healing potential via their ability to increase the ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + lymphocytes in the wound area.

  8. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin

    2018-04-25

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Irradiation of ice creams for immunosuppressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeil Pietranera, Maria S.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Horack, C.; Kairiyama, Eulogia; Gimenez, Palmira; Gronostajski, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are very likely to acquire microbial food borne diseases, since due to illness, biological condition or situations generating risks, their natural defences are below what is considered as 'normal limits'. This makes their food intake very restricted, avoiding all those products that could be a source of microorganisms. Gamma radiation applied at sub-sterilizing doses represents a good choice in order to achieve 'clean' diets, and at the same time, it can widen the variety of available meals for these patients, allowing the inclusion of some products normally considered as 'high risk' due to their microbial load, but that can be nutritionally or psychologically adequate. One of these products is ice-cream, a minimally processed type of meal that does not suffer enough microbial inactivation during its processing. Particularly those from natural origin can carry undesirable contamination causing sometimes diseases to the consumer. For that reason, different ice-cream flavours (vanilla, raspberry, peach and milk jam) were exposed to an irradiation treatment at the 60 Co facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. The delivered doses were 3, 6 and 9 kGy. Microbiological determinations were performed, together with sensory evaluations and some chemical analysis: acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet and visible absorption, thin-layer chromatography and sugar determination, in order to find out if gamma radiation could be applied as a decontamination process without impairing quality. Water-based ice-creams (raspberry and peach) were more resistant to gamma radiation than cream-based ones (vanilla and milk jam), due to their differences in fat content. Gamma irradiation with 3 kGy reduced remarkably the microbial load of these ice-creams and eliminated pathogens without impairing their quality. (author)

  10. Antiaging efficacy of melatonin-based day and night creams: a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Sparavigna, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Skin is a complete and independent melatoninergic system. At the skin level, melatonin (Mel) acts as a relevant antioxidant and cytoprotective substance. Topical application of Mel is considered meaningful, since it can easily penetrate the stratum corneum. Exogenous Mel can be expected to represent a potent antioxidative defense system against skin aging mechanisms. Day and night creams containing Mel, carried in lipospheres (Melatosphere™), have been developed (Nutriage SPF 30 day cream and Nutriage night cream). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Mel-based cream as antiaging treatment. In a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded, prospective 3-month study, 22 women (mean age 55 years) with moderate-severe skin aging were enrolled (clinical trial registration number: NCT03276897). Study products were applied in the morning (Nutriage day cream) and evening (Nutriage night cream) on the right or left side of the face. Primary outcomes were: 1) clinical evaluation of wrinkles' grade (crow's feet and nasolabial folds), surface microrelief, skin tonicity (resistance to pinching and traction, recovery after pinching) and skin dryness and 2) instrumental evaluation of skin roughness and 3D photographic documentation (Vectra H1 images system). Assessments of both clinical and instrumental evaluations were performed at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment by an investigator unaware of treatment allocation. All the subjects completed the study. Crow's feet was reduced significantly ( p =0.05) by -15% with the creams in comparison with the non-treated side after 3 months. At the end of the study, surface microrelief (-26.5%), skin profilometry (-13%), skin tonicity (+30%) and skin dryness (-59.5%) significantly improved with active treatment. Both products were well tolerated. In women with skin aging, Mel-based creams improved significantly skin tonicity and skin hydration with a significant reduction in skin roughness, supporting the

  11. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...

  12. Topical flurbiprofen toxicosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Elizabeth M; Leech, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a cat with flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure. A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented to an emergency and referral center for acute lethargy, hematemesis, and anemia. Severe azotemia was observed on serum biochemistry panel. The patient's anemia was treated with packed RBC transfusion, and treatment with crystalloid fluids, famotidine, pantoprazole, ampicillin, and sucralfate were begun on presentation. Anemia became intractable and the patient received multiple packed RBC and whole blood transfusions. Severe gastric ulcerations and duodenal perforation were confirmed via gastroduodenoscopy, and the patient was treated with surgical excision and repair of duodenal perforation. Azotemia resolved with IV fluid therapy, and anemia resolved following surgery. The patient recovered and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. The patient had likely been exposed to the owner's compounded pain relief cream containing 10% flurbiprofen. There was confirmation of flurbiprofen exposure via acid extraction urine analysis at a university toxicology laboratory. This is the first described case of flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure in a cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  13. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, I J; Dharaiya, C N; Pinto, S V

    2015-07-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next part of the study, ragi ice cream was prepared using 4 different flavours viz. vanilla, mango, chocolate and caramel. Chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was adjudged as best, followed by mango, caramel and vanilla ice cream. The iron and fibre content of chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was found to be 12.8 ppm and 1.36 % respectively. vs. 1.5 ppm and 0.18 % respectively in control (C). Heat shock treatment as well as storage up to 30 days had no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the chocolate flavored ragi ice cream. Incorporation of finger millet in ice cream resulted in reduction in the amount of stabilizer used and effectively functioned as fat replacer in ice cream.

  14. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  15. Effect of Malva sylvestris cream on burn injury and wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nasiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burn injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris flowershave a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree burn injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of 10 rats per group were burned with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound area, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated. Results: Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1st and 3rd days after burn injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7th day post-burn injury. The average areas of wounds on the 15th day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm2 for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus. Conclusion: M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for burn wound.

  16. Plasma salicylate from methyl salicylate cream compared to oil of wintergreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowich, William R; Hadley, Carmen M; Kelley, Michael T; Walson, Philip D; Casavant, Marcel J

    2003-01-01

    Poison Control Centers follow the acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment guideline to manage unintentional ingestions of topical methyl salicylate liniments. For example, one teaspoon of 30% methyl salicylate cream such as Ben Gay provides an "ASA equivalent dose" of 180 mg/kg for a 10 kg child. The ASA treatment guideline advises emesis with syrup of Ipecac and 24 h home followup for this dose. Both the ASA conversion factor to yield the ASA equivalent dose and the treatment guideline assume 100% bioavailability of the salicylate. The nature of this topical dosage product led the investigators to expect less than complete absorption of methyl salicylate. To compare plasma concentrations of salicylate from ingested methyl salicylate cream with plasma concentrations of salicylate from ingested oil of wintergreen. Four adult volunteers consented to an open label, four-way crossover design, with randomization to the following treatments: 1 mL Oil of Wintergreen, U.S.P., 6.7 g of Ben Gay 15% and 20 g of Ben Gay 15% and also to hold 5 g of Ben Gay 15% cream in the buccal cavity for 1 minute and then expectorate. Plasma was collected for salicylate determination, and the results analyzed with a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic model. No plasma salicylate was detected after buccal treatment phase. Relative bioavailability for the low-dose treatment was 0.5 compared to oil of wintergreen. Plasma salicylate concentrations from methyl salicylate cream are not equal to those achieved after ingestion of oil of wintergreen. Dosage formulation must be considered when predicting toxicity.

  17. New developments in the CREAM Computing Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreetto, Paolo; Bertocco, Sara; Dorigo, Alvise; Capannini, Fabio; Cecchi, Marco; Zangrando, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The EU-funded project EMI aims at providing a unified, standardized, easy to install software for distributed computing infrastructures. CREAM is one of the middleware products part of the EMI middleware distribution: it implements a Grid job management service which allows the submission, management and monitoring of computational jobs to local resource management systems. In this paper we discuss about some new features being implemented in the CREAM Computing Element. The implementation of the EMI Execution Service (EMI-ES) specification (an agreement in the EMI consortium on interfaces and protocols to be used in order to enable computational job submission and management required across technologies) is one of the new functions being implemented. New developments are also focusing in the High Availability (HA) area, to improve performance, scalability, availability and fault tolerance.

  18. Erosion of the Silicone Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter with the Use of Gentamicin Cream at the Exit Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Ali I; Schlageter, Karen W; Foster, Dawn M; Astor, Brad C; Chan, Micah R; Waheed, Sana

    Infection remains the leading complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Topical mupirocin and gentamicin are frequently used to prevent infections. Mupirocin ointment has been reported to cause damage to both polyurethane and silicone PD catheters. Gentamicin cream has not been associated with physical damage to catheters.A 64-year-old woman on PD developed relapsing peritonitis with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Because of a drainage problem and white discoloration at the exit site, which is known as " frosting," she underwent catheter exchange. The catheter was found to be fractured within the area of frosting. Four more patients with frosting of the catheter were identified. On further questioning, it was recognized that they were applying excessive amounts of gentamicin cream directly on the catheter surface rather than at the exit site. All patients in the program were educated about the correct method of topical antibiotic application. After the change in practice, no further cases of catheter frosting were identified.Polyurethane catheters can undergo oxidation, mineralization, and environmental stress cracking, leading to physical damage such frosting, ballooning, and fracture. Polyethylene glycol, a component of the mupirocin ointment base, is thought to cause plasticization of polyurethane, reducing its tensile strength. Similar damage has been observed in silicone catheters. Previous reports have not found gentamicin cream to cause that type of damage. We observed that excessive amounts of cream applied directly to the catheter surface can damage it. Damage did not recur once patients had been educated about the proper method of application.

  19. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of large nodular basal cell carcinoma at the medial canthal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ozturk Karabulut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context (Background: Imiquimod (IMQ 5% cream is an immunomodulatory and antitumorigenic agent, which was used as a topical treatment regimen, who had periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC. Aim: This study aims to present three cases with large BCC at the medial canthal area treated with IMQ 5% cream. Materials and Methods: IMQ 5% cream was used in three patients with ages 45, 49, and 73 who preferred medical treatment over surgery. Following incisional biopsy IMQ cream was used once a day, 5 times a week and the patients were followed up weekly during 12 week treatment period and monthly after the clearance of the lesion. Results: Erythema and erosion on the surface of the lesion, injection of conjunctiva, burning and itching sensation, epiphora and punctate keratitis were seen in all patients during the treatment period. The ophthalmic side effects could be managed by topical lubricating eye drops and the inflammatory reactions resolved within 1 month after cessation of therapy. The patients were followed up for at least 3 years without tumor recurrence and the biopsies taken from the suspected area were found to be tumor free. Conclusion: Surgical excision of carcinoma of the eyelid at medial canthal area can be difficult without causing damage to the lacrimal system and reconstruction of the defect may need grafts or flaps. IMQ may provide an alternative therapy to surgery in certain cases.

  20. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t -test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching ( P > 0.05), burning ( P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion ( P vaginal candidiasis.

  1. Total body topical 5-fluorouracil for extensive non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, Serge; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Sanders, Cornelis J.

    Background Topical 5-fluorouracil 5% cream is one of the treatment modalities for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). There is a lack of suitable therapies to treat patients with extensive NMSC. In this paper we report two patients with extensive NMSC treated by total body application of topical

  2. Corporate social responsibility concept in the ice cream industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jílková, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on the corporate social responsibility concept in the ice cream industry and in Ben & Jerry's company. Ben & Jerry's ice cream is Vermont- based company and subsidiary of Unilever and produces high quality ice cream while striving to serve to greater good. Collected data about the company that were used in analyses of the internal environment and CSR environment revealed some unique techniques of how company Ben & Jerry's deals with CSR. These analyses were equa...

  3. Sensory evaluation of ice cream with hydrosoluble soy extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno, M.M.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a nutritious food because it contains ingredients responsible for supplying energy to the body. Soy has a high nutritional value and functional properties which make it to be an alternative ingredient to replace cow's milk. The purpose of this paper was to formulate an ice cream with hydrosoluble soy extract and submitted to a sensory evaluation. Two formulations of ice cream were prepared: one soy-based and the other with cow's milk (control. Both ice creams were submitted to a sensory evaluation in order to evaluate the appearance, flavor and texture attributes, for this examination it was used the hedonic scale of nine points. For the appearance attribute, the soy-based ice cream had an average score of 7.6, which means between “liked moderately and liked very much”, and cow’s milk ice cream had an average score of 8.1, “liked very much”. For the texture attribute, the soy-based ice cream reached an average of 7.4, meaning “like moderately” and “liked very much” and the cow´s milk ice cream obtained an average of 8.2, meaning “liked very much”. The flavor attribute had an average score of 6.1, meaning “liked slightly” and 8.2 “liked very much” for the soy-based ice cream and the cow´s milk ice cream respectively. When the assessors were asked about their purchase intention, 68% said that certainly they would buy the control sample and 32% definitely or probably would buy the soy-based ice cream. The sensory parameters evaluated showed that the soy-based ice cream had a good acceptance.

  4. Thermogravimetric investigations of cream with minoxidil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Gnitko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minoxidil is one of the most effective and modern medications, which is used in modern trichology for hair growth stimulation in case of androgenic and other forms of alopecia. Clinical effect of this substance is caused by the intensification of metabolic processes in the skin due to intensification of microcirculation. For local application domestic dermatology uses imported minoxidil medicines in form of alcohol-water lotions and aerosols. The use of semisolid dosage form with minoxidil for external administration will allow to increase its efficacy and will widen the arsenal of domestic pharmacotherapeutic agents for hair growth stimulation. Rational composition of minoxidil semisolid dosage form for external use with 2% of active substance has been developed at the Department of Medicinal Preparations Technology, Zaporozhye State Medical University as a result of complex physical-chemical, microbiological and biopharmaceutical investigations. The aim of this work is the study of thermal treatment effects of cream-mask with minoxidil for external use over the temperature range, which is used in technological process of this dosage form manufacturing. Materials and methods. Cream with 2% of minoxidil on the emulsion base and its excipients have been used as the object for the thermogravimetric investigations. Thermogravimetric analysis has been carried out on the derivatograph «Shimadzu DTG-60», Japan, with the platinum and platinum-rhodium thermopair with samples’ heating in aluminium crucibles from 25 to 200ºС. Results. According to thermogravimetric experimental data minoxidil is a thermal stable substance from 26 to 240ºС. During experimental process insignificant endothermic effect was determined at 191,72ºС. However the mass of the example to the end of experiment practically didn’t change (decrease on 0,32%. Thermal effects on the derivatogram of minoxidil emulsion cream match with thermal effects of the base components and

  5. Investigation on the photostability of tretinoin in creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisaert, M; Plaizier-Vercammen, J A

    2007-04-04

    In this investigation, the photodegradation of some tretinoin cream formulations was evaluated. Several oils were selected to prepare the cream formulations: olive oil, maize oil, castor oil, isopropyl myristate and Miglyol 812. A solubility study showed that tretinoin is best soluble in castor oil (0.60g/100ml), followed by isopropyl myristate, maize oil, Miglyol 812 and olive oil, respectively, 0.35, 0.30, 0.29 and 0.22g/100ml. The photostability of tretinoin in oils is comparable with the photostability of a tretinoin lotion (ethanol/propylene glycol 50/50), castor oil and olive oil giving slightly better results than the other oils. Investigation of the photodegradation of tretinoin in o/w creams, prepared with the same oils as mentioned above, revealed that tretinoin is far more stable in the cream formulations than in the respective oils, however it is not clear whether this is due to the formulation or due to a different irradiation technique. Tretinoin seemed to be most stable in the olive oil cream, followed by the castor oil cream. However microscopic investigation revealed the presence of tretinoin crystals in the olive oil cream, while the other creams were free of it. As a conclusion, one can say that the cream prepared with castor oil seems to be the most suitable one, in terms of solubility of tretinoin and in terms of photostability.

  6. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  7. Topical Valproate Solution for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kakunje

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproate is used regularly in the treatment of various seizure disorders, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis and off label in many other conditions. Alopecia or hair loss is cosmetic side effect of oral valproate administration. Hair loss with valproate is diffused, non-scarring and dose related. A large number of drugs may interfere with the hair cycle and produce hair loss. We have only a few drugs like Minoxidil, Finasteride used for hair regeneration and both have its own side effects and limitations. In contrast to oral ingestions of valproate causing hair loss, early experiments with topical Valproic acid cream showed hair regeneration. Valproic acid cream is currently unavailable in the market, alternatively, we do have valproate and divalproex solutions available in various strengths which have a potential to be used topically for hair regeneration. The side effects and cost of topical valproate solution could be much less than the available options in the market. Valproate solution topically has the potential to be used for hair growth.

  8. The impact of manufacturing variables on in vitro release of clobetasol 17-propionate from pilot scale cream formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzee, Ayeshah Fateemah Beebee; Khamanga, Sandile Maswazi; Walker, Roderick Bryan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of different homogenization speeds and times, anchor speeds and cooling times on the viscosity and cumulative % clobetasol 17-propionate released per unit area at 72 h from pilot scale cream formulations. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design for four independent variables were investigated. Thirty pilot scale batches of cream formulations were manufactured using a Wintech® cream/ointment plant. The viscosity and in vitro release of CP were monitored and compared to an innovator product that is commercially available on the South African market, namely, Dermovate® cream. Contour and three-dimensional response surface plots were produced and the viscosity and cumulative % CP released per unit area at 72 h were found to be primarily dependent on the homogenization and anchor speeds. An increase in the homogenization and anchor speeds appeared to exhibit a synergistic effect on the resultant viscosity of the cream whereas an antagonistic effect was observed for the in vitro release of CP from the experimental cream formulations. The in vitro release profiles were best fitted to a Higuchi model and diffusion proved to be the dominant mechanism of drug release that was confirmed by use of the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The research was further validated and confirmed by the high prognostic ability of response surface methodology (RSM) with a resultant mean percentage error of (±SD) 0.17 ± 0.093 suggesting that RSM may be an efficient tool for the development and optimization of topical formulations.

  9. Bimatoprost Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not use a cotton swab or any other brush or applicator to apply topical bimatoprost.To use the solution, follow these steps: Wash your hands and face thoroughly with soap and water. Be sure that all makeup is removed. Do not let the tip of ...

  10. Advanced topical drug delivery system for the management of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Himmat Singh; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common mucosal infection of vagina, mainly caused by Candida species. The major symptoms of VC are dyspareunia, pruritis, itching, soreness, vagina as well as vulvar erythema and edema. Most common risk factors that lead to the imbalance in the vaginal micro biota are the use of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, immuno suppression as in AIDS or HIV patients, frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide and intra-uterine devices and vaginal douching. Various anti-fungal drugs are available for effective treatment of VC. Different conventional vaginal formulations (creams, gels, suppositories, powder, ointment, etc.) for VC are available today but have limited efficacy because of lesser residence time on vaginal epithelium due to self-cleansing action of vagina. So to overcome this problem, an extended and intimate contact with vaginal mucosa is desired; which can be accomplished by utilizing mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers have an excellent binding capacity to mucosal tissues for considerable period of time. This unique property of these polymers significantly enhances retention time of different formulations on mucosal tissues. Currently, various novel formulations such as liposomes, nano- and microparticles, micro-emulsions, bio-adhesive gel and tablets are used to control and treat VC. In this review, we focused on current status of vaginal candidiasis, conventional and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches.

  11. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  12. Topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mritunjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  13. Evaluation of EMLA cream for preventing pain during tattooing of rabbits: changes in physiological, behavioural and facial expression responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C J Keating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ear tattooing is a routine procedure performed on laboratory, commercial and companion rabbits for the purpose of identification. Although this procedure is potentially painful, it is usually performed without the provision of analgesia, so compromising animal welfare. Furthermore, current means to assess pain in rabbits are poor and more reliable methods are required. The objectives of this study were to assess the physiological and behavioural effects of ear tattooing on rabbits, evaluate the analgesic efficacy of topical local anaesthetic cream application prior to this procedure, and to develop a scale to assess pain in rabbits based on changes in facial expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a crossover study, eight New Zealand White rabbits each underwent four different treatments of actual or sham ear tattooing, with and without prior application of a topical local anaesthetic (lidocaine/prilocaine. Changes in immediate behaviour, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, serum corticosterone concentrations, facial expression and home pen behaviours were assessed. Changes in facial expression were examined to develop the Rabbit Grimace Scale in order to assess acute pain. Tattooing without EMLA cream resulted in significantly greater struggling behaviour and vocalisation, greater facial expression scores of pain, higher peak heart rate, as well as higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to all other treatments. Physiological and behavioural changes following tattooing with EMLA cream were similar to those in animals receiving sham tattoos with or without EMLA cream. Behavioural changes 1 hour post-treatment were minimal with no pain behaviours identifiable in any group. Serum corticosterone responses did not differ between sham and tattoo treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Ear tattooing causes transient and potentially severe pain in rabbits, which is almost completely prevented by prior application of local

  14. Bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Emami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ice cream is a dairy product that is very popular during warm seasons. Ice cream can be contaminated with various microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria if hygienic procedures are not followed during preparation, distribution and preservation processes. This may put the health of people using ice cream at risk. Our study aimed to examine the bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah city during 2008. Methods: During summer 2008, 80 samples of traditional ice creams were collected. The samples were examined according to the Iranian National Standard protocols for E. coli, Coliforms,  Salmonella,  Staphylococcus aureus and complete count of microorganisms. Results: Overall, 62 (77.5% samples had microbial contaminations more than the standard limit. Results showed 59 (73.75% and 54 (67.5 % of the samples contained a high number of microorganisms and coliform, respectively. Furthermore 30 (37.5% and 23 (28.75% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. However, Salmonella spp. was not found in any of the ice cream samples. Conclusion: The traditional ice creams tested in Kermanshah were heavily contaminated with bacteria. It could be due to the inappropriate preparation and preservation procedures using unpasteurized milk and other materials.  Contaminations may also be induced by personals. So it is recommended to apply the hygienic procedures for preparation and preservation of ice cream including the use of pasteurized milk and other materials.

  15. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.162.... (c) Methods of analysis. Referenced methods in paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section are from “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is...

  16. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram as...

  17. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a). ...

  18. Restraint, tendency toward overeating and ice cream consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, T; Cleven, A.H.G.; Schippers, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The examination of the prediction of grams of ice cream eaten by preload, restraint, susceptibility toward overeating, and interaction terms. METHOD: A milkshake-ice cream study on 200 females using the Restraint Scale (RS) and the restraint and disinhibition scales from the Three-Factor

  19. Studies on Decontamination of Cosmetic Creams by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 50 cosmetic cream samples were purchased from the market in Egypt. Cream samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria and fungi in the range of 1.0 x10 5 to 1.0 x 10 8 and 1.3 x 10 3 to 2.1 x 10 6 respectively. The contaminating organisms were gram positive cocci, gram positive rods, gram negative cocci, gram negative rods, gram negative cocci, Aspergillus species and penicillium species. The effect of consumer handling and time on the microbial levels of the tested cream samples which showed, in the present investigations, no microbial contamination were used. The results reveal that the level of contamination was found to increase with time and during use. The contamination were identified as gram positive rods, gram positive cocci. Aspergillus species and Penicillium species. Samples were subjected to gamma radiation, bacterial sublethal dose levels ranged between 1.5 and 20 kGy, 5 and 7 kGy, 3 and 5 kGy, while the fungal sublethal dose levels ranged between 3 and 5 kGy, 3 and 5 kGy also 3 and 5 kGy for foundation creams, foundation moisturizing and moisturizing creams, respectively. Bacteria survived sublethal dose levels were identified as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Micrococcus sp. Bacillus brevis, Staphylococcus hominis-novo, Bacillus spharicus, Bacillus-pantothenticus and Bacillus Alvei in foundation cream. While, Acenatobacter baumann / haem, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus pumilus are the bacteria that survived the sublethal dose levels in foundation-moisturizing cream. Bacillus pantothenticus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Micrococcus. sp. were recorded in moisturizing cream samples. The surviving fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus in foundation cream, and Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari and Penicillium chrysogenum in foundation-moisturizing cream, while the fungi surviving is Aspergillus niger in moisturizing cream. For foundation cream, the sterilizing doses were calculated to be (6

  20. Risk assessment of topically applied products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used...... as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken...... parameters for estimating the risk. The immediate human risk of BADGE and derivatives in topical dosage forms was found to be low. However, local treatment of broken skin may lead to higher exposure of BADGE and derivatives compared to application to normal skin. 3-BC permeated skin at higher flux than 4-MBC...

  1. An isotope method for the measurement of creaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.

    1974-01-01

    The principle of a method is described which allows the course of creaming to be recorded continously and automatically by means of isotopes. Without affecting the colloidal system of milk, an isotope is added in hydrosoluble form and with only small amounts of carriers. A small detector sensitive to the respective radiation of the isotope is used to measure the decrease of counting rate on the head of the creaming cylinder, the decrease of rate being due to the effective recess of the radiation source and to the absorption of rays in the cream layer. The choice of the isotope, i.e. kind and energy of its radiation, and of the detector allows to adapt the sensitivity of the method to the rate of creaming. The method described appears to be superior to those techniques in which sedimentation balances are used; it could therefore supply useful information in research work on the process of creaming. (orig.) [de

  2. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  3. A Comparison of Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream Twice Daily Plus Oral Simvastatin Versus Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream Alone in the Treatment of Vitiligo Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Iraji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo, a common disorder of depigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Corticosteroids are known to be effective, but with modest results. Although simvastatin has been reported to be effective for immunorelated dermatologic disorders including vitiligo, controlled trials are lacking. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream (as a standard method of treatment for vitiligo versus a combination of betamethasone valerate plus oral simvastatin in the treatment of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight subjects with symmetric vitiligo who had body surface involvement up to 20% were divided randomly into two groups. Group A were treated with betamethasone valerate 01% cream twice daily and Group B with betamethasone valerate 01% cream twice daily and oral simvastatin 80 mg daily for 12 weeks. Finally, 46 patients completed treatment after 12 weeks in both groups. The results were evaluated by a blind dermatologist using Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI score at baseline, 4th, 8th, and 12th week of treatment. In a similar way, subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo evaluation at the end of the study. Results: Despite a continuous reduction in VASI score in both groups, according to both physician (P = 0.13 and patient (P = 0.374 assessment oral simvastatin was not statistically more effective than conventional treatment of vitiligo. Conclusion: This study indicates that oral simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of vitiligo as compared to other inflammatory dermatologic conditions such as psoriasis. Indeed, other studies should be initiated regarding exact molecular and cellular effects of statins in the treatment of vitiligo.

  4. A Comparison of Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream Twice Daily Plus Oral Simvastatin Versus Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% Cream Alone in the Treatment of Vitiligo Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraji, Fariba; Banihashemi, Seyed Hossin; Faghihi, Gita; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Tajmirriahi, Nabet; Jazi, Safoura Bokaie

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo, a common disorder of depigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Corticosteroids are known to be effective, but with modest results. Although simvastatin has been reported to be effective for immunorelated dermatologic disorders including vitiligo, controlled trials are lacking. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream (as a standard method of treatment for vitiligo) versus a combination of betamethasone valerate plus oral simvastatin in the treatment of vitiligo. Eighty-eight subjects with symmetric vitiligo who had body surface involvement up to 20% were divided randomly into two groups. Group A were treated with betamethasone valerate 01% cream twice daily and Group B with betamethasone valerate 01% cream twice daily and oral simvastatin 80 mg daily for 12 weeks. Finally, 46 patients completed treatment after 12 weeks in both groups. The results were evaluated by a blind dermatologist using Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) score at baseline, 4 th , 8 th , and 12 th week of treatment. In a similar way, subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo evaluation at the end of the study. Despite a continuous reduction in VASI score in both groups, according to both physician ( P = 0.13) and patient ( P = 0.374) assessment oral simvastatin was not statistically more effective than conventional treatment of vitiligo. This study indicates that oral simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of vitiligo as compared to other inflammatory dermatologic conditions such as psoriasis. Indeed, other studies should be initiated regarding exact molecular and cellular effects of statins in the treatment of vitiligo.

  5. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since

  6. Preparation and Characterization of a Lecithin Nanoemulsion as a Topical Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huafeng; Yue, Yang; Liu, Guanlan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Qiu; Yan, Zemin; Duan, Mingxing

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to establish a lecithin nanoemulsion (LNE) without any synthetic surfactant as a topical delivery vehicle and to evaluate its topical delivery potential by the following factors: particle size, morphology, viscosity, stability, skin hydration and skin penetration. Experimental results demonstrated that an increasing concentration of soybean lecithin and glycerol resulted in a smaller size LNE droplet and increasing viscosity, respectively. The droplet size of optimized LNE, with the glycerol concentration above 75% (w/w), changed from 92 (F10) to 58 nm (F14). Additionally, LNE, incorporated into o/w cream, improved the skin hydration capacity of the cream significantly with about 2.5-fold increase when the concentration of LNE reached 10%. LNE was also demonstrated to improve the penetrability of Nile red (NR) dye into the dermis layer, when an o/w cream, incorporated with NR-loaded LNE, applied on the abdominal skin of rat in vivo. Specifically, the arbitrary unit (ABU) of fluorescence in the dermis layer that had received the cream with a NR-loaded LNE was about 9.9-fold higher than the cream with a NR-loaded general emulsion (GE). These observations suggest that LNE could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  7. Clinical efficacy, safety and tolerance of the Kerawort (imiquimod cream used for treatment of anogenital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Rakhmatulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study. To assess the efficacy and safety of Kerawort (Imiquimod, 5% cream for topical administration vs. placebo used for treatment of anogenital warts. Methods and materials. The single-blind comparative placebo-controlled study involved 90 patients (44 female and 46 male with anogenital warts. The patients were randomized into two groups: the main group (n = 45 receiving treatment with Kerawort (Imiquimod, 5% cream and the control group (n = 45 receiving placebo. The diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of human papillomavirus by the polymerase chain reaction method. The patients received treatment three times a week until clinical signs disappeared but for not more than 16 weeks. Results. In 95.6% of patients from the main group and 8.9% of patients from the control group, anogenital warts disappeared completely or the quantity/area of pathological eruptions reduced at least by 70% as compared to the baseline. No relapses occurred during the treatment and follow-up period (28 days after the completion of treatment in patients from the main group. An increase in the size and/or area of anogenital warts and/or development of new eruptions on the skin and mucous membrane of the genitals were recorded in 11.1% of patients from the control group. No serious adverse events were revealed during the study. Conclusion. Higher efficacy (р < 0.0000001 and comparable safety of Kerawort (Imiquimod, 5% cream for topical administration used for treatment of anogenital warts vs. placebo were reliably established.

  8. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlier Corinne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum.

  9. Effect of a blend of comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) and tannic acid creams in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multiclinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doug B; Jacobson, Bert H

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 concentrations of topical, comfrey-based botanical creams containing a blend of tannic acid and eucalyptus to a eucalyptus reference cream on pain, stiffness, and physical functioning in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Forty-three male and female subjects (45-83 years old) with diagnosed primary osteoarthritis of the knee who met the inclusion criteria were entered into the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 10% or 20% comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) or a placebo cream. Outcomes of pain, stiffness, and functioning were done on the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Participants applied the cream 3× a day for 6 weeks and were evaluated every 2 weeks during the treatment. Repeated-measures analyses of variance yielded significant differences in all of the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index categories (pain P comfrey-based creams were superior to the reference cream. The active groups each had 2 participants who had temporary and minor adverse reactions of skin rash and itching, which were rapidly resolved by modifying applications. Both active topical comfrey formulations were effective in relieving pain and stiffness and in improving physical functioning and were superior to placebo in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee without serious adverse effects. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mixing sweet cream buttermilk with whole milk to produce cream cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buttermilk is an important by-product of the manufacture of butter. Sweet-cream buttermilk (SCBM is similar in composition to skim milk, except for its high phospholipid and milk fat globular membrane protein content. The main objective of this investigation was to produce optimum quality cream cheese by replacing whole milk with different proportions of SCBM (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50%. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05 between the chemical and organoleptic properties of the samples. As the percentage of SCBM increased, the chemical composition of total solids, fat, protein, fat in dry matter (FDM and ash of cheese milk decreased significantly, leading to a softer, moister curd. Samples prepared with more than 25% SCBM were not acceptable to the taste panel. The cream cheeses prepared using 25% and 30% SCBM had the highest yields. Total solids and FDM were strong predictors of cheese yield (r2 ≈ 0.589. The results also showed that the best range for replacement using SCBM is 20–25%.

