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Sample records for top submerged lances

  1. An Interview with Lance Olsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Segal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.

  2. Permanent synchronization of camcorders via LANC protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancic, Damir; Smith, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    A device, which keeps two camcorders permanently in synchronization, has been developed. The mentioned device uses LANC (CONTROL-L) camcorder's inputs for synchronization. It enables controlling of two camcorders simultaneously via built-in buttons, by using external LANC remote controller and/or by the PC via serial (RS232) communication. Since device requires LANC inputs on camcorders or ACC inputs on still cameras, it can be used on some camcorders produced by manufacturers Sony and Canon or some still cameras produced by Sony. The device initially synchronizes camcorders or still cameras by applying arbitrarily delayed power-up pulses on LANC (ACC) inputs. Then, on user demand, the camcorders can be permanently synchronized (valid only for some camcorders produced by Sony). The effectiveness of the proposed device is demonstrated by several experiments on three types of camcorders (DCR-TRV900E, HDR-HC1, HVR-Z1U) and one type of still camera (DSC-V1). The electronic schemes, PCB layouts, firmware and communication programs are freely available (under GPL licence).

  3. Struck by a lance through his side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Boldsen, Jesper Lier

    2010-01-01

    The Danish King Canute the Saint was killed in St Alban church in Odense July 1086. According to a legend the king was kneeling in prayers when a lance thrust to his side killed him. Our re-examination of the skeleton presumed to belong to Canute showed a slimly build man with an approximate...

  4. A Chance to Be Like Lance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The authors' seventh-grade science curriculum includes a study of nutrition, anatomy, and physiology. Over several years, the authors' teaching partner and herself reworked the nine-week unit to include the Tour de France and the exploits of Lance Armstrong. What makes this unit so engaging for middle school students is that it provides an…

  5. The effect of lance geometry and carbon coating of silicon lances on propidium iodide uptake in lance array nanoinjection of HeLa 229 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, John W; Hanks, Brad W; Jensen, Brian D; Lindstrom, Dallin L; Hope, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Connecting technology to biologic discovery is a core focus of non-viral gene therapy biotechnologies. One approach that leverages both the physical and electrical function of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in cellular engineering is a technology previously described as lance array nanoinjection (LAN). In brief, LAN consists of a silicon chip measuring 2 cm by 2 cm that has been etched to contain an array of 10 μm tall, solid lances that are spaced every 10 μm in a grid pattern. This array of lances is used to physically penetrate hundreds of thousands of cells simultaneously and to then electrically deliver molecular loads into cells. In this present work, two variables related to the microfabrication of the silicon lances, namely lance geometry and coating, are investigated. The purpose of both experimental variables is to assess these parameters’ effect on propidium iodide (PI), a cell membrane impermeable dye, uptake to injected HeLa 229 cells. For the lance geometry experimentation, three different microfabricated lance geometries were used which include a flat/narrow (FN, 1 μm diameter), flat/wide (FW, 2–2.5 μm diameter), and pointed (P, 1 μm diameter) lance geometries. From these tests, it was shown that the FN lances had a slightly better cell viability rate of 91.73% and that the P lances had the best PI uptake rate of 75.08%. For the lance coating experimentation, two different lances were fabricated, both silicon etched lances with some being carbon coated (CC) in a  <100 nm layer of carbon and the other lances being non-coated (Si). Results from this experiment showed no significant difference between lance types at three different nanoinjection protocols (0V, +1.5V DC, and  +5V Pulsed) for both cell viability and PI uptake rates. One exception to this is the comparison of CC/5V Pul and Si/5V Pul samples, where the CC/5V Pul samples had a cell viability rate 5% higher. Both outcomes were unexpected and reveal how to better

  6. Winning the Race: Lance Armstrong Shares His Struggle To Survive Cancer... and Thrive!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Photo courtesy of Lance Armstrong Foundation Lance Armstrong Shares His Struggle To Survive Cancer... and Thrive! The world knows and celebrates Lance Armstrong for his remarkable defeat of life-threatening cancer ...

  7. MODAPS Web Services API for LANCE-MODIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODAPS Web Services API for LANCE-MODIS. This Application Programming Interface (API) encompasses a library of functions that provides programmatic data access to...

  8. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  9. Reducing neonatal pain during routine heel lance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carla; Hidinger, Andrea; Wilkinson-Faulk, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    To measure the difference in pain scores for newborns who were held and swaddled while undergoing routine heel lance procedures compared to newborns who were lying on their backs and not swaddled during heel lance. Additionally, we sought to compare the total amount of time it took to collect the specimens in each group. A total of 42 neonates recruited from a large tertiary hospital were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Infants in the experimental group (n = 22) were swaddled and held in an upright position during routine heel lance procedures while neonates in the control group (n = 20) remained in a standard care position. Pain was measured with the Neonatal Inventory Pain Scale (NIPS) at two points in time for each group (just before the heel lance procedure and at the completion of the heel lance). Total collection time was measured using a stopwatch accurate to 1/100th of a second. Specimen quality was measured based on the number of rejected specimens for each group. Descriptive statistics and t tests were used to analyze the data. The mean NIPS score for neonates who were swaddled and held during the procedure (experimental group) was significantly lower (M = 1.3, SD = .9) than the score for infants in the standard position (control group) (M = 2.7, SD = 1.3), t (40) = -4.48, p neonates upright during routine heel lance procedures offers nurses a nonpharmacologic method of neonatal pain reduction for heel sticks. This technique can be easily implemented on any unit independent of facility protocols. Furthermore, the technique is not associated with any cost or policy development, making it more likely that nurses can use it in practice.

  10. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  11. Design of jet manipulator for sludge lancing for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Kundan; Nathani, D.K.; Kayal, J.N.; Rupani, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    The sludge accumulation in secondary side of mushroom type steam generators of Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) may lead to loss of thermal efficiency and corrosion. Sludge removal is required to minimise such effects for safe and enhanced operating life of the steam generators. A sludge lancing system has been developed for sludge removal from the secondary side of the steam generators. Jet Manipulator is one of the various modules of the sludge lancing system. The JM consists of three modules namely walker, elevator and nozzle heads. Each module is designed to pass through hand hole, having 180 mm diameter and 100 mm wide gap between steam generator shell and shroud. These three modules are connected to each other by quick connecting type joints and are having their specific functions. The walker crawls by step of single pitch of the tube along the central no-tube lane of the steam generator by taking lateral supports on the nearest tubes. The elevator is capable of lifting the nozzle head to a suitable height required for lancing operation of entire tube sheet of the steam generator. The nozzle head directs the multiple jets along the narrow inter tube lanes having 3 mm width, on both sides of the central no-tube lane. The nozzle can be set to move at different elevations such that the multiple jets will graze along the narrow tube lane to create the sludge lancing action. The provision exists for movement of JM in both directions, i.e. forward and reverse. This paper highlights the objective, design and development, selection of nozzles, qualification and performance evaluation of JM. The manipulator is remotely operable by compressed air in the forward and reverse direction in the central no-tube lane to position the nozzle head in the horizontal direction. (author)

  12. Elaboration of the Thermodynamic Model of Refining the Converter Bath when Blowing through Three-Tier Oxygen Lance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy G. Chernyatevich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In modern conditions, the BOP-process is the main method of mass use steel product production. At the same time, due to the shortage of high-quality charge materials, resource and energy-saving technologies are particularly relevant. To optimize the BOP-process under modern conditions, it is promising to use improved oxygen lances for top blowing in comparison with known designs. Objective. An important stage in the development of advanced steel production technologies is obtaining information on the thermodynamic model of blowing a converter bath through a three-tier lance with the elaboration of the regularities of oxidation processes within the reaction zone of a 160-ton industrial converter. Methods. The analysis that was carried out has a theoretical nature and is based on the definition of the influence of temperature and pressure on the regularities of oxidation processes within the reaction zones formed when oxygen jets are introduced into the volume of a metal bath, foamed slag-metallic emulsion and waste gases in the working space of the converter. As a thermodynamic parameter, the Gibbs energy was used to estimate the probability of chemical reactions. The pressure effect on the oxidation processes in the converter bath was evaluated in accordance with the Van’t Hoff formula. Results. The thermodynamic features of oxidation processes in the 160-ton BOF bath using a three-tier lance are presented. Primary reaction zone is characterized by the occurrence of oxidation of manganese, silicon, carbon, and iron by gaseous oxygen. In the secondary reaction zone there are chemical reactions of the oxidation of silicon and carbon dissolved in the metal by oxygen, as well as the reduction of iron oxide by carbon. The presence or absence of a slag phase on the melt surface practically does not affect the occurrence probability of chemical transformations within the boundary of primary and secondary reaction zones. The additional

  13. Differential effects of a local industrial sand lance fishery on seabird breeding performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, M.; Jensen, Henrik; Daunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    fluctuations. We evaluated the effects of an industrial sand lance (Ammodytes marinus) fishery off the North Sea coast of the United Kingdom, which has been opened and closed in a quasi-experimental fashion, on sand-lance-dependent breeding seabirds. Controlling for environmental variation ( sea surface...

  14. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Diane; Michael, Karen; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; Boller, Ryan A.; Masuoka, Ed; Ye, Gang; Roman, Miguel; Vermote, Eric; Harrison, Sherry; Rinsland, Pamela; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) supports application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena. Near Real- Time (NRT) data and imagery from the AIRS, AMSR2, MISR, MLS, MODIS, OMPS, OMI and VIIRS instruments are available much quicker than routine processing allows. Most data products are available within 3 hours from satellite observation. NRT imagery are generally available 3-5 hours after observation. This article describes the LANCE and the enhancements made to the LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include the addition of NRT products from AMSR2, MISR, OMPS and VIIRS. In addition, the selection of LANCE NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has been expanded. Next year, data from the MOPITT will be added to the LANCE.

  15. America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2010-01-01

    The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

  16. Lance-Adams syndrome associated with cerebellar pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Adam; Dirweesh, Ahmed; Ordonez, Fausto; Kososky, Charles; Reddy Peddareddygari, Leema; Grewal, Raji P

    2017-07-01

    Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) is an uncommon neurological disorder characterized by the development of chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus. There are relatively few cases described following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report a patient who developed LAS 3 months after successful resuscitation. Cerebral imaging studies indicate that brain pathology in LAS patients is not uniform, suggesting that the pathophysiology of myoclonus may vary from patient to patient. Our patient adds to this etiological heterogeneity by demonstrating the unusual feature of cerebellar pathology by both cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. There is also heterogeneity of these patients in their response to therapy. Unlike some patients described in the literature, our patient has not responded to drug treatment. Studies of these rare patients with LAS are important as they provide insight into the pathophysiology of this condition which, it is hopefully, will facilitate the development of more effective therapy.

  17. The dawn of the e-lance economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T W; Laubacher, R J

    1998-01-01

    Will the large industrial corporation dominate the twenty-first century as it did the twentieth? Maybe not. Drawing on their research at MIT's Initiative on Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century, Thomas Malone and Robert Laubacher postulate a world in which business is not controlled through a stable chain of management in a large, permanent company. Rather, it is carried out autonomously by independent contractors connected through personal computers and electronic networks. These electronically connected free-lancers-e-lancers-would join together into fluid and temporary networks to produce and sell goods and services. When the job is done--after a day, a month, a year--the network would dissolve and its members would again become independent agents. Far from being a wild hypothesis, the e-lance economy is, in many ways, already upon us. We see it in the rise of outsourcing and telecommuting, in the increasing importance within corporations of ad-hoc project teams, and in the evolution of the Internet. Most of the necessary building blocks of this type of business organization--efficient networks, data interchange standards, groupware, electronic currency, venture capital micromarkets--are either in place or under development. What is lagging behind is our imagination. But, the authors contend, it is important to consider sooner rather than later the profound implications of how such an e-lance economy might work. They examine the opportunities, and the problems, that may arise and anticipate how the role of managers may change fundamentally--or possibly even disappear altogether.

  18. Optimization of submerged vane parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Submerged vanes are airfoils which are in general placed at certain angle with respect to the flow direction in a channel to induce artificial circulations downstream. By virtue of these artificially generated circulations, submerged vanes were utilized to protect banks of rivers against erosion, to control shifting of rivers, to avoid ...

  19. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Pneumatic Powder Injection into Liquid Alloys with a Non-Submerged Lance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezierski J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologia wdmuchiwania proszków do ciekłego metalu jest znana od kilkudziesięciu lat i z powodzeniem stosowana w różnorodnych procesach metalurgicznych i odlewniczych. Zdecydowanie najczęściej stosowane jest rozwiązanie z użyciem lancy zanurzonej pod lustro obrabianego stopu, jako łatwiejsze choć nie pozbawione wielu istotnych wad. W pracy zaprezentowano zakończone kompleksowe badania autorów nad procesem wdmuchiwania proszków bez zanurzania lancy w kąpieli. Przedstawiono nowe spojrzenie na tzw. „kąt stożka rozejścia strumienia” i jego wpływ na skuteczność procesu, przeanalizowano zagadnienie tzw. „skutecznego promienia strumienia” proponowanego przez wcześniejszych badaczy oraz opisano wyniki badań symulacyjnych oraz eksperymentów wdmuchiwania, zarejestrowanych z użyciem kamery do szybkich zdjęć. Podjęto się także ostatecznego porównania rozwiązań lancy zwykłej i opracowanej przez autorów tzw. „lancy kołnierzowej” wskazując na zalety tej drugiej, jako narzędzia do obróbki niewielkich objętości ciekłych stopów np. w procesach wprowadzania żelazostopów czy też modyfikacji.

  20. Reducing pain from heel lances in neonates following education on oral sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mark; El-Chaar, Gladys

    2015-06-01

    Heel lances are common painful procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Upon observation, pain relieving methods were not consistently applied during such procedures in our institution. The objective of this three-phase quality improvement project was to improve pain management for heel lance-induced pain in the NICU. This study took place in a 27-bed NICU in a level IV perinatal regional center at a 591 bed university affiliated teaching hospital in New York, United States. Study Phase 1, involving 25 neonates, documented baseline pain management strategies and pain scores, which were measured before, during, and after heel lancing using the Neonatal Pain Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS). In Study Phase 2, nurses and physicians were educated on the use of sucrose and non-pharmacological measures to prevent and manage heel lance-induced pain. Study Phase 3 (Post education evaluation), had the same procedure as Study Phase 1, and involved another host of 25 neonates. Pain scores were compared in groups of neonates in Phase 1 (before education) and Phase 3 (after education) before, during and after heel lancing. Other outcome measures included quantifying the use of sucrose and documenting any adverse effects. We found an 84 % increase in the use of sucrose post-education (Phase 3), and most importantly, an 11.2 % reduction in pain scores from heel lances in neonates. Four neonates who did not receive sucrose in Phase 3 had higher pain scores during heel lancing than those who did (3.5 and 2.38, respectively). There were no adverse effects reported with sucrose. Health care providers were aware of sucrose but were not using this treatment modality, despite its availability on nursing units. Education was effective in the adoption of sucrose use, leading to a reduction in pain from heel lances in neonates.

  1. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Currie, Karissa Lyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, Charlotte Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  2. Effect of Vibration on Pain Response to Heel Lance: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Kate; Murray, Eileen; Cherven, Brooke; McCracken, Courtney; Travers, Curtis

    2016-12-01

    Applied mechanical vibration in pediatric and adult populations has been shown to be an effective analgesic for acute and chronic pain, including needle pain. Studies among the neonatal population are lacking. According to the Gate Control Theory, it is expected that applied mechanical vibration will have a summative effect with standard nonpharmacologic pain control strategies, reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses to heel lancing. To determine the safety and efficacy of mechanical vibration for relief of heel lance pain among neonates. In this parallel design randomized controlled trial, eligible enrolled term or term-corrected neonates (n = 56) in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit were randomized to receive either sucrose and swaddling or sucrose, swaddling, and vibration for heel lance analgesia. Vibration was applied using a handheld battery-powered vibrator (Norco MiniVibrator, Hz = 92) to the lateral aspect of the lower leg along the sural dermatome throughout the heel lance procedure. Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) scores, heart rate, and oxygen saturations were collected at defined intervals surrounding heel lancing. Infants in the vibration group (n = 30) had significantly lower N-PASS scores and more stable heart rates during heel stick (P = .006, P = .037) and 2 minutes after heel lance (P = .002, P = .016) than those in the nonvibration group. There were no adverse behavioral or physiologic responses to applied vibration in the sample. Applied mechanical vibration is a safe and effective method for managing heel lance pain. This pilot study suggests that mechanical vibration warrants further exploration as a nonpharmacologic pain management tool among the neonatal population.

  3. 241-SY-101 air lance removal lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.L.; Titzler, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    An emergency task was undertaken to remove four air lances and one thermocouple (TC) tree from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). This resulted from video observation that these pipes were being severely bent during periodic gas release events that regularly occurred every three to four months. At the time, the gas release events were considered to be the number one safety issue within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This emergency removal task was undertaken on an extremely short schedule that required all activities possible to be completed in parallel. This approach and extremely short schedule, while successful, resulted in some undesirable consequences from less than desired time for design, reviews, equipment testing, operations training, and bad weather conditions. These consequences included leakage of liquid waste from the containers to the ground, higher than expected dose rates at the container surface, difficult field operations, and unexpected pipe configuration during removal. In addition, changes to environmental regulations and severe winter weather impacted the packaging and shipping activities required the prepare the removed pipes for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The purpose of this document is to identify lessons to be learned for future activities. In context of the emergency conditions that existed at the time and the urgency to remove these pipes, their removal was successfully completed under extremely difficult conditions and schedule. The success of the task should not be overshadowed by the desire to identify areas needing improvement and lessons to be learned. Many of the lessons identified in this document have already resulted in improved conduct of operations and engineering

  4. Water lancing of Bruce-A Unit 3 and 4 steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzzuoli, F.V.; Murchie, B.; Allen, S.

    1995-01-01

    During the Bruce-A 1993 Unit 4 and 1994 Unit 3 outages, three water lancing operations were carried out along with chemical cleaning as part of the station boiler refurbishment program. The water lancing activities focused on three boiler areas.. 1) support plates to clean partially or completely blocked broach holes and prevent boiler water level oscillations, 2) hot leg U-bend supports (HLUBS) to remove deposits contributing to boiler tube stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and 3) tube sheets to dislodge sludge piles that potentially threaten boiler tube integrity and to flush out post chemical cleaning insoluble residues. The combination of water lancing and chemical cleaning effectively reduced broach hole blockage from up to 100% to 0-10% or less. As a result, boilers in Units 3 and 4 will operate for some time to come without concerns over water level oscillations. However, deposits remained in most tube support plate land areas. (author)

  5. 26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. 1.263A-5 Section 1.263A-5 Internal...-lance authors, photographers, and artists. ...

  6. Uma nova proposta para o treinamento do arremesso de lance livre no basquetebol

    OpenAIRE

    Cedra, Cristiano

    2007-01-01

    O lance livre é um tipo de arremesso do basquetebol e ocorre como conseqüência a algumas infrações à regra deste jogo. Aproximadamente, 25% dos pontos do jogo de basquetebol vêm do lance livre. No ensino e treinamento do basquetebol é o primeiro tipo de arremesso a ser ensinado servindo de base para os demais. Apesar da sua importância, as médias de acertos nestas situações tem sido inferiores a 70%, apenas alguns jogadores atingem médias superiores. Neste trabalho apresentamos...

  7. Differential effects of a local industrial sand lance fishery on seabird breeding performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, M.; Jensen, Henrik; Daunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    fluctuations. We evaluated the effects of an industrial sand lance (Ammodytes marinus) fishery off the North Sea coast of the United Kingdom, which has been opened and closed in a quasi-experimental fashion, on sand-lance-dependent breeding seabirds. Controlling for environmental variation ( sea surface...... or to the fact that only one study colony in the control zone was exposed to high fishery effort within the typical foraging range of Kittiwakes during the breeding season. The strong impact on Kittiwakes, but not on diving species, could result from ( 1) inherently high sensitivity to reduced prey availability...

  8. Drought and submergence tolerance in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hewei; Zhou, Yufan; Oksenberg, Nir; Ronald, Pamela

    2017-11-14

    The invention provides methods of genetically modified plants to increase tolerance to drought and/or submergence. The invention additionally provides plants having increased drought and/or submergence tolerance engineered using such methods.

  9. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2016-10-27

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  10. Development of automated lance systems for removing deposited sludge around heat transfer tubes with a trianglar pattern in a steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. S.; Sung, H. J.; Jeong, W. T.; Hong, S. Y.; Park, Y. S.

    2003-01-01

    Automated lance systems have been developed to remove sludge deposits filed up around the heat transfer tubes of a triangular pattern in a steam generator. The accessible ways of the lance systems inside the steam generator are the annulus region which occupies the space between the outermost tubes and the inner wall of the steam generator, and the Blowdown Lane region (BdL) without tubes along the centerline of the steam generator. The lance system along the annulus employes a slidable guide support rail and a lance body. The guide support rail, which is composed of two parallel circular rods with a vertical distance, is tightly fixed inside the hand holes. The guide support rail extends from a hand hole at 0 degree to the other hand hole at 180 degree. The lance body is slideably held on the guide support rail by means of supporting holders which are attached on both the bottom and the upper plates of the lance body. The lance body is comprised of a nozzle block with a nozzle cylinder and a first drive means which makes sweeping motion of the nozzle cylinder, a second drive means which aligns the direction of nozzle jets from the nozzle cylinder toward the desired tube lanes by rotating the nozzle block in the horizontal plane, and two side wall supporting wheel assemblies attached to the outer surface of the lance body, rolling along the inner wall of the steam generator. For the transportation of the lance, two control cables which extend outward through the hand holes are attached to both ends of the lance body and are driven by a drive means with a powered drum. The lance system along the blowdown lane adopts a horizontal guide support rail and a lance body which can convey three nozzle blocks for emitting high pressure water in the 30, 90 and 150 degree directions. By utilizing the above two lance systems, the shadow zones around the tubes where the high pressure water does not reach are highly reduced

  11. A Confession as Clear as Mud? Making Sense of Lance Armstrong’s Revelations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleaves, John; Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2013-01-01

    Researching the world of doping can often feel like work as an undertaker: when business is good, it’s usually bad for someone else. And these past few months have been especially good for business. Confessions from high profile cyclists, including Lance Armstrong and a number of high profile...

  12. A crocodylian trace from the Lance Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Wyoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkingham, Peter L; Milàn, Jesper; Manning, Philip L

    2010-01-01

    A 1.5-m-long double sinusoidal trace from the Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A, is attributed a crocodylian origin. The trace forms part of a diverse tracksite containing dinosaur and bird tracks. The double sinusoidal nature of the trace is suggested to have originated from the dual undulatory...

  13. Ekspedeerimisfirmade TOP

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ekspedeerimisfirmade TOP 57. Vt. samas: Tanel Raig. Majandus kukutab ekspedeerimisturgu. Diagramm: Väliskaubanduse statistika; Katrin Raie. Ekspedeerijad hakkavad rohkem koostööle rõhuma. Kommenteerib Jaan Lepp; Müügitulu TOP 10; Müügitulu kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Eestis registreeritud Vene hiiglane; Ekspedeerimisturu kasumiliider kaotas 20 miljonit; Küsimustele vastab OÜ Contimer juht Dmitri Redkin

  14. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of sucrose analgesia on neonatal skin blood flow and pain response during heel lance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutag Lehr, Victoria; Cortez, Josef; Grever, William; Cepeda, Eugene; Thomas, Ron; Aranda, Jacob V

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral sucrose on skin blood flow (SBF; perfusion units; PU) measured by Laser Doppler Imager (LDI) in term newborns and pain response (Neonatal Infant Pain Scale score; NIPS score) during heel lance; (2) determine SBF changes during heel lance; and (3) the relationship between SBF and NIPS. Term infants ≤7 days old (n=56) undergoing routine heel lance were randomized to pretreatment with 2.0 mL oral 24% sucrose (n=29) or sterile water (n=27) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SBF was assessed by LDI scans and NIPS scores at 10 minutes before lance, immediately after lancing, and 5 minutes after blood extraction. Mean SBF and median NIPS scores were compared between groups using General Linear Model or Kruskal-Wallis. Regressions examined the relationship between SBF immediately after heel lance and NIPS score. Mean SBF and median NIPS scores immediately after heel lance were lower in sucrose-treated infants (167.9±15.5 vs. 205.4±16.0 PU, P=0.09; NIPS 1 [interquartile range 0 to 4] vs. NIPS 3 [interquartile range 0 to 6], P=0.02), although no significant difference in mean SBF. During heel lance NIPS score was predictive of SBF. An increase of 1 in NIPS score was associated with 11 PU increase in SBF (R=0.21; P=0.09) for sucrose, and 16 PU increase for placebo-treated infants (R=0.20; P=0.014). Increased SBF assessed by LDI is a pain response among term neonates after routine heel lance, which was not completely attenuated by oral sucrose administration. Increased SBF is associated with NIPS scores. Sucrose analgesic efficacy evidenced by decreased NIPS scores for the sucrose group. Association of SBF with NIPS scores suggests that LDI is potentially useful for assessing newborn procedural pain.

  15. LANCE Usage and User Analysis: Creating a Better System that Meets User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D.; Boller, R. A.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.; Ilavajhala, S.; Ullah, A.; Joshi, T.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes known uses of NASA's Land Atmosphere Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) data and imagery and summarizes findings from informal interviews with LANCE users, undertaken to better understand their needs. LANCE, the NRT component of EOSDIS, provides products from MODIS, AIRS, OMI and MLS within 3 hours of satellite observation. LANCE has in excess of 50,000 unique anonymous users per month using data and imagery for wildfire management, air quality measurements, shipping, agricultural forecasting as well as monitoring volcanic plumes, dust storms, smoke plumes and floods etc. Users can be categorized as end users or as brokers who may repackage the imagery and pass it on to their own end users. Interactions with a sample of end users found the following: users like MODIS Rapid Response imagery but do not want to be confined to pre-defined subsets; they want a broader selection of imagery and those with higher bandwidth want the capability to pull in imagery in to their own web-mapping or GIS applications. Users with lower bandwidth want the capability to define their own areas-of-interest for simple download of an image file. Users also expressed a desire to see historic as well as near-real time data, so they can compare the current situation to the recent past. Users want download capabilities to enable information to be shared quickly and easily. These and other findings are being fed back to EOSDIS developers who are creating tools and services to better meet user needs. The findings from users have been valuable in ensuring that developers are on track. The most recent offerings, available http://earthdata.nasa.gov/lance, are Worldview - a web-based client which provides capability to interactively browse full-resolution, global, near real-time satellite imagery from 50+ data products from LANCE, and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) which enables both users and brokers to pull the latest imagery in to their own web mapping

  16. Macroinvertebrates associated with two submerged macrophytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrates associated with two submerged macrophytes, Lagarosiphon ilicifolius and Vallisneria aethiopica , in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe: effect of plant morphological complexity.

  17. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  18. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Yu; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Lan

    2017-06-01

    Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM), we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder) into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary) and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed), we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  19. An apparatus for submerged gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulić, B; Heimgartner, U

    1991-11-01

    A novel apparatus for submerged gel electrophoresis is described in detail. It includes an upper buffer compartment, a lower buffer compartment, and a horizontal plate between the two compartments. The horizontal plate is a heat exchanger connected to an external heater/cooler. Buffer circulates between the two compartments through openings in the horizontal plate. In the upper compartment two separated openings are positioned on each side of the horizontal plate between the side walls and long vertical barriers. The barriers initially direct the flow of buffer and define the electric field on the sides of the upper compartment. The electric field is confined essentially into a rectangular box, defined on the ends by the end walls, on the sides by the barriers, on the bottom by the cooling plate, and on the top by the air. Since the volume of buffer is smaller in the electrode compartment than in the reservoir under the cooling plate, this design enables formation of a substantially uniform electric field without creating too high a current. To enhance uniformity of the electric field, anode and cathode consist each of two platinum wires positioned one above the other at a distance of 6 mm. The electrodes can be placed parallel to the sides and perpendicular to the buffer flow or parallel to the ends and the flow of buffer. The stream of buffer in the upper compartment is regulated by two dams, perpendicular to the long barriers, on each end of the horizontal plate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. Methods Preterm neonates (n = 61 between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks gestational age in three Level III NICU's in Canada comprised the sample. A single-blind randomized crossover design was employed. In the experimental condition, the infant was held in KMC for 15 minutes prior to and throughout heel lance procedure. In the control condition, the infant was in prone position swaddled in a blanket in the incubator. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP, which is comprised of three facial actions, maximum heart rate, minimum oxygen saturation levels from baseline in 30-second blocks from heel lance. The secondary outcome was time to recover, defined as heart rate return to baseline. Continuous video, heart rate and oxygen saturation monitoring were recorded with event markers during the procedure and were subsequently analyzed. Repeated measures analysis-of-variance was employed to generate results. Results PIPP scores at 90 seconds post lance were significantly lower in the KMC condition (8.871 (95%CI 7.852–9.889 versus 10.677 (95%CI 9.563–11.792 p CI 103–142 versus 193 seconds (95%CI 158–227. Facial actions were highly significantly lower across all points in time reaching a two-fold difference by 120 seconds post-lance and heart rate was significantly lower across the first 90 seconds in the KMC condition. Conclusion Very preterm neonates appear to have endogenous mechanisms elicited through skin-to-skin maternal contact that decrease pain response, but not as powerfully as in older preterm neonates. The shorter recovery time in KMC is clinically important in helping maintain homeostasis. Trial Registration (Current

  1. Submerged beachrock preservation in the context of wave ravinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Lauren; Green, Andrew N.; Andrew Cooper, J.

    2018-02-01

    This study examines a Holocene-aged submerged shoreline, Limestone Reef, located in the shallow subtidal zone of South Africa's east coast. It comprises an elongate, coast-oblique, slab-like outcrop of beachrock situated above the contemporary fair-weather wave base. It is currently undergoing mechanical disintegration. Its unique and rare preservation in a high-energy setting affords an opportunity to examine the mechanical processes occurring during wave ravinement associated with rising sea level. The submerged shoreline and the adjacent shoreface were examined using high-resolution seismic reflection, side-scan sonar and shallow-water multibeam echosounding techniques. Limestone Reef rests on top of unconsolidated Holocene deposits. The structure's surface is characterised by reef-perpendicular gullies with rubble derived from the slab fringing its seaward edge. Limestone Reef slopes gently seawards and has a steep landward-facing edge where gullies are most prominently developed. Teardrop-shaped rippled scour depressions, marked by high backscatter, are located seawards of the submerged shoreline. These elongate in a seaward direction and are filled with bioclastic gravels and residual rubble from Limestone Reef. The gullies in the upstanding structure are indicative of wave plucking and abrasion of the shoreline. The material exposed by the rippled scour depressions is identical to that comprising the postglacial ravinement surface identified in the offshore stratigraphy. These deposits are considered to represent the contemporary, actively forming wave ravinement surface. The results suggest that wave ravinement of submerged shorelines is a discontinuous process dominated by the seaward entrainment of material from its landward edge controlled by high-energy drawback during storm surges. The ravinement process appears to operate at the seasonal scale and averages out over the long-term millennial scale for the continuous surface.

  2. Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged fermentation with Mucor mucedo DSM 809. ... The preferred method was the inoculation of the culture media with spores at a total load of 6x105 spores per flask. Key words: Milk clotting enzyme, Aspartic protease, Mucor mucedo, Sub-merged fermentation.

  3. Phase I Field Test Results of an Innovative DNAPL Remediation Technology: The Hydrophobic Lance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    An innovative technology for recovery of pure phase DNAPL was deployed in the subsurface near the M-Area Settling Basin, continuing the support of the A/M Area Ground Water Corrective Action Program (per Part B requirements). This technology, the Hydrophobic Lance, operates by placing a neutral/hydrophobic surface (Teflon) in contact with the DNAPL. This changes the in situ conditions experienced by the DNAPL, allowing it to selectively drain into a sump from which it can be pumped. Collection of even small amounts of DNAPL can save years of pump-and-treat operation because of the generally low solubility of DNAPL components

  4. Kinnisvarafirmade TOP 90

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    TOP 90. Kinnisvara valdkondade TOP 5. Käibe TOP 30. Käibe kasvu TOP 30. Rentaabluse TOP 30. Kasumi TOP 30. Kasumi kasvu TOP 30. Varade tootlikkuse TOP 30. Kinnisvarafirmade üldandmed. Kinnisvarafirmade finantsandmed

  5. A study on development of controller and 3-D visulaization for sludge lancing of nuclear power steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Jo, B. H.

    2001-01-01

    A visualization tool for representing robot task of sludge lancing in 3-D, and control system for sludge lancing robot is developed. This tool is developed utilizing MS DirectX, and graphic models for this tool is drawn through 3ds max 3.0. On robot controller, we split it in two part. We set the minimum part of controller into CV, and the remaining part out of CV. So we can use the work space efficiently and simplify the decontamination process. Because this tool is developed as module type, One can develop a controller set with another program, and can easily apply it to the other field

  6. Using Open and Interoperable Ways to Publish and Access LANCE AIRS Near-Real Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peisheng; Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Savtchenko, Andrey; Theobald, Michael; Yang, Wenli

    2011-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Near-Real Time (NRT) data from the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) element at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provides information on the global and regional atmospheric state, with very low temporal latency, to support climate research and improve weather forecasting. An open and interoperable platform is useful to facilitate access to, and integration of, LANCE AIRS NRT data. As Web services technology has matured in recent years, a new scalable Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is emerging as the basic platform for distributed computing and large networks of interoperable applications. Following the provide-register-discover-consume SOA paradigm, this presentation discusses how to use open-source geospatial software components to build Web services for publishing and accessing AIRS NRT data, explore the metadata relevant to registering and discovering data and services in the catalogue systems, and implement a Web portal to facilitate users' consumption of the data and services.

  7. MOPITT Near Real-Time Data for LANCE: Automatic Quality Assurance and Comparison to Operational Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alonso, S.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Ziskin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Terra-MOPITT (the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument) near real-time (NRT) carbon monoxide (CO) products have been selected for distribution through NASA's LANCE (the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS). MOPITT version 7 NRT data will be made publicly available within 3 hours from observation. The retrieval process is the same for both MOPITT NRT and operational products, albeit for the former it is constrained to use ancillary data available within the latency time. Among other requirements, LANCE NRT products must be examined for quality assurance (QA) purposes and relative errors between NRT and operational products must be quantified. Here we present an algorithm for automatic MOPITT NRT QA aimed to identify artifacts and separate those from anomalously high but real CO values. The algorithm is based on a comparison to the statistics of MOPITT operational products. We discuss the algorithm's performance when tested by applying it to three MOPITT datasets: a known (and corrected) artifact in version 4 operational data, anomalously high CO values in operational data during the 2015 Indonesia fires, and actual NRT data. Last, we describe results from a quantitative comparison between MOPITT NRT data and their operational counterparts.

  8. Characterization of biosurfactant produced from submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced by bacteria and fungi to reduce surface and interfacial tension. This work was designed to produce biosurfactants from the fermentation of submerge cashew bagasse (Anacardium occidentale) using a microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proximate ...

  9. Audiitorfirmade TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Audiitorfirmade TOP 50; Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Audiitorfirmade finantsandmed; Audiitorfirmade üldandmed

  10. Teedeehitusfirmade TOP 24

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Teedeehitusfirmade TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi Kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Teedeehitusfirmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  11. Kinnisvarafirmade TOP 90

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Kinnisvarafirmade TOP 90. Rentaabluse TOP 30. Käibe TOP 30. Käibe kasvu TOP 30. Kasumi TOP 30. Kasumi kasvu TOP 30. Varade tootlikkuse TOP 30. Kinnisvarafirmade üldandmed. Kinnisvarafirmade finantsandmed

  12. Koolitusfirmade TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Koolitusfirmade TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Majandustegevuse kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Koolitusfirmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  13. Põllumajandustootjate TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Põllumajandustootjate TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Majandustegevuse kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Põllumajandustootjate üld- ja finantsandmed

  14. Telekommunikatsiooni TOP aastal 2003

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Telekommunikatsiooni TOP aastal 2003. Käibe TOP 10. Käibe kasvu TOP 10. Rentaabluse TOP 10. Kasumi TOP 10. Kasumi kasvu TOP 10. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10. Telekommunikatsioonifirmade üldandmed. Telekommunikatsioonifirmade finantsandmed

  15. Ehitusmaterjalitootjate TOP 95

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ehitusmaterjalitootjate TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Ehitusmaterjalitootjate üld- ja finantsandmed

  16. Use of the Published Lance Armstrong Cancer Story to Teach Health Science Content to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. Robert

    2008-01-01

    Lance Armstrong (2000) authored a book titled "It's Not About the Bike -- My Journey Back to Life," regarding his battle with testicular cancer. It became a "New York Times" Bestseller and was selected by the "School Library Journal" as one of the "Best Adult Books for High School Students for 2001." The goal of the project described in this…

  17. Submerged in darkness: adaptations to prolonged submergence by woody species of the Amazonian floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Pia

    2009-01-01

    In Amazonian floodplain forests, >1000 tree species grow in an environment subject to extended annual submergence which can last up to 9 months each year. Water depth can reach 10 m, fully submerging young and also adult trees, most of which reproduce during the flood season. Complete submergence occurs regularly at the seedling or sapling stage for many species that colonize low-lying positions in the flooding gradient. Here hypoxic conditions prevail close to the water surface in moving water, while anaerobic conditions are common in stagnant pools. Light intensities in the floodwater are very low. Despite a lack of both oxygen and light imposed by submergence for several months, most leafed seedlings survive. Furthermore, underwater growth has also been observed in several species in the field and under experimental conditions. The present article assesses how these remarkable plants react to submergence and discusses physiological mechanisms and anatomical adaptations that may explain their success.