  11. Determination of The Anti-Fungal Effort of Morganella Morganii and Determination of Its Chemical Composition by Means of Gas Chromatography Method - Mass Spectrometry Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabreen Abdul Amir Kamal Al – Khafaji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of bioactive was done by used gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy(GC-MS method then antifungal and antimicrobial activity for methanolic extract was measured in the lab. The analysis of  Morganella morganii  by GC-MS revealed the existence of the Tricyclo, 3-Methoxybenzaldehyde semicarbazone , undecan-1-amine, carboxaldehyde , 1-methyl-,oxime ,(Z-(+, 4-(2,5-Dihydro-3-methoxyphenyl butylamine , Paromomycin , 1,5,5-Trimethyl-6-methylene-cyclohexene, 9-Borabicyclo[3.31], Benzenemethanol , nonane , 9-mercapto-2-(2-aminopropoxy-3-methyl, Acetamide , N-(6-acetylaminobenzothiazol-2-yl-2-(adamantan, rin-6-carboxylic acid , N-(2,5-Dicyano-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrol-2-yl- acetamide, 3,10-Dioxatricyclo4-(2,5-Dihydro-3-methoxyphenylbutylamine, [4.3.1.0(2,4] phenylmethyl ester, 3,7-Diazabicyclo dec-7-ene, 3-Cyclohex-3-enyl-propionic acid, Eicosanoic acid  [3.3.1] 9,9-dimethyl-, nonane ,Dithiocarbamate , dl-Homocysteine, 2-(2-Furylpyridine, S-methyl-,N-(2-methyl-3-oxobutyl-, 1,7-Dioxa-10-thia-4,13-diazacyclopentadeca-5,9,12-trione, 5,7-Dodecadiyn-1,12-diol, 1-(β-d-Arabinofuranosyl-4-O-difluoromethyluracil, Uric acid, Pyrrolo[1.2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione , hexahydro-,12-Methyl-oxa-cyclododecan-2-one, Phthalic acid , butyl undecyl ester, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid , 2,3-bis(acetyloxypropyl ester, , methyl ester, 12-Dimethylamino-10-oxododecanoic acid , 1,2,4-Trioxolane-2-octanoic acid 5-octyl-, Octahydrochromen-2-one, L-Aspartic acid, N-glycyl-,2H-Oxecin-2-one , 3,4,7,8,91,10-hexahydro-4-hydroxy-10-meth, Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine-5,7(4H,6H-dione , 3,6,12-Trimethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaaza-cyclooctadecane, 2-lodohiistidine, 2-amino-4-(2-ph,Dec-9-en-6-oxo-1-ylamide,2,5-Piperazinedione,3,6-bis(2-ethylpropyl-, 9-Octadecenamide , (Z-, 3',8,8'-Trimethoxy-3-piperidyl-2,2'-binaphthalene-1,1',4,4'-tetra . Citrullus colocynthis (Crude was very highly active (6.39±0.27 mm anti-fungal activity of Morganella morganii showed that unstable compounds ( volatile were

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Topical Niacinamide for Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Nurhan Saraçoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: To investigate the efficacy and safety of topical 4% naicinamide gel cream in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to assess the quality of life of acne patients.Material and Method: Twenty-nine female patients aged 16-38 (mean: 23.57±5.42 years with mild to moderate acne vulgaris who presented in dermatology outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study. All patients applied 4% niacinamide gel cream (Vivatinell-acnecinamide gel cream® on their faces twice daily for eight weeks. The number of lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory was counted at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The side effects (erythema, desquamation, burning and dryness were recorded. The Skindex-29, a quality-of-life measure for patients with skin disease, was administered to the subjects at the beginning and the end of treatment.Results: The decrease in the mean number of inflammatory lesions was statistically significant at the end of the treatment (pre-treatment vs. post-treatment: 12.24 vs. 6.14; p =0.000. However, there was no statistically significant decrease in the number of non-inflammatory lesions at the end of the eight weeks. The niacinamide gel cream was generally well tolerated. There was statistically significant improvement in the Skindex-29 scale scores (p =0.000 at the end of the treatment.Conclusion: Topical 4% niacinamide gel cream may be an alternative treatment for inflammatory lesions of mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  13. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, I. J.; Dharaiya, C. N.; Pinto, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next...

  14. Silicon charge detector for the CREAM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I.H.; Park, N.H.; Nam, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload had its first successful flight in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a Long Duration Balloon mission. Its aim is to explore the supernova acceleration limit of cosmic rays, the relativistic gas of protons, electrons and heavy nuclei arriving at Earth from outside of the solar system. The instrument is equipped with several systems to measure charge and energy spectra for Z=1-26 nuclei over the energy range 10 11 -10 15 eV. The Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) is a precision device to measure the charge of incident cosmic rays. The design, construction, integration and preliminary performance of the SCD are detailed in this paper

  15. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, Anita; Reid, Miles; Zhou Shengtian

    2013-01-01

    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold (X,D), under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called ice cream functions. This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of K3 surfaces and Calabi-Yau 3-folds. These results apply also with higher dimensional orbifold strata (see [1] and [2]), although the precise statements are considerably trickier. We expect to return to this in future publications.

  16. CREAM for high energy composition measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, E S; Allison, P S; Beatty, J J; Choi, M J; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; DuVernois, M A; Ganel, O; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Liu, L; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S A; Min, K W; Mognet, S I; Nutter, S; Park, H; Schindhelm, E; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J

    2003-01-01

    Ground-based indirect measurements have shown that the cosmic-ray allparticle spectrum extends many orders of magnitude beyond the energy thought possible for supernova acceleration. Our balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is capable of extending direct measurements of cosmic-rays to the supernova energy scale of 1015 eV in a series of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. Identification of Z = 1 - 26 particles will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector. Energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector and a tungsten/scintillating fiber calorimeter. The instrument has been tested with various particles in accelerated beams at the CERN SPS. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004.

  17. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Anita; Reid, Miles; Zhou, Shengtian

    2013-06-01

    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold (X,D), under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called ice cream functions. This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of {K3} surfaces and Calabi-Yau 3-folds. These results apply also with higher dimensional orbifold strata (see [1] and [2]), although the precise statements are considerably trickier. We expect to return to this in future publications.

  18. Processing effects on physicochemical properties of creams formulated with modified milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, J C; Duncan, S E; Eigel, W N; Waterman, K M

    2005-04-01

    Type of thermal process [high temperature, short time pasteurization (HTST) or ultra-high temperature pasteurization (UHT)] and homogenization sequence (before or after pasteurization) were examined for influence on the physicochemical properties of natural cream (20% milk fat) and creams formulated with 20% low-melt, fractionated butteroil emulsified with skim milk, or buttermilk and butter-derived aqueous phase. Homogenization sequence influenced physicochemical makeup of the creams. Creams homogenized before pasteurization contained more milk fat surface material, higher phospholipid levels, and less protein at the milk fat interface than creams homogenized after pasteurization. Phosphodiesterase I activity was higher (relative to protein on lipid globule surface) when cream was homogenized before pasteurization. Creams formulated with skim milk and modified milk fat had relatively more phospholipid adsorbed at the milk fat interface. Ultra-high-temperature-pasteurized natural and reformulated creams were higher in viscosity at all shear rates investigated compared with HTST-pasteurized creams. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized natural cream was more viscous than HTST-pasteurized reformulated creams at most shear rates investigated. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized creams had better emulsion stability than UHT-pasteurized creams. Cream formulated with buttermilk had creaming stability most comparable to natural cream, and cream formulated with skim milk and modified butteroil was least stable to creaming. Most creams feathered in a pH range of 5.00 to 5.20, indicating that they were moderately stable to slightly unstable emulsions. All processing sequences yielded creams within sensory specifications with the exception of treatments homogenized before UHT pasteurization and skim milk formulations homogenized after UHT pasteurization.

  19. Transdermal and Topical Drug Administration in the Treatment of Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Leppert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive treatment of pain is multidimodal, with pharmacotherapy playing a key role. An effective therapy for pain depends on the intensity and type of pain, the patients’ age, comorbidities, and appropriate choice of analgesic, its dose and route of administration. This review is aimed at presenting current knowledge on analgesics administered by transdermal and topical routes for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other health care professionals dealing with patients suffering from pain. Analgesics administered transdermally or topically act through different mechanisms. Opioids administered transdermally are absorbed into vessels located in subcutaneous tissue and, subsequently, are conveyed in the blood to opioid receptors localized in the central and peripheral nervous system. Non–steroidal anti–inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs applied topically render analgesia mainly through a high concentration in the structures of the joint and a provision of local anti–inflammatory effects. Topically administered drugs such as lidocaine and capsaicin in patches, capsaicin in cream, EMLA cream, and creams containing antidepressants (i.e., doxepin, amitriptyline act mainly locally in tissues through receptors and/or ion channels. Transdermal and topical routes offer some advantages over systemic analgesic administration. Analgesics administered topically have a much better profile for adverse effects as they relieve local pain with minimal systemic effects. The transdermal route apart from the above-mentioned advantages and provision of long period of analgesia may be more convenient, especially for patients who are unable to take drugs orally. Topically and transdermally administered opioids are characterised by a lower risk of addiction compared to oral and parenteral routes.

  20. The efficacy of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream for the treatment of onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian; Li, Jin; Huang, He; Permatasari, Felicia; Liu, Juan; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Zhou, Bing-Rong; Luo, Dan

    2017-10-01

    Although systemic and topical antifungal agents are widely used to treat onychomycosis, oral medications can cause adverse effects and the efficacy of topical agents is not satisfying. Currently, laser treatment has been studied for its efficacy in the treatment of onychomycosis. Our study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser treatment combined with terbinafine cream for 6 months in the treatment of onychomycosis and to analyze the influencing factors. A total of 30 participants (124 nails) with clinical and mycological diagnosis of onychomycosis received fractional CO 2 laser treatment at 2-week interval combined with terbinafine cream once daily for 6 months. The clinical efficacy rate (CER) was assessed from the percentage of fully normal-appearing nails or nails with ≤5% abnormal appearance, and the mycological clearance rate (MCR) was assessed from the percentage of nails with negative fungal microscopy. The CER was evaluated at 3 time points: at the end of treatment (58.9%), at 1 month after the last treatment (63.5%), and at 3 months after the last treatment (68.5%). The MCRs at 1 month and 3 months after the last treatment were 77.4 and 74.2%, respectively. The evaluation of influencing factors showed significantly higher CER (p terbinafine cream for 6 months was an effective and safe method for the treatment of onychomycosis. There were 5 factors that positively influenced the treatment outcome: age, clinical type of onychomycosis, nail thickness, involved nail, and species of fungus.

  1. Evaluation of three topical anaesthetic agents against pain : A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To compare pain responses of children during local anaesthetic infiltration at bilateral buccal sites prepared with topical application of EMLA 5% cream, benzocaine 18% gel or lignocaine 5% ointment and also to find out the rapidity of onset of action of these agents. METHODS : 60 healthy children aged 6 to 12 years old, received bilateral buccal infiltration following application of topical anaesthetic agents applied in a double blind design. Pain responses were compared based on subject self report using visual analogue scale (VAS and operator assessment using Sound -Eye -Motor (SEM scale. RESULTS : Benzocaine gel had the rapidest onset of action. EMLA 5% cream proved to be superior in pain reduction compared to benzocaine and lignocaine. Taste acceptance was better with benzocaine gel. Further studies are required for EMLA cream with an improved formulation more suitable for mucosal application before its routine use in dentistry.

  2. Sericin cream reduces pruritus in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Keongamaroon, Orathai; Siritientong, Tippawan; Bang, Nipaporn; Supasyndh, Ouppatham

    2012-09-24

    Uremic pruritus (UP) is a significant complication in ESRD patients and substantially impairs their quality of life. UP is considered to be a skin manifestation of chronic inflammation. Because sericin can suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term safety and efficacy of sericin cream for treating UP in hemodialysis patients. This study used a double-blind design to investigate the effects of random topical administration of sericin cream and cream base (placebo) on either the right or left extremities of hemodialysis patients for 6 weeks. Skin hydration, irritation and pigmentation were evaluated every 2 weeks using Skin Diagnostic SD27. The visual analog scale for itching was also evaluated every 2 weeks, and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form was performed on the day of each patient's enrollment and after 6 weeks of treatment. Fifty dialysis patients were enrolled, 47 of which completed the study. The hydration of the skin of the patients' extremities increased significantly after administration of sericin cream; significant differences were found between sericin treatment and control after 6 weeks of treatment (p = 0.041 for arms and p = 0.022 for legs, respectively). Moreover, a significant difference was also found in skin irritation between the two treatments (p = 0.013 for arms and p = 0.027 for legs, respectively). At the end of the study, the skin pigmentation level was significantly reduced on both the arms (p = 0.032) and legs (p = 0.021) of the sericin-treated side compared with the side treated with cream base. The mean itching score decreased significantly from moderate to severe at the time of enrollment to mild pruritus after 6 weeks of treatment (p = 0.002). A better quality of life was found in all domains tested although statistically significant differences before and after treatment was found only in the patients' pain scores, the effect

  3. Sericin cream reduces pruritus in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramwit Pornanong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uremic pruritus (UP is a significant complication in ESRD patients and substantially impairs their quality of life. UP is considered to be a skin manifestation of chronic inflammation. Because sericin can suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term safety and efficacy of sericin cream for treating UP in hemodialysis patients. Methods This study used a double-blind design to investigate the effects of random topical administration of sericin cream and cream base (placebo on either the right or left extremities of hemodialysis patients for 6 weeks. Skin hydration, irritation and pigmentation were evaluated every 2 weeks using Skin Diagnostic SD27. The visual analog scale for itching was also evaluated every 2 weeks, and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form was performed on the day of each patient’s enrollment and after 6 weeks of treatment. Results Fifty dialysis patients were enrolled, 47 of which completed the study. The hydration of the skin of the patients’ extremities increased significantly after administration of sericin cream; significant differences were found between sericin treatment and control after 6 weeks of treatment (p = 0.041 for arms and p = 0.022 for legs, respectively. Moreover, a significant difference was also found in skin irritation between the two treatments (p = 0.013 for arms and p = 0.027 for legs, respectively. At the end of the study, the skin pigmentation level was significantly reduced on both the arms (p = 0.032 and legs (p = 0.021 of the sericin-treated side compared with the side treated with cream base. The mean itching score decreased significantly from moderate to severe at the time of enrollment to mild pruritus after 6 weeks of treatment (p = 0.002. A better quality of life was found in all domains tested although statistically significant differences before and after

  4. Comparative Effects of Retinoic Acid or Glycolic Acid Vehiculated in Different Topical Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Pereira, Lúcia Helena Terenciane Rodrigues; Semprini, Marisa; Lopes, Ruberval Armando

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and glycolic acid (GA) treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA) were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness. PMID:25632398

  5. ``Peeps,'' cream, heads, and food coloring in a vacuum jar

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePino, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    This note describes some methods of adding interest to the standard vacuum jar demonstrations. Marshmallow animals, shaving cream, doll heads, and food coloring add some spark to these demos. These new twists have been well received by the students.

  6. Calibration of the CREAM calorimeter with beam test data

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J H; Amare, Y

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics An d Mass (CREAM) calorimeter (CAL) is designed to measure cosmic-ray elemental energy spectra from 10 12 eV to 10 15 eV. It is comprised of 20 layers of tungsten interleaved with 20 layers of scintillating fiber ribbons. Before each flight, the CAL is exposed to an electron beam. For CREAM-IV through CREAM-VI, beams of 150 GeV electrons were used for the calibration, and 100 GeV was used for CREAM-VII. For calibration purpose, we compare electron beam data with simulation results to find calibration constants with the unit of MeV/ADC. In this paper, we present calibration results, including energy resolutions for electrons and uniformity of response. We also discuss CAL calibration using various beam test data compared with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation data.

  7. A TROPICAL COUNTRY WHICH IS COOL TO ICE CREAMS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. ANIRVINNA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One market which is expected to make a brisk business in the summer is none other than ice-cream. For consumers too there is nothing better than craving for an ice cream particularly during unbearable hot summer period of April-June. But astonishingly given the climate in India, the per capita consumption in India 250 ml has been much lower compared to the countries compared to 23 lt in the US, 18 lt in Australia, 14 lt in Sweden and 800 ml even in neighbouring Pakistan, Sri Lanka shows immense potential for expansion. The US has been the leading producer of ice-cream in the world albeit Europe introduced the product into the country. The ice-cream cone was invented as early as 1904 shows the hallmark of a product innovation in the US.

  8. Potential Issues of Skin Fairness Creams TV advertisements in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran, Sohail

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the potential product performance and social issues caused by Fairness creams Television advertisements in Pakistan. Qualitative data was gathered from the female university students and gilrs from low socio economic backgrounds in Rawalpindi (19-28 years, n=96) through twelve focus group interviews. Firstly; study results suggest that fairness creams television ads overstate the product benefits. Some respondents revealed face skin problems after the ...

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF ICE CREAM CONSUMED IN ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a dairy product that is produced by freezing a mixture enriched with sugar, cream, stabilizers, emulsifiers and aroma materials. The present study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of 150 ice cream samples (75 plain and 75 strawberry-flavored collected from artisanal producers in Istanbul, Turkey. The samples were investigated for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that TMAB counts ranged from 2.0 x 101 - 2.5 x 105 cfu/g with a mean of 1.5 x 104 cfu/g, while Enterobacteriaceae count ranged from 1 - 8.8 x 103 cfu/g with a mean of 3.0 x 102 cfu/g. Overall, 23.33% (35/150 of ice cream samples were of unacceptable quality based on recommended criteria by the Turkish Food Codex. Salmonella spp. was not determined in the samples. L. monocytogenes was detected in only one strawberry-flavored ice cream sample. The results indicated that ice cream might have been contaminated with pathogens, presenting a potential hazard for public health. Therefore, it is essential to ensure the safety of final products by improving the quality of production technology and sanitation strategies.

  10. Lactose reduced ice cream enriched with whey powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Tsuchiya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a food product that pleases the palate of consumers worldwide. Whey powder (WP has various technological and functional properties. However, WP increases the lactose content of the final products in which it is incorporated and causes grittiness and intolerance in lactose-sensitive individuals. This study aimed to produce ice cream with milk powder (MP replaced by WP (MP/WP, decrease the lactose content by enzymatic hydrolysis and verify the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the final product. Initially, the variables ?-galactosidase concentration and reaction time were studied for the response of the percentage of lactose hydrolysis in a milk ice cream base, using a full 22 factorial design(FFD.With the reaction conditions defined (0.5 g L-1 of ?-galactosidase at 37 C for 4 hthe sucrose concentration and MP/WP replacement variables were then studied in the ice cream formulation for the percentage of lactose hydrolysis and overrun responses using a 22 FFD. The lactose hydrolysis, which ranged between 86.59-97.97%, was not affected by the MP/WP replacement in the ice cream, whilst the overrun was increased by the MP/WP replacement. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the ice cream were either not influenced or positively influenced by lactose hydrolysis and MP/WP replacement.

  11. Exploring the Cosmic Ray Spectrum with the CREAM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Tyler B

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) project endeavors to resolve the cosmic-ray spectrum in an energy range between 10^{10} and 10^{15} eV for all particles with charges in the range Z = 1 (hydrogen) to Z = 26 (iron). From 2004 to 2011, the CREAM instrument was flown in a succession of long-duration balloon (LDB) missions over the Antarctic continent. To date, it has completed six successful campaigns, for a cumulative 161 days in flight. Starting in 2011, CREAM began a process of reconguration in order to prepare for ISSCREAM a three-year mission bound for the International Space Station in 2014. In addition, a subset of detectors from CREAM's balloon flights have been upgraded and reassembled for the Boron And Carbon Cosmic rays in the Upper Stratosphere (BACCUS) mission, which will mount a new LDB campaign during the 2013-2014 Antarctic summer season. The CREAM project is presented, with a special emphasis on the design, construction, and performance of CREAM's (and BACCUS') Timing Charge Detector (...

  12. Studies on comparison of the efficacy of terbinafine 1% cream and butenafine 1% cream for the treatment of Tinea cruris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Das

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, 76 male patients aged between 18 and 61 years affected with Tinea cruris attending the outpatient department of NRS Medical College during a 1-year period were selected. Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups as Regimen I (n 37 and Regimen II (n 39 who were treated with Terbinafine (gr I cream and Butenafine (gr II cream, respectively. Results: The predominant pathogen was found to be Trichophyton rubrum in 99% of cases. Mycological cure, overall cure and effective treatment were evaluated on 7, 14 and 42 days. Conclusions: From the study, it was found that Butenafine produced the quickest result and primary efficacy end points were much higher with Butenafine cream than that of Terbinafine cream and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01.

  13. The safety and efficacy of EGF-based cream for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced skin injury: results from a multicenter observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Cheol [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min Kyu [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, eungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Huasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis in cancer patients. From December 2010 to April 2012, a total of 1,172 cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) of more than 50 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with EGF-based cream. An acute skin reaction classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 6-point rating scale was the primary end point and we also assessed the occurrence of edema, dry skin, or pruritus. The percentage of radiation dermatitis with maximum grade 0 and grade 1 was 19% and 58% at the time of 50 Gy, and it became 29% and 47% after completion of planned RT. This increment was observed only in breast cancer patients (from 18%/62% to 32%/49%). Adverse events related to the EGF-based cream developed in 49 patients (4%) with mild erythema the most common. Skin toxicity grade >2 was observed in 5% of the patients. Edema, dry skin, and pruritus grade > or =3 developed in 9%, 9%, and 1% of the patients, respectively. Prophylactic use of an EGF-based cream is effective in preventing radiation dermatitis with tolerable toxicity. Further studies comparing EGF cream with other topical agents may be necessary.

  14. The safety and efficacy of EGF-based cream for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced skin injury: results from a multicenter observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Cheol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Doo Ho; Kang, Min Kyu; Wu, Hong Gyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis in cancer patients. From December 2010 to April 2012, a total of 1,172 cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) of more than 50 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with EGF-based cream. An acute skin reaction classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 6-point rating scale was the primary end point and we also assessed the occurrence of edema, dry skin, or pruritus. The percentage of radiation dermatitis with maximum grade 0 and grade 1 was 19% and 58% at the time of 50 Gy, and it became 29% and 47% after completion of planned RT. This increment was observed only in breast cancer patients (from 18%/62% to 32%/49%). Adverse events related to the EGF-based cream developed in 49 patients (4%) with mild erythema the most common. Skin toxicity grade >2 was observed in 5% of the patients. Edema, dry skin, and pruritus grade > or =3 developed in 9%, 9%, and 1% of the patients, respectively. Prophylactic use of an EGF-based cream is effective in preventing radiation dermatitis with tolerable toxicity. Further studies comparing EGF cream with other topical agents may be necessary.

  15. The Effects of Fat Structures and Ice Cream Mix Viscosity on Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Julia; Hartel, Rich; Rankin, Scott

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate iciness perception and other sensory textural attributes of ice cream due to ice and fat structures and mix viscosity. Two studies were carried out varying processing conditions and mix formulation. In the 1st study, ice creams were collected at -3, -5, and -7.5 °C draw temperatures. These ice creams contained 0%, 0.1%, or 0.2% emulsifier, an 80:20 blend of mono- and diglycerides: polysorbate 80. In the 2nd study, ice creams were collected at -3 °C draw temperature and contained 0%, 0.2%, or 0.4% stabilizer, a blend of guar gum, locust bean gum, and carrageenan. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine relationships between ice crystal size, destabilized fat, and sensory iciness. In the ice and fat structure study, an inverse correlation was found between fat destabilization and sensory iciness. Ice creams with no difference in ice crystal size were perceived to be less icy with increasing amounts of destabilized fat. Destabilized fat correlated inversely with drip-through rate and sensory greasiness. In the ice cream mix viscosity study, an inverse correlation was found between mix viscosity and sensory iciness. Ice creams with no difference in ice crystal size were perceived to be less icy when formulated with higher mix viscosity. A positive correlation was found between mix viscosity and sensory greasiness. These results indicate that fat structures and mix viscosity have significant effects on ice cream microstructure and sensory texture including the reduction of iciness perception. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Development and characterization of rosin-based polymer and its application as a cream base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanorkar, V T; Gawande, R S; Gogte, B B; Dorle, A K

    2002-01-01

    The literature contains many references to the wide range of uses of rosin-based polymers, but little has appeared in the area of rosin-based polymers used as cream bases. Various rosin polymers based on glycerol, sorbitol, and pentaerythritol were prepared and screened for efficacy as cream bases. Among these polymers, polymer 2 (glycerol-based) is reported in the present study as it produced creams with a better stability and release profile as compared to other creams. The creams were formulated employing polymer 2 (P2) and Tween 60 as surfactants. The stability of the prepared creams, as well as the diclofenac diethylammonium release pattern, was investigated using particle size analysis, conductivity, relative dielectric constant, spreadability, and irritation potential measurement, and was compared with that of creams containing Tween 60 (RT) prepared in the laboratory. The release of the drug, diclofenac diethylammonium, was measured after eight hours and compared with a standard cream (RT) and a marketed cream (RM).

  17. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  18. Case Of Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome By Topical Triamcinolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zil-E-Ali, Ahsan; Janjua, Omer Hanif; Latif, Aiza; Aadil, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to hypercortisolism. Prolong use of topical steroid may cause this syndrome and suppression of hypothalamic and pituitary function, however such events are more common with oral and parenteral route. There are very few cases of Cushing's syndrome with a topical application amongst which triamcinolone is the rarest drug. We report a case of 11-year-old boy is presented who developed Cushing's disease by topical application. The child had body rashes for which the caregiver consulted a local quack, a topical cream of triamcinolone was prescribed. After application for three months, the patient became obese and developed a moon-like face. A thorough biochemical workup and diagnostic test for Cushing's disease was done to confirm. The following case report a dramatic example of development of the syndrome from chronic topical application of the least potent corticosteroid.

  19. Topical glucocorticoid has no antinociceptive or anti-inflammatory effect in thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Møiniche, S; Kehlet, H

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of topical glucocorticoids in human thermal injury. The right and left legs of 12 healthy volunteers were allocated randomly to be treated with either 0.05% clobetasol propionate cream or placebo in a double-blind trial. Thermal...

  20. Rheological studies of creams. I. Rheological functions and structure of creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erös, I; Thaleb, A

    1994-05-01

    Large number of washable (o/w type) creams were prepared for rheological investigation. The rheological functions known from the literature were determined in our studies. Rheological constants were determined by measurements and calculations. From these, we selected those ones which were applicable to characterize the energy status of the coherent structure and which gave the most information for practical work, elaboration of composition and evaluation of stability. These functions and parameters are the following: flow curves, viscosity vs shear time and viscosity vs temperature functions, Bingham-type yield value, plastic viscosity, structure breakdown rate constant, activation energy.

  1. Efficacy, tolerability and consumer acceptability of terbinafine topical spray versus terbinafine topical solution: a phase IIa, randomised, observer-blind, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marc; Evans, Charles; Muddle, Andrew; Turner, Rob; Lim, Sian; Reed, Jessica; Traynor, Matt

    2013-10-01

    spray and the topical solution showed comparable anti-fungal activity. Furthermore, the non-inferiority of topical spray to the topical solution was confirmed as determined by the proportion of patients categorised as successfully treated at week 1. This confirms that a topical spray product, which can be applied once without touching the affected skin, is equally as effective in the treatment of tinea pedis and removes the risk of organism transfer associated with touching infected areas. EudraCT-No. 2008-002399-92.

  2. Antiaging efficacy of melatonin-based day and night creams: a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded proof-of-concept trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Milani,1 Adele Sparavigna2 1Medical Department, Cantabria Labs Difa Cooper, Caronno Pertusella, 2Derming, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Milan, Italy Background: Skin is a complete and independent melatoninergic system. At the skin level, melatonin (Mel acts as a relevant antioxidant and cytoprotective substance. Topical application of Mel is considered meaningful, since it can easily penetrate the stratum corneum. Exogenous Mel can be expected to represent a potent antioxidative defense system against skin aging mechanisms. Day and night creams containing Mel, carried in lipospheres (Melatosphere™, have been developed (Nutriage SPF 30 day cream and Nutriage night cream.Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Mel-based cream as antiaging treatment.Subjects and methods: In a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded, prospective 3-month study, 22 women (mean age 55 years with moderate–severe skin aging were enrolled (clinical trial registration number: NCT03276897. Study products were applied in the morning (Nutriage day cream and evening (Nutriage night cream on the right or left side of the face. Primary outcomes were: 1 clinical evaluation of wrinkles’ grade (crow’s feet and nasolabial folds, surface microrelief, skin tonicity (resistance to pinching and traction, recovery after pinching and skin dryness and 2 instrumental evaluation of skin roughness and 3D photographic documentation (Vectra H1 images system. Assessments of both clinical and instrumental evaluations were performed at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment by an investigator unaware of treatment allocation.Results: All the subjects completed the study. Crow’s feet was reduced significantly (p=0.05 by –15% with the creams in comparison with the non-treated side after 3 months. At the end of the study, surface microrelief (–26.5%, skin profilometry (–13%, skin tonicity (+30% and skin dryness (–59

  3. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream, milk, vegetable cream, and coconut milk. The whipped cream chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The whipped cream chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p < 0.05 and resulted in average hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the whipped cream’s result above, except in the category of hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the whipped cream’s result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference (p < 0.05, a low height, and a similar value to whipped cream, but coconut milk also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the whipped cream chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test, but the coconut milk chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and

  4. Usage of lidocaine-prilocaine cream in the treatment of postburn pain in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Eksal; Tekerekoğlu, Bülent

    2010-05-01

    Facial burns are quite common among children. Many different wound-covers can be used for dressing burn wounds, which is usually painful for the patients. These covers can also be combined with local anesthetic creams. Lidocaine-prilocaine cream 5% (LPC) is commonly used as a topical anesthetic by physicians performing plastic surgery. In the present study, we investigated the effects of topical LPC on pain cessation in pediatric patients with face burn and compared results with a control group in which LPC was not used in the wound dressing. Thirty pediatric patients (average age 11.3, range 8-15) among those who admitted to our emergency service and plastic surgery outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2006 were included in this study. The patient's burned areas ranged between 1 and 5% percent of their total body surface. The need for analgesic medicine was recorded in the first, second and third 8-hour periods postburn in both groups, and pain level was evaluated at these time points using a verbal rating scale. There was a significant difference between the two groups with respect to values of the first and second 8-hour periods, while in the third 8-hour period, no significant difference was observed. We conclude that topical local anesthetics administered for 16 hours postburn significantly reduce the duration of pain after injury, which suggests a potential use in clinical practice in the treatment of children with face burn. While LPC was found to have an ameliorating effect in the first 16 hours, we recommend oral analgesic co-therapy support since it loses its efficacy in the last 8-hour period.

  5. Topical sirolimus for the treatment of angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Levent Cinar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The skin is one of the most affected organs in tuberous sclerosis complex and angiofibromas are seen in almost 80% of such patients. These benign tumors impose a great psycho-social burden on patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of topical sirolimus for facial angiofibromas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Methods: This was a prospective, single-blinded, cross-over study which involved twelve patients. We investigated the effect and safety of topical 0.1% sirolimus, which was obtained by crushing sirolimus tablets and mixing it with petrolatum. The patients were asked to apply the cream to one side of their face, and vaseline to the other side. The effect of topical sirolimus was evaluated using the “facial angiofibroma severity index.” Results: There was a significant improvement in the redness and extension of the tumors on the sides to which the active ingredient was applied. Some side effects such as itching and irritation occurred in three patients, which were treated with topical hydrocortisone cream. Conclusion: Topical sirolimus appears to be a promising, fairly well tolerated treatment for facial angiofibromas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although its efficacy diminishes with time, repetitive usage is effective.

  6. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Moldovan, Mirela L; Man, Ioana Manuela; Crișan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield(®) CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab(®) Combo scanner. Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae.

  7. Pimecrolimus cream 1% in the treatment of intertriginous psoriasis: a double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribetz, Carin; Ling, Mark; Lebwohl, Mark; Pariser, David; Draelos, Zoe; Gottlieb, Alice B; Zaias, Nardo; Chen, Diana M; Parneix-Spake, Anne; Hultsch, Thomas; Menter, Alan

    2004-11-01

    Inverse psoriasis can be difficult to treat because of the high sensitivity of intertriginous areas to cutaneous side effects, such as irritation and striae. Pimecrolimus, a well-tolerated, nonatrophogenic, skin-selective inflammatory cytokine inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis when applied topically under occlusion. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of pimecrolimus cream 1% versus vehicle twice a day in the treatment of inverse psoriasis. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study in 57 patients with moderate to severe inverse psoriasis. Patients were evaluated using Investigator's Global Assessment of overall severity, Target Area Score, and Patient Self-Assessment. A significant between-group difference was observed early on, with 54% of the pimecrolimus group versus 21% of the vehicle group having an Investigator's Global Assessment score of 0 or 1 (clear or almost clear) at week 2 ( P = .0169). By week 8, 71% of the pimecrolimus group had an Investigator's Global Assessment score of 0 or 1. Change from baseline in Target Area Score was -2.4 (pimecrolimus group) compared with -0.7 (vehicle) at day 3 ( P < .0001). By week 8, 82% of patients using pimecrolimus scored their disease as well or completely controlled versus 41% of the vehicle group ( P = .0007). Adverse events were similar between groups. Pimecrolimus cream 1% is an effective treatment for inverse psoriasis with a rapid onset of action, and is safe and well-tolerated.

  8. [Determination of fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruize; Zhou, Ya; Mao, Ting; Jiang, Jie

    2018-01-08

    A method for the determination of 37 fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream was developed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The samples were extracted with toluene and acetyl chloride-methanol (1:9,v/v) solution was added to the extract for fat esterification. Finally, the fatty acids were analyzed by GC×GC-MS. The GC conditions were as follows:a DB-5 column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm) was set as the 1st dimensional column and a BPX-50 column (2.5 m×0.1 mm×0.25 μm) was the 2nd dimensional column. The primary oven temperature was programmed from 50℃ (held for 2 min) to 180℃ at a rate of 20℃/min, followed by an increase to 250℃ at 2.5℃/min, then raised up to 300℃ (held for 5 min) at 3℃/min. The ion source temperature was 200℃ with auxiliary temperature of 300℃ in scan mode. All fatty acids were separated effectively and determined accurately while the modulation period was 5s and the scan range of MS was m/z 40-385. This procedure was applied to analyze the fatty acids in commercial natural cream and artificial cream from Chinese markets, among which we found the characteristic components in different kinds of samples. Compared with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), GC×GC-MS method was more sensitive and more components of fatty acids were detected. Conclusively, this work suggests a new technical approach in analyzing fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream, which is meaningful to ensure the quality identification and safety of natural cream.

  9. Comparative trial of Aloe vera/olive oil combination cream versus phenytoin cream in the treatment of chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Y; Izadi, M; Sayyadi, N; Rezaee, R; Jonaidi-Jafari, N; Beiraghdar, F; Zamani, A; Sahebkar, A

    2015-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used to accelerate wound healing. Olive oil is also a natural product that may contribute to wound healing owing to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an Aloe vera-olive oil (AVO) combination cream on the healing process of chronic wounds. In this randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled, parallel-group trial, patients with chronic wounds were treated with either AVO cream or phenytoin cream as the standard treatment for a period of 30 days. Wound healing was evaluated using Bates-Jensen assessment tool and the severity of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). After initial assessment, 60 patients with chronic wounds (41 with pressure ulcer, 13 with diabetic wounds and 6 with venous ulcers), were recruited and randomised into 2 groups of 30. After 30 days of treatment, significant improvements in the wound size, depth, and edges; necrotic tissue type and amount; exudate type and amount; colour of wound surroundings; and peripheral tissue oedema score were observed in the AVO cream group (p<0.001). The total score of wound healing showed significant improvement with both AVO (p<0.001) and phenytoin (p<0.01) creams, although AVO was more efficacious (p<0.001). Likewise, although both treatments reduced the initial VAS score, the efficacy of AVO was significantly greater (p<0.001). AVO cream significantly accelerates biological healing of chronic wounds and helps to reduce pain severity with a higher efficacy compared with phenytoin cream.

  10. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  11. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  12. Hydroquinone neuropathy following use of skin bleaching creams: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamagi, C; Owino, E; Katabira, E T

    2001-04-01

    A 30-year old black woman presented with gradual onset of weakness of the legs associated with burning sensation in the feet for two months. She had been using two hydroquinone based skin bleaching creams (MGC by M. G. C. International, MEKAKO by Anglo Fabrics BOLTON Ltd) for about four years. Her BP was 80/40 mm Hg supine with un-recordable diastolic pressure on standing. She had decreased power (Grade 3/5), loss of deep tendon reflexes and impairment of deep sensation in the lower limbs. A complete blood count, urinalysis, serum electrolytes, serum creatinine and uric acid were all normal. Oral GTT, VDRL and brucella tests were negative. Chest and abdominal radiographs did not show any abnormalities. A diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy with autonomic neuropathy possibly due to hydroquinone toxicity was made and she was advised to stop using hydroquinone based skin bleaching creams. Four months later she was asymptomatic, her BP was 120/80 mmHg supine and standing, and neurological examination was normal. The case raises the question of whether hydroquinone based skin bleaching creams could be a cause of peripheral neuropathy and underscores the need for research on hydroquinone based skin bleaching creams and neuropathy particularly in black women involved in the sale and/or use of skin bleaching creams.

  13. Dose dependent sun protective effect of topical melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight......-blind study in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy volunteers, 8 male and 15 female, were enrolled. The protective effect of three different doses of melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight was tested. All participants had their backs exposed to sun from 1:22 PM.......5% concentrations. CONCLUSION: Application of melatonin cream 12.5% protects against natural sunlight induced erythema....

  14. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindley, Andrew; Zain, Zakiyah; Wood, Lisa; Whitehead, Anne; Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected

  15. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  16. The Wound Healing Effects of Herbal Cream Containing Oliveria Decumbens and Pelargonium Graveolens Essential Oils in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Khamechian, Tahereh; Tamtaji, Omid Reza; Mokhtari, Rasoul; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza

    2018-01-01

    The number of diabetic patients in adult population is increasing. All this population are at risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that are associated with unwanted ailments and high mortality. In spite of current therapies for DFUs, further therapies are needed to help the patients. The efficacy of herbal cream containing Pelargonium graveolens and Oliveria decombens essential oils was evaluated topically for treatment of DFUs in rat animal model in comparison with two other herbal formulas containing each essential oil alone, placebo (the basic formula without active ingredients) and normal saline as control groups. After anesthesia of diabetic rats (n=75) induced by streptozotocin (STZ), diabetic wounds were visible on the hind dorsal surface of the foot . The treatments were initiated on Day 1 and repeated 3 times a day for thirteen consecutive days. On day 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13, the wound sizes were determined and assessed histologically. Three herbal formulations reduced the size of wounds in rats with DFUs, while the cream containing combined herbals of O. decumbens and P. graveolens essential oils had the highest tissue repair in DFU rat models. Due to better wound healing effects of combined herbal cream containing O. decumbens and P. graveolens essential oils, it can be recommended in treatment of DFUs.

  17. Vapocoolant Spray vs Lidocaine/Prilocaine Cream for Reducing the Pain of Venipuncture in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    ?elik, G?lperi; ?zbek, Orhan; Y?lmaz, M?mtaz; Duman, Ipek; ?zbek, Seda; Apiliogullari, Seza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Patients undergoing hemodialysis are repeatedly exposed to stress and pain from approximately 300 punctures per year to their arteriovenous fistula. This study was designed to measure pain associated with venepuncture during AVF cannulation and to compare the effectiveness of ethyl chloride vapocoolant spray, topical eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream and placebo in controlling pain caused by venepuncture of arteriovenous fistula patients undergoing chronic hemodial...

  18. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  19. Elemental Spectra from the CREAM-I Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Hoseok; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Boyle, P J; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S; Nutter, S; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Swordy, S; Wakely, S P; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of cosmic rays of charge Z = 1 to 26 up to an energy of ∼1015 eV. CREAM had two successful flights on long-duration balloons (LDB) launched from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in December 2004 and December 2005. CREAM achieves a substantial measurement redundancy by employing multiple detector systems, namely a Timing Charge Detector (TCD), a Silicon Charge Detector (SCD), and a Cherenkov Detector (CD) for particle identification, and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and a sampling tungsten/scintillating-fiber ionization calorimeter (CAL) for energy measurement. In this paper, preliminary energy spectra of various elements measured with CAL/SCD during the first 42-day flight are presented.

  20. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zonghao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Chuanbing; Liu, Kai; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but space-weather prediction. Several models (such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observed by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of all the FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle till July 2012, by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. Then we could discuss the reliability of the ice-cream cone model.

  1. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  2. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  3. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Chris; Blayney, Don; Yen, Steven; Cooper, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine ...

  4. Validation of the quality control methods for active ingredients of Fungirex cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Navarro, Maikel; Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania

    2014-01-01

    Fungirex cream is a two-drug product, that is, undecylenic acid and zinc undecylenate over a suitable basis. Since this is a product not documented in the official monographs of the pharmacopoeia, simple analytical methods were suggested for quantitation of analytes of interest in the cream, which are useful for release of newly prepared cream batches. To validate two volumetric methods for the quality control of active ingredients in Fungirex cream

  5. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cătălina Bogdan,1 Mirela L Moldovan,1 Ioana Manuela Man,2 Maria Crișan,2 1Department of Dermopharmacy and Cosmetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hațieganu”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Purpose: Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Patients and methods: Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield® CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab® Combo scanner. Results: Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. Conclusion: A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the

  6. Prophylactic treatment with a potent corticosteroid cream ameliorates radiodermatitis, independent of radiation schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulff, Eva; Maroti, Marianne; Serup, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study will test the hypothesis that preventive topical steroid treatment instituted from start of radiotherapy can ameliorate acute radiation dermatitis. Subgroups of increased risk of dermatitis are included. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A double blinded randomized trial...... of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant RT, independent of RT schedule. Preventive application of a potent corticosteroid cream should be used in the routine and instituted at the start of RT....... schedules as well as for anatomical sites, skin type, breast size and BMI. Patients treated the irradiated area during the radiation period and two weeks following cessation of radiation. RESULTS: Patients receiving hypofraction RT developed less skin reactions than those treated with conventional RT...

  7. Performance of CREAM Calorimeter Results of Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Kang, T G; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, M Y; Kim, T; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S W; Nutter, S; Park, N H; Park, H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Syed, S; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zhang, H Q; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported.

  8. A New Transition Radiation Detector for the CREAM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Malinin, A; Angelaszek, D

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to investigate the source, propagation and acceleration mechanism of high energy cosmic-ray nuclei, by directly measuring their energy and charge. Incorporating a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) provides a model independent energy measurement complementary to the calorimeter, as well as additional track reconstruction capability. A new TRD design provides a compact, robust, reliable, low density detector to measure incident nucleus energy for 3 < Z < 26 nuclei in the Lorentz gamma factor range of 10 2 -10 5. The TRD design, R&D;, construction milestones, beam test results and a progress of the final TRD integration in the CREAM instrument are reported.

  9. Influence of the homogenization pressure on the ice cream mix quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Murgić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the suitability of different homogenization pressures on appearance and quality of ice cream mix was determined. The ice cream mix were taken from ageing tank, and depending on the source of fat in ice cream mix (butter, vegetable fat or cream they were homogenized under different pressures. Afterwards, by microscope with scalar, fat globule size was determined. The homogenization pressures reduce the fat globule size to 1-2 μm without clumping and these pressures have been characterized as adequate pressures for specific type of fat and specific portion of fat in the ice cream mixture. The higher the fat in the mixture, the lower the pressure should be. The optimal pressure for ice cream mixture containing 2% vegetable fat was 200 bars, for 6% 190-200 bars, and for 8% 170 bars. The optimal pressure for ice cream mixture that contained 8% butter was 190-200 bars, for 10% 150, and for 12% 135 bars. For ice cream mixture containing 8% of cream, optimal pressure was 200 bars, 10% cream was 190, 12% cream was 125 bars and 14% cream was 90 bars.

  10. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  11. Treatment of vitiligo with the topical Janus kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Brooke; Joshipura, Deep; Saraiya, Ami; Abdat, Rana; Ashkar, Huda; Turkowski, Yana; Sheth, Vaneeta; Huang, Victor; Au, Shiu Chung; Kachuk, Courtney; Dumont, Nicole; Gottlieb, Alice B; Rosmarin, David

    2017-06-01

    Existing therapies for vitiligo are limited in efficacy and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Topical Janus kinase inhibitors may offer a new therapeutic option for vitiligo. We sought to assess the role of topical ruxolitinib 1.5% cream, a Janus kinase inhibitor, in vitiligo treatment. This 20-week, open-label, proof-of-concept trial of twice-daily topical ruxolitinib 1.5% cream was conducted in 12 patients with a minimum of 1% affected body surface area of vitiligo. The primary outcome was percent improvement in Vitiligo Area Scoring Index from baseline to week 20. Of 12 patients screened, 11 were enrolled and 9 completed the study (54.5% men; mean age, 52 years). Four patients with significant facial involvement at baseline had a 76% improvement in facial Vitiligo Area Scoring Index scores at week 20 (95% confidence interval, 53-99%; P = .001). A 23% improvement in overall Vitiligo Area Scoring Index scores was observed in all enrolled patients at week 20 (95% confidence interval, 4-43%; P = .02). Three of 8 patients responded on body surfaces and 1 of 8 patients responded on acral surfaces. Adverse events were minor, including erythema, hyperpigmentation, and transient acne. Limitations of the study include the small sample size and open-label study design. Topical ruxolitinib 1.5% cream provided significant repigmentation in facial vitiligo and may offer a valuable new treatment for vitiligo. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal V

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90% out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80% out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in two patients of the systemic ketoconazole group and six patients of the topical ketoconazole group during the follow-up period of three months.

  13. Evaluation of the organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme activity in creams and investigation of its stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariye Rajaie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is investigation of the organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH enzyme activity in water in oil (w/o and oil in water (o/w creams and investigation of the OPH enzyme stability in formulated creams. OPH enzyme was extracted and purified from strain flavobacterium. The w/o and o/w creams were prepared using different formulations. In order to achieve an emulsion with maximum stability, appropriate percentage of the cream components was selected by studying different formulations and the physical and chemical stability of the produced cream were considered. 5Uenzyme/90gcream enzyme was used for each formulation. To measure the enzyme activity in creams, extraction method was used and enzyme activity was determined based on parathion hydrolysis. The thermal stability of OPH in both types of w/o and o/w creams was studied at 4 and 30  °C for various time periods. The average enzyme activity was about 0.0065 U/gcream and 0.018 U/gcream for w/o and o/w creams respectivly. According to the results, the relative activity at 4 °C was reduced to 50% after 26 and 45 days in w/o and o/w creams, respectivly. The results showed that the OPH enzyme activity in o/w cream was 2.6 times more than that of w/o cream, because of the higher hydrophobicity of o/w cream compared to w/o. The OPH enzyme stability in o/w cream was greater in comparison to w/o cream. The OPH enzyme was active for nearly 2 months on o/w creams at 4 °C .

  14. New developments in the treatment of rosacea – role of once-daily ivermectin cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardwell LA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leah A Cardwell,1 Hossein Alinia,1 Sara Moradi Tuchayi,1 Steven R Feldman,1–31Department of Dermatology, Center for Dermatology Research, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations localized largely to the central face. The unclear etiology of rosacea fosters therapeutic difficulty; however, subtle clinical improvement with pharmacologic treatments of various drug categories suggests a multifactorial etiology of the disease. Factors that may contribute to disease pathogenesis include immune abnormality, vascular abnormality, neurogenic dysregulation, presence of cutaneous microorganisms, UV damage, and skin barrier dysfunction. The role of ivermectin in the treatment of rosacea may be as an anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic agent targeting Demodex mites. In comparing topical ivermectin and metronidazole, ivermectin was more effective; this treatment modality boasted more improved quality of life, reduced lesion counts, and more favorable participant and physician assessment of disease severity. Patients who received ivermectin 1% cream had an acceptable safety profile. Ivermectin is efficacious in decreasing inflammatory lesion counts and erythema. Keywords: papulopustular rosacea, topical ivermectin, metronidazole, azelaic acid, topical

  15. Sensory properties and storage stability of salad cream from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory properties and storage stability of salad cream prepared from cassava starch and soy protein concentrates was studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends were prepared with 30% soy protein concentrate and incorporated into 70% cassava starch. The cassava-soy protein concentrate blend was ...

  16. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) of this section, the name of the food is “frozen custard” or “french ice cream” or “french custard... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  17. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115...

  18. Ice Cream/I Scream for YA Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Don

    2010-01-01

    From a 40-year perspective, Don Gallo examines the field of young adult literature, comparing it to ice cream--its various flavors and levels of richness. The article proclaims the profundity of the field and the quality of its writers, summarizes historical highlights, defends it against its detractors, and explains the importance of helping…

  19. Ice-cream consumption, tendency toward overeating, and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The exploration of the mechanisms underlying the tendency toward overeating by investigating the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ)/Revised Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-R) disinhibition, in sequence to the milkshake-ice cream study (van Strien, Cleven, and Schippers, in press).

  20. Sexual abuse and anti-wrinkle cream: evidence from octocrylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamey, Carole; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2012-02-10

    We report an alleged case of sexual assault in which an anti-wrinkle cream could have been used as a lubricant. Three anorectal samples taken from the victim were given to us in an attempt to document the presence of remains of the cream involved. After examining the composition of the cream, octocrylene (OCT) was selected as the most relevant marker for this analysis. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification of OCT. Anorectal samples were diluted with methanol and injected onto an Acquity BEH C18 column using a gradient mode with 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Data were acquired using positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring. Three transitions were selected for OCT (m/z 362.2>250.0, m/z 362.2>232.0 and m/z 362.2>204.0). The analysis of the cream seized at the offender's home confirmed the presence of OCT as an ingredient, and the analysis of extracts from the anorectal samples also allowed the formal identification of OCT. These results strongly suggest that a cosmetic containing octocrylene as an ingredient has in fact been applied to the anus of the alleged victim. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma compared with topical hydroquinone: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalatkhah H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Adalatkhah,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani2,3 1Department of Dermatology, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 2Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Background: Treatment of melasma is unsatisfactory most of the times. Hormonal role is shown to exist in pathogenesis of the melasma, and sex-hormone related drugs may have an effect on melasma.Aim: To investigate efficacy of 1% flutamide cream versus 4% hydroquinone cream on melasma.Methods: In a parallel randomized clinical trial, 74 women with melasma were allocated to receive a sunscreen along with 4% hydroquinone cream or 1% flutamide cream. Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI, mexameter melanin assay, and patient satisfaction were investigated.Results: Mean age of the participants was 33.8 years. Mean length of time suffering from Melasma was 96.3 months. The subjects reported in average 1.1 hours per day of exposure to sunlight. Mean standardized total patient satisfaction score was 28.8 (standard deviation [SD] 17.2 in flutamide group patients versus 18 (SD 15.5 in control group (P<0.01. Regardless of treatment group, the skin darkness assessed upon MASI scales was reduced over the treatment course (P<0.001. Using mixed effects, longitudinal modeling showed better treatment efficacy based on MASI scale for flutamide group compared to the hydroquinone group (P<0.05. However, longitudinal analysis of mexameter scores did not reveal any significant difference in melanin measurements between flutamide and hydroquinone.Conclusion: Topical flutamide appeared as effective as topical hydroquinone in treating melasma using mexameter assessment but with a better MASI improvement trend and higher patient satisfaction in flutamide treatment versus topical hydroquinone. As the present study is possibly the

  2. Topical treatments of skin pain: a general review with a focus on hidradenitis suppurativa with topical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-07-15

    Hidradenitis Supprurativa (HS) is a painful chronic follicular disease. Few papers have addressed pain control for this debilitating condition. Possible topical agents include tricyclic antidepressants, opioids, anticonvulsants, NSAIDs, NMDA receptor antagonists, local anesthetics and other agents. The first line agents for the topical treatment of the cutaneous pain of HS are diclonefac gel 1% and liposomal xylocaine 4% and 5% cream or 5% ointment. The chief advantage of topical xylocaine is that is quick acting i.e. immediate however with a limited duration of effect 1-2 hours. The use of topical ketamine, which blocks n-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in a non-competitive fashion, might be a useful tool for the treatment of HS pain. Topical doxepin, which available in a 5% commercially preparation (Zonalon®) , makes patients drowsy and is not useful for controlling the pain of HS . Doxepin is available in a 3% or 3.3% concentration (which causes less drowsiness) from compounding pharmacies and can be used in compounded analgesic preparations with positive effect. Topical doxepin is preferred over use of topical amitriptyline because topical doxepin is more effective. Nevertheless, topical amitriptyline increase of the tactile and mechanical nociceptive thresholds and can be used for topical pain control in compound mixture of analgesics . Gabapentin and pregablin can also be used compounded with other agents in topical analgesic preparations with positive topical anesthetic effect. Capsaicin is not useful for topical treatment of the pain of HS. Sometimes compounded of anesthetics medications such as ketamine 10%, bupivacaine 1%, diclofenac 3%, doxepin 3% or 3.3%, and gabapentin 6% can extend the duration of effect so that medication only needs to be used 2 or 3 times a day. Still in my experience the easiest to get and most patient requested agent is topical diclonefac 1% gel.

  3. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  4. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  5. Production and characterization of ice cream with high content in oleic and linoleic fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Suárez, Marta; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Padial-Domínguez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Ice creams produced with unsaturated fats rich in oleic (OO, 70.7% of oleic) and linoleic (LO, 49.0% of linoleic) fatty acids, were compared to ice cream based on saturated coconut oil (CO, 50% of lauric acid). The globule size distribution of OO mix during aging (72 h at 4°C) followed a similar...... trend to CO mix, being stable after 48 h; whereas LO mix destabilized after 24 h. CO mix showed higher destabilization during ice cream production, but no significant differences among fats were observed in the particle size of the ice cream produced. The overrun was also lower for OO and LO ice creams...... (34.19 and 27.12%, respectively) compared to CO based ice cream (45.06%). However, an improved melting behavior, which gradually decreased from 88.69% for CO to 66.09% for LO ice cream, was observed....

  6. Microbiological Contamination of Ice Cream Commercially Available in Korea and its Irradiation Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.S.; Kim, H.J.; Jo, C.U.; Kim, D.S.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ice cream product commercially available in Korea was determined using ice bar, ice cream, ice milk and non-milk fat ice cream. Irradiation effect on enhancement of microbiological safety was also investigated at doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy. In all products, yeast and molds were not detected, however, total aerobic and coliform bacteria were detected at 1~2 and 1~1.5 Log CFU/g level, respectively. According to the different flavor used in ice cream, total aerobic bacteria were detected as 2.30, 2.90, and 3.32 Log CFU/g level in vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream, respectively. Yeast and mold was not detected in vanilla ice cream but 2.30 and 2.70 Log CFU/g in chocolate and strawberry ice cream, respectively

  7. Job submission and management through web services the experience with the CREAM service

    CERN Document Server

    Aiftimiei, C; Bertocco, S; Fina, S D; Ronco, S D; Dorigo, A; Gianelle, A; Marzolla, M; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Verlato, M; Zangrando, L; Corvo, M; Miccio, V; Sciabà, A; Cesini, D; Dongiovanni, D; Grandi, C

    2008-01-01

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of ...

  8. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  10. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies

  11. Evaluating topic models with stability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Topic models are unsupervised techniques that extract likely topics from text corpora, by creating probabilistic word-topic and topic-document associations. Evaluation of topic models is a challenge because (a) topic models are often employed...

  12. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyo; Seo, Eun-Sung; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Gang-Tai; You, Young-Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Kook; Jo, Ga-Won; Kim, Nam-Kwen

    2013-11-25

    Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition.This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ health-related quality of life

  13. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. Methods/Designs This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. Discussion This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ

  14. [Efectiveness of topical therapies in patients with breast cancer that experience radiodermatitis. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castro, Mercedes; Martín-Gil, Belén

    2015-01-01

    After radiation therapy most patients experience acute skin toxicity to some degree. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the available evidence concerning the effectivity of topical therapies on patients with breast cancer that experience radiodermatitis after radiotherapy. The review included clinical trials aimed to evaluate topical therapies for prevention or treatment of acute radiodermatitis in women with breast cancer, which were published between 2009 and 2014. The bibliographic search was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cinahl, Cochrane Plus, IBECS and LILACS. The studies were selected independently by peer reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme in its Spanish version. 86 bibliographical references were identified. Twenty full-text articles of clinical trials were assessed and two were excluded because they were not completed; 12 of clinical trials evaluated topical treatment with creams and ointments, three with corticosteroid creams and other three with dressings. The effectivity of human epidermal growth factor cream, linoleic acid emulsion, topical silver sulfadiazine, corticosteroids creams and polyurethane dressings has been shown in these clinical trials. Given that radiodermatitis is a dynamic process, these topical agents were effective in different stages of skin toxicity. Some of them delayed the onset, others decreased the development and severity of acute skin toxicity degree and others improved the subjective symptoms (itching, pain, burning). Only polyurethane dressings suggest effectiveness in all stages of skin toxicity, in prevention, management of the different skin toxicity degrees and improvement of wellbeing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Topical sucralfate decreases pain after hemorrhoidectomy and improves healing: a randomized, blinded, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P J; Heda, P S; Kalaskar, S; Tamaskar, V P

    2008-02-01

    Oral and topical sucralfate is regularly used in ulcers of gastrointestinal tract, vaginal and perianal excoriations, and radiation burns. This study was designed to determine whether there was any advantage of topical application of sucralfate in reducing postoperative pain and promoting wound healing after open hemorrhoidectomy in patients with Grades III or IV hemorrhoids. A total of 116 patients were randomly assigned to receive sucralfate cream (sucralfate group) or placebo cream (control group) applied to the surgical site. Weekly pain score was evaluated by using Visual Analog Scale. The amount of analgesic tablets consumed in each week also was assessed. At the end of four weeks, two independent surgeons assessed the wound healing. There was no significant difference in age, gender distribution, and number of excised hemorrhoid piles between the two groups. Patients in the topical sucralfate group experienced significantly less pain at Day 7 (Visual Analog Scale +/- standard error of the mean, 3.7+/-0.3 vs. 6.1+/-0.7; P<0.002) and at Day 14 (1.6+/-0.2 vs. 3.1+/-0.6; P<0.01). Likewise patients who received sucralfate cream used less analgesic tablets compared with the placebo group. In the sucralfate group, the overall wound healing ranked significantly better than in controls (P<0.02). Topical sucralfate significantly reduces pain at Days 7 and 14 after hemorrhoidectomy and promotes faster wound healing compared with that of a placebo.

  16. Efficacy of Topical Alpha Ointment (Containing Natural Henna Compared to Topical Hydrocortisone (1% in the Healing of Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ansari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This two-arm, randomized clinical study aimed to compare efficacy between topical Alpha ointment and topical hydrocortisone cream (1% in the healing of radiation-induced dermatitis in breast cancer patients. Methods: The inclusion criteria comprised newly pathologically proven, locally advanced breast cancer (treated with modified radical mastectomy followed by sequential adjuvant treatments, including chest wall radiotherapy [45-50.4 Gy] and grade 2 and/or 3 chest wall dermatitis. The exclusion criteria were comprised of any underlying disease or medications interfering with the wound healing process, previous history of chest wall radiotherapy, and concurrent use of chemotherapy. Sixty eligible patients were randomly assigned to use either topical Alpha ointment (study arm, n=30 or topical hydrocortisone cream (1% (control arm, n=30 immediately after receiving a total dose of 45-50 Gy chest wall radiotherapy. Results: The mean radiation dose was 49.1 Gy in the control arm and 48.8 Gy in the study arm. The mean dermatitis area was 13.54 cm2 in the control arm and 17.02 cm2 in the study arm. Topical Alpha ointment was more effective on the healing of radiation-induced dermatitis than was topical hydrocortisone cream (1% (P=0.001. This effect was significant in the second week (P=0.007. In addition, Alpha ointment decreased the patients’ complaints such as pain (P<0.001, pruritus (P=0.009, and discharge (P=0.010 effectively and meaningfully. Conclusion: Topical Alpha ointment was more effective on the healing of radiation-induced dermatitis than was topical hydrocortisone cream (1% in our patients with breast cancer. Trial Registration Numbers: IRCT201206099979N1 ACTRN12612000837820

  17. Efficacy of topical alpha ointment (containing natural henna) compared to topical hydrocortisone (1%) in the healing of radiation-induced dermatitis in patients with breast cancer: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mansour; Farzin, Dehsara; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Omidvari, Shapour; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    This two-arm, randomized clinical study aimed to compare efficacy between topical Alpha ointment and topical hydrocortisone cream (1%) in the healing of radiation-induced dermatitis in breast cancer patients. The inclusion criteria comprised newly pathologically proven, locally advanced breast cancer (treated with modified radical mastectomy followed by sequential adjuvant treatments, including chest wall radiotherapy [45-50.4 Gy]) and grade 2 and/or 3 chest wall dermatitis. The exclusion criteria were comprised of any underlying disease or medications interfering with the wound healing process, previous history of chest wall radiotherapy, and concurrent use of chemotherapy. Sixty eligible patients were randomly assigned to use either topical Alpha ointment (study arm, n=30) or topical hydrocortisone cream (1%) (control arm, n=30) immediately after receiving a total dose of 45-50 Gy chest wall radiotherapy. The mean radiation dose was 49.1 Gy in the control arm and 48.8 Gy in the study arm. The mean dermatitis area was 13.54 cm(2) in the control arm and 17.02 cm(2) in the study arm. Topical Alpha ointment was more effective on the healing of radiation-induced dermatitis than was topical hydrocortisone cream (1%) (P=0.001). This effect was significant in the second week (P=0.007). In addition, Alpha ointment decreased the patients' complaints such as pain (P<0.001), pruritus (P=0.009), and discharge (P=0.010) effectively and meaningfully. Topical Alpha ointment was more effective on the healing of radiation-induced dermatitis than was topical hydrocortisone cream (1%) in our patients with breast cancer. IRCT201206099979N1, ACTRN12612000837820.