  18. Top Earners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badel, Alejandro; Daly, Moira; Huggett, Mark

    with age and (4) the real earnings growth rate over the working lifetime is larger for higher lifetime earners. Compared to the US, we find that Denmark and Sweden have a more compressed earnings and wage rate distribution above the median and a smaller real earnings growth rates for top lifetime earners....

  19. Efeito agudo da imagética no desempenho de lances livres e percepção de autoeficácia em atletas

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Ferreira Dias Kanthack; Marcelo Bigliassi; Lenamar Fiorese Vieira; Leandro Ricardo Altimari

    2013-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p47 O esporte cada vez mais diferencia vencedores e perdedores por mínimos detalhes. No basquetebol um fator diferenciador é o lance livre. Sessões de imagética motora (IMA) vêm sendo estudada como um ergogênico sobre o desempenho de lance livre, porém, pouco se estuda o seu efeito agudo, principalmente, em atletas. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar o efeito de uma sessão prévia de treinamento mental sobre o desempenho no lance liv...

  20. The Effect of Stem- and Canopy-Scale Turbulence on Sediment Dynamics within Submerged Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, R. O.; San Juan Blanco, J. E.; Prada, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    Stem- and canopy-scale turbulence generated by submerged patches of vegetation plays a paramount role on sediment transport within aquatic ecosystems such as wetlands, marshes, mangrove forests, and coastal regions, as dense patches dampen velocities and mean bed stresses within the plants, while also increasing turbulence intensity through stem-scale wakes and canopy-scale eddies. To explore the interactions between such processes, laboratory experiments are conducted using rigid cylinders placed in a staggered configuration as vegetation elements, embedded on a non-cohesive sediment bed in a racetrack flume. Quantitative imaging is used to characterize the flow field and the associated suspended sediment concentration throughout the water column at different submergence ratios, defined as the ratio between water depth, H, and plant height, h, to investigate the role of canopy-scale eddies formed at the top of the canopy, and their interaction with near-bed flow structures, on sediment dynamics. Turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent intensity, and Reynolds stresses are quantified within and above the array to clearly identify the contributions from bed generated turbulence and vegetation generated turbulence, at both stem- and canopy-scale, as submergence ratio increases from emergent, H/h=1, to fully submerged, H/h=5, conditions. The experimental results are compared with transport models to highlight the need for a multi-scale approach to represent flow-vegetation-sediment interactions.

  1. Identification of a novel submergence response gene regulated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we report the identification of a novel submergence response (RS1) gene that is specifically induced in the Sub1A-mediated submergence tolerance response. Under submergence, RS1 was upregulated in M202 (Sub1A) but downregulated in M202 in RNA-seq and microarray assays. Expression analyses of various ...

  2. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  3. Topology optimization for submerged buoyant structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picelli, R.; van Dijk, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; Langelaar, M.; van Keulen, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary structural topology optimization method for the design of completely submerged buoyant modules with design-dependent fluid pressure loading. This type of structure is used to support offshore rig installation and pipeline transportation at all water depths. The

  4. Experimental investigation of submerged perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, G.A.; Kozlov, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Results of investigations into determination of steam velocity dependence o on coolant steam content and hydraulic resistance of submerged perforated plates (spp) of steam-drum of npp with rbmk-1000 reactor are presented. The data on be ench-scale investigation of spp hydrodynamics are given. The formula for calculation of steam velocity and recommendations on choice of spp design are pr resented

  5. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comprehensive discussion of the investigations on flow characteristics and local scour due to steady currents and waves around vertical submerged structures are presented, which comprises scour process, dimensional analysis, parameters influencing scour, temporal evolution of scour, flow field, flow visualization ...

  6. Autotranspordifirmade TOP 100

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Transport i Logistika 29. nov. lk. 10-11. Autofirmade TOP 100. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Majandustegevuse kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Autotranspordifirmade üld- ja finantsandmed. Delovõje Vedomosti : Transport i Logistika sisaldab tabelit Autofirmade TOP 100

  7. The effect of measurement quality on targeted structural model fit indices: A comment on Lance, Beck, Fan, and Carter (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Hancock, Gregory R

    2018-03-01

    Lance, Beck, Fan, and Carter (2016) recently advanced 6 new fit indices and associated cutoff values for assessing data-model fit in the structural portion of traditional latent variable path models. The authors appropriately argued that, although most researchers' theoretical interest rests with the latent structure, they still rely on indices of global model fit that simultaneously assess both the measurement and structural portions of the model. As such, Lance et al. proposed indices intended to assess the structural portion of the model in isolation of the measurement model. Unfortunately, although these strategies separate the assessment of the structure from the fit of the measurement model, they do not isolate the structure's assessment from the quality of the measurement model. That is, even with a perfectly fitting measurement model, poorer quality (i.e., less reliable) measurements will yield a more favorable verdict regarding structural fit, whereas better quality (i.e., more reliable) measurements will yield a less favorable structural assessment. This phenomenon, referred to by Hancock and Mueller (2011) as the reliability paradox, affects not only traditional global fit indices but also those structural indices proposed by Lance et al. as well. Fortunately, as this comment will clarify, indices proposed by Hancock and Mueller help to mitigate this problem and allow the structural portion of the model to be assessed independently of both the fit of the measurement model as well as the quality of indicator variables contained therein. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Shallow phylogeographic structure in the declining Mexican Lance-headed Rattlesnake, Crotalus polystictus (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Meik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated matrilineal relationships among populations of the Mexican lance-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus polystictus, a pitviper inhabiting high-elevation valleys of the densely populated southernMexican Plateau. A fragment of the mitochondrial ATPase 8 and 6 genes (589 base pairs revealed comparatively low levels of genetic diversity, with few nucleotide polymorphisms across the portion of the geographic distribution sampled. The shallow intraspecificsequence divergence (1.0% in C. polystictus ATPase 8 and 6 genes contrasts with deep divergences (~1.0–14.1% observed within other montane rattlesnake lineages from the Mexican highlands, and is more typical of intraspecific variation observed in lowland rattlesnake species with similar distributional extents (e.g., C. tigris. We posit that the low genetic diversity in C. polystictus relative to that of other highland rattlesnakes may reflect ecological differences resulting in a different evolutionary response to Pleistocene climatic events. Our finding of apparently low genetic diversity in C. polystictus highlights the importance of conservation initiatives to protect high elevation grasslands in central Mexico.

  9. [Effects of piracetam therapy in a case of Lance-Adams syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Ai; Kumada, Satoko; Yokochi, Fusako; Hachiya, Yasuo; Hanafusa, Yukiko; Tomita, Sunao; Okiyama, Ryoich; Kurihara, Eiji

    2009-09-01

    We report a 17-year-old female patient with Lance-Adams syndrome caused by anoxic encephalopathy during a severe attack of bronchial asthma. She had difficulty in writing because of action myoclonus in her arms. She also exhibited freezing gait and was unable to walk without cane. Although her gait disturbance resembled those seen in patients with parkinsonism secondary to anoxic encephalopathy, surface electromyography revealed that it was caused by action myoclonus in her legs. The presence of giant somatosensory evoked potentials and enhanced cortical reflexes in response to the electrical stimulation to her posterior tibial nerves supported our diagnosis. A combined therapy with valproate sodium, clonazepam and piracetam (15 g/day) was not effective. However, her freezing gait remarkably improved and she was able to walk without help, after the treatment with sufficient dose of piracetam (21 g/day). Cortical hyperexcitability as revealed by electrophysiological examination also improved. We concluded that the combined therapy with antiepileptic drugs and piracetam was effective in the treatment for action myoclonus. However, because the effects seemed dose-related, the dosage of piracetam needed to be increased until the optimum effects were obtained.

  10. Top Earners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badel, Alejandro; Daly, Moira; Huggett, Mark

    We provide a common set of life-cycle earnings statistics using administrative data from the United States, Canada, Denmark and Sweden. Three qualitative patterns are common across countries: (1) the earnings distribution above the median fans out with age, (2) the extreme right tail of the earni......We provide a common set of life-cycle earnings statistics using administrative data from the United States, Canada, Denmark and Sweden. Three qualitative patterns are common across countries: (1) the earnings distribution above the median fans out with age, (2) the extreme right tail...... of the earnings distribution becomes thicker with age, and (3) the growth rate of earnings over the working lifetime is larger for groups with higher lifetime earnings. Models of top earners should account for these qualitative patterns and, importantly, for how they quantitatively differ across countries....

  11. Ehitusmaterjalitootjate TOP 70

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Stroitelstvo 28. sept. lk. 2. Ehitusmaterjalitootjate TOP 70; Käibe TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP; Ehitusmaterjalitootjate üld- ja finantsandmed

  12. Koolitusfirmade TOP aastal 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Koolitusfirmade TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Varade tootlikkuse TOP 10; Pille Rõivas. Võtmetegur meeskond; Vain & Partnerid: uudsus peitub sisus; Kristo Kiviorg. Teel Baltimaade koolitajate tippu

  13. Koolitusfirmade TOP aastal 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Koolitusfirmade TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibekasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Signe Sillasoo. Invicta tahab lähiaastail laieneda Eestis ja mujalgi; Ketlin Priilinn. Addenda kasutas ära majanduse soodsa seisu. Kommenteerib Heli Sõmer. Juhtide hoiakute muutmisega tõus esikolmikusse

  14. Audiitorfirmade TOP aastal 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Audiitorfirmade TOP 51. Vt. samas: Urve Vilk. Audiitoriteni pole majanduslangus jõudnud; Intervjuu I.S. Audiitorteenuste OÜ omaniku Irina Somovaga; Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10

  15. Autotranspordi TOP aastal 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    TOP 50. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Marika Roomere. Täisteenuse pakkumine kergitas tulemusi; Jupiter Plus otsib järjest uusi kasvuvõimalusi; EST-Trans Kaubaveod teenib kasumit toiduvedamisega

  16. Top reconstruction and boosted top experimental overview

    CERN Document Server

    Skinnari, Louise

    2015-01-01

    An overview of techniques used to reconstruct resolved and boosted top quarks is presented. Techniques for resolved top quark reconstruction include kinematic likelihood fitters and pseudo- top reconstruction. Many tools and methods are available for the reconstruction of boosted top quarks, such as jet grooming techniques, jet substructure variables, and dedicated top taggers. Different techniques as used by ATLAS and CMS analyses are described and the performance of different variables and top taggers are shown.

  17. Efeito agudo da imagética no desempenho de lances livres e percepção de autoeficácia em atletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira Dias Kanthack

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p47 O esporte cada vez mais diferencia vencedores e perdedores por mínimos detalhes. No basquetebol um fator diferenciador é o lance livre. Sessões de imagética motora (IMA vêm sendo estudada como um ergogênico sobre o desempenho de lance livre, porém, pouco se estuda o seu efeito agudo, principalmente, em atletas. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar o efeito de uma sessão prévia de treinamento mental sobre o desempenho no lance livre e na percepção de autoeficácia de jovens atletas. Participaram do estudo 11 atletas juvenis da Federação Paulista de Basquete. Na condição IMA, foram submetidos a 1 minuto de vídeo + 3 minutos de imagética, seguidos de 10 lances livres, e no controle, 4 minutos de repouso seguidos de 10 lances livres. O questionário de autoeficácia foi preenchido antes e após a intervenção. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes U de Mann-Withney, Wilcoxon e o Smallest Wothwhille Change (SWC. Não foi encontrada diferença entre a mediana dos grupos, porém, o SWC apontou uma possibilidade de 84% de efeito benéfico do treinamento mental sobre o desempenho para até 2 lances livres. Concluiu-se que a imagética motora prévia tem 84% de chance de causar um efeito benéfico sobre o desempenho de lance livre em até 2 arremessos.

  18. Pain relief effect of breast feeding and music therapy during heel lance for healthy-term neonates in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Hong-Gu, He; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Wei, Haixia; Gao, Yaru; Ye, Benlan; Liu, Zuguo; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2015-03-01

    to test the effectiveness of breast feeding (BF), music therapy (MT), and combined breast feeding and music therapy (BF+MT) on pain relief in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. randomised controlled trial. in the postpartum unit of one university-affiliated hospital in China from August 2013 to February 2014. among 288 healthy-term neonates recruited, 250 completed the trial. All neonates were undergoing heel lancing for metabolic screening, were breast fed, and had not been fed for the previous 30 minutes. all participants were randomly assigned into four groups - BF, MT, BF+MT, and no intervention - with 72 neonates in each group. Neonates in the control group received routine care. Neonates in the other three intervention groups received corresponding interventions five minutes before the heel lancing and throughout the whole procedure. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), latency to first cry, and duration of first crying. mean changes in NIPS scores from baseline over time was dependent on the interventions given. Neonates in the BF and combined BF+MT groups had significantly longer latency to first cry, shorter duration of first crying, and lower pain mean score during and one minute after heel lance, compared to the other two groups. No significant difference in pain response was found between BF groups with or without music therapy. The MT group did not achieve a significantly reduced pain response in all outcome measures. BF could significantly reduce pain response in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. MT did not enhance the effect of pain relief of BF. healthy-term neonates should be breast fed to alleviate pain during heel lance. There is no need for the additional input of classical music on breast feeding in clinic to relieve procedural pain. Nurses should encourage breast feeding to relieve pain during heel lance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Fer-de-Lance Virus reveals a novel gene in reptilian Paramyxoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Batts, W.N.; Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The complete RNA genome sequence of the archetype reptilian paramyxovirus, Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), has been determined. The genome is 15,378 nucleotides in length and consists of seven nonoverlapping genes in the order 3??? N-U-P-M-F-HN-L 5???, coding for the nucleocapsid, unknown, phospho-, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, and large polymerase proteins, respectively. The gene junctions contain highly conserved transcription start and stop signal sequences and tri-nucleotide intergenic regions similar to those of other Paramyxoviridae. The FDLV P gene expression strategy is like that of rubulaviruses, which express the accessory V protein from the primary transcript and edit a portion of the mRNA to encode P and I proteins. There is also an overlapping open reading frame potentially encoding a small basic protein in the P gene. The gene designated U (unknown), encodes a deduced protein of 19.4 kDa that has no counterpart in other paramyxoviruses and has no similarity with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Active transcription of the U gene in infected cells was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis, and bicistronic N-U mRNA was also evident. The genomes of two other snake paramyxovirus genotypes were also found to have U genes, with 11 to 16% nucleotide divergence from the FDLV U gene. Pairwise comparisons of amino acid identities and phylogenetic analyses of all deduced FDLV protein sequences with homologous sequences from other Paramyxoviridae indicate that FDLV represents a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. We suggest the name Ferlavirus for the new genus, with FDLV as the type species.

  20. Plasma arc and thermal lance techniques for cutting concrete and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargagliotti, A.; Caprile, L.; Piana, F.; Tolle, E.

    1986-01-01

    The plasma arc technique is used today in industrial practice for any metal, but mainly for cutting stainless steel, carbon steel and aluminium. In air the maximum thickness that was cut in the performed tests was 150 mm, both with ferritic and austenitic steel. Underwater the maximum thickness cut was 103 mm. The two types of torch used in the tests are those used today: the plasma-shaped electrode torch (WIPC) and the pointed electrode torch (DMC-GRUEN). Two different types of gas were compared: an argon-nitrogen mixture and an argon-hydrogen mixture. The second mixture adopted results in less dust emission. The production of dust and aerosols also depends on the cutting speed, on the kind of steel, but mainly on the environmental conditions; it is reduced up to 500 times under water. Dust and aerosols can, jeopardize the efficiency of the system; moreover, the ambient air can have high-level radiation fields. Indirect and direct protections are needed (shields, remote control, robots, etc.). Tentative procedures for dismantling two types of BWR reactor are examined. Two series of tests demonstrated the feasibility of cutting the most geometrically difficult parts of the reactor internals. The thermal lance technique is used in industrial practice mainly for dismantling large reinforced concrete structures. This technique can be applied to dismantle nuclear facilities, even though it can cause some problems due to the gases, fumes and lapilli produced. In addition, the cost of this technique seems to be generally higher than the cost of other techniques. From the analyses done, the conclusion seems that both the above techniques are feasible for dismantling a nuclear power plant (NPP). The best solution is probably to analyse the different dismantling possibilities and problems and problems of each case

  1. Combustion behavior of spent solvent in a submerged combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Amakawa, Masayuki; Uchida, Katsuhide.

    1993-10-01

    An experimental study has been conducted in order to evaluate the applicability of a submerged combustion technique to the treatment of spent solvents contaminated with TRU elements. A bench-scale equipment of submerged combustor having combustion capacity of 1.39 liter of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) per hour was used to obtain process data such as the distribution behavior of radioactive nuclides in the submerged combustion process. This report describes the experimental results on the combustion characteristics of the simulated spent solvents of TBP and/or n-dodecane, and on the distribution behaviors of combustion products such as ruthenium and iodine in the submerged combustion process. (author)

  2. Wave power absorption by a submerged balloon fixed to the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of absorbing wave energy using a submerged balloon fixed to the sea bed is investigated. The balloon is in the form of a fabric encased within an array of meridional tendons which terminate at a point at the top of the balloon and at some radius at the bottom. The expansion...... and contraction of the balloon in waves pump air via a turbine into and out of a chamber of constant volume. A more refined model than that used by Kurniawan and Greaves [Proc. 2nd Offshore Energy and Storage Symposium , 2015] predicts a similarly broad-banded response, but the maximum absorption is less than...

  3. Improved technique to remove hardened sludge on top of Steam generator tube sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartl, R.

    2015-07-01

    Since many years the top of Steam Generator tube sheet is cleaned by high pressure water jets. In the standard process a multi-nozzle head is manipulated remote controlled inside the No tube lane. The high pressure water jets are directed between the inter-tube aisles. Inner bundle lancing enhanced the efficiency to remove hardened sludge at low flow areas above the tube sheet to a certain extent. For that the nozzle head is fed between the inner tube aisles thus reducing the work distance to a minimum. AREVA GmbH realized a hydraulic driven toothed blade to considerably raise the removal rate of the hardened sludge. (Author)

  4. Calibration of submerged multi-sluice gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to study experimentally and verify empirically the different parameters affecting the discharge through submerged multiple sluice gates (i.e., the expansion ratios, gates operational management, etc.. Using multiple regression analysis of the experimental results, a general equation for discharge coefficient is developed. The results show, that the increase in the expansion ratio and the asymmetric operation of gates, give higher values for the discharge coefficient. The obtained predictions of the discharge coefficient using the developed equations are compared to the experimental data. The present developed equations showed good consistency and high accuracy.

  5. Majutusasutuste TOP 40 aastal 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Majutusasutuste TOP 40 aastal 2002. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Majutusasutuste üldandmed. Majutusasutuste finantsandmed

  6. Jaekaubanduse TOP 100 aastal 2001

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    TOP 100. Käibe TOP 30. Käibe kasvu TOP 30. Kasumi TOP 30. Kasumi kasvu TOP 30. Rentaabluse TOP 30. Varade tootlikkuse TOP 30. Jaekaubandusettevõtete finantsseadmed. Jaekaubandusettevõtete üldandmed

  7. Jaekaubandusettevõtete TOP 70

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Jaekaubandusettevõtete TOP 70; Käibe TOP 25; Kasumi TOP 25; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20; Jaekaubandusettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  8. Impacts of climate change on submerged and emergent wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Short; Sarian Kosten; Pamela A. Morgan; Sparkle L Malone; Gregg E. Moore

    2016-01-01

    Submerged and emergent wetland plant communities are evaluated for their response to global climate change (GCC), focusing on seagrasses, submerged freshwater plants, tidal marsh plants, freshwater marsh plants and mangroves. Similarities and differences are assessed in plant community responses to temperature increase, CO2increase, greater UV-B exposure, sea...

  9. Critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study examined critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes. It is shown that the critical submergence for an isolated intake can be predicted by disregarding whole boundary blockages on the complete imaginary critical sink surface that is the combination of imaginary complete critical cylindrical and ...

  10. Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suitable ultrasonic guided wave modes with optimum scanning capabilities have been generated and identified in submerged plate system. Finally, the propagation of selected modes through submerged notched plates is investigated. Sensitivity of leaky waves to the notches has been studied. The methodology would help ...

  11. Multielement stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes across Yunnan plateau lakes (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    Stoichiometric homeostasis of element composition is one of the central concepts of ecological stoichiometry. We analyzed concentrations of macroelements (C, N, P, Ca, K, Mg, S), microelements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) and beneficial elements (Na, Se, Si) in submerged macrophytes, water and sediments across 20 Yunnan plateau lakes. We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements. Canonical discriminant analyses successfully discriminated among trophic level groups and taxa groups. Of all the elements, C, N, P and S most effectively discriminated among trophic level groups across 20 lakes, revealing lake trophic level mostly affect tissue macroelement composition in submerged macrophytes; while Ca, K and Se most effectively discriminated among submerged macrophytes taxa groups, suggesting taxonomy mostly affect compositions of macroelements and beneficial elements in submerged macrophytes. In addition, the stoichiometric homeostatic coefficient of 1/HCa:C for all five taxa of submerged macrophytes were less than zero, suggesting submerged macrophytes in Yunnan plateau lakes have strong Ca stoichiometric homeostasis. Our findings, not only broaden the knowledge of multielement stoichiometric homeostasis, but also help to choose most appropriate lake management strategy. PMID:25970822

  12. A Flow Formula For Submerged Rectangular Weirs | Okoli | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An equation is derived to obtain the discharge over a sharp-edge rectangular weir in the case of free and submerged conditions. A flow equation has been developed for discharge over a sharp crested rectangular weir in such a way that it can be used for both free and submerged flows. The presence of an upstream ...

  13. ATLAS top quark results

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronises, analyses of events containing top quarks allow to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This talk will focus on recent precision top-quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: Single top-quark and top-quark pair production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented, as well as measurements of top-quark pair production in association with a W or Z boson and measurements of top quark properties such as the spin correlation and W boson helicity in top quark pair events.

  14. Submerged demineralizer system vessel shipment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Henrie, J.O.; Greenborg, J.

    1984-06-01

    Vessels containing zeolites and absorbed fission products from processing accident-generated water at Three Mile Island through the Submerged Demineralizer System were found to generate radiolytic hydrogen and oxygen gases. In some vessels with high curie contents, gas generation during shipment could have resulted in flammable gas concentrations exceeding federal limits for radioactive material shipments. Tests of a catalyst bed in the vessel demonstrated that recombination of the gases back into water would permit safe shipment of the sealed vessels. Catalyst was loaded into an available screen assembly in each vessel. Vessel pressure monitoring ensured that net gas generation had stopped and that hydrogen and oxygen concentrations were kept below flammable limits. All shipments complied with federal regulations

  15. Crassulacean acid metabolism in submerged aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Sybesme, C.

    1984-01-01

    CO2-fixation in the dark is known to occur in various organs of many plants. However, only in species possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) does dark CO2-fixation contribute substantially to the carbon economy of the plant. Until very recently CAM was known only from terrestrial species, largely drought adapted succulents. The discovery of CAM in the submerged aquatic fern ally Isoetes howellii (Isoetaceae)(Keeley 1981) adds a new dimension to our understanding of crassulacean acid metabolism. In this paper I will summarize 1) the evidence of CAM in Isoetes howellii, 2) the data on the distribution of CAM in aquatic species, and 3) the work to date on the functional significance of CAM in aquatic species.

  16. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  17. Workshop on ROVs and deep submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deep-submergence community has an opportunity on March 6 to participate in a unique teleconferencing demonstration of a state-of-the-art, remotely operated underwater research vehicle known as the Jason-Medea System. Jason-Medea has been developed over the past decade by scientists, engineers, and technicians at the Deep Submergence Laboratory at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The U.S. Navy, the Office of the Chief of Naval Research, and the National Science Foundation are sponsoring the workshop to explore the roles that modern computational, communications, and robotics technologies can play in deep-sea oceanographic research.Through the cooperation of Electronic Data Systems, Inc., the Jason Foundation, and Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., 2-1/2 hours of air time will be available from 3:00 to 5:30 PM EST on March 6. Twenty-seven satellite downlink sites will link one operating research vessel and the land-based operation with workshop participants in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Bermuda. The research ship Laney Chouest will be in the midst of a 3-week educational/research program in the Sea of Cortez, between Baja California and mainland Mexico. This effort is focused on active hydrothermal vents driven by heat flow from the volcanically active East Pacific Rise, which underlies the sediment-covered Guaymas Basin. The project combines into a single-operation, newly-developed robotic systems, state-of-the-art mapping and sampling tools, fiber-optic data transmission from the seafloor, instantaneous satellite communication from ship to shore, and a sophisticated array of computational and telecommunications networks. During the workshop, land-based scientists will observe and participate directly with their seagoing colleagues as they conduct seafloor research.

  18. A perspective on underwater photosynthesis in submerged terrestrial wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Winkel, Anders; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Wetland plants inhabit flood-prone areas and therefore can experience episodes of complete submergence. Submergence impedes exchange of O2 and CO2 between leaves and the environment, and light availability is also reduced. The present review examines limitations to underwater net photosynthesis (PN) by terrestrial (i.e. usually emergent) wetland plants, as compared with submerged aquatic plants, with focus on leaf traits for enhanced CO2 acquisition. Scope Floodwaters are variable in dissolved O2, CO2, light and temperature, and these parameters influence underwater PN and the growth and survival of submerged plants. Aquatic species possess morphological and anatomical leaf traits that reduce diffusion limitations to CO2 uptake and thus aid PN under water. Many aquatic plants also have carbon-concentrating mechanisms to increase CO2 at Rubisco. Terrestrial wetland plants generally lack the numerous beneficial leaf traits possessed by aquatic plants, so submergence markedly reduces PN. Some terrestrial species, however, produce new leaves with a thinner cuticle and higher specific leaf area, whereas others have leaves with hydrophobic surfaces so that gas films are retained when submerged; both improve CO2 entry. Conclusions Submergence inhibits PN by terrestrial wetland plants, but less so in species that produce new leaves under water or in those with leaf gas films. Leaves with a thinner cuticle, or those with gas films, have improved gas diffusion with floodwaters, so that underwater PN is enhanced. Underwater PN provides sugars and O2 to submerged plants. Floodwaters often contain dissolved CO2 above levels in equilibrium with air, enabling at least some PN by terrestrial species when submerged, although rates remain well below those in air. PMID:22476500

  19. Reisifirmade TOP 40 aastal 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Reisifirmade TOP 40 aastal 2002. Reisifirmade TOP-i esikümme. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Reisifirmade üldandmed. Reisifirmade finantsandmed. Tehnilise käibe alusel arvutatud edetabelid: Reisifirmade TOP 25; Käibe TOP 40; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10

  20. Vibrational analysis of submerged cylindrical shells based on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.G.; Naeem, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a vibration analysis was performed of an isotropic cylindrical shell submerged in fluid, resting on Winkler and Pasternak elastic foundations for simply supported boundary condition. Love's thin shell theory was exploited for strain- and curvature- displacement relationship. Shell problem was solved by using wave propagation approach. Influence of fluid and Winkler as well as Pasternak elastic foundations were studied on the natural frequencies of submerged isotropic cylindrical shells. Results were validated by comparing with the existing results in literature. Vibration, Submerged cylindrical shell, Love's thin shell theory, Wave propagation method, Winkler and Pasternak foundations. (author)

  1. Jaekaubanduse 2000. a. TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Jaekaubanduse TOP 50 ettevõtete üldandmed, rentaabluse TOP 40, ROA TOP 40, suurimad kahjumid jaekaubanduse TOP-is, suurima käibelangusega firmad jaekaubanduse TOP-is, kasumikasvu TOP30, kasumi TOP40, käibekasvu TOP40, käibe TOP40, jaekaubandusettevõtete 2000. a. finantsandmed

  2. Julgamento de Lances Futebolísticos: Comparação entre Árbitros de Futebol e Torcedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Moura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar um estudo comparativo entre árbitros de futebol e torcedores quanto à adoção de critérios, no julgamento de lances futebolísticos. De acordo com as teorias de Jean Piaget e Lawrence Kohlberg, considerou-se que este tema está relacionado ao julgamento moral. A amostra foi composta por 61 árbitros e 30 torcedores, residentes em dois estados do Nordeste brasileiro, com média de idade de 34 anos, todos do sexo masculino. Os participantes responderam, por escrito, a oito situações hipotéticas futebolísticas e não futebolísticas. Embora, historicamente, esses grupos tenham sempre estado em lados opostos nos campos de futebol, na presente investigação científica, de um modo geral, os resultados não expressaram significativo distanciamento entre as posições dos dois. Nas situações futebolísticas, contudo, os árbitros se mostraram mais deontológicos e os torcedores mais sociais. Na maioria das vezes, ambos apresentaram objeção às injustiças contidas nas situações propostas e se mostraram coerentes com esta posição em seus julgamentos. O estudo agregou conhecimentos ao campo de estudo do julgamento moral e serviu de base para se conhecer melhor os critérios de julgamento utilizados por árbitros, frente a lances futebolísticos, abrindo possibilidades para a realização de novas pesquisas na interface entre a Psicologia e o futebol.

  3. Top quark property measurements in single top

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00386283; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A review of the recent results on measurements of top quark properties in single top quark processes, performed at the LHC by ATLAS and CMS is presented. The measurements are in good agreement with predictions and no deviations from Standard Model expectations have been observed.

  4. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  5. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  6. Submerged flow bridge scour under clear water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Prediction of pressure flow (vertical contraction) scour underneath a partially or fully submerged bridge superstructure : in an extreme flood event is crucial for bridge safety. An experimentally and numerically calibrated formulation is : developed...

  7. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  8. Durability performance of submerged concrete structures - phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This project determined that severe corrosion of steel can occur in the submerged : portions of reinforced concrete structures in marine environments. Field studies of decommissioned : pilings from Florida bridges revealed multiple instances of stron...

  9. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  10. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report. The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments

  11. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  12. ATLAS Top Quark Results

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  13. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar ADAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  14. Gas exchange under water : acclimation of terrestrial plants to submergence

    OpenAIRE

    Mommer, Liesje

    2005-01-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be prolonged photosynthesis under water, but this has received only little attention. This thesis, therefore, aims to investigate in depth the effects of acclimation to submergence on underwater gas exchange capacity of terrestrial plants. It elucidates the beneficial effects ...

  15. Effective mass and damping of submerged structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.

    1978-04-01

    Various structures important for safety in nuclear power plants must remain functioning in the event of an earthquake or other dynamic phenomenon. Some of these important structures, such as spent-fuel storage racks, main pressure-relief valve lines, and internal structures in the reactor vessel, are submerged in water. Dynamic analysis must include the force and damping effects of water. This report provides a technical basis for evaluating the wide variety of modeling assumptions currently used in design analysis. Current design analysis techniques and information in the literature form the basis of our conclusions and recommendations. We surveyed 32 industrial firms and reviewed 49 technical references. We compare various theories with published experimental results wherever possible. Our findings generally pertain to idealized structures, such as single isolated members, arrays of members, and coaxial cylinders. We relate these findings to the actual reactor structures through observations and recommendations. Whenever possible we recommend a definite way to evaluate the effect of hydrodynamic forces on these structures.

  16. Morphogenesis of Streptomyces in submerged cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dissel, Dino; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptomyces are mycelial bacteria that undergo a complex multicellular life cycle and propagate via sporulation. Streptomycetes are important industrial microorganisms, as they produce a plethora of medically relevant natural products, including the majority of clinically important antibiotics, as well as a wide range of enzymes with industrial application. While development of Streptomyces in surface-grown cultures is well studied, relatively little is known of the parameters that determine morphogenesis in submerged cultures. Here, growth is characterized by the formation of mycelial networks and pellets. From the perspective of industrial fermentations, such mycelial growth is unattractive, as it is associated with slow growth, heterogeneous cultures, and high viscosity. Here, we review the current insights into the genetic and environmental factors that determine mycelial growth and morphology in liquid-grown cultures. The genetic factors include cell-matrix proteins and extracellular polymers, morphoproteins with specific roles in liquid-culture morphogenesis, with the SsgA-like proteins as well-studied examples, and programmed cell death. Environmental factors refer in particular to those dictated by process engineering, such as growth media and reactor set-up. These insights are then integrated to provide perspectives as to how this knowledge can be applied to improve streptomycetes for industrial applications. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effective mass and damping of submerged structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Various structures important for safety in nuclear power plants must remain functioning in the event of an earthquake or other dynamic phenomenon. Some of these important structures, such as spent-fuel storage racks, main pressure-relief valve lines, and internal structures in the reactor vessel, are submerged in water. Dynamic analysis must include the force and damping effects of water. This report provides a technical basis for evaluating the wide variety of modeling assumptions currently used in design analysis. Current design analysis techniques and information in the literature form the basis of our conclusions and recommendations. We surveyed 32 industrial firms and reviewed 49 technical references. We compare various theories with published experimental results wherever possible. Our findings generally pertain to idealized structures, such as single isolated members, arrays of members, and coaxial cylinders. We relate these findings to the actual reactor structures through observations and recommendations. Whenever possible we recommend a definite way to evaluate the effect of hydrodynamic forces on these structures

  18. Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passarella, D N; Varas, F; MartIn, E B

    2011-01-01

    In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.

  19. Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarella, D N; Varas, F [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada II, E.T.S. de Ing. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); MartIn, E B, E-mail: diego@dma.uvigo.es, E-mail: fvaras@uvigo.es, E-mail: emortega@uvigo.es [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, E.T.S. de Ing. Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.

  20. Nitrogen fertilizer management for tidal submergence tolerant landrace rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Mamun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In tidal submergence ecosystem, nitrogen (N is a crucial nutrient for improved and sustainable rice production. Therefore, a series of on-farm and on-station field experiments were conducted to develop a suitable N management practice for tidal submergence tolerant landrace aman rice. In on-farm, urea deep placement (UDP through urea super granule before panicle initiation (PI stage was compared with no fertilizer application. Similarly, five N fertilizer management practices viz. (i. two splits of prilled urea (PU, (ii. UDP at 10 DAT, (iii. UDP before PI, (iv. full dose PU before PI and (v. No urea (control were compared at on-station trial. Tidal submergence tolerance aman rice varieties (Rajashail, Kutiagni, Sadamota and Lalmota were used as testing materials. In on farm experiment, aman cultivars produced 2.0–2.5 t ha−1 grain without N fertilizer. But, cultivated Rajashail, Kutiagni, Sadachikon, Sadapajam, Lalmota and Sadamota gave 3.0–3.5 t ha−1 grain yield with the UDP before PI in tidal prone areas. Though UDP required fertilizer and application cost but it gave profit upto 22,000 BDT ha−1 (Bangladeshi Taka. In on-station experiment, UDP before PI stage significantly increased rice yield and economic return although it was comparable to two splits of PU and top dressing of PU before PI stage. However, UDP at 10 DAT increased straw yield but failed to increase grain yield even compared to control. It could be concluded that UDP before PI stage of rice is an effective method for increasing rice yield and farm income in tidal prone areas.

  1. Audiitorfirmade TOP 50 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Audiitorfirmade käibe TOP 50, käibe kasvu TOP 25, käibe languse TOP 15, kasumi TOP 50, kasumi kasvu TOP 10, kasumi languse TOP 10, audiitorfirmade finantsnäitajad. Rentaabluse TOP 50, varade tootlikkuse TOP 50

  2. Top Production at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Santana Rangel, Murilo

    2015-01-01

    Single and pair top production in the forward direction at the LHC allows for precision tests of the Standard Model. The observation of top quarks in 7 and 8 TeV data and prospects for precision measurements are shown.

  3. Women at the Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roger

    1977-01-01

    Seven female top corporate executives express their views regarding women's impact in top management, trends of the future as far as women executives are concerned, and philosophies and feelings on working women's emerging roles in management. (LAS)

  4. Detecting submerged bodies: controlled research using side-scan sonar to detect submerged proxy cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Carrie A; Schultz, John J; Parker, Kenneth; Lowers, Bim

    2015-05-01

    Forensic investigators routinely deploy side-scan sonar for submerged body searches. This study adds to the limited body of literature by undertaking a controlled project to understand how variables affect detection of submerged bodies using side-scan sonar. Research consisted of two phases using small and medium-sized pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses as proxies for human bodies to investigate the effects of terrain, body size, frequency, swath width, and state of decomposition. Results demonstrated that a clear, flat, sandy pond floor terrain was optimal for detection of the target as irregular terrain and/or vegetation are major limitations that can obscure the target. A higher frequency towfish was preferred for small bodies, and a 20 m swath width allowed greater visibility and easier maneuverability of the boat in this environment. Also, the medium-sized carcasses were discernable throughout the 81-day study period, indicating that it is possible to detect bodies undergoing decomposition with side-scan sonar. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Top quark measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on dif- ferential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  6. Top quark properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the top quark was discovered at Tevatron in 1995, many top quark properties have been measured. However, the top quark is still interesting due to unique features which originate from the extremely heavy mass, and providing various test grounds on the Standard Model as well as searches for a new physics.

  7. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  8. CDF Top Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarelli, G. F.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    The authors present the latest results about top physics obtained by the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data sample used for these analysis (about 110 pb{sup{minus}1}) represents almost the entire statistics collected by CDF during four years (1992--95) of data taking. This large data size has allowed detailed studies of top production and decay properties. The results discussed here include the determination of the top quark mass, the measurement of the production cross section, the study of the kinematics of the top events and a look at top decays.