  18. Nicoboxil/nonivamide cream effectively and safely reduces acute nonspecific low back pain – a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahova Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zuzana Blahova,1 Janina Claudia Holm,1 Thomas Weiser,2 Erika Richter,2 Matthias Trampisch,2 Elena Akarachkova3 1Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co KG, Vienna, Austria; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 3I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation Background/objective: Low back pain affects many patients and has a high socioeconomic impact. Topical capsaicinoids have been used for decades to treat musculoskeletal pain. This study investigated the effects of the fixed dose combination (FDC of nonivamide (a capsaicinoid and nicoboxil (a nicotinic acid ester cream in the treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain.Materials and methods: This phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, multi-center trial investigated efficacy, safety, and tolerability of topical nicoboxil 1.08%/nonivamide 0.17% (Finalgon® cream in treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain with the endpoints: pain intensity (PI difference between pre-dose baseline and 8 hours after first application and the end of treatment, mobility score, and efficacy score.Results: Patients (n=138, 21–65 years of age, were treated for up to 4 days with FDC or placebo cream. Mean baseline PI was 6.8 on a 0–10 point numerical rating scale. After 8 hours, pain was more reduced with the FDC than with placebo (adjusted means: 2.824 vs. 0.975 points; p<0.0001. On the last treatment day, mean pain reduction by the FDC was stronger than with placebo (adjusted means: 5.132 vs. 2.174 points; p<0.0001. Mobility on Day 1 was in favor of the FDC when compared to placebo (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 7.200 [3.609, 14.363], p<0.0001. At the end of treatment, patients treated with the FDC rated efficacy significantly higher than placebo (odds ratio [95% CI]: 11.370 [5.342, 24.199], p<0.0001. Both treatments were tolerated well. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Nicoboxil

  19. Topical Application of Glycolipids from Isochrysis galbana Prevents Epidermal Hyperplasia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azahara Rodríguez-Luna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis have a significant impact on society. Currently, the major topical treatments have many side effects, making their continued use in patients difficult. Microalgae have emerged as a source of bio-active molecules such as glycolipids with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of a glycolipid (MGMG-A and a glycolipid fraction (MGDG obtained from the microalga Isochrysis galbana on a TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia murine model. In a first set of experiments, we examined the preventive effects of MGMG-A and MGDG dissolved in acetone on TPA-induced hyperplasia model in mice. In a second step, we performed an in vivo permeability study by using rhodamine-containing cream, ointment, or gel to determinate the formulation that preserves the skin architecture and reaches deeper. The selected formulation was assayed to ensure the stability and enhanced permeation properties of the samples in an ex vivo experiment. Finally, MGDG-containing cream was assessed in the hyperplasia murine model. The results showed that pre-treatment with acetone-dissolved glycolipids reduced skin edema, epidermal thickness, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in epidermal tissue. The in vivo and ex vivo permeation studies showed that the cream formulation had the best permeability profile. In the same way, MGDG-cream formulation showed better permeation than acetone-dissolved preparation. MGDG-cream application attenuated TPA-induced skin edema, improved histopathological features, and showed a reduction of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In addition, this formulation inhibited epidermal expression of COX-2 in a similar way to dexamethasone. Our results suggest that an MGDG-containing cream could be an emerging therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory skin pathologies such as psoriasis.

  20. Twice-daily versus once-daily applications of pimecrolimus cream 1% for the prevention of disease relapse in pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruer-Mulard, Mireille; Aberer, Werner; Gunstone, Anthony; Kekki, Outi-Maria; López Estebaranz, Jose Luis; Vertruyen, André; Guettner, Achim; Hultsch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare twice-daily and once-daily applications of pimecrolimus cream 1% for prevention of atopic dermatitis relapses in pediatric patients. This multicenter trial enrolled 300 outpatients aged 2 to 17 years, with mild-to-severe atopic dermatitis. The patients were initially treated with twice-daily topical pimecrolimus until complete clearance or for up to 6 weeks (open-label period). Those who achieved a decrease of at least 1 point in the Investigator's Global Assessment score were then randomized to double-blind treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% either twice daily or once daily for up to 16 weeks. Study medication was discontinued during periods of disease remission (Investigator's Global Assessment = 0). The primary efficacy end point of the double-blind phase was disease relapse (worsening requiring topical corticosteroids or additional/alternative therapy and confirmed by Investigator's Global Assessment score > or = 3 and pruritus score > or = 2). Of the 300 patients enrolled in the study, 268 were randomized to treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% either twice daily or once daily (n = 134 in each group). The relapse rate was lower in the twice-daily dose group (9.9%) than that in the once-daily dose group (14.7%), but analysis of the time to disease relapse, using a Cox proportional model to adjust for confounding variables, did not show a statistically significant difference between treatment arms (hazard ratio: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.31-1.30). Treatment of active atopic dermatitis lesions with pimecrolimus cream 1% twice daily, followed by the once-daily dosing regimen, was sufficient to prevent subsequent atopic dermatitis relapses over 16 weeks in pediatric patients.

  1. Peptide drug stability: The anti-inflammatory drugs Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF in cream formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Nicole; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Gutsmann, Thomas; Goldmann, Torsten; Englisch, Uwe; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2018-03-30

    In previous years, we developed anti-infective drugs based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been shown to effectively block severe infections and inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Besides systemic application, the occurrence of severe local infections necessitates a topical application for example in the case of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Recent investigations show that the synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptide (SALP) Pep19-2.5 (Aspidasept® I) and a variant called Pep19-4LF (Aspidasept® II) are able to supress inflammation reactions also in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells from the skin. For topical application, a possible formulation represents the drug dispersed into a pharmaceutical cream (DAC base cream). Here, we present investigations on the stability of the peptides using this formulation in dependence on time, which includes the evaluation of the extraction procedure, the quantitative analysis of the peptides after extraction, its sensitivity to protease degradation and its ability to maintain activity against LPS-induced inflammation in vitro. We have developed an extraction procedure for the peptides with an optimum yield and showed that Pep19-2.5 is present as a dimer after extraction from the cream, whereas Pep19-4LF retains its monomeric form. Both peptides show no degradation by chymotrypsin after extraction for at least 1 h, which is indicative for an attachment of constituents of the base cream, inhibiting the cutting into peptidic part structures. The extracted peptides and in particular the dimeric Pep19-2.5 are still able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation reaction in human mononuclear cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of HACCP system in the ice cream production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meho Bašić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For enhancement of quality in all production segments, the ice cream factory «SA&JACOM» Sarajevo has made a decision to introduce a system of quality control and health safety for all of its products.Possible critical control points were analyzed and successfully specified, with hazard reduction to tolerant level, and in some cases with total hazard elimination. Using HACCP methodology, it is expected that the factory will produce the ice-creams with reliable preliminary established quality and accepted level of hygienic and health safety. All the activities are applied in a precise and documented way, so the products of this factory achieve trust of the customers and provide an official production certificate.

  3. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 °C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  4. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula, E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.c [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ecuador 3769, Santiago (Chile); Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEP 36570-000, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Miltz, Joseph [Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 {sup o}C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  5. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 o C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  6. Women's Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print National Women's Health Week May 13 - 19, 2018 Join us ...

  7. Regulatory Information By Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  8. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at {sup 6}0{sup C}o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  9. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at 6 0 C o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  10. ICE CREAM WITH A COMBINED COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khodyreva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  11. Freshman Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  12. Treatment of melasma with a depigmentation cream determined with colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabancilar, Emine; Aydin, Fatma; Bek, Yuksel; Ozden, Muge Guler; Ozcan, Muharrem; Senturk, Nilgün; Canturk, Tayyar; Turanli, Ahmet Yasar

    2011-10-01

    Melasma is a pigmentary disorder often recalcitrant to treatment. Few studies have objectively evaluated the efficacy of treatment colorimetrically. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a depigmentation cream, including mainly glycolic acid and Rumex occidentalis. Twenty-seven patients applied the cream twice daily for the first 3 months and twice weekly for the following 3 months. L*, C* and h* values of the target lesions and the perilesional area were analyzed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks colorimetrically. The physician and patient evaluated the clinical response rate. These results were compared statistically between the lesional and perilesional area. There was a significant difference between 0-12, 0-24 (L*, C* and h* values) and 12-24 weeks (L* value) (p <0.001). For C* and h* values, the difference was not significant between 12 and 24 weeks (p = 0.464 and 0.151, respectively). Statistical significance was detected only between 3 and 6 months for C* value (p < 0.05) for the lesional and the perilesional areas. Clinical response rate was significant (p < 0.05). Our depigmentation cream is a moderate effective agent, well tolerated and can be considered as an alternative treatment of melasma. Twice-daily application may enhance the efficacy of treatment instead of twice-weekly application in the maintenance period.

  13. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Josué VILLALVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and prebiotics (inulin, and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbohydrates; 9.87% inulin; 1.22% ash; 0.201% calcium, 0.155% phosphorus and 0.168% sodium. On the first and 21th day of storage counts of B. lactis Bb – 12 was 4 x 108 CFU/mL and 1.5 x 107 CFU/mL, respectively. It was possible to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories, fat, and sugar and with potential symbiotic effect, by addition of B. lactis Bb – 12. A product with suitable organoleptic characteristics, creamy texture, peachy colour, taste and flavour, and no ice crystals was obtained. This ice cream would be a suitable food matrix to incorporate prebiotic and probiotic ingredients as a potential symbiotic food.

  14. Proton and Helium Spectra from the CREAM-III Flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y. S.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, S. E. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 (United States); Anderson, T.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Mognet, S. I. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Barrau, A.; Derome, L. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Jeon, J. A.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J.; Park, I. H. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Link, J. T.; Mitchell, J. W. [Astrophysics Space Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Menchaca-Rocha, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Nutter, S. [Department of Physics, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099 (United States); and others

    2017-04-10

    Primary cosmic-ray elemental spectra have been measured with the balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment since 2004. The third CREAM payload (CREAM-III) flew for 29 days during the 2007–2008 Antarctic season. Energies of incident particles above 1 TeV are measured with a calorimeter. Individual elements are clearly separated with a charge resolution of ∼0.12 e (in charge units) and ∼0.14 e for protons and helium nuclei, respectively, using two layers of silicon charge detectors. The measured proton and helium energy spectra at the top of the atmosphere are harder than other existing measurements at a few tens of GeV. The relative abundance of protons to helium nuclei is 9.53 ± 0.03 for the range of 1 TeV/n to 63 TeV/n. This ratio is considerably smaller than other measurements at a few tens of GeV/n. The spectra become softer above ∼20 TeV. However, our statistical uncertainties are large at these energies and more data are needed.

  15. Sensory Acceptability of Squash (Cucurbita Maximain Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - This experimental research was conducted to determine the sensory acceptability of mashed squash (Cucurbita Maxima of different proportions in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, taste and general acceptability. Five treatments were formulated in the study—four of which utilized mashed squash at various proportions and one treatment was used as the control variable which contains no mashed squash at all. The respondents of the study were the 20 Food Technology students and 10 faculty members of West Visayas State University Calinog Campus who were selected through random sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Six Point Hedonic Scale. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The 0.01 alpha level was used as the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. The result of the study led to the conclusion that there is a significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, and general acceptability, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, no significant difference in the level of acceptability of using mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of taste and texture.

  16. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Plain Awful is an imaginary valley on the Andes populated by a highly-imitative, cubical people for which the most criminal offence is to exhibit round objects. The duck family (Scrooge, Donald and nephews) are teaming against Scrooge's worst enemy, Flintheart Glomgold, trying to buy the famous Plain Awful square eggs. Inadvertently, Scrooge violates the taboo, showing his Number One Dime, and is imprisoned in the stone quarries. He can be released only after the presentation of an ice cream soda to the President of Plain Awful. Donald and his nephews fly with Flintheart to deliver it, but Scrooge's enemy, of course, betrays the previous agreement after getting the ice cream, forcing the ducks into making an emergence replacement on the spot. Using dried milk, sugar and chocolate from their ration packs, plus some snow and salt for cooling they are able make the ice cream, and after dressing it with the carbonated water from a fire extinguisher they finally manage to produce the desired dessert. This comic may serve as an introduction to the "mysterious" phenomenon that added salt melts the ice and, even more surprising, does it by lowering the temperature of the mixture.

  17. Sensory evaluation of gamma irradiated coconut cream powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Norimah Yusof; Zainab Harun

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation (5, 10 and 15kGy) and storage on the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. Ageing process was achieved using GEER oven at 60 degree C for seven days, which is equivalent to one-year storage at room temperature. The sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the level of acceptance on four parameters, namely odour, colour, creamy taste and overall acceptance. Twenty (20) taste panelists gave their score from scale] (least acceptable) to 5 (most acceptable). The results showed that there was a significant different (P 0. 05) in all the sensory properties. The sensory evaluation of stored samples showed that there was significant different (P>0.05) in odour, creamy taste, colour and overall acceptance compared to the control. Based on the overall acceptance, gamma irradiation as low as 5 kGy could affect the sensory quality of coconut cream powder. The possibility of using doses lower than 5 kGy for decontamination of coconut cream powder could be considered in the future study. The irradiated product was not acceptable after one-year storage. (Author)

  18. Energy consumption optimization of a continuous ice cream process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Ramírez, J.E.; Leducq, D.; Arellano, M.; Alvarez, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This work investigates potential energy savings of an ice cream freezer. • From a full load compressor to a variable speed compressor one in freezer. • 30% less of energy consumption. • It is possible to save between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing freezers. - Abstract: This work investigates potential energy saves in an ice cream freezer by using a variable speed compressor and optimization’s methodology for operating conditions during the process. Two configurations to control the refrigeration capacity were analyzed, the first one, modifies the pressure through the pilot control valve (conventional refrigeration system) and the second one with a variable speed compressor, both with a float expansion valve. Variable speed compressor configuration has showed the highest coefficient of performance and around of 30% less of energy consumption than the conventional one. The optimization of operating conditions in order to minimize the energy consumption is also presented. It was calculated only in France, for all ice cream and sorbet production, it is possible to save energy between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing the operation of the refrigeration system through a variable speed compressor configuration

  19. The Effectiveness of Topical Pimecrolimus in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kamil Mülayim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that affects the skin and the mucosa, especially the oral mucosa. Several therapeutic agents have been investigated for the treatment of OLP. All agents used in the OLP therapy are palliative. Potent topical steroids are used as the conventional therapy for OLP. Since side-effects or steroid resistance may be encountered, alternative treatments may be necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the topical pimecrolimus in the treatment of OLP. Methods: Seventeen patients with OLP were recruited into this study. Topical pimecrolimus 1% cream was applied twice a day to the affected areas. Patients were followed up for 3-6 months. Photographs of the lesions were taken and analyzed for areas of ulceration, erythema, and reticulation in every clinical examination. Results: We found that topical pimecrolimus 1% cream was an effective treatment for OLP. Two patients could not complete the treatment protocol because of the side effects such as local irritation and nausea. Conclusion: Topical pimecrolimus may be a valuable second treatment choice for patients with steroid-related side-effects or steroid-resistant OLP. However further randomized controlled studies have to be conducted to compare conventional treatment of topical corticosteroid with topical pimecrolimus.

  20. Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Containing Fermented Pepper Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Seo, Han-Geuk; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physical and sensory properties of ice cream containing fermented pepper powder. Three ice cream formulas were manufactured: 1, control; 2, supplemented with 0.1% fermented pepper powder; and 3, supplemented with 0.2% fermented pepper powder. Formulas 2 and 3 had significantly higher viscosity and lower overrun than formula 1 ( p ice creams supplemented with fermented pepper powder were harder and maintained their forms longer than the controls. 0.2% fermented pepper powder added ice cream had no pungency as much as that of control and overall sensory attribute was not significantly different from control. Therefore, ice cream containing fermented pepper powder maintained physical and sensory properties similar to the controls, and maintenance was better. It means fermented pepper powder ice cream can be utilized as the material of functional food (dessert).

  1. Application of PC-CREAM in the Netherlands. Dose impact due to atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleveld, H.; Twenhoefel, C.J.W.; Pruppers, M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A methodology to assess the radiological impact of routine releases, CREAM, was developed at the National Radiological Protection Board (UK). The software implementation of that methodology to the PC platform, PC-CREAM, has been compared to the Dutch regulation guidelines. The results of the PC-CREAM software and previous RIVM studies are compared for two specific reference situations and eleven naturally occurring radionuclides. The methodology in the submodels in PC-CREAM is also studied and compared to the Dutch regulation guidelines. The assessment of the radiological impact for atmospheric releases using PC-CREAM showed good agreement with the results obtained in previous RIVM studies. Some changes and additions in the methodology are proposed to be able to calculate the radiological impact using PC-CREAM in other relevant reference situations

  2. Fractional Microneedling: A Novel Method for Enhancement of Topical Anesthesia Before Skin Aesthetic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakahany, Hasan; Medhat, Walid; Abdallah, Fahd; Abdel-Raouf, Hamza; Abdelhakeem, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Skin microneedling or fractional microneedle therapy is a recent approach used for skin rejuvenation or to enhance transdermal delivery of topical medications. The authors evaluated the efficacy of skin microneedling, using an automated device, to enhance the numbing effect of topical anesthesia, used before minimally invasive aesthetic approaches. Fifteen patients, looking for treatment of atrophic acne scars, were subjected to randomized split-face study comparing automated fractional skin microneedling (0.5 mm depth) followed by application of topical anesthetic cream (Lidocaine 2.5% + Prilocaine 2.5%) on one side of face, with topical anesthesia alone on the other side, followed by full face fractional microneedling treatment for postacne scars (2.5 mm depth). The treated sides (fractional needling + topical anesthesia) had significantly lower pain scores when compared with the nontreated sides (topical anesthesia alone). The scores of pain sensation, during the whole procedure, were statistically significantly (p aesthetic procedures can be enhanced with fractional microneedling pretreatment.

  3. Potential of novel drug delivery systems in the management of topical candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Mahima; Devi, V Kusum

    2017-09-01

    High prevalence of topical fungal infections is perceived in majority of nations worldwide accounting for numerous serious systemic complications. Of several fungal infections, candidiasis is one of the widespread infections which is manifested due to localisation and proliferation of fungi. Present pharmacotherapy offers an effective treatment but possesses serious limitations like inadequate solubility, ineffectiveness in lowering diseased condition and patient incompliance. Several attempts to overcome these shortcomings and building suitable technology platforms for development of appropriate dosage forms which can enhance effectiveness, patient acceptability while maintaining safety, efficacy and affordability of drug delivery, have been made. Present review highlights on different types of fungal infections, its aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology and conventional formulations used. It also emphasises on applications of several novel approaches of anti-fungal drugs demonstrating advantages and limitations. Details regarding patterns of drug release and its site specificity with better patient compliance have been focussed. Etiology and pathogenesis of candidiasis should be understood clearly. Mentioned novel dosage forms should be explored to enhance therapeutic efficacy, subsequently investigating marketability and patentability. Nanoparticles seem to be a promising approach befitting all requirements.

  4. Dual anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic action of topical ivermectin 1% in papulopustular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, M; Gonser, L; Belge, K; Braunsdorf, C; Nordin, R; Scheu, A; Borelli, C

    2017-11-01

    Recently, therapy of rosacea with inflammatory lesions (papulopustular) has improved substantially with the approval of topical ivermectin 1% cream. It is assumed to have a dual mode of action with anti-inflammatory capacities and anti-parasitic effects against Demodex, which however has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. To find scientific rationale for the dual anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic mode of action of topical ivermectin 1% cream in patients with rosacea. A monocentric pilot study was performed including 20 caucasion patients with moderate to severe rosacea, as assessed by investigator global assessment (IGA score ≥3) and a Demodex density ≥15/cm 2 . Patients were treated with topical ivermectin 1% cream once daily (Soolantra ® ) for ≥12 weeks. The density of Demodex mites was assessed with skin surface biopsies. Expression of inflammatory and immune markers was evaluated with RT-PCR and by immunofluorescence staining. The mean density of mites was significantly decreased at week 6 and week 12 (P < 0.001). The gene expression levels of IL-8, LL-37, HBD3, TLR4 and TNF-α were downregulated at both time points. Reductions in gene expression were significant for LL-37, HBD3 and TNF-α at both follow-up time points and at week 12 for TLR4 (all P < 0.05). Reduced LL-37 expression (P < 0.05) and IL-8 expression were confirmed on the protein level by immunofluorescence staining. All patients improved clinically, and 16 of 20 patients reached therapeutic success defined as IGA score ≤1. Topical ivermectin 1% cream acts by a dual, anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic mode of action against rosacea by killing Demodex spp. in vivo, in addition to significantly improving clinical signs and symptoms in the skin. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Sandalwood Oil and Turmeric-Based Cream Prevents Ionizing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the benefit of Vicco turmeric Ayurvedic cream (VTC; Vicco Laboratories, Mumbai, India sandalwood oil and turmeric-based cream in preventing radiodermatitis in women undergoing curative radiotherapy for their breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study was an investigator-blinded randomized study with Johnsons Baby Oil (JBO; Johnson & Johnson Ltd., Baddi, India as a comparator, administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in women receiving breast radiation therapy, 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions daily for 5 weeks. The endpoints were to ascertain the delay in the appearance and the degree of severity of dermatitis throughout the study period in accordance to the Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG score. Results: The results indicated that the topical application of VTC delayed and mitigated the radiodermatitis. When compared to the Johnson’s Baby Oil, a significant decrease (p = 0.025 in the incidence of grade 1 was seen at week two, and also in grade 2 and 3 at week 3 (p = 0.003 and week 4 (p = 0.02, respectively, in the VTC cohort. A concomitant decrease in the average severity was also observed at week 2 (p = 0.02, week 3 (p = 0.05 and week 4 (p = 0.03. Conclusions: The results indicate that VTC cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. The result of this study indicates the beneficial effects. Double blind randomized control studies are required to further confirm the beneficial effects of VTC in mitigating radiodermatitis is people undergoing radiation treatment for their cancer.

  6. Mercury Contamination of Skin-whitening Creams in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion. Some producers of skin-whitening creams in Thailand, China and Taiwan appear to be aware of the risks of mercury contamination and have modified their products. However, other producers of skin-whitening creams continue to use mercury. XRF analysis allows for rapid screening of mercury in cosmetics and should be used to gather additional information on mercury content in cosmetics in support of public health efforts to stem the import, export and sales of skin creams containing mercury.

  7. Development of Job’s tears ice cream recipes with carrot juice and pumpkin paste

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2011-01-01

    Carrot juice and pumpkin paste were used as ingredients in Job’s tears ice cream. Carrot juice or pumpkin paste added at 50% was equally preferred by 100 consumers compared to the original Job’s tears ice cream. The new types of ice cream were lower in antioxidant capacity and higher in total phenolic content but could still be considered as potential antioxidant products. Purchase intent was significantly increased (p

  8. Automatic ice-cream characterization by impedance measurements for optimal machine setting

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi , Marco; Lanzoni , Massimo; Lazzarini , Roberto; Riccò , Bruno

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Electrical characterization of products is gaining increasing interest in the food industry for quality monitoring and control. In particular, this is the case in the ice-cream industry, where machines dedicated to store ice-cream mixes are programmed ''ad hoc'' for different groups of products. To this purpose, the present work shows that essential product classification (discrimination between milk based and fruit based ice-cream mixes) can be done by means of a tech...

  9. Production and Evaluation of Ice Cream from Nigerian Tiger-Nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ice cream was prepared from water-soluble extracts of the yellow variety of Nigerian tiger-nut. A modified standard method was used for the production of the tiger-nut milk ice cream. The resulting ice cream had pH of 7.10, 35% Brix, specific gravity of 1.0888 and total solids of 45.67%. The proximate composition of the ice ...

  10. Patch test reactivity to feverfew-containing creams in feverfew-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    with feverfew contact allergy were patch tested with two creams containing the feverfew extract. Subsequently, the creams were analysed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to detect parthenolide. Results: Four of the patients tested positive to one of the creams; reactivity was associated......-sensitive patients. The reactivity may be enhanced by simultaneous testing with parthenolide, but the reactivity is lost over time, probably because of degradation of parthenolide....

  11. Determination of toxic elements in beauty creams by X-ray spectrometric techniques (2001-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    War-War-Myo-Aung

    2002-01-01

    This paper is carried out to examine the contents of toxic heavy metals in various kinds of beauty creams by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF). By applying EDXRF system, it si found that most of the beauty creams contained titanium and zinc, and some of the beauty creams contained lead, bismuth, iron and mercury. Among the heavy toxic metals, mercury is the most harmful to human's health. (author)

  12. Frequent ice cream consumption is associated with reduced striatal response to receipt of an ice cream-based milkshake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain leads to reduced reward-region responsivity to energy-dense food receipt, and consumption of an energy-dense diet compared with an isocaloric, low-energy-density diet leads to reduced dopamine receptors. Furthermore, phasic dopamine signaling to palatable food receipt decreases after repeated intake of that food, which collectively suggests that frequent intake of an energy-dense food may reduce striatal response to receipt of that food. We tested the hypothesis that frequent ice cream consumption would be associated with reduced activation in reward-related brain regions (eg, striatum) in response to receipt of an ice cream-based milkshake and examined the influence of adipose tissue and the specificity of this relation. Healthy-weight adolescents (n = 151) underwent fMRI during receipt of a milkshake and during receipt of a tasteless solution. Percentage body fat, reported food intake, and food craving and liking were assessed. Milkshake receipt robustly activated the striatal regions, yet frequent ice cream consumption was associated with a reduced response to milkshake receipt in these reward-related brain regions. Percentage body fat, total energy intake, percentage of energy from fat and sugar, and intake of other energy-dense foods were not related to the neural response to milkshake receipt. Our results provide novel evidence that frequent consumption of ice cream, independent of body fat, is related to a reduction in reward-region responsivity in humans, paralleling the tolerance observed in drug addiction. Data also imply that intake of a particular energy-dense food results in attenuated reward-region responsivity specifically to that food, which suggests that sensory aspects of eating and reward learning may drive the specificity.

  13. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct....... The grammatical relation of the topic is expressed by a voice-like inflection of the verb, here called orientation. While subject-orientation is morphologically unmarked, object-oriented and adjunct-oriented verbs are marked by a subject suffix or by a suffix indicating that the topic is not subject, and adjunct......-orientation differs from object-orientation by a marked tone pattern. Topic choice largely reflects information structure by indicating topic continuity. The topic also plays a crucial role in relative clauses and in clauses with contrastive constituent focus, in that objects and adjuncts can only be relativized...

  14. A critical overview: The reason for the public sector’s ice cream production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkan KARAGÖZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas, the public sector in Turkey has withdrawn from the production of private goods, the public sector in Turkey still has produces ice cream. In recent years, related public enterprise has taken up the capacity expansion of ice cream production. And also, it has got a target of growing market share. However, there isn’t a strong argument about the public sector’s ice cream production. In this study, it is researched that why the public sector in Turkey produces ice cream.

  15. Job submission and management through web services: the experience with the CREAM service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiftimiei, C; Andreetto, P; Bertocco, S; Fina, S D; Ronco, S D; Dorigo, A; Gianelle, A; Marzolla, M; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Verlato, M; Zangrando, L; Corvo, M; Miccio, V; Sciaba, A; Cesini, D; Dongiovanni, D; Grandi, C

    2008-01-01

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of CREAM and ICE in gLite. We also discuss recent work towards enhancing CREAM with a BES and JSDL compliant interface

  16. Assessment of Physical Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Polysiloxane Polyalkyl Polyether Copolymer-Based Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate the changes on physical stability (color, creaming, liquefaction, pH, conductivity, centrifugation, viscosity and rheological parameters by non-ionic surfactant polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams following inclusion of plant extract containing phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the plant extract alone and after addition in the cream was assessed using the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Physical stability was assessed by submitting the creams to storage at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C, and at 40°C with 70% RH (relative humidity for a period of two months. Physical characteristics of polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams, that is, color, creaming, liquefaction, centrifugation and pH were noted at various intervals for 2 months. The viscosities and rheological behavior of creams were determined using a rotational rheometer. Data were analyzed by using Brookfield Software Rheocalc version (2.6 with IPC Paste and Power Law (PL math models. Cream with plant extract showed pseudo plastic behaviour with decreasing on viscosity. The Acacia nilotica (AN extract alone and the cream containing this extract showed great antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Power Law and IPC analysis were found to fit all the rheograms.

  17. Job submission and management through web services: the experience with the CREAM service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiftimiei, C; Andreetto, P; Bertocco, S; Fina, S D; Ronco, S D; Dorigo, A; Gianelle, A; Marzolla, M; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Verlato, M; Zangrando, L [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Corvo, M; Miccio, V; Sciaba, A [CERN, BAT. 28-1-019, 1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Cesini, D; Dongiovanni, D [INFN CNAF, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Grandi, C [INFN Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of CREAM and ICE in gLite. We also discuss recent work towards enhancing CREAM with a BES and JSDL compliant interface.

  18. Application of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) strain in fruit-based ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Fernando, Sirimali; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur; Arsekularatne, Mariam

    2013-11-01

    A study was performed to apply a probiotic strain into fermented ice cream mix with suitable fruit bases to develop a value-added product with a substantial level of viable organisms for a sufficient shelf life. Pure direct vat strain culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) in freeze-dried form was inoculated into a mixture of ice cream, frozen, and the number of viable organisms during frozen storage for a period of time was enumerated, using turbidity measurements with a spectrophotometer. An ice cream sample prepared without the probiotic culture was compared with the test sample for quality, by testing the basic quality parameters for ice cream. Results show a reduction in the over run of the probiotic ice cream compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly high level (P ice cream. Significantly low pH level in the probiotic sample may be due to the lactic acid produced by the probiotic culture. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the fat content in the two types of ice cream was observed. A significantly low level (P ice cream. Results show the presence of a sufficient number of viable organisms in the product for the 10-week period, which would be beneficial to consumers.