  9. Turismifirmade 2000. a. TOP 30

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Turismiettevõtete üldandmed: turismiettevõtete finantsnäitajad; käibe TOP 30; käibe kasvu TOP 10; kasumi TOP 20; kasumi kasvu TOP 10; kasumi languse TOP; rentaabluse TOP 10; varade tootlikkuse TOP 10

  10. Ehitusmaterjalitootjate TOP 70 aastal 2003

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Stroitelstvo, 29. sept. 2004, lk. 2,4. Ehitusmaterjalitootjate TOP 70; Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP. Ehitusmaterjalitootjate üldandmed

  11. Randomised study showed that recorded maternal voices reduced pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, G; Cabano, R; Villa, G; Bigogno, A; Ardesi, M; Dioni, E

    2017-10-01

    Alleviating pain in neonates should be the goal of all caregivers. We evaluated whether recorded maternal voices were safe and effective in limiting pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit of an Italian children's hospital. This prospective, controlled study took place from December 2013 to December 2015. We enrolled 40 preterm infants, born at a 26-34 weeks of gestation, at a corrected gestational age 29-36 weeks and randomised them to listen or not listen to a recording of their mother's voice during a painful, routine heel lance for blood collection. Changes in the infants' Premature Infant Pain Profile, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure during the procedure were compared by analysis of variance. Possible side effects, of apnoea, bradycardia, seizures and vomiting, were also recorded. Both groups showed a marked increase in PIPP scores and decrease in oxygen saturation during the procedure, but infants in the treatment group had significantly lower PIPP scores (p = 0.00002) and lower decreases in oxygen saturation (p = 0.0283). No significant side effects were observed. Using recorded maternal voices to limit pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures appeared safe and effective. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Determinantes do lance vencedor em leilões de petróleo e gás: avaliando o caso brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro de Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo usa a metodologia de Rezende (2008 parainvestigar os determinantes do lance vencedor em leilões de bloco de petróleo e gás no Brasil. Há indicação de que os efeitos da "maldição do vencedor"de fato se manifestam nas estratégias adotadas pelas empresas nesses leilões. Também são encontradas evidências de que a presença da Petrobras tem efeito positivo no valor dos lances ofertados. Além disso, consórcios entre empresas aparentemente não têm motivaçã o anticompetitiva. Por fim, não há indícios da existência de sinergias entre os blocos. Desse modo, embora haja espaço para melhora no desenho das licitações promovidas no Brasil, o desempenho dos leilões selados de primeiro preço (sem a possibilidade de lances por pacotes de blocos não tende a ser muito inferior às alternativas possíveis.

  13. The influence of particle size of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xinfu; Tang, Oisheng

    2010-06-01

    The Eggers model was used to study the influence of two particle sizes of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus, in continuous flow-through seawater in 2.5-m 3 tanks in the laboratory. The sand lances (average body weight 0.85 ± 0.21 g) were fed larval (average body length 0.56 ± 0.08 mm) or adult (average body length 10.12 ± 1.61 mm) Artemia salina. The gastric evacuation rate of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 0.214, higher than that of those feeding on adult Artemia (0.189). The daily food consumption of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 60.14 kJ/100 g in terms of energy content, higher than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (51.69 kJ/100 g), but the daily growth rate of fish feeding on larval Artemia was 14.86 kJ/100 g, significantly lower than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (19.50 kJ/100 g), indicating that less energy was used for growth when the food particles were smaller. Slow growth of sand lances preying on larval Artemia was probably due to the high energy consumption during predation, consistent with the basic suppositions of optimal foraging theory.

  14. Technical Operations Support (TOPS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochoy, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... TOPS was implemented to develop draft research and development plans to meet these requirements, to develop and implement strategies to promote adoption of Materials and Manufacturing Technology...

  15. Some experiments on cavitation damage produced by a submerged jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momma, T.; Lichtarowicz, A.

    1993-01-01

    Cavitation erosion produced by a submerged jet can be utilized for cleaning surface contamination. This paper describes some results obtained from experiments at the University of Nottingham conducted on cavitating jets and their effects on surfaces. Some effects of cavitation on submerged jets were examined. High speed photography was used to show the structure of the jet. All stages of damage to soft aluminum specimens from plastically deformed indentations down to large concentric erosion rings were observed. The amount of erosion depended on the configuration of the set up and on the flow parameters. Early stages of erosion can be used for cleaning

  16. Long-term allelopathic control of phytoplankton by the submerged macrophyte Elodea nuttallii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstukken, M.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Decaestecker, E.; Muylaert, K.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: allelochemicals; chemical ecology; competition; nutrient limitation; shallow lakes Summary 1.It is well known that submerged macrophytes can suppress phytoplankton blooms in lakes and thus promote water quality and biodiversity. One of the possible mechanisms through which submerged

  17. Ekspedeerimisettevõtete TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Transport i Logistika nr. 11, 29. nov. lk. 32-35. Ekspedeerimisettevõtete TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibekasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumikasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; ROE TOP 10; Ekspedeerimisettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed. Ajal. Delovõje Vedomosti : Transport i Logistika toodud ainult Ekspedeerimisettevõtete TOP 50

  18. Tolliladude TOP 20 aastal 2003

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Transport i logistika, 24. nov. 2004, lk. 14. Käibe TOP 10. Käibe kasvu TOP 10. Rentaabluse TOP 10. Kasumi TOP 10. Kasumi kasvu TOP 10. Omakapitali TOP 10. Tolliladude üldandmed. Tolliladude finantsandmed

  19. The Driven Spinning Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Ioan; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    This driven top is quite a novelty and can, with some trials, be made using the principles outlined here. This new top has many applications in developing both understanding and skills and these are detailed in the article. Depending on reader's available time and motivation they may feel an urge to make one themselves, or simply invest a few…

  20. Top quark theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laenen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of a number of top quark properties such as its mass and its couplings are reviewed. Essential aspects in the theoretical description of top quark production, singly, in pairs and in association, as well as its decay related to spin and angular correlations are discussed.

  1. Top physics at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.E. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We report on top physics results using a 100 pb{sup -1} data sample of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We have identified top signals in a variety of decay channels, and used these channels to extract a measurement of the top mass and production cross section. A subset of the data (67 pb{sup -1}) is used to determine M{sub top} = 176 {+-} 8(stat) {+-} 10(syst) and {sigma}(tt) = 7.6 {sub -2.0}{sup +2.4} pb. We present studies of the kinematics of t{bar t} events and extract the first direct measurement of V{sub tb}. Finally, we indicate prospects for future study of top physics at the Tevatron.

  2. Submergence-induced leaf acclimation in terrestrial species varying in flooding tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Wolters-Arts, M.; Andersen, C.; Visser, E.J.W.; Pedersen, O.

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work on the submergence-tolerant species Rumex palustris revealed that leaf anatomical and morphological changes induced by submergence enhance underwater gas exchange considerably. Here, the hypothesis is tested that these plastic responses are typical properties of submergence-tolerant

  3. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Konnerup, Dennis; Pedersen, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Floods and salinization of agricultural land adversely impact global rice production. We investigated whether gas films on leaves of submerged rice delay salt entry during saline submergence. Two-week-old plants with leaf gas films (+GF) or with gas films experimentally removed (-GF) were submerged...

  4. Classifying nuisance submerged vegetation depending on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhofstad, Michiel J. J. M.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the world, mass development of native and non-native submerged macrophytes leads to nuisance problems for humans. However, often neither the type of nuisance nor the characteristics of nuisance vegetation have been uniformly quantified, leaving nuisance vegetation as a largely

  5. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically...

  6. Gas exchange under water : acclimation of terrestrial plants to submergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, Liesje

    2005-01-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be prolonged photosynthesis under water, but this has received only little

  7. Identification of a novel submergence response gene regulated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-12-07

    -regulation of RS1 in M202(Sub1A)×Kitaake lead to weaken submergence tolerance. We hypothesize that RS1 may ..... Each data point represents the mean±SD of 3 independent biological replicates. The student's t-test was ...

  8. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  9. Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plate system. Finally, the propagation of selected modes through submerged notched plates is investigated. Sensitivity of leaky waves to the notches has been studied. The methodology would help in identifying ... The research group designed special set-ups using coupler mechanism and transducer holder capable of ...

  10. Microcystin production in epiphytic cyanobacteria on submerged macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Zakaria A; Al Shehri, Abdulrahman M

    2010-06-15

    Cyanotoxins have been largely studied in planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria, but microcystin (MCYST) production in epiphytic cyanobacteria has not been reported yet. The present study reports for the first time the MCYST production in epiphytic cyanobacteria on submerged macrophytes. During this study, four common submerged macrophytes in eutrophic pond in Saudi Arabia were surveyed for the presence of toxic epiphytic cyanobacteria. The results showed that chlorophyll-a and total biovolume of epiphytic cyanobacteria differed significantly among submerged plants with highest values obtained in Stratiotes aloides and lowest in Elodea canadensis. Epiphytic materials collected from Ceratophyllum demersum and S. aloides had higher species diversities than materials collected from E. canadensis and Myriophyllum verticillatum. The cyanobacteria, Merismopedia tenuissima and Leptolyngbya boryana were recorded with a high abundance in epiphytic materials collected from all submerged macrohpytes. Based on Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), these two species were found to produce MCYSTs (MCYSTs) with concentrations of 1438 and 630 microg g(-1) dry weight, respectively. HPLC analysis of the methanolic extracts of the two species showed that M. tenuissima extract contained MCYST-RR and -LR/demethyl LR plus 3 minor unidentified MCYSTs, while L. boryana extract contained MCYST-YR, -LR/demethyl LR, and 2 minor unidentified MCYSTs. This study suggests that epiphytic species should be considered during monitoring of toxic cyanobacteria in water sources. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of Submerged Arc Welding Training. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowick, Earl; Todd, John

    A unit on submerged arc welding (SAW) was developed and integrated into the welding program at Seattle Central Community College (Washington) during the period December 1983 through May 1984. During this time, 10 major users of SAW in the area were contacted and mailed questionnaires. Follow up consisted of telephone calls and personal contact as…

  12. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Malik, Al I.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds...

  13. Critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kerem Taştan

    isolated intake was also applied to dual rectangular intakes. The agreement between available test data and theoretical results was found to be satisfactory. Keywords. Air-entrainment; boundary; critical submergence; intake; vortex. 1. Introduction. Air-entrainment resulting from an air-core free surface vor- tex is a frequently ...

  14. Top quark mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Tuula [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  15. Top physics in WHIZARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Juergen; Chokoufe Nejad, Bijan [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Bach, Fabian [European Commission, Eurostat, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Hoang, Andre [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Faculty of Physics; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Erwin Schroedinger International Inst. for Mathematical Physics; Kilian, Wolfgang [Siegen Univ. (Germany); Stahlhofen, Maximilian [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Teubner, Thomas [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Weiss, Christian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Siegen Univ. (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    In this talk we summarize the top physics setup in the event generator WHIZARD with a main focus on lepton colliders. This includes full six-, eight- and ten-fermion processes, factorized processes and spin correlations. For lepton colliders, QCD NLO processes for top quark physics are available and discussed. A special focus is on the top-quark pair threshold, where a special implementation combines a non-relativistic effective field theory calculation augmented by a next-to-leading threshold logarithm resummation with a continuum relativistic fixed-order QCD NLO simulation.

  16. Top physics at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palencia, Enrique; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-06-01

    The top quark is the most massive fundamental particle observed so far, and the study of its properties is interesting for several reasons ranging from its possible special role in electroweak symmetry breaking to its sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). This article focuses on the latest top physics results from CDF based on 320-750 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The t{bar t} cross section and the top mass have been measured in different decay channels and using different methods. They have also searched for massive t{bar t} resonances.

  17. Audiitorite TOP 50 aastal 2005

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Audiitorite TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; ROE TOP 10; Ketlin Priilinn. Kasvu tagavad lojaalsed kliendid; Klient on audiitori parim müügimees; Teeli Remmelg. Kliendid vaatavad pigem kvaliteeti kui madalat hinda. Kommenteerivad Signe Keernik ja Kalle Lahe. Tabel: Audiitoriettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  18. Põlvamaa ettevõtete TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtete TOP 50. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Põlvamaa firmade üldandmed. Põlvamaa firmade finantsandmed

  19. Jõgevamaa ettevõtete TOP 55

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Jõgevamaa ettevõtete TOP 55 aastal 2003. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Jõgevamaa firmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  20. Viljandimaa ettevõtete TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Viljandimaa ettevõtete TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20; Viljandimaa ettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  1. Jõgevamaa ettevõtete TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Jõgevamaa ettevõtete TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20; Jõgevamaa ettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  2. Determinantes do lance vencedor em leilões de petróleo e gás: avaliando o caso brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro de Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo usa a metodologia de Rezende (2008 parainvestigar os determinantes do lance vencedor em leilões de bloco de petróleo e gás no Brasil. Há indicação de que os efeitos da "maldição do vencedor"de fato se manifestam nas estratégias adotadas pelas empresas nesses leilões. Também são encontradas evidências de que a presença da Petrobras tem efeito positivo no valor dos lances ofertados. Além disso, consórcios entre empresas aparentemente não têm motivaçã o anticompetitiva. Por fim, não há indícios da existência de sinergias entre os blocos. Desse modo, embora haja espaço para melhora no desenho das licitações promovidas no Brasil, o desempenho dos leilões selados de primeiro preço (sem a possibilidade de lances por pacotes de blocos não tende a ser muito inferior às alternativas possíveis.This paper follows Rezende (2008 to investigate the determinants of bidding strategy in the Brazilian oil and gas auctions. The results indicate that strategies adopted by participants are affected by the "winner's curse". We also found evidence that the presence of Petrobras has a positive effect on winning bids. Furthermore, joint bidding is compatible with competition. Finally, there is no evidence of synergies between blocks. Thus, although there is room for improvements, results of the first-price sealed auction (without the possibility of bidding for blocks packages are not much better than possible alternatives.

  3. Eating the top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.; Rattazzi, R.

    1989-01-01

    A model is outlined, where the top quark gets a mass by a supersymmetric extension of the Higgs effect, eating a quark-gaugino. The GIM-violating phenomenology of a Q=2/3 vector-like quark, mixing with the standard up-type quarks, is described. The modifications of supersymmetry signals and the problem of giving masses to all other quarks and leptons, except the top, by radiative corrections are also briefly discussed. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs

  4. Telekommunikatsiooni & arvutitootjate TOP

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Telekommunikatsiooni TOP 30. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Indrek Kald. Elisa ka tänavu esikohal; Väike Tele2 võidab paindlikkusest; Kernel läks üle piiri. Diagrammid. Arvutifirmade TOP 100. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Enn Heinsoo. Esikoha tõi kontori müük; Proeksperdil suund välisturgudele;¡ Ida-Eesti turg arenevale firmale kitsas. Diagrammid. Nimekiri: Omanikud

  5. Wall-Friction Support of Vertical Loads in Submerged Sand and Gravel Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, O. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vollmer, H. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hepa, V. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Laboratory studies of the ‘floor-loads’ under submerged vertical columns of sand and/or gravel indicate that such loads can be approximated by a buoyancy-corrected Janssen-silo-theory-like relationship. Similar to conditions in storage silos filled with dry granular solids, most of the weight of the sand or gravel is supported by wall friction forces. Laboratory measurements of the loads on the floor at the base of the water-filled columns (up to 25-diameters tall) indicate that the extra floor-load from the addition of the granular solid never exceeded the load that would exist under an unsupported (wide) bed of submerged sand or gravel that has a total depth corresponding to only two column-diameters. The measured floorloads reached an asymptotic maximum value when the depth of granular material in the columns was only three or four pipe-diameters, and never increased further as the columns were filled to the top (e.g. up to heights of 10 to 25 diameters). The floor-loads were stable and remained the same for days after filling. Aggressive tapping (e.g. hitting the containing pipe on the outside, manually with a wrench up and down the height and around the circumference) could increase (and occasionally decrease) the floor load substantially, but there was no sudden collapse or slumping to a state without significant wall friction effects. Considerable effort was required, repeatedly tapping over almost the entire column wall periphery, in order to produce floor-loads that corresponded to the total buoyancy-corrected weight of granular material added to the columns. Projecting the observed laboratory behavior to field conditions would imply that a stable floor-load condition, with only a slightly higher total floor pressure than the preexisting hydrostatic-head, would exist after a water-filled bore-hole is filled with sand or gravel. Significant seismic vibration (either a large nearby event or many micro-seismic events over an extended period) would likely

  6. Eficiência de diferentes ramais de pulverização e volumes de calda no controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis na cultura do café Efficiency of different spraying lances and spraying volumes on the control of Brevipalpus phoenicis in coffee crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    of B. phoenicis due the coverage of spraying liquid applied on coffee plants, with two types of lances used in air assisted sprayers and four spraying volumes. Treatments were applied with mitecide abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE® at 0.4 L per hectare, in volumes of 250, 400, 550 and 700 L per hectare, with two types of lances for the nozzles. The control efficiency against B. phoenicis, deposition and coverage by spray liquid on coffee plants was evaluated. Experimental delineation was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments plus a check plot in four replications. The statistical analysis was carried in a factorial scheme 2x4+1. No significant differences in the number of mites were found between treatments. As regards spraying liquid deposition, it was observed an increment with increasing spraying volumes, with the plant tops showing the best deposition of spraying liquid. The duplication of the lances (nozzle branches resulted in a significant increase in control efficiency for B. phoenicis compared with conventional branch and with check plot, without dependence of spraying volume.

  7. Improvement of Xylanase Production by Cochliobolus sativus in Submerged Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Bakri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The xylanase production by a new Cochliobolus sativus Cs5 strain was improved under submerged fermentation. The xylanase was induced by xylan and repressed by glucose, sucrose, maltose, xylose, starch and cellulose. Highest enzyme production (98.25 IU/mL was recorded when wheat straw (4 % by mass per volume was used as a carbon source after 120 h of incubation. NaNO3 increased xylanase production 5.4-fold as compared to the control. Optimum initial pH was found to be 4.5 to 5. The C. sativus Cs5 strain grown under submerged culture in a simple medium proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

  8. Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damage detection in submerged plates. 1019. Figure 7. Pulse transmission signatures using 1 MHz frequency for varying angles of incidence. A1 mode in this range (table 1, θ for A1 mode is 8.85. ◦. ). Another small peak is visible at 83 μs which represent the infusion of the traces of S0 mode (table 1, θ for S0 mode is 17.4.

  9. Instrumentation, control, and automation for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Durán Pinzón, Freddy; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; FERRER, J.

    2015-01-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant with two commercial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration systems (PURON® , Koch Membrane Systems, PUR-PSH31) was designed and operated for urban wastewater treatment. An instrumentation, control, and automation (ICA) system was designed and implemented for proper process performance. Several single-input-single-output (SISO) feedback control loops based on conventional on off and PID algorithms were implemented to control the follo...

  10. The effect of submergence on structural response in confined pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.J. Jr.; Song, C.C.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper the response of single and multi degree of submerged systems is investigated. The complete equations of motions including fluid coupling terms are developed for submerged bodies where the surrounding fluid is both moving in phase and out of phase with the support motion. The analysis considers both structural and fluid damping. Also included is an analysis of two degrees of freedom fluid coupling for submerged bodies completely enclosed within another body. In this case limiting conditions of the inner body hydrodynamic mass are examined, along the frequency response characteristics of these systems. The paper developes a simplified forcing function approach for in phase fluid support motion systems. This method is applicable for both modal-spectral and time history dynamic analyses of any linear structure. The results of the analysis are expanded for s structures with non-linear support configuration, i.e. (sliding or rocking bases) to again define a simplified analytical approach accounting for in phase fluid support motion. (orig.)

  11. Influence of Microalgae onto submerged surfaces on Fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Eom, C.; Yoon, B.; Yoon, H.; Kim, B.; Chung, K.

    2012-12-01

    Lots of algae together with organic matter deposited on the submerged surface can be easily observed occurring in the shallower water along the coast. This is mainly because only those organisms with the ability to adapt to the new situations created by man can firmly adhere enough to avoid being washed off. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling microalgae developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the microalgae formed on the submerged surfaces were tested for. The quantities of the diverse microalgae in the samples developed on the prohibiting submerged surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. To confirm formation of microalgae on adsorbents was done SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Spectrometer) analysis. Microbial identified using optical microscope. In addition to, we quantified attaching microalgae as pass time. Experiment results, ten species which are Nitzshhia sp., Eucampia sp., Coscinodiscus sp., Licmophora sp., Rhizosolenia sp., Cylindrotheca sp., Striateela sp., Thalassionema sp., Guinardia sp., and Helicostomella sp. discovered to reservoir formed biofouling. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater.

  12. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer

    2013-11-01

    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  13. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  14. Detecting submerged features in water: modeling, sensors, and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Bassetti, Luce

    2004-11-01

    It is becoming more important to understand the remote sensing systems and associated autonomous or semi-autonomous methodologies (robotic & mechatronics) that may be utilized in freshwater and marine aquatic environments. This need comes from several issues related not only to advances in our scientific understanding and technological capabilities, but also from the desire to insure that the risk associated with UXO (unexploded ordnance), related submerged mines, as well as submerged targets (such as submerged aquatic vegetation) and debris left from previous human activities are remotely sensed and identified followed by reduced risks through detection and removal. This paper will describe (a) remote sensing systems, (b) platforms (fixed and mobile, as well as to demonstrate (c) the value of thinking in terms of scalability as well as modularity in the design and application of new systems now being constructed within our laboratory and other laboratories, as well as future systems. New remote sensing systems - moving or fixed sensing systems, as well as autonomous or semi-autonomous robotic and mechatronic systems will be essential to secure domestic preparedness for humanitarian reasons. These remote sensing systems hold tremendous value, if thoughtfully designed for other applications which include environmental monitoring in ambient environments.

  15. Top-ophilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Almost from the moment in June 1977 when the discovery of the Upsilon resonance revealed the existence of what we now call the bottom quark, physicists began searching for its partner. Through the years, as we established the electric charge and weak isospin of the b-quark, and detected the virtual influence of its mate, it became clear that the top quark must exist. Exactly at what mass, we couldn't say, but we knew just how top events would look. We also knew that top events would be rare--if the Tevatron could make them at all--and that picking out the events would pose a real challenge for the experimenters and their detectors.

  16. TOP2017 Experimental summary

    CERN Document Server

    Giammanco, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the unprecedentedly fast accumulation of high-energy data at the LHC during the ongoing Run~2, most of the traditional top-quark analyses are experiencing the luxury of having to worry about how to punch through the ``Systematics Wall'', and think about new ways to maximize the utility of their data. New processes involving top quarks are being studied for the first time, and the good old pair-production processes are being explored in unusual settings, such as collisions involving heavy ions, or ``reference data'' collected by the LHC at relatively low centre-of-mass energy. The TOP2017 conference featured 37 talks delivered by experimental physicists, including seven in the ``Young Scientists Forum'' where young colleagues were given the opportunity to elaborate more deeply than usual on their own work. As it is impossible to do justice to all the experimental resu...

  17. Clinical evaluation of submerged and non-submerged implants for posterior single-tooth replacements: a randomized split-mouth clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemli, S K; Güngör, M B; Aydın, C; Yılmaz, H; Türkcan, I; Demirköprülü, H

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic results of submerged and non-submerged implants for posterior single-tooth replacements and to assess patient-based outcomes. Twenty patients were included in the study. A split-mouth design was used; implants inserted using a submerged technique were compared to those inserted with a non-submerged technique. Implants were restored with metal-ceramic crowns after 3 months. Reconstructions were examined at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Standardized radiographs were made. Radiographic crestal bone level changes were calculated, as well as soft tissue parameters, including pocket probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque index, and gingival index. Results were analyzed by two-way repeated measures of variance (ANOVA). To evaluate patient-based outcomes, patients were asked to complete a questionnaire at the 6-month follow-up; the Wilcoxon paired signed rank test was used to compare scores. The data of 18 patients were reviewed. During 24 months, non-submerged implants (0.57 ± 0.21 mm) showed significantly lower bone loss than submerged implants (0.68 ± 0.22 mm) (P<0.01). Patient satisfaction with non-submerged implants (median 87.5) was significantly higher than with submerged implants (median 81.5) (P<0.01). Non-submerged implants showed comparable clinical results to submerged implants and resulted in higher patient satisfaction due to decreased surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Top quark properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MW(mt, mHiggs) tests the consistency of the Standard Model. Many techniques were developed to determine the top quark mass so far. The tra- ditional and simplest method is the so-called template method which consists of the construction of the reconstructed mt templates as a function of an assumed mt. There were two ...

  19. Anomalous top magnetic couplings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: remartinezm@unal.edu.co. Abstract. The real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM) are computed. Keywords. Top; anomalous. PACS Nos 14.65.Ha; 12.15 ...

  20. Top quark theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-04

    Oct 4, 2012 ... It is important to note here that the definition of the threshold depends on the observable. 630. Pramana – J. Phys. ... fixed-order perturbation theory, thereby restoring predictive power and (ii) reduction of scale uncertainty. ..... culations that would be hard to imagine in the late eighties. Production of a top ...

  1. TOP LINAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1997-11-01

    The report describes a linear accelerator for protons named TOP LINAC designed for the TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni, Oncological Protontherapy) project launched by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita', ISS) to explore in collaboration with the biggest Oncological Hospital in Rome (Istituto Regina Elena, IRE) the potentialities of the therapy with accelerated protons and establish guide lines for the application of this new type of radiotherapy in comparison with the more traditional electron and x-rays radiotherapy. The concept of a compact accelerator for protontherapy applications bore within the Italian Hadrontherapy Collaboration (TERA Collaboration) with the aim to diffuse the protontherapy on the National territory. The ISS program plans to use the TOP linac proton beam also for production of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes and radiobiology studies. Official agreements are in course between ISS and ENEA which provides its experience in the industrial and medical accelerators for the design and the construction of the TOP linac. The accelerator that will be the first 3 GHz proton linac in the world, will be composed of a 428.3 MHz 7 Me V RFQ + DTL injector followed by a 7-65 Me V section of a 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65 - 200 Me V variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. In particular the SCDTL section uses a highly innovative accelerating structure patented by ENEA. In this report the clinical and physical requests are discussed and a preliminary design of the whole machine is given

  2. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, R. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Vejcik, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Berger, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  3. Top Quark Properties at Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysák, Roman [Prague, Inst. Phys.

    2017-11-27

    The latest CDF and D0 experiment measurements of the top quark properties except the top quark mass are presented. The final combination of the CDF and D0 forward-backward asymmetry measurements is shown together with the D0 measurements of the inclusive top quark pair cross-section as well as the top quark polarization.

  4. Top Quark Measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Yazgan, Efe

    2015-01-01

    Measurements involving top quarks provide important tests of QCD. A selected set of top quark measurements in CMS including the strong coupling constant, top quark pole mass, constraints on parton distribution functions, top quark pair differential cross sections, ttbar+0 and >0 jet events, top quark mass studied using various kinematic variables in different phase-space regions, and alternative top quark mass measurements is presented. The evolution of expected uncertainties in future LHC runs for the standard and alternative top quark mass measurements is also presented.

  5. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of H. lanceolatus from H. immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that A. tobianus differs from A. marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and H. lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common DNA barcoding

  6. Does cooperation increase helpers' later success as breeders? A test of the skills hypothesis in the cooperatively displaying lance-tailed manakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Emily H

    2013-07-01

    Experience improves individual performance in many tasks. Pre-breeding cooperation may provide important experience that improves later success as a breeder, offering one compelling explanation for why some individuals delay reproduction to help others breed (the 'skills hypothesis'). However, confounding effects of age, quality and alternative selective benefits have complicated rigorous tests of this hypothesis. Male lance-tailed manakins perform cooperative courtship displays involving partnerships between unrelated alpha and beta males, and alphas monopolize resulting copulations. Beta males therefore do not receive immediate direct or indirect fitness benefits, but may gain skills during cooperation that increase their later success as an alpha. To date, however, the effect of cooperative experience on later success as a breeder has never been tested in any cooperatively displaying taxon. The effects of prior cooperative experience on reproductive success of alpha lance-tailed manakins were analysed in a mixed model framework using 12 years of information on cooperative experience and annual and lifetime genetic reproductive success for 57 alpha males. Models included previously identified effects of age and alpha tenure. Individual-level random effects controlled for quality differences to test for an independent influence of beta experience on success. Males accumulated up to 5 years of beta experience before becoming alphas, but 42·1% of alphas had no prior beta experience. Betas became alphas later in life, and experienced significantly lower reproductive success in their final year as alpha than males that were never beta, but did not have higher lifetime success or longer alpha tenures. Differences in patterns of annual siring success were best explained by age-dependent patterns of reproductive improvement and senescence among alphas, not beta experience. Cooperative experience does not increase relative breeding success for male lance-tailed manakins

  7. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  8. Top pair and single top production in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive and differential top-quark production cross sections in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider using the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of top quark pair and single top quark production are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of top quark events are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production up to the TeV scale.

  9. Computing Z-top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani-Poor, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The topological string presents an arena in which many features of string theory proper, such as the interplay between world-sheet and target space descriptions or open-closed duality, can be distilled into computational techniques which yield results beyond perturbation theory. In this thesis, I will summarize my research activity in this area. The presentation is organized around computations of the topological string partition function Z-top based on various perspectives on the topological string. (author)

  10. Top quark theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-04

    Oct 4, 2012 ... state-of-the-art description and what we learn from them. 2. Top pair production cross-section. The measured Tevatron pair production cross-sections. CDF: 7.5 ± 0.31(stat) ± 0.34(sys) ± 0.15(th) pb,. D0: 7.56. +0.63. −0.56(stat + sys + lumi) pb, are in excellent agreement with theory [4–6]. The measured pair ...

  11. Restoring Ecological Function to a Submerged Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, C.L.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise and severe drought, have altered the hydrology of coastal salt marshes resulting in submergence and subsequent degradation of ecosystem function. A potential method of rehabilitating these systems is the addition of sediment-slurries to increase marsh surface elevation, thus ameliorating effects of excessive inundation. Although this technique is growing in popularity, the restoration of ecological function after sediment addition has received little attention. To determine if sediment subsidized salt marshes are functionally equivalent to natural marshes, we examined above- and belowground primary production in replicated restored marshes receiving four levels of sediment addition (29-42 cm North American Vertical Datum of 1988 [NAVD 88]) and in degraded and natural ambient marshes (4-22 cm NAVD 88). Moderate intensities of sediment-slurry addition, resulting in elevations at the mid to high intertidal zone (29-36 cm NAVD 88), restored ecological function to degraded salt marshes. Sediment additions significantly decreased flood duration and frequency and increased bulk density, resulting in greater soil drainage and redox potential and significantly lower phytotoxic sulfide concentrations. However, ecological function in the restored salt marsh showed a sediment addition threshold that was characterized by a decline in primary productivity in areas of excessive sediment addition and high elevation (>36 cm NAVD 88). Hence, the addition of intermediate levels of sediment to submerging salt marshes increased marsh surface elevation, ameliorated impacts of prolonged inundation, and increased primary productivity. However, too much sediment resulted in diminished ecological function that was equivalent to the submerged or degraded system. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  12. Enhanced Sorbitol Production under Submerged Fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadiya Jan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sorbitol is a non-toxic and slightly hygroscopic compound with different applications. Zymomonas mobiles produces sorbitol from sucrose or mixtures of glucose and fructose (formation is coupled with the dehydrogenation of glucose to glucono-δ- lactone. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis may produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose using different divalent metal ions with reduced the ethanol yield andsignificantly increased yield of sorbitol. Current study envisaged to alter the media components, physical process parameters and supplementation of amino acids for enhanced sorbitol production.Material and Methods: Several process variables were evaluated on sorbitol production including carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, carbon concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 25 g l-1, nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and organic nitrogen mix, temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41°C, pH (6, 6.5, 7 , 7.5 ,8, agitation rate (50, 100, 150, 200 rpm and amino acids (cysteine, cystine, tryptophanin batch cultivation ofLactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum conditions like temperature 37°C, pH 7.0 and agitation rate of 150 rpm, resulted in enhanced sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation was also evaluated.Results and Conclusion: Batch cultivation under submerged conditions further performed in 7.5-l lab scale bioreactor (working volume 3.0-l under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass of 8.95±0.03 g g-1 and a sorbitol content of 9.78±0.04 g l-1 after 42.0 h of fermentation. Scale up study on bioreactor resulted in maximum sorbitol yield (Yp/x and productivity of 1.11 g g-1 and 0.50 g l-1 h under submerged fermentation, respectively.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  13. Top of the list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.; Vries, E. de

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors look at how the major turbine suppliers fared in the year 2005, and look forward to 2006 which could be the best ever for the wind industry. The world wind turbine market continues to be dominated by ten major companies, who together account for almost 100% of the total global market. Although there are some new companies on the horizon it is the ten major companies that the authors concentrate on, in particular the top three, Vestas, Gamesa and Enercon who between them control 66% of the market. They give their overall report on business in 2005 and give their predictions for 2006. By far the leading wind turbine supplier is the Danish Company Vestas, accounting for over 30% of the global market. However all of the top ten companies report a successful year and all are expecting an even better 2006. This paper also reports on potential newcomers to the industry, one of these is California-based Clipper Windpower which commenced manufacturing the 2.5 MW Liberty turbine in Iowa. Chinese manufacturer Goldwind is also looking to enter the market having acquired a licence to produce the Vensys 1.2 MW turbine. It may well be that changes are on the way, there will be jockeying for position at the top and newcomers will want to make an impression on the market

  14. Four tops for LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ezequiel; Faroughy, Darius A.; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Morales, Roberto; Szynkman, Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    We design a search strategy for the Standard Model t t bar t t bar production at the LHC in the same-sign dilepton and trilepton channels. We study different signal features and, given the small expected number of signal events, we scrutinize in detail all reducible and irreducible backgrounds. Our analysis shows that by imposing a basic set of jet and lepton selection criteria, the SM pp → t t bar t t bar process could be evidenced in the near future, within Run-II, when combining both multi-lepton search channels. We argue that this search strategy should also be used as a guideline to test New Physics coupling predominantly to top-quarks. In particular, we show that a non-resonant New Physics enhancement in the four-top final state would be detectable through this search strategy. We study two top-philic simplified models of this kind, a neutral scalar boson and a Z‧, and present current and future exclusion limits on their mass and couplings.

  15. Liquid Film Diffusion on Reaction Rate in Submerged Biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Hollesen, Line; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate in a submerged biofilter with denitrification and in order to compare with a theoretical study of the mass transfer coefficient. The experiments were carried out with varied flow, identifi...... by the empty bed velocity of inflow and recirculation, respectively 1.3, 2.8, 5.6 and 10.9 m/h. The filter material consisted of 3 mm biostyren spheres. The results indicate that the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate can be ignored....

  16. In process acoustic emission in multirun submerged arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Birac, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid the formation of deep grooves when repairing defects in welded joints in heavy plates, an investigation was made aiming to detect and locate the defects by in-process acoustic emission in multirun submerged arc welding. Twelve defects (lack of penetration, cracks, inclusions, lack of fusion together with inclusions, blowholes) were intentionally introduced when the first plate was welded. A space-time method for processing the acoustic activity during welding allowed the detection and the location of the intentional defects as well as of the most important accidental defects evidenced by ultrasonic testing [fr

  17. Liquid Film Diffusion on Reaction Rate in Submerged Biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Hollesen, Line; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate in a submerged biofilter with denitrification and in order to compare with a theoretical study of the mass transfer coefficient. The experiments were carried out with varied flow, identified...... by the empty bed velocity of inflow and recirculation, respectively 1.3, 2.8, 5.6 and 10.9 m/h. The filter material consisted of 3 mm biostyren spheres. The results indicate that the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate can be ignored....

  18. Naisjuhtidega ettevõtete TOP 100

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Naisjuhtidega ettevõtete TOP 100. Käibe TOP 20. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Riigi- ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste naisjuhtide TOP 25. Riigi- ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste eelarve TOP 25. Riigi- ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste töötajate arvu TOP 25. Riigi- ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste naisjuhtide palga TOP 25

  19. Top quark measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00041686; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, it allows us to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. Highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data will be presented: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside measurements of top-quark properties, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top-quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  20. Top quark measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grancagnolo, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  1. Early Top Physics with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schieck, J

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is one of the two multi-purpose experiments located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and is expected to collect first collision data in summer 2009. Due to the large top-quark production cross-section the LHC will function as a top-quark factory allowing to measure top-quark properties even at initial luminosities. We present some recently-performed studies, focussing on measurements of the top pair and single top production cross-sections with the first fb-1 of data. The potential for the measurement of other top-quark properties like the mass will be also briefly discussed.

  2. Study of top and anti-top mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Leedumrongwatthanakun, Saroch

    2013-01-01

    The invariance of the standard model under CPT transformations leads to the equality of particle and antiparticle masses. The recent measurements performed by the CMS experiment on the top anti-top mass difference are a test of such symmetry. In this work non-perturbative QCD effects, which may eventually lead to an apparent difference in the mass of a top and anti-top quark, are studied.

  3. Rõivatööstuse TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Rõivatööstuse TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20; Rõivatööstuse TOP-i firmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  4. Tekstiilitööstuse TOP 47

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tekstiilitööstuse TOP 47; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Varade tootlikkuse TOP 20; Tekstiilitööstuse TOP-i firmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  5. Eesti Ettevõtete TOP 100

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    TOP 100. Käibe TOP 500. Käibe kasvu TOP 100. Kasumi TOP 100. Kasumi kasvu TOP 100. Rentaabluse TOP 100. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 100. Eesti edukamate ettevõtete üldandmed. Eesti edukamate ettevõtete finantsnäitajad. Valdkonna ja maakonna TOP-ide edukamate ettevõtete finantsnäitajad

  6. A New Detection Method for Submerged Implants: Oral Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Emrah; Gönen, Zeynep Burçin; Alkan, Alper

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the marking potential of tattoo ink in determining the definitive locations of submerged implants at the time of surgical exposure of the implants. In total, 104 implants in 32 patients were included in this study. After placement of the implants, cover screws were inserted. Overlying mucosa was marked with tattoo ink using a 20 g needle through the center of the cover screw. At the time of surgical exposure the tattoo marks were evaluated relative to visibility. At the time of the surgical exposures, tattoo ink was clearly visible at 91 implants, slightly visible at 8 implants, and not visible at 5 implants. After detection and classification of tattoo ink, the overlying mucosa was gently removed by tissue punch under local anesthesia. The results of this study seemed to indicate that marking the location of implants with tattoos at the time of implant placement can be an inexpensive, easy, healthy, and practical way to identify the location of marked submerged dental implants. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code

  8. Optimization of exopolysaccharide production from Armillaria mellea in submerged cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, M-Y; Huang, P-C

    2010-02-01

    To study the optimization of submerged culture conditions for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Armillaria mellea in shake-flask cultures and also to evaluate the performance of an optimized culture medium in a 5-l stirred tank fermenter. Shake flask cultures for EPS optimal nutritional production contained having the following composition (in g l(-1)): glucose 40, yeast extract 3, KH(2)PO(4) 4 and MgSO(4) 2 at an optimal temperature of 22 degrees C and an initial of pH 4.0. The optimal culture medium was then cultivated in a 5-l stirred tank fermenter at 1 vvm (volume of aeration per volume of bioreactor per min) aeration rate, 150 rev min(-1) agitation speed, controlled pH 4.0 and 22 degrees C. In the optimal culture medium, the maximum EPS production in a 5-l stirred tank fermenter was 588 mg l(-1), c. twice as great as that in the basal medium. The maximum productivity for EPS (Q(p)) and product yield (Y(P/S)) were 42.02 mg l(-1) d(-1) and 26.89 mg g(-1), respectively. The optimal culture conditions we proposed in this study enhanced the EPS production of A. mellea from submerged cultures. The optimal culturing conditions we have found will be a suitable starting point for a scale-up of the fermentation process, helping to develop the production of related medicines and health foods from A. mellea.

  9. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of submerged cultures of Chilean basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pedro; Anke, Timm; Saéz, Katia; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José

    2010-10-01

    This study is part of a screening program aimed at searching for bioactive metabolites from Chilean basidiomycetes. Submerged cultivation of fungal mycelia in liquid media was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. A total of 148 strains were obtained in vitro. The extracts produced from submerged cultures were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. In the primary antimicrobial assay, approximately 60% of the extracts presented positive biological activity. The highest frequencies of active strains were from the orders Agaricales (31.0%), Polyporales (20.6%), Sterales (18.3%), Boletales (11.4%), and Cortinariales (9.1%). Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Twelve extracts that exhibited strong antimicrobial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50 µL/mL against Bacillus brevis and 25∼50 µL/mL against Penicillium notatum and Paecilomyces variotii. The biological activity of some strains did not vary considerably, regardless of the substrate or collection site whereas, for others, it showed marked variations. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. The information obtained from this study reveals that Chilean basidiomycetes are able to generate small and/or large variations in the normal pathway of compounds production. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this biological and chemical wealth, which could be an unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2004-11-01

    Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.

  12. Submergence and Uplift Associated to Paleoearthquakes in the Northern Sunda Subduction System: Implications for Future Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Mortlock, R. A.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Akhter, S. H.; Mustaque, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies documented that the northern part of the Sunda subduction zone ruptured several times in the past 1500 years including one in 1762. To better understand megathrust surface ruptures and the hazards associated to them, we surveyed the SE coast of Bangladesh along the Teknaf peninsula and the Saint Martin anticline by dating coral microatolls of Porites lutea species by the U-Th dating method. Porites luteagrows a few centimeters below the low tide level creating a 5-12 mm thick skeletal band per year, which makes them a good indicator of relative sea level change that might be caused during tectonic submergence and uplift. U-Th ages were obtained from coral slabs and their growth bands interpreted from x-rays. The corals and marine terraces uplift were measured with high precision RTK GPS and modeled with high resolution DEM. The coral microatolls along the St. Martin anticline were dated to be ~ 250, 800 and 1300 years old. Since storm and other climatic phenomenon cannot cause uplift, we interpret that 2.5 m uplift was caused by 1762 earthquake that killed the coral microatolls. The coral slabs show three growth interruptions, where skeletal growth bands continued to grow onlapping the older growth bands. These growth onlaps could be the result of smaller uplift events after 1762 that did not result in coral mortality. The subsidence history extracted from vertical growth of the slabs suggests that the island is submerging at a rate of 11 mm/year. Corals growing 250 m from the dead coral colony post date the 1762 earthquake. Today living Porites lutea can be found 2.5 m below the dead coral heads and 9 cm above the spring low tide. The elevation of marine terraces (T1, T2 and T3) along the Teknaf coast is 2.5 m, 5-7 m and 11-13 m above sea level, respectively. A shell bed on top of T1 was dated at 1763 (dated by C14). This and the other two terraces could have been uplifted during the three earthquakes dated from coral microatolls. Considering the

  13. Top Quark Physics with CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Higgs mechanism. There are various hints at deviations from the Standard Model expectation which have been observed recently by Tevatron experiments in top final states. Several signatures of new physics accessible at the LHC either suffer from top-quark production as a significant background or contain top quarks themselves. In this talk, we present results on top quark physics obtained from the first LHC data collected by the CMS experiment.They include measurements of the top pair production cross section in various channels and their combination, measurements of the top quark mass, the single top cross section, a search for new particles decaying into top pairs, and a first look at the charge asymmetry.

  14. Top physics results with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains some of the most recent results on top-quark physics obtained by the ATLAS collaboration from the analysis of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. Measurement of total and differential top-quark pair ($t\\bar{t}$), single top and $t\\bar{t}+\\gamma$ production cross sections and some top properties like mass, charge asymmetry and spin correlation are presented.

  15. 46 CFR 28.515 - Submergence test as an alternative to stability calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... float in calm water after being submerged for 18 hours so that— (1) The vessel has an equilibrium heel... in paragraph (c) of this section, except that the equilibrium heel angle must not exceed 30° and the... submerged. The two largest air chambers, or compartments of a decked vessel not used as fuel tanks, that...

  16. Identification of the Submergence Tolerance QTL Come Quick Drowning1 (CQD1) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Kleine, Rogier; van Tienderen, Peter H; Schranz, M Eric

    2017-02-16

    Global climate change is predicted to increase water precipitation fluctuations and lead to localized prolonged floods in agricultural fields and natural plant communities. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of submergence tolerance is crucial in order to improve plant survival under these conditions. In this study, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in Arabidopsis to identify novel candidate genes for increased submergence tolerance by using Kas-1 and Col (gl1) parental accessions and their derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs). We measured survival after submergence in dark for a 13-day period and used median lethal time, LT50 values for the QTL analysis. A major QTL, the Come Quick, Drowning (CQD1) locus, was detected in 2 independent experiments on the lower arm of chromosome 5 involved in higher submergence tolerance in the parental accession Kas-1. For fine-mapping, we then constructed near isogenic lines (NILs) by backcrossing the CQD1 QTL region. We also analyzed QTL regions related to size, leaf number, flowering, or survival in darkness and none of the QTL related to these traits overlapped with CQD1. The submergence tolerance QTL, CQD1, region detected in this study includes genes that have potential to be novel candidates effecting submergence tolerance such as trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and respiratory burst oxidase protein D. Gene expression and functional analysis for these genes under submergence would reveal the significance of these novel candidates and provide new perspectives for understanding genetic basis of submergence tolerance.

  17. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit V.; McLean, Elizabeth H.; Boonman, Alex; Visser, Eric J. W.; Schranz, M. Eric; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well as F1 hybrid Rorippa × anceps were analysed to unravel mechanisms underlying submergence tolerance. Methods In the first submergence experiment (lasting 20 d) we analysed biomass, stem elongation and carbohydrate content. In the second submergence experiment (lasting 3 months) we analysed survival and the effect of re-establishment of air contact on biomass and carbohydrate content. In a separate experiment we analysed expression of two carbohydrate catabolism genes, ADH1 and SUS1, upon re-establishment of air contact following submergence. Key Results All plants had low mortality even after 3 months of submergence. Rorippa sylvestris was characterized by 100 % survival and higher carbohydrate levels coupled with lower ADH1 gene expression as well as reduced growth compared with R. amphibia. Rorippa amphibia and the hybrid elongated their stems but this did not pay-off in higher survival when plants remained submerged. Only R. amphibia and the hybrid benefited in terms of increased biomass and carbohydrate accumulation upon re-establishing air contact. Conclusions Results demonstrate contrasting ‘escape’ and ‘quiescence’ strategies between Rorippa species. Being a close relative of arabidopsis, Rorippa is an excellent model for future studies on the molecular mechanism(s) controlling these strategies. PMID:22499857

  18. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.V.; McLean, E.H.; Boonman, A.; Visser, E.J.W.; Schranz, M.E.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well

  19. Forward Top Physics at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The first Run 2 measurement of top pair production in the dilepton channel at 13 TeV will be presented, along with previous Run 1 measurements in final states accessible to both single top and top pair production. Heavy flavour tagging strategies at LHCb will also be discussed.

  20. Top production at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on top quark production are presented from four hadron collider experiments: CDF and D0 at the Tevatron, and ATLAS and CMS at the LHC. Cross-sections for single top and top pair production are discussed, as well as results on the top–antitop production asymmetry and searches for new physics including ...

  1. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  2. Heat transfer study of a submerged reactor channel under boil-off condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Deb [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.; Sahoo, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Health, Safety and Environment Group

    2012-12-15

    Experiments have been carried out to study the heatup behavior of a single segmented reactor channel for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor under submerged, partially submerged and exposed conditions. This situation may arise from a severe accident scenario of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors where full or segmented reactor channels are likely to be disassembled and form a submerged debris bed. An assembly of electrical heater rod, simulating fuel bundle and channel components like Pressure Tube and Calandria Tube constitutes the segmented reactor channel. Heatup of this assembly is observed with respect to different water levels ranging from full submergence to totally exposed and power levels of 6-8 kW, typical to decay power level. It has been observed from the set of experiment that fuel bundle local dry out followed by heatup does not happen till the bundle is partially submerged. Temperature excursion of the bundle is evident when the bundle is exposed to steam-air environment. (orig.)

  3. THE STUDY ON THE DURABILITY OF SUBMERGED STRUCTURE DISPLACEMENT DUE TO CONCRETE FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structures that exposed to marine environments are subjected to multiple deterioration mechanisms. An overview of the existing technology for submerged concrete, pressure resistant, concrete structures which related such as cracks, debonds, and delamination are discussed. Basic knowledge related to drowning durability such as submerged concrete structures in the maritime environment are the durability of a concrete and the ability to resist to weathering, chemical attack, abrasion or other deterioration processes. The measuring techniques and instrumentation for geometrical monitoring of submerged structural displacements have traditionally been categorized into two groups according to the two main groups, namely as geodetic surveying and geotechnical structural measurements of local displacements. This paper aims to study the durability of submerged concrete displacement and harmful effects of submerged concrete structures.

  4. Boundary-layer submerged vortex generators for separation control - An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. M.; Kariya, T. T.

    The effectiveness of 'submerged' vortex generators (VGs) for boundary-layer separation control in regions of rapid pressure rise has been explored. Contained entirely within the boundary-layer thickness, the submerged VGs are expected to cause less parasitic drag than the conventional vane-type VGs which draw energy from external flow. A comparative study was performed of submerged and vane VGs in controlling the separation of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer entering a region of steep adverse pressure gradient. Measurements of the maximum static pressure recovery attained on the plate and the loss in total pressure were used to evaluate the relative efficiency of a series of submerged VG arrangements. The geometric characteristics of submerged VG designs that are potentially more efficient than vane VGs are indicated.

  5. The top ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C

    1985-10-01

    3 lists were compiled to answer the question of what countries have experienced the most population growth from World War II to the present. The 1st list includes the 10 countries which accounted for the largest gain in world population. The 2nd list shows the 10 countries with the highest growth rates of the 150 or so most populous countries in the world. The last list also shows countries ranked by growth rate but is limited to those with a current population of at least 10 million. To deal with the fact that some countries did not exist at 1 of the reference points, a set of estimates for 1940 provided a convenient starting point. China and India headed the list of countries ranked by absolute gains. They contributed half again as much growth as the next 8 nations combined. Altogether Asia, home to almost 60% of the world's population, captured 5 of the top 10 slots. The US and the USSR are the only developed countries on the list. The Soviet Union also presents the 1st case on the list of a country with a lower ranking in population gain (6th) than in absolute size in 1985 (3rd). Many of the population giants of 1940 (Japan, Great Britain, Germany, France, and Italy) are not on the list. Despite large base populations, their growth has been slow in the intervening years. All of the countries with the highest growth rates experienced over 3% annual average growth during the last 45 years: Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Libya, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Mexico, Honduras, and Syria. The influence of immigration is much in evidence in this list and explains otherwise unachievable rates of growth. The top 4 countries in annual rates of growth are all oil exporters. The top 3 countries in the 3rd list -- Venezuela, Kenya, and Mexico -- are carried over from the 2nd list, sharing the characteristics of rapid population growth and substantial base populations. The geographic mix of this list is notable. Asia, Africa, and Latin America each have at least

  6. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang-Seong [INFN, Pisa

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.

  7. Use of the submerged demineralizer system at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hitz, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) has been used at Three Mile Island-Unit 2 (TMI-2) to process more than 1.5 million gallons of water contaminated as a result of the March, 1979 accident. The SDS has processed approximately 315,000 gallons of water accumulated in tanks in the Auxiliary Building, approximately 650,000 gallons of water that existed in the Reactor Containment Building basement, approximately 90,000 gallons of primary reactor coolant (processed in a bleed and feed mode) and approximately 169,000 gallons of water used in the large scale decontamination of the Reactor Building. During its operation, the SDS has immobilized approximately 340,000 curies of the principal fission products 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr on inorganic media (zeolite). Processing summaries and performance evaluations are presented. 12 references, 1 figure, 6 tables

  8. Endodontic Treatment in Submerged Roots: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Pameshwar Hiremath

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge resorption has long been considered an unavoidable consequence of tooth extraction. While the extent and pattern of resorption is variable among individuals, there is a progressive loss of ridge contour as a result of physiologic bone remodeling. Even today, with best modalities of tooth preservation, there is a group of elderly individuals who do not benefit from modern preventive practices and who now present a dilemma in terms of maintaining the masticatory apparatus necessary for nutrition. Even with excellent dental care, such patients experience abrasion of the natural tooth crowns with age, and embedded roots are left within the alveolar bone. According to old concepts of dental care, extraction of these roots would have been recommended, but today’s goal of excellence in endodontics dictates otherwise. We report a case in which vital and non-vital root submergence was carried out to prevent alveolar ridge reduction.

  9. Critical Assessment of Temperature Distribution in Submerged Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Negi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution during any welding process holds the key for understanding and predicting several important welding attributes like heat affected zone, microstructure of the weld, residual stress, and distortion during welding. The accuracy of the analytical approaches for modeling temperature distribution during welding has been constrained by oversimplified assumptions regarding boundary conditions and material properties. In this paper, an attempt has been made to model the temperature distribution during submerged arc welding process using finite element modeling technique implemented in ANSYS v12. In the present analysis, heat source is assumed to be double-ellipsoidal with Gaussian volumetric heat generation. Furthermore, variation of material properties with temperature and both convective and radiant heat loss boundary condition have been considered. The predicted temperature distribution is then validated against the experimental results obtained by thermal imaging of the welded plate, and they are found to be in a good agreement.

  10. Dynamic of degradation and disappearance of monocrotophos in submerged soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shouxiang; Liu Yining

    1990-01-01

    The experimental results indicated that the disappearance rates of monocrotophos and its degraded products were much faster in the unsterilized soil than that in the sterilized soil. Their half lives were 27.29 and 69.16 days respectively. Monocrotophos degraded into both methanol extractable and unextractable residues in the submerged soil. The analysis of 14 C-methanol extractable residue by TLC and ARG indicated that degraded products of monocrotophos were triether phosphate, N-demethyl Azodrin, O, O-dimethyl-vinyl-phosphate, O-demethyl Azodrin, and O, C-demethyl Azodrin. The principal degraded extratable product of monocrotophos was triether phosphate, which incresed from 5% of the parent solution of monocrotophos to a range of 28-83%; its degradation process was much faster in the unterilized soil than in the sterilized soil

  11. Development of Submerged Entry Nozzles that Resist Clogging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Jeffrey D. Smith; Kent D. Peasle

    2002-10-14

    Accretion formation and the associated clogging of SENs is a major problem for the steel industry leading to decreased strand speed, premature changing of SENs or strand termination and the associated reductions in productivity, consistency, and steel quality. A program to evaluate potentially clog resistance materials was initiated at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The main objective of the research effort was to identify combinations of steelmaking and refractory practices that would yield improved accretion resistance for tundish nozzles and submerged entry nozzles. A number of tasks were identified during the initial kick-off meeting and each was completed with two exceptions, the thermal shock validation and the industrial trials. Not completing these two tasks related to not having access to industrial scale production facilities. Though much of the results and information generated in the project is of proprietary nature.

  12. Online-kaubanduse TOP aastal 2003

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Online-kaubanduse TOP aastal 2003. Käibe TOP 5. Käibe kasvu TOP 5. Rentaabluse TOP 5. Kasumi TOP 5. Kasumi kasvu TOP 5. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 5. Lisa: TOPi koostamise metoodika. Online-kaubanduse firmade üldandmed. Online kaubanduse firmade finantsandmed

  13. Harjumaa ettevõtete TOP aastal 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Harjumaa ettevõtete TOP 100. Käibe kasvu TOP 25. Kasumi kasvu TOP 25. Rentaabluse TOP 25. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 25. Käibe TOP 50. Kasumi TOP 50. Harjumaa ettevõtted 2002: üldandmed. Harjumaa ettevõtted 2002: finantsandmed

  14. Toitlustusettevõtete TOP 30 aastal 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Toitlustusettevõtete TOP 30 aastal 2002. Käibe TOP 30. Kasumi TOP 30. Käibe kasvu TOP 30. Kasumi kasvu TOP 30. Rentaabluse TOP 30. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 30. Toitlustusettevõtete üldandmed. Toitlustusettevõtete finantsandmed

  15. Toiduainetööstuste TOP 100

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Toiduainetööstuse TOP. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibekasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Toiduainetööstuse üld- ja finantsandmed

  16. Hiiumaa ettevõtete TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Hiiumaa ettevõtete TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Hiiumaa ettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Vt samas: Teeli Remmalg: Hiiumaal jätkub plastitööstuse võidumarss

  17. Saltwater Intrusion Through Submerged Caves due to the Venturi Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazmutdinova, K.; Nof, D.

    2016-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion into freshwater sources is a concern in coastal areas. In order to reduce the intrusion of seawater the physical mechanisms that allow this to occur must be understood. This study presents an approach to quantify saltwater intrusion in karstic coastal aquifers due to the presence of submerged caves. Many water-filled caves have variable tunnel cross-sections and often have narrow connections between two otherwise large tunnels. Generally, the diameter of these restrictions is 1 - 2 m and the flow speed within them is approximately 1 - 5 m/s. Main cave tunnels can be 10 - 20 times bigger than restrictions, and have flow speeds ranging anywhere between 0.5 cm/s and 20 cm/s. According to Bernoulli's theorem, in order to balance high velocities within a restriction, the pressure has to drop as the water flow passes through a narrow tunnel. This is expected to influence the height to which a deeper saline aquifer can penetrate in conduits connecting the narrow restriction and saltwater. For sufficiently small restrictions, saline water can invade the freshwater tunnel. The intrusion of saltwater from a deeper, saline aquifer into a fresh groundwater system due to the Venturi effect in submerged caves was computed, and an analytical and a qualitative model that captures saltwater intrusion into a fresh aquifer was developed. Using Bernoulli's theorem, we show that depths from which the saline water can be drawn into the freshwater tunnel reach up to 450 m depending on the difference in the density between fresh and saltwater. The velocity of the saline upward flow is estimated to be 1.4 m/s using the parameters for Wakulla Spring, a first order magnitude spring in Florida, with a saltwater interface 180 m below the spring cave system.

  18. Naisjuhtidega ettevõtete TOP 70

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Naisjuhtidega ettevõtete TOP 70. Käibe TOP 30. Käibe kasvu TOP 30. Kasumi TOP 30. Kasumi kasvu TOP 30. Rentaabluse TOP 30. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 30. Nais- ja meesjuhtidega ettevõtted 2001. aasta 500 edukama ettevõtte hulgas. Naistegevjuhtidega firmade TOP 2001 ja 2002. Riigi- ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste naisjuhtide TOP 20. Riigi- ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste eelarve TOP 20. Riigi- ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste töötajate arvu TOP 20. Naistegevjuhtidega firmade osakaal 2001. aastal. Riigi- ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste naisjuhtide aastapalga TOP 20. Kommenteerib Tiina Raitviir.

  19. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  20. The Performance and Fouling Control of Submerged Hollow Fiber (HF Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Akhondi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The submerged membrane filtration concept is well-established for low-pressure microfiltration (MF and ultrafiltration (UF applications in the water industry, and has become a mainstream technology for surface-water treatment, pretreatment prior to reverse osmosis (RO, and membrane bioreactors (MBRs. Compared to submerged flat sheet (FS membranes, submerged hollow fiber (HF membranes are more common due to their advantages of higher packing density, the ability to induce movement by mechanisms such as bubbling, and the feasibility of backwashing. In view of the importance of submerged HF processes, this review aims to provide a comprehensive landscape of the current state-of-the-art systems, to serve as a guide for further improvements in submerged HF membranes and their applications. The topics covered include recent developments in submerged hollow fiber membrane systems, the challenges and developments in fouling-control methods, and treatment protocols for membrane permeability recovery. The highlighted research opportunities include optimizing the various means to manipulate the hydrodynamics for fouling mitigation, developing online monitoring devices, and extending the submerged HF concept beyond filtration.

  1. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Qiaoli; Zeng, Bo; Liu, Jianhui; Li, Siqi; van Bodegom, Peter M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-04-10

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants because it results in oxygen deficiency, which is considered a major problem for submerged plants. A common response of terrestrial plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Some studies have shown that adventitious roots on submerged plants are capable of absorbing water and nutrients. However, there is no experimental evidence for the possible oxygen uptake function of adventitious roots or for how important this function might be for the survival of plants during prolonged submergence. This study aims to investigate whether adventitious roots absorb oxygen from the water column, and whether this new function is beneficial to the survival of completely submerged plants. TakingAlternanthera philoxeroides(Mart.) Griseb. as a representative species, the profiling of the underwater oxygen gradient towards living and dead adventitious roots on completely submerged plants was conducted, the oxygen concentration in stem nodes with and without adventitious roots was measured, and the growth, survival and non-structural carbohydrate content of completely submerged plants with and without adventitious roots was investigated. Oxygen profiles in the water column of adventitious roots showed that adventitious roots absorbed oxygen from water. It is found that the oxygen concentration in stem nodes having adventitious roots was higher than that in stem nodes without adventitious roots, which implies that the oxygen absorbed by adventitious roots from water was subsequently transported from the roots to other plant tissues. Compared with plants whose adventitious roots had been pruned, those with intact adventitious roots had slower leaf shedding, slower plant mass reduction, more efficient carbohydrate economy and prolonged survival when completely submerged. The adventitious roots ofA. philoxeroidesformed upon submergence can absorb oxygen from ambient water, thereby alleviating the adverse effects of

  2. Our top priority

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    After three years of LHC running, we are still at the beginning of a long research programme with our flagship facility, and hopefully 4 July 2012 will go down in history as the date of one of many landmark discoveries spanning several years. CERN’s top priority for the next decade and more is the full exploitation of the LHC. With speculation about potential future facilities mounting in the light of the discovery of a new Higgs-like particle, it’s important to state that most clearly. Of course, this will rely on continued global collaboration, and it’s important that CERN engage constructively with other regions.   It is important to plan ahead, particularly since the lead times for new projects in particle physics are long, and our field is increasingly global in nature. That’s why the European particle physics community is currently engaged in updating its long-term strategy. Planning ahead allowed us to be ready technologically to build the LHC whe...

  3. Top Quark Physics: Future Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, John A

    2003-05-09

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  4. Do salt and low temperature impair metal treatment in stormwater bioretention cells with or without a submerged zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søberg, Laila C; Viklander, Maria; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2017-02-01

    Although seasonal temperature changes and (road) salt in winter and/or coastal stormwater runoff might interfere with the metal treatment performance of stormwater bioretention cells, no previous study has evaluated the effect of these factors and their interactions under controlled conditions. In this 18week long study 24 well established pilot-scale bioretention columns were employed to evaluate the individual and combined effect(s) of low/high temperature, salt and presence of a submerged zone with an embedded carbon source on metal removal using a three factor, two-level full factorial experimental design. In most instances, the three factors significantly influenced the metal outflow concentrations and thus the treatment performance; the effect of temperature depended on the metal in question, salt had an overall negative effect and the submerged zone with carbon source had an overall positive effect. Despite these statistically significant effects, the discharge water quality was generally markedly improved. However, leaching of dissolved Cu and Pb did occur, mainly from bioretention cells dosed with salt-containing stormwater. The highest concentrations of metals were captured in the top layer of the filter material and were not significantly affected by the three factors studied. Overall, the results confirmed that bioretention provides a functioning stormwater treatment option in areas experiencing winter conditions (road salt, low temperatures) or coastal regions (salt-laden stormwater). However, validation of these results in the field is recommended, especially focusing on dissolved metal removal, which may be critically affected under certain conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Boosted top: experimental tools overview

    CERN Document Server

    Usai, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    An overview of tools and methods for the reconstruction of high-boost top quark decays at the LHC is given in this report. The focus is on hadronic decays, in particular an overview of the current status of top quark taggers in physics analyses is presented. The most widely used jet substructure techniques, normally used in combination with top quark taggers, are reviewed. Special techniques to treat pileup in large cone jets are described, along with a comparison of the performance of several boosted top quark reconstruction techniques.

  6. Top physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Helsens, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the highlights in the area of top quark physics obtained with the two general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS during the first three years of the Large Hadron Collider LHC. It covers the 2011 and 2012 data taking periods, where the LHC provided pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt(s) = 7$ and 8~TeV respectively. Measurements are presented of the total and differential pair production cross section, the single top quark production, various top quark properties and various searches for new physics involving top quarks. The experimental data are in good agreement with the standard model.

  7. Pinning down top dipole moments with ultra-boosted tops

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan A.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate existing and future hadron-collider constraints on the top dipole chromomagnetic and chromoelectric moments, two quantities that are expected to be modified in the presence of new physics. We focus first on recent measurements of the inclusive top pair production cross section at the Tevatron and at the Large Hadron Collider. We then analyse the role of top-antitop events produced at very large invariant masses, in the context of the forthcoming 13-14 TeV runs of the LHC, and at a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider. In this latter case, the selection of semileptonic decays to hard muons allows to tag top quarks boosted to the multi-TeV regime, strongly reducing the QCD backgrounds and leading to a significant improvement in the sensitivity to anomalous top couplings.

  8. Effects of submergence on growth and survival of saplings of three wetland trees differing in adaptive mechanisms for flood tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Iwanaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Withstanding total submergence and reaeration following submergence is essential for the survival and establishment of wetland species. We focused on “LOES–low oxygen escape syndrome” and “LOQS–low oxygen quiescence syndrome” and compared tolerances to total submergence among wetland woody species differing in morphological adaptation to soil flooding. Area of study, materials and methods: This study examined the survival of 2-year-old saplings of Taxodium distichum and Metasequioia glyptostroboides (LOQS species, and Alnus japonica (LOES species, during and after total submergence. Saplings were completely submerged, then de-submerged to determine trends in survival and growth Main results: The M. glyptostroboides and A. japonica saplings could not survive prolonged submergence for more than 8 weeks, whereas saplings of T. distichum survived for over 2 years. Submerged saplings of all species showed no significant growth or modifications in morphology and anatomy under water, such as shoot elongation, adventitious root formation, and/or aerenchyma development. All T. distichum saplings that were de-submerged in the second year had the same pattern of shoot growth regardless of differences in timing and seasonality of de-submergence. Wood formation in T. distichum saplings ceased during submergence and resumed after de-submergence in spring and summer, but not in autumn. Research highlights: T. distichum saplings, which survived longer submergence periods than A. japonica and M. glyptostroboides, had physiological characteristics, such as suspension of growth and metabolism, which allowed survival of protracted total submergence (at least 2 years when saplings were immersed during the dormant stage before leaf flushing.

  9. Characteristics and Dynamics of a Large Sub-Tidal Sand Wave Field—Habitat for Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes personatus, Salish Sea, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gary Greene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water sand wave fields in the San Juan Archipelago of the Salish Sea and Pacific Northwest Washington, USA, have been found to harbor Pacific sand lance (PSL, Ammodytes personatus, a critical forage fish of the region. Little is known of the dynamics of these sand waves and the stability of the PSL sub-tidal habitats. Therefore, we have undertaken an initial investigation to determine the dynamic conditions of a well-known PSL habitat in the San Juan Channel within the Archipelago using bottom sediment sampling, an acoustical doppler current profiling (ADCP system, and multi-beam echo sounder (MBES bathymetry. Our study indicates that the San Juan Channel sand wave field maintained its shape and bedforms geometry throughout the years it has been studied. Based on bed phase diagrams for channelized bedforms, the sand waves appear to be in a dynamic equilibrium condition. Sea level rise may change the current regime within the Archipelago and may alter some of the deep-water or sub-tidal PSL habitats mapped there. Our findings have global significance in that these dynamic bedforms that harbor PSL and sand-eels elsewhere along the west coast of North America and in the North Sea may also be in a marginally dynamic equilibrium condition and may be prone to alteration by sea level rise, indicating an urgency in locating and investigating these habitats in order to sustain the forage fish.

  10. Top production at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Top quark studies are an important aspect of physics program at the Tevatron and the ..... Sin- gle top quark production at hadron colliders was first established in 2007 by the Tevatron experiments. Basically, there are three production processes: the s-channel, the t-channel ... So confronting the measurement.

  11. Tippe top paradox in relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aniket; Saraswat, R. S.; Khare, Kedar B.; Sastry, G. P.; Bose, Sougato

    2002-05-01

    If a tippe top is held by its stem and spun fast on a table, it eventually tips over and stands spinning on its stem. For this to happen, the ratios of its principal moments of inertia should fall in a certain regime. Let such a top be observed from a rocket frame in which the top and the table move with a relativistic velocity. The cross-section of the top now appears elliptical due to the length contraction along the line of motion. For a fast enough rocket frame, it is possible that the ratios of the principal moments of inertia go out of the regime required for the top to tip over. However, this is paradoxical. A top that tips over in one frame should tip over in all frames. The paradox is resolved by applying the Lorentz transformation formulae to the equation of motion of the particles of the top, and going over to the spinning coordinates. All the relativistic effects such as the length contraction, time dilation, velocity addition and the lack of synchronization of clocks make their appearance. The orbits of the particles are studied analytically as well as by computer simulation. The movies on the monitor screen reveal the picturesque motion of the particles of the spinning top in the rocket frame, and show in detail how the notion of a rigid body fails in relativistic mechanics. The source code for the computer simulation is included in the appendix.

  12. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J; Bergstrom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chesapeake Bay Office began a comprehensive research effort to restore submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV...

  13. Does mechanical disturbance affect the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Ying-Shou; Huang, Lin; Xue, Wei; Sun, Gong-Qi; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-05-01

    Submerged macrophyte communities are frequently subjected to disturbance of various frequency and strength. However, there is still little experimental evidence on how mechanical disturbance affects the performance and species composition of such plant communities. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed wetland communities consisting of five co-occurring clonal submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara fragilis, and Myriophyllum spicatum) and subjected these communities to three mechanical disturbance regimes (no, moderate and strong disturbance). Strong mechanical disturbance greatly decreased overall biomass, number of shoot nodes and total shoot length, and increased species diversity (evenness) of the total community. It also substantially decreased the growth of the most abundant species (H. verticillata), but did not affect growth of the other four species. Our data reveal that strong disturbance can have different effects on different submerged macrophyte species and thus alters the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities.

  14. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants...... of this terrestrial plant species to submergence for gas exchange capacity is also shown. Shoot acclimation to submergence involved a reduction of the diffusion resistance to gases, which was not only functional by increasing diffusion of oxygen into the plant, but also by increasing influx of CO2, which enhances...... maintain relatively high internal oxygen pressures under water, and even may release oxygen via the roots into the sediment, also in dark. Based on these results, we challenge the dogma that oxygen pressures in submerged terrestrial plants immediately drop to levels at which aerobic respiration is impaired...

  15. Flow Velocity and Morphology of a Submerged Patch of the Aquatic Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornacchia, L.; Licci, S.; van de Koppel, J.; van der Wal, D.; Wharton, G.; Puijalon, S.; Bouma, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between macrophytes and hydrodynamic conditions is animportant feature in many aquatic ecosystems. Submerged macrophytes can formmonospecific patches that interact with the flow and alter current velocity; withinthe same vegetation patch, plants are exposed to different levels of

  16. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa (brassicaceae) species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Tienderen, van P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  17. EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data for part of the submerged environs of Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  18. Satellite remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation distribution and status in the Currituck Sound, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) is an important component in any estuarine ecosystem. As such, it is regulated by federal and state agencies as a jurisdictional resource, where impacts to SAV are compensated through mitigation. Historically, tradi...

  19. Separating the effects of partial submergence and soil oxugen demand on plant physiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, P.M.; Sorrell, B.K.; Oosthoek, A.; Bakker, C.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands, a distinct zonation of plant species composition occurs along moisture gradients, due to differential flooding tolerance of the species involved. However, "flooding" comprises two important, distinct stressors (soil oxygen demand [SOD] and partial submergence) that affect plant survival

  20. EAARL-B submerged topography: Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Klipp, Emily S.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Nagle, David B.

    2014-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived submerged topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  1. Meta Modelling of Submerged-Arc Welding Design based on Fuzzy Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang-Yong; Park, Jonghwan; Goh, Dugab; Park, Woo-Chang; Lee, Chang-Ha; Kim, Mun Yong; Kang, Jinseo

    2017-12-01

    Fuzzy algorithm based meta-model is proposed for approximating submerged-arc weld design factors such as weld speed and weld output. Orthogonal array design based on the submerged-arc weld numerical analysis is applied to the proposed approach. The nonlinear finite element analysis is carried out to simulate the submerged-arc weld numerical analysis using thermo-mechanical and temperature-dependent material properties for general mild steel. The proposed meta-model based on fuzzy algorithm design is generated with triangle membership functions and fuzzy if-then rules using training data obtained from the Taguchi orthogonal array design data. The aim of proposed approach is to develop a fuzzy meta-model to effectively approximate the optimized submerged-arc weld factors. To validate the meta-model, the results obtained from the fuzzy meta-model are compared to the best cases from the Taguchi orthogonal array.

  2. Top mass from asymptotic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Held, Aaron

    2018-02-01

    We discover that asymptotically safe quantum gravity could predict the top-quark mass. For a broad range of microscopic gravitational couplings, quantum gravity could provide an ultraviolet completion for the Standard Model by triggering asymptotic freedom in the gauge couplings and bottom Yukawa and asymptotic safety in the top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic coupling. We find that in a part of this range, a difference of the top and bottom mass of approximately 170GeV is generated and the Higgs mass is determined in terms of the top mass. Assuming no new physics below the Planck scale, we construct explicit Renormalization Group trajectories for Standard Model and gravitational couplings which link the transplanckian regime to the electroweak scale and yield a top pole mass of Mt,pole ≈ 171GeV.

  3. Aquatic adventitious root development in partially and completely submerged wetland plants Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Colmer, Timothy David

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims A common response of wetland plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Observations of aquatic root growth are widespread; however, controlled studies of aquatic roots of terrestrial herbaceous species are scarce. Submergence tolerance and aquatic root growth and physiology were evaluated in two herbaceous, perennial wetland species Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. Methods Plants were raised in large pots with ‘sediment’ roots in nutrient solution and then placed into individual tanks and shoots were left in air or submerged (completely or partially). The effects on growth of aquatic root removal, and of light availability to submerged plant organs, were evaluated. Responses of aquatic root porosity, chlorophyll and underwater photosynthesis, were studied. Key Results Both species tolerated 4 weeks of complete or partial submergence. Extensive, photosynthetically active, aquatic adventitious roots grew from submerged stems and contributed up to 90 % of the total root dry mass. When aquatic roots were pruned, completely submerged plants grew less and had lower stem and leaf chlorophyll a, as compared with controls with intact roots. Roots exposed to the lowest PAR (daily mean 4·7 ± 2·4 µmol m−2 s−1) under water contained less chlorophyll, but there was no difference in aquatic root biomass after 4 weeks, regardless of light availability in the water column (high PAR was available to all emergent shoots). Conclusions Both M. brownii and C. coronopifolia responded to submergence with growth of aquatic adventitious roots, which essentially replaced the existing sediment root system. These aquatic roots contained chlorophyll and were photosynthetically active. Removal of aquatic roots had negative effects on plant growth during partial and complete submergence. PMID:22419759

  4. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. S. G. Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options.