  19. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Blayney, D P; Yen, S T; Cooper, J

    2009-12-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine the effect that changes in retail prices and consumer income have on at-home ice cream consumption. The analysis was based on Nielsen 2005 home scan retail data and used marital status, age, race, education, female employment status, and location in the estimations of aggregate demand elasticities. Results revealed that price and consumer income were the main determinants of demand for ice cream products. Calculated own-price elasticities indicated relatively elastic responses by consumers for all categories except for compensated bulk ice cream. All expenditure elasticities were inelastic except for bulk ice cream, and most of the ice cream categories were substitutes. Ongoing efforts to examine consumer demand for these products will assist milk producers, dairy processors and manufacturers, and dairy marketers as they face changing consumer responses to food and diet issues.

  20. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef W. Naguib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter. In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5% was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy.

  1. UVB-induced epidermal hyperproliferation is modified by a single, topical treatment with a mitosis inhibitory epidermal pentapeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.M.; Elgjo, K.

    1990-01-01

    A single application of a water-miscible cream base containing the recently identified mitosis inhibitory epidermal pentapeptide pyroGlu-Glu-Asp-Ser-GlyOH (EPP) to hairless mouse skin is followed by a long-lasting period of reduced epidermal cell proliferation. To examine if a similar growth inhibition could be achieved in stimulated and rapidly proliferating epidermis, EPP was applied at two different concentrations, 0.005 or 0.02%, to hairless mouse skin immediately after exposure of the left flank to an erythemic dose of ultraviolet B light (UVB). This dose of UVB alone induces a sustained period of rapid epidermal cell proliferation, starting at about 18 h after the irradiation. Epidermal cell proliferation was followed from 18 to 54 h (0.005% cream) or from 18 to 30 h (0.02% cream) after the treatment by estimating the rate of G2-M cell flux (the mitotic rate) by means of Colcemid, and epidermal DNA synthesis by counting labeled cells after pulse-labeling with 3H-thymidine. The unirradiated side of the mice was used as reference. The results showed that topical treatment with a 0.02% EPP cream partially inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperproliferation, while the 0.005% EPP cream inhibited as well as stimulated the UVB-induced hyperproliferation. Thus, EPP is effective even in rapidly proliferating epidermal cell populations, but the outcome is obviously dose-dependent in this test system

  2. Application of silver sulfadiazine cream with early surgical intervention in patients suffering from combined burn-blast injury facial tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention.

  3. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  4. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  5. Accumulation of mercury in ovaries of mice after the application of skin-lightening creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Al-Amodi, Mona

    2009-10-01

    Skin-lightening creams are being increasingly used by women in particular, worldwide in an attempt to whiten their skin. Men and older people use these creams to remove age spots or other pigmentation disorders. Several studies have reported the presence of high mercury levels in skin-lightening cream. Women, especially pregnant and nursing mothers, who use these creams are at risk of mercury toxicity because long-term exposure can cause permanent neurological damage, nephrological disorders, fertility problems, and birth defects. Early exposure usually has no clinical symptoms. Mercury levels were measured in a total of 49 ovary tissue samples. The mean mercury contents in the ovaries of non-treated mice (11.70 +/- 13.38 ng/g) were compared to mice treated with Rose skin-lightening cream samples (2,471.92 +/- 1,336.31 ng/g) and those treated with Fair & Lovely skin-lightening creams (58.47 +/- 39.51 ng/g). The mercury content in the ovary tissues increased with number of cream applications and were highest in the ovaries of mice treated twice a day with Fair & Lovely (87.79 +/- 26.20 ng/g) and once a day with Rose (3,515.61 +/- 1,099.78 ng/g). Our data indicate that dermal exposure to mercury can result in a significant accumulation in the ovaries of mice following the application of skin-lightening cream. This may cause alterations in reproductive behavior and contribute to infertility or ovarian failure. Of course, these results need to be confirmed by further research. Imported or locally made skin-lightening creams are widely available in Saudi market. It would be ideal to ban the sale of these creams but unfortunately, advertisements in the mass media presenting celebrities and beauty specialists make these products more popular. Alternatively, public health authorities should encourage more reliance on prescribed creams for the treatment of skin pigmentation problems.

  6. Investigation of Lipid Oxidation in the Raw Materials of a Topical Skin Formulation: A Topical Skin Formulation Containing a High Lipid Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Taylor, Richard; Madsen, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lipid oxidation often occurs in topical skin formulations which can affect product odor (both positively and negatively). Furthermore, odor detection threshold values and odor descriptors of identified volatile oxidation products in cleansing and skin cream...... formulation prototypes were recently determined by a trained sensory panel at the Technical University of Denmark in the Division of Food Technology. In this study, we investigated lipid oxidation in a prototype skin cream formulation as well as in selected cosmetic skin care raw materials. Lipid oxidation...... was also identified. In addition, the concentrations of several well-known lipid oxidation products increased during storage and were suggested to originate primarily from rice bran wax, which oxidized more readily than other raw materials due to its unsaturated nature....

  7. Influence of the protective cream and synthetic zeolites on the transfer of the 60Co across the skin of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassai, Z.; Koprda, V.; Harangozo, M.; Palinkasova, A.; Bauerova, K.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the influence of protection cream and synthetic zeolite on the transfer of the cobalt-60 across the skin of rat was examined. Influence of different methods of cream application on kinetics of cobalt-60 permeation is described

  8. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    OpenAIRE

    VILLALVA, Fernando Josué; CRAVERO BRUNERI, Andrea Paula; VINDEROLA, Gabriel; GONÇALVEZ DE OLIVEIRA, Enzo; PAZ, Noelia Fernanda; RAMÓN, Adriana Noemí

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) and prebiotics (inulin), and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbo...

  9. Effect of fluocinolone acetonide cream on human skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoskey, J.E.; Holloway, A. Jr.; Flanagan, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Blood flow rate was measured in the forearm skin of human subjects exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Blood flow was determined by the 133 Xe disappearance technique 18 hr after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with a Westinghouse RS sunlamp held 10 inches from the skin for 10 min. Ultraviolet irradiation caused skin blood flow to increase. Application of fluocinolone acetonide cream, 0.025 percent, 4 times in the 16 hr following UV irradiation had no effect on either control skin blood flow or the UV-induced hyperemia

  10. Connecting the dots between bacterial biofilms and ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.; MacPhee, Cait E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerging research is revealing a diverse array of interfacially-active proteins that are involved in varied biological process from foaming horse sweat to bacterial raincoat formation. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to study the molecular and biophysical mechanisms controlling the activity of an unusual bacterial protein called BslA. This protein is needed for biofilm formation and forms a protective layer or raincoat over the bacterial community, but also has a multitude of potential applications in multiphase formulations. Here we document our journey from fundamental research to an examination of the applications for this surface-active protein in ice cream.

  11. Efficacy of Topical Therapy with Newly Developed Terbinafine and Econazole Formulations in the Treatment of Dermatophytosis in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaskiene, M; Matusevicius, A P; Grigonis, A; Zamokas, G; Babickaite, L

    2016-09-01

    In the field of veterinary dermatology dermatophytosis is one of the most frequently occurring infectious diseases, therefore its treatment should be effective, convenient, safe and inexpensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed topical formulations in the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of terbinafine and econazole formulations administered topically twice a day was performed in 40 cats. Cats, suffering from the most widely spread Microsporum canis-induced dermatophytosis and treated with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream, recovered within 20.3±0.88 days; whereas when treated with econazole nitrate 1% cream, they recovered within 28.4±1.14 days. A positive therapeutic effect was yielded by combined treatment with local application of creams and whole coat spray with enilconazole 0.2% emulsion "Imaverol". Most cats treated with econazole cream revealed redness and irritation of the skin at the site of application. This study demonstrates that terbinafine tended to have superior clinical efficacy (p<0.001) in the treatment of dermatophytosis in cats compared to the azole tested.

  12. Pectin from Citrus Canning Wastewater as Potential Fat Replacer in Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Jianle; Li, Junhui; Wei, Chaoyang; Ye, Xingqian; Shi, John; Chen, Shiguo

    2018-04-17

    Pectin had been recovered from canning wastewater produced by chemical treatment of segment membrane during preparation of canned citrus in our previous research. The purpose of this study was to characterize the extracted pectin from canning wastewater, and to evaluate its application as a fat alternative to replace fat in ice cream. The monosaccharide composition and rheological properties of the pectin were determined. The influences of fat reduction and pectin addition on the physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of low-fat ice cream were determined. The rheological results showed that pectin solutions were typical pseudoplastic fluids. The addition of pectin in ice cream can cause an increase in viscosity, overrun, and hardness, and a decrease in meltdown of the ice cream. When 0.72% pectin ( w / w ) is incorporated into ice cream, a prototype product of ice cream with 45% lower fat content compared to the control was made. Results indicated that their qualities such as appearance, flavor, and taste were not significantly different. The low-fat ice cream had higher smoothness scores and lower mouth-coating scores. Hence, pectin extracted from citrus canning wastewater can be potentially used as fat replacer in ice cream, which benefits both the environment and the food industry.

  13. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  14. Pectin from Citrus Canning Wastewater as Potential Fat Replacer in Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectin had been recovered from canning wastewater produced by chemical treatment of segment membrane during preparation of canned citrus in our previous research. The purpose of this study was to characterize the extracted pectin from canning wastewater, and to evaluate its application as a fat alternative to replace fat in ice cream. The monosaccharide composition and rheological properties of the pectin were determined. The influences of fat reduction and pectin addition on the physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of low-fat ice cream were determined. The rheological results showed that pectin solutions were typical pseudoplastic fluids. The addition of pectin in ice cream can cause an increase in viscosity, overrun, and hardness, and a decrease in meltdown of the ice cream. When 0.72% pectin (w/w is incorporated into ice cream, a prototype product of ice cream with 45% lower fat content compared to the control was made. Results indicated that their qualities such as appearance, flavor, and taste were not significantly different. The low-fat ice cream had higher smoothness scores and lower mouth-coating scores. Hence, pectin extracted from citrus canning wastewater can be potentially used as fat replacer in ice cream, which benefits both the environment and the food industry.

  15. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başyiğit, Gülden; Kuleaşan, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

    2006-09-01

    A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product.

  16. Calcipotriol cream in the morning and ointment in the evening: a novel regimen to improve compliance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Franssen, M.; Brassinne, M. de la; Kuipers, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcipotriol ointment and calcipotriol cream have both been shown to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. AIM: To find out the patient compliance, efficacy and tolerance to a regimen of a calcipotriol cream application in the morning and a calcipotriol ointment application in the

  17. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream.

  18. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means?end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). ...

  19. Topical erythropoietin promotes wound repair in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Ullmann, Yehuda; Masoud, Muhannad; Hellou, Elias; Khamaysi, Ziad; Teot, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing in diabetic patients is slower than in healthy individuals. Erythropoietin (EPO) has non-hemopoietic targets in the skin, and systemically administered EPO promotes wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of topical EPO treatment on defective wound repair in the skin of diabetic rats. Full-thickness excisional skin wounds were made in 38 rats, of which 30 had diabetes. The wounds were then treated topically with a cream that contained either vehicle, 600 IU ml(-1) EPO (low dose), or 3,000 IU ml(-1) (high dose) EPO. We assessed the rate of wound closure during the 12-day treatment period, and microvascular density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hydroxyproline (HP) contents, and the extent of apoptosis in wound tissues at the end of the 12-day treatment period. Topical EPO treatment significantly reduced the time to final wound closure. This increased rate of closure of the two EPO-treated wounds in diabetic rats was associated with increased MVD, VEGF, and HP contents, and a reduced extent of apoptosis. In light of our finding that topical EPO treatment promotes skin wound repair in diabetic rats, we propose that topical EPO treatment is a therapeutically beneficial method of treating chronic diabetic wounds.

  20. Effect of storage temperature on quality of light and full-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyck, J R; Baer, R J; Choi, J

    2011-05-01

    Ice cream quality is dependent on many factors including storage temperature. Currently, the industry standard for ice cream storage is -28.9 °C. Ice cream production costs may be decreased by increasing the temperature of the storage freezer, thus lowering energy costs. The first objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of 4 storage temperatures on the quality of commercial vanilla-flavored light and full-fat ice cream. Storage temperatures used were -45.6, -26.1, and -23.3 °C for the 3 treatments and -28.9 °C as the control or industry standard. Ice crystal sizes were analyzed by a cold-stage microscope and image analysis at 1, 19.5, and 39 wk of storage. Ice crystal size did not differ among the storage temperatures of light and full-fat ice creams at 19.5 or 39 wk. An increase in ice crystal size was observed between 19.5 and 39 wk for all storage temperatures except -45.6 °C. Coldness intensity, iciness, creaminess, and storage/stale off-flavor of the light and full-fat ice creams were evaluated at 39 wk of storage. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference among the different storage temperatures for light and full-fat ice creams. In a second study, light and full-fat ice creams were heat shocked by storing at -28.9 °C for 35 wk and then alternating between -23.3 and -12.2 °C every 24h for 4 wk. Heat-shocked ice creams were analyzed at 2 and 4 wk of storage for ice crystal size and were evaluated by the sensory panel. A difference in ice crystal size was observed for light and full-fat ice creams during heat-shock storage; however, sensory results indicated no differences. In summary, storage of light or full-fat vanilla-flavored ice creams at the temperatures used within this research did not affect quality of the ice creams. Therefore, ice cream manufacturers could conserve energy by increasing the temperature of freezers from -28.9 to -26.1 °C. Because freezers will typically fluctuate from the set temperature, usage of -26.1

  1. Colour and spreadability of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. juss) ointment and cream formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiyyah, Azierah; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Herbal plants are a major source of raw material for traditional medicines. Recently there has been an increase of interest to study the therapeutic potential of herbal plants as herbal care products. In this study, a preliminary study on the formulation of neem (Azadirachta Indica) ointment and cream have been conducted. The neem leaves were extracted and formulated into ointment and cream. The raw neem extract is added into the ointment and cream bases at four different concentrations (0% w/w, 0.5% w/w, 1% w/w and 2% w/w) and stored at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 25°C and 45°C). The semambu ointment and cream formulated were evaluated in terms of their colour and spreadability. It has been found that the extract content and storage temperature influence the colour and spreadability of the formulated neem ointment and cream.

  2. Using CREAM and CEMonitor for job submission and management in the gLite middleware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiftimiei, C; Andreetto, P; Bertocco, S; Dalla Fina, S; Dorigo, A; Frizziero, E; Gianelle, A; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Traldi, S; Zangrando, L [INFN Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Marzolla, M [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Informazione, Universita di Bologna, Mura A. Zamboni 7, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lorenzo, P Mendez; Miccio, V [CERN, BAT. 28-1-019, 1211 Geneve (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe the use of CREAM and CEMonitor services for job submission and management within the gLite Grid middleware. Both CREAM and CEMonitor address one of the most fundamental operations of a Grid middleware, that is job submission and management. Specifically, CREAM is a job management service used for submitting, managing and monitoring computational jobs. CEMonitor is an event notification framework, which can be coupled with CREAM to provide the users with asynchronous job status change notifications. Both components have been integrated in the gLite Workload Management System by means of ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment). These software components have been released for production in the EGEE Grid infrastructure and, for what concerns the CEMonitor service, also in the OSG Grid. In this paper we report the current status of these services, the achieved results, and the issues that still have to be addressed.

  3. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea.

  4. Using CREAM and CEMonitor for job submission and management in the gLite middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiftimiei, C; Andreetto, P; Bertocco, S; Dalla Fina, S; Dorigo, A; Frizziero, E; Gianelle, A; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Traldi, S; Zangrando, L; Marzolla, M; Lorenzo, P Mendez; Miccio, V

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of CREAM and CEMonitor services for job submission and management within the gLite Grid middleware. Both CREAM and CEMonitor address one of the most fundamental operations of a Grid middleware, that is job submission and management. Specifically, CREAM is a job management service used for submitting, managing and monitoring computational jobs. CEMonitor is an event notification framework, which can be coupled with CREAM to provide the users with asynchronous job status change notifications. Both components have been integrated in the gLite Workload Management System by means of ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment). These software components have been released for production in the EGEE Grid infrastructure and, for what concerns the CEMonitor service, also in the OSG Grid. In this paper we report the current status of these services, the achieved results, and the issues that still have to be addressed.

  5. Magnesium enriched lactic acid bacteria as a carrier for probiotic ice cream production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Małgorzata; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula; Góral, Dariusz

    2018-01-15

    The following strains of bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus B 442, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1937, and Lactococcus lactis JBB 500 were enriched with magnesium ions using Pulsed Electric Fields. The potentially probiotic strains were added to the mixture in the DVS process and applied for the production of ice cream which were then analyzed physicochemically and microbiologically. Results showed that addition of bacteria enriched with magnesium did not change chemical parameters of the ice cream and did not affect the freezing process, meltability, and hardness. No significant differences were noted in colour of the samples. The ice cream with addition of bacteria enriched with magnesium had higher adhesiveness. The results of viability determination showed that the total number of microorganisms in the ice cream was higher than in the starter cultures. Viability of the bacteria enriched with magnesium in the obtained ice cream was lower in comparison to the control samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection... PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.80 Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy...

  8. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  9. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  10. Rheological properties of reduced fat ice cream mix containing octenyl succinylated pearl millet starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K; Yadav, Deep N

    2017-05-01

    The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet ( Pennisetum typhoides ) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level. The aged ice cream mixes exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour as flow behaviour index values were less than one. Apparent viscosity (at 50 s -1 shear rate) of control as well as ice cream mix containing 1% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch samples was 417 and 415 mPas, respectively and did not differ significantly. The overrun of the ice cream (with 5 and 7.5% fat) containing 1 and 2% of above fat replacers ranged between 29.7 and 34.3% and was significantly lower than control (40.3%). The percent melted ice cream was also low for the ice creams containing 2% of above fat replacers at 5% fat content as compared to control. However, sensory acceptability and rheological characteristics of reduced fat ice creams containing 1.0 and 2.0% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch were at par with other fat replacers under the study. Thus, OSA-esterified pearl millet starch has potential to be used as fat replacer in reduced fat ice cream.

  11. Applying the CREAM Strategy for Coaching Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Milad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluating staff tutors necessitates constant follow-up to ensure that they are in line with the University’s mission and vision. This has raised a fundamental educational question: how to coach rather than monitor the tutors. To answer this question, Cottrell’s (2008 CREAM (Creative, Reflective, Effective, Active, Motivated strategy was applied to coach these tutors following the GROW Model (Goal, Reality, Options, Will way forward as a framework for structuring both team and individual coaching sessions. Cottrell’s strategy was initially developed for enhancing the learner’s self-directed/autonomous learning. For the purpose of this implementation, the researchers applied the CREAM strategy as a self-assessment and observation tool. Being pragmatic leaders, they conducted three team coaching sessions and one-to-one individual sessions throughout the academic semester following the GROW Model to: establish SMART Goals, examine the current Reality, explore possible Options/Obstacles, and establish the Will. A checklist was developed to measure the staff tutors’ self-assessment of their Creative, Reflective, Effective, Active, and Motivated teaching practices and the same checklist was used by the head of the program as an observation checklist to evaluate these practices. The two tools were statistically analysed and a correlation was found.

  12. Assessment of a Comprehensive Anti-Aging Neck Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Subhash J; Duque, Deysi; Schirripa, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    With many effective anti-aging solutions for the face, consumer focus is now turning to other parts of the body including the delicate skin on the neck. This study investigates the effect of a new neck cream on the appearance of texture, fine lines and wrinkles, laxity, and hydration. 85 adult females ages 35-65 with Fitzpatrick skin types I through IV applied the test neck cream twice daily for a 3-month study period. Screening was conducted at Baseline, 2, 30, 60, and 90 days via a virtual trial. Subjects rated satisfaction in each of 4 anti-aging categories including hydration, texture, appearance of wrinkles, and appearance of laxity as well as three product attributes including application, feel, and smell. Improvement was statistically significant for all measured categories (hydration, texture, appearance of wrinkles, and appearance of laxity) with 94% of study subjects noting improvement in one or more of the measured categories. Further, the quantity of "Satisfied" and "Highly Satisfied" assessments increased 8-fold from baseline with a 94x increase in the quantity of "Highly Satisfied" assessments. The results demonstrate the product's rapid and continuing ability to improve the self-perceived signs of aging in the neck area including improvement in skin texture on the neck and a reduction in the appearance of wrinkles and laxity along the jawline. Future studies are recommended to determine the primary action mechanisms and to assess the degree of improvement by blinded physician assessment.

  13. Design, Implementation, and Performance of CREAM Data Acquisition Software

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn, S Y; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Childers, J T; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Kim, H J; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Malinine, A; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Park, I H; Seo, E S; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) is a balloon-borne experiment scheduled for launching from Antarctica in late 2004. Its aim is to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays from proton to iron nuclei at ultra high energies from 1 to 1,000 TeV. Ultra long duration balloons are expected to fly about 100 days. One special feature of the CREAM data acquisition software (CDAQ) is the telemetric operation of the instrument using satellites. During a flight the science event and housekeeping data are sent from the instrument to a ground facility. Likewise, commands for controlling both the hardware and the software are uploaded from the ground facility. This requires a robust, reliable, and fast software system. CDAQ has been developed and tested during three beam tests at CERN in July, September, and November 2003. Recently the interfaces to the transition radiation detector (TRD) and to the timing-based charge detector (TCD) have been added. These new additions to CDAQ will be checked at a t...

  14. Preference direction study of Job’s-tears ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Job's-tears (Coix lachryma-jobi L. is a kind of cereal commonly used in Asia as food and medicine, but it is still not widely consumed in Thailand. Four prototype products of Job’s-tears ice cream were developed by varying 2 levels of glucose syrup (16 and 32% of Job's-tears used and coconut milk (50 and 100 % of Job's-tears used. Their sensory attribute profiles were evaluated by 3 groups of 10 selected panelists using Ratio profile test (RPT, and their acceptances, hedonic scores, were evaluated by 100 consumers. Results showed that there were significant effects of coconut milk quantity on several attributes, such as appearance (whiteness, texture (hardness, smoothness, and flavour (coconut milk aroma, sweetness, saltiness, but the effect of glucose syrup quantity was significant on hardness only. Acceptance data were analyzed by cluster analysis to find out the difference of preference directions and 3 clusters (n1 = 39, n2 = 25, n3 = 36 were found. The first cluster preferred Job's tears ice cream containing high glucose syrup and low coconut milk, whilst the second preferred high level of only one of these two ingredients, and the third preferred high level of both ingredients. External preference maps were created from RPT and acceptance data to express the preference direction of each cluster.

  15. Skin decontamination cream for radiological contaminants: Formulation development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Rana, Sudha; Ansari, Shahid Husain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Increased use of the radioactive materials in the field of research, medical, nuclear power plant, and industry has increased the risk of accidental exposure. Intentional use of the radioisotopes by terrorist organizations could cause exposure/contamination of a number of the population. In view of the accidental contamination, there is a need to develop self-usable decontamination formulations that could be used immediately after contamination is suspected. Present work was planned to optimize and develop self-usable radiation decontamination cream formulation. Various pharmaceutical parameters were characterized. (99m)Tc-sodium pertechnetate was used as radiocontaminant. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography. Decontamination efficacy of the cream was found to be 42% ± 3% at 0-0.5 h after the exposure. Primary skin irritancy test was satisfactory as no erythema or edema was observed visually after 2 weeks of the formulation application. The decontamination studies proved the potential of EDTA to remove the radiological contaminants effectively.

  16. Evaluation of rice flour for use in vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, T L; Olabi, A; Pettingell, A G; Tong, P S; Walker, J H

    2007-10-01

    The effects of varying concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) of 2 types of rice flours (RF 1 and RF 2) on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream samples were assessed at different fat levels (0, 4, and 10%) and storage conditions (control vs. heat-shocked). Fat and total solids were measured as well as hardness, viscosity, and melting rate. Eight trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0 and 7 wk. The 2% rice flour level and to a certain extent the 4% usage level generally improved texture while affecting to a lesser extent the flavor characteristics of the samples compared with the control. The RF 2 generally had a more significant effect than RF 1, especially on the texture attributes. Although the rice flour reduced the negative impact of temperature abuse on textural properties, the samples still deteriorated in textural properties (more icy) under temperature abuse conditions. In addition, rice starch does lower perceived sweetness and can have a "flour flavor" at high usage levels. The use of rice flour appears to be most advantageous for low fat ice cream samples.

  17. Aescin-based topical formulation to prevent foot wounds and ulcerations in diabetic microangiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Togni, S; Maramaldi, G; Giacomelli, L

    2016-10-01

    Impairment of the peripheral microcirculation in diabetic patients often leads to severe complications in the lower extremities, such as foot infections and ulcerations. In this study, a novel aescin-based formulation has been evaluated as a potential approach to prevent skin breaks and ulcerations by improving the peripheral microcirculation and skin hydration. In this registry study, 63 patients with moderate diabetic microangiopathy were recruited. Informed participants freely decided to follow either a standard management (SM) to prevent diabetic foot diseases (n = 31) or SM associated with topical application of the aescin-based cream (n = 32). Peripheral microcirculatory parameters such as resting skin flux, venoarteriolar response and transcutaneous gas tension were evaluated at inclusion and after 8 weeks. In addition, several skin parameters of the foot area, such as integrity (as number of skin breaks/patients), hydration and content of dead cells were assessed at the defined observational study periods. Improvements in cutaneous peripheral microcirculation parameters were observed at 8 weeks in both groups; however, a remarkable and significant beneficial effect resulted to be exerted by the aescin-based cream treatment. In fact, the microcirculatory parameters evaluated significantly improved in the standard management + aescin-based cream group, compared with baseline and with the standard management group. Similar findings were reported for skin parameters of the foot area. The topical formulation containing aescin could represent a valid approach to manage skin wounds and prevent skin ulcerations in patients affected by moderate diabetic microangiopathy.

  18. A Novel Compound Analgesic Cream (Ketamine, Pentoxifylline, Clonidine, DMSO) for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marc A; Santarelli, Danielle M

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a manifestation of microvascular dysfunction. Topical combinations of α2-adrenergic receptor agonists or nitric oxide donors with phosphodiesterase or phosphatidic acid inhibitors formulated to treat microvascular dysfunction have been shown to reduce allodynia in a rat model of CRPS-I. Driven by these findings, we assessed the outcomes of CRPS patients treated with a compound analgesic cream (CAC) consisting of ketamine 10%, pentoxifylline 6%, clonidine 0.2%, and dimethyl sulfoxide 6% to 10%. An audit was conducted on 13 CRPS patients who trialed the CAC. A detailed report was compiled for each patient which comprised baseline characteristics, including CRPS description, previous treatments, and pain scores (numerical pain rating scale; 0 to 10). Recorded outcomes consisted of pain scores, descriptive outcomes, and concurrent medications/treatments, for which basic analysis was performed to determine the effectiveness of the CAC. Case reports are presented for 3 patients with varying outcomes. Nine patients (69%) reported pain/symptom reduction (4.4 ± 2.1 vs. 6.3 ± 1.9) with use of the CAC. Six patients reported sustained benefits after 2 months of CAC use, and 2 patients reported complete resolution of pain/symptoms: one had early CRPS-I and the other received a partial CRPS diagnosis. An otherwise medication refractory and intolerant patient found partial benefit with the CAC. These results demonstrate promise for this topical combination as a useful treatment in multimodal therapy for patients with CRPS, with the potential to resolve pain/symptoms in early CRPS patients. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

  20. Diclofenac Topical (actinic keratosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topical gel (Solaraze) is used to treat actinic keratosis (flat, scaly growths on the skin caused by ... The way diclofenac gel works to treat actinic keratosis is not known.Diclofenac is also available as ...

  1. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl paraben (BP) are man-made chemicals used in personal care products, such as lotions and creams. Exposure to these chemicals causes a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes in animal studies. Humans can be exposed to these chemicals...... through dermal absorption, but there are no published data on absorption, metabolism, and excretion after dermal application. This study investigates urinary concentrations of BP and metabolites of DEP and DBP after topical application. In a 2-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy Caucasian male subjects.......1%, respectively. Absorption of DEP, DBP and BP through skin could potentially contribute to adverse health effects. The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because...

  3. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus coagulans in probiotic and low-fat synbiotic ice-creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hashemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus coagulans after freezing and during 90 days of storage at -18○C in probiotic and low-fat synbiotic ice-cream was evaluated. Addition to a control group (which was ordinary ice-cream, two probiotic ice-creams were formulated using L. acidophilus and B. coagulans and two synbiotic ice-creams were prepared using the aforementioned microorganisms but replacing 5% of milk-fat with inulin. The total solids of the ice-cream mixes did not differ significantly, however there was a significant difference (p

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    involved in transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction including heart beat. Whenever these .... readings that measure the diameter in centimeter of microfungal growth and number of colonies were taken. The same measurements were also carried out at higher concentrations of 50, 75 and. 100 ppm of the ...

  5. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were determined by agardilution. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts was carried out using column chromatography. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, ...

  6. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Rossella; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Muto, Paolo; Ravo, Vincenzo; Sammarco, Elena; Calvanese, Maria Grazia; De Natale, Flora; Falivene, Sara; Di Lecce, Ada; Giugliano, Francesca Maria; Murino, Paola; Manzo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to add, to the objective evaluation, an instrumental assessment of the skin damage induced by radiation therapy. A group of 100 patients affected by breast cancer was recruited in the study over one year. Patients were divided into five groups of 20 patients. For each group it was prescribed a different topical treatment. The following products were used: Betaglucan, sodium hyaluronate (Neoviderm®), Vitis vinifera A. s-I-M.t-O.dij (Ixoderm®), Alga Atlantica plus Ethylbisiminomethylguaicolo and Manganese Cloruro (Radioskin1®) and Metal Esculetina plus Ginko Biloba and Aloe vera (Radioskin 2®); Natural triglycerides-fitosterols (Xderit®); Selectiose plus thermal water of Avene (Trixera+®). All hydrating creams were applied twice a day starting 15 days before and one month after treatment with radiations. Before and during treatment patients underwent weekly skin assessments and corneometry to evaluate the symptoms related to skin toxicity and state of hydration. Evaluation of acute cutaneous toxicity was defined according to the RTOG scale. All patients completed radiotherapy; 72% of patients presented a G1 cutaneous toxicity, 18% developed a G2 cutaneous toxicity, 10% developed a G3 toxicity, no one presented G4 toxicity. The corneometry study confirmed the protective role of effective creams used in radiation therapy of breast cancer and showed its usefulness to identify radiation-induced dermatitis in a very early stage. The preventive use of topic products reduces the incidence of skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. An instrumental evaluation of skin hydration can help the radiation oncologist to use strategies that prevent the onset of toxicity of high degree. All moisturizing creams used in this study were equally valid in the treatment of skin damage induced by radiotherapy

  7. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  8. Analysis of photodynamic cream effect in dental caries using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, P. S.; Freitas, A. Z.; de Sant´Anna, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect in the enamel demineralization of low-intensity infrared laser (λ=810 nm, 100 mW/cm2, 90 sec, 4.47 J/cm2, 9 J) with or without photodynamic cream fluorinated or not fluorinated, using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Background data: Lasers can be used as tools for the prevention of tooth enamel demineralization. All enamel specimens (n= 105) were analyzed using OCT at baseline, and randomly assigned into seven groups (n=15): C (+), laser application; C(-), no treatment; (F), acid fluoride gel; cream (IV); cream and neutral fluoride (IVF); cream and laser (IVL); and cream with neutral fluoride+ laser (IVFL). The specimens were submitted to all kind of treatments before demineralizing pH cycling challenge and were reanalyzed. ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparative analysis (p <0.01) demonstrated a greater delta attenuation between baseline and post challenge for C + (0.034 +/- 0.011) compared to IVF (0.016 +/- 0.007) F (0.018 +/- 0.010) IVFL (0.019 +/- 0.008), and IVL (0.014 +/- 0.010). The cream laser group (IVL) also showed lower delta (0.014 +/- 0.010) compared to C - (0.025 +/- 0.008). The OCT technique demonstrated that cream associated with laser showed the lowest quantitative enamel mineral looses after cariogenic challenge.