  5. Measurement of the shear wave speed in a submerged plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A J; Cray, B A

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an inverse method to estimate, in water, the shear wave speed in an isotropic, thick, elastomeric plate. The submerged plate is mechanically shaken and a scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure normal velocity on one surface. The temporal domain measurements are transformed into the frequency domain using a Fourier transform, then, the spatial domain measurements are transformed into the k x ,k y wavevector domain using two Fourier transforms. Once the data is in the wavevector-frequency domain, the propagation wavenumber of each specific wave type can be estimated by fitting a circle to each collection of spectral peaks. Using this measured estimate of the wavenumber corresponding to the propagating wave, the Newton-Raphson gradient method is applied (inserting the estimated wavenumber into to the theoretical dispersion curve equation for wave propagation in a fluid-loaded plate,) hence resulting in an estimate of the shear wave speed. An experiment is included to illustrate the method and statistical properties of the measurement are discussed.

  6. Wastewater treatment in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Stefania; Crispino, Nedda A; Farina, Roberto; Mattioli, Davide; Ferraris, Marco; Spagni, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Although most membrane bioreactors are used under aerobic conditions, over the last few years there has been increased interest in their application for anaerobic processes. This paper presents the results obtained when a bench-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor was used for the treatment of wastewaters generated in the agro-food industry. The reactor was fed with synthetic wastewater consisting of cheese whey and sucrose, and volumetric organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 1.5 to 13 kgCOD/(m(3)*d) were applied. Under the operating conditions studied, the maximum applicable OLR was between 6 and 10 gCOD/(g*L), which fell within the ranges of the high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, while high concentrations of volatile fatty acids were produced at higher OLR rates. With an OLR of 1.5-10 gCOD/(g*L), the reactor showed 94% COD removal, whereas this value dropped to 33% with the highest applied OLR of 13 gCOD/(g*L). The study therefore confirms that membrane bioreactors can be used for anaerobic wastewater treatment.

  7. Atrazine Removal from Aqueous Solutions using Submerged Biological Aerated Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine is widely used in the agriculture as an herbicide. Due to its high mobility, Atrazine leaks into the groundwaters, surface waters, and drinking water wells. Many physical and chemical methods have been suggested for removing Atrazine from aquatic environments. However, these methods are very costly, have many performance problems, produce a lot of toxic intermediates which are very harmful and dangerous, and cannot completely mineralize Atrazine. In this study, biodegradation of Atrazine by microbial consortium was evaluated in the aquatic environment. In order to assess the Atrazine removal from the aquatic environment, submerged biological aerated filter (SBAF was fed with synthetic wastewater based on sucrose and Atrazine at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs. The maximum efficiencies for Atrazine and Soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (SCOD removal were 97.9% and 98.9%, respectively. The study findings showed that Stover-Kincannon model had very good fitness (R2 > 99% in loading Atrazine in the biofilter and by increasing the initial concentration of Atrazine, the removal efficiency increased. Aerobic mixed biofilm culture was observed to be suitable for the treatment of Atrazine from aquatic environment. There was no significant inhibition effect on mixed aerobic microbial consortia. Atrazine degradation depended on the strength of wastewater and the amount of Atrazine in the influent

  8. Mathematical model for Trametes versicolor growth in submerged cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisma, Marina; Sudar, Martina; Vasić-Racki, Durda; Zelić, Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Trametes versicolor is a white-rot fungus known as a producer of extracellular enzymes such as laccase, manganese-peroxidase, and lignin-peroxidase. The production of these enzymes requires detailed knowledge of the growth characteristics and physiology of the fungus. Submerged cultivations of T. versicolor on glucose, fructose, and sucrose as sole carbon sources were performed in shake flasks. Sucrose hydrolysis catalyzed by the whole cells of T. versicolor was considered as one-step enzymatic reaction described with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Kinetic parameters of invertase-catalyzed sucrose hydrolysis were estimated (K (m) = 7.99 g dm(-3) and V (m) = 0.304 h(-1)). Monod model was used for description of kinetics of T. versicolor growth on glucose and fructose as sole carbon sources. Growth associated model parameters were estimated from the experimental results obtained by independent experiments (mu(G)(max) = 0.14 h(-1), K(G)(S) = 8.06 g dm(-3), mu(F)(max) = 0.37 h(-1) and K(F)(S) = 54.8 g dm(-3)). Developed mathematical model is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary methods tailor made to quantify photosynthesis and carbon fixation under water. The majority of studies of aquatic photosynthesis have been carried out with detached leaves or thalli and this selectiveness influences the perception of the regulation of aquatic photosynthesis. We thus recommend assessing the influence of inorganic carbon and temperature on natural aquatic communities of variable density in addition to studying detached leaves in the scenarios of rising CO2 and temperature. Moreover, a growing number of researchers are interested in tolerance of terrestrial plants during flooding as torrential rains sometimes result in overland floods that inundate terrestrial plants. We propose to undertake studies to elucidate the importance of leaf acclimation of terrestrial plants to facilitate gas exchange and light utilization under water as these acclimations influence underwater photosynthesis as well as internal aeration of plant tissues during submergence. PMID:23734154

  10. The modelling of irradiation embrittlement in submerged-arc welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.J.; Buswell, J.T.; Jones, R.B.; Moskovic, R.; Priest, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Until very recently, the irradiation embrittlement behavior of submerged-arc welds has been interpreted in terms of two mechanisms, namely a matrix damage component and an additional component due to the irradiation-enhanced production of copper-rich precipitates. However, some of the weld specimens from a recent accelerated re-irradiation experiment have shown high Charpy shifts which exceeded the values expected from the measured shift in yield stress. Microstructural examination has revealed the occurrence of intergranular fracture (IGF) in these specimens, accompanied by grain boundary segregation of phosphorus. Theoretical models were developed to predict the parametric dependence of irradiation-enhanced phosphorus segregation on experimental variables. Using these parametric forms, along with the concept of a critical level of segregation for the onset of IGF instead of cleavage, a three mechanism trend curve has been developed. The form of this trend curve, taking into account IGF as well as matrix and copper embrittlement, is thus mechanistically based. The constants in the equation, however, are obtained by a statistical fit to the actual Charpy shift database

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Biel; Pretus, Joan Lluís

    2010-03-01

    The seasonal and interannual dynamics of the biomass and spatial distribution of a macrophyte meadow were explored in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Albufera des Grau, Balearic Islands) from 2002 to 2007. The dynamics in the main physicochemical variables were also analysed to assess the factors involved in the spatiotemporal variability of the submerged macrophytes. The meadows were dominated by Ruppia cirrhosa, which showed a marked seasonal cycle with winter quiescence and complete annual regrowth. The annual production of R. cirrhosa had high interannual variability and was amongst the highest described for this species in the literature, ranging 327-919 gDW m -2. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was determined by light availability and wave exposure, with the highest abundances found in shallow and gently sloped areas sheltered from the strong northerly winds. The interannual variations in macrophyte descriptors (area of occurrence, average depth of the meadows, and maximum biomass) were mainly related to water turbidity and salinity, but the effect of these variables was constrained to the spring and summer months, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the extent of coverage of R. cirrhosa and the water level at the end of the previous annual cycle was observed, suggesting a positive effect of desiccation on the extent of coverage of the macrophytes. After six years of apparent stability, the macrophytes abruptly disappeared from the lagoon. Although the mechanisms are not clear, this shift was likely attributable to a combination of several factors.

  12. Seismic analysis of submerged spent fuel storage structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide structural integrity analysis for the loaded new spent fuel rack arrays against possible seismic excitation. The seismic design calculation is based on the UCRL-15910 spectrum with peak ground acceleration of 0.32g and 5% damping. This spectrum may be considered as an upper bound of the newly developed Oak Ridge site-specific spectrum with 0.29g peak ground acceleration and 5% damping. Both are more conservative than the current design basis seismic acceleration of 0.15g for HFIR. The calculation is carried out by using ABAQUS version 5.2 and the response spectrum option. Since the new racks are to be submerged in HFIR pool, the pool water induced virtual mass has been conservatively taken into consideration. The result shows that if the silo buckling is regarded as failure than, with 95% confidence, the 5% probability of failure ground acceleration is as much as 2.334g. As compared with the design basis of 0.32g, the structure is very safe against earthquake

  13. Detecting submerged objects: the application of side scan sonar to forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John J; Healy, Carrie A; Parker, Kenneth; Lowers, Bim

    2013-09-10

    Forensic personnel must deal with numerous challenges when searching for submerged objects. While traditional water search methods have generally involved using dive teams, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), and water scent dogs for cases involving submerged objects and bodies, law enforcement is increasingly integrating multiple methods that include geophysical technologies. There are numerous advantages for integrating geophysical technologies, such as side scan sonar and ground penetrating radar (GPR), with more traditional search methods. Overall, these methods decrease the time involved searching, in addition to increasing area searched. However, as with other search methods, there are advantages and disadvantages when using each method. For example, in instances with excessive aquatic vegetation or irregular bottom terrain, it may not be possible to discern a submersed body with side scan sonar. As a result, forensic personnel will have the highest rate of success during searches for submerged objects when integrating multiple search methods, including deploying multiple geophysical technologies. The goal of this paper is to discuss the methodology of various search methods that are employed for submerged objects and how these various methods can be integrated as part of a comprehensive protocol for water searches depending upon the type of underwater terrain. In addition, two successful case studies involving the search and recovery of a submerged human body using side scan sonar are presented to illustrate the successful application of integrating a geophysical technology with divers when searching for a submerged object. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth rate, protein:RNA ratio and stoichiometric homeostasis of submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate hypothesis (GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of photoautotrophs have always been questioned. However, little is known about GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of aquatic plants, especially submerged macrophytes. Therefore, we aim to test the GRH and explore stoichiometric homeostasis of four freshwater submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress. At the single species level and the multi-species level, N:P ratios of Potamogeton maackianus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Vallisneria natans and Ceratophyllum demersum had no consistent trends with growth rates. However, protein:RNA ratios of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and V. natans all correlated negatively with growth rates, demonstrating GRH can apply to freshwater submerged macrophytes, even though they are threatening by eutrophication stress. Protein:RNA ratios positively correlated with N:P ratios in culture media and tissues in submerged macrophytes except in P. maackianus (30d, suggesting effects of varying N:P ratios in culture media on protein:RNA ratios are basically in concert with tissue N:P ratios under short-time eutrophication stress. Stoichiometric homeostasis coefficients (HN:P indicated submerged macrophytes have weak homeostasis. Stoichiometric homeostasis of V. natans was stronger than those of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and C. demersum. The differences in GRH and homeostasis of the four submerged macrophytes may be due to species traits.

  15. Status of the top quark: Top production cross section and top properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisvert, V.; /Rochester U.

    2006-08-01

    This report describes the latest cross section and property measurements associated with the top quark at the Tevatron Run II. The largest data sample used is 760 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. Due to its large mass, the top quark might be involved in the process of electroweak symmetry breaking, making it a useful probe for signs of new physics.

  16. New directions in top physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, Torben Karl

    2017-02-01

    The top quark plays an important role for many aspects of particle physics. The coupling of the Higgs boson to top quarks is a key parameter to probe electroweak symmetry breaking and is important for the evolution of the Higgs potential to high energies. In addition, many models of physics beyond the Standard Model predict heavy particles that decay to top-quark pairs. Furthermore, the unexplained hierarchy of fermion masses culminates in the large top-quark mass. In this thesis, we consider resonance searches based on top quarks in the fully hadronic final state. We employ multivariate techniques in form of boosted decision trees and add several improvements to the original HEPTopTagger algorithm. These modifications and extensions result in the new HEPTopTagger2. The achieved improvements are used to estimate the precision to which the top Yukawa coupling can be measured at a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider in the fully hadronic final state of t anti tH production. We find that at such a collider a precision measurement of the top Yukawa coupling to 1% should be possible. The statistical precision is backed up by demonstrating that in the ratio σ(t anti tH)/σ(t anti tZ) theoretical uncertainties cancel to below-percent level. Finally, we propose a Froggatt-Nielsen-type model to address the hierarchy of fermion masses in the Standard Model and determine current and projected bounds on the available parameter space.

  17. Võrumaa ettevõtete TOP 50 aastal 2003

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Võrumaa ettevõtete TOP 50 aastal 2003. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Võrumaa firmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  18. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  19. Top quark properties at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dilip, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS potential for the study of the top quark properties and physics beyond the Standard Model in the top quark sector, is described. The measurements of the top quark charge, the spin and spin correlations, the Standard Model decay (t-> bW), rare top quark decays associated to flavour changing neutral currents (t-> qX with X = gluon, Z, photon) and ttbar resonances are discussed. The sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment is estimated for an expected luminosity of 1fb-1 at the LHC. The full simulation of the ATLAS detector is used. For the Standard Model measurements the expected precision is presented. For the tests of physics beyond the Standard Model, the 5 sigma discovery potential (in the presence of a signal) and the 95% Confidence Level (CL) limit (in the absence of a signal) are given.

  20. Top BSM at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U.

    2008-07-01

    The D0 experiment has searched for phenomena beyond the standard model in top quark events. The methods and results of four analyses covering various possible deviations from the standard model behavior are discussed.

  1. Fatigue assessment of a double submerged arc welded gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo; Otegui, Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina). Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA); Teutonico, Mauricio; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    An uncommon blowout in a 24'' diameter, 7 mm thick API 5L X52 gas pipeline was due to fracture at the longitudinal double submerged arc weld. Oddly enough for gas pipelines, it was found that fatigue cracks had propagated from a large embedded weld defect of lack of fusion resulting from severe geometrical mismatch between inner and outer weld passes. What makes this failure particularly interesting is that: previous in line inspections failed to detect any defect, no evidence of third party damage was found, and very few large pressure cycles had been recorded during the last 5 years of service, which were believed to be representative of the entire service life of the pipeline. Fatigue tests were carried out to characterize propagation of fatigue cracks in weld metal, it was found that a large Paris exponent made the few large amplitude cycles most contributing to crack propagation. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. It was found that microstructure discontinuities govern propagation at low {delta}K, but one striation per cycle was produced at large {delta}K, due to a mostly ductile propagation mode. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. It was found that in the early life of the line many more large pressure cycles than expected had occurred. Good correspondence between predicted and actual fatigue lives was in this way obtained (author)

  2. Uncovering the single top: observation of electroweak top quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Jorge Armando [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The top quark is generally produced in quark and anti-quark pairs. However, the Standard Model also predicts the production of only one top quark which is mediated by the electroweak interaction, known as 'Single Top'. Single Top quark production is important because it provides a unique and direct way to measure the CKM matrix element Vtb, and can be used to explore physics possibilities beyond the Standard Model predictions. This dissertation presents the results of the observation of Single Top using 2.3 fb-1 of Data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis includes the Single Top muon+jets and electron+jets final states and employs Boosted Decision Tress as a method to separate the signal from the background. The resulting Single Top cross section measurement is: (1) σ(p$\\bar{p}$→ tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb, where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is p = 1.9 x 10-6. This corresponds to a standard deviation Gaussian equivalence of 4.6. When combining this result with two other analysis methods, the resulting cross section measurement is: (2) σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 ± 0.88 pb, and the corresponding measurement significance is 5.0 standard deviations.

  3. Search for Top in TOTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Corrales, Alonso

    2017-01-01

    The work assigned to me during this summer (from June 19th to August 11th) was in the "Search for Top in TOTEM" project, a CMG project in collaboration with TOTEM, under the supervision of Martijn Mulders and Laurent Forthomme. The goal is to determine physical properties of the top anti top quark pair (tt) created by central exclusive processes, particularly the invariant mass. For that it is necessary to relate the measurements of the reconstructed top pair kinematics in the central detector of CMS with the detected protons in the Roman Pots of TOTEM just outside the interaction site, about 200 m from it. CMS only considers decay products from the proton collision, it does not regard the forward protons that participated in the collision. On the contrary, TOTEM does consider these protons. In this research measurements of both TOTEM and CMS were combined Figure 1 shows a diagram of the production of the top anti top pair from the interaction of the two protons. A central exclusive process occurs when the pr...

  4. Experimental evidence for enhanced top-down control of freshwater macrophytes with nutrient enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S; Nolet, Bart A

    2014-11-01

    The abundance of primary producers is controlled by bottom-up and top-down forces. Despite the fact that there is consensus that the abundance of freshwater macrophytes is strongly influenced by the availability of resources for plant growth, the importance of top-down control by vertebrate consumers is debated, because field studies yield contrasting results. We hypothesized that these bottom-up and top-down forces may interact, and that consumer impact on macrophyte abundance depends on the nutrient status of the water body. To test this hypothesis, experimental ponds with submerged vegetation containing a mixture of species were subjected to a fertilization treatment and we introduced consumers (mallard ducks, for 8 days) on half of the ponds in a full factorial design. Over the whole 66-day experiment fertilized ponds became dominated by Elodea nuttallii and ponds without extra nutrients by Chara globularis. Nutrient addition significantly increased plant N and P concentrations. There was a strong interactive effect of duck presence and pond nutrient status: macrophyte biomass was reduced (by 50%) after the presence of the ducks on fertilized ponds, but not in the unfertilized ponds. We conclude that nutrient availability interacts with top-down control of submerged vegetation. This may be explained by higher plant palatability at higher nutrient levels, either by a higher plant nutrient concentration or by a shift towards dominance of more palatable plant species, resulting in higher consumer pressure. Including nutrient availability may offer a framework to explain part of the contrasting field observations of consumer control of macrophyte abundance.

  5. Differential Response of Floating and Submerged Leaves of Longleaf Pondweed to Silver Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Shabnam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated variations in the potential of floating and submerged leaves of longleaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus to withstand silver ion (Ag+-toxicity. Both floating and submerged leaves changed clear colorless AgNO3 solutions to colloidal brown in the presence of light. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of distinct crystalline Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in these brown solutions. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that Ag-NPs were composed of Ag0 and Ag2O. Photosystem (PS II efficiency of leaves declined upon exposure to Ag+ with a significantly higher decline in the submerged leaves than in the floating leaves. Similarly, Ag+ treatment caused a significant reduction in the carboxylase activity of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in leaves. The reduction in this carboxylase activity was significantly higher in the submerged than in the floating leaves. Ag+ treatment also resulted in a significant decline in the levels of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; the decline was significantly lower in the floating than in submerged leaves. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of Ag2O in these leaves. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis revealed a three-fold higher Ag content in the submerged than in floating leaves. Our study demonstrates that floating leaves of longleaf pondweed have a superior potential to counter Ag+-toxicity compared with submerged leaves, which could be due to superior potential of floating leaves to reduce Ag+ to less/non-toxic Ag0/Ag2O-nanoparticles/nanocomplexes. We suggest that modulating the genotype of longleaf pondweed to bear higher proportion of floating leaves would help in cleaning fresh water bodies contaminated with ionic forms of heavy metals.

  6. Submergence Causes Similar Carbohydrate Starvation but Faster Post-Stress Recovery than Darkness in Alternanthera philoxeroides Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qi Ye

    Full Text Available Carbon assimilation by submerged plants is greatly reduced due to low light levels. It is hypothesized that submergence reduces carbohydrate contents and that plants recover from submergence in the same way as darkness-treated plants. To test this hypothesis, the responses of plants to submergence and darkness were studied and compared. Plants of a submergence-tolerant species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, were exposed to well drained and illuminated conditions, complete submergence conditions or darkness conditions followed by a recovery growth period in a controlled experiment. The biomass maintenance and accumulation, carbohydrate content dynamics and respiration rate in the plants were assessed to quantify the carbohydrate utilization rate and regrowth. The submerged plants maintained higher chlorophyll contents, more green leaf tissue and more biomass; recovered more quickly; and accumulated more carbohydrates and biomass than darkness-treated plants. The respiration rate was continuously reduced in the same pattern under both stress conditions but was maintained at a significantly lower level in the submerged plants; the total soluble sugar and total fructan contents were decreased at approximately the same rate of decrease, reaching similar low levels, in the two stress treatments. The A. philoxeroides plants were more tolerant of submergence than darkness. The faster recovery of desubmerged plants could not be explained by the similar carbohydrate contents at the start of recovery. Other types of carbon reserves besides carbohydrates or other mechanisms such as higher post-stress photosynthetic performance might be involved.

  7. Submergence Causes Similar Carbohydrate Starvation but Faster Post-Stress Recovery than Darkness in Alternanthera philoxeroides Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiao Qi; Meng, Jin Liu; Zeng, Bo; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Ye Yi; Zhang, Xiao Ping

    2016-01-01

    Carbon assimilation by submerged plants is greatly reduced due to low light levels. It is hypothesized that submergence reduces carbohydrate contents and that plants recover from submergence in the same way as darkness-treated plants. To test this hypothesis, the responses of plants to submergence and darkness were studied and compared. Plants of a submergence-tolerant species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, were exposed to well drained and illuminated conditions, complete submergence conditions or darkness conditions followed by a recovery growth period in a controlled experiment. The biomass maintenance and accumulation, carbohydrate content dynamics and respiration rate in the plants were assessed to quantify the carbohydrate utilization rate and regrowth. The submerged plants maintained higher chlorophyll contents, more green leaf tissue and more biomass; recovered more quickly; and accumulated more carbohydrates and biomass than darkness-treated plants. The respiration rate was continuously reduced in the same pattern under both stress conditions but was maintained at a significantly lower level in the submerged plants; the total soluble sugar and total fructan contents were decreased at approximately the same rate of decrease, reaching similar low levels, in the two stress treatments. The A. philoxeroides plants were more tolerant of submergence than darkness. The faster recovery of desubmerged plants could not be explained by the similar carbohydrate contents at the start of recovery. Other types of carbon reserves besides carbohydrates or other mechanisms such as higher post-stress photosynthetic performance might be involved.

  8. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Submerged vegetation removal promotes shift of dominant phytoplankton functional groups in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Yang, Kai; Li, Shuangshuang; Li, Genbao; Song, Lirong

    2014-08-01

    Historical data indicate that the dominance of submerged plants in Dianchi Lake in the 1960s was characterized by low algal density with dominance of non-toxic group J (Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, etc.). The removal of submerged plants, which began in the 1970s, resulted in the expansion of bloom-forming Microcystis (group M). Laboratory experiments suggested that Microcystis aeruginosa was inclined to grow and develop at elevated temperatures. The growth of Scenedesmus obliquus was slower than that of co-cultivated M. aeruginosa in the absence of Ceratophyllum demersum, especially at higher temperatures. The existence of submerged plant C. demersum could inhibit the growth of the harmful algae M. aeruginosa and this inhibitory effect by C. demersum was enhanced with an increase in temperature. Instead, with C. demersum, the growth of S. obliquus was not inhibited, but the co-cultivated M. aeruginosa was eliminated in a short time. Combined with the historical data and laboratory experiments, it was indicated that the submerged plants might play important roles in the dominance of the non-toxic group J in the historical succession. Consequently, the introduction of the submerged plant such as C. demersum might alter the dominant phytoplankton functional groups from M to J and benefit the restoration of the eutrophic lake. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  11. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Li

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm. Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  12. Initial studies on the remote detection of submerged Orimulsion with a range-gated laser fluorosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.; Marois, R.; Myslicki, G.; Fingas, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Tests are being conducted to determine the capabilities of active sensors such as the laser fluorosensor used to detect heavy oils under the water surface. Submerged and neutrally buoyant oils and other petroleum products such as Orimulsion are very difficult to detect using conventional sensors. Environment Canada and the Canadian Coast Guard have initiated a series of studies to develop technologies capable of real-time remote detection of submerged spills in the marine environment. This paper presented the preliminary results of remote detection testing of submerged Orimulsion with laser-induced fluorescence. Laser fluorosensors are airborne sensors used to detect, classify and map oils and other petroleum products in both marine and terrestrial environments. Modern laser fluorosensors have range-gated detection systems which turn on the detector at the exact moment when a fluorescence spectral return is expected. The detector can be range-gated to look into the water column to observe fluorescence emitted from a submerged target. The clarity of the water and the emission of the wavelength from the laser determine the depth to which the technique can be used. Overlying water changes the fluorescence signature of the submerged target due to wavelength-dependent absorption. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Activation of respiratory muscles does not occur during cold-submergence in bullfrogs,Lithobates catesbeianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Joseph M; Hartzler, Lynn K

    2017-04-01

    Semiaquatic frogs may not breathe air for several months because they overwinter in ice-covered ponds. In contrast to many vertebrates that experience decreased motor performance after inactivity, bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus , retain functional respiratory motor processes following cold-submergence. Unlike mammalian hibernators with unloaded limb muscles and inactive locomotor systems, respiratory mechanics of frogs counterintuitively allow for ventilatory maneuvers when submerged. Thus, we hypothesized that bullfrogs generate respiratory motor patterns during cold-submergence to avoid disuse and preserve motor performance. Accordingly, we measured activity of respiratory muscles (buccal floor compressor and glottal dilator) via electromyography in freely behaving bullfrogs at 20 and 2°C. Although we confirm that ventilation cycles occur underwater at 20°C, bullfrogs did not activate either respiratory muscle when submerged acutely or chronically at 2°C. We conclude that cold-submerged bullfrogs endure respiratory motor inactivity, implying that other mechanisms, excluding underwater muscle activation, maintain a functional respiratory motor system throughout overwintering. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. [Influence of Submerged Plants on Microbial Community Structure in Sediment of Hongze Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-yu; Zhang, Ting-xi; Dong, Dan-ping; Li, De-fang; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2016-05-15

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) method was applied to analyze the influence of submerged plants on sediment microbial community structure, in order to investigate the changes of sediment microbial community structure for different kinds of the submerged plants in different growth periods. Particularly, Potamogeton crispus L., Potamogeton pectinatus L and the mixed group were chosen as the typical submerged plants in Hongze Lake for investigation in this paper. The results indicated that the change of total PLFAs in different periods was significant, on the contrary, the PLFA change for different groups in the same period was insignificant. The values of G⁺ PLFA/G⁻ PLFA in the submerged plant group were also highly related to the different growth periods, which demonstrated that the root function of the submerged plant had a severe impact on the microbial community in sediment. Furthermore, some environmental factors, such as Temperature, pH, TOC and DO, were correlated to characteristic phospholipid of PLFAs in sediment, which means the environmental factors could also affect the microbial community structure.

  15. Production of pectinesterase and polygalacturonase by Aspergillus niger in submerged and solid state systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M C; Strasser de Saad, A M

    1998-01-01

    Production of pectinesterase and polygalacturonase by Aspergillus niger was studied in submerged and solid-state fermentation systems. With pectin as a sole carbon source, pectinesterase and polygalacturonase production were four and six times higher respectively in a solid state system than in a submerged fermentation system and required a shorter time for enzyme production. The addition of glucose increased pectinesterase and polygalacturonase production in the solid state system but in submerged fermentation the production was markedly inhibited. A comparison of enzyme productivities showed that those determined for pectinesterase and polygalacturonase with pectin as a carbon source were three and five times higher by using the solid state rather than the submerged fermentation system. The productivities of the two enzymes were affected by glucose in both fermentation systems. The membranes of cells from the solid state fermentation showed increased levels of C18:1, C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. Differences in the regulation of enzyme synthesis by Aspergillus niger depended on the fermentation system, favoring the solid state over the submerged fermentation for pectinase production.

  16. The theory of the top

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Felix; Nagem, Raymond J; Sandri, Guido

    The Theory of the Top. Volume IV. Technical Applications of the Theory of the Top is the fourth and final volume in a series of self-contained English translations of the classic and definitive treatment of rigid body motion. Key features: * Complete and unabridged presentation with recent advances and additional notes; * Annotations by the translators provide insights into the nature of science and mathematics in the late 19th century; * Each volume interweaves theory and applications. The Theory of the Top was originally presented by Felix Klein as an 1895 lecture at Göttingen University that was broadened in scope and clarified as a result of collaboration with Arnold Sommerfeld.  Graduate students and researchers interested in theoretical and applied mechanics will find this series of books a thorough and insightful account.  Other volumes in the series include Introduction to the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Top, Development of the Theory in the Case of the Heavy Symmetric Top, and Perturbation...

  17. Characteristics and Limitations of Submerged GPS L1 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ladina; Geiger, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Extensive amount of water stored in snow covers has a high impact on flood development during snow melting periods. Early assessment of these parameters in mountain environments enhance early-warning and thus prevention of major impacts. Sub-snow GNSS techniques are lately suggested to determine liquid water content, snow water equivalent or considered for avalanche rescue. This technique is affordable, flexible, and provides accurate and continuous observations independent on weather conditions. However, the characteristics of GNSS observations for applications within a snow-pack still need to be further investigated. The magnitude of the main interaction processes involved for the GPS wavelength propagating through different layers of snow, ice or water is theoretically examined. Liquid water exerts the largest influence on GPS signal propagation through a snow-pack. Therefore, we focus on determining the characteristics of GNSS observables under water. An experiment was set-up to investigate the characteristics and limitations of submerged GPS observations using a pool, a level control by communicating pipes, a geodetic and a low-cost GPS antenna, and a water level sensor. The GPS antennas were placed into the water. The water level was increased daily by a step of two millimeters up to thirty millimeters above the antenna. Based on this experiment, the signal penetration depth, satellite availability, the attenuation of signal strength and the quality of solutions are analyzed. Our experimental results show an agreement with the theoretically derived attenuation parameter and signal penetration depth. The assumption of water as the limiting parameter for GPS observations within a snow-pack can be confirmed. Higher wetness in a snow-pack leads to less transmission, higher refraction, higher attenuation and thus a decreased penetration depth as well as a reduced quality of the solutions. In consequence, GPS applications within a snow-pack are heavily impacted by

  18. Submerged Pagodas of Mahabalipuram - Study based on underwater investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Rao, K.M.

    given by William Chambers (1 869) after his sec- ond visit to Mahabalipuram in 1776 that "according to the natives of the place, the more aged people among them, remembered to have seen the tops of several pagodas far out in the sea, chinch being... covered witli copper, probably gilt, were particularly visible at sun- rise as their shining surface used to reflect the sun's rays, but that now the effect was no longer produced, as the copper had since become incmsted with mould and Verde grease...

  19. Natural variation of submergence tolerance among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vashisht, D.; Hesselink, A.; Pierik, R.

    2011-01-01

    -six Arabidopsis accessions were screened for natural variation in flooding tolerance. This forms the first step towards the identification and characterization of the role of candidate genes contributing to flooding tolerance. • Arabidopsis accessions at the 10-leaf stage were subjected to complete submergence...... in the dark. Survival curves were plotted to estimate median lethal times as a measure of tolerance. Flooding-associated survival parameters, such as root and shoot oxygen content, initial carbohydrate content and petiole elongation under water, were also measured. • There was a significant variation...... in submergence tolerance among Arabidopsis accessions. However, the order of tolerance did not correlate with root and shoot oxygen content or initial amounts of shoot starch and total soluble sugars. A negative correlation was observed between submergence tolerance and underwater petiole elongation...

  20. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  1. Nitrogen loading affects microbes, nitrifiers and denitrifiers attached to submerged macrophyte in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liying; Zhang, Songhe; Lin, Da; Guo, Chuan; Yan, Lingling; Wang, Supeng; He, Zhenli

    2018-05-01

    Submerged macrophytes and biofilms are important components of wetlands. However, little is known about the changes of microbes in biofilms attached to submerged macrophytes upon nitrogen loading. This study investigated the changes of microbes, algae, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in biofilms attached to the leaves of artificial plants (AP), Potamogeton malaianus (PM), Vallisneria natans (VN) and Hydrilla verticillata (HV) under varied initial concentrations of total nitrogen (TN). Nitrogen addition increased biofilm biomass and changed dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH values in overlaying water. Epiphytic algal densities showed the same trend at the same N level:AP>PM>VN>HV. As revealed by cluster analysis at phylum level, algae compositions in biofilm from four plants showed some host-specific at 2 and 12mgL -1 TN, but was clustered in the same group at 22mgL -1 TN regardless of plant species. Submerged macrophytes had better performance in total N removal than AP. In general, N application significantly increased the abundance of amoA, nirK, nirS, napA and cnorB in biofilm. The abundance of the denitrification genes (nirK, nirS, napA, narG and cnorB) was positively correlated with nitrogen application, while amoA was correlated with concentration of dissolved oxygen. These results indicate that N loadings stimulated the growth of biofilms attached to submerged macrophyte and the removal of total N can be partially ascribed to the synergistic interactions of submerged macrophyte and biofilms in wetlands. These results highlight the ecological role of submerged macrophyte-biofilm system in nitrogen removal in wetlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevation dynamics in a restored versus a submerging salt marsh in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Hill, Troy D.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) poses the threat of salt marsh submergence, especially in marshes that are relatively low-lying. At the same time, restoration efforts are producing new low-lying marshes, many of which are thriving and avoiding submergence. To understand the causes of these different fates, we studied two Long Island Sound marshes: one that is experiencing submergence and mudflat expansion, and one that is undergoing successful restoration. We examined sedimentation using a variety of methods, each of which captures different time periods and different aspects of marsh elevation change: surface-elevation tables, marker horizons, sediment cores, and sediment traps. We also studied marsh hydrology, productivity, respiration, nutrient content, and suspended sediment. We found that, despite the expansion of mudflat in the submerging marsh, the areas that remain vegetated have been gaining elevation at roughly the rate of SLR over the last 10 years. However, this elevation gain was only possible thanks to an increase in belowground volume, which may be a temporary response to waterlogging. In addition, accretion rates in the first half of the twentieth century were much lower than current rates, so century-scale accretion in the submerging marsh was lower than SLR. In contrast, at the restored marsh, accretion rates are now averaging about 10 mm yr−1 (several times the rate of SLR), much higher than before restoration. The main cause of the different trajectories at the two marshes appeared to be the availability of suspended sediment, which was much higher in the restored marsh. We considered and rejected alternative hypotheses, including differences in tidal flooding, plant productivity, and nutrient loading. In the submerging marsh, suspended and deposited sediment had relatively high organic content, which may be a useful indicator of sediment starvation.

  3. Molecular characterization of the submergence response of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S.C.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidaharan, R.

    2011-01-01

    darkness, and O2-deprivation were evaluated by fuzzy k-means clustering. This identified genes co-regulated at the conditional, developmental or organ-specific level. Mutants for 10 differentially expressed HYPOXIA-RESPONSIVE UNKNOWN PROTEIN (HUP) genes were screened for altered submergence tolerance...... partial pressure of the petiole and root had stabilized at c. 6 and 0.1 kPa, respectively. As controls, plants were untreated or exposed to darkness. Following quantitative profiling of cellular mRNAs with the Affymetrix ATH1 platform, changes in the transcriptome in response to submergence, early...

  4. Tolerance of combined submergence and salinity in the halophytic stem-succulent Tecticornia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, T D; Vos, H; Pedersen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Cl, but it was reduced by 30 % at 800 mM. Dark respiration, underwater, increased in succulent stems at 200-800 mM NaCl, as compared with those at 10 mM NaCl. On an ethanol-insoluble dry mass basis, K(+) concentration in succulent stems of submerged plants was equal to that in drained controls, across all Na...... in waters of high salinity. A 'quiescence response', i.e. no shoot growth, would conserve carbohydrates, but tissue sugars still declined with time. A low K(+) : Na(+) ratio, typical for tissues of succulent halophytes, was tolerated even during prolonged submergence, as evidenced by maintenance...

  5. Oxygen dynamics during submergence in the halophytic stem succulent Halosarcia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Vos, Harrie; Colmer, Timothy David

    2006-01-01

    of the succulent stems resulted in relatively high radial resistance to gas diffusion. At ambient CO2, quasi-steady state rates of PN by excised succulent stems were estimated to be close to zero; nevertheless, in intact plants, underwater photosynthesis provided O2 to tissues and led to radial O2 loss (ROL) from...... the roots, at least during the first several hours (the time period measured) after submergence or when light periods followed darkness. The influence of light on tissue O2 dynamics was confirmed in an experiment on a submerged plant in a salt lake in south-western Australia. In the late afternoon, partial...

  6. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    reef system, now submerged. It is inferred that the reefs began forming and continued advancing shoreward as a result of a rise in sea level. The occurrence of reefs below the clay leads to the proposition that sudden climatic changes increased... in August, 1988. The purpose of this paper is to establish the presence of a series of submerged reefs (depth range 60-110 m) parallel to the shore on the western continental shelf of India. A brief account of the geomorphology of the area has been...

  7. Top quark mass and kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberis, Emanuela; /Northeastern U.

    2006-05-01

    A summary of the results on the measurement of the Top Quark mass and the study of the kinematics of the t{bar t} system at the Tevatron collider is presented here. Results from both the CDF and D0 collaborations are reported.

  8. TEMAC, Top Event Sensitivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Shortencarier, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: TEMAC is designed to permit the user to easily estimate risk and to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analyses with a Boolean expression such as produced by the SETS computer program. SETS produces a mathematical representation of a fault tree used to model system unavailability. In the terminology of the TEMAC program, such a mathematical representation is referred to as a top event. The analysis of risk involves the estimation of the magnitude of risk, the sensitivity of risk estimates to base event probabilities and initiating event frequencies, and the quantification of the uncertainty in the risk estimates. 2 - Method of solution: Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses associated with top events involve mathematical operations on the corresponding Boolean expression for the top event, as well as repeated evaluations of the top event in a Monte Carlo fashion. TEMAC employs a general matrix approach which provides a convenient general form for Boolean expressions, is computationally efficient, and allows large problems to be analyzed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 4000 cut sets, 500 events, 500 values in a Monte Carlo sample, 16 characters in an event name. These restrictions are implemented through the FORTRAN 77 PARAMATER statement

  9. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  10. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  11. Observation of the Top Quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  12. Scalar top study: Detector optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    November 2007 physics pp. 921–926. Scalar top study: Detector optimization. C MILSTÉNE1 and A SOPCZAK2,∗. 1Fermi National Laboratory, Batavia, Il-60510, USA ... A vertex detector concept of the linear collider flavour identification (LCFI) collaboration .... A minimal transverse momentum cut, pt > 5 GeV, is applied.

  13. Biological control of phytoplankton by the subtropical submerged macrophytes Egeria densa and Potamogeton illinoensis: a mesocosm study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstukken, M.; Mazzeo, N.; Colen, W.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Muylaert, K.

    2011-01-01

    1. In temperate regions, submerged macrophytes can hamper phytoplankton blooms. Such an effect could arise directly, for instance via allelopathy, or indirectly, via competition for nutrients or the positive interaction between submerged macrophytes and zooplankton grazing. However, there is some

  14. Top quarks in searches for supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Top quarks enjoy special relationship with supersymmetry, as their scalar partners influence the mass of the Higgs boson and could be next-to-lightest supersymmetric particles. Top quarks appear thus naturally in SUSY events. Standard Model top production emerges as important background. Latest results of ATLAS and CMS experiments on supersymmetric searches involving top quarks are discussed.

  15. A nonlinear dynamic corotational finite element model for submerged pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, F. H.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.; Huisman, A.

    2017-12-01

    A three dimensional finite element model is built to compute the motions of a pipe that is being laid on the seabed. This process is geometrically nonlinear, therefore co-rotational beam elements are used. The pipe is subject to static and dynamic forces. Static forces are due to gravity, current and buoyancy. The dynamic forces exerted by the water are incorporated using Morison’s equation. The dynamic motions are computed using implicit time integration. For this the Hilber-Hughes-Taylor method is selected. The Newton-Raphson iteration scheme is used to solve the equations in every time step. During laying, the pipe is connected to the pipe laying vessel, which is subject to wave motion. Response amplitude operators are used to determine the motions of the ship and thus the motions of the top end of the pipe.

  16. Toiduainetööstuse TOP 95 aastal 2003

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Toiduainetööstuse TOP 95; Kasumi TOP 40; Käibe TOP 40; Kasumi kasvu TOP 30; Rentaabluse TOP 30; Alkoholitootjate TOP; Pagarite TOP; Käibe kasvu TOP 30; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 30; Toiduainetööstuste üld- ja finantsandmed

  17. Properties of the Top Quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  18. Diminishing peat oxidation of agricultural peat soils by infiltration via submerged drains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.; Hendriks, R.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of peat soils used in dairy farming in the western peat area of The Netherlands causes subsidence rates up to 13 mm.y and emissions of CO2 to about 27 t.ha.y. In 2003 experiments started with subsurface irrigation by submerged drains to raise groundwater levels to reduce oxidation and so

  19. Photosynthetic consequences of phenotypic plasticity in response to submergence: Rumex palustris as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Pons, T.L.; Visser, E.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Survival and growth of terrestrial plants is negatively affected by complete submergence. This is mainly the result of hampered gas exchange between plants and their environment, since gas diffusion is severely reduced in water compared with air, resulting in O2 deficits which limit aerobic

  20. Cobalt Distribution and Speciation: Effect of Aging, Intermittent Submergence, In situ Rice Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The speciation and distribution of cobalt (Co) in soils is poorly understood. This study was conducted using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques to examine the influence of soluble Co(II) aging, submergence-dried cycling, and the presence of in vivo rice roots on the...

  1. Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion joining process, known for its high deposition capabilities. This process is useful in joining thick section components used in various industries. Besides joining, SAW can also be used for surfacing applications. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) produced within the base metal as a result of ...

  2. EAARL-B coastal topography: Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, 2012: seamless (bare earth and submerged)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Klipp, Emily S.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Masessa, Melanie L.; Nagle, David B.

    2015-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  3. Identification of the submergence tolerance QTL Come Quick Drowning1 (CGD1) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, Melis; Kleine, Rogier; Tienderen, van Peter H.; Schranz, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase water precipitation fluctuations and lead to localized prolonged floods in agricultural fields and natural plant communities. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of submergence tolerance is crucial in order to improve plant survival under these

  4. PERFORMANCE OF NEWLY CONFIGURED SUBMERGED MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR AEROBIC INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Wenten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of membrane to replace secondary clarifier of conventional activated sludge, known as membrane bioreactor, has led to a small footprint size of treatment with excellent effluent quality. The use of MBR eliminates almost all disadvantages encountered in conventional wastewater treatment plant such as low biomass concentration and washout of fine suspended solids. However, fouling remains as a main drawback. To minimize membrane fouling, a new configuration of submerged membrane bioreactor for aerobic industrial wastewater treatment has been developed. For the new configuration, a bed of porous particle is applied to cover the submerged ends-free mounted ultrafiltration membrane. Membrane performance was assessed based on flux productivity and selectivity. By using tapioca wastewater containing high organic matter as feed solution, reasonably high and stable fluxes around 11 l/m2.h were achieved with COD removal efficiency of more than 99%. The fouling analysis also shows that the newly configured ends-free membrane bioreactor exhibits lower irreversible resistance compared with the submerged one. In addition, the performance of pilot scale system, using a membrane module  with 10 m2 effective area and reactor tank with 120 L volume, was also assessed. The flux achieved from the pilot scale system around 8 l/m2.h with COD removal of more than 99%. Hence, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of the newly configured submerged ends-free MBR at larger scale.

  5. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants

  6. The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in a large subtropical shallow lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkler Ferreira, Tiago; Crossetti, Luciane O.; Motta Marques, David M.L.; Cardoso, Luciana; Fragoso, Carlos Ruberto; Nes, van Egbert H.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that submerged macrophytes exert positive feedback effects that enhance the water transparency, stabilizing the clear-water state in shallow temperate lakes. However, the structuring effect of macrophytes on the food web of subtropical and tropical ecosystems is still poorly

  7. A survey of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation in the northern Gulf coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The status of submerged aquatic vegetation along the northern Gulf of Mexico is of concern because of its role in the ecology and economy of the coast. Recent studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists help assess the factors that contribute to SAV distribution and health.

  8. Corrosion monitoring for underground and submerged concrete structures - examples and interpretation issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Leegwater, G.

    2008-01-01

    Since about 1980 Corrosion Monitoring Systems have been used in many concrete structures in aggressive environmentworldwide. While these systemswork properly in aboveground environment, some questions have arisen for submerged conditions, e.g. the outer sides of tunnels, piers in seawater or

  9. Oxygen dynamics in submerged rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Pedersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    from roots showed an initial peak following shoot illumination.  O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged rice were monitored during light and dark periods, using O2 microelectrodes. Tissue sugar concentrations were also measured.  On illumination of shoots of submerged rice, pO2 increased rapidly...... and then declined slightly to a new quasi-steady state. An initial peak was evident first in the shoots and then in the roots, and was still observed when 20 mol m-3 glucose was added to the medium to ensure substrate supply in roots. At the new quasi-steady state following illumination, sheath pO2 was one order...... of magnitude higher than in darkness, enhancing also pO2 in roots.The initial peak in pO2 following illumination of submerged rice was likely to result from high initial rates of net photosynthesis, fuelled by CO2 accumulated during the dark period. Nevertheless, since sugars decline with time in submerged...

  10. Impact of submerged macrophytes including charophytes on phyto- and zooplankton communities: allelopathy versus other mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, E.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are crucial for the stabilization of the clear water state in shallow, mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes. Especially, charophytes often play an important role because they are typically rapid colonizers and because charophyte meadows are believed to have a particularly strong

  11. Over-expression of Sub1 A, a submergence tolerance gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub1A, an ethylene-response-factor-like (ERE-like) gene, mediates the extinguished submergence tolerance of rice. To gain further insight into the function of Sub1A in other species, we transformed tobacco plants with the gene under the control of the ubiquitin promoter. Compared to the wild-type plants, transgenic plants ...

  12. Continental shelf drowned landscapes: Submerged geomorphological and sedimentary record of the youngest cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Lobo, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Continental shelves today find themselves largely submerged as a consequence of the sea-level rise in the last 20,000 years, the time since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period of maximum ice mass and minimum ocean volume within the Last Glacial Cycle. Their geomorphology, however, is far from

  13. Finite element modelling of electric currents in AC submerged arc furnaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc Dougall, I

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element models were generated of two submerged arc furnaces of different geometries. A 48MW circular furnace and a 68MW 6-in-line rectangular furnace were studied. The electrodes, raw material, slag and molten metal were included in the model...

  14. Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion joining process, known for its high deposition capabilities. This process is useful in joining thick section com- ponents used in various industries. Besides joining, SAW can also be used for surfacing applications. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) produced within the base metal.

  15. What lies beneath... : Late Glacial human occupation of the submerged North Sea landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amkreutz, Luc; A., Verpoorte; Waters-Rist, A.; Niekus, Marcel; van Heekeren, Vivian; van der Merwe, Alie; van der Plicht, Johannes; Glimmerveen, Jan; Stapert, Dick; Johansen, Lykke

    2018-01-01

    Archaeological evidence from the submerged North Sea landscape has established the rich diversity of Pleistocene and Early Holocene ecosystems and their importance to hunter- gatherer subsistence strategies. Comparatively little of this evidence, however, dates to the Late Glacial, the period when

  16. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...

  17. Production and partial characterization of alkaline feruloyl esterases by Fusarium oxysporum during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topakas, E.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Production of feruloyl esterases (FAEs) by Fusarium oxysporum was enhanced by optimization of initial pH of the culture medium, the type and concentration of nitrogen and carbon source. Submerged batch cultivation in a laboratory bioreactor (17 1) produced activity at 82 nkat g(-1) dry substrate...

  18. Deep water marine algal flora of the submerged banks off west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambiye, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    A survey of submerged banks off India viz Cora Divh, Sessostris and Bassas de-Pedro resulted in obtaining information on the rich and diverse marine algal flora from various depths ranging from 18-70 m. A programme of onboard dredging was undertaken...

  19. A comparative study of the lipase yield by solid state and submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of lipase enzyme yields by solid state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) was performed here. Three fungal colonies were isolated from biopharmaceutical oil waste collected from “Oushadhi” (The Pharmaceutical Corporation (IM) Kerala Ltd). The pure colonies were then used as ...

  20. Top decays in extended models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2009-01-01

    Top quark decays are interesting as a mean to test the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-suppressed process t→cWW, and the rare decays t→cZ, t→H 0 +c, and t→cγ an excellent window to probe the predictions of theories beyond the SM. We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t→H 0 +c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t→c+γ, which involves radiative corrections.

  1. Top production at hadron colliders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    collisions at. √ s = 1.96 TeV and proton–proton collisions at. √ s = 7 TeV. The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle with a mass of about 173 GeV and a short ... 2010 the LHC started its operation, producing pp collisions at 7 TeV CM system energy, ... essentially all physics objects at a collider experiment.

  2. Sediment nitrogen cycling rates and microbial abundance along a submerged vegetation gradient in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Chen, Chengrong; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2018-03-01

    Decline of submerged vegetation is one of the most serious ecological problems in eutrophic lakes worldwide. Although restoration of submerged vegetation is widely assumed to enhance ecological functions (e.g., nitrogen removal) and aquatic biodiversity, the evidence for this assumption is very limited. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of sediment potential nitrification, unamended denitrification and N 2 O production rates along a vegetation gradient in the Lake Honghu, where submerged vegetation was largely restored by prohibiting net-pen aquaculture. We also used five functional genes as markers to quantify the abundance of sediment nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms. Results showed that unvegetated sediments supported greater nitrification rates than rhizosphere sediments of perennial or seasonal vegetation. However, the absence of submerged vegetation had no significant effect on denitrification and N 2 O production rates. Additionally, the abundance of functional microorganisms in sediments was not significantly different among vegetation types. Season had a strong effect on both nitrogen cycling processes and microbial abundances. The highest nitrification rates were observed in September, while the highest denitrification rates occurred in December. The temporal variation of sediment nitrification, denitrification and N 2 O production rates could be due to changes in water quality and sediment properties rather than submerged vegetation and microbial abundances. Our findings highlight that vegetation restoration in eutrophic lakes improves water quality but does not enhance sediment nitrogen removal rates and microbial abundances. Therefore, for reducing the N level in eutrophic lakes, major efforts should be made to control nutrients export from terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Crestal bone loss around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amri, Mohammad D

    2016-05-01

    To my knowledge, there is no systematic review of crestal bone loss (CBL) around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess CBL around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. The addressed focused question was, "Does crestal and subcrestal placement of dental implants influence crestal bone levels?" Databases were searched from 1986 through October 2015 using different combinations of the following keywords: crestal, sub-crestal, bone loss, dental implant, submerged, and nonsubmerged. Reference lists of potentially relevant original and review articles were hand-searched to identify any further studies. Letters to the editor, case reports, commentaries, studies on platform-switched implants, and studies published in languages other than English were excluded. In total, 13 studies (6 human and 7 animal), which were performed at universities, were included. In the human studies, the number of participants ranged from 8 to 84 individuals. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 5 years. CBL at the test sites ranged from 0.17 mm to 0.9 mm and at control sites from 0.02 mm to 1.4 mm. Five human studies reported no significant difference in CBL around implants placed at the test and control sites. All animal studies were performed in dogs with a mean age ranging from 1 to approximately 2 years. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 6 months. Four animal studies reported no significant difference in CBL around submerged and nonsubmerged implants. No significant difference in CBL was found around submerged and nonsubmerged dental implants. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Free convection in a partially submerged fluid loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, T.E.; Wood, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Several natural convection loop systems are studied in order to determine the operational characteristics for a multiple loop container which is used to cool failed nuclear reactor assemblies. Both analytical and experimental studies were undertaken to examine flow in both circular and rectangular flow loops. It was found that when a circular loop is heated at the bottom and cooled at the top, recirculation cells form at all input power fluxes. At fluxes between 0.1 W/cm 2 and 0.7 W/cm 2 the cells caused flow oscillations and reversals. With the circular loop heated from the side, no recirculation cells were observed at the power fluxes up to 1.5 W/cm. Boiling did not occur in the circular loop. For a rectangular loop heated and cooled on its vertical sides, no recirculation cells or flow reversals were seen. At input power fluxes above 1.2 W/cm 2 , periodic boiling in the heated side caused flow oscillations

  5. Recent top quark results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mcgoldrick, Garrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk will focus on a few recent precision top quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: fiducial top pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside selected measurements of top quark properties. The results include the first top quark measurements at 13 TeV using data from the 2015 LHC run.

  6. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, P.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  7. Recent Top Properties Measurements at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarelli, Giorgio [INFN, Pisa

    2014-11-26

    We present the most recent CDF results on the measurements of the decay and production vertex of the top-quark. New results on forward-backward asymmetry in top-antitop events are presented. Also, recent measurements of the branching fractions of top-quark are discussed. Finally, measurements in single top events, where top-quark is produced through electroweak processes, are presented. Despite the much larger number of top events collected at the LHC, due to the symmetric initial state and the better signal-to-background ratio in specific channels, some results will be lasting heritage of the Tevatron.

  8. Submergence-induced morphological, anatomical, and biochemical responses in a terrestrial species affect gas diffusion resistance and photosynthetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommer, Liesje; Pons, Thijs L; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Venema, Jan Henk; Visser, Eric J W

    2005-09-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be continued photosynthesis under water, but this possibility has received only little attention. Here, we combine several techniques to investigate the consequences of anatomical and biochemical responses of the terrestrial species Rumex palustris to submergence for different aspects of photosynthesis under water. The orientation of the chloroplasts in submergence-acclimated leaves was toward the epidermis instead of the intercellular spaces, indicating that underwater CO(2) diffuses through the cuticle and epidermis. Interestingly, both the cuticle thickness and the epidermal cell wall thickness were significantly reduced upon submergence, suggesting a considerable decrease in diffusion resistance. This decrease in diffusion resistance greatly facilitated underwater photosynthesis, as indicated by higher underwater photosynthesis rates in submergence-acclimated leaves at all CO(2) concentrations investigated. The increased availability of internal CO(2) in these "aquatic" leaves reduced photorespiration, and furthermore reduced excitation pressure of the electron transport system and, thus, the risk of photodamage. Acclimation to submergence also altered photosynthesis biochemistry as reduced Rubisco contents were observed in aquatic leaves, indicating a lower carboxylation capacity. Electron transport capacity was also reduced in these leaves but not as strongly as the reduction in Rubisco, indicating a substantial increase of the ratio between electron transport and carboxylation capacity upon submergence. This novel finding suggests that this ratio may be less conservative than previously thought.

  9. Improvement of Photosynthesis by Sub1 QTL in Rice Under Submergence: Probed by Chlorophyll Fluorescence OJIP Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Debabrata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of submergence on the photosynthetic activity in rice plants either possessing or not possessing Sub1 QTL i.e. Swarna and Swarna Sub1 cultivars (cv. were evaluated under simulated complete submergence. The leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased in both the cv. during the progression of submergence as compared to control plant but significant varietal differences was observed after 1 day (d of submergence. Submergence also alters the photo-system (PS II activity, as reflected in a decrease in the values of Fo, Fm and the Fv/Fm ratio and degradation of chlorophyll, more in Swarna than that of Swarna Sub1. Under complete submergence the shape of the OJIP transient also changed in rice leaves with decrease in maximal fluorescence (P=Fm intensity, resulted lowering of variable fluorescence levels. The decrease was more pronounced in Swarna compared to the Swarna Sub1 cv. Thus, Swarna Sub1 improves photosynthetic activity showing more photosynthetic rate compared to Swarna under submergence because, of less degradation of chlorophyll, higher stomatal conductance, and efficient PS II activity.

  10. Ida-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP aastal 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ettevõtete TOP 55. TOP-i esikümme. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Ida-Virumaa firmade üldandmed. Ida-Virumaa firmade finantsandmed

  11. Toiduainetööstuse TOP 95 aastal 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Toiduainetööstuse TOP 95. Käibe TOP 50. Kasumi TOP 50. Rentaabluse TOP 25. Kasumi kasvu TOP 25. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 25. Käibe kasvu TOP 25. Toiduainetööstuse TOP 95 ettevõtted 2002: üldandmed ja finantsandmed

  12. A Study on the Nonmetallic Inclusion Motions in a Swirling Flow Submerged Entry Nozzle in a New Cylindrical Tundish Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peiyuan; Ersson, Mikael; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2018-04-01

    Different sizes and shapes of nonmetallic inclusions in a swirling flow submerged entry nozzle (SEN) placed in a new tundish design were investigated by using a Lagrangian particle tracking scheme. The results show that inclusions in the current cylindrical tundish have difficulties remaining in the top tundish region, since a strong rotational steel flow exists in this region. This high rotational flow of 0.7 m/s provides the required momentum for the formation of a strong swirling flow inside the SEN. The results show that inclusions larger than 40 µm were found to deposit to a smaller extent on the SEN wall compared to smaller inclusions. The reason is that these large inclusions have Separation number values larger than 1. Thus, the swirling flow causes these large size inclusions to move toward the SEN center. For the nonspherical inclusions, large size inclusions were found to be deposited on the SEN wall to a larger extent, compared to spherical inclusions. More specifically, the difference of the deposited inclusion number is around 27 pct. Overall, it was found that the swirling flow contains three regions, namely, the isotropic core region, the anisotropic turbulence region and the near-wall region. Therefore, anisotropic turbulent fluctuations should be taken into account when the inclusion motion was tracked in this complex flow. In addition, many inclusions were found to deposit at the SEN inlet region. The plotted velocity distribution shows that the inlet flow is very chaotic. A high turbulent kinetic energy value of around 0.08 m2/s2 exists in this region, and a recirculating flow was also found here. These flow characteristics are harmful since they increase the inclusion transport toward the wall. Therefore, a new design of the SEN inlet should be developed in the future, with the aim to modify the inlet flow so that the inclusion deposition is reduced.

  13. Larvae of Lutrochus germari (Lutrochidae: Coleoptera and Stegoelmis sp. (Elmidae: Coleoptera: bore submerged woody debris in Neotropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Valente-Neto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report boring activity of larval Lutrochus germari Grouvelle, 1889 and Stegoelmis sp. in submerged woody debris and describe the resulting grooves and faecal pellet production. This ability of the larvae was shown by three types of evidence: 1 examination of collected woody debris, 2 rearing of larvae and 3 gut content analysis. The larvae excavated galleries deep into the submerged woody debris. This is the first record of gallery-forming behaviour in submerged woody debris by aquatic beetles, adding larval Lutrochus germari and Stegoelmis sp. to the list of borers in Neotropical aquatic systems.

  14. Table-top job analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.

  15. Measurement of top quark properties at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Piedra Gomez, Jonatan

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of top quark properties in top quark decays are presented, using data collected by the CMS experiment during the years 2011 and 2012. The polarization of W bosons in top quark decays is measured. The W boson helicity fractions and angular asymmetries are extracted, and limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex are determined. Furthermore, searches for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays are presented. The flavor contents in top quark pair events are measured using the fraction of top quarks decaying into a W boson and a b quark relative to all top quark decays, $R=BR({\\rm t} \\to {\\rm Wb})/BR({\\rm t} \\to {\\rm Wq})$, and the result is used to determine the CKM matrix element $V_{\\rm tb}$ as well as the width of the top quark resonance.

  16. Physics objects for top physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00148070; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This talk reviews the reconstruction and calibration of physics objects in ATLAS as they are applied to top quark physics. Examples of the precision attainable and the resulting uncertainties on key top physics measurements are also given.

  17. Top quark production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, it gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections, including differential distributions and production in association with bosons, will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass are also presented.

  18. Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women The human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, ... entry of HIV. This is Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women 2 especially true for girls and ...

  19. A Field Study of Low-Top vs. Mid-Top vs. High-Top American Football Cleats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin W. Daack

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the role of shoe height in the context of American football cleats. Eighteen adult males (28.4 ± 1.9 years, 182.3 ± 0.6 cm, 75.7 ± 1.6 kg performed four football drills (60-yd dash, 54-yd cutting drill, 5-10-5 drill [pro agility drill], and ladder jumping drill in low-top, mid-top, and high-top American football cleats. Drill-specific performance outcomes were measured after each drill, and the subjects’ ankle range-of-motion (dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, eversion, inversion and perception of the footwear (comfort, heaviness, stability were assessed before and after each drill sequence. Performance outcomes were not influenced by shoe height. The high-top cleat limited dorsiflexion and inversion, but not plantarflexion or eversion, compared to low-top and mid-top cleats. Athletes rated the high-top cleats as less comfortable and heavier than either the low-top or mid-top cleats, but perceived the mid-top and high-top cleats to be equally stable to each other, and both more stable than the low-top cleats. Range-of-motion and performance scores did not change as a result of acute exercise. These findings suggest that high-top cleats may limit ankle motions associated with injury without deleteriously influencing performance, though athletes may not perceive the high-top cleats as favorably as low- or mid-top cleats.

  20. Top mass in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, A.

    2017-01-01

    Top quarks are produced copiously at the LHC, and a variety of related measurements has been made in the recent years by the two collaborations ATLAS and CMS. The most recent measurements of the top quark mass by the two collaborations are reported here. The top quark mass has been measured with a relative uncertainty smaller than 0.3pct, making the top quark the most accurately measured quark.

  1. New Physics in Single-Top Production

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, OM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation for TOP 2013 the latest results on searches of physics beyond the Standard Model using single-top signatures from CDF, CMS, D0 and ATLAS are collected. This includes searches for unknown resonances like W' or b*, measurements of the W helicity fractions and top polarisation in single-top events, as well as tests for CP violation, FCNC or anomalous weak couplings.

  2. 'Top of the basilar' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaharu; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Nakatani, Jiro; Watanabe, Masaru; Akai, Fumiharu; Ioku, Masahiko

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen patients (age 23 - 81) having the ''top of the basilar'' syndrome were the subjects of this study. They were evaluated clinico-radiologically. The diagnosis of this syndrome was made by computerized tomography. The infarcted lesions of each patient were widely distributed in many areas among the thalamus, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and occipital lobe. Both the thalami were involved in 8 patients. When the thalamus was involved bilaterally, the low density areas of both the thalami were demonstrated to be almost the same in size and symmetric in localization by computerized tomography, showing a characteristic pattern. Further, magnetic resonance imaging could reveal small lesions in the brain stem minutely. Angiography revealed that stenosis or occlusion was within the circle of 2 cm in diameter surrounding the five-forked road of the top of the basilar artery in 84.6 %. Recanalization of the occluded artery occurred in 61.5 %, which suggests that the embolism plays an important role in appearance of this syndrome. In spite of frequent recanalization hemorrhagic infarction never occurred. The prognosis was very poor. (author)

  3. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  4. Top Properties in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Alexandra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle. It decays almost exclusively into a W boson and a bottom quark. The latest results on the Wtb vertex together with the top spin and polarisation in ATLAS and CMS are presented in this overview. Furthermore, the cross-section measurement of a top quark pair produced in association with a photon is shown.

  5. Top quark physics expectations at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    The top quark will be produced copiously at the LHC. This will make possible detailed physics studies, and also the use of top quark decays for detector calibration. This talk reviews plans and prospects for top physics activities in ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  6. Top quark physics expectations at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    The top quark will be produced copiously at the LHC. This will make both detailed physics studies and the use of top quark decays for detector calibration possible. This talk reviews plans and prospects for top physics activities in the ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  7. Medium selection for exopolysaccharide and biomass production in submerged cultures of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kizilcik, M.; Yamaç, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the exopolysaccharide (EPS) and biomass production of 18 strains of 15 species of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes in submerged culture under four different media. Gloeophyllum abietinum and Schizophyllum commune produced the highest EPS and biomass

  8. EAARL-B coastal topography: Fire Island, New York, pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: seamless (bare earth and submerged)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Masessa, Melanie L.; Nagle, David B.

    2014-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  9. Submerged Conidiation and Product Formation by Aspergillus niger at Low Specific Growth Rates Are Affected in Aerial Developmental Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Arentshorst, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have...

  10. Experimental analysis of the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk submerged in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presas, A; Valentín, D; Egusquiza, E; Valero, C; Seidel, U

    2014-01-01

    To study the dynamic behavior of turbine runners (natural frequencies and mode shapes) not only the added mass effect of still water has to be considered. Also the effect of rotation may not be neglected in the dynamic response. In the present study, the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk submerged in water is studied. For this purpose an experimental test rig has been developed. It consists of a rotating disk submerged in water that can be excited and its response can be measured from the rotating system by a slip ring system. For the excitation an impact device installed on the casing has been used. The response is measured with miniature accelerometers screwed on the disk. The influence of rotation on the dynamic response has been determined experimentally

  11. Elemental chemical analysis of submerged targets by double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, A; Dell'Aglio, M; Casavola, A; Colonna, G; De Pascale, O; Capitelli, M

    2006-05-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (DP-LIPS) is applied to submerged targets to investigate its feasibility for elemental analysis. The role of experimental parameters, such as inter-pulse delay and detection time, has been discussed in terms of the dynamics of the laser-induced bubble produced by the first pulse and its confinement effect on the plasma produced by the second laser pulse. The analytical performance of this technique applied to targets in a water environment are discussed. The elemental analysis of submerged copper alloys by DP-LIPS has been compared with conventional (single-pulse) LIBS in air. Theoretical investigation of the plasma dynamics in water bubbles and open air has been performed.

  12. ASPECTS OF BIODETERIORATION OF LAPIDEOUS SUBMERGED ARTEFACTS: 3D METHODOLOGIES APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ricci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Submerged stone archaeological artefacts are bioeroded by endolithic microbiota (cyanobacteria, algae and fungi and macroborers (Porifera, Bivalvia and Sipuncula. Optical microscope and SEM observations permit to analyse the bioerosion traces and to identify bioeroders. Data obtained with these techniques cannot be used to estimate volumes of material bioeroded. This aspect require the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from artefact. In this work we illustrate two 3D imaging techniques used to study bioerosion phenomena of underwater Cultural Heritage. In particular Digital Video Microscope permit the elaboration of 3D images, which are widely employed for close-range acquisitions. Underwater Laser Scanner documents the in situ degradation of submerged artefacts. This research aims to sensitize specialist figures in the study 3D offering a starting point for future collaborations that could lead to interesting results.

  13. Ultrasound imaging measurement of submerged topography in the muddy water physical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Xiongwu; Guo, Bingxuan; Li, Deren; Zhang, Peng; Zang, Yu-fu; Zou, Xianjian; Liu, Jian-chen

    2015-01-01

    The real-time, accurate measurement of submerged topography is vital for the analysis of riverbed erosion and deposition. This paper describes a novel method of measuring submerged topography in the B-scan image obtained using an ultrasound imaging device. Results show the distribution of gray values in the image has a process of mutation. This mutation process can be used to adaptively track the topographic lines between riverbed and water, based on the continuity of topography in the horizontal direction. The extracted topographic lines, of one pixel width, are processed by a wavelet filtering method. Compared with the actual topography, the measurement accuracy is within 1 mm. It is suitable for the real-time measurement and analysis of all current model topographies with the advantage of good self-adaptation. In particular, it is visible and intuitive for muddy water in the movable-bed model experiment. (paper)

  14. Microdistribution of 241Am in structures of submerged macrophyte Elodea canadensis growing in the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondareva, L; Vlasova, I; Mogilnaya, O; Bolsunovsky, A; Kalmykov, S

    2010-01-01

    A submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River, Elodea canadensis, was used to study the microdistribution of the artificial radionuclide (241)Am among different components of the plant. The total amount of (241)Am added to the experimental system was 1850+/-31 Bq/L. The total amount of (241)Am accumulated by the plants was 182 Bq per sample, or 758,333+/-385 Bq/kg dry mass. It has been found that the major portion of (241)Am accumulated by E. canadensis, up to 85%, was bound to solid components of the cells. It is observed that the microdistribution of (241)Am within different components of the submerged plant E. canadensis was not uniform. (241)Am distribution vary depending on the age of the leaf blades, the state of the cells and morphological features of the plant stem.

  15. Microdistribution of 241Am in structures of submerged macrophyte Elodea canadensis growing in the Yenisei River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondareva, L.; Vlasova, I.; Mogilnaya, O.; Bolsunovsky, A.; Kalmykov, S.

    2010-01-01

    A submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River, Elodea canadensis, was used to study the microdistribution of the artificial radionuclide 241 Am among different components of the plant. The total amount of 241 Am added to the experimental system was 1850 ± 31 Bq/L. The total amount of 241 Am accumulated by the plants was 182 Bq per sample, or 758,333 ± 385 Bq/kg dry mass. It has been found that the major portion of 241 Am accumulated by E. canadensis, up to 85%, was bound to solid components of the cells. It is observed that the microdistribution of 241 Am within different components of the submerged plant E. canadensis was not uniform. 241 Am distribution vary depending on the age of the leaf blades, the state of the cells and morphological features of the plant stem.

  16. Effects of water flow on submerged macrophyte-biofilm systems in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Zhang, Songhe; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao

    2018-02-08

    The effects of water flow on the leaf-biofilm interface of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata were investigated using artificial plants as the control. Water flow inhibited the growth of two species of submerged macrophytes, reduced oxygen concentrations in plant leaves and changed oxygen profiles at the leaf-biofilm interface. The results from confocal laser scanning microscopy and multifractal analysis showed that water flow reduced biofilm thickness, changed biofilm topographic characterization and increased the percentages of single colony-like biofilm patches. A cluster analysis revealed that the bacterial compositions in biofilms were determined mainly by substrate types and were different from those in sediments. However, water flow increased the bacterial diversity in biofilms in terms of operational taxonomic unit numbers and Shannon Indices. Our results indicated that water flow can be used to regulate the biomass, distribution and bacterial diversities of epiphytic biofilms in constructed wetlands dominated by submerged macrophytes.

  17. Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusa-Idaman-Said

    2000-01-01

    Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

  18. Sea-Level Rise: Estuarine Wetlands of Mustang Island at Imminent Risk of Submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, B.; Gibeaut, J.; Tissot, P.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal areas in Texas are vulnerable to sea-level rise (SLR) because of high rates of land subsidence and flat topography. Estuarine wetlands in particular, are highly threatened by SLR because the small tidal range limits their vertical distribution. In order to offset wetland submergence induced by SLR, the rate of vertical accretion must at least equal the rate of SLR. To investigate wetland susceptibility to SLR-driven submergence, accretion rates in different wetland environments of Mustang Island (MUI), Texas, were determined using a Cesium-137 marker horizon technique. Comparisons of relative volumetric contributions of mineral and organic matter to accretion were made, as well. Mustang Island is located in the Coastal Bend of the south-central Texas coast, bounded by the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Corpus Christi Bay. The tide range in Texas bays and estuaries is small (

  19. Field studies of submerged-diffuser thermal plumes with comparisons to predictive model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigo, A.A.; Paddock, R.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal plumes from submerged discharges of cooling water from two power plants on Lake Michigan were studied. The system for the acquisition of water temperatures and ambient conditions permitted the three-dimensional structure of the plumes to be determined. The Zion Nuclear Power Station has two submerged discharge structures separated by only 94 m. Under conditions of flow from both structures, interaction between the two plumes resulted in larger thermal fields than would be predicted by the superposition of single non-interacting plumes. Maximum temperatures in the near-field region of the plume compared favorably with mathematical model predictions. A comparison of physical-model predictions for the plume at the D. C. Cook Nuclear Plant with prototype measurements indicated good agreement in the near-field region, but differences in the far-field occurred as similitude was not preserved there

  20. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Florencio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc., glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in “Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis” C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016 [1]. Keywords: Tricoderma reesei, Aspergillus Niger, Enzyme Production, Secretome

  1. XRD and DTA Analysis of Developed Agglomerated Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique study of structural and chemical analysis of crystalline phases in developed agglomerated fluxes was carried out. Thirty-two fluxes were developed by using a mixture of oxides, halides, carbonates, silicates, and ferroalloys for submerged arc welding. The present paper focuses on only ten (out of thirty-two fluxes which were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD to know the different types of oxides formed and changed in oxidation number of metallic centers after sintering process at around 850∘C. To know the effect of temperature over phase transformation and melting of different compounds, differential thermal analysis (DTA was carried out from 1000 to 1400∘C. This study aims to know the quantity of ions present (percentage and melting behavior of developed agglomerated fluxes for submerged arc welding process.

  2. Single Top Physics at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    zur Nedden, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A summary over the single top analyses in the ATLAS and CMS experiments is given. In this talk, the measurements of the single top cross sections in the t-channel, the Wt-channel and the s-channel are shown as the basis for a rich physics program with single top quarks. After discussing also the differential and fiducial cross sections and the V_tb properties, the single-top analyses are used as the bases for searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Searches for Mono-tops, Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and anomalous couplings are discussed.

  3. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Weigang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  4. Single top quark production with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccolo Davide

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of single top quark production performed using the CMS experiment [1] data collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and in 2012 at 8 TeV, are presented. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production are also presented. The results include the measurement of the charge ratio in the single top t-channel.

  5. Search for Single Top Production at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    Single top production in e^+e^- annihilations is searched for in data collected by the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies from 189 to 209 GeV, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 634 pb-1. Investigating hadronic and semileptonic top decays, no evidence of single top production at LEP is obtained and upper limits on the single top cross section as a function of the centre-of-mass energy are derived. Limits on possible anomalous couplings, as well as on the scale of contact interactions responsible for single top production are determined.

  6. Searching for the top at UA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, G.

    1990-10-01

    The projects conceived for searching the quark top, predicted by the Standard Model, are described. The required existence of the quark top from the Standard Model and its production from proton-antiproton collisions are reviewed. The UA2 experimental device is described. The method applied for the search of the top is explained. The analysis of the UA2 data does not allow to conclude the existence of the top. However, the low mass limit of 69 GeV/C 2 can be established for the top mass. The results of the analysis of the W decays into supersymmetric particles are included [fr

  7. Different proportions of laccase isoenzymes produced by submerged cultures of Trametes versicolor grown on lignocellulosic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, D; Lorenzo, M; Sanromán, Ma A

    2004-02-01

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor grown in submerged culture produced two laccase isoenzymes, LacI and LacII. Addition of insoluble lignocellulosic materials into the culture medium increased the total laccase activity. The proportion of laccase isoenzymes also changed depending on the lignocellulosic material employed, with ratios of activity LacII/LacI from 0.9 (barley straw) to 4.4 (grape stalks). Besides, this proportion played an important role in the dye decolourisation.

  8. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Escaler, X; De La Torre, O; Farhat, M

    2015-01-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to thei r surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at t...

  9. Dynamic Modelling of Compliant-Moored Submerged Systems with Applications to Marine Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Tyler; DuBuque, Geoff; Fabien, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a full‐range‐of‐motion numerical model of the dynamic characteristics of compliant‐moored submerged systems in unsteady fluid flow using a first‐principles approach. The program, implemented using the MATLAB software package, is in development with the primary intention of being applicable to in‐stream hydrokinetic turbines, though many wave energy converter and offshore wind turbine platform systems will also be capable of being modeled. A Lagrangian frame of reference is...

  10. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  11. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  12. A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 μg L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 μg L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  13. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A SUBMERGED COMPOSITE HULL, INTENDED FOR OIL RECOVERY FROM SHIPWRECKS

    OpenAIRE

    D. E. Mazarakos*, V. Kostopoulos

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the survivability of a submerged structure against hydrostatic loads, imposed by the operational environment, such as hydrostatic pressure due to depth, is presented. The structure under consideration is a component (Buffer Bell) of a larger system called DIFIS that recovers fuel from shipwrecks in order to prevent oil spills. This system was developed within the frame of an FP 6 EU project under the acronym DIFIS and relies on gravity forces to channel the spilled fuel f...