  9. Utilization of modified starch from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed in cream soup production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelia, M.; Christianti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed was often seen as waste and underutilized resources, especially in the food industry. The aim of this research was to modify the structure of avocado seed starch using the cross-linking method, to improve the viscosity stability in the cream soup. In the preliminary research, starch was isolated from the seed and modified by STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate) with 2%, 4%, and 6% concentration and were reacted for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Starches were analyzed for moisture and ash content, paste clarity, gel strength, swelling power, solubility, yield, and degree of whiteness. Based on the analysis results, the best reaction time and STPP concentration was 6% at 1 hour reaction time. Native starch and the best-modified starch were applied in the cream soup and compared with commercial cream soup. Cream soups were analyzed for viscosity stability using viscometer in 0, 1, 3, and 5 hours after storage in room temperature. The result showed that cream soup using modified starch has better viscosity stability than native starch and commercial cream soup after 5 hours storage, which was 181.7 ± 4.85 cP. Sensory analysis showed that cream soup using modified starch was more acceptable than the others. Avocado seed modified starch has phosphate group that strengthen the starch chain to prevent viscosity breakdown.

  10. Preparation and quality characterization of soy milk based non-dairy ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Ahsan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy milk made from soybean has prospective to be used as a substitute of milk due to its health benefits. It is a rich source of iso-flavones, omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, protein and oligosaccharides. The current study was designed to examine the effects of galacto-manan on ice cream by using commercially available (silk and locally prepared soy milk. Galacto-mannan (guar gum was used in different concentration (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% for the preparation of ice cream. Ice cream was analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory characteristics at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. Overrun, meltdown, viscosity, total solids, pH and acidity were affected significantly by ice cream samples as well as storage. While non-significant effects of stabilizer and storage were found on fat, protein, and ash contents of ice cream. On organoleptic evaluation, the highest scores were awarded to the ice cream sample prepared with 0.5% of guar gum. Ice cream manufactured with locally prepared soy milk and guar gum revealed comparable quality with lower cost.

  11. Preparation and quality characterization of soy milk based non-dairy ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Ahsan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soy milk made from soybean has prospective to be used as a substitute of milk due to its health benefits. It is a rich source of iso-flavones, omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, protein and oligosaccharides. The current study was designed to examine the effects of galacto-manan on ice cream by using commercially available (silk and locally prepared soy milk. Galacto-mannan (guar gum was used in different concentration (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% for the preparation of ice cream. Ice cream was analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory characteristics at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. Overrun, meltdown, viscosity, total solids, pH and acidity were affected significantly by ice cream samples as well as storage. While non-significant effects of stabilizer and storage were found on fat, protein, and ash contents of ice cream. On organoleptic evaluation, the highest scores were awarded to the ice cream sample prepared with 0.5% of guar gum. Ice cream manufactured with locally prepared soy milk and guar gum revealed comparable quality with lower cost.

  12. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  15. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  16. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream.

  17. Properties of ice-cream fortified with zinc and Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, Hamid R; Ahadi, Leila; Khezli, Sanaz; Dehnavi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the possible effects of zinc on physicochemical properties of ice cream and the survival of Lactobacillus casei during a 90 days storage at -18°C was investigated. Samples were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control, zinc fortified ice cream, probiotic ice cream, zinc fortified and probiotic ice cream. The physicochemical, texture, organoleptic properties and the survival of probiotics, were investigated. Results showed that the addition of zinc did not affect the textural properties of ice creams. Viscosity and pH were independently decreased in all groups in the presence of zinc. A significant increase in the lipid oxidation rate especially in the zinc fortified group was also observed. The probiotic counts were maintained above the least advised quantities (106 cfu/g) which were subsequently reduced following the three months of storage. In the zinc fortified samples, the counts were higher compared to the other groups with no zinc addition. The addition of probiotics and zinc had no significant effect on the sensory properties of ice cream. As a final conclusion, the commercial production of zinc fortified ice cream is recommended.

  18. Functionality of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) in the production of fruity ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmakçı, Songül; Topdaş, Elif Feyza; Çakır, Yusuf; Kalın, Pınar

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) on the quality characteristics of ice cream. Kumquat paste (KP) was added to an ice cream mix at four concentrations, 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15% (w/w), for ice cream production. The increment of KP level caused an increase in acidity, vitamin C content, b* value and overrun value compared with the control ice cream. The apparent viscosity of samples decreased with the addition of KP at concentrations of 5 and 10% compared with the control. Results indicated that lyophilized water extract of KP (LKE) contained remarkable phenolic compounds. It was observed that LKE exhibited moderate in vitro antioxidant capacity. KP enhanced the color, flavor, vitamin C content and Mg and K contents of the ice cream. The addition of KP positively affected the sensory properties. KP may be used as a suitable source of natural color and flavor agent in ice cream production. KP enhanced the vitamin C content and Mg and K contents of ice cream and improved its sensory properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Sucralfate cream in the management of moist desquamation during radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, G. [Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Therapy Centre; Fisher, R.; Hook, C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology; Barton, M. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1997-08-01

    Randomized trials have shown that sucralfate is effective in the management of acute radiation reactions such as oesophagitis, mucositis and proctitis. However, at the time of commencement of the present trial, it had never been used in the management of moist desquamation of the skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of sucralfate cream in the management of moist desquamation during radiotherapy. Patients who developed moist desquamation during radiation were eligible. Patients were stratified by site of radiotherapy into three groups: (i) the head and neck; (ii) the breast; and (iii) other sites. Patients were randomized to receive 10% sucralfate in sorbolene cream or sorbolene alone. Patients` pain and skin healing were assessed by using linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) scales and by serial measurement of the desquamated area. Due to poor patient accrual, the trial was terminated after 2 years and 39 patients. No statistically significant difference was found between the two arms in either time from randomization to healing or improvement in pain score. Twenty patients in the sucralfate arm took a geometric mean of 14.8 days to heal whereas 19 patients receiving sorbolene alone took a geometric mean of 14.2 days. The ratio of mean times to healing, 1.043, is not statistically different from 1 (P= 0.86; 95% Cl = 0.65,1.67). A total of 75% of the patients reported pain relief on application of either cream. Mean LASA scores for pain for each day after randomization were compared by treatment arm and there was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.32). The present trial was unable to show a difference in terms of time to healing or pain relief in the treatment of moist desquamation. The small number of patients in the trial gave a wide confidence interval for treatment difference, implying that an important effect of sucralfate has not been excluded. Given the poor accrual in the present, single-institution study, future

  20. Sucralfate cream in the management of moist desquamation during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, G.; Fisher, R.; Hook, C.; Barton, M.

    1997-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown that sucralfate is effective in the management of acute radiation reactions such as oesophagitis, mucositis and proctitis. However, at the time of commencement of the present trial, it had never been used in the management of moist desquamation of the skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of sucralfate cream in the management of moist desquamation during radiotherapy. Patients who developed moist desquamation during radiation were eligible. Patients were stratified by site of radiotherapy into three groups: (i) the head and neck; (ii) the breast; and (iii) other sites. Patients were randomized to receive 10% sucralfate in sorbolene cream or sorbolene alone. Patients' pain and skin healing were assessed by using linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) scales and by serial measurement of the desquamated area. Due to poor patient accrual, the trial was terminated after 2 years and 39 patients. No statistically significant difference was found between the two arms in either time from randomization to healing or improvement in pain score. Twenty patients in the sucralfate arm took a geometric mean of 14.8 days to heal whereas 19 patients receiving sorbolene alone took a geometric mean of 14.2 days. The ratio of mean times to healing, 1.043, is not statistically different from 1 (P= 0.86; 95% Cl = 0.65,1.67). A total of 75% of the patients reported pain relief on application of either cream. Mean LASA scores for pain for each day after randomization were compared by treatment arm and there was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.32). The present trial was unable to show a difference in terms of time to healing or pain relief in the treatment of moist desquamation. The small number of patients in the trial gave a wide confidence interval for treatment difference, implying that an important effect of sucralfate has not been excluded. Given the poor accrual in the present, single-institution study, future

  1. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  2. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  3. Mercury content in skin-lightening creams and potential hazards to the health of Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, I; al-Doush, I

    1997-06-06

    It seems evident from a wealth of scientific research that mercury is toxic. Because of the nature of the Saudi markets, different brands of skin-lightening creams are widely available. In this study, 38 skin-lightening cream samples were collected and analyzed for mercury by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry after an acid digestion procedure. About 45% of the tested skin-lightening cream samples contained mercury at levels well above the FDA's acceptable limit of 1 ppm. These findings are alarming and have wide legal and educational implications for Saudi Arabia in particular and developing countries in general. Further investigation for possible adverse health effects is also needed.

  4. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  5. Development of Job’s tears ice cream recipes with carrot juice and pumpkin paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrot juice and pumpkin paste were used as ingredients in Job’s tears ice cream. Carrot juice or pumpkin paste added at 50% was equally preferred by 100 consumers compared to the original Job’s tears ice cream. The new types of ice cream were lower in antioxidant capacity and higher in total phenolic content but could still be considered as potential antioxidant products. Purchase intent was significantly increased (p<0.05 if consumers were informed about the nutritional and antioxidant capacity of these products.

  6. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in mozzarella cheese and ice cream exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisaka, A.E.; Weagant, S.D.; Dong, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes preinoculated into ice cream and mozzarella cheese prior to gamma-irradiation treatment was determined. Samples were maintained at -78 degrees C and exposed to targeted doses of 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kGy of gamma-irradiation. The calculated D10 values were 1.4 kGy for mozzarella cheese and 2.0 kGy for ice cream. The effective level of irradiation (12D) for inactivating L. monocytogenes was 16.8 kGy for mozzarella cheese and 24.4 kGy for ice cream

  7. Development of Ice Cream with Improved Microbiological Safety and Acceptable Organoleptic Quality Using Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Byun, M.W.; Ham, J.S.; Jeong, S.G.; Ahn, J.N.; Jang, A.; Jo, C.

    2007-01-01

    To develop the manufacturing method of ice cream with microbiologically safe and proper sensory quality using irradiation for sensitive consumer, 3 different flavors, which were resistant to their flavors against irradiation, were selected and used for ice cream manufacturing to reduce the irradiation-induced off-flavor problem. The general composition was not different among treatments. Total aerobic bacteria were detected as 2.38, 1.23, 1.38, and 1.15 log CFU/g level in ice cream with control (no flavor added), spearmint, mint, and citrus flavor, respectively

  8. Evaluation of microbial hazards during creamy cream cheese processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żukowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to identify the potential microbial hazards that may occur during the manufacturing process of creamy cream cheese, and to present the means of their elimination or minimization. The analysis demonstrated that among the most crucial stages that should be particularly monitored are: the quality of raw materials, the control of pasteurization and souring parameters as well as temperature of product packaging, ensuring proper storage conditions of the finished product and hygiene throughout the production. Of these, the most critical step in the entire process (critical control points - CCP is a heat treatment process which is pasteurization. On the basis of the analysis, it can be concluded that the monitoring of such a process and consistent adherence to Operational Pre-Condition Pro-grams at the thermisation and centrifuging and later packaging, can help guarantee a safe product and its long shelf life.

  9. Comparison of topical capsaicin and topical turpentine oil for treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musharraf, M.U.; Ahmed, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a pandemic of the modern era owing to our rapidly deteriorating lifestyle. Painful diabetic neuropathy is one of the costliest and disabling complications of diabetes mellitus. No single treatment exists to prevent or reverse neuropathic changes or to provide total pain relief. Topical Capsaicin and Turpentine Oil are found to be effective in treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Methods: Patients of either gender with ages between 18 and 70 years having painful diabetic neuropathy already taking one oral drug for painful neuropathy and treatment for diabetes mellitus and an HbA1C less than 8.5% were included while Pregnant or lactating mothers, patients with chronic liver disease and patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine >3.0 mg/dl) and peripheral arterial disease were excluded from study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (A and B) using computer generated random number table. Group A was given topical application of capsaicin while Group B was given topical application of commercially available turpentine oil over painful site on feet. Results: 300 patients were equally divided in two groups. The patients in group A had a Visual Analog Pain Score of 7.91±5.10 at baseline and 5.10±1.343 after 3 months of treatment (p-value 0.0001). The patients in group B had a Visual Analog Pain Score of 7.83±1.012 at baseline and 5.20±1.187 after 3 months of treatment (p-value 0.0001). Chi Square test was applied to compare efficacy of both groups. It was noted that 71 (53%) had efficacy in group A and 63 (47%) had efficacy in the group B but the difference was not statistically significant. (p-value=0.399). Conclusion: It has been concluded that turpentine oil is effective in managing diabetic neuropathic pain similar to capsaicin cream.

  10. Topical botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ashley; Nasir, Adnan

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline that capitalizes on the unique properties of matter engineered on the nanoscale. Vehicles incorporating nanotechnology have led to great strides in drug delivery, allowing for increased active ingredient stability, bioavailability, and site-specific targeting. Botulinum toxin has historically been used for the correction of neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as torticollis, blepharospasm, and strabismus. Recent dermatological indications have been for the management of axillary hyperhydrosis and facial rhytides. Traditional methods of botulinum toxin delivery have been needle-based. These have been associated with increased pain and cost. Newer methods of botulinum toxin formulation have yielded topical preparations that are bioactive in small pilot clinical studies. While there are some risks associated with topical delivery, the refinement and standardization of delivery systems and techniques for the topical administration of botulinum toxin using nanotechnology is anticipated in the near future.

  11. Topical corticosteroid abuse on the face: a prospective, study on outpatients of dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasubramony Ambika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical corticosteroids (TCS are widely misused. Uncontrolled use of steroids can cause undesirable adverse effects especially on face. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the skin manifestations of TCS misuse over the face in the patients attending dermatology outpatient and to analyze various factors contributing to such misuse. Material and Methods: A total of 200 patients with facial dermatoses using topical steroids over face for minimum period of 1 month, reported between June 2010 and May 2011 were enrolled in the study. Details about the usage of topical corticosteroids and their side effects were recorded. The patients were educated about the misuse. Results: Majority of the patients were females (71%. The most common reason for misuse was acne (61% followed by use as a fairness cream (23%. The average duration of usage was 6 months to 1 year, longest being 8 years. The drug most commonly misused was Betamethaone Valerate (71%. The commonest side effect noted was acne form eruptions (52% followed by steroid dependent face (SDF (36%. There were no cases of allergic contact dermatitis or perioral dermatitis. The exacerbation of the lesions on stoppage of steroid cream (90% fairness effect (10% were the reasons for continued use. (100% were unaware of side effects of topical steroids. Conclusions: Steroids have been misused by patients on their own or by doctors for various reasons. Hence the awareness about their correct usage is essential.

  12. Health Topic XML File Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/xmldescription.html Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus To use the sharing ... information categories assigned. Example of a Full Health Topic Record A record for a MedlinePlus health topic ...

  13. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  14. Topics in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuille, A.L.

    1980-11-01

    Topics in the Yang-Mills theories of strong interactions and the quantum theories of gravity are examined, using the path integral approach, including; Yang-Mills instantons in curved spacetimes, Israel-Wilson metrics, Kaehler spacetimes, instantons and anti-instantons. (U.K.)

  15. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  16. Characters and Topical Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature i...

  17. Selected topics in magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  18. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  19. Topical immunomodulators in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandpur Sujay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

  20. Differential Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections.

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of biosynthesized colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles for a fortified cold cream formulation: A potent nanocosmeceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sonia; H, Linda Jeeva Kumari; K, Ruckmani; M, Sivakumar

    2017-10-01

    Nanocosmeceuticals are promising applications of nanotechnology in personal care industries. Zinc oxide is an inorganic material that is non-toxic and skin compatible with self-cleansing and microbicidal properties. Herein, exploitation of colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONps) as potent biomaterial for a topical formulation of cosmetic and dermatological significance is employed. ZnONps were green synthesized using environmentally benign Adhatoda vasica leaf extract and characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results reveal that the biosynthesized ZnONps exhibit an absorption peak at 352nm. XRD and HR-TEM analyses confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnONps with particle size of about 10nm to 12nm. Elemental analysis by EDX confirms the presence of zinc and oxygen. Zeta potential of -24.6mV affirms the stability of nanoparticles. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of biosynthesized ZnONps exhibit mean zone of inhibition from 08.667±0.282 to 21.666±0.447 (mm) and 09.000±0.177 to 19.000±0.307 (mm) respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The IC 50 value exerted from the antioxidant activity of ZnONps is found to be 139.27μgmL -1 . ZnONps infused cold cream formulation of microbicidal and antioxidant properties was further tested against clinical skin pathogens. The nano-based cold cream exhibited significant inhibitory action against Candida sp., which showed resistance against a commercial antifungal cream (2%). Therefore, this study demonstrates the exploitation of ZnONps as promising colloidal drug carriers in cosmeceuticals that can significantly alleviate human skin infections and oxidative stress induced cellular damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of 1% terbinafine cream in comparison with 0.75% metronidazole gel for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Yaşar, Şirin

    2011-06-01

    Topical antifungals comprising imidazole derivatives have been used for the treatment of rosacea previously, owing to their anti-inflammatory activities. Terbinafine, an antifungal agent belongs to allylamine group, has also anti-inflammatory effects. Currently, there are only a few unpublished studies, in which terbinafine has been used systemically for rosacea treatment. In this single-blind, 8-week study, we investigated the potential efficacy and safety of terbinafine 1% cream for the treatment of mild and moderate papulopustular rosacea, and compared the results with those of 0.75% metronidazole gel. Forty patients, 30 females and 10 males, with papulopustular rosacea were enrolled into the study between 2006 and 2007 years. Twenty of the patients were instructed to apply 1% terbinafine cream, whereas others patients of the study population were instructed to use 0.75% metronidazole gel. A total of 32 patients completed the study. Pre-treatment and post-treatment total severity score (TSS) of the disease were determined by assessing the severity of erythema/telangiectasia, and the number of papules/pustules of the whole face. The overall response rates, differences of pre-/post-treatment scores of each criterium and the percentages of the decrease in TSS of the study groups were compared statistically. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, sex, and disease duration (P = 0.937, 1.000, and 0.055, respectively). No significant difference was found between the mean post-treatment TSSs of the two groups (P = 0.605). The percentage of clearance assessed by the differences between pre-treatment and post-treatment TSSs was 55% in terbinafine group, although the percentage was 45% in metronidazole group, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.496). Local side effects including erythema, pruritus, and burning were mild and transient in both groups, with similar frequencies (P = 0.101). This

  3. Effect of Microbial Transglutaminase on Ice Cream Heat Resistance Properties – a Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk Iwona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of transglutaminase (TG preparation Saprovia L ® (PMT TRADING Co. Ltd, Lodz, Poland on the properties of ice cream with 40 g/kg and 70 g/kg fat content. TG was added at a concentration of 2 U/g protein. We studied the effect of transglutaminase on fresh and 3-month-stored at -25°C ice cream. Ice cream mixes were prepared with 5 g/kg stabilizer. Melting test was performed after thermal shocks until the “1st drop” occurrence. The amount of effluent was measured within the 0-120 min time frame. We evaluated the appearance of the samples and carried out the TPA and compression analysis. The addition of the enzyme has increased the resistance of stored ice cream to repeated thermal shocks.

  4. Potensi Tepung Wortel (Daucus carrota L. dalam Meningkatkan Sifat Antioksidan dan Fisikokimia Sweet Cream Butter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Patricia Sianturi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of addition powder carrot as antioxidant agent to antioxidant activity, fat content, mositure, cholesterol, pH value and melting point of sweet cream butter. The method used was experiment laboratory. The materials used were sweet cream butter and carrot powder and the treatments were the addition of carrot powder 0% (A, 2% (B, 4% (C, and 6% (D then analyzed about antioxidant activity, fat content, mositure, cholesterol, pH value and melting point of sweet cream butter. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using the basic design of Block Randomized Design (BRD and continued by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT if there was a significantly different. Finding suggested an effect of the addition carrot powder could improve the quality (up to 42.55% of sweet cream butter which is 6% of carrot powder give the best treatment.

  5. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of {sup 60}Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  6. An Evidential Reasoning-Based CREAM to Human Reliability Analysis in Maritime Accident Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Yan, Xinping; Wang, Yang; Soares, C Guedes

    2017-10-01

    This article proposes a modified cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) for estimating the human error probability in the maritime accident process on the basis of an evidential reasoning approach. This modified CREAM is developed to precisely quantify the linguistic variables of the common performance conditions and to overcome the problem of ignoring the uncertainty caused by incomplete information in the existing CREAM models. Moreover, this article views maritime accident development from the sequential perspective, where a scenario- and barrier-based framework is proposed to describe the maritime accident process. This evidential reasoning-based CREAM approach together with the proposed accident development framework are applied to human reliability analysis of a ship capsizing accident. It will facilitate subjective human reliability analysis in different engineering systems where uncertainty exists in practice. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of 60 Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  8. A review of modern instrumental techniques for measurements of ice cream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahram-Parvar, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand of the food industries and research institutes to have means of measurement allowing the characterization of foods. Ice cream, as a complex food system, consists of a frozen matrix containing air bubbles, fat globules, ice crystals, and an unfrozen serum phase. Some deficiencies in conventional methods for testing this product encourage the use of alternative techniques such as rheometry, spectroscopy, X-ray, electro-analytical techniques, ultrasound, and laser. Despite the development of novel instrumental applications in food science, use of some of them in ice cream testing is few, but has shown promising results. Developing the novel methods should increase our understanding of characteristics of ice cream and may allow online testing of the product. This review article discusses the potential of destructive and non-destructive methodologies in determining the quality and characteristics of ice cream and similar products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time on qualities of milk ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrit Thaiudom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualities of ice cream are based on air cells, ice crystals and fat particles, which are the important parts to build up a good structure of ice cream. Ice cream whipping time also affects the ice cream qualities.This study focused on effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil, whipping time, and their interaction on ice cream mix viscosity, overrun, air cell size, fat destabilization, hardness, melting rate, and shape retention ofice cream. Ice creams with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil at 100:0, 50:50, 0:100 and whipping time at 15 and 20 min were produced and determined for their qualities. The results showed that ratio of milk fat to soybean oil affected all qualities of ice cream, while duration of whipping time influenced the overrun and air cell size. The interaction of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time affected only overrun. Ice creammix with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil 100:0 showed the highest apparent viscosity and hardness and the biggest air cell size. Whipping time of ice cream for 20 min showed a bigger size of air cells than the whippingtime for 15 min (p < 0.05. These results can be applied to the manufacture of modified ice cream.

  11. Effect of fat content on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon, M Laura; Bakke, Alyssa J; Coupland, John N; Hayes, John E; Roberts, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    Ice cream is a complex food matrix that contains multiple physical phases. Removal of 1 ingredient may affect not only its physical properties but also multiple sensory characteristics that may or may not be important to consumers. Fat not only contributes to texture, mouth feel, and flavor, but also serves as a structural element. We evaluated the effect of replacing fat with maltodextrin (MD) on select physical properties of ice cream and on consumer acceptability. Vanilla ice creams were formulated to contain 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14% fat, and the difference was made up with 8, 6, 4, 2, and 0% maltodextrin, respectively, to balance the mix. Physical characterization included measurements of overrun, apparent viscosity, fat particle size, fat destabilization, hardness, and melting rate. A series of sensory tests were conducted to measure liking and the intensity of various attributes. Tests were also conducted after 19 weeks of storage at -18°C to assess changes in acceptance due to prolonged storage at unfavorable temperatures. Then, discrimination tests were performed to determine which differences in fat content were detectable by consumers. Mix viscosity decreased with increasing fat content and decreasing maltodextrin content. Fat particle size and fat destabilization significantly increased with increasing fat content. However, acceptability did not differ significantly across the samples for fresh or stored ice cream. Following storage, ice creams with 6, 12, and 14% fat did not differ in acceptability compared with fresh ice cream. However, the 8% fat, 6% MD and 10% fat, 4% MD ice creams showed a significant drop in acceptance after storage relative to fresh ice cream at the same fat content. Consumers were unable to detect a difference of 2 percentage points in fat level between 6 and 12% fat. They were able to detect a difference of 4 percentage points for ice creams with 6% versus 10%, but not for those with 8% versus 12% fat. Removing fat and replacing

  12. Listeria monocytogenes Growth Kinetics in Milkshakes Made from Naturally and Artificially Contaminated Ice Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Joelle K.; Bathija, Vriddi M.; Carstens, Christina K.; Narula, Sartaj S.; Shazer, Arlette; Stewart, Diana; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in milkshakes made using the process-contaminated ice cream associated with a listeriosis outbreak in comparison to milkshakes made with artificially contaminated ice cream. For all temperatures, growth kinetics including growth rates, lag phases, maximum populations, and population increases were determined for the naturally and artificially derived contaminants at 5, 10, 15, and 25°C storage for 144 h. The artificially inoculated L. m...

  13. Development and stability studies of sunscreen cream formulations containing three photo-protective filters

    OpenAIRE

    Smaoui, Slim; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Ben Chobba, Ines; Kadri, Adel

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to formulate and subsequently evaluate sunscreen cream (W/O/W emulsion) containing three photo-protective filters: benzophenone-3, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and titanium dioxide at different percentages. Formulations were stored at 8, 25 and 40 °C for four weeks to investigate their stability. Color, centrifugation, liquefaction, phase separation, pH and Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of sunscreen cream formulations were determined. The microbiological stability of the ...

  14. Enrichment of functional properties of ice cream with pomegranate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Fatma; Aslan, Duygu; Dinç, Merve

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel rich in phenolics, and pomegranate seed which contain a conjugated fatty acid namely punicic acid in lipid fraction remain as by-products after processing the fruit into juice. Ice cream is poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolics, therefore, this study was conducted to improve the functional properties of ice cream by incorporating pomegranate peel phenolics and pomegranate seed oil. Incorporation of the peel phenolics into ice cream at the levels of 0.1% and 0.4% (w/w) resulted in significant changes in the pH, total acidity, and color of the samples. The most prominent outcomes of phenolic incorporation were sharp improvements in antioxidant and antidiabetic activities as well as the phenolic content of ice creams. Replacement of pomegranate seed oil by milk fat at the levels of 2.0% and 4.0% (w/w) increased the conjugated fatty acid content. However, perception of oxidized flavor increased with the additional seed oil. When one considers the functional and nutritional improvements in the enrichment of the ice cream together with overall acceptability results of the sensory analysis, then it follows from this study that ice creams enriched with pomegranate peel phenolics up to 0.4% (w/w) and pomegranate seed oil up to 2.0% (w/w) could be introduced to markets as functional ice cream. Enrichment of ice creams with pomegranate by-products might provide consumers health benefits with striking functional properties of punicalagins in pomegranate peel, and punicic acid in pomegranate seed oil. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Development a computer codes to couple PWR-GALE output and PC-CREAM input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntjoro, S.; Budi Setiawan, M.; Nursinta Adi, W.; Deswandri; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Radionuclide dispersion analysis is part of an important reactor safety analysis. From the analysis it can be obtained the amount of doses received by radiation workers and communities around nuclear reactor. The radionuclide dispersion analysis under normal operating conditions is carried out using the PC-CREAM code, and it requires input data such as source term and population distribution. Input data is derived from the output of another program that is PWR-GALE and written Population Distribution data in certain format. Compiling inputs for PC-CREAM programs manually requires high accuracy, as it involves large amounts of data in certain formats and often errors in compiling inputs manually. To minimize errors in input generation, than it is make coupling program for PWR-GALE and PC-CREAM programs and a program for writing population distribution according to the PC-CREAM input format. This work was conducted to create the coupling programming between PWR-GALE output and PC-CREAM input and programming to written population data in the required formats. Programming is done by using Python programming language which has advantages of multiplatform, object-oriented and interactive. The result of this work is software for coupling data of source term and written population distribution data. So that input to PC-CREAM program can be done easily and avoid formatting errors. Programming sourceterm coupling program PWR-GALE and PC-CREAM is completed, so that the creation of PC-CREAM inputs in souceterm and distribution data can be done easily and according to the desired format.

  16. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and

  17. Bottlenecks in the development of topical analgesics: molecule, formulation, dose-finding, and phase III design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 David J Kopsky,2 Stephen M Stahl3 1Institute Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, the Netherlands; 2Institute Neuropathic Pain, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Topical analgesics can be defined as topical formulations containing analgesics or co-analgesics. Since 2000, interest in such formulations has been on the rise. There are, however, four critical issues in the research and development phases of topical analgesics: 1 The selection of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Analgesics and co-analgesics differ greatly in their mechanism of action, and it is required to find the most optimal fit between such mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of the targeted (neuropathic pain. 2 Issues concerning the optimized formulation. For relevant clinical efficacy, specific characteristics for the selected vehicle (eg, cream base or gel base are required, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s to be delivered. 3 Well-designed phase II dose-finding studies are required, and, unfortunately, such trials are missing. In fact, we will demonstrate that underdosing is one of the major hurdles to detect meaningful and statistically relevant clinical effects of topical analgesics. 4 Selection of clinical end points and innovatively designed phase III trials. End point selection can make or break a trial. For instance, to include numbness together with tingling as a composite end point for neuropathic pain seems stretching the therapeutic impact of an analgesic too far. Given the fast onset of action of topical analgesics (usually within 30 minutes, enrichment designs might enhance the chances for success, as the placebo response might decrease. Topical analgesics may become promising inroads for the treatment of neuropathic pain, once sufficient attention is given to these four key aspects. Keywords: topical, analgesics

  18. Barbatiman and chitosan creams as adjuvants in rabbit skin wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 5% barbatiman and 5% chitosan creams were evaluated as adjuvants in the tissue repair process by secondary intention of rabbit’s skin wounds. Four equidistant wounds were induced in the dorsal skin of 20 adult male rabbits, which were submitted to healing by secondary intention and treated with 5% chitosan cream (QC, n=5, 5% barbatiman cream (BC, n=5, 2% allantoin cream (n=5, and base cream (n=5. The creams were applied with the aid of disposable spatulas after washing the wounds. The wounds were daily analyzed by clinical examination for 21 days and histological analyses were performed on the 3rd, 14th, and 21st day after induction. The microscopic evaluation of the wounds of all groups showed macroscopic features of the healing process at different time intervals. The QC and BC treatments helped in the skin repair process in rabbits when compared to the other two treatments. They induced fibroblast activation and early collagen deposition, and modulated re-epithelialization and neovascularization. Thus, it was concluded that BC and QC are efficient and economically feasible as adjuvants in the healing process of skin wounds in rabbits.