  14. Aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by Mucor circinelloides during submerged growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2004-01-01

    The dimorphic organism Mucor circinelloides is currently being investigated as a potential host for heterologous protein production. The production of ethanol on pentose and hexose sugars was studied in submerged batch cultivations to further the general knowledge of Mucor physiology, with a view...... was less significant. The response of the organism to increased ethanol concentrations, both as the sole carbon source and in the presence of a sugar, was investigated in terms of biomass formation and morphology....

  15. Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Ghasemi; Afshin Farahbakhsh; Arman Farahbakhsh; Ali Asghar Safari

    2014-01-01

    In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was ...

  16. Submergence rice cultivation in southern Bangladesh: farmers opinion and adaptations practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM Abdul Ahad Biswas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice productivity in coastal Bangladesh is lower than the national average and total coastal area is considered to be submergence-prone and higher vulnerable in July to January cropping season. The selected study areas are Kalapara and Patuakhali Sadar Upazila that are too vulnerable to agriculture practices. Field survey was conducted during 01st June to 30th July, 2015 to investigate the impact of submergence on Aman rice cultivation (ARC, existing adopted local adaptation practices with impacts and options to address the submergence problem. Primary data was collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD, Individual Interview and Key Informant Interview methods and secondary data was collected from different secondary sources. A well-structured pretested questionnaire schedule was developed keeping in mind the objectives and variables under this study. After cyclone SIDR and AILA devastation, the rate of traditional ARC is decreasing every year and in 2015 it was 26.51%. Recently farmers have adopted new cropping practices and strategies like modern ARC in Aman season as single crop; Boro-Aus-Aman season as triple crop and Aus-Aman season as double crop are practicing. Approximately all farmers have adopted to grow stress tolerant rice varieties (STRV; farmer’s curiosities to familiar with and to have the STRV are encouraging. Farmers were fully adopted BRRIdhan52 rice cultivation with positive perceptions of higher yield and lower production cost. Therefore it can be concluded that the intensity of adoption of adaptation and mitigation measures are significantly influenced positively by the STRV yield capability; farmer’s participation in intervention programs; livelihood diversification; frequency of extension personnel contact; submergence and inundation characteristics; tolerance attributes of STRV and availability of STRV cultivation information.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 100-113

  17. A filtration model applied to submerged anaerobic MBRs (SAnMBRs)

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; FERRER, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model able to correctly reproduce the filtration process of submerged anaerobic MBRs (SAnMBRs). The proposed model was calibrated and validated in a SAnMBR demonstration plant fitted with industrial-scale hollow-fibre membranes. Three suspended components were contemplated in the model: total solids concentration; dry mass of cake on the membrane surface; and dry mass of irreversible fouling on the membrane surface. The model addressed the following phys...

  18. Mathematical modelling of filtration in submerged anaerobic MBRs (SAnMBRs): long-term validation

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; FERRER, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was the long-term validation of a model capable of reproducing the filtration process occurring in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) system. The proposed model was validated using data obtained horn a SAnMBR demonstration plant fitted with industrial-scale hollow-fibre membranes. The validation was carried out using both lightly and heavily fouled membranes operating at different bulk concentrations, gas sparging intensities and transmembrane fluxes. Acr...

  19. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Effects of snails, submerged plants and their coexistence on eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Shuqing; Zhang Xiufeng; Tang Yali; Liu Zhengwen; Kettridge Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication resulting from nutrient loading to freshwater habitats is a severe problem, leading to degradation of ecosystems, including deterioration of water quality, water clarity and loss of biodiversity. Measures enacted to restore degraded freshwater ecosystems often involve the reintroduction of submerged plants and aquatic animals with beneficial ecological functions. In a mesocosm experiment, three treatments (planting with Vallisneria natans, introduction of the snail Bellamya aer...

  1. Welding of Nb micro-alloyed steel by the submerged arc process using Brazilian consumables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, A.; Quites, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    A set of procedures was established for welding of Nb micro-alloyed steel by the submerged arc process, using national consumables, in order to simultaneously achieve a more economic welding and better mechanical properties. From all the wire-flux combinations the better were the correspondent to AWS F84ED1, F74EM12K and F84EH14, the last being the best. (Author) [pt

  2. Contribution of seedling vigour and anoxia/hypoxia-responsive genes to submergence tolerance in Vietnamese lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hien Thi Thu Vu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A direct-seeded rice cultivation system has been widely adopted in Asian countries. Optimum germination and vigorous seedling growth under submergence are key traits for the practice of direct seeding. We studied the post-germination seedling vigour in Vietnamese lowland rice accessions based on three bio-parameters, shoot elongation growth under five-day submergence in water-filled test-tubes, seedling recovery rate five days after transferring submerged seedlings to pots with soil and seedling survival rate 21 days after sowing seeds in nursery beds and immediate incubation under submergence. A large diversity was found in seedling vigour thus estimated among the accessions. Significantly high correlations were observed among all three bio-parameters, verifying the contribution of seedling vigour to the manifestation of submergence tolerance at this critical stage of rice development. To examine the roles of anoxia/hypoxia-responsive genes, the expression of 17 candidate genes was studied by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and compared between selected vigorous and non-vigorous groups of accessions. Transcripts of all but two genes showed marked accumulation in submerged seedlings. No differences, however, were found between the two contrasting groups. The observed common and coordinate expression of anoxia/hypoxia-induced genes suggests that they might assume roles in attaining baseline tolerance against submergence stress. It was also suggested that some unknown genetic factors are operating in determining cultivar/genotype-specific levels of submergence tolerance as assessed by post-germination seedling vigour.

  3. Top Management Involvement in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felekoglu, Burcu; Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James

    2010-01-01

    a broader conceptual space than this participation. This paper reviews the literature on top management involvement in new product development (NPD) and discusses relevance of different theoretical perspectives from other disciplines such as management, organisational behaviour and communication to analyse......Involvement of top managers in new product development (NPD) is a critical factor affecting NPD performance and frequently considered to be the participation of top management to certain activities in NPD or their NPD related behaviours. However, “Top management involvement in NPD” occupies...... antecedents, realisation and consequences of top management involvement in NPD. It is argued that top management has different involvement at different NPD levels: organisation level and project level. Resulting from this literature review, a tentative framework for top management involvement in NPD...

  4. Investigation of scour adjacent to submerged geotextiles used for shore protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Alicia M.; Herrington, Thomas O.; Smith, Ernest R.

    2018-01-03

    This study presents the results of an experimental investigation of morphology change in the vicinity of submerged geotextiles placed within the surf zone. The study was motivated by the emerging use of submerged geotextile tubes for shore protection, shoreline stabilization, and surf amenity enhancement and the need to understand the mechanisms responsible for scour in the vicinity of these structures to preserve their structural integrity and reduce their structural failure. A movable bed physical model experiment was conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center’s Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) to develop empirical formulations to predict the mean scour depth adjacent to geotextiles under oblique wave-breaking conditions as a function of the maximum Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers. The observed scour in the vicinity of the geotextiles was also compared to a previous study of scour in the vicinity of submerged cylinders. Formulations developed by Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) relating the Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers to the scour depth were used to predict the scour observed during the LSTF experiment. Results show that the formulations of Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) over-predict the observed scour when calculated using the maximum Keulegan-Carpenter, Shields, and Reynolds numbers. New, modified expressions of Cataño-Lopera and García (2006) were developed for use in oblique random wave fields.

  5. Experimental studies of the stress state of the surface layer of detailat treatment with submerged jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Олександрович Анділахай

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the instrument and electrical industry was the use of the method of abrasive machining submerged jet, which is the most promising method for abrasive blasting of small parts of low stiffness. This method eliminates the main drawback сhip plants - abrasion channel nozzles or injection nozzles, but the state of the surface layer of machined parts are poorly understood and to make maximum use of the potential to provide the required quality parameters. The study of the state of the surfaces of parts resulting from abrasive blasting traditional methods, dedicated work, which define quality indicators: microhardness depth residual stress, as well as their nature (compressive, tensile. However, known from the literature values correspond to the conditions of surface treatment of parts in a fixed state with an abrasive material through the feed nozzle, and therefore the dynamics of the interaction of a single abrasive grain and significantly different parts. The process in question, and different modes of processing characteristics of the abrasive grains. In the paper, a series of experimental studies designed to assess the state of machined surfaces of parts as a result of abrasion submerged jets. It is established that during the treatment the non-oriented disorderly traces overlay the abrasive grains on the treated surface, thereby forming a tight skin layer thickness of 4 - 5 micrometers. Processed surface gets cold working, as evidenced by the study of microhardness before and after abrasive machining in a free state submerged jets

  6. Production of Pleurotus sajor-caju strain PS-2001 biomass in submerged culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confortin, Fernanda Grison; Marchetto, Rosane; Bettin, Fernanda; Camassola, Marli; Salvador, Mirian; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2008-10-01

    Mushrooms or fruiting bodies of many basidiomycetes are commonly produced in solid-state fermentation, generally after 20-60 days of growth. However, it is also possible to produce biomass from these fungi, in submerged fermentation in shorter time. This work was aimed at evaluating biomass production with the basidiomycete Pleurotus sajor-caju, in a submerged process and to determine the proportion of chemical components of this biomass. Initially, an optimization of the culture medium was done to produce a faster growth of microbial mass by changing the concentrations of ammonium sulfate, soy protein and yeast extract. Using the optimized culture medium, values of approximately 5.5 g L(-1) of biomass in a medium with 10 g L(-1) of glucose were attained. When the optimized culture medium was tested in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor, using 10 g L(-1) of glucose or sucrose as carbon source, values of 8.18 and 5.94 g L(-1) of biomass concentration were obtained, respectively. In the medium with glucose, high yields (0.82 g g(-1)) and productivity of 0.085 g L(-1) h(-1) were obtained. The exopolysaccharide content (1.58 g dry matter L(-1)) in the culture was higher in the fermentation with sucrose. The nutritional composition of the biomass obtained in the submerged fermentation was similar to that of the fruiting body in terms of quantities of total carbohydrates, ash and calories, but total fat and protein were higher.

  7. Submerged arc narrow gap welding of the steel DIN 20MnMoNi55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The methodology for submerged arc narrow gap welding for high thickness rolled steel DIN 20MnMoNi55 was developed, using din S3NiMo1 04 mm and 05 mm wires, and DIN 8B435 flux. For this purpose, submerged arc narrow gap welded joints with 50 mm and 120 mm thickness were made aiming the welding parameters optimization and the study of the influence of welding voltage, wire diameter and wire to groove face distance on the operational performance and on the welded joint quality, specially on the ISO-V impact toughness. These welded joints were checked by non-destructive mechanical and metallographic tests. Results were compared with those obtained by one 120 mm thickness submerged arc conventional gap welded joint, using the same base metal and consumables (05 mm wire). The analysis of the results shows that the increasing of the wire to groove face distance and the welding voltage increases the hardness and the ISO-V impact toughness of the weld metal. It shows that the reduction of the gap angle is the main cause for the obtained of a heat affected zone free from coarse grains, the reduction of the welding voltage, the increasing of the wire to groove face distance, and the grounding optimization also contribute for that. It was also concluded that the quality and the execution complexity level of a narrow gap welded joint are identical to a conventional gap welded joint. (author) [pt

  8. 3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river.

  9. Antioxidant Properties of the Edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in Submerged Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yeou Lung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM and mycelia-free broth (MEB and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as evidenced by low EC50 values (< 10 mg/mL. Total flavonoid is mainly found in hot water extracts; however, total phenol is rich in methanol and hot water extracts from mycelia. Ascorbic acid and total phenol contents are well correlated with the reducing power and the scavenging effect on superoxide anions. Total flavonoid content is dependent on the antioxidant activity and the chelating effect on ferrous ions. Total antioxidant component contents are closely related to the antioxidant activity and the scavenging superoxide anion ability. Results confirm that extracts with good antioxidant properties from fermenting products by A. mellea are potential good substitutes for synthetic antioxidants and can be applied to antioxidant-related functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Antioxidant properties of the edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in submerged cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Ming-Yeou; Chang, Yu-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM) and mycelia-free broth (MEB) and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as evidenced by low EC(50) values (<10 mg/mL). Total flavonoid is mainly found in hot water extracts; however, total phenol is rich in methanol and hot water extracts from mycelia. Ascorbic acid and total phenol contents are well correlated with the reducing power and the scavenging effect on superoxide anions. Total flavonoid content is dependent on the antioxidant activity and the chelating effect on ferrous ions. Total antioxidant component contents are closely related to the antioxidant activity and the scavenging superoxide anion ability. Results confirm that extracts with good antioxidant properties from fermenting products by A. mellea are potential good substitutes for synthetic antioxidants and can be applied to antioxidant-related functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Development and validation of phytotoxicity tests with emergent and submerged aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.S. [Carolina Ecotox, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Powell, R.L. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Nelson, M.K. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Toxicity testing procedures have recently been developed for assessment of contaminant effects on emergent and submerged aquatic macrophytes commonly found in freshwater wetlands. These tests have potential application in risk assessments for contaminated wetlands as well as for new chemical substances. The objective of this study was to evaluate and modify, if necessary, these methods and to validate them, using two benchmark chemicals, in a contract laboratory setting. Oryza sativa (domestic rice) was used as a surrogate emergent vascular plant, while Ceratophylium demersum (coontail) and Myriophyllum heterophyllum (variable-leaf milfoil) were the representative submerged vascular plants. Subsequent to evaluating culturing techniques and testing conditions, toxicity tests were conducted using boron and metribuzin. The test procedure for the emergent plants involves a two-week pro-exposure period followed by a two-week aqueous exposure. Five types of sediment, including both natural and artificial sediments, were evaluated for use with rice. Fresh weight and chlorophyll a content were the selected test endpoints. The submerged plants were exposed for two weeks, and the response variables evaluated included length, weight (fresh and dry), and root number. The sensitivity of these tests were comparable to the results obtained for the same two chemicals using the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum, and the duckweed, Lemna gibba, with the exception that rice was less sensitive to metribuzin than the other species.

  12. Dynamic Behaviour of Submerged Floating Tunnels under Seismic Loadings with Different Cable Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Wahyuni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamic behavior of a Submerged Floating Tunnel (SFT in the Seribu Archipelago crossing under seismic loadings by using the different cable configurations. The SFT is a tubular structure submerged in the water at a fixed depth, which features several advantages from the structural and environmental impact points of view. In particular, the structural system is suited for waterway crossings in seismicity zones. Its interaction with the water provides additional damping and inertia to the system. To evaluate the SFT structural response of seismic loadings, a response spectrum analyses were carried out, in which the ground multi-support excitation is considered. The investigation of the different cable system configurations were also carried out. Both static and dynamic analyses were carried to find the optimal configuration of the structural system. Although the paper has had a definitive conclusion yet, the results gave useful indications of responses of Submerged Floating Tunnels subjected to earthquake. The SFT with two cable diagonals perpendicular with SFT’s body (called Model C shows the optimal structural configuration compared with others.

  13. Effect of piano-key shape inlet on critical submergence at a vertical pipe intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemshi, R; Kabiri-Samani, A

    2012-01-01

    Intake vortices are the result of angular momentum conservation at the flow constriction, where angular velocity increases with a decrease in the cross sectional area. The common solution for avoiding air-entrainment and swirl is to provide sufficient submergence to the intake. If the required approach flow conditions can not be met to avoid swirl and air entrainment, other approaches for preventing vortices at water intakes are considered. There are several means of avoiding air-entrainment, where the most cost-effective option is often determined by a physical model study. Among the most economical and common measures of reducing the effect of air-entrainment and swirl strength, is the optimized shape of inlet for instance by installing a Piano-Key inlet over the pipe intake. If Piano-Key inlet is used, then, its' optimum geometry should be studied experimentally. Since there is not any realized guidance for the use of Piano-Key inlets in pipe intakes, hence, a comprehensive set of model experiments have been carried out using Piano-Key inlets with different dimensions, with respect to the vertical pipe intakes, and four different pipe diameters of (D=) 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Results showed that by employing a Piano-Key inlet over the vertical pipe intake, the critical submergence reduces significantly. Fianally, according to the results, the effect of Piano-Key inlet geometry on critical submergence were evaluated in the form of realized relationships which would be of practical interest for design engineers.

  14. Surviving floods: leaf gas films improve O₂ and CO₂ exchange, root aeration, and growth of completely submerged rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, Sarah Meghan; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-04-01

    When completely submerged, the leaves of some species retain a surface gas film. Leaf gas films on submerged plants have recently been termed 'plant plastrons', analogous with the plastrons of aquatic insects. In aquatic insects, surface gas layers (i.e. plastrons) enlarge the gas-water interface to promote O₂ uptake when under water; however, the function of leaf gas films has rarely been considered. The present study demonstrates that gas films on leaves of completely submerged rice facilitate entry of O₂ from floodwaters when in darkness and CO₂ entry when in light. O₂ microprofiles showed that the improved gas exchange was not caused by differences in diffusive boundary layers adjacent to submerged leaves with or without gas films; instead, reduced resistance to gas exchange was probably due to the enlarged water-gas interface (cf. aquatic insects). When gas films were removed artificially, underwater net photosynthesis declined to only 20% of the rate with gas films present, such that, after 7 days of complete submergence, tissue sugar levels declined, and both shoot and root growth were reduced. Internal aeration of roots in anoxic medium, when shoots were in aerobic floodwater in darkness or when in light, was improved considerably when leaf gas films were present. Thus, leaf gas films contribute to the submergence tolerance of rice, in addition to those traits already recognized, such as the shoot-elongation response, aerenchyma and metabolic adjustments to O₂ deficiency and oxidative stress. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. [Sõidukimüüjate TOP 40 aastal 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Sõidukimüüjate TOP 40. Käibe TOP 10. Kasumi TOP 10. Käibe kasvu TOP 10. Kasumi kasvu TOP 10. Rentaabluse TOP 10. Varade tootlikkuse TOP 10. Sõidukimüüjate üldandmed. Sõidukimüüjate finantsandmed

  16. Rõivatööstuse TOP 40 aastal 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Rõivatööstuse TOP 40. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Rõivatööstuse ettevõtted: üldandmed ja finantsandmed

  17. Toiduainetööstuse TOP 100 aastal 2001

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    TOP 100. Toiduainetööstuste rentaabluse TOP 40. Varade tootlikkuse TOP 40. Käibe TOP 50. Käibe kasvu TOP 50. Kasumi TOP 50. Kasumi kasvu TOP 50. Toiduainetööstuse finantsandmed aastal 2001. Toiduainetööstuse üldandmed aastal 2001

  18. Läänemaa ettevõtete TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läänemaa ettevõtete TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20; Läänemaa ettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  19. Ida-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti-Severo-Vostok 7. sept. lk. 4. Ida-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20; Ida-Virumaa ettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  20. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  1. Top quark mass measurements with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, Nataliia

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the top quark mass are presented, obtained from CMS data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The mass of the top quark is measured using several methods and channels, including the reconstructed invariant mass distribution of the top quark, an analysis of endpoint spectra as well as measurements from shapes of top quark decay distributions. The dependence of the mass measurement on the kinematic phase space is investigated. The results of the various channels are combined and compared to the world average. The top mass and also $\\alpha_{\\textnormal S}$ are extracted from the top pair cross section measured at CMS.

  2. Measurement of top properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Veloso, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The top quark may play a special role in the Standard Model of particle physics. It is, for instance, the heaviest fundamental particle known, with a mass close to the electroweak symmetry breaking scale. Millions of top quark pairs will be produced per year at the LHC at nominal luminosity. ATLAS will measure many of the top quark properties with unprecedented precision. The ATLAS sensitivity studies done with Monte Carlo for the measurements of the top quark mass, the top quark charge, rare top quark decays and flavour changing neutral currents, the $t\\bar t$ spin correlations and $W$ boson polarization, the anomalous couplings at the $Wtb$ vertex and $t\\bar t$ resonances are reviewed.

  3. Nonperturbative fragmentation of the top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobado, A. (Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)); Urdiales, M. (Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain))

    1991-11-01

    By the use of a simple phenomenological string model, the energy lost by the top quark through nonperturbative fragmentation effects before its weak decay is computed. This energy lost is in first approximation proportional to the rate between the decay time and the hadronization time of the top as measured in the center-of-mass frame of the top and its color partner. Precise computations of the energy lost by the top in terms of its mass when produced in colliders such as the Fermilab Tevatron, CERN Large Hadron Collider, Superconducting Super Collider, and CERN Linear Collider are presented. As expected, this effect decreases quickly with the top mass but it could be relevant for a top mass below 100 GeV.

  4. Qinshan CANDU project open top construction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunik, K.J.; Wittann, K.; Khan, A.; Ricciuti, R.; Ivanov, A.; Chen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The significant schedule reductions achieved on the Qinshan CANDU Project were due in large part to the incorporation of advanced construction technologies in project design and delivery. For the Qinshan Project, a number of key advantages were realized through the use of the 'Open Top' construction method. This paper discusses the Qinshan Phase III CANDU Project Open Top implementation method. The Open Top method allowed major equipment to be installed simply, via the use of a Very Heavy Lift (VHL) crane and permitted the use of large-scale modularization. The advantages of Open Top construction, such as simplified access, more flexible project scheduling, improved construction safety and quality, and reduced labours are presented. The large-scale modularization of the Reactor Building Dousing System and the Open Top installation method and advantages relative to traditional CANDU 6 construction practices are also presented. Finally, major improvements for future CANDU plant construction using the Open Top method are discussed. (author)

  5. 'Quantum' tops and braiding matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Masao

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the author's extension of Racah-Wigner algebras to representation theories of quantum group U q sl(2). The following points are stressed. 1. A class of solutions to Yang-Baxter (Y-B) relations for IRF model and for vertex model are described in terms of Quantum 3n-j symbols. 2. The quantum 3-j symbol is an asymptotic limit of the quantum 6-j symbol, which is a typical Wu-Kadanoff-Wegner transformation. 3. Another asymptotic limit of the quantum 6-j symbol produces the element of the braiding matrix R. 4. Transforming the generators J Z , J + and J - of U q sl(2) in symmetric forms is of importance to obtain quantum Wigner-Eckart theorem. 5. The quantum d-function, defined in terms of an operator expansion, is a solution to RT'T'' = T''T'R, and gives an eigenfunction of 'quantum symmetric tops. 6. The Q3-j symbol is understood in relationship with the quantum d-function, a well-known feature in theories of su(2). (author)

  6. Top medical news stories 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Here is our list of the top seven medical news stories for 2015 with special emphasis on the Southwest. 7. Wearable health devices: A wave of wearable computing devices such as Fitbit and UP wristbands have people keeping track of how much they sit, stand, walk, climb stairs and calories they consume (1. These fitness-tracking devices herald a series of devices that will detect and monitor serious diseases. However, these so-called medical-grade wearables require approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a regulatory hurdle avoided by the fitness-tracking devices which will likely slow their introduction. 6. Caitlyn Jenner: Caitlyn Jenner became the most famous transgender woman in the world following an interview published in Vanity Fair (2. The Vanity Fair website saw 11.6 million visits curious about the former Olympic athlete. Though Jenner publicly shared her gender identity, many transgender Americans do not-12% of gender non-conforming adults said they ...

  7. Top Properties in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Alexandra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle. It decays almost exclusively into a W boson and a b quark. The latest results on the Wtb vertex together with measurements of other properties of the top quark in ATLAS and CMS are presented in this talk. Furthermore, the talk shows results on the associated production of tt with a Z or W boson, which provides a direct measurement of the top quark coupling to the Z or W boson.

  8. TOP500 Supercomputers for November 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-11-08

    24th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: DOE/IBM BlueGene/L and NASA/SGI's Columbia gain Top Positions MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 24th edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (November 8, 2004) at the SC2004 Conference in Pittsburgh, Pa.

  9. Top Quark Production at Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaf, Lukas Kaj [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    This thesis describes both theoretical and experimental research into top quark production. The theoretical part contains a calculation of the single-top quark production cross section at hadron colliders, at Next to Leading Order (NLO) accuracy. The experimental part describes a measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in proton-antiproton collisions, at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV.

  10. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-06-23

    23rd Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: Japan's Earth Simulator Enters Third Year in Top Position MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 23rd edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 23, 2004) at the International Supercomputer Conference in Heidelberg, Germany.

  11. Top Quark Production Cross Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sectionsinproton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association witha W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  12. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  13. Differential Top Cross-section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The measurement of the differential top-quark pair production cross-section provides a stringent test of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This talk focuses on differential cross-section measurements in the lepton+jets final state, including using boosted top quarks to probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.

  14. Top Physics at CMS/LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalakis Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results on the inclusive and differential production cross sections of top-quark pair and single top-quark processes are presented, obtained using data from proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The large centre-of-mass energies available at LHC allow for the copious production of top-quark pairs in association with other final state particles at high transverse momentum. Measurements of such processes as well as of the top-quark mass and other properties will be discussed. The results are compared with the most up-to-date standard model theory predictions.

  15. Prospects for early top anti-top resonance searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Chapleau, Bertrand; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Searches for signatures of new physics in top anti-top events at the LHC require efficient reconstruction of top quarks with a broad range of transverse momenta. Three new reconstruction schemes are developed to deal with the large variety of top decay topologies. Their performance on the lepton + jets final state is evaluated using a detailed simulation of signal and background processes. Compared to previous ATLAS studies, a much improved reconstruction efficiency is found over a large top anti-top invariant mass range. As a consequence, even in the earliest phase of the experiment, ATLAS is expected to significantly extend the mass reach of existing searches.

  16. Wave transmission over permeable submerged breakwaters; Transmision del oleaje en rompeolas sumergidos permeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-y-Zurvia-Flores, Jaime Roberto; Fragoso-Sandoval, Lucio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional(Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The permeable submerged breakwaters represent a coastal protection alternative, where some degree of wave energy transmission is acceptable. Such would be the case of tourist beach protection in Mexico. In previous researches, like those performed by D'Angremond et al. (1996), Seabrook and Hall (1998), and Briganti et al. (2003), the empirical formulas developed, give only some limited information over the spatial distribution of wave energy over the structure. Therefore, a decision was made to conduct a study on a reduced physical model of a permeable submerged breakwater based on the results presented by those researchers and with possible applications. Therefore this paper presents the development of a study of wave transmission over permeable submerged breakwaters performed in a reduced physical model of different sections of a submerged rockfill breakwater of the trapezoidal type. This was done in a narrow wave flume with a hydraulic irregular wave generator controlled by a computer that was used to generate and to reproduce different types of irregular waves to be used in the tests. It also has a wave meter with four sensors, and they are connected to a computer in order to process the wave data. The main objective of the study was to determine in an experimental way the influence of the several parameters of submerged breakwater over the wave transmission coefficient. Our experimental results were comparable to those obtained by D'Angremond et al. (1996) and Seabrook and Hall (1998). The results show that the sumerged breakwater parameters of most influence over the wave transmission coefficient were relative submergence and the relative width crest of the sumerged breakwater, and that the formula by Seabrook and Hall correlates best with our results. [Spanish] Los rompeolas sumergidos permeables representan actualmente una alternativa de proteccion de costas, donde un cierto grado de transmision de energia del oleaje es aceptable, como seria el

  17. Monitoring the effects of floods on submerged macrophytes in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Real, Montserrat

    2012-12-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton to a macrophyte-dominated system. Macrophytes started to spread at the end of the 1990s and since 2002 artificial floods (flushing flows) of short duration (1-2 days) are released from the Riba-roja dam once or twice a year in order to reduce macrophyte density. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatiotemporal trends of the submerged macrophytes in two stretches of the lower Ebro River using high-resolution hydroacoustic methods, in order to elucidate the effects of artificial floods and natural floods on its distribution and abundance. Results showed that the mean cover in the two studied stretches (Móra and Ginestar) was not reduced after a flushing flow (from 36.59% to 55.85% in Móra, and from 21.18% to 21.05% in Ginestar), but it was greatly reduced after the natural flood (down to 9.79% in Móra and 2.04% in Ginestar); surprisingly the cover increased in Móra after the artificial flood. In order to increase the efficiency of floods in controlling macrophyte spreading, the magnitude and frequency of them should largely increase, as well as the suspended sediment load, approaching as much as possible to the original flood pattern before dam construction. Hydroacoustic methods combined with geostatistics and interpolation in GIS can accurately monitor spatiotemporal trends of submerged macrophytes in large rivers. This is the first article to apply this monitoring system to submerged macrophytes in rivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: Tagging and Tracking of Physeter (T-TOP/T-TOP2) 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was devoted to studying sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) behavior. The principal study area for T-TOP and T-TOP2 was the Pioneer Seamount, 50...

  19. Measuring top-quark polarization in top-pair + missing-energy events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-12

    The polarization of a top quark can be sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. Since the charged lepton from top-quark decay is maximally correlated with the top-quark spin, it is common to measure the polarization from the distribution in the angle between the charged lepton and the top-quark directions. We propose a novel method based on the charged lepton energy fraction and illustrate the method with a detailed simulation of top-quark pairs produced in supersymmetric top squark pair production. We show that the lepton energy ratio distribution that we define is very sensitive to the top-quark polarization but insensitive to the precise measurement of the top-quark energy.

  20. The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marianne; Hallock, Kevin F.

    2001-01-01

    Women, about 2% of a sample of top executives, earned about 45% less than men. Three-fourths of the gap may be explained by women managing smaller companies and being less likely to be chair/president. Gender segregation or unequal promotion may play a role. Between 1992-1997, women nearly tripled their representation among top executives, mostly…

  1. Top Managerial Prestige and Organizational Bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that bankruptcy occurs when creditors withdraw their support from a firm's top management team. Five characteristics measuring the relative status of top teams tested on a sample of 57 large bankrupt firms and 57 matched firms revealed that membership in political elites and board connections were negatively associated with bankruptcy.…

  2. Tight bounds for top tree compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Fernstrøm, Finn; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We consider compressing labeled, ordered and rooted trees using DAG compression and top tree compression. We show that there exists a family of trees such that the size of the DAG compression is always a logarithmic factor smaller than the size of the top tree compression (even for an alphabet...

  3. Top quark distributions in hadronic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We present kinematical distributions for top quark pairs produced at the Tevatron \\ppbar\\ Collider, as predicted within Next-to-Leading-Order QCD. We consider single and double-inclusive distributions, and compare our results to those obtained with the shower Monte Carlo HERWIG. We discuss the implications of our findings for experimental issues such as the measurement of the top quark mass.

  4. Experimental results on SUSY searches with top

    CERN Document Server

    Eifert, Till

    2014-01-01

    Searches for supersymmetric partner particles of the top and bottom quarks at the Large Hadron Collider are reviewed. The focus is on the status of searches for a relatively light partner of the top quark performed by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations. No excess beyond Standard Model expectations is observed and exclusion limits are set on the masses of supersymmetric particles.

  5. Top quark property measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkings, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of top quark properties performed at the Large Hadron Collider are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on top-pair charge asymmetries, spin correlations and polarization measurements performed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The measurements are generally in good agreement with predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD calculations, and no deviations from Standard Model expectations have been seen.

  6. Latest ATLAS measurements on top quark properties

    CERN Document Server

    Derue, Frederic; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented using 8 TeV and 13 TeV data, excluding results from single top production. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. New results on the measurment of color flow effects in $t{\\bar t}$ events are presented. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The cross-section measurement of photons produced in association with top-quark pairs is a...

  7. Review of Top Quark Physics Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehoe, R.; Narain, M.; Kumar, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the heaviest known fundamental particle, the top quark has taken a central role in the study of fundamental interactions. Production of top quarks in pairs provides an important probe of strong interactions. The top quark mass is a key fundamental parameter which places a valuable constraint on the Higgs boson mass and electroweak symmetry breaking. Observations of the relative rates and kinematics of top quark final states constrain potential new physics. In many cases, the tests available with study of the top quark are both critical and unique. Large increases in data samples from the Fermilab Tevatron have been coupled with major improvements in experimental techniques to produce many new precision measurements of the top quark. The first direct evidence for electroweak production of top quarks has been obtained, with a resulting direct determination of V{sub tb}. Several of the properties of the top quark have been measured. Progress has also been made in obtaining improved limits on potential anomalous production and decay mechanisms. This review presents an overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments in this field. We also provide a brief discussion of the implications for further efforts.

  8. Scenario-based table top simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a scenario-based table top simulation method in a user-driven innovation setting. A team of researchers worked together with a user group of five medical staff members from the existing clinic. Table top simulations of a new clinic were carried out in a simple model...

  9. Genetic potentiality of indigenous rice genotypes from Eastern India with reference to submergence tolerance and deepwater traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayani Goswami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Submergence tolerance in rice varieties is crucial for maintaining stable yields in low land areas, where recurrence of flooding is a constant phenomenon during monsoon. We have conducted detailed physiological and genotyping studies of 27 rice genotypes and one wild rice relative, popularly grown in low land areas of the two major rice growing states of eastern India, West Bengal and Odisha with a focus on submergence tolerance traits and Sub1 loci. We found that these genotypes show varying degree (50–100% survival rate during post submergence recovery period, and high degree of polymorphism in the Sub1 linked rice microsatellite loci RM219 and RM7175. Detailed allelic diversity study of Sub1A loci suggests that rice varieties IR42, Panibhasha, Khoda and Kalaputia share a common allele that is different from FR13A, Keralasundari, Bhashakalmi, Kumrogore. Two other genotypes Meghi and Khoda shares both alleles of Sub1A loci (present in IR42 and FR13A groups in addition to a new variant. Detailed sequence analysis of the amplified product for the Sub1A loci from these genotypes showed several single nucleotide changes with respect to reference Oryza sativa Sub1A loci (DQ011598. Three rice genotypes (Meghi, Bhashakalmi and Keralasundari showed beneficial properties in relation to induced submergence stress and can be considered as valuable genetic source in context of utilization of natural rice genetic resources in breeding program for submergence tolerance.

  10. Insight into cordycepin biosynthesis of Cordyceps militaris: Comparison between a liquid surface culture and a submerged culture through transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suparmin

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris produces cordycepin, which is known to be a bioactive compound. Currently, cordycepin hyperproduction of C. militaris was carried out in a liquid surface culture because of its low productivity in a submerged culture, however the reason was not known. In this study, 4.92 g/L of cordycepin was produced at the 15th day of C. militaris NBRC 103752 liquid surface culture, but only 1 mg/L was produced in the submerged culture. RNA-Seq was used to clarify the gene expression profiles of the cordycepin biosynthetic pathways of the submerged culture and the liquid surface culture. From this analysis, 1036 genes were shown to be upregulated and 557 genes were downregulated in the liquid surface culture compared with the submerged culture. Specifically, adenylosuccinate synthetase and phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide (SAICAR synthase in purine nucleotide metabolism were significantly upregulated in the liquid surface culture. Thick mycelia formation in the liquid surface culture was found to induce the expression of hypoxia-related genes (GABA shunt, glutamate synthetase precursor, and succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases containing heme were also found to be significantly enriched, suggesting that a hypoxic condition might be created in the liquid surface culture. These results suggest that hypoxic conditions are more suitable for cordycepin production in the liquid surface culture compared with the submerged culture. Our analysis paves the way for unraveling the cordycepin biosynthesis pathway and for improving cordycepin production in C. militaris.

  11. Insight into cordycepin biosynthesis of Cordyceps militaris: Comparison between a liquid surface culture and a submerged culture through transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparmin, Ahmad; Kato, Tatsuya; Dohra, Hideo; Park, Enoch Y

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris produces cordycepin, which is known to be a bioactive compound. Currently, cordycepin hyperproduction of C. militaris was carried out in a liquid surface culture because of its low productivity in a submerged culture, however the reason was not known. In this study, 4.92 g/L of cordycepin was produced at the 15th day of C. militaris NBRC 103752 liquid surface culture, but only 1 mg/L was produced in the submerged culture. RNA-Seq was used to clarify the gene expression profiles of the cordycepin biosynthetic pathways of the submerged culture and the liquid surface culture. From this analysis, 1036 genes were shown to be upregulated and 557 genes were downregulated in the liquid surface culture compared with the submerged culture. Specifically, adenylosuccinate synthetase and phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide (SAICAR) synthase in purine nucleotide metabolism were significantly upregulated in the liquid surface culture. Thick mycelia formation in the liquid surface culture was found to induce the expression of hypoxia-related genes (GABA shunt, glutamate synthetase precursor, and succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase). Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases containing heme were also found to be significantly enriched, suggesting that a hypoxic condition might be created in the liquid surface culture. These results suggest that hypoxic conditions are more suitable for cordycepin production in the liquid surface culture compared with the submerged culture. Our analysis paves the way for unraveling the cordycepin biosynthesis pathway and for improving cordycepin production in C. militaris.

  12. On the Submergence and Reemergence of Magnetic Fields in Young Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Cristian G.

    In this work I present numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the early dynamics around newly born neutrons stars using the AMR Flash method. When the core-collapse supernovae occurs a reverse shock is formed allowing strong accretion onto the neutron star surface (hypercritical phase). In such regime large amounts of matter are deposited on the neutron star surface, submerging the magnetic field in the new crust. When the hypercritical regime is over, the magnetic field can suffer a reemergence episode due to magnetic diffusion processes, allowing the delayed switch-on of pulsars.