  19. Chemical properties and sensory quality of ice cream fortified with fish protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Rafipour, Fereidon

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein powder is a functional ingredient that can be used for enhancing the nutritional value of food products. In this study the effect of fortification with different levels of fish protein powder (FP) on chemical properties and sensory quality of Persian ice cream with 0, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) FP during storage at - 18 °C for 4 months was investigated. Ice creams fortified with 50 and 30 g kg(-1) FP had significantly higher protein and solid-non-fat content than ice cream with 0% FP or 83, 69 and 51 g kg(-1) protein and 215, 204 and 181 g kg(-1) solid non-fat, respectively. All products had the same levels of fat, lactose, acidity and pH. They had similar sensory quality after production except for colour, but sensory properties of fortified samples changed significantly after 2 months of storage. Colour faded, cohesiveness decreased, sandiness/coarseness increased, sweetness decreased and fish flavour and off-odour increased. The control ice cream scored highest for additives odour and flavour. Development of ice cream fortified with fish protein powder could be an effective way to enhance nutritional and functional value of ice cream. But studies on storage stability, consumers' acceptance and attitudes are recommended if companies are planning to do so. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The effect of gum tragacanth on the rheological properties of salep based ice cream mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Abdullah; Cengiz, Alime; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2016-06-05

    The influence of concentration (0-0.5%, w/w) of gum tragacanth (GT) on thixotropy, dynamic, and creep-recovery rheological properties of ice cream mixes prepared with milk or water based were investigated. These properties were used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior and internal structure of ice cream network. The textural properties of ice cream were also evaluated. Thixotropy values of samples were reduced by increasing GT concentration. The dynamic and creep-recovery analyses exhibited that GT addition increased both ice cream elastic and viscous behaviors. The increasing of Burger's model parameters with GT concentration indicated higher resistance network to the stress and more elastic behavior of samples. The applying of Cox-Merz rule is possible by using shift factor (α). GT also led to an increase in Young's modulus and the stickiness of ice creams. The obtained results highlighted the possible application of GT as a valuable member to promote structural properties of ice cream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning outbreak associated with the consumption of ice-cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, A; Contzen, M; Hartelt, K; Kleiser, A; Maassen, S; Rau, J; Kraushaar, B; Layer, F; Strommenger, B

    2014-09-18

    In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects on physicochemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream with fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.; Arif, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal on physico-chemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream. Fatty acid profile of milk fat was modified by feeding calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids to cows and cholesterol was removed by b-cyclodextrin b-cyclodextrin removed 76% and 60% cholesterol from yoghurt and ice cream. Modification of fatty acid composition did not have a significant effect on a-tocopherol content; while b-cyclodextrin treated milk had substantially lower a-tocopherol content. The concentration of a-tocopherol in control and b-cyclodextrin treated yoghurt was 45.62, 32.73 mg/g and 210.34, 185.56 mg/g for ice cream, respectively. Fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal significantly decreased the overrun in ice cream (P<0.05), with no effect on sensory characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream. These results evidenced that milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and low cholesterol can be used in the formulation of yoghurt and ice cream with improved health benefits and suitable sensory features. (author)

  4. Safety Evaluation of 30 kGy Irradiated Chocolate Ice Cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Y.E.; Yin, X.F.; Chung, C.K.; Kang, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was investigated the potential toxicity of gamma-irradiated chocolate ice cream for its future use in space. Chocolate ice cream was irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy at a temperature of -20°C. For the animal study, AIN-93G was used as a control diet and irradiated and non-irradiated chocolate ice cream diets were administered to male and female ICR mice (ten mice per group) for three months. During the experimental period, the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream did not show any changes in appearance, behavior, mortality, body weight, organ weight, or food consumption compared to the control. Also, all biochemical parameters, including hematology profiles, erythrocyte counts, and serum biochemical values were in normal ranges. In histopathological examinations of liver and kidney tissues, there were no significant differences between the control group and the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream. These results indicate that chocolate ice cream irradiated at 30 kGy did not cause any toxic effects and could be applied for the development of safe and hygienic space food

  5. Contamination of chlorhexidine cream used to prevent ascending urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salveson, A.; Bergan, T.

    1981-06-01

    Chlorhexidine-containing cream is often used as an antimicrobial barrier to ascending urinary tract infection in patients with indwelling urethral catheters. The cream is dispensed in small tubes for personal use but repeated use of a tube still entails a potential infection hazard. The extent of cream contamination was analysed by emulsifying it in 1% peptone broth with 1% Tween-80 added as a wetting agent, and culturing quantitatively for bacteria and fungi by membrane filtration. Twenty-three per cent of cream samples and 35% of swabs taken from outside the tube beneath the screw cap demonstrated microbial contamination. Isolates included potential pathogens such as enterococci, staphylococci, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, opportunists like Moraxella spp. and diphtheroids, and contaminants such as Bacillus spp., micrococci, and a mould of the genus Cladosporium. Contamination of cream with a particular bacterial strain was found to precede urinary tract infection with the same microbe. We recommend that chlorhexidine cream for this use be dispensed in single dose units to ensure sterility.

  6. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  7. Topical Finasteride in Hirsutism: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial on Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Iraji

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride partially blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone through inhibition of 5 α- reductase in hair follicles. Finasteride cream can penetrate to dermis to arrive at hair follicle due to its solubility. Therefore, it is expected to be used in treatment of hirsutism with less systemic adverse effects. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of finasteride cream 0.5% in management of idiopathic hirsutism. Methods: Finasteride (0.5% and placebo creams were administered to 35 women with hirsutism on the face. Medication and placebo creams, each one was used on one side of the face in an area of excessive hair growth, which were not necessarily symmetrical. The side for the finasteride and placebo creams were chosen randomizly and blindly in 1cm2 areas on each side of the face. Hair numbers were counted and the thickness of all hairs was also measured by micrometer and their mean was calculated, at the start of therapy and after 6 months. Statistical analysis was done in SPSS software using Paired and Student t-tests. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean of hair numbers decreased at placebo-applied side from 12.20 ± 6.15 to 10.50 ± 4.90 (P<0.0001 and at finasteride- treated side from 11.37 ± 6.15 to 8.47 ± 4.62 (p<0.0001. Mean of hair thickness at placebo side decreased from 2.92 ± 0.84µm to 2.72 ± 0.79 µm (p<0.0001 and at finasteride side from 3.17 ± 0.90µm to 2.37 ± 0.79 µm (p<0.0001. Comparison of hair number and thickness showed no statistically significant changes in finasteride versus placebo treated sides. But, according to patients' view points, hair growth rate was diminished and hair was looser on finasteride treated side. Conclusion: Six months of topically applied finasteride (0.5% does not affect on number and thickness of facial hirsutism significantly. Despite lack of objective changes, on questioning, most patients in finastride group

  8. Topics in industrial mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsya, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs

  9. Relativity theory - topical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1979-01-01

    Issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's 100th birthday the book deals topically with the special and general relativity theory. The latest experiments to confirm the relativity theory are described and the historical development of the theory is presented in detail. Emphasis is given to the disclosure of deep insights into the nature of matter. Of interest to experts in physical and natural sciences and to mathematicians

  10. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  11. Barrier function test: Laboratory evaluation of the protective function of some barrier creams against cashewnut shell oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A barrier function test has been designed to screen the protective capacity of a cream against the cauterizing effect of cashew nut shell oil (CNSO on the skin. The test consists of applying the barrier cream on a 5 cm circular area of skin on the back of a human volunteer and then at its centre applying a 1 cm sq Whatman no. 3 paper disc soaked in the CNSO for 15 minutes and looking for the evidence of cauterization reaction after 48 hours. Of the various creams containing a variety of paraffins, bees wax, polyethylene glycols, methyl cellulose gel, and petrolatum, only polyethylene glycol (PEG cream was found to afford adequate protection against cashew nut shell oil. Addition of 10% zinc oxide or 10% kaolin to the PEG cream did not seem to afford any additional protection. Castor oil already being used by the workers was found to be inferior to the PEG cream.

  12. Effects of Topic Simvastatin for the Treatment of Chronic Vascular Cutaneous Ulcers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposio, Edoardo; Libondi, Guido; Bertozzi, Nicolò; Grignaffini, Eugenio; Grieco, Michele P

    2015-12-01

    Recent research suggests that statins might be useful in the process of wound healing, playing a positive immune-modulatory role, improving microvascular function and reducing oxidative stress. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of topic application of Simvastatin-based cream in the treatment of chronic vascular cutaneous ulcers, comparing this type of treatment to a collagen-based dressing, proven to be effective for ulcer treatment. A total of 20 ulcers were studied in 2 Groups of randomly-chosen patients for a period of one month. In the first Group a 0.5% Simvastatin-based cream was topically administered, while the second Group (control) was treated with an absorbable type I bovine collagen-based medication. Each week, wound healing progress was observed in both Groups, and the ulcers photographed. Wound healing rate was calculated by considering the absolute change in area and by the formula "healing ratio (%) = [(Area 0 - Area t4 )/Area 0 ] × 100," both sets of data being related to the days comprised in the study in order to calculate healing rate per day. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test. Study endpoint equaling the time-course changes of ulcer areas. At the end of the study, when considering absolute change in area, the experimental Group appeared to heal better and faster than the control Group although differences between the Groups were not statistically significant. Conversely, rates of wound healing in the experimental and control Groups were 46.88% and 64% respectively, revealing statistically significant differences. ( P topic application of a simvastatin-based cream proved to be well- tolerated but not effective in the management of vascular leg ulcers in a 4 week-period.

  13. Immunomodulation and safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, Thomas; Kapp, Alexander; Spergel, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic or chronically relapsing inflammatory skin condition that primarily affects children. Topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment since the late 1950s. While providing excellent short-term efficacy, topical corticosteroid usage is limited by potential adverse effects, including impairment of the function and viability of Langerhans cells/dendritic cells. The recently introduced topical calcineurin inhibitors pimecrolimus cream 1% (Elidel) and tacrolimus ointment 0.03 and 0.1% (Protopic) exhibit a more selective mechanism of action and do not affect Langerhans cells/dendritic cells. For the immune system of young children 'learning' to mount a balanced Th1/Th2 response, this selective effect has particular benefits. In clinical experience, topical calcineurin inhibitors have been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to topical corticosteroids in almost 7 million patients (>5 million on pimecrolimus; >1.7 million on tacrolimus). Topical pimecrolimus is primarily used in children with mild and moderate AD, whereas tacrolimus is used preferentially in more severe cases. None of the topical calcineurin inhibitors have been associated with systemic immunosuppression-related malignancies known to occur following long-term sustained systemic immunosuppression with oral immunosuppressants (e.g., tacrolimus, cyclosporine A, and corticosteroids) in transplant patients. Preclinical and clinical data suggest a greater skin selectivity and larger safety margin for topical pimecrolimus. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Topic Visualization and Survival Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping Jr

    2017-01-01

    Latent semantic structure in a text collection is called a topic. In this thesis, we aim to visualize topics in the scientific literature and detect active or inactive research areas based on their lifetime. Topics were extracted from over 1 million abstracts from the arXiv.org database using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Hellinger distance measures similarity between two topics. Topics are determined to be relevant if their pairwise distances are smaller than the threshold of Hellinger ...

  15. Randomized double-blind study: wound-healing effects of a Symphytum herb extract cream (Symphytum×uplandicum Nyman) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, M; Kucera, A; Hladíkova, M; Kucera, M

    2012-06-01

    The wound healing effects of the topically applied preparation Traumaplant® containing a concentrate (10% active ingredient) from the aerial parts of medicinal comfrey (Symphytum × uplandicum Nyman) were examined in a randomized, controlled, clinical double-blind study. An otherwise identical low-dose preparation (1% active ingredient) was used as a control. The study population consisted of 108 children aged 3-12 years (n=54/group) with fresh abrasions. A 50% healing rate was reached 0.9 days earlier with the higher than with the lower concentration cream. The difference in the healing rate (0.38±0.18/day [95% CI 0.33-0.4] vs. 0.26±0.14/day [95% CI 0.222-0.297]) was statistically significant (p=0.0002). Physicians and children/parents both rated the efficacy of the 10% cream as significantly better than that of the control preparation (physicians' assessment after 2-3 and 7-9 days for verum vs. control: 90.7 and 92.6% vs. 55.6 and 74.0% of the healing rates were rated as "good" or "very good", respectively; p=0.0004 and 0.01). In subgroup analyses, there was no significant influence on the healing rate of the time elapsed between the accident and the first consultation, the wound surface, the affected body part, the origin of the injury and gender. There were no reported adverse effects or problems with tolerability such as local skin irritations. The results justify application of the Symphytum herb extract cream in children with blunt traumata with or without abrasions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiang Yong; Li, Hong Ling; Su, He; Cai, Hui; Guo, Tian Kang; Liu, Ruifeng; Jiang, Lei; Shen, Yan Fei

    2017-02-22

    Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin. Phenytoin is a drug more commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy, but may play an important role in accelerating ulcer healing. To assess the effects of topical phenytoin on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers of any grade, in any care setting. In September 2016, we searched the following electronic databases to identify relevant randomized clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We handsearched conference proceedings from the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Wound Management Association and the Tissue Viability Society for all available years. We searched the references of the retrieved trials to identify further relevant trials. We also searched clinical trials registries to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing the effects (both benefits and harms) of topical phenytoin on the healing of pressure ulcers of any grade compared with placebo or alternative treatments or no therapy, irrespective of blinding, language, and publication status. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted information on participants, interventions, methods and results and assessed risk of bias using

  17. Microbial Contamination of Pastry Cream: Evidence from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Pajohi-alamoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Given the importance of microbial contamination in creating food-borne diseases, this study was conducted to assess level of microbial contamination of pastry creams in Hamedan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Totally, 80 samples were randomly collected from the confectioneries and analyzed for microbial contamination according to Iranian national standard microbial tests. Results: Data indicated that 49 (61.2% samples were contaminated, mostly comprised of Coliforms (92.5%. Moreover, the infection was seen to be higher in jelly roll compared to puff pastry. Yeast contamination was about 82.5 percent, which could accelerate the decay of such products. However, yeast contamination of puff pastries was higher than jelly roll. The microbial contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, total viable count and molds were 57.5%, 35% and 37.5%; respectively. Conclusion: Nevertheless, Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in any of the samples. Abundance of microbial contamination in the puff pastry samples might put consumer’s health at risk.

  18. Job-Sorting Assignment to Assess Cream Liqueur Brand Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gámbaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Projective techniques rely on a stimulus to elicit from respondents projections of their beliefs onto other people or objects, thus reflecting their own perceptions, feelings and motivations. In this work, the job-sorting technique, in combination with Aaker’s personality scale, was applied to the study of cream liqueur brand image in Uruguay and Costa Rica. Eight jobs with different levels of intellectual complexity, salary and physical demands were selected. In each of the two countries, three (two imported and one locally made liqueurs were presented to 90 consumers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Respondents were told to select the job, profession or occupation (JPO that best fitted each brand. After JPO selection, respondents were asked to select from a list of 88 personality traits all the words that they considered applicable to each JPO selected. The JPOs associated with the different brands showed no similarity between Uruguayan and Costa Rican respondents, but the personality traits associated with the two imported brands were similar in both countries, supporting the use of JPOs as metaphors in the study of brand images. The brand image of locally made liqueurs was associated with traits that differed clearly from those of the imported brands. These results provide relevant information for the design of marketing strategies.

  19. Discovery of new lactones in sweet cream butter oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Elise; Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain; Aeberhardt, Kasia; Rubin, Mark

    2011-06-22

    Sweet cream butter oil was analyzed to identify new volatile compounds that may contribute to its flavor, with an emphasis on lactones. The volatile part of butter oil was obtained by using short-path distillation. As some previously unknown lactones were detected in this first extract, it was fractionated further. The fatty acids were removed, and the extract was fractionated by flash chromatography. Three lactonic fractions possessing a creamy, buttery, and fatty character were investigated in depth by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) (EI and CI) and high-resolution GC-time-of-flight MS. Many lactones were identified by their mass fragmentation and by comparison with reference materials synthesized during this work. Six γ-lactones, five δ-lactones, and one ε-lactone were identified for the first time in butter oil, seven of them for the first time in a natural product. The possible contribution of these new lactones to the aroma of butter oil is briefly discussed.

  20. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hyland; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-09-01

    New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?" We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator for ice cream storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2003-10-01

    A regenerator-based chiller has been built in the ``bellows bounce'' style [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 15 (2002)] to replace the vapor compression system in an ice cream sales cabinet. It utilizes a 6-in.-diam metal bellows to form a compliant cavity that contains the dynamic pressure oscillation (>50 kPa). The stiffness of the gas trapped in the bellows is resonated against the mass of the bellows-cap and the mass of a moving-magnet linear motor which is capable of high (>85%) electro-acoustic efficiency. A second resonator, operated well below its natural frequency, uses the gas stiffness of a 1-l volume nested within the bellows and the inertia of an ordinary loudspeaker cone to create the pressure difference across the regenerator that drives gas flow that is in-phase with pressure. The mass of the cone can be adjusted to vary the multiplication factor that is typically 5%-10% greater than the dynamic pressure within the bellows. The loudspeaker cone suffers none of the hydrodynamic losses associated with an acoustic inertance and eliminates problems with dc gas flow in the energy feedback path. The cold heat exchanger forms one surface of the pressure vessel permitting direct contact with any thermal load. [Work supported by Ben and Jerry's Homemade.

  2. Microbial hazards reduction during creamy cream cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Miarka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to identify the hazards relevant to the production of safe food and to assess the effects of a possible infection. The paper presents the microbiological hazards that can occur throughout the production of creamy cream cheese and indicates the means to their minimization or elimination. The analysis of microbiological hazards showed that in the manufacturing process of the type of cheese mentioned, there are a few critical steps that should be specifically overseen. In order to acquire a high quality product it is important to monitor a quality of raw material, the parameters of pasteurization and souring, temperature of product packaging, storage conditions of the finished product and maintain hygiene throughout the production. The process of heat treatment, which is pasteurization, is a critical step (critical control points - CCP for the whole process. Monitoring this stage and consistent adherence to Operational Pre-Condition Programs at the thermisation and centrifuging and later packaging, guarantees a safe product and its long shelf life.

  3. Novel formulation and evaluation of a Q10-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle cream: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farboud ES

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effat Sadat Farboud, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Zahra TabbakhiDepartment of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 were formulated by a high-pressure homogenization method. The best formulation of SLN dispersion consisted of 13% lipid (cetyl palmitate or stearic acid, 8% surfactant (Tween 80 or Tego Care 450, and water. Stability tests, particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and release study were conducted to find the best formulation. A simple cream of CoQ10 and a cream containing CoQ10-loaded SLNs were prepared and compared on volunteers aged 20–30 years. SLNs with particle size between 50 nm and100 nm exhibited the most suitable stability. In vitro release profiles of CoQ10 from simple cream, SLN alone, and CoQ10-loaded SLN cream showed prolonged release for SLNs compared with the simple cream, whereas there was no significant difference between SLN alone and SLN in cream. In vitro release studies also demonstrated that CoQ10-loaded SLN and SLN cream possessed a biphasic release pattern in comparison with simple cream. In vivo skin hydration and elasticity studies on 25 volunteers suggested good dermal penetration and useful activity of Q10 on skin as a hydratant and antiwrinkle cream.Keywords: coenzyme Q10, SLN, release study 

  4. Prevalence of microbial contamination of traditional ice-creams in ice-cream supplier trade units in Birjand in 2015: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Abolhasannezhad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional ice-cream is a type of ice-cream whose all processes of production and distribution are done by hand. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams and its decisive factors. The current study was a descriptive cross-sectional one in Birjand in 2015. The samples were transferred under sterile conditions and cold chain, to a food laboratory. They went through laboratory tests of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus Cocos. The obtained results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software( V:15. The results showed that from among 96 samples collected 25 samples were acceptable while 71 samples were unusable. Maximum contaminations were due to Enterobacteriaceae in 39 cases (40%, and Staphylococcus aureus infection was found in 27 cases, (28% the least contamination-14 (15% cases -belonged to E. coli . In addition 39 infection (42.4% 8 (8.69% was because of coliforms. Besides, 8 cases were simultaneously contaminated with coliforms, escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus, 12 samples (13.04% with coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus; and 2 samples (2.17% were simultaneously contaminated with coliforms and E. coli. Birjand traditional ice-creams are highly contaminated with bacteria, which is a sign of poor hygiene in the preparation and distribution of this product.

  5. Topics in field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

  6. Topics in CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons

  7. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...... food-web systems, nephron pressure and flow regulation, pulsatile secretion of hormones, thermostatically controlled radiator systems, post-stall maneuvering of aircrafts, transfer electron devices for microwave generation, economic long waves, human decision making behavior, and pattern formation...... in chemical reaction-diffusion systems....

  8. Topics in CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, H. R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  9. Topics in Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

    2010-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

  10. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  11. Exergetic performance analysis of an ice-cream manufacturing plant: A comprehensive survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlati, Majid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mojarab Soufiyan, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive exergetic performance analysis of an ice-cream manufacturing plant was conducted in order to pinpoint the locations of thermodynamic inefficiencies. Exergetic performance parameters of each subunit of the plant were determined and illustrated individually through writing and solving energy and exergy balance equations on the basis of real operational data. The required data were acquired from a local ice-cream factory located in Tehran, Iran. The plant included three main subsystems including water steam generator, refrigeration system, and ice-cream production line. An attempt was also made to quantify the specific exergy destruction of the ice-cream manufacturing process. The functional exergetic efficiency of the water steam generator, refrigeration system, and ice-cream production line was determined at 17.45%, 25.52%, and 5.71%, respectively. The overall functional exergetic efficiency of the process was found to be 2.15%, while the specific exergy destruction was calculated as 719.80 kJ/kg. In general, exergy analysis and its derivatives could provide invaluable information over the conventional energy analysis, suggesting potential locations for the plant performance improvement. - Highlights: • An ice-cream manufacturing plant was exergetically analyzed using the actual data. • Water steaming unit had the highest irreversibility rate among the plant subunits. • The specific exergy destruction of the ice-cream manufacturing was 719.80 kJ/kg. • The overall process exergetic efficiency of the process was found to be 2.15%.

  12. PBI creams: a spontaneously mutated mouse strain showing wild animal-type reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, C A; Van Driel, K S; Talling, J C; Inglis, I R

    2001-01-01

    PBI creams are mice derived from warfarin-resistant wild stock that has been maintained under laboratory conditions since the 1970s. This study compares their behaviour to that of laboratory mice and wild house and wood mice. Animals were tested in a black/white box and a 2.64x1.4 m runway. In the black/white box, the behaviour of PBI creams was not significantly different from that of house mice and differed most from that of laboratory mice. Notably, the PBI creams showed the greatest activity and escape-orientated behaviours. When animals were approached by the experimenter in the open runway test, the PBI creams had higher flight speeds than both house and wood mice, whilst laboratory mice failed to respond. In the closed runway test where the animals could not escape, the PBI creams, house mice and wood mice all turned and attempted to run past the approaching experimenter, whilst the laboratory mice again failed to react. At the end of this test session, the time taken to catch each animal was recorded. It took less than 5 s to catch laboratory mice but significantly longer to catch the wild strains and the PBI creams (90-100 s for the latter). In these tests, the PBI creams showed wild animal-type reactivity, and as this behaviour has been retained in the laboratory colony for over 30 years, these animals may be useful in the study of the physiological and genetic basis of fear/anxiety in mice.

  13. Topics on continua

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

  14. Effectiveness of various formulations of local anesthetics and additives for topical anesthesia – a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilbach C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Christian Weilbach,1 Christian Hoppe,2 Matthias Karst,3 Michael Winterhalter,4 Konstantinos Raymondos,3 Arthur Schultz,3 Niels Rahe-Meyer2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, St. Josefs-Hospital Cloppenburg, Cloppenburg, 2Clinic for Anesthesiology and Operational Intensive Care, Franziskus Hospital Bielefeld, Bielefeld, 3Clinic for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, 4Clinic for Anesthesiology and Pain Therapy, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen, Germany Background: Topical anesthesia is used to control pain associated with many procedures in medicine. Today, the product most commonly applied for topical anesthesia in Germany is EMLA® (lidocaine/prilocaine. However, since prilocaine is a methemoglobin-inducing agent, there are limitations to its use, especially in neonates and infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prilocaine and lidocaine as well as propylene glycol, a penetration enhancer, and trometamol, a buffer substance, in anesthetic creams.Patients and methods: Twenty-nine healthy adults participated in this study. Standardized creams with eight different compositions were applied and left for 20, 40 or 60 min. After exposure to standardized painful stimuli (blunt/sharp with pressures of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 N, subjects rated the experimental pain using a visual analog scale.Results: Significant results were only found with an exposure time of 60 min and a stamp pressure of 0.8 N. At a concentration of 20%, lidocaine was more effective compared to placebo and equally effective compared to lidocaine/prilocaine in controlling pain. The analgesic effect of the cream containing lidocaine 10% and additional trometamol was significantly superior to that of placebo and non-inferior to that of lidocaine/prilocaine. In this study, the penetration enhancer propylene glycol did not accelerate the onset of the analgesic effect. In contrast

  15. An Aloe Vera-Based Cosmeceutical Cream Delays and Mitigates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Curative Radiotherapy: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suresh; Hegde, Sanath Kumar; Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam; Palatty, Princy Louis; George, Thomas; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2017-06-24

    Background: This study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of topical application of an Aloe vera -based cream (AVC) for the prevention of ionizing radiation (X ray)-induced dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients requiring therapeutic radiation treatment (>62 Gy). Methods: From July 2012 to December 2012, a total of 60 head and neck cancer patients requiring curative radiotherapy (RT) of more than 66 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with AVC or a comparator Johnson's Baby Oil (JBO). Acute skin reaction was monitored and classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) four-point rating scale on a weekly basis. Results: The results indicate that there was a statistically significant delay in the incidence ( p = 0.04) of dermatitis at week three in the AVC application group. Application of AVC reduced the incidence of Grade 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis at subsequent time points, while Grade 4 dermatitis was not seen in either cohort. The other most important observation was that the continued application of AVC two weeks after the completion of RT was effective in reducing the average grade of dermatitis and was statistically significant ( p AVC-based cream is thus effective in delaying radiation dermatitis in head and neck cancer.

  16. Changing the Topic. Topic Position in Ancient Greek Word Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Greek, topics can be expressed as intra-clausal constituents but they can also precede or follow the main clause as extra-clausal constituents. Together, these various topic expressions constitute a coherent system of complementary pragmatic functions. For a comprehensive account of topic

  17. Efficacy of Advanced Odomos repellent cream (N, N-diethyl-benzamide) against mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, P K; Sreehari, U; Razdan, R K; Dash, A P; Ansari, M A

    2011-04-01

    Repellents are commonly used personal protection measures to avoid mosquito bites. In the present study, Advanced Odomos cream (12% N, N-diethyl-benzamide) was tested for its efficacy against mosquitoes in comparison to DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide). Bioassays were conducted to assess the repellency of Advanced Odomos and DEET creams against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Their efficacy was tested on human volunteers applied with different concentrations of test creams ranging from 1 to 12 mg/cm 2 and by exposing them to mosquitoes at hourly intervals. Field evaluation was also carried out to test the duration of protection of the test creams against Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes during whole night and day time collections, respectively on human volunteers. Mosquito collections were done using torch light and aspirator. Complete (100%) protection was achieved at 10 mg/cm 2 cream formulation of Advanced Odomos (1.2 mg a.i/cm 2 ) dose against An. stephensi and 12 mg/cm 2 (1.44 mg a.i./cm 2 ) against Ae. aegypti on human baits. There was no statistically significant differences in per cent protection against mosquito bites between Advanced Odomos and DEET cream (P>0.05) in respective doses. Complete protection up to 11 h was observed against Anopheles mosquitoes during whole night collections and up to 6 h against Ae. aegypti in day time collections. No adverse reactions such as itching, irritation, vomiting, nausea, etc. were reported by the volunteers. Advanced Odomos cream applied at 10 mg/cm 2 concentration provided 100% protection from Anopheles mosquitoes up to 11 h whereas about 6 h protection was recorded against Ae. aegypti. The laboratory and field trials indicate that for longer protection against Anopheles mosquitoes 10 mg/cm 2 will be appropriate and in case of Ae. aegypti more than 10 mg/cm 2 application is required for complete protection. In conclusion, the Advanced Odomos cream was comparable to the known repellent cream DEET for

  18. Dermal carotenoid level and kinetics after topical and systemic administration of antioxidants: enrichment strategies in a controlled in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Maxim E; Fluhr, Joachim W; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C; Zastrow, Leonhard; Golz, Karin; Doucet, Olivier; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    High doses of sun-emitted UV-radiation induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as major pro-oxidants thus inducing premature skin aging. The best prevention of the destructive action of free radicals in human skin is textile coverings, topical sunscreens and the development of a high antioxidative protective network. The effects of topical, systemic and combined application of antioxidants (AO) were investigated on human skin in vivo. Topical application of creams and systemic incorporation of tablets both containing AO was investigated in vivo by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Topical, systemic and combined AO-treatments induced a statistically significant increase of AO levels in human skin while placebo did not show any changes. The highest accumulation was induced by the combination of topical and systemic AO. Carotenoid-tablets combined with placebo-cream induced less carotenoid accumulation than carotenoid-tablets alone. Carotenoid levelling after the end of treatment lasted for around 2 weeks following the topical application of AOs, and up to 5 weeks after systemic administration, depending on the BMI of volunteers. Topically applied AO are stored in the SC for a short time only due to the rapid AO-depletion by desquamation, textile contact, washing and environmental stress. In contrast to topical application, the systemically applied carotenoids are stored in the body fat tissue and slowly released onto the skin surface with sweat and sebum. The combined topical and systemic application of AO represents an optimal form of protection of the AO-network. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparavigna A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti, Laura La PennaDermIng srl, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Monza, MB, ItalyAbstract: Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90% reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide

  20. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, following pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Lynn R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is a common type of neuropathic pain that can severely affect quality of life. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, is a localized treatment that can provide patients with significant pain relief for up to 3 months following a single 60-minute application. The NGX-4010 application can be associated with application-site pain and in previous clinical trials pretreatment with a topical 4% lidocaine anesthetic was used to enhance tolerability. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate tolerability of NGX-4010 after pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% anesthetic cream. Methods Twenty-four patients with PHN were pretreated with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream for 60 minutes before receiving a single 60-minute application of NGX-4010. Tolerability was assessed by measuring patch application duration, the proportion of patients completing over 90% of the intended treatment duration, application site-related pain using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, and analgesic medication use to relieve such pain. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs and dermal irritation using dermal assessment scores. Results The mean treatment duration of NGX-4010 was 60.2 minutes and all patients completed over 90% of the intended patch application duration. Pain during application was transient. A maximum mean change in NPRS score of +3.0 was observed at 55 minutes post-patch application; pain scores gradually declined to near pre-anesthetic levels (+0.71 within 85 minutes of patch removal. Half of the patients received analgesic medication on the day of treatment; by Day 7, no patients required medication. The most common AEs were application site-related pain, erythema, edema, and pruritus. All patients experienced mild dermal irritation 5 minutes after patch removal, which subsequently decreased; at Day 7, no irritation was evident. The maximum recorded dermal assessment

  1. Improvement of the Physical and Oxidative Stability Characteristics of Ice Cream through Interesterified Moringa Oleifera Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.; Ullah, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of high melting point interesterified M. oleifera oil (35.6 degree centigrade) with substantial amount of unsaturated fatty acids on physicochemical and oxidative stability characteristics of ice cream. Of the 10 percent fat in the ice cream, 30 percent was replaced by interesterified M. oleifera oil at three levels i.e. 10, 20 and 30 percent (T1, T2 and T3, respectively). Oleic acid increased from 26.55 percent to 31.69 percent, 36.94 percent and 42.15 percent in T1, T2 and T3 with no effect on melting time, compositional attributes and free fatty acid content of ice cream (P>0.05). Supplementation of ice cream with interesterified M. oleifera oil inhibited the autoxidation process in ice cream during 3 months storage period (P<0.05).The loss of oleic and linoleic acid in fresh and 3 months stored control and T2 was 26.55 percent, 24.15 percent, 26.39% percent and 1.93 percent, 1.24 percent and 1.79 percent, respectively. Peroxide value of three months stored control and T3 was 1.12 and 0.39 (meqO2/kg). The overall acceptability score of T2 was 80% of the total score (9). (author)

  2. Screening of some commonly used skin-lightening creams and soaps: a case study in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, C.T.; Maaku, B.T.; Akaho, E.H.K.

    2003-01-01

    Seven commonly used skin lightening creams (Body Claire, Peau claire, Akagni sivoclaire, Top gel, Tenovate and Movate) and five medicated soaps (Tura, Sukisa Bango, Crusader Safety, Movate Germicidal and Silver Rose) were investigated for the presence and levels of trace/heavy metals and hydroquinone in them. Instrumental Neutron Activation analysis (INAA) was used to identify and quantify the level of trace/heavy metals in these creams and soap samples. The analysis showed the presence in the creams of significant concentrations of Mn, Cd, Au, Sn, In, Sc, Hf, Ta, Ba, Nd, Sb, Al and Co. The medicated soaps contained significant concentrations of Hg, Co, Ce, Al, Hf and Ti. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) investigations revealed the presence of hydroquinones in Akagni and confirmed its presence also in Body Claire, Peau Claire and Sivoclaire but its absence in Tenovate, Top gel and Movate creams. Titration of the creams against Ce (IV) solution showed that hydroquinone levels in the Body Claire is 2.47%. Akagni is 4.92%, Peau Claire is 3.84% and Sivoclaire contains 4.03%. These levels are higher than the maximum 2% allowed by the Ghana Standards Board, the EEC directives of 1976 and the Cosmetic Production Regulation 1978 (UK) for product safety. (author)

  3. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jun-Sang [Animal Products Processing Division, National Livestock Research Institute, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Science and Technology, Seoul 110-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung-Gon [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Woosong University, Daejeon, 300-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 deg. C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D{sub 10} values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  4. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  5. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Ham, Jun-Sang; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Jo, Cheorun; Shin, Myung-Gon

    2009-01-01

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 deg. C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D 10 values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  6. The addition of inulin and Lactobacillus casei 01 in sheep milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Celso F; Silva, Hugo L A; Esmerino, Erick A; Rocha, Ramon S; Moraes, Jeremias; Carmo, Mariana A V; Azevedo, Luciana; Camps, Ihosvany; K D Abud, Yuri; Sant'Anna, Celso; Franco, Robson M; Freitas, Mônica Q; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Escher, Graziela B; Granato, Daniel; Senaka Ranadheera, C; Nazarro, Filomena; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-04-25

    The effect of the Lactobacillus casei 01 and inulin addition on sheep milk ice cream during storage (-18 °C, 150 days) was investigated. Control, probiotic and synbiotic ice cream (10% w/w sheep milk cream; 10% w/w sheep milk cream, L. casei 01, 6 log CFU/mL; 10% w/w inulin, L. casei 01, 6 log CFU/mL, respectively) were manufactured. Microbiological counts (probiotic count, survival after in vitro gastrointestinal resistance, Caco-2 cell adhesion), bioactivity and microstructure were analysed. Physical and textural characteristics, colour parameters, thermal analysis and organic acids/volatile compounds were also evaluated. All formulations supported L. casei 01 viability and maintained above the minimum therapeutic level (>6 log CFU/mL) during storage. Inulin did not affect L. casei 01 survival after the passage through simulated gastrointestinal tract and adhesion to Caco-2 cells while improved the ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity. L. casei 01 addition produced several volatile compounds, such as carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Also, scanning electron microscopy showed an interaction between probiotic bacteria and inulin fibre on synbiotic ice cream and the adhesion of L. casei to Caco-2 cells was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of percutaneous penetration of aniline and o-toluidine in vitro using skin barrier creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Gintautas; Lüersen, Lars; Schaller, Karl Heinz; Angerer, Jürgen; Drexler, Hans

    2008-04-01

    Aniline (ANI) and the human carcinogen o-toluidine (OT) are released at the workplace during the production and processing of rubber. Recently, we showed in rubber industry workers that a frequent use of skin barrier creams (SBC) increased the internal exposure of ANI and OT. In the present study, diffusion cells were used to investigate the effects of two SBC and one skin care cream (SCC) on percutaneous penetration of neat ANI and OT as well as of OT from a mixture with a workplace specific lubricant. The experiments were carried out with untreated and with skin creams treated human skin. A considerable percutaneous penetration enhancement of test compounds was observed for treated skin compared with untreated skin; the highest enhancement (mean factors 6.2-12.3) was found for SBC (based on oil in water emulsion) treated skin. The lowest penetration enhancement showed SCC treated skin (mean factors 4.2-9.7). The in vitro data support our findings in workers that the percutaneous absorption of aromatic amines significantly increases in presence of skin creams. The efficacy of skin creams to protect the percutaneous penetration of aromatic amines is not confirmed by our own experiments.

  8. Addition of Fish Oil to Cream Cheese Affects Lipid Oxidation, Sensory Stability and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Horsewell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the oxidative stability during storage of fish oil enriched cream cheeses when fish oil was added either as neat oil or pre-emulsified oil with sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, or a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids as emulsifier. Results showed that the addition of fish oil decreased the oxidative stability of cream cheeses regardless of the addition method, especially when the cheese was stored longer than five weeks. The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched cream cheeses was highest when fish oil was added as neat oil or in a delivery emulsion prepared with a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids. Adding the fish oil in a delivery emulsion prepared with whey protein or caseinate resulted in a less oxidative stable product. It was furthermore shown that the microstructure of the cream cheeses was affected by fish oil addition, and it was suggested that the change in microstructure was partly responsible for the oxidative stability of the cream cheeses.

  9. Use of whey powder and skim milk powder for the production of fermented cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren AKAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is about the production of fermented cream samples having 18% fat by addition of starter cultures. In order to partialy increase non-fat solid content of fermented cream samples, skim milk powder and demineralized whey powder in two different rates (50% and 70% were used. Samples were analyzed for changes in their biochemical and physicochemical properties (total solid, ash, fat, titratable acidity, pH value, total nitrogen, viscosity, tyrosine, acid number, peroxide and diacetyl values during 29-day of storage period. Samples tested consisted of 7 different groups; control group (without adding any powder, skim milk powder, 50% demineralized whey powder and 70% demineralized whey powder samples were in two different addition rate (2% and 4%. Also samples were analyzed for sensory properties. According to the results obtained, the addition of milk powder products affected titratable acidity and tyrosine values of fermented cream samples. Although powder addition and/or storage period didn’t cause significant variations in total solid, ash, fat, pH value, viscosity, acid number, peroxide, tyrosine and diacetyl values; sensory properties of fermented cream samples were influenced by both powder addition and storage period. Fermented cream containing 2% skim milk powder gets the top score of sensory evaluation among the samples.

  10. Determination of CME 3D parameters based on a new full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    In space weather forecast, it is important to determine three-dimensional properties of CMEs. Using 29 limb CMEs, we examine which cone type is close to a CME three-dimensional structure. We find that most CMEs have near full ice-cream cone structure which is a symmetrical circular cone combined with a hemisphere. We develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model). In addition, we derive CME mean density (ρmean=Mtotal/Vcone) based on the full ice-cream cone structure. For several limb events, we determine CME mass by applying the Solarsoft procedure (e.g., cme_mass.pro) to SOHO/LASCO C3 images. CME volumes are estimated from the full ice-cream cone structure. From the power-law relationship between CME mean density and its height, we estimate CME mean densities at 20 solar radii (Rs). We will compare the CME densities at 20 Rs with their corresponding ICME densities.

  11. Influence of high power ultrasound on rheological and foaming properties of model ice-cream mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Batur

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research of the high power ultrasound effect on rheological and foaming properties of ice cream model mixtures. Ice cream model mixtures are prepared according to specific recipes, and afterward undergone through different homogenization techniques: mechanical mixing, ultrasound treatment and combination of mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Specific diameter (12.7 mm of ultrasound probe tip has been used for ultrasound treatment that lasted 5 minutes at 100 percent amplitude. Rheological parameters have been determined using rotational rheometer and expressed as flow index, consistency coefficient and apparent viscosity. From the results it can be concluded that all model mixtures have non-newtonian, dilatant type behavior. The highest viscosities have been observed for model mixtures that were homogenizes with mechanical mixing, and significantly lower values of viscosity have been observed for ultrasound treated ones. Foaming properties are expressed as percentage of increase in foam volume, foam stability index and minimal viscosity. It has been determined that ice cream model mixtures treated only with ultrasound had minimal increase in foam volume, while the highest increase in foam volume has been observed for ice cream mixture that has been treated in combination with mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Also, ice cream mixtures having higher amount of proteins in composition had shown higher foam stability. It has been determined that optimal treatment time is 10 minutes.

  12. Development of a full ice-cream cone model for halo CME structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The determination of three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is very important for space weather forecast. To estimate these parameters, several cone models based on a flat cone or a shallow ice-cream cone with spherical front have been suggested. In this study, we investigate which cone model is proper for halo CME morphology using 33 CMEs which are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From geometrical parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone CMEs (28 events) are dominant over shallow ice-cream cone CMEs (5 events). So we develop a new full ice-cream cone model by assuming that a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection points with the observed ones. We apply this model to several halo CMEs and compare the results with those from other methods such as a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and a geometrical triangulation method.

  13. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Process optimization and oxidative stability of omega-3 ice cream fortified with flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Avinash; Sharma, Vivek; Goyal, Ankit; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit

    2018-05-01

    Microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP) was supplemented for the fortification of α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3 fatty acid) in ice cream. Processing parameters were optimized in terms of the stage of homogenization of ice-cream mix, level of fortification (3, 4 and 5%) and flavors (vanilla, butter scotch and strawberry). Data revealed that free fatty acids increased significantly during first 15 days in all the samples and then remained constant. Peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value first increased up to 30 and 45 days, respectively; and then decreased followed by a gradual increase up to 120 days. Fatty acids profile showed 18.74-21.38% decrease in ALA content in fortified ice creams after 120 days. A serving of 100 g of freshly prepared functional ice cream was able to meet ~ 45% of the RDA (1.4 g ALA/day), which reduced to 35.37-36.56% on the end of storage i.e. 120 days. Overall, it can be concluded that MFOP was oxidative stable in ice-cream throughout the storage, which could be fortified successfully at 4% (w/w) level.

  15. The potential of avocado paste (Persea americana) as fat substitute in non-dairy ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina; Surjawan, I.; Abdillah, E.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer preferences towards plant-based food have shifted significantly due to sustainable and healthy reasons. Dairy products consist of high Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) and overconsumption of SFA could lead to cardiovascular diseases. Avocado contains high levels of fat dominated by Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) and phytosterol that have the potential as a plant-based fat source to substitute dairy-fat in ice cream. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical, rheological and sensorial properties of ice cream substituted with different concentrations of avocado paste ranging from 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively against dairy fat to produce non-dairy fat ice cream. The psychochemical properties and total fat were determined. Sensorial quality and hedonic attributes of ice cream were investigated using 60 semi-trained panelists. There were significant differences (p0.05). The addition of 50% avocado paste was the most preferred among the panelists. Avocado could provide a potential substitution for dairy-fat in ice cream.

  16. Quantitative bacterial examination and chemical evaluation of Diet, Club, and Ice-cream Sodas, Soft Drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watoo, M.K.S.; Watoo, F.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Tirmizi, S.A.; Iqbal, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diet, club, and ice cream sodas are flavored soft drinks consumed throughout the world, especially in summer seasons. This study has been undertaken to monitor the bacterial and chemical contamination of these national and international branded drinks procured from local markets. The isolated coliforms and microbes were E. coli Salmonella spp, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, and Bacillus cereus. Diet and club sodas were less contaminated with microorganisms than were ice-cream sodas. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were identified with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer following the improved ash digestion method. The values of Nickel (Ni), (0.15 mg/L), (Pb) (0.28mg/L), Cadmium (Cd) (0.13mg/L) and Aluminum (Al) (0.76 mg/L) were higher than the (WHO) recommended limits. The concentrations of (Na, Fe, Pb) and Chromium (Cr) were higher in club sodas than diet and ice-cream sodas and the concentrations of Calcium (Ca), (Mn) in ice-cream sodas were also higher than diet and club sodas. Overall, the ice-cream sodas did not conform to the (WHO) standards allowed for safe ingestion of micro- and macro-metals in various drinks. (author)

  17. Controlling the hydration of the skin though the application of occluding barrier creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Emma; Millecamps, Danielle; Isoir, Muriel; Burnier, Véronique; Larsson, Åsa; Cabane, Bernard

    2013-03-06

    The skin is a barrier membrane that separates environments with profoundly different water contents. The barrier properties are assured by the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), which controls the transepidermal water loss. The SC acts as a responding membrane, since its hydration and permeability vary with the boundary condition, which is the activity of water at the outer surface of the skin. We show how this boundary condition can be changed by the application of a barrier cream that makes a film with a high resistance to the transport of water. We present a quantitative model that predicts hydration and water transport in SC that is covered by such a film. We also develop an experimental method for measuring the specific resistance to water transport of films made of occluding barrier creams. Finally, we combine the theoretical model with the measured properties of the barrier creams to predict how a film of cream changes the activity of water at the outer surface of the SC. Using the known variations of SC permeability and hydration with the water activity in its environment (i.e. the relative humidity), we can thus predict how a film of barrier cream changes SC hydration.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of cream incorporated with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marslin G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Marslin,1 Rajendran K Selvakesavan,1 Gregory Franklin,1 Bruno Sarmento,2,3 Alberto CP Dias11Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences (CITAB-UM, AgroBioPlant Group, Department of Biology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 3CESPU, Instituto Universitário de Ciências da Saúde, Gandra, PortugalAbstract: We report on the antimicrobial activity of a cream formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, biosynthesized using Withania somnifera extract. Aqueous extracts of leaves promoted efficient green synthesis of AgNPs compared to fruits and root extracts of W. somnifera. Biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized for their size and shape by physical-chemical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. After confirming the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs, they were incorporated into a cream. Cream formulations of AgNPs and AgNO3 were prepared and compared for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans and a plant pathogen (Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Our results show that AgNP creams possess significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.Keywords: Withania somnifera, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles cream, antimicrobial activity

  19. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with no calories and high sweetening capacity and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of replacing sugar with different levels of extracts of S. rebaudiana Morita II and Criolla, on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream. Using a 2x2 factorial experimental design, a total of 4 formulations were prepared with two levels of concentration of the aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (5 or 8% and the variety of S. rebaudiana (Morita II or Criolla. Proximate composition, physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation were determined in processed products. The proximate analysis of strawberry ice cream varied significantly (P<0.05 depending of variety and level used on the formulation. The viscosities of all ice cream mixes were decreasing as the shear rate was increased, indicating a pseudoplastic behavior. The sensory analysis showed differences (P<0.05 among the formulations tested, however the score of all products were above the indifference point, suggesting that all of these formulations may have a commercial potential.

  20. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Ham, Jun-Sang; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Jo, Cheorun; Shin, Myung-Gon

    2009-07-01

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 °C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D10 values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  1. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  2. Topics in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book analyzes the impact of quiescent phases on biological models. Quiescence arises, for example, when moving individuals stop moving, hunting predators take a rest, infected individuals are isolated, or cells enter the quiescent compartment of the cell cycle. In the first chapter of Topics in Mathematical Biology general principles about coupled and quiescent systems are derived, including results on shrinking periodic orbits and stabilization of oscillations via quiescence. In subsequent chapters classical biological models are presented in detail and challenged by the introduction of quiescence. These models include delay equations, demographic models, age structured models, Lotka-Volterra systems, replicator systems, genetic models, game theory, Nash equilibria, evolutionary stable strategies, ecological models, epidemiological models, random walks and reaction-diffusion models. In each case we find new and interesting results such as stability of fixed points and/or periodic orbits, excitability...

  3. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Acne Treatments In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  4. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  5. Feline penile erection induced by topical glans penis application of combination alprostadil and SEPA (Topiglan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, M F; Sanabria, J; Bivalacqua, T J; Hellstrom, W J G; Sanabriav, J

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topically applied prostaglandin E1 (PGE(1))+5% SEPA (soft enhancement of percutaneous absorption) on the glans penis in a feline erection model. Erectile response after glans penis administration of PGE(1)+5% SEPA cream (Topiglan, MacroChem Co., Lexington, MA, USA) was compared to the erectile response after intracavernosal administration of the triple-drug combination (1.65 mg papaverine, 25 microg phentolamine, and 0.5 microg PGE(1)). The placebo cream and increasing concentrations (0.25%, 2.5 mg/ml; 0.5%, 5 mg/ml; and 1%, 10 mg/ml) of PGE(1)+5% SEPA were applied in a total volume of 0.1 ml via a plastic needle-less syringe. The control triple-drug combination was administrated intracavernosally via a 30-gauge needle at the completion of each experiment to serve as a control reference. With each application of placebo, PGE(1)+SEPA, and the triple-drug combination, changes in intracavernosal pressure and systemic blood pressure were continuously monitored. Topical application of PGE(1)+SEPA induced increases in intracavernosal pressure in a dose-dependent manner, with minimal effects on systemic blood pressure. The increases obtained with 1% PGE(1) Topiglan cream were similar to the intracavernosal pressure values elicited by the standard intracavernosal triple-drug combination. These data demonstrate that topical glans penis application of PGE(1)+SEPA can induce an erectile response in cats with minimal systemic adverse effects. Oral pharmacological agents are the first-line treatment for male ED. Studies investigating the effectiveness of noninvasive modalities such as topical therapy should continue, because these agents have the potential to avoid the systemic effects commonly seen with oral therapies. Additionally, topical therapy may also benefit patients who are unresponsive to oral agents or have explicit contraindications. Topical PGE(1) application to the glans penis may become an important

  6. A comparative study of the rheological and sensory properties of a petroleum-free and a petroleum-based cosmetic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan C; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    A petroleum-free skin cream was developed using food-grade ingredients. The rheological and sensorial properties of this petroleum-free skin cream were compared to a commercially available petroleum-based skin cream. Specifically, large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) characterization of the two skin creams was performed. The petroleum-free skin cream showed similar linear and nonlinear viscoelastic rheological properties, comparable skin hydration functions, and consumer acceptance as the commercially available skin cream. A schematic diagram aiming to correlate the physical and sensorial properties of skin cream was also proposed at the end of the work. Results of this work could provide the cosmetic industry necessary information for the development of alternatives for petroleum-based skin creams.

  7. Determination of urea content in urea cream by centrifugal partition chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Qun Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to establish a centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC method for determination of the urea ingredient in urea cream. The mechanism of this method is that urea is determined by UV detector at 430 nm after being extracted from the cream and derivatized on line via Ehrlich reaction in rotor of CPC, where the reaction products dissolve in the mobile phase and the cream matrix retains in the stationary phase. The mixed solvent consisting of n-hexane, methanol, hydrochloric acid and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde with a ratio of 1000 mL:1000 mL:18 mL:2.0 g is used for solvent system of CPC. The CPC method proposed offers good precision and convenience without complex sample pretreatment processes.

  8. Long-term stability investigation of o/w cosmetic creams stabilized by mixed emulsifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đekić Ljiljana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate (PMD, TEGO® Care 450, Evonik, Germanyis natural (vegetable, non-ionic, PEG-free emulsifier, suitable for the formulation of oil-in-water (o/w cosmetic creams and lotions. The oil phase components can be selected from mineral oils, vegetable oils and synthetic esters, which enable different variety of application profile of these emulsions. It is possible to prepare stable emulsions using low-level concentration of the PMD (2-3% if lotions contain 10-25%, and creams 20-40 % of oil phase. PMD forms liquid crystal structure in the presence of stearic acid, glyceryl stearate, fatty alcohols, or their combinations. The o/w type creams, stabilized by these mixed emulsifiers are complex, multiphase systems. The aim of this work was to formulate, prepare and investigate long-term stability of the o/w creams stabilized by mixed emulsifier polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate/glyceryl stearate/stearyl alcohol, depending on concentration levels of PMD (2% or 3% and oil:water phase ratio (20:80 and 30:70. The samples were prepared using hot/hot procedure. Organoleptic inspection, centrifugation test, rheological measurements, electric conductivity and pH value measurements were performed 72 h, 1, 3, 12 and 30 months after preparation. The prepared samples were apparently white and homogenous creams. The consistency and homogeneity were preserved after centrifugation of the creams after 72 h, 1, 3, 12 and 30 months storage, and no phase separation could be detected. The pH values obtained are suitable for skin application. Conductivity values (25.2-63.7 μS cm1, 72 h after preparation were attributed to the multiple phase o/w emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated creams exhibited non-Newtonian thyxotropic behavior. The concentration of emulsifier PMD and oil phase content had an influence on the rheological parameters of investigated

  9. Low-energy beam test results of a calorimeter prototype for the CREAM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bagliesi, M G; Ganel, O; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Lomtadze, T A; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Meucci, M; Millucci, V; Morsani, F; Seo, E S; Valle, G D

    2003-01-01

    CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass) is an experiment under construction for a direct measurement of high energy cosmic rays (10 /sup 12/ to >5.10/sup 14/ eV) over the elemental range from proton to iron. The first flight of CREAM is intended to demonstrate the new ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) capability under development by NASA. A prototype of a tungsten-SciFi imaging calorimeter designed for CREAM has been tested at CERN with electron beam energies ranging from 5 to 100 GeV. Although the calorimeter module is optimized for cosmic-ray spectral measurements in the multiTeV region, the response of its electromagnetic section to low energy electrons has been studied with this dedicated prototype. Results show good agreement with the expected behaviour in terms of linearity and energy resolution.

  10. Mercury contamination in facial skin lightening creams and its health risks to user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Abdullah, Nor Hidayu; Hamsan, Hazwanee; Tan, Eugenie Sin Sing

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to determine concentrations of mercury in facial skin lightening cream according to different price categories (category I: mercury in samples were less than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) permitted trace levels (mercury in facial skin lightening creams ranged from not detected to 1.13 mg kg -1 . There was no significant association between concentrations of mercury with price categories (p = 0.12). There was no significant non-carcinogenic health risk due to daily application of the facial skin lightening creams based on assumption of 30 years exposure period (HQ < 1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of using gamma rays to reduce microbial content in heavy cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed, H. A.; Aldurrah, O. A. A.; Aldarwash, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the pathogenic microorganisms that cause spoilage to the heavy cream and extend its storability period. The heavy cream samples were exposed to 0, 1 and 3 kGy and stored at 4 O C for 1, 10,20 and 30 days. The following microbial tests were carried out for evaluation (Total Bacterial Count, Presence Colonic Bacteria, Fungi and Yeast, Proteolytic Bacteria, and Lipolytic Bacteria). The result revealed that the dose 3 kGy was the best dose could used to control all type of the pathogenic microorganisms tested. Furthermore, the results of the sensory acceptability testes showed that all sensory characteristics of the heavy cream were not affected in comparison with that of the control after one day of storage. (Author)

  12. Assessment of chromatographic methods for the chemical stability of a new miconazole nitrate cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar; Calzadilla Aguiar, Wendy; Rodriguez Bencomo, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    To assess the chromatographic methods for the chemical stability of a new 2 % miconazol nitrate cream. arious degradation conditions were firstly used in the raw material miconazole nitrate in order to obtain the possible degradation products of this drug and to evaluate them by thin layer chromatography-based method, which was validated to identify the degradation products in the new cream. The performance of the official method based on high resolution liquid chromatography and reported in British Pharmacopoeia 2010 was evaluated, and its selectivity against the possible degradation products were also analyzed. Both chromatographic methods were applied to the analysis of cream samples from the three pilot batches under heat stress for 30 days

  13. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  14. TWO TOPICAL CALCINEURIN INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS: A META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIALS (ARTICLE IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new topical immunomodulators, pimecrolimus cream and tacrolimus ointment for atopic dermatitis (AD in pediatric patients, have provided alternatives to topical corticosteroids without the associated adverse events. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream for the treatment of AD in pediatric patients. MEDLINE, Embase, the CNKI and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to December 2008. Additional data sources were manual searches of abstract proceedings and personal contact with investigators and pharmaceutical companies. Two investigators assessed the quality of trials with unified tables independently. Disagreements on validity assessment were resolved through discussion or consultation with the third author. Quality analysis of methodology was evaluated according to the Jadad scale, including randomization, blinding and patients’ discontinuation. Twenty trials involving 6288 infants and children with AD met the inclusion criteria. More patients using tacrolimus had a good response than those in control groups including vehicle, 1% hydrocortisone acetate and 1% pimecrolimus, the corresponding OR were (4.56; 95%CI: 2.80 to 7.44, (3.92; 95% CI: 2.96 to 5.20 and (1.58; 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.12. The effect difference between 0.03% tacrolimus and 0.1% tacrolimus ointments was not statistically significant (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.48. The incidence of adverse events of tacrolimus ointment or pimecrolimus cream was similar to the vehicle. The major adverse events were burning and pruritus. Both tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream are safe and effective in the treatment of AD in pediatric patients. Tacrolimus ointments were superior to pimecrolimus cream.

  15. TWO TOPICAL CALCINEURIN INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS: A META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIALS (VARIANT OF THE ARTICLE IN RUSSIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new topical immunomodulators, pimecrolimus cream and tacrolimus ointment for atopic dermatitis (AD in pediatric patients, have provided alternatives to topical corticosteroids without the associated adverse events. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream for the treatment of AD in pediatric patients. MEDLINE, Embase, the CNKI and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to December 2008. Additional data sources were manual searches of abstract proceedings and personal contact with investigators and pharmaceutical companies. Two investigators assessed the quality of trials with unified tables independently. Disagreements on validity assessment were resolved through discussion or consultation with the third author. Quality analysis of methodology was evaluated according to the Jadad scale, including randomization, blinding and patients’ discontinuation. Twenty trials involving 6288 infants and children with AD met the inclusion criteria. More patients using tacrolimus had a good response than those in control groups including vehicle, 1% hydrocortisone acetate and 1% pimecrolimus, the corresponding OR were (4.56; 95%CI: 2.80 to 7.44, (3.92; 95% CI: 2.96 to 5.20 and (1.58; 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.12. The effect difference between 0.03% tacrolimus and 0.1% tacrolimus ointments was not statistically significant (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.48. The incidence of adverse events of tacrolimus ointment or pimecrolimus cream was similar to the vehicle. The major adverse events were burning and pruritus. Both tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream are safe and effective in the treatment of AD in pediatric patients. Tacrolimus ointments were superior to pimecrolimus cream.Key words: atopic dermatitis, children, meta-analysis, pimecrolimus, tacrolimus.

  16. Effect of topical anaesthetics on interstitial colloid osmotic pressure in human subcutaneous tissue sampled by wick technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe

    Full Text Available To measure colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid (COP(i from human subcutaneous tissue with the modified wick technique in order to determine influence of topical application of anaesthetics, dry vs. wet wick and implantation time on COP(i.In 50 healthy volunteers interstitial fluid (IF was collected by subcutaneous implantation of multi-filamentous nylon wicks. Study subjects were allocated to two groups; one for comparing COP(i obtained from dry and saline soaked wicks, and one for comparing COP(i from unanaesthetized skin, and skin after application of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic (EMLA®, Astra Zeneca cream. IF was sampled from the skin of the shoulders, and implantation time was 30, 60, 75, 90 and 120 min. Colloid osmotic pressure was measured with a colloid osmometer. Pain assessment during the procedure was compared for EMLA cream and no topical anaesthesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS in a subgroup of 10 subjects.There were no significant differences between COP(i obtained from dry compared to wet wicks, except that the values after 75 and 90 min. were somewhat higher for the dry wicks. Topical anaesthesia with EMLA cream did not affect COP(i values. COP(i decreased from 30 to 75 min. of implantation (23.2 ± 4.4 mmHg to 19.6 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.008 and subsequently tended to increase until 120 min. EMLA cream resulted in significant lower VAS score for the procedure.COP(i from subcutaneous tissue was easily obtained and fluid harvesting was well tolerated when topical anaesthetic was used. The difference in COP(i assessed by dry and wet wicks between 75 min. and 90 min. of implantation was in accordance with previous reports. The use of topical analgesia did not influence COP(i and topical analgesia may make the wick technique more acceptable for subjects who dislike technical procedures, including children.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01044979.

  17. Physical characteristic and irritation index of Syzigium aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safriani, R.; Sugihartini, N.; Yuliani, S.

    2017-11-01

    Essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum has been formulated in O/W and W/O creams as anti-inflammatory dosage form. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams. The creams were made by fusion method. The creams then were evaluated the physical characteristic including pH, viscosity, spreadability and adhesivity. The irritation index was obtained by irritation skin test in male rabbit. The results showed that the W/O and O/W creams have the value of pH: 6.3 and 6.27; spreadability: 3,18 and 4.17 cm2; adhesivity: 5.59 and 0.07 minutes; viscosity: 4.43 and 2.88 Pa.S, respectively. The irritation test showed that the control enhancer caused mild irritation in both of W/O and O/W creams. These findings indicated that type of cream might influence the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil cream.

  18. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Natural antioxidant ice cream acutely reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguigni, Valerio; Manco, Melania; Sorge, Roberto; Gnessi, Lucio; Francomano, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream). Participants were studied at baseline and 2 h after ingesting ice cream. Serum polyphenols, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]), nitric oxide (NOx) bioavailability, markers of oxidative stress (determination of reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and hydrogen peroxide [H 2 O 2 ]), endothelium function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and exercise tolerance (stress test) were assessed, and the double product was measured. Serum polyphenols (P ice cream ingestion. No changes were found after control ice cream ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a natural ice cream rich in polyphenols acutely improved vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals through a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.