  13. Wirelessly powered submerged-light illuminated photobioreactors for efficient microalgae cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Alexandra Marie; Fotidis, Ioannis; Isenschmid, Alex

    2017-01-01

    A novel submerged-light photobioreactor (SL-PBR) with free-floating, wireless internal light sources powered by near-field resonant inductive coupling was investigated using a quick (Chlorella vulgaris) and a slow (Haematococcus pluvialis) growing microalgal species. During testing of the SL...... of the true yield. Interestingly, the SL-PBR provided more uniform light to the culture and had the ability to reduce the presence of dark zones and the effect of self-shading. Thus, the SL-PBR showed potential, if subsequent prototype designs address the technical challenges identified during this study....

  14. Removal of the radioactive materials from the trench submergence in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Takeshi; Ikeda, Akira; Oomura, Hisao; Kojima, Chiaki; Nozawa, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Toshiba has been contributing for stabilization from the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. One of the contribution areas is the treatment of highly contaminated water accumulated in the piping trench of Unit 2 and Unit 3. As an emergency countermeasure, Toshiba installed the mobile type water treatment system which is named SMARTS (Simplified Mobile Adsorption and Retrieve for Trench Submergence) for removal of radionuclide. SMARTS has achieved 10 3 ∼ 10 4 decontamination factor (DF) for Cesium (Cs) in the actual operation. This paper describes the formation of SMARTS and the result of performance. (author)

  15. Ice Protection of Turbojet Engines by Inertia Separation of Water III : Annular Submerged Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Glahn, Uwe

    1948-01-01

    Aerodynamic and icing studies were conducted on a one-half-scale model of an annular submerged inlet for use with axial-flow turbojet engines. Pressure recoveries, screen radial-velocity profiles, circumferential mass-flow variations, and icing characteristics were determined at the compressor inlet. In order to be effective in maintaining water-free induction air, the inlet gap must be extremely small and ram-pressure recoveries consequently are low, the highest achieved being 65 percent at inlet-velocity ratio of 0.86. All inlets exhibited considerable screen icing. Severe mass-flow shifts occurred at angles of attack.

  16. Production and partial characterization of alkaline feruloyl esterases by Fusarium oxysporum during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topakas, E.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Production of feruloyl esterases (FAEs) by Fusarium oxysporum was enhanced by optimization of initial pH of the culture medium, the type and concentration of nitrogen and carbon source. Submerged batch cultivation in a laboratory bioreactor (17 1) produced activity at 82 nkat g(-1) dry substrate...... (corn cobs) which compared favorably to those reported for the other microorganisms. Use of de-esterified corn cobs as carbon source decreased FAE production by 5.5-fold compared to untreated corn cobs even though ferulic acid (FA) was added to the concentration found in alkali-extracts of corn cobs...

  17. Filtration process cost in submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for urban wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pretel-Jolis, Ruth; Robles Martínez, Ángel; Ruano García, María Victoria; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; FERRER, J.

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the main factors affecting the cost of the filtration process in submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for urban wastewater (UWW) treatment. Experimental data for CAPEX/OPEX calculations was obtained in an AnMBR system featuring industrial-scale hollow-fiber (HF) membranes. Results showed that operating at J(20) slightly higher than the critical flux results in minimum CAPEX/OPEX. The minimum filtration process cost ra...

  18. Global sensitivity analysis of a filtration model for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR)

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; FERRER, J.

    2014-01-01

    The results of a global sensitivity analysis of a filtration model for submerged anaerobic MBRs (AnMBRs) are assessed in this paper. This study aimed to (1) identify the less- (or non-) influential factors of the model in order to facilitate model calibration and (2) validate the modelling approach (i.e. to determine the need for each of the proposed factors to be included in the model). The sensitivity analysis was conducted using a revised version of the Morris screening method. The dynamic...

  19. Response of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilt, Sabine; Nunez, Marta M. Alirangues; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2018-01-01

    composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics...... by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallow areas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative propagules facilitating rapid initial growth and that can complete their life cycle by early summer. Later in the growing season these plants...

  20. Technical note: Cascade of submerged reservoirs as a rainfall-runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Jacek

    2017-09-01

    The rainfall-runoff conceptual model as a cascade of submerged linear reservoirs with particular outflows depending on storages of adjoining reservoirs is developed. The model output contains different exponential functions with roots of Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind as exponents. The model is applied to instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) and recession curve problems and compared with the analogous results of the Nash cascade. A case study is performed on a basis of 46 recession periods. Obtained results show the usefulness of the model as an alternative concept to the Nash cascade.

  1. Ultrastructural characteristic of cells and pigment analysis in floating and submerged leaves of Trapa natans L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlena M. Nedukha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of ultrastructure of the photosynthetic cells and pigment content of Trapa natans in both floating and submerged leaves at vegetative phase were conducted. It has shown that the changes of cell ultrasructure and pigment content in leaves are depended from the location of leaves above or under water surface. It has ascertained that submersion of the leaves under water lead to: 1 increase of thylakoid number in grana; 2 decrease of number of the chloroplasts with starch grains; 3 decrease of the relation between chlorophylls (Chlа/ Chlb and of the sum of chlorophylls (Chlа+ Chlb in comparison with analogical parameters in floating leaves

  2. UV mutagenesis of aspergillus niger for enzyme production in submerged fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.; Syed, Q.; Javed, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to improve the enzyme production from Aspergillus niger using UV mutation. Submerged fermentation was carried out in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask using Vogel's media at 30 deg. C for six days. Results of this study revealed that UV-mutation enhanced CM Case activity up to two times while FPase activity up to three times as compared to the parental strain. For avicelase, xylanase and fungal biomass production, UV radiation has slight effect as compared to parental strain. (author)

  3. On the interaction of a submerged turbulent jet with a clean or contaminated free surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Douglas G.; Hirsa, Amir; Willmarth, William W.

    1991-02-01

    The effect of a free surface on the structure of a submerged turbulent jet is investigated experimentally. Three-component LDV measurements beneath a clean free surface show that the mean flow spreads laterally outward in a shallow surface layer much wider than the mean flow well below the surface. As the free surface is approached, velocity fluctuations normal to the surface are diminished while those parallel to the surface are enhanced. Laser-induced fluorescence is used to show that the surface layer contains fluid ejected from the jet. With the addition of surface-active agents, the surface layer is suppressed.

  4. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  5. Top quark studies with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Capua, Marcella; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The latest top quark studies in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector are reported. We present recent results on the top pair production inclusive cross-sections, top pair production differential cross-section in the resolved and boosted regimes, single top-quark production cross-sections measured in the t-channel, s-channel and W-boson associated processes, as well as the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ determination. The results are compared with theoretical expectations. Latest ATLAS results on top properties will be also shown in terms of direct and mass pole, spin correlations and charge asymmetry.

  6. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2002-06-20

    19th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 19th edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (June 20, 2002). The recently installed Earth Simulator supercomputer at the Earth Simulator Center in Yokohama, Japan, is as expected the clear new number 1. Its performance of 35.86 Tflop/s (trillions of calculations per second) running the Linpack benchmark is almost five times higher than the performance of the now No.2 IBM ASCI White system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (7.2 Tflop/s). This powerful leap frogging to the top by a system so much faster than the previous top system is unparalleled in the history of the TOP500.

  7. D OE top quark mass analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strovink, M.

    1995-07-01

    Based on (44-48 pb -1 ) of lepton + jets data, we review D0's initial analysis of the top quark mass. The result, M top = 199 ± 19/21 (stat.) ± 22 (syst.) GeV/c 2 , is insensitive to background normalization. The errors are based on ISAJET top Monte Carlo, with its more severe gluon radiation, and allow for ISAJET/HERWIG differences. Good progress is being made in reducing the systematic error. We present a new study based on two-dimensional distributions of reconstructed top quark vs. dijet mass. With 98.7% confidence we observe a peak in the top mass - dijet mass plane. The peak and its projections are similar both in shape and magnitude to expectations based on the decay sequence 1 → bW, W → jj

  8. Measurements and searches with top quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    In 1995 the last missing member of the known families of quarks, the top quark, was discovered by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab near Chicago. Until today, the Tevatron is the only place where top quarks can be produced. The determination of top quark production and properties is crucial to understand the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. The most striking property of the top quark is its mass--of the order of the mass of a gold atom and close to the electroweak scale--making the top quark not only interesting in itself but also as a window to new physics. Due to the high mass, much higher than of any other known fermion, it is expected that the top quark plays an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking, which is the most prominent candidate to explain the mass of particles. In the Standard Model, electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by one Higgs field, producing one additional physical particle, the Higgs boson. Although various searches have been performed, for example at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP), no evidence for the Higgs boson could yet be found in any experiment. At the Tevatron, multiple searches for the last missing particle of the Standard Model are ongoing with ever higher statistics and improved analysis techniques. The exclusion or verification of the Higgs boson can only be achieved by combining many techniques and many final states and production mechanisms. As part of this thesis, the search for Higgs bosons produced in association with a top quark pair (t(bar t)H) has been performed. This channel is especially interesting for the understanding of the coupling between Higgs and the top quark. Even though the Standard Model Higgs boson is an attractive candidate, there is no reason to believe that the electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by only one Higgs field. In many models more than one Higgs boson are expected to exist, opening even more channels

  9. Measurements and searches with top quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne [Univ. of Wuppertal (Germany)

    2008-08-01

    In 1995 the last missing member of the known families of quarks, the top quark, was discovered by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab near Chicago. Until today, the Tevatron is the only place where top quarks can be produced. The determination of top quark production and properties is crucial to understand the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. The most striking property of the top quark is its mass--of the order of the mass of a gold atom and close to the electroweak scale--making the top quark not only interesting in itself but also as a window to new physics. Due to the high mass, much higher than of any other known fermion, it is expected that the top quark plays an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking, which is the most prominent candidate to explain the mass of particles. In the Standard Model, electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by one Higgs field, producing one additional physical particle, the Higgs boson. Although various searches have been performed, for example at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP), no evidence for the Higgs boson could yet be found in any experiment. At the Tevatron, multiple searches for the last missing particle of the Standard Model are ongoing with ever higher statistics and improved analysis techniques. The exclusion or verification of the Higgs boson can only be achieved by combining many techniques and many final states and production mechanisms. As part of this thesis, the search for Higgs bosons produced in association with a top quark pair (t$\\bar{t}$H) has been performed. This channel is especially interesting for the understanding of the coupling between Higgs and the top quark. Even though the Standard Model Higgs boson is an attractive candidate, there is no reason to believe that the electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by only one Higgs field. In many models more than one Higgs boson are expected to exist, opening even more

  10. Discovery of single top quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillberg, Dag [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb-1 of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element Vtb, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f1L| = 1.05 -0.12+0.13, where f1L is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5

  11. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Yuki; Pierik, Ronald; Fricker, Mark D; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2012-12-01

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki

    2012-10-18

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Probing top-partners in Higgs + jets

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea; Sanz, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Fermionic top-partners arise in models such as Composite Higgs and Little Higgs. They modify Higgs properties, in particular how the Higgs couples to top quarks. Alas, there is a low-energy cancellation acting in the coupling of the Higgs boson to gluons and photons. As a result of this cancellation, no information about the spectrum and couplings of the top-partners can be obtained in gluon fusion to Higgs, just the overall new physics scale. In this paper we show that this is not the case when hard radiation is taken into account. Indeed, differential distributions in Higgs plus jets are sensitive to the top-partner mass and coupling to the Higgs. We exploit the transverse momentum distribution of the hard jet to obtain limits on the top-partners in the 14 TeV LHC run, finding that 300 ifb of data of 14 TeV LHC are sufficient to rule out top-sector mixing angles $\\sin^2 (\\theta_R)$ > 0.05 for top-partners with masses from 300 GeV to above 2 TeV.

  14. Top Quark Mass Measurement in Dilepton Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysak, Roman [Inst. of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovak Republic)

    2007-06-01

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass from events produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We identify t$\\bar{t}$ candidates where both W bosons from the top quarks decay into leptons (eν, µν, τν) from a data sample of 340 pb-1. The top quark mass is reconstructed in each event separately by the method which draw upon simulated distribution of t$\\bar{t}$ longitudinal momentum in order to extract probability distribution for the top quark mass. Representative distributions, or templates, are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. A likelihood fit incorporating these parametrized templates is then performed on the data sample masses in order to derive a final top quark mass. Measured top quark mass is Mtop = 169.5$+7.7\\atop{-7.2}$(stat.) ± 4.0(syst.) GeV/c2.

  15. The Top Quark, QCD, And New Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.

    2002-06-01

    The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup+}e{sup -}+ t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup+}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.

  16. Semi-isolated, flat-topped carbonate platform (Oligo-Miocene, Sardinia, Italy): Sedimentary architecture and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Stefano; Pistis, Marco; Funedda, Antonio; Loi, Alfredo

    2017-11-01

    The Chattian-Aquitanian carbonate system of Isili sub-basin (SE Sardinia, Italy) were studied to better understand the hydrodynamic processes controlling the formation of landward-downlapping, rhodolith-rich, giant clinoforms. The studied flat-topped platform was attached to an island (semi-isolated) and migrated onshore (landward) over a shallow marine, protected embayment. The depositional profile is characterized by four, sea to land, zones: seaward slope, flat-topped platform (submerged flat), landward slope and mixed siliciclastic-carbonate embayment. In particular, these zones record different levels, from high to moderate, of hydrodynamic energy and persistency. The paleodepth of the studied succession, based on T/D test on Amphistegina specimens, red-algal genera and geometric reconstruction of the overall system, ranges from - 10 to - 30 m for the platform up to around - 40 m for the landward slope base. Thus, the flat-topped platform was permanently submerged and an extensive carbonate (sea grass, algal and bryozoan-algal) factory along with oyster framestones developed. The widespread presence in the barren zones of rhodolith-to-shell rich small to very small compound dunes (high-energy zone) suggests that the flat-topped platform was periodically swept by unidirectional, landward-directed currents. These currents allow the formation of large-scale, rhodolith-rich clinobeds along the landward slope (washover fan-like system). The presence of rodolith pavements developed along the flat-topped platform at or slightly below the fairweather wave base suggests that clinobeds were formed in a nearshore, shallow subtidal setting. Finally, the shallow marine, protected embayment (moderate-energy zone) represents the widening distal reaches of the currents flowing or along the clinoforms or from the coast basinward (river floods and/or ebb tidal currents). Despite few tidal-related sedimentary structures such as bi-directional ripples and small compound dunes

  17. Oxygen, pH, and Eh microprofiles around submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans response to growing stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B.; Wang, G. X.; Yu, H. G.

    2017-08-01

    The periphyton, attached to the surfaces of submerged plants, has important effects on plant growth and development in eutrophic waters. Periphyton complicates the microenvironment of diffusive boundary layer around submerged plants. We researched periphyton characteristics, oxygen (O2), pH, and Eh microprofiles at various growing stages of Vallisneria natans. The results suggested that during the growing period of V. natans, O2 concentration and pH decreased from 0 to 2 mm above the leaf surface, whereas the Eh increased. As V. natans grew, O2 and pH gradually increased until they peaked during stable growing stages, while the Eh decreased. However, during the decline stage, O2 and pH gradually decreased, and Eh increased. To summarise, O2 and pH showed a unimodal pattern in response to the life cycle of V. natans, with the maximum levels during the stable growth stage and the minimum levels during the rapid growth and decline stages. Our study demonstrated that V. natans growth induced steep gradients in O2 concentrations, pH, and Eh at the DBL by increasing the layer’s thickness, macrophyte photosynthetic capacity, and periphyton biomass in eutrophic waters.

  18. Stage–discharge relationship for a pipe overflow structure in both free and submerged flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Isenmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many facilities for urban drainage systems are equipped with a pipe overflow structure that can often be treated as a circular broad-crested weir. Thus it is possible to evaluate the overflow discharge through this device by measuring the water levels in the upstream tank and at the outlet of the pipe. In the present study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD is used to determine a relationship between the discharge and the water levels upstream and downstream of the orifice for a range of diameters between 200 and 600 mm and a relative head up to 2. Over 50 numerical simulations are performed to take into account all the operating conditions of the system: free flow, submerged flow and pressurized flow. A regression is applied to the resulting data in order to obtain an orifice equation valid in both free-flow and submerged-flow regimes. Specific formulas, derived from Bernoulli's theorem, are also given for pressurized flows. The proposed methodology is applied to two examples.

  19. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Submerged pedology: the soils of minor islands in the Venice lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Washa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor islands of the Venice lagoon are part of a delicate ecosystem, with equilibrium that depends on multiple factors deriving from both the aqueous and the terrestrial compartment, and represent useful indicators of the lagoon ecosystem status. Over centuries, some islands emerged, some others disappeared, others are being submerged in consequence of sea level rise, or are dismantled by marine erosion. Ecological survey and soil sampling evidenced rather homogeneous environment and soil characters, likely due to the same genesis from HTM during centuries, and to environmental conditions such as moisture and brackish groundwater. Four of the examined soils are Inceptisols, while the others present limited horizon differentiation, and are Entisols. All the profiles reflect udic or aquic conditions, and some of them are submerged for most time. Most soils are moderately alkaline (7.9 250 g/kg; organic carbon content at surface is within the normal range (8 17 g/kg and carbonates. Moreover, the textural class is generally silty-loam with increasing clay content with depth. Currently, the soils examined present hydromorphic pedofeatures, which are the result of the most important pedogenic process in the lagoon. Alternating reduction/oxidation processes would increase as a consequence of sea level rise, determining reducing conditions at bottom, and conversely enhancing salt concentration uppermost, with negative consequences for both pedogenic evolution and vegetation survival.

  1. Evaluation of some biotechnological parameters influencing the Pleurotus ostreatus biomass production by submerged cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenţiu-Bogdan HORINCAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The submerged culture of mushrooms represents a future for biotechnological processes at industrial level, in order to obtain biomass with economical value (food and ingredients, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Pleurotus ostreatus is well known worldwide for its culinary and medicinal value. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the most important biotechnological parameters that have influence on the biomass production of P. ostreatus, by cultivation in submerged conditions. Applying the Plackett-Burman experimental design, the significant parameters influencing the P. ostreatus biomass production were found to be the concentration of dextrose and yeast extract and time of cultivation. The best results in terms of maximising the biomass production (25.71 g·L-1 were obtained when the “+1” level of each independent variables was used in the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA exhibited a high correlation coefficient (R2 value of 0.9908, which certifies that the mathematical model was relevant for the biotechnological process.

  2. Simulation of flow pattern at rectangular lateral intake with different dike and submerged vane scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Karami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the sediment behavior at the entrance of diversion channels requires complete knowledge of three-dimensional (3D flow behavior around such structures. Dikes and submerged vanes are typical structures used to control sediment entrainment in the diversion channel. In this study, a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD code was calibrated with experimental data and used to evaluate flow patterns, the diversion ratio of discharge, the strength of secondary flow, and dimensions of the vortex inside the channel in various dike and submerged vane installation scenarios. Results show that the diversion ratio of discharge in the diversion channel is dependent on the width of the flow separation plate in the main channel. A dike perpendicular to the flow with a narrowing ratio of 0.20 doubles the ratio of diverted discharge in addition to reducing suspended sediment input to the basin, compared with a no-dike situation, by creating the outer arch conditions. A further increase in the narrowing ratio decreases the diverted discharge. In addition, increasing the longitudinal distance between consecutive vanes (Ls increases the velocity gradient between the vanes and leads to a more severe erosion of the bed, near the vanes.

  3. Submerged Glow-Discharge Plasma: An Economical Approach to Convert Construction Scrap Metal into Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Peter Nai Yuh; Rafiq Mirza Julaihi, Muhammad; Shahril Osman, Mohammad; Tiong, Tung Chuan; Lee, Wak Ha; Leing Lee, Chern

    2018-03-01

    Submerged glow-discharge plasma (SGDP) is relatively new among the various methods available for nanomaterials synthesis (NMs) techniques. This method allows great control over the production cost of nanomaterials synthesis. A lab-scale batch type SDGP technology has been constructed to produce nanomaterials and investigate the inter-relationship between plasma excitation voltages, electrodes submerged areas and electrolyte concentration. Metal oxide nanospheres has been synthesised from different electrolyte concentrations (1M-0.001M) and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). As the major results showed that the nanospheres are uniformly spherical with diameter size distribution are between 100 nm - 2μm. EDS analysis shown the nano-Iron Oxide have been formed. Scrap metal initially showed around 6.45% and 93.55% of Carbon and Iron composition respectively. After SGDP process to the scrap metal, Carbon content has increased to 34-35% and Iron content has reduced to around 15-40%. EDS results also shown the higher percentage of Iron amount has remained with lower electrolyte concentration and Current is proportionally related to submersion area of cathode.

  4. Mowing Submerged Macrophytes in Shallow Lakes with Alternative Stable States: Battling the Good Guys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Jan J.; Verhofstad, Michiel J. J. M.; Louwers, Evelien L. M.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Brederveld, Robert J.; van Gerven, Luuk P. A.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2017-04-01

    Submerged macrophytes play an important role in maintaining good water quality in shallow lakes. Yet extensive stands easily interfere with various services provided by these lakes, and harvesting is increasingly applied as a management measure. Because shallow lakes may possess alternative stable states over a wide range of environmental conditions, designing a successful mowing strategy is challenging, given the important role of macrophytes in stabilizing the clear water state. In this study, the integrated ecosystem model PCLake is used to explore the consequences of mowing, in terms of reducing nuisance and ecosystem stability, for a wide range of external nutrient loadings, mowing intensities and timings. Elodea is used as a model species. Additionally, we use PCLake to estimate how much phosphorus is removed with the harvested biomass, and evaluate the long-term effect of harvesting. Our model indicates that mowing can temporarily reduce nuisance caused by submerged plants in the first weeks after cutting, particularly when external nutrient loading is fairly low. The risk of instigating a regime shift can be tempered by mowing halfway the growing season when the resilience of the system is highest, as our model showed. Up to half of the phosphorus entering the system can potentially be removed along with the harvested biomass. As a result, prolonged mowing can prevent an oligo—to mesotrophic lake from becoming eutrophic to a certain extent, as our model shows that the critical nutrient loading, where the lake shifts to the turbid phytoplankton-dominated state, can be slightly increased.

  5. Differences in Scour for Submerged and Surface Piercing Circular Cylinders in Tandem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvino, N. T.; Riley, D.; Beninati, M. L.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2012-12-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate how the scour hole of surface piercing and submerged cylinders in tandem is affected by the separation of the cylinders. The study was motivated by the need to predict the environmental effects of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines arrays where the cylinders used represent the bluff bodies of MHK turbines. Small scale experiments were performed to find scour rate and scour statistics; including: scour size and deposition. The cases studied were tandem cylinders separated by 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 diameters (D = 2.54 cm). These studies were performed in a test section in the hydraulic flume facility (1.22-m-wide, 0.38-m-deep, and 9.75-m-long) at Bucknell University. The bottoms of each cylinder tested were taped in 0.318 cm color-coded increments and buried beneath the sediment. This allowed for visual determination of the scour rate by looking at how many strips had been uncovered at intervals over three hours of testing at live bed conditions. Subsequently, bed form topology was measured using an HR Wallingford 2D Sediment Bed Profiler with a low-powered laser distance sensor. Results show that surface piercing cylinders in tandem consistently have a wider scour hole than submerged cylinders. Furthermore, it is determined that the threshold for when the tandem cylinders have separate scour holes occurring at a separation of 10 diameters for both sets of cylinders.

  6. Scour around a submerged cylinder and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device in live-bed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninati, Maria Laura; Volpe, Michael; Krane, Michael; Fontaine, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are presented to explore how sediment scour around a single Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine varies with flow speed. Three Reynolds numbers, based on support structure diameter were used to induce live-bed scour conditions. Based on results from previous studies on submerged cylinders, differences in scour patterns between a single cylinder and MHK device can be determined. In the case of MHK energy, many devices are submerged in the flow. Thus, it is important to analyze the impact of both the support structure and the addition of the rotating blades. The experiments were performed in the small-scale testing platform in the hydraulic flume facility at Bucknell University. For each test case, bed form topology was measured after a three-hour time interval using a traversing two-dimensional bed profiler. During the experiment, scour depth measurements at the front face of the cylindrical support structure were taken to estimate the scour rate. Measurements of the bed form were taken across the width of the test section. Results show that the scour hole dimensions increase in the presence of the MHK device. These dimensions also increase with increasing Reynolds number.

  7. ALPHA-AMYLASE PRODUCTION FROM Aspergillus oryzae M BY SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleimenova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of present study was implementation of the Aspergillus oryzae M strain improved technology using earlier developed method of microorganism selection. 8 pure strains of Aspergillus fungi were screened for the production of extra cellular alpha-amylase using agar medium with starch as a substrate and incubated for 72h at 30 ºС. Zone of clearance was observed for screening of the amylolytic fungi (in mm. Aspergillus oryzae M has demonstrated the highest zone of clearance. Aspergillus oryzae M was cultivated for 42 days in submerged conditions of growth using new method of fungal cultivation. This method based on immobilizing enzymes producers on solid career in submerged conditions of growth gives the way to improve quality of filtrates, which remain clear, does not require additional filtering and easily separated from the mycelium. Moreover, it allows to prolong the process of fungal cultivation and to maintain high enzymatic activity for a long period of time. Presented method allowed increasing alpha-amylase production from 321 U/ml (before immobilization to 502 U/ml (after immobilization.

  8. Comparative study on the treatment of raw and biologically treated textile effluents through submerged nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Mengsi; Liu, Meihong; Yu, Sanchuan; Gao, Congjie

    2015-03-02

    Raw and biologically treated textile effluents were submerged filtrated using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of about 650 g/mol. Permeate flux, chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, color removal, membrane fouling, and cleaning were investigated and compared by varying the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and volume concentrating factor (VCF). It was found that both raw and biologically treated textile effluents could be efficiently treated through submerged nanofiltration. The increase of TMP resulted in a decline in water permeability, COD reduction, color removal, and flux recovery ratio, while the increase of VCF resulted in both increased COD reduction and color removal. Under the TMP of 0.4 bar and VCF of 5.0, fluxes of 1.96 and 2.59 l/m(2)h, COD reductions of 95.7 and 94.2%, color removals of 99.0, and 97.3% and flux recovery ratios of 91.1 and 92.9% could be obtained in filtration of raw and biologically treated effluents, respectively. After filtration, the COD and color contents of the raw effluent declined sharply from 1780 to 325 mg/l and 1.200 to 0.060 Abs/cm, respectively, while for the biologically treated effluent, they decreased from 780 to 180 mg/l and 0.370 to 0.045 Abs/cm, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Benthic Macrofauna Associated with Submerged Bottoms of a Tectonic Estuary in Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Guevara-Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and distribution of the main associations of submerged macrobenthos of Bahía Málaga (Colombian pacific coast, were studied in relation to the distribution of hard and soft substrates and some abiotic factors. Eight localities were sampled during six months: three in the external border of the estuary and five in the inner part. In total, 728 organisms were registered, belonging to 207 species, 132 genera, 86 families, and 14 orders of six invertebrate groups (Porifera, Cnidaria, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata. The submerged bottoms presented soft and hard substrates, with rocks and thick sand in five sites, soft bottoms with fine sand in one, and soft bottoms with slime and clay in two. The temperature and salinity values were higher in the external localities, while dissolved oxygen and pH were higher in the internal localities. The localities with hard substrates presented the highest richness of species while the soft substrates, were characterized by a paucity of species and individuals. The similarity classification analyses showed two groups: one characterized by having 61 species in common and high richness with 113 exclusive species. The other group with low diversity and richness values, 37 species in common and 23 exclusive species.

  10. Effects of snails, submerged plants and their coexistence on eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication resulting from nutrient loading to freshwater habitats is a severe problem, leading to degradation of ecosystems, including deterioration of water quality, water clarity and loss of biodiversity. Measures enacted to restore degraded freshwater ecosystems often involve the reintroduction of submerged plants and aquatic animals with beneficial ecological functions. In a mesocosm experiment, three treatments (planting with Vallisneria natans, introduction of the snail Bellamya aeruginosa and a combined treatment with both plants and snails were compared with controls to evaluate their effects on trophic state. The total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP and chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations of planktonic and benthic algal samples were determined every two weeks, along with light intensity at the sediment surface. The plant-only treatment significantly reduced the TN levels and planktonic and benthic algal biomass and increased the light intensity at the sediment surface. The snail-only treatment reduced the concentrations of TN and reduced planktonic and benthic algal biomass. The combined treatment decreased the concentrations of TN and TP, reduced planktonic algal biomass and increased the light intensity on the sediment surface. The results indicate that while submerged plants and snails can both improve water quality, the most pronounced effect in aquatic ecosystems is achieved by their presence in combination. A combined reintroduction approach may provide enhanced benefits in restoring the eutrophic ecosystems, following the reduction of external nutrient loading.

  11. Response of sago pondweed, a submerged aquatic macrophyte, to herbicides in three laboratory culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Ailstock, M.S.; Momot, J.J.; Norman, C.M.; Gorsuch, Joseph W.; Lower, William R.; Wang, Wun-cheng; Lewis, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of atrazine, paraquat, glyphosate, and alachlor to sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), a submerged aquatic macrophyte, was tested under three types of laboratory culture conditions. In each case, tests were conducted in static systems, the test period was four weeks, and herbicide exposure was chronic, resulting from a single addition of herbicide to the test vessels at the beginning of the test period. The three sets of test conditions employed were(1) axenic cultures in 125-mL flasks containing a nutrient media and sucrose; (2) a microcosm system employing 18.9-L buckets containing a sand, shell, and peat substrate; and (3) an algae-free system employing O.95-L jars containing reconstituted freshwater and a nutrient agar substrate. The primary variable measured was biomass production. Plants grew well in all three test systems, with biomass of untreated plants increasing by a factor of about 5 to 6.5 during the four-week test period. Biomass production in response to herbicide exposure differed significantly among culture systems, which demonstrates the need for a standardized testing protocol for evaluating the effects of toxics on submerged aquatic plants.

  12. Comparative study of submerged and surface culture acetification process for orange vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, Cristina; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique; García-Barroso, Carmelo; Castro-Mejías, Remedios

    2018-02-01

    The two main acetification methodologies generally employed in the production of vinegar (surface and submerged cultures) were studied and compared for the production of orange vinegar. Polyphenols (UPLC/DAD) and volatiles compounds (SBSE-GC/MS) were considered as the main variables in the comparative study. Sensory characteristics of the obtained vinegars were also evaluated. Seventeen polyphenols and 24 volatile compounds were determined in the samples during both acetification processes. For phenolic compounds, analysis of variance showed significant higher concentrations when surface culture acetification was employed. However, for the majority of volatile compounds higher contents were observed for submerged culture acetification process, and it was also reflected in the sensory analysis, presenting higher scores for the different descriptors. Multivariate statistical analysis such as principal component analysis demonstrated the possibility of discriminating the samples regarding the type of acetification process. Polyphenols such as apigenin derivative or ferulic acid and volatile compounds such as 4-vinylguaiacol, decanoic acid, nootkatone, trans-geraniol, β-citronellol or α-terpineol, among others, were those compounds that contributed more to the discrimination of the samples. The acetification process employed in the production of orange vinegar has been demonstrated to be very significant for the final characteristics of the vinegar obtained. So it must be carefully controlled to obtain high quality products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Growth and physiological responses of submerged plant Vallisneria natans to water column ammonia nitrogen and sediment copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengjie; Song, Siyuan; Li, Pengshan; Jeelani, Nasreen; Wang, Penghe; Yuan, Hezhong; Zhang, Jinghan; An, Shuqing; Leng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The decline of submerged plant populations due to high heavy metal (e.g., Cu) levels in sediments and ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) accumulation in the freshwater column has become a significant global problem. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of ammonia-N on submerged macrophytes, but few have focused on the influence of sediment Cu on submerged macrophytes and their combined effects. Methods. In this paper, we selected three levels of ammonia-N (0, 3, and 6 mg L(-1)) and sediment Cu (25.75 ± 6.02 as the control, 125.75 ± 6.02, and 225.75 ± 6.02 mg kg(-1)), to investigate the influence of sediment Cu and ammonia-N on submerged Vallisneria natans. We measured the relative growth rate (RGR), above- and below- ground biomass, chlorophyll, non-protein thiol (NP-SH), and free proline. Results and Discussion. The below-ground biomass of V. natans decreased with increasing Cu sediment levels, suggesting that excessive sediment Cu can result in significant damage to the root of V. natans. Similarly, the above-ground biomass significantly decreased with increasing ammonia-N concentrations, indicating that excessive water ammonia-N can cause significant toxicity to the leaf of V. natans. In addition, high ammonia-N levels place a greater stress on submerged plants than sediment Cu, which is indicated by the decline of RGR and chlorophyll, and the increase of (NP-SH) and free proline. Furthermore, high sediment Cu causes ammonia-N to impose greater injury on submerged plants, and higher sediment Cu levels (Cu ≥ 125.75 mg kg(-1)) led to the tolerant values of ammonia-N for V. natans decreasing from 6 to 3 mg L(-1). This study suggests that high sediment Cu restricts the growth of plants and intensifies ammonia-N damage to V. natans.

  14. Growth and physiological responses of submerged plant Vallisneria natans to water column ammonia nitrogen and sediment copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjie Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The decline of submerged plant populations due to high heavy metal (e.g., Cu levels in sediments and ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N accumulation in the freshwater column has become a significant global problem. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of ammonia-N on submerged macrophytes, but few have focused on the influence of sediment Cu on submerged macrophytes and their combined effects. Methods. In this paper, we selected three levels of ammonia-N (0, 3, and 6 mg L−1 and sediment Cu (25.75 ± 6.02 as the control, 125.75 ± 6.02, and 225.75 ± 6.02 mg kg−1, to investigate the influence of sediment Cu and ammonia-N on submerged Vallisneria natans. We measured the relative growth rate (RGR, above- and below- ground biomass, chlorophyll, non-protein thiol (NP-SH, and free proline. Results and Discussion. The below-ground biomass of V. natans decreased with increasing Cu sediment levels, suggesting that excessive sediment Cu can result in significant damage to the root of V. natans. Similarly, the above-ground biomass significantly decreased with increasing ammonia-N concentrations, indicating that excessive water ammonia-N can cause significant toxicity to the leaf of V. natans. In addition, high ammonia-N levels place a greater stress on submerged plants than sediment Cu, which is indicated by the decline of RGR and chlorophyll, and the increase of (NP-SH and free proline. Furthermore, high sediment Cu causes ammonia-N to impose greater injury on submerged plants, and higher sediment Cu levels (Cu ≥ 125.75 mg kg−1 led to the tolerant values of ammonia-N for V. natans decreasing from 6 to 3 mg L−1. This study suggests that high sediment Cu restricts the growth of plants and intensifies ammonia-N damage to V. natans.

  15. Measurement of the top quark mass from single-top production events

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We measure the mass of the top quark from events where a single top quark is produced. The analysis is performed on data from $\\mathrm{pp}$ collisions collected by the CMS detector at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. The top quark is reconstructed from its decay $\\mathrm{t} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{W}^+ \\mathrm{b}$, with the $\\mathrm{W}$ boson decaying leptonically in the muon channel. Specific event topology and kinematic properties are used in order to enrich the sample in single-top-quark events in the t-channel, at the expense of top-quark pair production events. For the single-top quark component, a fit to the reconstructed top invariant mass distribution yields $m_{\\mathrm{t}}=172.60 \\pm 0.77~\\mathrm{(stat)}~^{+0.97}_{-0.93}~\\mathrm{(syst)}$ GeV.

  16. Study of correlation of PDF uncertainty in single top and top pair production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The incomplete knowledge of parton distribution functions is an important source of systematic uncertainty for top-quark measurements, including top-quark pair and single top-quark production cross sections, as well as for analyses that have a large background from these processes. The correlation of the parton-distribution-function uncertainty is studied for top-quark pair production and single top-quark production in association with a W boson, in final states with two reconstructed leptons. Four types of correlation are studied: between total production cross-sections, between cross-section and acceptance correction, between the two processes for common selection requirements, and between different jet multiplicity requirements. The uncertainty correlation is evaluated for several sets of parton distribution functions using simulated samples of top-quark pair and single top-quark events.

  17. Top quark mass measurement at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; /Harvard U.

    2004-12-01

    The authors report on the latest experimental measurements of the top quark mass by the CDF and D0 Collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron. They present a new top mass measurement using the t{bar t} events collected by the D0 Collaboration in Run I between 1994 and 1996. This result is combined with previous measurements to yield a new world top mass average. They also describe several preliminary results using up to 193 pb{sup -1} of t{bar t} events produced in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV during the Run II of the Tevatron.

  18. The search for top at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, T.M.

    1991-08-01

    We present results on the search for the top quark in bar pp collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV. The data sample collected during the 1988--89 run with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) includes more than 4 pb -1 . We report here on an extension of previously published searches for the top quark in electron + jets and the dilepton channel electron-muon. The 95% confidence level limit on the top mass is 89 GeV/c 2

  19. Search for top in UA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repellin, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A search for the top quark in the data collected during 1988 by the UA2 collaboration at the CERN proton-antiproton collider is presented. In UA2 the selected decay mode is t → eν-barb. The present report is limited to the study of topologies with an electron, a neutrino, and two or more jets. With an integrated luminosity of 2.5 pb -1 the data do not show any contribution from top and at this preliminary stage of the analysis a top mass between 30 and 60 GeV seems excluded. (K.A.) 9 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Top physics in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Diez, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    A selection of recent results of top quark production performed by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC is presented. The results include measurements of top quark pair production, including inclusive and differential cross sections, as well as cross sections for ${\\rm t\\bar{t}}$ production in association with additional heavy-quark jets or additional bosons. The production of single top quarks via t-channel, tW associated production, and in association with a Z boson is also discussed. The results discussed are mostly obtained using data collected in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV.