WorldWideScience

Sample records for tooth-biomaterial interfaces prepared

  1. The interface between blood preparation and use in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Bimenya, G.; Smit Sibinga, Cornelis

    Background and Objectives The interface between preparation and use of blood impacts directly on the outcome of hemotherapy. The present study explores the knowledge and opinions of key players at, practical realities at, and quality improvement strategies of this interface. Materials and Methods We

  2. The interface between blood preparation and use in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajja, I; Bimenya, G; Smit Sibinga, C

    2010-04-01

    The interface between preparation and use of blood impacts directly on the outcome of hemotherapy. The present study explores the knowledge and opinions of key players at, practical realities at, and quality improvement strategies of this interface. We surveyed clinicians (n = 81) and blood bank staff (n = 25) to assess their knowledge on key issues in their counterparts' working domains, the turnaround time on effecting a blood order from a hospital transfusion laboratory and strategies to improve communication of blood needs to blood banks. Out of 81 clinicians, 20 knew the four available blood products while only 17 knew the three uses of these products. Twenty-three blood bank staff reported the patient's condition as the main factor on which blood orders are based. Forty-four (54.3%) clinicians reported reception of a blood product within an hour of placing the order. Addressing infrastructure and human resource were some of the strategies suggested to improve this step of the transfusion chain. The knowledge of staff at the extreme ends of the clinical interface in their counterparts' working domain is far from adequate. However, they have well formed opinions on strategies to improve this interface.

  3. TEM specimen preparation of semiconductor-PMMA-metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangadurai, P.; Lumelsky, Yulia; Silverstein, Michael S.; Kaplan, Wayne D.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section specimens of PMMA in contact with gold and Si were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) and compared with plan-view PMMA specimens prepared by a dip-coating technique. The specimens were characterized by TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In the cross-section specimens, the thin films of PMMA were located in a Si-PMMA-Au multilayer. Different thicknesses of PMMA films were spin-coated on the Si substrates. The thickness of the TEM specimens prepared by FIB was estimated using EELS to be 0.65 of the plasmon mean-free-path. Along the PMMA-Au interface, Au particle diffusion into the PMMA was observed, and the size of the Au particles was in the range of 2-4 nm. Dip-coating of PMMA directly on Cu TEM grids resulted in thin specimens with a granular morphology, with a thickness of 0.58 of the plasmon mean-free-path. The dip-coated specimens were free from ion milling induced artifacts, and thus serve as control specimens for comparison with the cross-sectioned specimens prepared by FIB

  4. Magnetic nanofilms of nickel prepared at the liquid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, Neenu; Rao, C.N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Formation of nickel thinfims at the organic-aqueous interface at room temperature. → Thickness of nanofilm is ∼20 nm. → Ni nanofilms exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. → Thicker Ni films are obtained at a higher temperature (60 o C). -- Abstract: Thin films of metallic nickel with a thickness of the order of 20 nm have been prepared at the organic-aqueous interface at room temperature by the reaction of nickel cupferronate [Ni(C 6 H 5 N 2 O 2 ) 2 ] in toluene medium and sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) in aqueous medium. The films were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Thicker Ni films could be prepared by carrying out the reaction at the interface at 60 o C. The Ni nanofilms exhibit superparamagnetic behavior.

  5. Adhesive interfaces of enamel and dentin prepared by air-abrasion at different distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; Andreolli do Amaral, Thais Helena; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the morphology of enamel and dentin/adhesive interfaces in cavities prepared by air-abrasion at different working distances. Thirty sound third human molars were selected and, on both their buccal and lingual surfaces, class V cavities were prepared by air-abrasion, at 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-mm working distances, or high-speed bur (control group). After preparation, all cavities were etched with 35% phosphoric acid gel and restored with Single Bond/Filtek Z-250. Buccal and lingual surfaces were separated and restorations sectioned in a buccolingual direction, providing two sections of each cavity, which were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that the distances of 6 and 8 mm promoted more homogeneous dentin/adhesive interfaces, with tags formation, and more uniform for enamel, which were similar to the control group. It may be concluded that the air-abrasion working distance can influence the morphology of enamel and dentin/adhesive interfaces, and the intermediate distances provided better adhesive interfaces

  6. Asymmetric interfaces in Fe/Ag and Ag/Fe bilayers prepared by molecular beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunyogi, A. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: tunyogi@rmki.kfki.hu; Paszti, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Osvath, Z. [MTA Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Tancziko, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Major, M. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-08-15

    Single layers of Fe and Ag, as well as Fe/Ag (iron deposited first) and Ag/Fe bilayers were prepared by molecular beam evaporation onto Si. The samples were investigated with backscattering spectrometry (BS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). BS spectra of Fe/Ag and Ag/Fe indicate a significant difference at the interface. In the case of Fe/Ag the Ag peak has a long tail at the interface, while for Ag/Fe the interface is abrupt. The tail in the Fe/Ag spectrum is too large to be caused by double or plural scattering. According to AFM, the effect of surface roughness is also negligible. In spite of the fact that Fe and Ag are completely immiscible in equilibrium, this tail, however, suggests that some Ag is located in the Fe layer. After annealing, both samples show mixing between the two layers; this is much larger again for Fe/Ag.

  7. Tangible User Interfaces and Contrasting Cases as a Preparation for Future Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bertrand; Blikstein, Paulo

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we describe an experiment that compared the use of a Tangible User Interface (physical objects augmented with digital information) and a set of Contrasting Cases as a preparation for future learning. We carried out an experiment (N = 40) with a 2 × 2 design: the first factor compared traditional instruction ("Tell & Practice") with a constructivist activity designed using the Preparation for Future Learning framework (PFL). The second factor contrasted state-of-the-art PFL learning activity (i.e., students studying Contrasting Cases) with an interactive tabletop featuring digitally enhanced manipulatives. In agreement with prior work, we found that dyads of students who followed the PFL activity achieved significantly higher learning gains compared to their peers who followed a traditional "Tell & Practice" instruction (large effect size). A similar effect was found in favor of the interactive tabletop compared to the Contrasting Cases (small-to-moderate effect size). We discuss implications for designing socio-constructivist activities using new computer interfaces.

  8. Influence of interface preparation on minority carrier lifetime for low bandgap tandem solar cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Nadine; Sagol, B. Erol; Seidel, Ulf; Schwarzburg, Klaus; Hannappel, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    III-V semiconductor compounds grown by MOVPE are implemented in todays state-of-the-art third generation multi-junction solar cells. The current record multi junction solar cell grown on germanium, having Ge, Ga(In)As and GaInP as subcells, reached a record efficiency of 41.6%. The efficiency of these multi junction solar cells could be significantly increased, if its low bandgap Ge subcell would be replaced by a more efficient tandem. For this purpose the low bandgap materials InGaAs and InGaAsP are suitable. The bandgap composition of these materials allows a better yield of the solar spectrum. Based on InGaAs/InGaAsP absorber materials we have developed a low bandgap tandem solar cell with optimized bandgaps. Results of time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) for the IR-bandgap compounds InGaAsP (1.03 eV)/InGaAs (0.73 eV) are presented. The lifetime of minority carriers is one of the most important properties of solar cell absorber materials. We show on the example of the low band gap tandem cell how the choice of the materials, the quality of the bulk, the optimization of the band gap energies and the preparation of the critical interfaces are essential to build a high efficiency solar cell. The quality of the bulk and the preparation of the critical interfaces are essential for the growth of the double heterostructure (DHS).

  9. Diffusion and Interface Effects during Preparation of All-Solid Microstructured Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobelke Jens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available All-solid microstructured optical fibers (MOF allow the realization of very flexible optical waveguide designs. They are prepared by stacking of doped silica rods or canes in complex arrangements. Typical dopants in silica matrices are germanium and phosphorus to increase the refractive index (RI, or boron and fluorine to decrease the RI. However, the direct interface contact of stacking elements often causes interrelated chemical reactions or evaporation during thermal processing. The obtained fiber structures after the final drawing step thus tend to deviate from the targeted structure risking degrading their favored optical functionality. Dopant profiles and design parameters (e.g., the RI homogeneity of the cladding are controlled by the combination of diffusion and equilibrium conditions of evaporation reactions. We show simulation results of diffusion and thermal dissociation in germanium and fluorine doped silica rod arrangements according to the monitored geometrical disturbances in stretched canes or drawn fibers. The paper indicates geometrical limits of dopant structures in sub-µm-level depending on the dopant concentration and the thermal conditions during the drawing process. The presented results thus enable an optimized planning of the preform parameters avoiding unwanted alterations in dopant concentration profiles or in design parameters encountered during the drawing process.

  10. Ultraclean Si/Si interface formation by surface preparation and direct bonding in ultrahigh vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansson, Karin; Grey, Francois; Bengtsson, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Silicon surfaces have been cleaned and bonded in ultrahigh vacuum, at a pressure in the 10(-10) Torr range. The bonded interfaces show extremely low contamination levels as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Nevertheless, a potential barrier could be detected at the interface by spreading...

  11. SWATMOD-PREP: Graphical user interface for preparing coupled SWAT-modflow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents SWATMOD-Prep, a graphical user interface that couples a SWAT watershed model with a MODFLOW groundwater flow model. The interface is based on a recently published SWAT-MODFLOW code that couples the models via mapping schemes. The spatial layout of SWATMOD-Prep guides the user t...

  12. Preparing for Future Learning with a Tangible User Interface: The Case of Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B.; Wallace, J.; Blikstein, P.; Pea, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of a microworld-based learning environment for neuroscience. Our system, BrainExplorer, allows students to discover the way neural pathways work by interacting with a tangible user interface. By severing and reconfiguring connections, users can observe how the visual field is impaired and,…

  13. Surface Reconstruction for Preparation of Plasmonic Au/TiO₂ Nanoparticle with Perfect Hetero Interface and Improved Photocatalytic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guoqiu; Ping, Chen; Zhao, Qin; Cao, Min; Jin, Yonglong; Ge, Cunwang

    2018-07-01

    The photocatalytic activity of plasmonic Au/TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) is dependent on distances between Au and TiO2. The preparation of plasmonic NPs is still a challenge because of an inherent lattice mismatch on heterogeneous interfaces. The combination between Au and TiO2 NPs often exhibits physical adsorption, which affect block the electron transferring process by photo-induction from TiO2 to Au NPs and weaken the photocatalytic activity. In this work an approach for preparing plasmonic Au/TiO2 NPs with perfect hetero-interface was proposed based on reconstruction of anatase TiO2 with (101) surface and in-situ reduction of Au NPs. Under UV-irradiation, anatase TiO2 NPs with a high percentage of (001) facets in formaldehyde solution undergo photochemical reactions to reconstruct the (101) surface of TiO2 and simultaneously allow polyformaldehyde to absorb on the same surface. Thus, Au(OH)-4 ions could be adsorbed on the (101) surfaces of TiO2 through electrostatic adsorption and reduced to form nano-Au in situ after recrystallization at 180 °C. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images showed clear nanoscale lattice transition on heterogeneous interfaces of Au/TiO2 NPs. The surface structure of TiO2 NPs and the growth mechanism of Au/TiO2 NPs were evaluated with HRTEM, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was demonstrated that the as-prepared plasmonic Au/TiO2 NPs had higher photocatalytic activity and corrosion resistance in comparison with primary TiO2 NPs by photo-electrochemical measurements. The reinforcing mechanism could be interpreted with Mott-Schottky analysis in terms of quantum mechanics. Our study implied that the reconstruction based synthesis may open up more opportunities to obtain lattice-mismatch nanomaterials for photocatalysis.

  14. Existing Fortran interfaces to Trilinos in preparation for exascale ForTrilinos development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Katherine J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Young, Mitchell T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Prokopenko, Andrey V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heroux, Michael A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report summarizes the current state of Fortran interfaces to the Trilinos library within several key applications of the Exascale Computing Program (ECP), with the aim of informing developers about strategies to develop ForTrilinos, an exascale-ready, Fortran interface software package within Trilinos. The two software projects assessed within are the DOE Office of Science's Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) atmosphere component, CAM, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's core-simulator portion of VERA, a nuclear reactor simulation code. Trilinos is an object-oriented, C++ based software project, and spans a collection of algorithms and other enabling technologies such as uncertainty quantification and mesh generation. To date, Trilinos has enabled these codes to achieve large-scale simulation results, however the simulation needs of CAM and VERA-CS will approach exascale over the next five years. A Fortran interface to Trilinos that enables efficient use of programming models and more advanced algorithms is necessary. Where appropriate, the needs of the CAM and VERA-CS software to achieve their simulation goals are called out specifically. With this report, a design document and execution plan for ForTrilinos development can proceed.

  15. Preparation of N-Graphdiyne Nanosheets at Liquid/Liquid Interface for Photocatalytic NADH Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingyan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Yingjie; Chen, Siqi; Xue, Bo; Kan, Xiaonan; Huang, Xiaowen; Liu, Jian; Li, Zhibo

    2018-04-16

    Two-dimensional (2D) N-graphdiyne (N-GDY) nanosheets containing different number of N were synthesized by polymerization of triazine, pyrazine, and pyridine-based monomers at liquid/liquid interface. The configurations and nanostructures of N-GDY were well-characterized. The wettability changed to more hydrophilic as the N contents increased. The collected N-GDY was further employed as metal-free photocatalyst for NADH regeneration. The catalytic performance was related with the N content in the graphdiyne. The N3-GDY demonstrated the best activity. This strategy provided a new promising platform of designing unique 2D N-GDY with tunable performance in biorelated catalysis.

  16. Utilization of surface active sites on gold in preparation of highly reactive interfaces for alcohols electrooxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Kulyk, Nadiia; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Pt/Au and Pd/Au surface interfaces show very high activity in electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media. In this work, we present a method for preparation of such structures, which is based on galvanic displacement of the more noble gold with the less noble elements, and investigate their electrocatalytic properties. We propose that active states atoms on the surface of gold may be replaced with Pt and Pd. The generation of active sites on gold is achieved by cathodization in acidic solution. We show that depending on the cathodization time (active sites amount) gold surface electrochemistry changes from that resembling Au to the one typical for pure Pt. The Pt/Au structures prepared with a trace amount of platinum show extremely high electrocatalytic activity. The peak current of methanol oxidation on the Pt/Au electrode is more than an order of magnitude higher than that of the platinum film electrode and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that on the gold unactivated electrode. The difference in the peak current of ethanol oxidation between the Pt/Au and Pt electrodes is ca. 25 times. Moreover, similar deposition of Pt and Pd on active sites on high surface area gold prepared by hydrogen evolution assisted deposition and improved electrocatalytic properties of such structures toward alcohols oxidation is shown.

  17. Preparation of multilayered nanocrystalline thin films with composition-modulated interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, D.; Barna, P.B.; Szekely, L.; Geszti, O.; Hattori, T.; Devenyi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of multilayer thin film structures depend on the morphology and structure of interfaces. A broad interface, in which the composition is varying, can enhance, e.g., the hardness of multilayer thin films. In the present experiments multilayers of TiAlN and CrN as well as TiAlN, CrN and MoS 2 were studied by using unbalanced magnetron sputter sources. The sputter sources were arranged side by side on an arc. This arrangement permits development of a transition zone between the layers, where the composition changes continuously. The multilayer system was deposited by one-fold oscillating movement of substrates in front of sputter sources. Thicknesses of layers could be changed both by oscillation frequency and by the power applied to sputter sources. Ti/Al: 50/50 at%, pure chromium and MoS 2 targets were used in the sputter sources. The depositions were performed in an Ar-N 2 mixture at 0.22 Pa working pressure. The sputtering power of the TiAl source was feed-back adjusted in fuzzy-logic mode in order to avoid fluctuation of the TiAl target sputter rate due to poisoning of the target surface. Structure characterization of films deposited on Si wafers covered by thermally grown SiO 2 was performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. At first a 100 nm thick Cr base layer was deposited on the substrate to improve adhesion, which was followed by a CrN transition layer. The CrN transition layer was followed by a 100 nm thick TiAlN/CrN multilayer system. The TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system was deposited on the surface of this underlayer system. The underlayer systems Cr, CrN and TiAlN/CrN were crystalline with columnar structure according to the morphology of zone T of the structure zone models. The column boundaries contained segregated phases showing up in the under-focused TEM images. The surface of the underlayer system was wavy due to dome-shaped columns. The nanometer-scaled TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system followed this waviness

  18. Preparation of monodispersed Pd nanoparticles by laser ablation at air-suspension interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Teppei, E-mail: e1481@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Suzuki, Noritomo; Takahashi, Naoko; Yano, Kazuhisa [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc. (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    A novel route to produce nanocolloid of single nano-sized particles was developed. Pd particles are stirred in water. Then laser ablation was conducted using a second harmonic light from Nd:YAG laser system focused on the air-liquid interface. We could obtain yellow nanocolloid. Pd nanoparticles have been stably dispersed in water without any chemical reagents for >1 year. Large absorption below 500 nm could be confirmed. The surface condition of colloidal particles was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of dried particles on Si wafer and pH measurement of nanocolloid. The range of pH value of nanocolloid was from 2 to 3. On the other hand, NO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} were detected on the dried sample by XPS spectrum. In addition, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods revealed a very narrow size distribution. The size distribution in the range from 0.5 to 1.5 nm was confirmed by DLS method. The size distribution and stability of Pd nanocolloid could be explained by chemical reaction between air, water, and Pd target due to excitation by pulsed laser irradiation and production of active particles in the laser-induced plasma.

  19. Preparation of monodispersed Pd nanoparticles by laser ablation at air–suspension interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Teppei; Suzuki, Noritomo; Takahashi, Naoko; Yano, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    A novel route to produce nanocolloid of single nano-sized particles was developed. Pd particles are stirred in water. Then laser ablation was conducted using a second harmonic light from Nd:YAG laser system focused on the air–liquid interface. We could obtain yellow nanocolloid. Pd nanoparticles have been stably dispersed in water without any chemical reagents for >1 year. Large absorption below 500 nm could be confirmed. The surface condition of colloidal particles was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of dried particles on Si wafer and pH measurement of nanocolloid. The range of pH value of nanocolloid was from 2 to 3. On the other hand, NO 3 and NO 2 were detected on the dried sample by XPS spectrum. In addition, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods revealed a very narrow size distribution. The size distribution in the range from 0.5 to 1.5 nm was confirmed by DLS method. The size distribution and stability of Pd nanocolloid could be explained by chemical reaction between air, water, and Pd target due to excitation by pulsed laser irradiation and production of active particles in the laser-induced plasma.

  20. Optical properties of cadmium sulfide nanocrystal film prepared by electrochemical synthesis at liquid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Yemei; An Maozhong; Lu Guoqi

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic nanocrystalline CdS film was deposited at liquid-liquid interface of surfactants and an electrolyte containing 4 mmol L -1 cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) and 16 mmol L -1 thioacetamide (CH 3 CSNH 2 ) with an initial pH value of 5 at 15 deg. C by electrochemical synthesis. The nanofilm was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The surface morphology and particle size of the nanofilm were investigated by AFM, SEM and TEM, and the crystalline size was 30-50 nm. The thickness of the nanofilm calculated by optical absorption spectrum was 80 nm. The microstructure and composition of the nanofilm was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), showing its polycrystalline structure consisting of CdS and Cd. Optical properties of the nanofilm were investigated systematically by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. A λ onset blue shift compared with bulk CdS was observed in the absorption spectra. Fluorescence spectra of the nanofilm indicated that the CdS nanofilm emitted blue and green light. The nanocomposites film electrode will bring about anodic photocurrent during illumination, showing that the transfer of cavities produces photocurrent

  1. Aan der Waals terminated silicon(111) surfaces and interfaces. Preparation, morphology, and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the implementation of the concept of the quasi-van der Waals epitaxy as a new perspective for the integration of reactive and lattice-defect fitted materials into the silicon technology. The experimental characterization of this approach pursues in two subsequent sections. First the chemical and electronic passivation of a three-dimensional substrate (silicon) is studied by means of an ultrathin buffer layer from the material class of the layered-lattice chalcogenides (GaSe). The substrate surface (Si(111):GaSe) modified in this way possesses an inert van der Waals surface and serves in the following as base for the deposition of the against the non-passivated substrate really reactive and lattice-defect fitted materials (II-VI-compound semiconductors and metals) The characterization of the electronic and chemical properties of the surfaces and interfaces pursues with highly resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). The results are supplemented by the characterization of the morphology by the diffraction of low-energy electrons (LEED) and the scanning tunnel microscopy (STM)

  2. Continuous Reduced Graphene Oxide Film Prepared by Stitching of Nanosheets at the Interface of Two Immiscible Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Young Ku; Kim, Seog K.; Min, Bong Ki

    2011-01-01

    RGO sheets dispersed in water are prepared by chemical reduction of GO using ascorbic acid. By mixing and sonication of submicron-size RGO sheets in two immiscible liquids (e. g., chloroform and water) for the first time we have prepared a continuous large-area RGO film at the interface. In other words, we have shown that aggregated RGO sheets could be fully stretched at the interface to form a continuous film. The RGO film has been characterized by SEM, TEM, UV-vis absorption, XPS and Raman. The film exhibits high flexibility, transparency, and very long-term stability without forming aggregations. Without requiring vapor deposition, a special instrument, or a filtration followed by a removing the filter paper one could easily achieve a continuous RGO-film in any laboratories. Our solution-based method is much simpler and cost-effective, and very good for large scale mass production. This finding could boost real applications of graphene in laboratory and industry, and provide a new methodology for the fabrication of large-area continuous graphene films. Graphene, an atom-thick two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice sheet of sp 2 -bonded carbon atoms, has recently been emerged as a new promising material in various fields. Because of its gigantic charge carrier mobility it could be applied to field-effect transistors as a substitute of silicon. Due to its transparency and high electrical conductivity, it could be used as a substitute of ITO electrode in solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Other superior properties include large surface area, flexibility, strength, stiffness, and thermal conductivity. These provides wide applications of graphene including supercapa-citor, battery, sensor, storage and drug delivery. For real applications, large-scale of graphene sheets or films needs to be prepared. Large-area (orders of centimeters) graphene films have recently been fabricated using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method on various metal substrates. This

  3. Atomic and electronic structure of a copper/graphene interface as prepared and 1.5 years after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhvalov, D. W.; Bazylewski, P. F.; Kukharenko, A. I.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Ponosov, Yu. S.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Cholakh, S. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Chang, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report the results of X-ray spectroscopy and Raman measurements of as-prepared graphene on a high quality copper surface and the same materials after 1.5 years under different conditions (ambient and low humidity). The obtained results were compared with density functional theory calculations of the formation energies and electronic structures of various structural defects in graphene/Cu interfaces. For evaluation of the stability of the carbon cover, we propose a two-step model. The first step is oxidation of the graphene, and the second is perforation of graphene with the removal of carbon atoms as part of the carbon dioxide molecule. Results of the modeling and experimental measurements provide evidence that graphene grown on high-quality copper substrate becomes robust and stable in time (1.5 years). However, the stability of this interface depends on the quality of the graphene and the number of native defects in the graphene and substrate. The effect of the presence of a metallic substrate with defects on the stability and electronic structure of graphene is also discussed

  4. Effects of low-intensity GaAlAs laser radiation (λ=660 nm) on dentine-pulp interface after class I cavity preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Bruno Miranda

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity irradiation with GaAlAs laser (red emission) on the ultrastructure of dentine-pulp interface after conventionally prepared class I cavity preparation. Two patients with 8 premolars for extraction indicated for orthodontic reasons. Class I cavities were prepared in these teeth that were then divided into two groups. The first group received a treatment with laser with continuous emission, λ=660 nm, with maximum power output of 30 mW. The dosimetry applied was of approximately 2J/cm 2 , directly and perpendicularly into the cavity in only one section. After the irradiation, the cavities were filled with composite resin. The second group received the same treatment, except by the laser therapy. Twenty-eight days after the preparation, the teeth were extracted and were processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Two sound teeth, without any preparation, were also studied. The irradiated group presented odontoblastic processes in higher contact with the extracellular matrix and the collagen fibers appeared more aggregated and organized than those of control group. These results were also observed in the healthy-teeth. Thus, we suggest that laser irradiation accelerates the recovery of the dental structures involved in the cavity preparation at the pre-dentine level. (author)

  5. Photoelectric properties by interface effect of organic/inorganic(CuPc/PbTe) multilayer prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Choi, B C; Jeong, J H; Tabata, H; Kawai, T

    1999-01-01

    Highly crystallized CuPc/PbTe multilayer are prepared at substrate temperature from room temperature to 300 .deg. C by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation method. From the measurement of AFM image, these all film exhibits composed of round grains and flat matrix. For observation the interface effect of multilayer, we measured the transverse current-voltage characteristics in the dark and under illumination. The photocarrier is generated in the CuPc layer and the electron-hole pairs are separated by the steep incline of the potential near the CuPc/PbTe interface. The CuPc/PbTe multilayers in the in-plane current-voltage curve exhibit larger photoconduction effect than that of CuPc single layer.

  6. Diffusion of Acetic Acid Across Oil/Water Interface in Emulsification-Internal Gelation Process for Preparation of Alginate Gel Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-dong; YU Wei-ting; LIN Jun-zhang; MA Xiao-jun; YUAN Quan

    2007-01-01

    Alginate has been widely used in cell microencapsulation and drug delivery systems in the form of gel beads or microcapsules. Although an alternative novel emulsification-internal gelation technology has been established and both the properties and the potential applications of the beads in drug delivery systems have been studied, the mechanism has not been well understood compared with the traditional droplet method( external gelation technology). On the basis of our previous knowledge that the novel technology is composed of complicatedly consecutive processes with multistep diffusion and re action, and the diffusion of acetic acid across oil/water interface being the prerequisite that determines the occurrence and rate for the reactions and the structures and properties of final produced gel beads, a special emphasis was placed on the diffusion process. With the aid of diffusion modeling and simple experimental design, the diffusion rate constant and diffusion coefficient of acetic acid across oil/water interface were determined to be in the orders of magnitude of 10-6 and 10-16, respectively. This knowledge will be of particular importance in understanding and interpreting the formation, structure of the gel beads and the relationship between the structure and properties and guiding the preparation and quality control of the gel beads.

  7. Preparing MD-PhD students for clinical rotations: navigating the interface between PhD and MD training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Charles; Insel, Paul A

    2013-06-01

    Many aspects of MD-PhD training are not optimally designed to prepare students for their future roles as translational clinician-scientists. The transition between PhD research efforts and clinical rotations is one hurdle that must be overcome. MD-PhD students have deficits in clinical skills compared with those of their MD-only colleagues at the time of this transition. Reimmersion programs (RPs) targeted to MD-PhD students have the potential to help them navigate this transition.The authors draw on their experience creating and implementing an RP that incorporates multiple types of activities (clinical exam review, objective structured clinical examination, and supervised practice in patient care settings) designed to enhance the participants' skills and readiness for clinical efforts. On the basis of this experience, they note that MD-PhD students' time away from the clinical environment negatively affects their clinical skills, causing them to feel underprepared for clinical rotations. The authors argue that participation in an RP can help students feel more comfortable speaking with and examining patients and decrease their anxiety regarding clinical encounters. The authors propose that RPs can have positive outcomes for improving the transition from PhD to clinical MD training in dual-degree programs. Identifying and addressing this and other transitions need to be considered to improve the educational experience of MD-PhD students.

  8. Morphology of resin-dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Franziska; Buchmair, Alfred; Körpert, Wolfram; Marvastian, Leila; Wernisch, Johann; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to show the modifications in the ultrastructure of the dentin surface morphology following different surface treatments. The stability of the adhesive compound with dentin after laser preparation compared with conventional preparation using different bonding agents was evaluated. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser and 36% phosphoric acid in combination with various bonding systems were used. A total of 100 caries-free human third molars were used in this study. Immediately after surgical removal teeth were cut using a band saw and 1-mm thick dentin slices were created starting at a distance of 4 mm from the cusp plane to ensure complete removal of the enamel. The discs were polished with silicon carbide paper into rectangular shapes to a size of 6 × 4 mm (±0,2 mm).The discs as well as the remaining teeth stumps were stored in 0.9% NaCl at room temperature. The specimens were divided into three main groups (group I laser group, group II etch group, group III laser and etch group) and each group was subdivided into three subgroups which were allocated to the different bonding systems (subgroup A Excite, subgroup B Scotchbond, subgroup C Syntac). Each disc and the corresponding tooth stump were treated in the same way. After preparation the bonding composite material was applied according to the manufacturers' guidelines in a hollow tube of 2 mm diameter to the disc as well as to the corresponding tooth stump. Shear bond strength testing and environmental scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the morphology and stability of the resin-dentin interface. The self-etching bonding system showed the highest and the most constant shear values in all three main groups, thus enabling etching with phosphoric acid after laser preparation to be avoided. Thus we conclude that laser preparation creates a surface texture that allows prediction of the quality of the restoration without the risk of negative influences during the following treatment steps. This

  9. Interface studies on the tunneling contact of a MOCVD-prepared tandem solar cell; Grenzflaechenuntersuchungen am Tunnelkontakt einer MOCVD-praeparierten Tandemsolarzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, U.

    2007-07-10

    In this thesis a tandem solar cell with a novel tunneling contact was developed. For the development of the monolithic preparation especailly critical hetero-interfaces were studied in the region of the tunneling contact with surface-sensitive measuring method. The tandem solar cell consisted of single solar cells with absorber layers of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (E{sub g}=0.73 eV) and In{sub 0.78}Ga{sub 0.22}As{sub 0.491}P{sub 0.51} (E{sub g}=1.03 eV), the serial switching of which was pursued with a tunneling contact (ESAKI diode, which consisted of a very thin n-doped InGaAs and a p-doped GaAsSb layer. The III-V semiconductor layers were prepared by metalorganic gas phase epitaxy (MOCVD) monocrystallinely on an InP(100) substrate lattice-matchedly. Especially the influence of the preparation of InGaAs surfaces on the sharpness of the InGaAs/GaAsSb interface was in-situ studied by reflection-anisotropy spectroscopy and after a contamination-free transfer into the ultrahigh vacuum with photoelectron spectroscopy and with low-energetic electron diffraction (LEED). Thereby for the first time three different reconstructions of the MOCVD-prepared InGaAs surfaces could be observed, which were dependent on the heating temperature under pure hydrogen. The arsenic-rich InGaAs surface was observed for temperatures less than 300 C and showed in the LEED picture a (4 x 3) reconstruction. In the temperature range from 300 C until about 500 C a (2 x 4) reconstruction was observed, above 500 C the InGaAs surface 94 x 2)/c(8 x 2) was reconstructed. Subsequently the study of the growth of thin GaAsSb layers on these three InGaAs surface reconstructions followed. XPS measurements showed that the Sb/As ratio in GaAsSb at the growth on the As-rich (4 x 3) reconstructed surface in the first monolayers was too low. The preparation of the GaAsSb on the two other InGaAs surfaces yielded however in both cases a distinctly higher Sb/As ratio. Finally tandem solar cells with differently

  10. Thin and flexible all-solid supercapacitor prepared from novel single wall carbon nanotubes/polyaniline thin films obtained in liquid-liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Victor Hugo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Marcela Mohallem; Zarbin, Aldo José Gorgatti

    2014-08-01

    The present work describes for the first time the synthesis and characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes/polyaniline (SWNTs/PAni) nanocomposite thin films in a liquid-liquid interface, as well as the subsequent construction of a flexible all-solid supercapacitor. Different SWNTs/PAni nanocomposites were prepared by varying the ratio of SWNT to aniline, and the samples were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pseudo-capacitive behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated by charge/discharge galvanostatic measurements. The presence of the SWNTs affected the electronic and vibrational properties of the polyaniline and also improved the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the conducting polymer. A very thin and flexible all-solid device was manufactured using two electrodes (polyethylene terephthalate-PET covered with the SWNT/PAni nanocomposite separated by a H2SO4-PVA gel electrolyte). The pseudo-capacitive behavior was characterized by a volumetric specific capacitance of approximately 76.7 F cm-3, even under mechanical deformation, indicating that this nanocomposite has considerable potential for application in new-generation energy storage devices.

  11. Two-Phase Diffusion Technique for the Preparation of Ultramacroporous/Mesoporous Silica Microspheres via Interface Hydrolysis, Diffusion, and Gelation of TEOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Minhua; Li, Yupeng; Yu, Liang; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2018-02-06

    Honeycombed hierarchical ultramacroporous/mesoporous silica microspheres were prepared via the hydrolysis of TEOS in the oil-water interface, with subsequent diffusion and gelation in the acidic water-phase microdroplets with the assistance of a simple homemade microdevice. The diffusion of furfuryl alcohol (FA) also happened at a relatively high rate during the hydrolysis and diffusion of TEOS. Therefore, plenty of FA will be inside of the water microdroplets and form a decent number of polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) microparticles, thereby obtaining honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres with abundant ultramacroporous cavities and mesopores after calcination. It was found that the concentration of FA, residence time, and reaction temperature have significant effects on the porosity and pore size due to the influence on the diffusion rate and amount of FA in water-phase microdroplets. The honeycombed silica microspheres have obvious microscopic visible ultramacroporous cavities with the submicrometer cavity diameter as high as 85% porosity based on the rough overall volume of microsphere. N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres have a high surface area of 602 m 2 g -1 , a mesopore volume of 0.77 cm 3 /g, and a mesopore porosity of 99.6% based on the total pore volume of N 2 adsorption-desorption. On the basis of the experiment results, a rational formation process of the honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres was deduced.

  12. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  13. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  14. A high resolution cross section transmission electron microscopy study of epitaxial rare earth fluoride/GaAs(111) interfaces prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.J.; Bravman, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report the HRXTEM study of epitaxial rare earth fluoride/GaAs(111) interfaces. Such interfaces are of interest because they are the starting point for growth of buried epitaxial rare earth/rare earth fluoride sandwich structures which exhibit interesting and non bulk-like magnetic properties. Also, the optical transitions in ultrathin epitaxial NdF 3 films may be influenced by strain and defects in the NdF 3 film and the nature of the interface to GaAs. The authors find that the rare earth fluoride/GaAs interfaces are semi-coherent but chemically abrupt with the transition taking place within 3 Angstrom. However, the interface is physically rough and multiple monolayer steps in the GaAs surface tend to tilt boundaries in the fluoride. The origin of these steps is believed to be thermal etching of the GaAs during the heat- cleaning stage prior to epitaxy. The surface of the fluoride film is much smoother than the initial GaAs surface indicating planarization during epitaxy

  15. Wildfire, wildlands, and people: understanding and preparing for wildfire in the wildland-urban interface - a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. M. Stein; J. Menakis; M. A. Carr; S. J. Comas; S. I. Stewart; H. Cleveland; L. Bramwell; V. C. Radeloff

    2013-01-01

    Fire has historically played a fundamental ecological role in many of America's wildland areas. However, the rising number of homes in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), associated impacts on lives and property from wildfire, and escalating costs of wildfire management have led to an urgent need for communities to become "fire-adapted." We present maps...

  16. Effects of low-intensity GaAlAs laser radiation ({lambda}=660 nm) on dentine-pulp interface after class I cavity preparation; Efeitos da radiacao laser GaAlAs ({lambda}=660 nm) em baixa intensidade na interface dentina-polpa pos-preparo cavitario classe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Bruno Miranda

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity irradiation with GaAlAs laser (red emission) on the ultrastructure of dentine-pulp interface after conventionally prepared class I cavity preparation. Two patients with 8 premolars for extraction indicated for orthodontic reasons. Class I cavities were prepared in these teeth that were then divided into two groups. The first group received a treatment with laser with continuous emission, {lambda}=660 nm, with maximum power output of 30 mW. The dosimetry applied was of approximately 2J/cm{sup 2}, directly and perpendicularly into the cavity in only one section. After the irradiation, the cavities were filled with composite resin. The second group received the same treatment, except by the laser therapy. Twenty-eight days after the preparation, the teeth were extracted and were processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Two sound teeth, without any preparation, were also studied. The irradiated group presented odontoblastic processes in higher contact with the extracellular matrix and the collagen fibers appeared more aggregated and organized than those of control group. These results were also observed in the healthy-teeth. Thus, we suggest that laser irradiation accelerates the recovery of the dental structures involved in the cavity preparation at the pre-dentine level. (author)

  17. Preparation and investigation of burried metal/molecule contact interfaces with surface sensitive methods; Praeparation und Untersuchung verborgener Metall/Molekuel-Kontaktgrenzflaechen mit oberflaechensensitiven Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrdoljak, Pavo

    2011-05-13

    The present thesis establishes an optimised concept of a delamination technique suitable for ultra high vacuum (UHV) with which model systems of buried interfaces were made accessible for surface sensitive methods which were applied to investigate their electronic and topographical properties. A primary focus of this work is on the question how buried interfaces could be accessed successfully for surface sensitive methods using buried metal/NTCDA and metal/PTCDA interfaces as model systems. Contacts of approximately 10 x 15 mm{sup 2} in size were accessed. The second focus of the thesis is on the investigation of the electronical and topographical properties of the buried interfaces, for which some similarities between delaminated metal (Au,Ag)/ PTCDA- and Ag/NTCDA interfaces were found: After the delamination of top-contacts there were inhomogeneous layers of molecules on the metal contacts. Whereas PTCDA covered metal contacts had thicker molecular layers (4-5 ML PTCDA on Ag), NTCDA covered contacts showed only one monolayer coverage over large areas of at least 2 mm in diameter. Regions with multilayer coverage showed smooth surfaces whereas metal surfaces showed a fissured, meander-like and rough surface. Both contact systems also had in common that the adhesive made PES investigations of valence states very difficult. Furthermore, it was possible to thin out the molecular layers thermally but afterwards no valence states could be measured. Investigating in-situ delaminated buried interfaces, the focus was on metal (Au,Ag)/PTCDA interfaces first. The molecular layers could be successfully desorbed thermally at 260 C to 1-3 monolayers so that valence states were investigated. The spectra of the in-situ delaminated and thermally desorbed Ag/PTCDA contact were noticeably broadened so that the positions of HOMO and FLUMO could only be estimated at 1.9 eV and 0.7 eV, respectively. Additionally, interfaces of Ag/NTCDA contacts were investigated. With UPS it was found

  18. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  19. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  20. Preparation of liquid-core nanocapsules from poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-glycidol] with multiple hydrophobic linoleates at an oil-water interface and its encapsulation of pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Guowei; Huang, Junlian

    2007-06-01

    A convenient approach is provided to prepare liquid-core nanocapsules by cross-linking an amphiphilic copolymer at an oil-water interface. The hydrophilic copolymer poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-glycidol] was prepared by anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide and ethoxyethyl glycidyl ether first, then the hydroxyl groups on the backbone were recovered after hydrolysis and partly modified by hydrophobic conjugated linoleic acid. The copolymer with multiple linoleate pendants was absorbed at an oil-water interface and then cross-linked to form stable nanocapsules. The mean diameter of the nanocapsule was below 350 nm, and the size distribution was relatively narrow (<0.2) at low concentrations of oil in acetone (<10 mg/mL). The particle size could be tuned easily by variation of the emulsification conditions. The nanocapsule was stable in water for at least 5 months, and the shell maintained its integrity after removal of the oily core by solvent. Pyrene was encapsulated in these nanocapsules, and a loading efficiency as high as 94% was measured by UV spectroscopy.

  1. Chapter 3. Coordination and collaboration with interface units. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joynt, Gavin M.; Loo, Shi; Taylor, Bruce L.; Margalit, Gila; Christian, Michael D.; Sandrock, Christian; Danis, Marion; Leoniv, Yuval; Sprung, Charles L.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joyng, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances

    2010-01-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on enhancing coordination and collaboration between the ICU and other key stakeholders. Based on a literature

  2. Interface description using computational methods and tribological characteristic of Ti N/Ti C films prepared by reactive pulse arc evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devia N, D. M.; Gonzalez C, J. M.; Ruden M, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ti N/Ti C bilayers have been deposited by Plasma Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition Technique - Reactive Pulsed Arc. The coatings were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the signal treatment of the narrow XP S spectra and the XRD diffraction patterns, the formation of Ti N (titanium nitride), Ti C (titanium carbide) and Ti CN (titanium carbonitride) was confirmed, with fm-3m spatial group, corresponding to the Fcc phase of the synthesized compounds. The multilayer was simulated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) by the Unrestricted Hartree Fock method. Charge distributions and electron total density were obtained; finding bond formation at the interphase, electrical neutrality and system stability. Anomalies in the corners of the structures due to edge effect, simulation ideality and the no internal tension inclusion, intrinsic to the growing, are observed. The ball on disc tribometer was used to measure the friction and wear coefficient to verify the interface formation. (Author)

  3. Interface description using computational methods and tribological characteristic of Ti N/Ti C films prepared by reactive pulse arc evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devia N, D. M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Gonzalez C, J. M.; Ruden M, A., E-mail: dmdevian@utp.edu.co [Universidad del Valle, Edificio 349, espacio 1003, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, Cali (Colombia)

    2013-10-01

    The Ti N/Ti C bilayers have been deposited by Plasma Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition Technique - Reactive Pulsed Arc. The coatings were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the signal treatment of the narrow XP S spectra and the XRD diffraction patterns, the formation of Ti N (titanium nitride), Ti C (titanium carbide) and Ti CN (titanium carbonitride) was confirmed, with fm-3m spatial group, corresponding to the Fcc phase of the synthesized compounds. The multilayer was simulated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) by the Unrestricted Hartree Fock method. Charge distributions and electron total density were obtained; finding bond formation at the interphase, electrical neutrality and system stability. Anomalies in the corners of the structures due to edge effect, simulation ideality and the no internal tension inclusion, intrinsic to the growing, are observed. The ball on disc tribometer was used to measure the friction and wear coefficient to verify the interface formation. (Author)

  4. Anode Interface Modification of Organic Solar Cells with Solution-Prepared MoO3%溶液法制备有机太阳电池阳极界面修饰层MoO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炎平; 於黄忠; 董一帆; 黄欣欣

    2016-01-01

    在全溶液低温制备高效、稳定有机光伏器件过程中,合理选择制备器件界面修饰材料的方法至关重要,它已成为近期有机光伏领域的重点研究内容之一.合理的界面材料能降低界面的势垒高度,减少器件的串联电阻.溶液法制备三氧化钼(MoO3)阳极界面缓冲层能有效地改善有机太阳电池阳极界面收集和载流子传输的效率,从而提高太阳电池能量转换效率,同时也提高太阳电池的稳定性.本文综述了近年来溶液法制备有机太阳电池阳极界面修饰层MoO3的研究进展,介绍了阳极界面修饰层MoO3的各种制备方法与原理,阐述了基于溶液法制备界面修饰层MoO3薄膜的研究现状与存在问题,以期为全溶液法制备高效稳定有机太阳电池的研究提供有价值的参考.%For the whole solution-processed efficient and stable organic photovoltaic devices at low temperature,reasonably selecting the method of interface modification material preparation is very crucial.It has become one of the most focuses in research community of organic photovoltaics in recent years.By choosing suitable interfacial materials,the energetic barrier height at the interface could be reduced to form an ohmic contact with less series resistance,inducing high charge collection efficiency of the corresponding electrodes for holes or electrons.Solution-prepared molybdenum oxide (MoO3) as anode buffer layer can effectively improve the efficiency of interface collection and carrier transmission,improving the energy conversion efficiency and stability of organic solar cells.This article reviews the research progress of anode buffer layer MoO3 of organic solar cells in recent years,introduces the some preparation methods and principles of MoO3 as anode interface layers,elaborated the current situation and existing problems of MoO3 film based on the prepared solution of interfacial modification,which provides valuable references for the

  5. Organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, W.A.; Tempelman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the consequences for product designers resulting from the replacement of traditional interfaces by responsive materials. Part 1 presents a theoretical framework regarding a new paradigm for man-machine interfacing. Part 2 provides an analysis of the opportunities offered by new

  6. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly...

  7. Reactivity at the film/solution interface of ex situ prepared bismuth film electrodes: A scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocevar, Samo B.; Daniele, Salvatore; Bragato, Carlo; Ogorevc, Bozidar

    2007-01-01

    Bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) prepared ex situ with and without complexing bromide ions in the modification solution were investigated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A feedback mode of the SECM was employed to examine the conductivity and reactivity of a series of thin bismuth films deposited onto disk glassy carbon substrate electrodes (GCEs) of 3 mm in diameter. A platinum micro-electrode (φ = 25 μm) was used as the SECM tip, and current against tip/substrate distance was recorded in solutions containing either Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ or Fe(CN) 6 4- species as redox mediators. With both redox mediators positive feedback approach curves were recorded, which indicated that the bismuth film deposition protocol associated with the addition of bromide ions in the modification solution did not compromise the conductivity of the bismuth film in comparison with that prepared without bromide. However, at the former Bi film a slight kinetic hindering was observed in recycling Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ , suggesting a different surface potential. On the other hand, the approach curves recorded by using Fe(CN) 6 4- showed that both types of the aforementioned bismuth films exhibited local reactivity with the oxidised form of the redox mediator, and that bismuth film obtained with bromide ions exhibited slightly lower reactivity. The use of SECM in the scanning operation mode allowed us to ascertain that the bismuth deposits were uniformly distributed across the whole surface of the glassy carbon substrate electrode. Comparative AFM measurements corroborated the above findings and additionally revealed a denser growth of smaller bismuth crystals over the surface of the substrate electrode in the presence of bromide ions, while the crystals were bigger but sparser in the absence of bromide ions in the modification solution

  8. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  9. Preparation & characterization of SiO2 interface layer by dip coating technique on carbon fibre for Cf/SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Jariwala, C.; Pillai, R.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.

    2015-08-01

    Carbon fibres (Cf) are one of the most important reinforced materials for ceramic matrix composites such as Cf - SiC composites and they are generally sought for high temperature applications in as space application, nuclear reactor and automobile industries. But the major problem arise when Cf reinforced composites exposed to high temperature in an oxidizing environment, Cf react with oxygen and burnt away. In present work, we have studied the effect of silica (SiO2) coating as a protective coating on Cf for the Cf / SiC composites. The silica solution prepared by the sol-gel process and coating on Cf is done by dip coating technique with varying the withdrawing speed i.e. 2, 5, 8 mm/s with fixed dipping cycle (3 Nos.). The uniform silica coating on the Cf is shown by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The tensile test shows the increase in tensile strength with respect to increase in withdrawing speed. The isothermal oxidation analysis confirmed enhancement of oxidation resistance of silica coated Cf as compared tothe uncoated Cf.

  10. Interface Anywhere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current paradigms for crew interfaces to the systems that require control are constrained by decades old technologies which require the crew to be physically near an...

  11. Safety Parameters Graphical Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canamero, B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power plant data are received at the Operations Center of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear in emergency situations. In order to achieve the required interface and to prepare those data to perform simulation and forecasting with already existing computer codes a Safety Parameters Graphical Interface (IGPS) has been developed. The system runs in a UNIX environment and use the Xwindows capabilities. The received data are stored in such a way that it can be easily used for further analysis and training activities. The system consists of task-oriented modules (processes) which communicate each other using well known UNIX mechanisms (signals, sockets and shared memory segments). IGPS conceptually have two different parts: Data collection and preparation, and Data monitorization. (Author)

  12. Environmental materials and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig

  13. On the interface trap density and series resistance of tin oxide film prepared on n-type Si (1 1 1) substrate: Frequency dependent effects before and after 60Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, S.; Selcuk, A. Birkan; Tugluoglu, N.; Ocak, S. Bilge

    2007-01-01

    We report the first investigation of the frequency dependent effects of gamma irradiation on interface state density and series resistance determined from capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) characteristics in SnO 2 /n-Si structures prepared by spray deposition method. The samples were irradiated using a 60 Co γ-ray source at 500 kGy at room temperature. The C-V and G-V measurements of the samples were performed in the voltage range -6 V to 2 V and at 10 kHz, 100 kHz, 500 kHz and 1 MHz at room temperature before and after 500 kGy irradiation. The measurement capacitance and conductance are corrected for series resistance. It has been seen that the value of the series resistance R s of sample decreases from 204 Ω to 55.4 Ω with increasing the frequency before irradiation while it decreases from 248 Ω to 60 Ω with increasing frequency at 500 kGy irradiation. It has been found that and D it values of MOS structure increases up to 100 kHz and then decreases up to 1 MHz while the R s increases with increasing irradiation dose for our sample. The interface state density D it ranges from 1.83 x 10 13 cm -2 eV -1 for before irradiation to 1.54 x 10 13 cm -2 eV -1 for 500 kGy irradiation dose at 500 kHz and decreases with increasing frequency

  14. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  15. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  16. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  17. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  18. 环己烷/水界面自组装纳米银膜及性能研究%The Properties Researched Based on the Prepared Cyclohexane/Water Interface Self-Assembly Nanometer Silver Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开青; 刘越峰; 毛艳丽

    2017-01-01

    在环己烷/水界面以自组装的方式将单层密排的银纳米粒子膜转移到亲水性的硅片上,以罗丹明6G(R6G)为探针分子,通过与直接滴加银胶溶液和混合R6G后的银胶溶液得到的两种SERS基底对比,密排银纳米粒子膜展现了极高的灵敏度(R6G的检测极限为10-9mol/L)和信号再现性.结合有限时域差分法(FDTD)对其增强原因进行了模拟分析,实验结果与理论模拟基本相符.%A homogeneous monolayer film of the silver nanoparticles was prepared by self-assembly in cyclohexane / water interface.Using rhodamine 6G(R6G) as a probe molecule,the SERS characteristic of the silver nanoparticles monolayer film was compared with both SERS substrates by direct dropping silver colloid mixing with and without R6G,respectively.It was found that the monolayer film exhibited a high sensitivity(The detection limit of R6G was 10-9 mol/L)and reproducibility.The enhanced reason was analyzed by finite difference time domain(FDTD)method.The results showed that the experimental results and theoretical simulation were in line.

  19. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    In Wim Wenders' film Until the End of the World (1991), three different diagrams for the visual integration of bodies are presented: 1) GPS tracking and mapping in a landscape, 2) video recordings layered with the memory perception of these recordings, and 3) data-created images from dreams...... and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...

  20. Museets interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søren Pold gør sig overvejelser med udgangspunkt i museumsprojekterne Kongedragter.dk og Stigombord.dk. Han argumenterer for, at udviklingen af internettets interfaces skaber nye måder at se, forstå og interagere med kulturen på. Brugerne får nye medievaner og perceptionsmønstre, der må medtænkes i...... tilrettelæggelsen af den fremtidige formidling. Samtidig får museets genstande en ny status som flygtige ikoner i det digitale rum, og alt i alt inviterer det til, at museerne kan forholde sig mere åbent og eksperimenterende til egen praksis og rolle som kulturinstitution....

  1. PVP存在下液液界面生长法制备硒纳米线%Preparation of Selenium Nanowires by Liquid-liquid Interface Growth in the Presence of Polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜义; 张娟; 刘明珠; 朱俊杰; 陈洪渊

    2005-01-01

    Nanowires of trigonal selenium were synthesized in large-scale by two step processes: reaction in homogeneous solution and growth at liquid-liquid interface. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used as a soft template in the synthesis.

  2. Interfaces habladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Soto Sanfiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y piensa al fenómeno de las Interfaces habladas (IH desde variados puntos de vista y niveles de análisis. El texto se ha concebido con los objetivos específicos de: 1.- procurar una visión panorámica de aspectos de la producción y consumo comunicativo de las IH; 2.- ofrecer recomendaciones para su creación y uso eficaz, y 3.- llamar la atención sobre su proliferación e inspirar su estudio desde la comunicación. A pesar de la creciente presencia de las IF en nues-tras vidas cotidianas, hay ausencia de textos que las caractericen y analicen por sus aspectos comunicativos. El trabajo es pertinente porque el fenómeno significa un cambio respecto a estadios comunica-tivos precedentes con consecuencias en las concepciones intelectuales y emocionales de los usuarios. La proliferación de IH nos abre a nue-vas realidades comunicativas: hablamos con máquinas.

  3. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  4. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  5. Garbage collector interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ive, Anders; Blomdell, Anders; Ekman, Torbjörn; Henriksson, Roger; Nilsson, Anders; Nilsson, Klas; Robertz, Sven

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the presented garbage collector interface is to provide a universal interface for many different implementations of garbage collectors. This is to simplify the integration and exchange of garbage collectors, but also to support incremental, non-conservative, and thread safe implementations. Due to the complexity of the interface, it is aimed at code generators and preprocessors. Experiences from ongoing implementations indicate that the garbage collector interface successfully ...

  6. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  7. Interface magnons. Magnetic superstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Dobrzynski, L.

    1975-01-01

    The localized magnons at an interface between two Heisenberg ferromagnets are studied with a simple model. The effect of the coupling at the interface on the existence condition for the localized modes, the dispersion laws and the possible occurrence of magnetic superstructures due to soft modes are investigated. Finally a comparison is made with the similar results obtained for interface phonons [fr

  8. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  9. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface e...

  10. Graphical Interfaces for Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollan, J. D.; And Others

    This document presents a discussion of the development of a set of software tools to assist in the construction of interfaces to simulations and real-time systems. Presuppositions to the approach to interface design that was used are surveyed, the tools are described, and the conclusions drawn from these experiences in graphical interface design…

  11. Power User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  12. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  13. Water at Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding.

  14. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...

  15. Interface between Global Education and Multicultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ruth E.; And Others

    Today global education and multicultural education are vital as all countries in the world face complex issues in economic, political, and social interdependence. This paper examines the interface between global education and multicultural education as a potential answer of how to prepare students for effective participation in a culturally…

  16. Training Manual for Elements of Interface Definition and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Kastner, Robert E. (Editor); Hartt, Henry N. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The primary thrust of this manual is to ensure that the format and information needed to control interfaces between equipment are clear and understandable. The emphasis is on controlling the engineering design of the interface and not on the functional performance requirements of the system or the internal workings of the interfacing equipment. Interface control should take place, with rare exception, at the interfacing elements and no further. There are two essential sections of the manual. Chapter 2, Principles of Interface Control, discusses how interfaces are defined. It describes different types of interfaces to be considered and recommends a format for the documentation necessary for adequate interface control. Chapter 3, The Process: Through the Design Phases, provides tailored guidance for interface definition and control. This manual can be used to improve planned or existing interface control processes during system design and development. It can also be used to refresh and update the corporate knowledge base. The information presented herein will reduce the amount of paper and data required in interface definition and control processes by as much as 50 percent and will shorten the time required to prepare an interface control document. It also highlights the essential technical parameters that ensure that flight subsystems will indeed fit together and function as intended after assembly and checkout.

  17. Superconductivity observed in platinum-silicon interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Pai-Chia, E-mail: paichia@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Research Program on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lee, Ku-Pin; Shiue, Jessie, E-mail: yshiue@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Research Program on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-26

    We report the discovery of superconductivity with an onset temperature of ∼0.6 K in a platinum-silicon interface. The interface was formed by using a unique focused ion beam sputtering micro-deposition method in which the energies of most sputtered Pt atoms are ∼2.5 eV. Structural and elemental analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveal a ∼ 7 nm interface layer with abundant Pt, which is the layer likely responsible for the superconducting transport behavior. Similar transport behavior was also observed in a gold-silicon interface prepared by the same technique, indicating the possible generality of this phenomenon.

  18. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  19. Structures and electronics of buried and unburied semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    The structure of interfaces plays an important role in determining the electronic properties of semiconductor nanostructures. Here, such examples are shown and discussed using semiconductor nanostructures prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and colloidal synthesis.

  20. Diffusion between evolving interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntunen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion in an evolving environment is studied by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations. Diffusion is modeled by continuous-time random walkers on a lattice, in a dynamic environment provided by bubbles between two one-dimensional interfaces driven symmetrically towards each other. For one-dimensional random walkers constrained by the interfaces, the bubble size distribution dominates diffusion. For two-dimensional random walkers, it is also controlled by the topography and dynamics of the interfaces. The results of the one-dimensional case are recovered in the limit where the interfaces are strongly driven. Even with simple hard-core repulsion between the interfaces and the particles, diffusion is found to depend strongly on the details of the dynamical rules of particles close to the interfaces.

  1. User interface support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick

    1989-01-01

    Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.

  2. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic and mechan...... these interfaces and interfaced compartments and processes. Climate, sea-level, oceanographic currents and hydrological processes are all affected, while anthropogenic changes are often intense in the geographic settings corresponding to such interfaces....... and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  3. Study of the interactions between alumina and metallic ion in solution at the liquid/oxide interface during catalysts synthesis; Etude des interactions alumine/ion metallique en solution a l`interface oxyde/liquide lors de la preparation des catalyseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens de Wilmars, D.

    1998-01-15

    This work concerns the formation of compounds including metal and Al(III) ions during impregnation of gamma alumina with a solution of the metal precursor. Formation of Li/Al hydroxy-carbonate (Li/Al HDC) on alumina during impregnation by a neutral or basic solution containing Li{sup +} is established. Zeta potential measurements are used to determine the ratio overlay of the alumina by HDC Li/Al. By this technique, residual positive charges are observed on HDC Li/Al surface. The formation of two different compounds including Mo(VI) and Al(III) ions during impregnation of alumina with molybdate or hepta-molybdate solution is reported here for the first time. The use of sodium molybdate solution as impregnation precursor leads to the formation of hydroxy-molybdo-luminate, while the ammonium hepta-molybdate solution forms ammonium hexa-molybdo-aluminate by contact with alumina.Dissolution kinetics of alumina in aqueous solution in absence or in presence of metal ions (Li{sup +}, K{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+}, MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{sup 6-}) are investigated at different pH. Results show that the support is not inert in aqueous solution, even at neutral pH (near ZPC). The homogeneous nucleation of Li/Al HDC observed for Li/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system evidence the permeability of the solid/solution interface: diffusion processus through the interface is more important than previously reported. A dissolution-precipitation mechanism is proposed to account for the formation of Al(III)-containing compounds on alumina surface. Alumina dissolves when contacted with aqueous solution. When Al(III) ions concentration in solution is bigger than the sur-saturation needed for heterogenous nucleation of the Al(III) containing compounds, this one precipitates. This mechanism agrees with all our results. (author) 169 refs.

  4. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  5. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  6. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  7. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  8. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  9. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  10. Icinga Monitoring System Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Neculae, Alina Georgiana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a web interface that would be used by the Icinga monitoring system to manage the CMS online cluster, in the experimental site. The interface would allow users to visualize the information in a compressed and intuitive way, as well as modify the information of each individual object and edit the relationships between classes.

  11. Verden som interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af Peter Weibels tekst "The World as Interface" i Passepartout # 27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  12. Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing...

  13. Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Bayrak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims to bring together biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules within properly designed microenvironments in order to create viable treatment options for the lost or malfunctioning tissues. Design and production of scaffolds and cell-laden grafts that mimic the complex structural and functional features of tissues are among the most important elements of tissue engineering strategy. Although all tissues have their own complex structure, an even more complex case in terms of engineering a proper carrier material is encountered at the tissue interfaces, where two distinct tissues come together. The interfaces in the body can be examined in four categories; cartilage-bone and ligament-bone interfaces at the knee and the spine, tendon-bone interfaces at the shoulder and the feet, and muscle-tendon interface at the skeletal system. These interfaces are seen mainly at the soft-to-hard tissue transitions and they are especially susceptible to injury and tear due to the biomechanical inconsistency between these tissues where high strain fields are present. Therefore, engineering the musculoskeletal tissue interfaces remain a challenge. This review focuses on recent advancements in strategies for musculoskeletal interface engineering using different biomaterial-based platforms and surface modification techniques.

  14. Adaptive user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing and building adaptive user interfaces developed in the large AID project undertaken by the contributors.Key Features* Describes one of the few large-scale adaptive interface projects in the world* Outlines the principles of adaptivity in human-computer interaction

  15. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  16. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  17. Operator interface for vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  18. The interface effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are back, or perhaps they never left. The familiar Socratic conceit from the Phaedrus, of communication as the process of writing directly on the soul of the other, has returned to center stage in today's discussions of culture and media. Indeed Western thought has long construed media as a grand choice between two kinds of interfaces. Following the optimistic path, media seamlessly interface self and other in a transparent and immediate connection. But, following the pessimistic path, media are the obstacles to direct communion, disintegrating self and other into misunderstanding

  19. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  20. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  1. User interface development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrawal, Bharat

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development of user interfaces for OS/2 versions of computer codes for the analysis of seals. Current status, new features, work in progress, and future plans are discussed.

  2. Natural gesture interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubtsev, Illya

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the implementation of the system of interaction with virtual objects based on gestures. The paper describes the common problems of interaction with virtual objects, specific requirements for the interfaces for virtual and augmented reality.

  3. Pattern formation at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Giulio; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Applying modern nonlinear stability theory to problems of continuous media mechanics in the presence of interfaces, this text is relevant to materials science, chemical engineering, and heat transfer technologies, as well as to reaction-diffusion systems.

  4. Universal quantum interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Landahl, Andrew J.; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    2004-01-01

    To observe or control a quantum system, one must interact with it via an interface. This article exhibits simple universal quantum interfaces--quantum input/output ports consisting of a single two-state system or quantum bit that interacts with the system to be observed or controlled. It is shown that under very general conditions the ability to observe and control the quantum bit on its own implies the ability to observe and control the system itself. The interface can also be used as a quantum communication channel, and multiple quantum systems can be connected by interfaces to become an efficient universal quantum computer. Experimental realizations are proposed, and implications for controllability, observability, and quantum information processing are explored

  5. Scalable coherent interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H.; Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs

  6. Introduction to interfaces 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars Boje; Høgel, Christian; Borsa, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The Editors introduce Issue No. 3 of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures, dedicated to "Rediscovery and Canonization: The Roman Classics in the Middle Ages," and offer a general overview of the matter and contents of the contributions.......The Editors introduce Issue No. 3 of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures, dedicated to "Rediscovery and Canonization: The Roman Classics in the Middle Ages," and offer a general overview of the matter and contents of the contributions....

  7. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  8. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  9. MER SPICE Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  10. Lectures on random interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Funaki, Tadahisa

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces are created to separate two distinct phases in a situation in which phase coexistence occurs. This book discusses randomly fluctuating interfaces in several different settings and from several points of view: discrete/continuum, microscopic/macroscopic, and static/dynamic theories. The following four topics in particular are dealt with in the book. Assuming that the interface is represented as a height function measured from a fixed-reference discretized hyperplane, the system is governed by the Hamiltonian of gradient of the height functions. This is a kind of effective interface model called ∇φ-interface model. The scaling limits are studied for Gaussian (or non-Gaussian) random fields with a pinning effect under a situation in which the rate functional of the corresponding large deviation principle has non-unique minimizers. Young diagrams determine decreasing interfaces, and their dynamics are introduced. The large-scale behavior of such dynamics is studied from the points of view of the hyd...

  11. Touchfree medical interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossol, Nathaniel; Cheng, Irene; Rui Shen; Basu, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Real-time control of visual display systems via mid-air hand gestures offers many advantages over traditional interaction modalities. In medicine, for example, it allows a practitioner to adjust display values, e.g. contrast or zoom, on a medical visualization interface without the need to re-sterilize the interface. However, when users are holding a small tool (such as a pen, surgical needle, or computer stylus) the need to constantly put the tool down in order to make hand gesture interactions is not ideal. This work presents a novel interface that automatically adjusts for gesturing with hands and hand-held tools to precisely control medical displays. The novelty of our interface is that it uses a single set of gestures designed to be equally effective for fingers and hand-held tools without using markers. This type of interface was previously not feasible with low-resolution depth sensors such as Kinect, but is now achieved by using the recently released Leap Motion controller. Our interface is validated through a user study on a group of people given the task of adjusting parameters on a medical image.

  12. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  13. Interfacing Sensors To Micro Controllers

    KAUST Repository

    Norain, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    This lecture will cover the most common interface and interface techniques between sensors and microcontrollers. The presentation will introduce the pros and cons of each interface type including analogue, digital and serial output sensors. It will also cover the basic required electronics knowledge to help you in selecting and designing your next sensor to microcontroller interface.

  14. Interfacing Sensors To Micro Controllers

    KAUST Repository

    Norain, Mohamed

    2018-01-15

    This lecture will cover the most common interface and interface techniques between sensors and microcontrollers. The presentation will introduce the pros and cons of each interface type including analogue, digital and serial output sensors. It will also cover the basic required electronics knowledge to help you in selecting and designing your next sensor to microcontroller interface.

  15. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding......When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...

  16. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  17. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  18. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which...... may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point...

  19. Natural User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara , António

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Informática apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra This project’s main subject are Natural User Interfaces. These interfaces’ main purpose is to allow the user to interact with computer systems in a more direct and natural way. The popularization of touch and gesture devices in the last few years has allowed for them to become increasingly common and today we are experiencing a transition of interface p...

  20. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  1. Virtual interface environment workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  2. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    (1) a user study with a prototype of an elastic, deformable display, and (2) a user study of deformable interfaces for performing music. The first study reports a guessability study with an elastic, deformable display where 17 participants suggested fitting gestures for 29 tasks, including navigation......, Transformation, Adaptation and Physicalization. In synthesis, the work presented in this thesis shows (1) implications of usefulness for deformable interfaces and how their new input modalities can redefine the way users interact with computers, and (2) how a systematic understanding of conventional design...

  3. Interface or Interlace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Wamberg, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Departing from an analysis of the computer's indeterminate location between medium and machine, this paper problematises the idea of a clear-cut interface in complex computing, especially Augmented Reality. The idea and pratice of the interface is derived from the medium as a representational...... surface and thus demands the overview of an autonomous consciouness. Instead we introduce the term interlace, a mingling of representational and physical levels, thus describing the computer's ambiguous blending of imaginary and real. The proposition is demonstrated through analysis of different recent...

  4. CAMAC to GPIB interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naivar, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A CAMAC module developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory allows any device conforming to the GPIB standard to be connected to a CAMAC system. This module incorporates a microprocessor to control up to 14 GPIB-compatible instruments using a restricted set of CAMAC F-N-A commands. The marriage of a device-independent bus (IEEE Standard 488-1975) to a computer-independent bus (IEEE Standard 583-1975) provides a general method for interfacing a system of programmable instruments to any computer. This module is being used to interface a variety of interactive devices on a control console to a control computer

  5. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  6. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  7. User interface for MAWST limit of error program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, B. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a user-friendly interface which is being developed to aid in preparation of input data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory software module MAWST (Materials Accounting With Sequential Testing) used at Savannah River Site to propagate limits of error for facility material balances. The forms-based interface is being designed using traditional software project management tools and using the Ingres family of database management and application development products (products of Relational Technology, Inc.). The software will run on VAX computers (products of Digital Equipment Corporation) on which the VMS operating system and Ingres database management software are installed. Use of the interface software will reduce time required to prepare input data for calculations and also reduce errors associated with data preparation

  8. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    multiple projects spanning over fields such as tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, and mobile computing, a conceptual framework characterizing camera-based mixed interaction spaces is developed. To show the applicability of the framework, it is deployed on one of the presented cases and discussed...

  9. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  10. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  11. Is the interface OK?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    When a peripheral device fails, software methods can be initially resorted to before the usual hardware test procedures are used. A test program is presented here that allows various peripherals, inter-faced to a Norsk Data computer, to be tested...

  12. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  13. Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on Si surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy studies of Si(111) surfaces and interfaces are reviewed for two types of systems: (1) clean 7 x 7 and root 3 x root 3-Ag reconstructed surfaces prepared under ultra-high vacuum conditions where surface states are excited and (2) interfaces...... in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures and thin metal films on Si surfaces where several interfaces contribute to the SHG. In all the systems resonances are seen at interband transitions near the bulk critical points E-1 and E-2. On the clean surfaces a number of resonances appear below the onset of bulk...

  14. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  15. Easy-to-use interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, D O; Blattner, M M; Tong, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future

  16. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond...... the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  17. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  18. The technical supervision interface

    CERN Document Server

    Sollander, P

    1998-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) is currently using 30 different applications for the remote supervision of the technical infrastructure at CERN. These applications have all been developed with the CERN made Uniform Man Machine Interface (UMMI) tools built in 1990. However, the visualization technology has evolved phenomenally since 1990, the Technical Data Server (TDS) has radically changed our control system architecture, and the standardization and the maintenance of the UMMI applications have become important issues as their number increases. The Technical Supervision Interface is intended to replace the UMMI and solve the above problems. Using a standard WWW-browser for the display, it will be inherently multi-platform and hence available for control room operators, equipment specialists and on-call personnel.

  19. Virtual button interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  20. Noise at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The notion of noise occupies a contested territory, in which it is framed as pollution and detritus even as it makes its opposite a possibility - noise is always defined in opposition to something else, even if this ‘other’ is not quite clear. This paper explores noise in the context of ‘the...... interface’ asking what its affordances as an idea may contribute to our understanding of interface. I draw historically on information theory in particular to initiate this exploration....

  1. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  2. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  3. Planning and User Interface Affordances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amant, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... We identify a number of similarities between executing plans and interacting with a graphical user interface, and argue that affordances for planning environments apply equally well to user interface environments...

  4. Interface Input/Output Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumptions...... a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata....

  5. Morphology of the asymmetric iron–silicon interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badía-Romano, L.; Rubín, J.; Bartolomé, F.; Magén, C.; Bartolomé, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exhaustive study of the Fe silicide formation at interfaces of (Fe/Si) multilayers. • Thickness = 1.4 nm and roughness = 0.6 nm are found for the Si-on-Fe interface. • First time that the Fe 1s HAXPES spectra of a multilayered system is recorded. • The c-Fe 1−x Si sublayer is identical in both Si-on-Fe and Fe-on-Si interfaces. • The asymmetry is caused only by the ferromagnetic silicide Fe 1−x Si x sublayer. - Abstract: A systematic study of the iron–silicon interfaces formed upon preparation of (Fe/Si) multilayers has been performed by combination of modern and powerful techniques. Samples were prepared by thermal evaporation under ultrahigh vacuum onto a Si(1 0 0) substrate. The morphology of these films and their interfaces was studied by a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray reflectivity, angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Si-on-Fe interface thickness and roughness were determined to be 1.4(1) nm and 0.6(1) nm, respectively. Moreover, determination of the stable phases formed at both Fe-on-Si and Si-on-Fe interfaces was performed using conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy on multilayers with well separated Si-on-Fe and Fe-on-Si interfaces. It is shown that while a fraction of Fe remains as α-Fe, the rest has reacted with Si, forming the paramagnetic c-Fe 1−x Si phase and a ferromagnetic Fe rich silicide (DO 3 type phase). We conclude that the paramagnetic c-Fe 1−x Si silicide sublayer is identical in both Si-on-Fe and Fe-on-Si interfaces, whereas an asymmetry is revealed in the composition of the ferromagnetic silicide sublayer

  6. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic analysis computer program has been developed with a built-in finite element analysis program NESSUS/FEM. However, the NESSUS/FEM program is specialized for engine structures and may not contain sufficient features for other applications. In addition, users often become well acquainted with a particular finite element code and want to use that code for probabilistic structural analysis. For these reasons, this work was undertaken to develop an interface between NESSUS and NASTRAN such that NASTRAN can be used for the finite element analysis and NESSUS can be used for the probabilistic analysis. In addition, NESSUS was restructured such that other finite element codes could be more easily coupled with NESSUS. NESSUS has been enhanced such that NESSUS will modify the NASTRAN input deck for a given set of random variables, run NASTRAN and read the NASTRAN result. The coordination between the two codes is handled automatically. The work described here was implemented within NESSUS 6.2 which was delivered to NASA in September 1995. The code runs on Unix machines: Cray, HP, Sun, SGI and IBM. The new capabilities have been implemented such that a user familiar with NESSUS using NESSUS/FEM and NASTRAN can immediately use NESSUS with NASTRAN. In other words, the interface with NASTRAN has been implemented in an analogous manner to the interface with NESSUS/FEM. Only finite element specific input has been changed. This manual is written as an addendum to the existing NESSUS 6.2 manuals. We assume users have access to NESSUS manuals and are familiar with the operation of NESSUS including probabilistic finite element analysis. Update pages to the NESSUS PFEM manual are contained in Appendix E. The finite element features of the code and the probalistic analysis capabilities are summarized.

  7. Transport processes at fluidic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reusken, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    There are several physico-chemical processes that determine the behavior of multiphase fluid systems – e.g., the fluid dynamics in the different phases and the dynamics of the interface(s), mass transport between the fluids, adsorption effects at the interface, and transport of surfactants on the interface – and result in heterogeneous interface properties. In general, these processes are strongly coupled and local properties of the interface play a crucial role. A thorough understanding of the behavior of such complex flow problems must be based on physically sound mathematical models, which especially account for the local processes at the interface. This book presents recent findings on the rigorous derivation and mathematical analysis of such models and on the development of numerical methods for direct numerical simulations. Validation results are based on specifically designed experiments using high-resolution experimental techniques. A special feature of this book is its focus on an interdisciplina...

  8. Magnons and interface magnetic substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Dobrzynski, L.

    1975-01-01

    The localized magnons at an interface between two Heisenberg ferromagnets and the ferromagnetic stability at the interface are studied. The authors consider simple cubic crystals having the same lattice parameter and the same spin value in the fundamental state on each site, but different exchange integrals between first and second nearest neighbours. An interface by coupling two semi-infinite crystals having the same crystallographic surface is defined. The conditions for the existence of localized magnons at (001) interfaces as well as the dispersion curves of localized and resonant magnons in the high symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone are studied. The effect of the interface interactions on these modes is determined. It is shown that magnetic superstructures may exist at (110) interfaces. Such an instability is given by the existence of a soft localized mode at the interface [fr

  9. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  10. Curriculum at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This Symposium presents curriculum design and content issues in a Scandinavian business school at its Centenary. The aim is an exploration of an educational institution at the interface of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) within the historical trends of the European Union. We hope...... of interdisciplinarity, use of text production as a tool in support of project and thesis writing, and the use of plurilingual content based teaching in a cooperative learning model for European studies. The history of one curriculum model initiated to educate better citizens, combining interdisciplinary methods...

  11. Virtual interface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  12. Interfaces para control cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2000-01-01

    La función de una interfaz para control cerebral basada en señales de electroencefalograma (EEG), en forma general denominada BCI (Brain control Interface), es establecer un enlace directo entre el cerebro y una máquina, sin utilizar acciones motoras directas. Una BCI permite realizar operaciones simples a partir de la interpretación de las señales de EEG. Su desarrollo está principalmente orientado hacia la ayuda a personas con discapacidades motoras severas, que poseen deterioros en el sist...

  13. Brain-computer interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A computer-implemented method of providing an interface between a user and a processing unit, the method comprising : presenting one or more stimuli to a user, each stimulus varying at a respective stimulation frequency, each stimulation frequency being associated with a respective user......-selectable input; receiving at least one signal indicative of brain activity of the user; and determining, from the received signal, which of the one or more stimuli the user attends to and selecting the user-selectable input associated with the stimulation frequency of the determined stimuli as being a user...

  14. Superconductivity at disordered interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The increase of the superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c) due to the tunneling of conduction electrons into negative-u centers at a disordered metal-semiconductor interface is calculated. The strong dependence of the experimental increase of Tsub(c) on the Fermi energy of the metal is accounted for by the polaronic reduction of the tunneling matrix elements. The latter reduction is dynamically suppressed by the decreasing lifetime of the localized state as Esub(F) increases. The theoretical enhancement is sufficiently strong to explain the increase of Tsub(c) observed in eutectic alloys. (author)

  15. Interface characterization of InSb MOS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Y.; Bregman, J.; Calahorra, Z.; Goshen, R.

    1982-03-26

    The electrical properties of MOS devices are critically dependent on the oxide-semiconductor interface. The preparation of suitable insulating layers of oxide or other material is essential for the performance of such devices and it is particularly difficult in the case of III-V compound semiconductors. We report a method of preparing an insulating layer on InSb by a plasma oxidation process. The oxidation method will be described as well as results of the analysis of the oxide-semiconductor interface by electrical and compositional techniques. Capacitance-voltage characteristics reveal the existence of interface states which are distributed near the conduction and the valence bands with a higher density near the former. Depth profiling of the oxide by Ar/sup +/ sputtering and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) shows that the oxide is composed of a mixture of indium oxide with antimony oxide.

  16. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...

  17. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, Karl Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  18. Fracture toughness of dentin/resin-composite adhesive interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, L E; Pilliar, R M

    1993-05-01

    The reliability and validity of tensile and shear bond strength determinations of dentin-bonded interfaces have been questioned. The fracture toughness value (KIC) reflects the ability of a material to resist crack initiation and unstable propagation. When applied to an adhesive interface, it should account for both interfacial bond strength and inherent defects at or near the interface, and should therefore be more appropriate for characterization of interface fracture resistance. This study introduced a fracture toughness test for the assessment of dentin/resin-composite bonded interfaces. The miniature short-rod specimen geometry was used for fracture toughness testing. Each specimen contained a tooth slice, sectioned from a bovine incisor, to form the bonded interface. The fracture toughness of an enamel-bonded interface was assessed in addition to the dentin-bonded interfaces. Tensile bond strength specimens were also prepared from the dentin surfaces of the cut bovine incisors. A minimum of ten specimens was fabricated for each group of materials tested. After the specimens were aged for 24 h in distilled water at 37 degrees C, the specimens were loaded to failure in an Instron universal testing machine. There were significant differences (p adhesives tested. Generally, both the fracture toughness and tensile bond strength measurements were highest for AllBond 2, intermediate for 3M MultiPurpose, and lowest for Scotchbond 2. Scanning electron microscopy of the fractured specimen halves confirmed that crack propagation occurred along the bond interface during the fracture toughness test. It was therefore concluded that the mini-short-rod fracture toughness test provided a valid method for characterization of the fracture resistance of the dentin-resin composite interface.

  19. On-line Automated Sample Preparation-Capillary Gas Chromatography for the Analysis of Plasma Samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, A.J.H.; van der Wagt, R.A.C.A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    An automated sample preparation module, (the automated sample preparation with extraction columns, ASPEC), was interfaced with a capillary gas chromatograph (GC) by means of an on-column interface. The system was optimised for the determination of the antidepressant trazodone in plasma. The clean-up

  20. Variation of interface trap level charge density within the bandgap of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Engineering Research Institute (CEERI)/Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), ... Experimental details of the sample preparation, fabrication .... gives the true evidence of interface trap density at the interface of SiO2/SiC. On the ...

  1. Gas-liquid interface of room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cherry S; Baldelli, Steven

    2010-06-01

    The organization of ions at the interface of ionic liquids and the vacuum is an ideal system to test new ideas and concepts on the interfacial chemistry of electrolyte systems in the limit of no solvent medium. Whilst electrolyte systems have numerous theoretical and experimental methods used to investigate their properties, the ionic liquids are relatively new and our understanding of the interfacial properties is just beginning to be explored. In this critical review, the gas-liquid interface is reviewed, as this interface does not depend on the preparation of another medium and thus produces a natural interface. The interface has been investigated by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and ultra-high vacuum techniques. The results provide a detailed molecular-level view of the surface composition and structure. These have been complemented by theoretical studies. The combinations of treatments on this interface are starting to provide a somewhat convergent description of how the ions are organized at this neat interface (108 references).

  2. Observing Imperfection in Atomic Interfaces for van der Waals Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Aidan P; Kozikov, Aleksey; Rudenko, Alexander N; Prestat, Eric; Hamer, Matthew J; Withers, Freddie; Cao, Yang; Novoselov, Kostya S; Katsnelson, Mikhail I; Gorbachev, Roman; Haigh, Sarah J

    2017-09-13

    Vertically stacked van der Waals heterostructures are a lucrative platform for exploring the rich electronic and optoelectronic phenomena in two-dimensional materials. Their performance will be strongly affected by impurities and defects at the interfaces. Here we present the first systematic study of interfaces in van der Waals heterostructure using cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging. By measuring interlayer separations and comparing these to density functional theory (DFT) calculations we find that pristine interfaces exist between hBN and MoS 2 or WS 2 for stacks prepared by mechanical exfoliation in air. However, for two technologically important transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) systems, MoSe 2 and WSe 2 , our measurement of interlayer separations provide the first evidence for impurity species being trapped at buried interfaces with hBN interfaces that are flat at the nanometer length scale. While decreasing the thickness of encapsulated WSe 2 from bulk to monolayer we see a systematic increase in the interlayer separation. We attribute these differences to the thinnest TMDC flakes being flexible and hence able to deform mechanically around a sparse population of protruding interfacial impurities. We show that the air sensitive two-dimensional (2D) crystal NbSe 2 can be fabricated into heterostructures with pristine interfaces by processing in an inert-gas environment. Finally we find that adopting glovebox transfer significantly improves the quality of interfaces for WSe 2 compared to processing in air.

  3. Compliant Nanospring Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    types of films, all being 10±0.3µm thick, Figure 2(a-f). Seeding of the Si substrate with 500 nm high Si posts was prepared via Deep Reactive-Ion...sensing indentation experiments”, Journal of Materials Research Society, 7, 1992, 1564-1583. [35] Naraghi M, Chasiotis I, Kahn H, Wen Y and Dzenis...151901. [36] Naraghi M, Chasiotis I, Kahn H, Wen Y and Dzenis YA, “Novel method for mechanical characterization pf polymeric nanofibers”, Review

  4. Combinatorial Nano-Bio Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pingqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yun-Long; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-06-08

    Nano-bio interfaces are emerging from the convergence of engineered nanomaterials and biological entities. Despite rapid growth, clinical translation of biomedical nanomaterials is heavily compromised by the lack of comprehensive understanding of biophysicochemical interactions at nano-bio interfaces. In the past decade, a few investigations have adopted a combinatorial approach toward decoding nano-bio interfaces. Combinatorial nano-bio interfaces comprise the design of nanocombinatorial libraries and high-throughput bioevaluation. In this Perspective, we address challenges in combinatorial nano-bio interfaces and call for multiparametric nanocombinatorics (composition, morphology, mechanics, surface chemistry), multiscale bioevaluation (biomolecules, organelles, cells, tissues/organs), and the recruitment of computational modeling and artificial intelligence. Leveraging combinatorial nano-bio interfaces will shed light on precision nanomedicine and its potential applications.

  5. Urban Media and Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    For ten weeks in 2013, nineteen eclectic students from Anthropology, Ethnology and Design formed cross-disciplinary teams to research existing practices and possible futures in Blågården. Social media is radically changing how urban space is explored, experienced and communicated. For example...... for current and potential visitors as mentioned in the social housing plan for the area. On the other hand, the area's mixed ethnicity, colorful shops and cafes are valued by city tourists and other visitors who seek authentic experiences in local contexts. Against this background, Det Gode Naboskab......, Wonderful Copenhagen and Socialsquare jointly raise these questions: What is the role of social media as interface between the area around Blågårds Plads, its local communities and (potential) visitors, considering perspectives of security, control and planning? What are the challenges and opportunities...

  6. Embodiment and Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Andreas Lindegaard; Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses – based on neurological and phenomenological theory - how the human embodiment supports and constrains the interaction between players and video games. It analyses embodied interaction with the specific hardware/software configuration of the Nintendo Wii and Wii Tennis as well...... as other game system configurations. The article argues that playing video games may provide experiences of extended embodiment where players may experience ownership of both actions and virtual bodies related to the represented game world. The article shows how ownership may be related to differences...... of the player as patient, i.e. being the object of another agent’s actions.  Keywords: Video games, embodiment, interface, agency, action, control, cognition  ...

  7. Porphyrins at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  8. APST interfaces in LINCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  9. Acid chat: gestural interface design

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali Oytun; Gokhan, Ali Oytun

    2005-01-01

    AcidChat is an experimental design project that aims to create an innovative computer software interface for Internet chat software using today's well known technologies; Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand and digital photography. The aim of the project is to create new understandings of interface and it's usage, by adding new conceptions to chat based interfaces which creates a totally new look at the computer software and application. One of the key features is to add a gestural approach ...

  10. Buried interfaces - A systematic study to characterize an adhesive interface at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrich, Jan; Löbbecke, Miriam; Watermeyer, Philipp; Wilde, Fabian; Requena, Guillermo; da Silva, Julio

    2018-03-01

    A comparative study of a model adhesive interface formed between laser-pretreated Ti15-3-3-3 and the thermoplastic polymer PEEK has been carried out in order to characterize the interfaces' structural details and the infiltration of the surface nano-oxide by the polymer at multiple scales. Destructive approaches such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy of microsections prepared by focused ion beam, and non-destructive imaging approaches including laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy of pretreated surfaces as well as synchrotron computed tomography techniques (micro- and ptychographic tomographies) were employed for resolving the large, μm-sized melt-structures and the fine nano-oxide substructure within the buried interface. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fine, open-porous nano-oxide homogeneously covers the larger macrostructure features which in turn cover the joint surface. The open-porous nano-oxide forming the interface itself appears to be fully infiltrated and wetted by the polymer. No voids or even channels were detected down to the respective resolution limits of scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Playful User Interfaces. Interfaces that Invite Social and Physical Interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the

  12. Configurations of NPD : production interfaces and interface integration mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Boer, H.; Hansen, P.H.K.; Gubi, E.; Dorst, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates different configurations of the interface between new product development and production processes, including both intra–firm and inter–firm interfaces. These configurations are partly based on a process view of product innovation and partly on a structural view

  13. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Khairina; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi; Yazid, Putranto Ilham

    2014-01-01

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects

  14. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsir, Khairina; Yazid, Putranto Ilham; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi

    2014-09-01

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

  15. Furthering interface design in services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secomandi, F.; Snelders, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses ideas from the book Interface: An Approach to Design (Bonsiepe 1999) as a springboard for thinking through the design and use of services. We introduce Bonsiepe’s take on phenomenological philosophy of technology in his conception of the user interface. Next to that,

  16. Human-machine interface upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.; Matejka, K.; Sklenka, L.; Chab, V.

    2002-01-01

    The article describes a new human-machine interface that was installed at the VR-1 training reactor. The human-machine interface upgrade was completed in the summer 2001. The interface was designed with respect to functional, ergonomic and aesthetic requirements. The interface is based on a personal computer equipped with two displays. One display enables alphanumeric communication between the reactor operator and the nuclear reactor I and C. The second display is a graphical one. It presents the status of the reactor, principal parameters (as power, period), control rods positions, course of the reactor power. Furthermore, it is possible to set parameters, to show the active core configuration, to perform reactivity calculations, etc. The software for the new human-machine interface was produced with the InTouch developing tool of the Wonder-Ware Company. It is possible to switch the language of the interface between Czech and English because of many foreign students and visitors to the reactor. Microcomputer based communication units with proper software were developed to connect the new human-machine interface with the present reactor I and C. The new human-machine interface at the VR-1 training reactor improves the comfort and safety of the reactor utilisation, facilitates experiments and training, and provides better support for foreign visitors. (orig.)

  17. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  18. GRAPHIC INTERFACES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PANA,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using effective the method of calculating Fitness for Service requires the achievement of graphical interfaces. This paper presents an example of such interfaces, made with Visual Basic program and used in the evaluation of pipelines in a research contract [4

  19. Preface (to Playful User Interfaces)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the

  20. Overview of Graphical User Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulser, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of graphical user interfaces for online public access catalogs (OPACs) covers the history of OPACs; OPAC front-end design, including examples from Indiana University and the University of Illinois; and planning and implementation of a user interface. (10 references) (EA)

  1. Playful Interfaces : Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  2. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  3. Interface characteristics of peeling-off damages of laser coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yun, E-mail: coating@siom.ac.cn; Yi, Kui; Guohang, Hu; Shao, Jianda

    2014-01-30

    Coating stacks of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} were separately prepared by electron beam evaporation and dual ion beam sputtering. Damage characteristics at the interlayer interfaces were analyzed after irradiation of the coatings by a 1064 nm laser. The cross-sectional morphologies of damage spots indicated that peeling-off damages always occurred at the interface where the low refractive index material (SiO{sub 2}) was deposited on the high refractive index material (HfO{sub 2} or Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The effects of interface microstructure and components on peeling-off damages were also discussed. The microstructure of the interface was not a major factor that influenced peeling-off damages. Incomplete oxides (SiO{sub x}) and Na, K, Li ions accumulated near the interface and caused the formation of micro-defects layers with nano-sized thicknesses. Micro-defects layers maybe reduced adhesion of different interfaces and formed plasmas by absorbing laser energy. Finally stripping damages happened from micro-defects layers during irradiation by a 1064 nm laser.

  4. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  5. Playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book is about user interfaces to applications that have been designed for social and physical interaction. The interfaces are ‘playful’, that is, users feel challenged to engage in social and physical interaction because that will be fun. The topics that will be present in this book are interactive playgrounds, urban games using mobiles, sensor-equipped environments for playing, child-computer interaction, tangible game interfaces, interactive tabletop technology and applications, full-body interaction, exertion games, persuasion, engagement, evaluation, and user experience. Readers of the book will not only get a survey of state-of-the-art research in these areas, but the chapters in this book will also provide a vision of the future where playful interfaces will be ubiquitous, that is, present and integrated in home, office, recreational, sports and urban environments, emphasizing that in the future in these environments game elements will be integrated and welcomed.

  6. Through the Interface - a human activity approach to user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices of us...

  7. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  8. Designing end-user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, N

    1988-01-01

    Designing End-User Interfaces: State of the Art Report focuses on the field of human/computer interaction (HCI) that reviews the design of end-user interfaces.This compilation is divided into two parts. Part I examines specific aspects of the problem in HCI that range from basic definitions of the problem, evaluation of how to look at the problem domain, and fundamental work aimed at introducing human factors into all aspects of the design cycle. Part II consists of six main topics-definition of the problem, psychological and social factors, principles of interface design, computer intelligenc

  9. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  10. Molecular characterization of composite interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was applied to elucidate the molecular structures of the glass/matrix interface. The various interfaces and interphases were studied. It is found that the structure of the silane in a treating solution is important in determining the structure of the silane on glass fibers, influences the macroscopic properties of composites. The amount of silane on glass fibers, the state of hydrogen bonding, orientation, copolymerization of the organicfunctionality with the matrix, curing of the silane, and effect of water on the interface were investigated. It is shown that the molecular approach is useful to interpret and predict physicomechanical properties of composites

  11. Search-User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Max

    2011-01-01

    Search User Interfaces (SUIs) represent the gateway between people who have a task to complete, and the repositories of information and data stored around the world. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are many communities who have a vested interest in the way SUIs are designed. There are people who study how humans search for information, and people who study how humans use computers. There are people who study good user interface design, and people who design aesthetically pleasing user interfaces. There are also people who curate and manage valuable information resources, and people who desi

  12. The molecule-metal interface

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Norbert; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2013-01-01

    Reviewing recent progress in the fundamental understanding of the molecule-metal interface, this useful addition to the literature focuses on experimental studies and introduces the latest analytical techniques as applied to this interface.The first part covers basic theory and initial principle studies, while the second part introduces readers to photoemission, STM, and synchrotron techniques to examine the atomic structure of the interfaces. The third part presents photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution UV photoelectron spectroscopy and electron spin resonance to study the electroni

  13. VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.

    1987-01-01

    A high performance VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs and other similar devices used in nuclear spectroscopy coincidence experiments has been developed. This new module can be used to interface existing spectroscopy ADCs with fast parallel data transfer into the industry standard multiprocessor VMEbus. The unit provides a fast direct readout of the ADC data into the VMEbus memory. The interface also has built-in capabilities that enable it to be used in coincidence experiments for slow data timing and ADC pattern recognition. (orig.)

  14. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  15. X-ray investigation of Nb/O interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delheusy, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers and the future International Linear Collider project are based on the performance of niobium superconducting rf cavities for efficient particle acceleration. A remarkable increase of the rf accelerating field is usually achieved by low-temperature annealing of the cavities (T 2 O 5 , NbO 2 and NbO, from the surface to the interface. It reduces progressively upon heating from Nb 2 O 5 to NbO 2 at low temperatures, and to NbO at 300 C. The Nb(110)/NbO(111) interface presents a Nishiyama-Wassermann epitaxial orientation relationship. The depth-distribution of interstitial oxygen has been established indicating that most of the oxygen is located in the direct vicinity of the oxide/niobium interface. No evidence of oxygen depletion below the oxide layer has been observed for the low temperature thermal treatments and surface preparations investigated in this study. (orig.)

  16. The HEASARC graphical user interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Jacobs, P.; Oneel, B.

    1992-01-01

    An OSF/Motif-based graphical user interface has been developed to facilitate the use of the database and data analysis software packages available from the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC). It can also be used as an interface to other, similar, routines. A small number of tables are constructed to specify the possible commands and command parameters for a given set of analysis routines. These tables can be modified by a designer to affect the appearance of the interface screens. They can also be dynamically changed in response to parameter adjustments made while the underlying program is running. Additionally, a communication protocol has been designed so that the interface can operate locally or across a network. It is intended that this software be able to run on a variety of workstations and X terminals.

  17. Implantable Neural Interfaces for Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    technology for recording and stimulating from the auditory and olfactory sensory nervous systems of the awake, swimming nurse shark , G. cirratum (Figures...overlay of the central nervous system of the nurse shark on a horizontal MR image. Implantable Neural Interfaces for Sharks ...Neural Interfaces for Characterizing Population Responses to Odorants and Electrical Stimuli in the Nurse Shark , Ginglymostoma cirratum.” AChemS Abs

  18. Flippable User Interfaces for Internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Khaddam, Iyad; Vanderdonckt, Jean; 3rd ACM Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems EICS’2011

    2011-01-01

    The language reading direction is probably one of the most determinant factors influencing the successful internationalization of graphical user interfaces, beyond their mere translation. Western languages are read from left to right and top to bottom, while Arabic languages and Hebrew are read from right to left and top to bottom, and Oriental languages are read from top to bottom. In order to address this challenge, we introduce flippable user interfaces that enable the end user to change t...

  19. Interface of Chemistry and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kira Astakhova

    2013-01-01

    Many exciting research studies in Science today lie at the interface between various disciplines. The interface between Chemistry and Biology is particularly rich, since it closely reflects Nature and the origins of Life. Multiple research groups in the Chemistry Departments around the world have made substantial efforts to interweave ideas from Chemistry and Biology to solve important questions related to material science and healthcare, just to name a few. International Journal of Bioorgani...

  20. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces describes the concept of the environmental interface, defined as a surface between two either abiotic or biotic systems. These are in relative motion and exchange mass, heat and momentum through biophysical and/or chemical processes. These processes are fluctuating temporally and spatially.The book will be of interest to graduate students, PhD students as well as researchers in environmental sciences, civil engineering and environmental engineering, (geo)physics and applied mathematics.

  1. Optoelectronics Interfaces for Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue interface is galvanicseparation between the signal part and the power board.Standards in the field have increased continuouslyelectro-security requirements on the rigidity of thedielectric and insulation resistance. Recommendations forclassical solutions require the use of galvanic separationoptoelectronics devices. Interfacing with a PC or DSP -controller is a target of interposition optical signals viathe power hardware commands.

  2. Adding a scripting interface to Gaudi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, C.T.; Quarrie, D.; Tull, C.

    2001-01-01

    Athena, the Software Framework for ATLAS' offline software, is based on the Gaudi Framework from LHCb. The Processing Model of Gaudi is essentially that of a batch-oriented system - a User prepares a file detailing the configuration of which Algorithms are to be applied to the input data of a job and the parameter values that control the behavior of each Algorithm instance. The Framework then reads that file once at the beginning of a job and runs to completion with no further interaction with the User. The authors have enhanced the Processing Model to include an interactive mode where a User can control the event loop of a running job and modify the algorithms and parameters on the fly. The authors changed only a very small number of Gaudi Classes to provide access to parameters from an embedded Python interpreter. No change was made to the Gaudi Programming Model, i.e, developers need not change anything to make use of this added interface. The authors present details of the design and implementation of the interactive Python interface for Athena

  3. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F

    1983-02-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered.

  4. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, F.

    1983-01-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered. (Author) [pt

  5. Science at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr Cetina, K.

    2004-01-01

    the stakes against those who might want to enter. Laboratory sciences interface nature in a peculiar way: by barring real natural objects from entering the lab and by substituting for them reconfigured versions of these objects to work with in research. These supplemental versions of natural objects do refer back to natural processes or conditions, but at the same time they are also autonomous new objects and processes with differential qualities and reproductive powers within laboratory contexts. Laboratory sciences have the disadvantage that their products must be freshly contextualized when they leave the lab to reenter natural environments. In the natural sciences, re-contextualization is often accomplished by transferring some of the conditions that obtained in the lab onto the natural environment. Re-contextualization in the natural sciences may also just be a metaphor for a long chain of processes, involving specialized disciplines, by which some natural scientific results are used to create technologies which are then used in practice - a process that often fails, involves political strategies of persuasion and other complications. Contextualization involves adaptation not only to new laboratory external physical environments but also to the social world. One direction of social science research maintains that a form of (re) contextualization of a much larger scope and impact is evident today in contemporary societies, affecting in tendency all sciences and technological fields. This assessment is encapsulated in the idea that we have progressed from Mode 1 science and technology to a Mode 2 situation where knowledge is generated in the context of application and implication. (author)

  6. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium metal-ceramic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y.; Merkle, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Metal-ceramic interfaces in thermodynamic equilibrium (Au/ZrO 2 ) and non-equilibrium (Au/MgO) have been studied by TEM and HREM. In the Au/ZrO 2 system, ZrO 2 precipitates formed by internal oxidation of a 7%Zr-Au alloy show a cubic ZrO 2 phase. It appears that formation of the cubic ZrO 2 is facilitated by alignment with the Au matrix. Most of the ZrO 2 precipitates have a perfect cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the Au matrix. The large number of interfacial steps observed in a short-time annealing experiment indicate that the precipitates are formed by the ledge growth mechanism. The lowest interfacial energy is indicated by the dominance of closed-packed [111] Au/ZrO 2 interfaces. In the Au/MgO system, composite films with small MgO smoke particles embedded in a Au matrix were prepared by a thin film technique. HREM observations show that most of the Au/MgO interfaces have a strong tendency to maintain a dense lattice structure across the interfaces irrespective of whether the interfaces are incoherent or semi-coherent. This paper reports that this indicates that there may be a relatively strong bond between MgO and Au

  7. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  8. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  9. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Sapunov, M

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  10. EFFECTS OF INTERFACES ON GAMMA SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, C. E.

    1963-06-15

    A survey is presented of studies of interface effects in gamma shielding problems. These studies are grouped into three types of approaches, viz.: sources at the interface; radiation backscattered from the interface; and radiation transmitted through the interface. A bibliography of 54 references is included. Limitations on the applicability of the results are discussed. (T.F.H.)

  11. Repartition of ultrasonic energies at the interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, M.; Bourdarios, M.; Lepoutre, M.

    1983-06-01

    Energy repartition of ultrasonic waves at the interfaces is studied as a function of incidence angle of the acoustic beam in immersion testing. For each interface type mathematical relations give the ratio of incident energy and energy of the wave reemitted by the interface. As an example curves for the interfaces water-uranium are given [fr

  12. Usable Interface Design for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud

    When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.

  13. Multi-robot control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  14. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... of 97% H2/3% H2O. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at open circuit voltage (OCV) and at anodic and cathodic polarisations (100 mV) was performed. A correlation of the electrical data with the structure development and the chemical composition was attempted. Nickel wires with different impurity...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  15. Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2006-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook covers the major developments in surface sciences of recent decades, from experimental tricks and basic techniques to the latest experimental methods and theoretical understanding. It is unique in its attempt to treat the physics of surfaces, thin films and interfaces, surface chemistry, thermodynamics, statistical physics and the physics of the solid/electrolyte interface in an integral manner, rather than in separate compartments. The Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces is designed as a handbook for the researcher as well as a study-text for graduate students in physics or chemistry with special interest in the surface sciences, material science, or the nanosciences. The experienced researcher, professional or academic teacher will appreciate the opportunity to share many insights and ideas that have grown out of the author's long experience. Readers will likewise appreciate the wide range of topics treated, each supported by extensive references. Graduate students will benefit f...

  16. Control by personal computer and Interface 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Mug; Park, Sun Ho

    1989-03-01

    This book consists of three chapters. The first chapter deals with basic knowledge of micro computer control which are computer system, micro computer system, control of the micro computer and control system for calculator. The second chapter describes Interface about basic knowledge such as 8255 parallel interface, 6821 parallel interface, parallel interface of personal computer, reading BCD code in parallel interface, IEEE-488 interface, RS-232C interface and transmit data in personal computer and a measuring instrument. The third chapter includes control experiment by micro computer, experiment by eight bit computer and control experiment by machine code and BASIC.

  17. Experimental observations of the chemistry of the SiO2/Si interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthaner, F. J.; Maserjian, J.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in silicon surface preparation prior to thermal oxidation are shown to leave a signature by altering the final SiO2/Si interface structure. Surface analytical techniques, including XPS, static SIMS, ion milling, and newly developed wet-chemical profiling procedures are used to obtain detailed information on the chemical structure of the interface. The oxides are shown to be essentially SiO2 down to a narrow transitional interface layer (3-7 A). A number of discrete chemical species are observed in this interface layer, including different silicon bonds (e.g., C-, OH-, H-) and a range of oxidation states of silicon (0 to +4). The effect of surface preparation and the observed chemical species are correlated with oxide growth rate, surface-state density, and flatband shifts after irradiation.

  18. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  19. Interface language for diagnostic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron multichannel collimator diagnostic on TFTR is run with the help of a keyboard-entered interface language. The language allows the user to interact with the real-time control and data analysis systems in a consistent and efficient manner. It uses a vocabulary that can be abbreviated into one character commands which the proficient user may concatenate into command words. This allows the user to progress quickly from a novice to an expert operating mode. A similar type interface language could be applied to many interactive applications accepting keyboard inputs

  20. Polymers and biopolymers at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. R.; Geoghegan, M.

    2018-03-01

    This review updates recent progress in the understanding of the behaviour of polymers at surfaces and interfaces, highlighting examples in the areas of wetting, dewetting, crystallization, and ‘smart’ materials. Recent developments in analysis tools have yielded a large increase in the study of biological systems, and some of these will also be discussed, focussing on areas where surfaces are important. These areas include molecular binding events and protein adsorption as well as the mapping of the surfaces of cells. Important techniques commonly used for the analysis of surfaces and interfaces are discussed separately to aid the understanding of their application.

  1. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  2. Interfacing robotics with plutonium fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Interfacing robotic systems with nuclear fuel fabrication processes resulted in a number of interfacing challenges. The system not only interfaces with the fuel process, but must also interface with nuclear containment, radiation control boundaries, criticality control restrictions, and numerous other safety systems required in a fuel fabrication plant. The robotic system must be designed to allow operator interface during maintenance and recovery from an upset as well as normal operations

  3. Hierarchy of on-orbit servicing interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Rud V.

    1989-01-01

    A series of equipment interfaces is involved in on-orbit servicing operations. The end-to-end hierarchy of servicing interfaces is presented. The interface concepts presented include structure and handling, and formats for transfer of resources (power, data, fluids, etc.). Consequences on cost, performance, and service ability of the use of standard designs or unique designs with interface adapters are discussed. Implications of the interface designs compatibility with remote servicing using telerobotic servicers are discussed.

  4. A database for TMT interface control documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Kim; Roberts, Scott; Brighton, Allan; Rogers, John

    2016-08-01

    The TMT Software System consists of software components that interact with one another through a software infrastructure called TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their roles. The use of common component types and shared middleware services allows standardized software interfaces for the components. A software system called the TMT Interface Database System was constructed to support the documentation of the interfaces for components based on CSW. The programmer describes a subsystem and each of its components using JSON-style text files. A command interface file describes each command a component can receive and any commands a component sends. The event interface files describe status, alarms, and events a component publishes and status and events subscribed to by a component. A web application was created to provide a user interface for the required features. Files are ingested into the software system's database. The user interface allows browsing subsystem interfaces, publishing versions of subsystem interfaces, and constructing and publishing interface control documents that consist of the intersection of two subsystem interfaces. All published subsystem interfaces and interface control documents are versioned for configuration control and follow the standard TMT change control processes. Subsystem interfaces and interface control documents can be visualized in the browser or exported as PDF files.

  5. The New Interface for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Schools are scrambling to prepare their students for the writing assessments in correlation with the Common Core tests. In some states, writing has not been assessed for more than a decade. Yet, with the use of computerized grading of the students' writing, many teachers are wondering how to best prepare students for the writing assessments,…

  6. Proteoglycan and proteome profiling of central human pulmonary fibrotic tissue utilizing miniaturized sample preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Johan; Larsen, Kristoffer; Hansson, Lennart

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional electrophoresis was interfaced to miniaturized sample preparation techniques using microcapillary extraction. Four protein groups were identified; cytoskeletal, adhesion, scavenger and metabolic proteins. These patient's proteomes showed a high degree of heterogeneity between patients but larger homogeneity...

  7. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, H.; Kester, L.; Hummel, H.; Nadolski, R.; Jochems, W.; Merriënboer, J.; Koper, R.

    2003-01-01

    An important question in web-based education is how to deal with the design of the interface. What will the actual screen look like? Two main issues that are especially relevant for educational purposes are discussed, both from a Human-Computer Interaction and an Educational Psychology perspective.

  8. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    in biology and biomedicine acting as a molecular ‘nanorobot’ or smart drug interacting with the cellular machinery. In this review, we will explore and examine the perspective of DNA nanotechnology for such use. We summarize which requirements DNA nanostructures must fulfil to function in cellular...... environments and inside living organisms. In addition, we highlight recent advances in interfacing DNA nanostructures with biology....

  9. Embodied agents in de interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, M.J.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2001-01-01

    Steeds meer zien we het gebruik van mensachtige, geanimeerde figuren in interfaces en andere software applicaties, niet alleen in onderzoeksprojecten maar ook in commerciële software. Een voorbeeld dat bijna iedereen wel kent (en waar velen wel wat op aan te merken hebben) is de ‘office assistant’

  10. Adhesive forces at bimetallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.; Nafari, N.; Ziesche, P.; Kaschner, H.R.

    1987-03-01

    Force concepts in condensed systems have progressed significantly in recent years. In the context of bimetallic interfaces we consider the Pauli-Hellman-Feynman theorem, use it to check the variational calculations of interfacial energies and estimate the force constants. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Diagnostic interface problems on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, S.

    1977-01-01

    Diagnostic equipment on TFTR has functional interfaces with many machine systems. Salient requirements include plasma access, environmental resistance to thermal, magnetic and radiation effects, automated data acquisition and controls, remote handling and personnel safety. Problems imposed by these requirements and the solutions being considered are described

  12. Control system oriented human interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor

  13. PACE: A Browsable Graphical Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Jamshid; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes PACE (Public Access Catalogue Extension), an alternative interface designed to enhance online catalogs by simulating images of books and library shelves to help users browse through the catalog. Results of a test in a college library against a text-based online public access catalog, including student attitudes, are described.…

  14. Web OPAC Interfaces: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, B. Ramesh; O'Brien, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on a review of six Web OPAC interfaces in use in academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Presents a checklist and guidelines of important features and functions that are currently available, including search strategies, access points, display, links, and layout. (Author/LRW)

  15. Robust Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.

    2011-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables direct communication from the brain to devices, bypassing the traditional pathway of peripheral nerves and muscles. Current BCIs aimed at patients require that the user invests weeks, or even months, to learn the skill to intentionally modify their brain

  16. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Huib; Kester, Liesbeth; Hummel, Hans; Nadolski, Rob

    2005-01-01

    This text should be referred to as: Tabbers, H., Kester, L., Hummel, H. G. K., & Nadolski, R. J. (2003). Interface design for digital courses. In W. Jochems, J. van Merriënboer, & R. Koper (Eds). Integrated e-learning: implications for pedagogy, technology & organisation (pp. 100-111). London:

  17. Preparing Content-Rich Learning Environments with VPython and Excel, Controlled by Visual Basic for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayaga, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    A simple interface between VPython and Microsoft (MS) Office products such as Word and Excel, controlled by Visual Basic for Applications, is described. The interface allows the preparation of content-rich, interactive learning environments by taking advantage of the three-dimensional (3D) visualization capabilities of VPython and the GUI…

  18. Participation in the ABWR Man-Machine interface design. Applicability to the Spanish Electrical Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Manrique Martin, A.; Nunez, J.

    1997-01-01

    Project coordinated by DTN within the advanced reactor programme. Participation in the design activities for the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) man-machine interface was divided into two phases: Phase I: Preparation of drawings for designing, developing and assessing the advanced control room Phase II: Application of these drawings in design activities Participation in this programme has led to the following possible future applications to the electrical sector: 1. Design and implementation of man-machine interfaces 2. Human factor criteria 3. Assessment of man-machine interfaces 4. Functional specification, computerised operating procedures 5. Computerised alarm prototypes. (Author)

  19. Properties and determination of the interface stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Danxu; Zhang Hao; Srolovitz, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical potential of a curved interface contains a term that is proportional to the product of the interface curvature and the interface stiffness. In crystalline materials, the interface stiffness is a tensor. This paper examines several basic issues related to the properties of the interface stiffness, especially the determination of the interface stiffness in particular directions (i.e. the commonly used scalar form of the interface stiffness). Of the five parameters that describe an arbitrary grain boundary, only those describing the inclination are crucial for the scalar stiffness. We also examine the influence of crystal symmetry on the stiffness tensor for both free surfaces and grain boundaries. This results in substantial simplifications for cases in which interfaces possess mirror or rotational symmetries. An efficient method for determining the interface stiffness tensor using atomistic simulations is proposed

  20. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yufei

    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as biosensors, lithium-ion batteries double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and seawater desalination. Electrostatics plays a critical role in the development of such functional materials. Many of the functions of these materials, result from charge and composition heterogeneities. There are great challenges in solving electrostatics problems in heterogeneous media with arbitrary shapes because electrostatic interactions remains unknown but depend on the particular density of charge distributions. Charged molecules in heterogeneous media affect the media's dielectric response and hence the interaction between the charges is unknown since it depends on the media and on the geometrical properties of the interfaces. To determine the properties of heterogeneous systems including crucial effects neglected in classical mean field models such as the hard core of the ions, the dielectric mismatch and interfaces with arbitrary shapes. The effect of hard core interactions accounts properly for short range interactions and the effect of local dielectric heterogeneities in the presence of ions and/or charged molecules for long-range interactions are both analyzed via an energy variational principle that enables to update charges and the medium's response in the same simulation time step. In particular, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric

  1. Interface analysis of Ge ultra thin layers intercalated between GaAs substrates and oxide stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molle, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.molle@mdm.infm.i [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Lamagna, Luca; Spiga, Sabina [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (MI) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Brammertz, Guy; Meuris, Marc [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-01

    Capping III-V compound surfaces with Ge ultra-thin layer might be a viable pathway to passivate the electrically active interface traps which usually jeopardize the integration of III-V materials in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. As the physical nature of such traps is intrinsically related to the chemical details of the interface composition, the structural and compositional features of the Ge/GaAs interface were thoroughly investigated in two different configurations, the atomic layer deposition of La-doped ZrO{sub 2} films on Ge-capped GaAs and the ultra-high vacuum based molecular beam deposition of GeO{sub 2}/Ge double stack on in situ prepared GaAs. In the former case, the intercalation of a Ge interface layer is shown to suppress the concentration of interface Ga-O, As-O and elemental As bonding which were significantly detected in case of the direct oxide deposition on GaAs. In the latter case, the incidence of two different in situ surface preparations, the Ar sputtering and the atomic H cleaning, on the interface composition is elucidated and the beneficial role played by the atomic H exposure in reducing the semiconductor-oxygen bonds at the interface level is demonstrated.

  2. Progress report on research project [Plan for www interface layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, T.

    2006-01-01

    items such as deformed 'nucleon density distribution', double-folding potential, evaluated fission barrier (extension into 3 or more) and fission spectra, the format must be considered. h) Interface for input data preparation for model codes (POD, COCOON, EMPIRE, GNASH, TALYS, ...) will be expected to be produced as preparing parameters in 'intermediate format' for 'all' available channels with Q-value using CALAQ. Code developers can get information from this interface. Actions: 1) Interface and RIPL-3 web page discussed will be prepared based on RIPL-2 page. 2) One page introduction about web for TECDOC will be prepared. (author)

  3. UNIVERSAL INTERFACE TO MULTIPLE OPERATIONS SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1986-01-01

    Alternative ways to provide access to operations systems that maintain, test, and configure complex telephone networks are being explored. It is suggested that a universal interface that provides simultaneous access to multiple operations systems that execute in different hardware and software...... environments, can be provided by an architecture that is based on the separation of presentation issues from application issues and on a modular interface management system that consists of a virtual user interface, physical user interface, and interface agent. The interface functionality that is needed...

  4. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa da Silva Alan W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data. ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. Findings We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein–ligand complexes from the PDB. Conclusions ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

  5. ACPYPE - AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa da Silva, Alan W; Vranken, Wim F

    2012-07-23

    ACPYPE (or AnteChamber PYthon Parser interfacE) is a wrapper script around the ANTECHAMBER software that simplifies the generation of small molecule topologies and parameters for a variety of molecular dynamics programmes like GROMACS, CHARMM and CNS. It is written in the Python programming language and was developed as a tool for interfacing with other Python based applications such as the CCPN software suite (for NMR data analysis) and ARIA (for structure calculations from NMR data). ACPYPE is open source code, under GNU GPL v3, and is available as a stand-alone application at http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype and as a web portal application at http://webapps.ccpn.ac.uk/acpype. We verified the topologies generated by ACPYPE in three ways: by comparing with default AMBER topologies for standard amino acids; by generating and verifying topologies for a large set of ligands from the PDB; and by recalculating the structures for 5 protein-ligand complexes from the PDB. ACPYPE is a tool that simplifies the automatic generation of topology and parameters in different formats for different molecular mechanics programmes, including calculation of partial charges, while being object oriented for integration with other applications.

  6. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  7. CBM first-level event selector input interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, Dirk [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBM First-level Event Selector (FLES) is the central event selection system of the upcoming CBM experiment at FAIR. Designed as a high-performance computing cluster, its task is an online analysis of the physics data at a total data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. To allow efficient event selection, the FLES performs timeslice building, which combines the data from all given input links to self-contained, overlapping processing intervals and distributes them to compute nodes. Partitioning the input data streams into specialized containers allows to perform this task very efficiently. The FLES Input Interface defines the linkage between FEE and FLES data transport framework. Utilizing a custom FPGA board, it receives data via optical links, prepares them for subsequent timeslice building, and transfers the data via DMA to the PC's memory. An accompanying HDL module implements the front-end logic interface and FLES link protocol in the front-end FPGAs. Prototypes of all Input Interface components have been implemented and integrated into the FLES framework. In contrast to earlier prototypes, which included components to work without a FPGA layer between FLES and FEE, the structure matches the foreseen final setup. This allows the implementation and evaluation of the final CBM read-out chain. An overview of the FLES Input Interface as well as studies on system integration and system start-up are presented.

  8. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  9. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kulturhistoriske udviklingsfaser. Den tegner også et billede af, hvordan interfacet forandrer vores musikkultur, og hvordan de digitale kunstværker udfordrer vores økonomi og jura. Interfacet er vor tids drøm om gennemsigtighed, om at nå ind bag formidlingen. Det er dog også andet og mere end funktionel teknologi...

  10. Technology and Changing Lifestyles. Teacher's Guide. Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzi, Louis A.

    "Technology and Changing Lifestyles" is one of the "Preparing for Tomorrow's World" (PTW) program modules. PTW is an interdisciplinary, future-oriented program incorporating information from the sciences and social sciences and addressing societal concerns which interface science/technology/society. The program promotes…

  11. Soft matter at aqueous interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the science of interfaces between an aqueous phase and a solid, another liquid or a gaseous phase, starting from the basic physical chemistry all the way to state-of-the-art research developments. Both experimental and theoretical methods are treated thanks to the contributions of a distinguished list of authors who are all active researchers in their respective fields. The properties of these interfaces are crucial for a wide variety of processes, products and biological systems and functions, such as the formulation of personal care and food products, paints and coatings, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications, cell membranes, and lung surfactants. Accordingly, research and expertise on the subject are spread over a broad range of academic disciplines and industrial laboratories. This book brings together knowledge from these different places with the aim of fostering education, collaborations and research progress.

  12. Interfaces in ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    Internal interfaces in all-ceramic dispersion fuels (such as these for HTGRs) are discussed for two classes: BeO-based dispersions, and coated particles for graphite-based fuels. The following points are made: (1) The strength of a two-phase dispersion is controlled by the weaker dispersed phase bonded to the matrix. (2) Differential expansion between two phases can be controlled by an intermediate buffer zone of low density. (3) A thin ceramic coating should be in compression. (4) Chemical reaction between coating and substrate and mass transfer in service should be minimized. The problems of the nuclear fuel designer are to develop coatings for fission product retention, and to produce radiation-resistant interfaces. 44 references, 18 figures

  13. The interface at the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2011-01-01

    In the development of and discourses around interfaces there has always been a strong urge to bypass representation and ‘jack’ directly in to the human brain, consciousness, perceptions and feelings. In her article ”The interface at the skin” Lone Koefoed Hansen looks at how two contemporary...... experimental dresses made by Philips within the field of wearable computing subscribe to the concept of ‘ideal communication’. In her article, she explains how this particular type of communication is linked to the paranormal phenomena of mind reading and telepathy, and argues that sensor-based wearable...... computing is the newest example of a technological development implicitly or explicitly aiming at manifesting two utopian parameters of communication: immediacy and instantaneity. Though utopian, this manifestation has served as a way to brand Philips “as a highly innovative and remarkable company”....

  14. Towards personalized adaptive user interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Vlaho; Fukuda, Shuchi; Yanagisawa, Hideyoshi

    2002-01-01

    An approach towards standardization of the general rules for synthesis and design of man machine interfaces that include dynamic adaptive behavior is presented. The link between the personality type (Myers-Briggs or Kersey Temperament sorter) and the personal preferences of the users (Kansei) for the purpose of building Graphical User Interface (GU]) was investigated. The rules for a personalized el-notional GUI based on the subjective preferences of the users were defined. The results were tested on a modified TETRIS game that displayed background characters capable of emotional response. When the system responded to a user in a manner that is customized to his or her preferences, the reaction time was smaller and the information transfer was faster. Usability testing methods were used and it was shown that development of pleasant cartoon face GUI based on the users inborn personality tendencies was feasible. (Author)

  15. Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, David [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Murphy, Catherine [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Martin, Lane [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Our research program on Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces advanced understanding of the mesoscale science of heat conduction. At the length and time scales of atoms and atomic motions, energy is transported by interactions between single-particle and collective excitations. At macroscopic scales, entropy, temperature, and heat are the governing concepts. Key gaps in fundamental knowledge appear at the transitions between these two regimes. The transport of thermal energy at interfaces plays a pivotal role in these scientific issues. Measurements of heat transport with ultrafast time resolution are needed because picoseconds are the fundamental scales where the lack of equilibrium between various thermal excitations becomes a important factor in the transport physics. A critical aspect of our work has been the development of experimental methods and model systems that enabled more precise and sensitive investigations of nanoscale thermal transport.

  16. Brookhaven fastbus/unibus interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, G.; Bauernfeind, J.; Larsen, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    A typical high energy physics experiment requires both a high speed data acquisition and processing system, for data collection and reduction; and a general purpose computer to handle further reduction, bookkeeping and mass storage. Broad differences in architecture, format or technology, will often exist between these two systems, and interface design can become a formidable task. The PDP-11 series minicomputer is widely used in physics research, and the Brookhaven FASTBUS is the only standard high speed data acquisition system which is fully implemented in a current high energy physics experiment. This paper will describe the design and operation of an interface between these two systems. The major issues are elucidated by a preliminary discussion on the basic principles of Bus Systems, and their application to Brookhaven FASTBUS and UNIBUS

  17. User interface and patient involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Lundvoll Nilsen, Line

    2013-01-01

    Increased patient involvement is a goal in contemporary health care, and of importance to the development of patient oriented ICT. In this paper we discuss how the design of patient-user interfaces can affect patient involvement. Our discussion is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with patient users of a web-based solution for patient--doctor communication piloted in Norway. We argue ICT solutions offering a choice of user interfaces on the patient side are preferable to ensure individual accommodation and a high degree of patient involvement. When introducing web-based tools for patient--health professional communication a free-text option should be provided to the patient users.

  18. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  19. Applications for Packetized Memory Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Myles Glen

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the memory subsystem has a large impact on the performance of modern computer systems. Many important applications are memory bound and others are expected to become memory bound in the future. The importance of memory performance makes it imperative to understand and optimize the interactions between applications and the system architecture. Prototyping and exploring various configurations of memory systems can give important insights, but current memory interfaces are lim...

  20. Size effects in shear interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    GARNIER, J

    2001-01-01

    In physical modelling (centrifuge tests, calibration chambers, laboratory tests), the size of the soil particles may not be negligible when compared to the dimensions of the models. Size effects may so disturb the response of the models and the experimental data obtained on these cannot be extended to true scale conditions. Different tests have been performed to study and quantify the size effects that may happen in shear interfaces between soils and structures : modified shear box tests, pul...

  1. Interface-based software testing

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Ahmad Rais

    2016-01-01

    Software quality is determined by assessing the characteristics that specify how it should work, which are verified through testing. If it were possible to touch, see, or measure software, it would be easier to analyze and prove its quality. Unfortunately, software is an intangible asset, which makes testing complex. This is especially true when software quality is not a question of particular functions that can be tested through a graphical user interface. The primary objective of softwar...

  2. Spelling Correction in User Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-20

    conventional typescript -oriented command language, where most com- mands consist of a verb followed by a sequence of arguments. Most user terminals are...and explanations. not part of the typescripts . 2 SPFE.LING CORRLC1iON IN USR IN"RFAC’S 2. Design Issues We were prompted to look for a new correction...remaining 73% led us to wonder what other mechanisms might permit further corrections while retaining the typescript -style interface. Most of the other

  3. Tightness of voter model interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturm, A.; Swart, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2008), s. 165-174 ISSN 1083-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/1323; GA ČR GA201/07/0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long range voter model * swapping voter model * interface tightness * exclusion process Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.392, year: 2008 http://www.emis.de/journals/EJP-ECP/_ejpecp/index.html

  4. Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2016-01-01

    We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich...... platform for applications of surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and as such their propagation can be effectively controlled by changing wavelength or material parameters tuning....

  5. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  6. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, I. N.; Harbo, P. N.; Rots, A. H.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Zografou, P.; Anderson, C. S.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    The CSCview data mining interface is available for browsing the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) and downloading tables of quality-assured source properties and data products. Once the desired source properties and search criteria are entered into the CSCview query form, the resulting source matches are returned in a table along with the values of the requested source properties for each source. (The catalog can be searched on any source property, not just position.) At this point, the table of search results may be saved to a text file, and the available data products for each source may be downloaded. CSCview save files are output in RDB-like and VOTable format. The available CSC data products include event files, spectra, lightcurves, and images, all of which are processed with the CIAO software. CSC data may also be accessed non-interactively with Unix command-line tools such as cURL and Wget, using ADQL 2.0 query syntax. In fact, CSCview features a separate ADQL query form for those who wish to specify this type of query within the GUI. Several interfaces are available for learning if a source is included in the catalog (in addition to CSCview): 1) the CSC interface to Sky in Google Earth shows the footprint of each Chandra observation on the sky, along with the CSC footprint for comparison (CSC source properties are also accessible when a source within a Chandra field-of-view is clicked); 2) the CSC Limiting Sensitivity online tool indicates if a source at an input celestial location was too faint for detection; 3) an IVOA Simple Cone Search interface locates all CSC sources within a specified radius of an R.A. and Dec.; and 4) the CSC-SDSS cross-match service returns the list of sources common to the CSC and SDSS, either all such sources or a subset based on search criteria.

  7. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Yohai Bar; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2011-01-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not comple...

  8. The Interface Theory of Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Singh, Manish; Prakash, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Perception is a product of evolution. Our perceptual systems, like our limbs and livers, have been shaped by natural selection. The effects of selection on perception can be studied using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms. To this end, we define and classify perceptual strategies and allow them to compete in evolutionary games in a variety of worlds with a variety of fitness functions. We find that veridical perceptions--strategies tuned to the true structure of the world--are routinely dominated by nonveridical strategies tuned to fitness. Veridical perceptions escape extinction only if fitness varies monotonically with truth. Thus, a perceptual strategy favored by selection is best thought of not as a window on truth but as akin to a windows interface of a PC. Just as the color and shape of an icon for a text file do not entail that the text file itself has a color or shape, so also our perceptions of space-time and objects do not entail (by the Invention of Space-Time Theorem) that objective reality has the structure of space-time and objects. An interface serves to guide useful actions, not to resemble truth. Indeed, an interface hides the truth; for someone editing a paper or photo, seeing transistors and firmware is an irrelevant hindrance. For the perceptions of H. sapiens, space-time is the desktop and physical objects are the icons. Our perceptions of space-time and objects have been shaped by natural selection to hide the truth and guide adaptive behaviors. Perception is an adaptive interface.

  9. User acquaintance with mobile interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, Frederic; Walesa, Magali; Sarrey, Evelyne; Wipfli, Rolf; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Handheld technology finds slowly its place in the healthcare world. Some clinicians already use intensively dedicated mobile applications to consult clinical references. However, handheld technology hasn't still broadly embraced to the core of the healthcare business, the hospitals. The weak penetration of handheld technology in the hospitals can be partly explained by the caution of stakeholders that must be convinced about the efficiency of these tools before going forward. In a domain where temporal constraints are increasingly strong, caregivers cannot loose time on playing with gadgets. All users are not comfortable with tactile manipulations and the lack of dedicated peripheral complicates entering data for novices. Stakeholders must be convinced that caregivers will be able to master handheld devices. In this paper, we make the assumption that the proper design of an interface may influence users' performances to record information. We are also interested to find out whether users increase their efficiency when using handheld tools repeatedly. To answer these questions, we have set up a field study to compare users' performances on three different user interfaces while recording vital signs. Some user interfaces were familiar to users, and others were totally innovative. Results showed that users' familiarity with smartphone influences their performances and that users improve their performances by repeating a task.

  10. Bubble bursting at an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Sajjad, Kumayl; Anand, Sushant; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2017-11-01

    Bubble bursting is crucial to understanding the life span of bubbles at an interface and more importantly the nature of interaction between the bulk liquid and the outside environment from the point of view of chemical and biological material transport. The dynamics of the bubble as it rises from inside the liquid bulk to its disappearance on the interface after bursting is an intriguing process, many aspects of which are still being explored. In our study, we make detailed high speed imaging measurements to examine carefully the hole initiation and growth in bursting bubbles that unearth some interesting features of the process. Previous analyses available in literature are revisited based on our novel experimental visualizations. Using a combination of experiments and theory we investigate the role of various forces during the rupturing process. This work aims to further our current knowledge of bubble dynamics at an interface with an aim of predicting better the bubble evolution from its growth to its eventual integration with the liquid bulk.

  11. Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Preface Preface of the first editionBiographies of the authors Part one - Preliminaries1. Environmental fluid mechanics: Current issues and future outlook B. Cushman-Roisin, C. Gualtieri & D.T. MihailovicPart two - Processes at atmospheric interfaces2. Point source atmospheric diffusionB. Rajkovic, I. Arsenic & Z. Grsic3. Air-sea interaction V. Djurdjevic & B. Rajkovic4. Modelling of flux exchanges between heterogeneous surfaces and atmosphere D.T. Mihailovic & D. Kapor5. Desert dust uptake-transport and deposition mechanisms - impacts of dust on radiation, clouds and precipitation G. Kallos, P. Katsafados & C. SpyrouPart three - Processes at water interfaces6. Gas-transfer at unsheared free-surfaces C. Gualtieri & G. Pulci Doria7. Advective diffusion of air bubbles in turbulent water flows H. Chanson8. Exchanges at the bed sediments-water column interface F.A. Bombardelli & P.A. Moreno9. Surface water and streambed sediment interaction: The hyporheic exchange D. Tonina10. Environm...

  12. On user behaviour adaptation under interface change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Haifa, Israel, 24-27 February 2014 On User Behaviour Adaptation Under Interface Change Benjamin Rosman_ Subramanian Ramamoorthy M. M. Hassan Mahmud School of Informatics University of Edinburgh...

  13. ModelMate - A graphical user interface for model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    ModelMate is a graphical user interface designed to facilitate use of model-analysis programs with models. This initial version of ModelMate supports one model-analysis program, UCODE_2005, and one model software program, MODFLOW-2005. ModelMate can be used to prepare input files for UCODE_2005, run UCODE_2005, and display analysis results. A link to the GW_Chart graphing program facilitates visual interpretation of results. ModelMate includes capabilities for organizing directories used with the parallel-processing capabilities of UCODE_2005 and for maintaining files in those directories to be identical to a set of files in a master directory. ModelMate can be used on its own or in conjunction with ModelMuse, a graphical user interface for MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST.

  14. In situ chemical state analysis of buried polymer/metal adhesive interface by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Kenichi; Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya; Mase, Kazuhiko; Ikenaga, Eiji; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Oji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical state analysis of the buried rubber/brass interface is conducted by HAXPES. • Ultrathin rubber films are prepared on the brass surface by two methods. • A high density of Cu 2 S is found on the rubber side of the buried adhesive layer. • The chemical states of the buried and exposed interfaces are compared. - Abstract: Chemical state analysis of adhesive interfaces is important to understand an adhesion mechanism between two different materials. Although photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is an ideal tool for such an analysis, the adhesive interfaces must be exposed to the surface because PES is essentially a surface sensitive technique. However, an in situ observation is possible by hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) owing to its large probing depth. In the present study, HAXPES is applied to investigate the adhesive interface between rubber and brass without exposing the interface. It is demonstrated that copper sulfides formed at the buried rubber/brass interface are distinguished from S-containing species in the rubber overlayer. The chemical state of the buried interface is compared with that of the “exposed” interface prepared by so-called a filter-paper method

  15. Natural user interfaces for multitouch devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovinski, Matej

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents a new class of user interfaces, which a commonly referred to as natural user interfaces. It discusses their main characteristics, evolution and advantages over currently dominant graphical user interfaces. Special attention is devoted to the subgroup of natural user interfaces for multitouch devices. Multitouch technology is firstly presented from a technical point of view and afterwards also in practice in form of a comparative study of six popular multitouch platfo...

  16. Characterization of interfaces in semimagnetic quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, G.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Zehnder, U.; Ossau, W.; Litz, T.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.

    1995-01-01

    The interfaces between nonmagnetic CdTe quantum wells and semimagnetic barriers of Cd 1-x Mn x Te were investigated for several well widths by low temperature photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. Specially designed Cd 1-x Mn x /CdTe/Cd 1-y Mg y Te structures enable us to distinguish the quality of semimagnetic normal and inverted interfaces. The normal interface shows to better structural quality than the inverted interface. (author)

  17. The Pervasive Interface; Tracing the Magic Circle

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwdorp, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Walking the Line: The Interface in Limbo Investigating the Interface in Pervasive Games Eva Nieuwdorp, graduate student Utrecht University ** Changing Views: Worlds in Play ** June 16-20, 2005 Vancouver BC, Canada Paper proposal Categories Theoretical Perspectives: Redefining the concept of the interface in formal digital game theory; by researching the existing discourse surrounding interface theory, the applicability of this term to the area of digital games will be tested by looking at the...

  18. Graphene-metal interaction and its effect on the interface stability under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Aiyi; Fu, Qiang, E-mail: qfu@dicp.ac.cn; Wei, Mingming; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Graphene (Gr)/transition metal (TM: Fe, Co, Pt, and Au) interfaces form through TM intercalation at Gr/Ru(0001) surface. • Graphene-metal interaction strength follows the order of Ru ≈ Fe ≈ Co > Pt > Au. • Oxygen intercalation occurs at Gr/Fe, Gr/Co, Gr/Pt, and Gr/Ru interfaces but not at Gr/Au interface in air around 100 °C. - Abstract: Interaction between graphene (Gr) and metal plays an important role in physics and chemistry of graphene/metal interfaces. In this work, well-defined interfaces between graphene and transition metals (TMs) including Fe, Co, Pt, and Au were prepared through TM intercalation on Gr/Ru(0001) surface. The Gr-metal interaction was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that graphene interacts most strongly with Ru, Fe and Co and most weakly with Au, following the order of Ru ≈ Fe ≈ Co > Pt > Au. The Gr/Fe, Gr/Co, Gr/Pt, and Gr/Ru interfaces can be readily intercalated by oxygen when exposed to air and illuminated by an infrared lamp. In contrast, oxygen intercalation does not happen at the Gr/Au interface under the same condition. It is suggested that both Gr-metal interaction and oxygen adsorption on the underlying metal surface are critical in the oxygen intercalation and the Gr/metal interface stability.

  19. Interface between Sn-Sb-Cu solder and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebo, P., E-mail: Pavel.Sebo@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia); Svec, P. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, J. Bottu 25, 917 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Janickovic, D.; Illekova, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} New lead-free solder materials based on Sn-Sb-Cu were designed and prepared. {yields} Melting and solidification temperatures of the solders have been determined. {yields} Cu-substrate/solder interaction has been analyzed and quantified. {yields} Phases formed at the solder-substrate interface have been identified. {yields} Composition and soldering atmospheres were correlated with joint strength. - Abstract: Influence of antimony and copper in Sn-Sb-Cu solder on the melting and solidification temperatures and on the microstructure of the interface between the solder and copper substrate after wetting the substrate at 623 K for 1800 s were studied. Microstructure of the interface between the solder and copper substrates in Cu-solder-Cu joints prepared at the same temperature for 1800 s was observed and shear strength of the joints was measured. Influence of the atmosphere - air with the flux and deoxidising N{sub 2} + 10H{sub 2} gas - was taken into account. Thermal stability and microstructure were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Melting and solidification temperatures of the solders were determined. An interfacial transition zone was formed by diffusion reaction between solid copper and liquid solder. At the interface Cu{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phases arise. Cu{sub 3}Sn is adjacent to the Cu substrate and its thickness decreases with increasing the amount of copper in solder. Scallop Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase is formed also inside the solder drop. The solid solution Sn(Sb) and SbSn phase compose the interior of the solder drop. Shear strength of the joints measured by push-off method decreases with increasing Sb concentration. Copper in the solder shows even bigger negative effect on the strength.

  20. Human-machine interface in mobile teleoperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    In this document the following point has been made: human-machine interface is not ideal, and may be improved upon: telepresence is ideal but not required; current interfaces degrade normal human inputs/outputs; available and developing technology can improve interfaces

  1. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  2. Evolution of the nickel/zirconia interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.L.; Olson, D.A.; De Jonghe, L.C.; Miller, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The changes taking place at the nickel zirconia interface during oxidation in air at 900 0 C were studied using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The nickel oxide layer growing at the interface and the stabilizers used in zirconia interact, giving different interface morphologies

  3. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  4. Analysis of model interfaces for Li ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemayer, Andreas; Pareek, Aparna; Vogel, Dirk; Rohwerder, Michael; Renner, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Lithium ion batteries are the most promising power source for future electromobility applications. Therefore a better understanding of the basic processes in Lithium ion batteries is needed. Especially nowadays research projects aim to improve real systems in terms of higher rate capability, cycle life, safety and operating temperature. Following the surface science approach we focus on the investigation of single crystal model systems of possible anode and cathode materials and electrode/solid electrolyte interfaces prepared by electrochemical deposition, molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition.

  5. Boundaries and interfaces in materials: The David A. Smith symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, R.C.; Clark, W.A.T.; King, A.H.; Williams, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Just over a year ago David Smith died. Then the loss of a distinguished scientist and dedicated teacher was mourned. Now it is time to celebrate his accomplishments both as a scientist and teacher and this book serves as a reminder of his many contributions to the field of boundaries and interfaces. Researchers from ten countries contributed their work to the symposium, many of whom were former students of David from his years in Oxford. This emphasizes David's tremendous effect on the career of many established scientists through his role as both a teacher and an advisor. Separate abstracts were prepared for 38 papers in this book

  6. Surface and interface effects in VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1985-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 10: Surface and Interface Effects in VLSI provides the advances made in the science of semiconductor surface and interface as they relate to electronics. This volume aims to provide a better understanding and control of surface and interface related properties. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the intimate link between interfaces and devices. The book is then divided into two parts. The first part covers the chemical and geometric structures of prototypical VLSI interfaces. Subjects detailed include, the technologically most import

  7. Interface recombination influence on carrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konin, A

    2013-01-01

    A theory of interface recombination in the semiconductor–semiconductor junction is developed. The interface recombination rate dependence on the nonequilibrium carrier densities is derived on the basis of a model in which the interface recombination occurs through the mechanism of trapping. The general relation between the interface recombination parameters at small carrier density deviation from the equilibrium ones is obtained. The validity of this relation is proved considering the generation of the Hall electric field in the extrinsic semiconductor sample. The anomalous Hall electromotive force in a weak magnetic field was investigated and interpreted by means of a new interface recombination model. The experimental data corroborate the developed theory. (paper)

  8. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  9. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  10. Level 1 - level 2 interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneham, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Damage States (PDS) are the starting point for the level 2 analysis. A PDS is group of core damage sequences that are expected to have similar severe accident progressions. In this paper an overview of Level 1/Level 2 interface, example PDS parameters, example PDS definitions using codes and example Bridge Tree are presented. PDS frequency calculation (identification of sequences for each PDS in level 1,split some CD sequences which have different level 2 progressions), code calculations providing support for grouping decisions and timings as well as PDS frequencies and definitions input to level 2 are also discussed

  11. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, M.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Interface between Context and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Cong; Wang, Daojuan; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explores how to consider contextual factors in the development of paradigm theory by focusing on the application and development of agency theory in a cross context. Specifically, the interface between agency theory and context is established from two aspects. On one hand......, the application and development of agency theory in both developed and emerging economies are examined from the perspectives of principal-agent conflicts (PAC) and principal-principal conflicts (PPC), respectively. On the other hand, a model of contextualization theory is created from the perspectives of PAC...

  13. The GEANT-CALOR interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitnitz, C.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of large scale high energy physics experiments is based mainly on the GEANT package. In the current version 3.15 the simulation of hadronic interacting particles is based on GHEISHA or FLUKA. Both programs miss an accurate simulation of the interaction of low energy neutrons (E kin < 20 MeV) with the materials of the detector. The CALOR89 program package contains a low energetic neutron code. An interface between the CALOR program parts and the GEANT package has been developed

  14. The steel–concrete interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angst, Ueli M.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Michel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Although the steel–concrete interface (SCI) is widely recognized to influence the durability of reinforced concrete, a systematic overview and detailed documentation of the various aspects of the SCI are lacking. In this paper, we compiled a comprehensive list of possible local characteristics....... It was found that the SCI exhibits significant spatial inhomogeneity along and around as well as perpendicular to the reinforcing steel. The SCI can differ strongly between different engineering structures and also between different members within a structure; particular differences are expected between...

  15. Praxis input/output interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, R.E.; Evans, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to the use of RMS facilities via Praxis (this interface hereafter called Praxis-RMS). It is presumed that the reader is familiar with Praxis conventions as well as with RMS use (at the MACRO level). Since Praxis-RMS was designed to be functionally equivalent to MACRO-RMS, the explanations follow the pattern of the DEC MACRO-RMS documentation (particularly the programmer's reference manual). A complete list of the procedures that make up Praxis-RMS appears at the end of this document (with parameters), along with the constants (grouped by type) that can be used as actual parameters

  16. Tangible interfaces for tangible robots

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available spaces, such as Tobopo, Active?ubes, and System?locks. Tobopo can be used as an autonomous system. Active?ubes are used to sense and interface with other systems. Fig. 1. Generic tangible system diagram 3. Why TUI and not GUI? Ever since... ?. ?ata ?o????n? ???han???? ?.? ?a?n?t?? ?agnetic detection is possible using either mechanical switches or solid state detection circuitry. Figures ? and 7 illustrate a system called Game?locks which makes use of mechanical ?reed? switches. Fig...

  17. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  18. The relationship between perceived usability of a beautiful interface and of an ugly interface

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Naitullah; Syed.Mohammed, Mahamood Ur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the perceived usability of a beautiful interface and of an ugly interface is analyzed in this study. This study correlates the visual aesthetics of the website with perceived usability. This research is performed to know the significance of visual aesthetics on perceived usability. A website is designed with two interfaces. One interface is designed by following design guidelines with respect to usability and the other interface is designed without following guideline...

  19. Documents preparation and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Ignalina Safety Analysis Group takes active role in assisting regulatory body VATESI to prepare various regulatory documents and reviewing safety reports and other documentation presented by Ignalina NPP in the process of licensing of unit 1. The list of main documents prepared and reviewed is presented

  20. Integer charge transfer at the tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene/Au interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, L.; Unge, Mikael; Osikowicz, W.

    2008-01-01

    In organic-based electronics, interfacial properties have a profound impact on device performance. The lineup of energy levels is usually dependent on interface dipoles, which may arise from charge transfer reactions. In many applications, metal-organic junctions are prepared under ambient...

  1. Mind the Sheep! User Experience Evaluation & Brain-Computer Interface Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürkök, Hayrettin

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) infers our actions (e.g. a movement), intentions (e.g. preparation for a movement) and psychological states (e.g. emotion, attention) by interpreting our brain signals. It uses the inferences it makes to manipulate a computer. Although BCIs have long been used

  2. Field-induced resistance switching at metal/perovskite manganese oxide interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, I.; Tsubouchi, K.; Harada, T.; Kumigashira, H.; Itaka, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Koinuma, H.; Oshima, M.

    2008-01-01

    Planar type metal/insulator/metal structures composed of an epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide layer and various metal electrodes were prepared for electric-field-induced resistance switching. Only the electrode pairs including Al show good resistance switching and the switching ratio reaches its maximum of 1000. This resistance switching occurs around the interface between Al electrodes and epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide thin films

  3. A friend man-machine interface for thermo-hydraulic simulation codes of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Filho, F. de; Belchior Junior, A.; Barroso, A.C.O.; Gebrim, A.

    1994-01-01

    This work presents the development of a Man-Machine Interface to the TRAC-PF1 code, a computer program to perform best estimate analysis of transients and accidents at nuclear power plants. The results were considered satisfactory and a considerable productivity gain was achieved in the activity of preparing and analyzing simulations. (author)

  4. Interface between Physics and Biology: Training a New Generation of Creative Bilingual Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveline, Daniel; Kruse, Karsten

    2017-08-01

    Whereas physics seeks for universal laws underlying natural phenomena, biology accounts for complexity and specificity of molecular details. Contemporary biological physics requires people capable of working at this interface. New programs prepare scientists who transform respective disciplinary views into innovative approaches for solving outstanding problems in the life sciences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Test method research on weakening interface strength of steel - concrete under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-wei; Zhang, Fang-hua; Su, Guang-quan

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of steel - concrete interface under cyclic loading are the key factors affecting the rule of horizontal load transfer, the calculation of bearing capacity and cumulative horizontal deformation. Cyclic shear test is an effective method to study the strength reduction of steel - concrete interface. A test system composed of large repeated direct shear test instrument, hydraulic servo system, data acquisition system, test control software system and so on is independently designed, and a set of test method, including the specimen preparation, the instrument preparation, the loading method and so on, is put forward. By listing a set of test results, the validity of the test method is verified. The test system and the test method based on it provide a reference for the experimental study on mechanical properties of steel - concrete interface.

  6. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Nicolas-Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  7. Graphical User Interface in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilt, Ian

    This essay discusses the use of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) as a site of creative practice. By creatively repositioning the GUI as a work of art it is possible to challenge our understanding and expectations of the conventional computer interface wherein the icons and navigational architecture of the GUI no longer function as a technological tool. These artistic recontextualizations are often used to question our engagement with technology and to highlight the pivotal place that the domestic computer has taken in our everyday social, cultural and (increasingly), creative domains. Through these works the media specificity of the screen-based GUI can broken by dramatic changes in scale, form and configuration. This can be seen through the work of new media artists who have re-imagined the GUI in a number of creative forms both, within the digital, as image, animation, net and interactive art, and in the analogue, as print, painting, sculpture, installation and performative event. Furthermore as a creative work, the GUI can also be utilized as a visual way-finder to explore the relationship between the dynamic potentials of the digital and the concretized qualities of the material artifact.

  8. Room temperature cryogenic test interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, S. M.; Davidson, A.; Moskowitz, P. A.; Sai-Halasz, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    This interface permits the testing of high speed semiconductor devices (room-temperature chips) by a Josephson junction sampling device (cryogenic chip) without intolerable loss of resolution. The interface comprises a quartz pass-through plug which includes a planar transmission line interconnecting a first chip station, where the cryogenic chip is mounted, and a second chip station, where the semiconductor chip to be tested is temporarily mounted. The pass-through plug has a cemented long half-cylindrical portion and short half-cylindrical portion. The long portion carries the planar transmission line, the ends of which form the first and second chip mounting stations. The short portion completes the cylinder with the long portion for part of its length, where a seal can be achieved, but does not extend over the chip mounting stations. Sealing is by epoxy cement. The pass-through plug is sealed in place in a flange mounted to the chamber wall. The first chip station, with the cryogenic chip attached, extends into the liquid helium reservoir. The second chip station is in the room temperature environment required for semiconductor operation. Proper semiconductor operating temperature is achieved by a heater wire and control thermocouple in the vicinity of each other and the second chip mounting station. Thermal isolation is maintained by vacuum and seals. Connections for power and control, for test result signals, for temperature control and heating, and for vacuum complete the test apparatus

  9. Interface-based software testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ahmad Rais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Software quality is determined by assessing the characteristics that specify how it should work, which are verified through testing. If it were possible to touch, see, or measure software, it would be easier to analyze and prove its quality. Unfortunately, software is an intangible asset, which makes testing complex. This is especially true when software quality is not a question of particular functions that can be tested through a graphical user interface. The primary objective of software architecture is to design quality of software through modeling and visualization. There are many methods and standards that define how to control and manage quality. However, many IT software development projects still fail due to the difficulties involved in measuring, controlling, and managing software quality. Software quality failure factors are numerous. Examples include beginning to test software too late in the development process, or failing properly to understand, or design, the software architecture and the software component structure. The goal of this article is to provide an interface-based software testing technique that better measures software quality, automates software quality testing, encourages early testing, and increases the software’s overall testability

  10. Interface-based software integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ahmad Rais

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise architecture frameworks define the goals of enterprise architecture in order to make business processes and IT operations more effective, and to reduce the risk of future investments. These enterprise architecture frameworks offer different architecture development methods that help in building enterprise architecture. In practice, the larger organizations become, the larger their enterprise architecture and IT become. This leads to an increasingly complex system of enterprise architecture development and maintenance. Application software architecture is one type of architecture that, along with business architecture, data architecture and technology architecture, composes enterprise architecture. From the perspective of integration, enterprise architecture can be considered a system of interaction between multiple examples of application software. Therefore, effective software integration is a very important basis for the future success of the enterprise architecture in question. This article will provide interface-based integration practice in order to help simplify the process of building such a software integration system. The main goal of interface-based software integration is to solve problems that may arise with software integration requirements and developing software integration architecture.

  11. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

  12. The blanket interface to TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.; Naruse, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements of tritium technology are centered in three main areas, (1) fuel processing, (2) breeder tritium extraction, and (3) tritium containment. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) now in operation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is dedicated to developing and demonstrating the tritium technology for fuel processing and containment. TSTA is the only fusion fuel processing facility that can operate in a continuous closed-loop mode. The tritium throughput of TSTA is 1000 g/d. However, TSTA does not have a blanket interface system. The authors have initiated a study to define a Breeder Blanket Interface (BBIO) for TSTA. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. Various methods of tritium recovery from liquid lithium were assessed: yttrium gettering, permeation windows, and molten salt extraction. The authors' evaluation concluded that the best method was molten salt extraction

  13. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  14. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  15. Microstructural characterization of cermet-steel interface in rock drilling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ybarra, L.A.C.; Molisani, A.L.; Yoshimura, H.N.

    2010-01-01

    Rock drilling tools basically present a WC cermet bonded to a steel shank. The interface cermet-steel plays fundamental role during drilling operation, since the fracture of this interface is the main failure mode of the tools. In this work, the microstructure of this interface in crown samples (type A), prepared in an industrial like process, was evaluated. In this process, a WC-containing powder was infiltrated with a copper alloy at 1100 deg C in a graphite mold previously mounted with a 1020 steel tube. The powder was characterized by XRD analysis and the cross-section microstructure of cermet-steel was analyzed using SEM-EDS. It was observed that Ni and small amount of Cu from cermet matrix diffused into the superficial region of the steel, and the Cu alloy dissolved and penetrated along the steel grain boundaries, resulting in good metallurgical bonding of the interface.(author)

  16. Spin-photon interface and spin-controlled photon switching in a nanobeam waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa; Ding, Dapeng; Appel, Martin Hayhurst

    2018-01-01

    Access to the electron spin is at the heart of many protocols for integrated and distributed quantum-information processing [1-4]. For instance, interfacing the spin-state of an electron and a photon can be utilized to perform quantum gates between photons [2,5] or to entangle remote spin states [6......-9]. Ultimately, a quantum network of entangled spins constitutes a new paradigm in quantum optics [1]. Towards this goal, an integrated spin-photon interface would be a major leap forward. Here we demonstrate an efficient and optically programmable interface between the spin of an electron in a quantum dot...... and photons in a nanophotonic waveguide. The spin can be deterministically prepared with a fidelity of 96\\%. Subsequently the system is used to implement a "single-spin photonic switch", where the spin state of the electron directs the flow of photons through the waveguide. The spin-photon interface may...

  17. Characteristic features of heterophase polymerisation of styrene with simultaneous formation of surfactants at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopov, Nikolai I; Gritskova, Inessa A

    2001-01-01

    Data on the heterophase polymerisation of styrene under conditions of surfactant formation at the monomer-water interface are generalised. A new, in principle, approach is proposed the essence of which is to obtain a monomer emulsion simultaneously with the synthesis of an emulsifier at the monomer-water interface and with initiation of the polymerisation in the interfacial layer. The preparation of surfactants at the interface allows one to control efficiently the degree of dispersion and the stability of the emulsions formed. By varying the nature of the acid and the metal counter-ion used in the surfactant synthesis at the interface, it is possible to change the interfacial tension, to influence the microemulsification, disintegration of the monomer, and the formation of structure of interfacial adsorption layers. The mechanism of formation of polymer-monomeric particles as well as their diameter and size distribution depend substantially on the solubility of the resulting surfactants in water. The bibliography includes 47 references.

  18. Characteristic features of heterophase polymerisation of styrene with simultaneous formation of surfactants at the interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, Nikolai I; Gritskova, Inessa A [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-09-30

    Data on the heterophase polymerisation of styrene under conditions of surfactant formation at the monomer-water interface are generalised. A new, in principle, approach is proposed the essence of which is to obtain a monomer emulsion simultaneously with the synthesis of an emulsifier at the monomer-water interface and with initiation of the polymerisation in the interfacial layer. The preparation of surfactants at the interface allows one to control efficiently the degree of dispersion and the stability of the emulsions formed. By varying the nature of the acid and the metal counter-ion used in the surfactant synthesis at the interface, it is possible to change the interfacial tension, to influence the microemulsification, disintegration of the monomer, and the formation of structure of interfacial adsorption layers. The mechanism of formation of polymer-monomeric particles as well as their diameter and size distribution depend substantially on the solubility of the resulting surfactants in water. The bibliography includes 47 references.

  19. Amorphous silicon prepared from silane-hydrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    Amorphous silicon films prepared from a d.c. discharge of 10% SiH 4 - 90% H 2 mixture are found to have properties similar to those made from 100% SiH 4 . These films are found to be quite stable against prolonged light exposure. The effect of nitrogen on the properties of these films was investigated. It was found that instead of behaving as a classical donor, nitrogen introduces deep levels in the material. Field effect experiments on a-Si:H films at the bottom (film-substrate interface) and the top (film-vacuum interface) of the film are also reported. (author)

  20. NASA deep space network operations planning and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The responsibilities and structural organization of the Operations Planning Group of NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Operations are outlined. The Operations Planning group establishes an early interface with a user's planning organization to educate the user on DSN capabilities and limitations for deep space tracking support. A team of one or two individuals works through all phases of the spacecraft launch and also provides planning and preparation for specific events such as planetary encounters. Coordinating interface is also provided for nonflight projects such as radio astronomy and VLBI experiments. The group is divided into a Long Range Support Planning element and a Near Term Operations Coordination element.

  1. Hydro-Thermal Fatigue Resistance Measurements on Polymer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumurthy, Charan K.; Kramer, Edward J.; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a new technique based on a fiber optic displacement sensor for rapid determination of hydro-thermal fatigue crack growth rate per cycle (da/dN) of an epoxy/polyimide interface used in flip chip attach microelectronic assembly. The sample is prepared as a trilayered cantilever beam by capillary flow of the epoxy underfill over a polyimide coated metallic beam. During hydro-thermal cycling the crack growth along the interface (from the free end) changes the displacement of this end of the beam and we measure the free end displacement at the lowest temperature in each hydro-thermal cycle. The change in beam displacement is then converted into crack growth rate (da/dN). da/dN depends on the maximum change in the strain energy release rate of the crack and the phase angle in each cycle. The relation between da/dN and maximum strain energy release rate characterizes the fatigue crack growth resistance of the interface. We have developed and used a simple model anhydride cured and a commercially available PMDA/ODA passivation for this study.

  2. Improvement of design of a surgical interface using an eye tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Barkana, Duygun; Açık, Alper; Duru, Dilek Goksel; Duru, Adil Deniz

    2014-05-07

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Short Post-Assessment Situational Awareness (SPASA) questionnaire results have shown that overall mental workload of surgeons related with surgical interface has been low as it has been aimed, and overall situational awareness scores of surgeons have been considerably high. This preliminary study highlights the improvement of a developed surgical interface using eye tracking technology to obtain the best SI configuration. The results presented here reveal that visual surgical interface design prepared according to eye movement characteristics may lead to improved usability.

  3. Design and implementation of an anatomical web interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.M.; Young, J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Internet, and in particular, the World-Wide Web, has provided tremendous opportunities for enabling access and transfer of information. Traditionally, Internet services have relied on textual methods for delivery of information. The World-Wide Web (WWW) in its current (and ever-changing form) is primarily a method of communication which includes both graphical and textual information. The easy-to-use graphical interface, developed as part of the WWW, is based on the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML). More advanced interfaces can be developed by incorporating interactive documents, which can be updated depending upon the wishes of the user. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) can be utilised to transfer information b y utilising various programming and scripting languages (eg. C, Perl). This paper describes the development of a WWW interface for the viewing of anatomical and radiographic information in the form of two-dimensional cross-sectional images and three-dimensional reconstruction images. HTML documents were prepared using a commercial software program (HotDog, Sausage Software Co., Australia). Forms were used to control user-selection parameters such as imaging modality and cross-sectional slice number. All documents were developed and tested using Netscape 2.0. Visual and radiographic images were processed using ANALYZE TM Version 7.5 (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, USA). Perl scripting was used to process all requests passed to the WWW server. ANSI 'C' programming was used to implement image processing operations which are performed in response to user-selected options. The interface which has been developed is easy to use, is independent of browsing software, is accessible by multiple users, and provides an example of how easily medical imaging data can be distributed amongst interested parties. Various imaging datasets, including the Visible Human Project TM (National Library of Medicine, USA.) have been prepared

  4. Honeycomb structured porous interfaces as templates for protein adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, J; Munoz-Bonilla, A; Ibarboure, E; Bordege, V; Fernandez-Garcia, M, E-mail: jrodriguez@ictp.csic.es

    2010-11-01

    We prepared breath figure patterns decorated with a statistical glycopolymer, (styrene-co-2-{l_brace}[(D-glucosamin-2-N-yl)carbonyl]oxy{r_brace}ethyl methacrylate, S-HEMAGl). The preparation of the glycopolymer occurs in one single step by using styrene and S-HEMAGl. Blends of this copolymer and high molecular weight polystyrene were spin coated from THF solutions leading to the formation of surfaces with both controlled functionality and topography. AFM studies revealed that both the composition of the blend and the relative humidity play a key role on the size and distribution of the pores at the interface. The porous films shows the hydrophilic glycomonomer units are oriented towards the pore interface since upon soft annealing in water, the holes are partially swelled. The self-organization of the glycopolymer within the pores was additionally confirmed both by reaction of carbohydrate hydroxyl groups with rhodamine-isocyanate and by means of the lectin binding test using Concanavalin A (Con A).

  5. Phospholipid-sepiolite biomimetic interfaces for the immobilization of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Bernd; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    Biomimetic interfaces based on phosphatidylcholine (PC) assembled to the natural silicate sepiolite were prepared for the stable immobilization of the urease and cholesterol oxidase enzymes. This is an important issue in practical advanced applications such as biocatalysis or biosensing. The supported lipid bilayer (BL-PC), prepared from PC adsorption, was used for immobilization of enzymes and the resulting biomimetic systems were compared to several other supported layers including a lipid monolayer (ML-PC), a mixed phosphatidylcholine/octyl-galactoside layer (PC-OGal), a cetyltrimethylammonium monolayer (CTA), and also to the bare sepiolite surface. Interfacial characteristics of these layers were investigated with a focus on layer packing density, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, and surface charge, which are being considered as key points for enzyme immobilization and stabilization of their biological activity. Cytoplasmic urease and membrane-bound cholesterol oxidase, which served as model enzymes, were immobilized on the different PC-based hybrid materials to probe their biomimetic character. Enzymatic activity was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The resulting enzyme/bio-organoclay hybrids were applied as active phase of a voltammetric urea biosensor and cholesterol bioreactor, respectively. Urease supported on sepiolite/BL-PC proved to maintain its enzymatic activity over several months while immobilized cholesterol oxidase demonstrated high reusability as biocatalyst. The results emphasize the good preservation of bioactivity due to the accommodation of the enzymatic system within the biomimetic lipid interface on sepiolite.

  6. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  7. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evander, Mikael; Tenje, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics. (technical note)

  8. Interface management for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The subject of this report is selection of that portion of physical and informational interfaces that need to be controlled on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Physical interfaces are interactions between physical elements of the mined geologic disposal system; for example, the repository shafts will interface with the shafts in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), because the ESF shafts will eventually be absorbed into the repository as additional repository shafts. Informational interfaces are interactions involving an exchange of information between organizations working on the mined geologic disposal system; for example, the in situ testing contractor will interact with the site performance assessment contractor and will supply information regarding host rock behavior. This report describes the physical system interfaces that can be identified from analysis of a physical system structure. A discussion of informational interfaces can be found elsewhere. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Kinetics of protein unfolding at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yohko F

    2012-01-01

    The conformation of protein molecules is determined by a balance of various forces, including van der Waals attraction, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, and conformational entropy. When protein molecules encounter an interface, they are often adsorbed on the interface. The conformation of an adsorbed protein molecule strongly depends on the interaction between the protein and the interface. Recent time-resolved investigations have revealed that protein conformation changes during the adsorption process due to the protein-protein interaction increasing with increasing interface coverage. External conditions also affect the protein conformation. This review considers recent dynamic observations of protein adsorption at various interfaces and their implications for the kinetics of protein unfolding at interfaces. (topical review)

  10. Preparation of bromine fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domange, Pr; Duflo, J.

    1958-05-01

    This note addresses the preparation of bromine fluoride. It indicates the implemented process for the reaction, used products (fluorine and bromine), and column characteristics. It describes the operating mode. Apparatus drawing is provided

  11. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.

  12. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  13. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  14. FERMILAB: Preparing to collide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Against the background of stringent Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) regulations mandated by the US Department of Energy for all national Labs, Fermilab prepared to mount the next major Tevatron proton-antiproton collider run

  15. A topological quantum optics interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Karasahin, Aziz; Flower, Christopher; Cai, Tao; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Hafezi, Mohammad; Waks, Edo

    2018-02-09

    The application of topology in optics has led to a new paradigm in developing photonic devices with robust properties against disorder. Although considerable progress on topological phenomena has been achieved in the classical domain, the realization of strong light-matter coupling in the quantum domain remains unexplored. We demonstrate a strong interface between single quantum emitters and topological photonic states. Our approach creates robust counterpropagating edge states at the boundary of two distinct topological photonic crystals. We demonstrate the chiral emission of a quantum emitter into these modes and establish their robustness against sharp bends. This approach may enable the development of quantum optics devices with built-in protection, with potential applications in quantum simulation and sensing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  17. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  18. Abrupt GaP/Si hetero-interface using bistepped Si buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Wang, Y., E-mail: yanping.wang@insa-rennes.fr; Kuyyalil, J.; Nguyen Thanh, T.; Almosni, S.; Bernard, R.; Tremblay, R.; Da Silva, M.; Létoublon, A.; Rohel, T.; Tavernier, K.; Le Corre, A.; Cornet, C.; Durand, O. [UMR FOTON, CNRS, INSA Rennes, Rennes F-35708 (France); Stodolna, J.; Ponchet, A. [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Bahri, M.; Largeau, L.; Patriarche, G. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, CNRS UPR 20, Route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460 (France); Magen, C. [LMA, INA-ARAID, and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-11-09

    We evidence the influence of the quality of the starting Si surface on the III-V/Si interface abruptness and on the formation of defects during the growth of III-V/Si heterogeneous crystal, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. GaP layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on vicinal Si (001). The strong effect of the Si substrate chemical preparation is first demonstrated by studying structural properties of both Si homoepitaxial layer and GaP/Si heterostructure. It is then shown that choosing adequate chemical preparation conditions and subsequent III-V regrowth conditions enables the quasi-suppression of micro-twins in the epilayer. Finally, the abruptness of GaP/Si interface is found to be very sensitive to the Si chemical preparation and is improved by the use of a bistepped Si buffer prior to III-V overgrowth.

  19. Abrupt GaP/Si hetero-interface using bistepped Si buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Wang, Y.; Kuyyalil, J.; Nguyen Thanh, T.; Almosni, S.; Bernard, R.; Tremblay, R.; Da Silva, M.; Létoublon, A.; Rohel, T.; Tavernier, K.; Le Corre, A.; Cornet, C.; Durand, O.; Stodolna, J.; Ponchet, A.; Bahri, M.; Largeau, L.; Patriarche, G.; Magen, C.

    2015-01-01

    We evidence the influence of the quality of the starting Si surface on the III-V/Si interface abruptness and on the formation of defects during the growth of III-V/Si heterogeneous crystal, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. GaP layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on vicinal Si (001). The strong effect of the Si substrate chemical preparation is first demonstrated by studying structural properties of both Si homoepitaxial layer and GaP/Si heterostructure. It is then shown that choosing adequate chemical preparation conditions and subsequent III-V regrowth conditions enables the quasi-suppression of micro-twins in the epilayer. Finally, the abruptness of GaP/Si interface is found to be very sensitive to the Si chemical preparation and is improved by the use of a bistepped Si buffer prior to III-V overgrowth

  20. FASTBUS interface for the 3081/E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, L.; Kunz, P.F.; Lankford, A.J.; Oxoby, G.; Paffrath, L.; Rankin, P.; Trang, Q.

    1985-09-01

    The design of a FASTBUS interface to the 3081/E is presented. The interface consists of two boards, one specific to FASTBUS, the other usable by other interfaces to the 3081/E. The FASTBUS board is a dual-ported slave, permitting access from either of two cable segments. The general purpose board supports transfers to and from 3081/E memory and provides control of program execution. It also has several features which facilitate software debugging

  1. Surfaces and interfaces of electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Brillson, Leonard J

    2012-01-01

    An advanced level textbook covering geometric, chemical, and electronic structure of electronic materials, and their applications to devices based on semiconductor surfaces, metal-semiconductor interfaces, and semiconductor heterojunctions. Starting with the fundamentals of electrical measurements on semiconductor interfaces, it then describes the importance of controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. Subsequent chapters present the wide range of surface and interface techniques available to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural propertie

  2. NSS design and plant construction interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.J.; Cobb, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Interface management between NSS design, balance-of-plant design, and plant construction may have a significant effect on schedule stretchout and total plant costs. The paper discusses the importance of the NSS supplier's interface management role, the favorable and unfavorable influencing factors, and examples of interface areas in which experience has demonstrated that problems may arise. Where appropriate, actions are defined to avoid the problems or mitigate the consequences

  3. Intelligent Multi-Media Integrated Interface Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    been devoted to the application of aritificial intelligence technology to the development of human -computer interface technology that integrates speech...RADC-TR-90-128 Final Technical Report June 1090 AD-A225 973 INTELLIGENT MULTI-MEDIA INTEGRATED INTERFACE PROJECT Calspan-University of Buffalo...contractual obligations or notices on a specific document require that it be returned. INTELLIGENT MULTI-MEDIA INTEGRATED INTERFACE PROJECT J. G. Neal J. M

  4. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffland, Douglas R [Livermore, CA

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  5. Carbon nanotube thermal interfaces and related applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The development of thermal interface materials (TIMs) is necessitated by the temperature drop across interfacing materials arising from macro and microscopic irregularities of their surfaces that constricts heat through small contact regions as well as mismatches in their thermal properties. Similar to other types of TIMs, CNT TIMs alleviate the thermal resistance across the interface by thermally bridging two materials together with cylindrical, high-aspect ratio, and nominally vertical cond...

  6. Interfaces for a simple local network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekhanevich, Eh.L.; Yasenev, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A system of communication and interfaces for a simple local network of computers is described. The data on technical parameters, fields of application and operation features of the interfaces developed are presented. The data indispensable for the development of software are given. The experience in operation of the subsystem of software for remote terminal computers which makes use of the above interfaces is briefly presented. 7 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Interface stability during rapid directional solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoglund, D.E.; Aziz, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at the solidification velocities observed during pulsed laser annealing, the planar interface between solid and liquid is stabilized by capillarity and nonequilibrium effects such as solute trapping. The authors used Rutherford backscattering and electron microscopy to determine the nonequilibrium partition coefficient and critical concentration for breakdown of the planar interface as a function of interface velocity for Sn-implanted silicon. This allows the authors to test the applicability of the Mulliins-Sekerka stability theory to interfaces not in local equilibrium and to test the Coriell-Sekerka and other theories for oscillatory instabilities

  8. Characterization of interfaces in semimagnetic quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, G.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Zehnder, U.; Ossau, W.; Litz, T.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalishes Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg am Hubland, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The interfaces between nonmagnetic CdTe quantum wells and semimagnetic barriers of Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te were investigated for several well widths by low temperature photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. Specially designed Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}/CdTe/Cd{sub 1-y} Mg{sub y}Te structures enable us to distinguish the quality of semimagnetic normal and inverted interfaces. The normal interface shows to better structural quality than the inverted interface. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  9. User Interface Cultures of Mobile Knowledge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Mannonen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication tools (ICTs have become a major influencer of how modern work is carried out. Methods of user-centered design do not however take into account the full complexity of technology and the user interface context the users live in. User interface culture analysis aims providing to designers new ways and strategies to better take into account the current user interface environment when designing new products. This paper describes the reasons behind user interface culture analysis and shows examples of its usage when studying mobile and distributed knowledge workers.

  10. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  11. A Theoretical Framework for Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex systems is de-scribed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), suggests a set of principles for designing interfaces in a way that supports the funda-mental properties of human cognition. The basis of EID is the skills...... of the task require. The EID approach extends the concept of direct manipulation inter-faces by taking into account the added complications introduced by complex systems. In this paper, we describe the development of the framework, its theoretical foundations, and examples of its application to various work...

  12. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  13. An interface energy density-based theory considering the coherent interface effect in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin; Chen, Shaohua; Fang, Daining

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the coherent interface effect conveniently and feasibly in nanomaterials, a continuum theory is proposed that is based on the concept of the interface free energy density, which is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical properties of the coherent interface in materials of all scales. The effect of the residual strain caused by self-relaxation and the lattice misfit of nanomaterials, as well as that due to the interface deformation induced by an external load on the interface free energy density is considered. In contrast to the existing theories, the stress discontinuity at the interface is characterized by the interface free energy density through an interface-induced traction. As a result, the interface elastic constant introduced in previous theories, which is not easy to determine precisely, is avoided in the present theory. Only the surface energy density of the bulk materials forming the interface, the relaxation parameter induced by surface relaxation, and the mismatch parameter for forming a coherent interface between the two surfaces are involved. All the related parameters are far easier to determine than the interface elastic constants. The effective bulk and shear moduli of a nanoparticle-reinforced nanocomposite are predicted using the proposed theory. Closed-form solutions are achieved, demonstrating the feasibility and convenience of the proposed model for predicting the interface effect in nanomaterials.

  14. The hospital preparation of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; preparation ((general - sterilization), production areas (laboratories), working methods for injections, working methods for oral preparations and iodination procedures); analytical testing (general, standards common to injections and oral preparations, standards for injections, standards for oral preparations); reliable methods of preparing sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals and 51 Cr-red cells; commercial radiopharmaceutical kits. (U.K.)

  15. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsir, Khairina, E-mail: yenny@batan.go.id; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics - National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten (Indonesia); Yazid, Putranto Ilham [Center for Nuclear Technology, Material and Radiometry- National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Tamansari No.71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

  16. The Knowledge Base Interface for Parametric Grid Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipp, James R.; Simons, Randall W.; Young, Chris J.

    1999-01-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base (KBase) provides an efficient robust way to store and access interpolatable information that is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use an approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation. The method involves three basic steps: data preparation, data storage, and data access. In past presentations we have discussed in detail the first step. In this paper we focus on the latter two, describing in detail the type of information which must be stored and the interface used to retrieve parametric grid data from the Knowledge Base. Once data have been properly prepared, the information (tessellation and associated value surfaces) needed to support the interface functionality, can be entered into the KBase. The primary types of parametric grid data that must be stored include (1) generic header information; (2) base model, station, and phase names and associated ID's used to construct surface identifiers; (3) surface accounting information; (4) tessellation accounting information; (5) mesh data for each tessellation; (6) correction data defined for each surface at each node of the surfaces owning tessellation (7) mesh refinement calculation set-up and flag information; and (8) kriging calculation set-up and flag information. The eight data components not only represent the results of the data preparation process but also include all required input information for several population tools that would enable the complete regeneration of the data results if that should be necessary

  17. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  18. User Interface Design for Dynamic Geometry Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Dohrmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe long-standing user interface issues with Dynamic Geometry Software and common approaches to address them. We describe first prototypes of multi-touch-capable DGS. We also give some hints on the educational benefits of proper user interface design.

  19. Interface failure by cavity growth to coalescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    For a thin metal layer between ceramics ductile failure by the growth of voids along one of the interfaces is studied numerically. An axisymmetric cell model is used to represent an array of uniformly distributed hemispherical interface voids. The bonding to the ceramics gives rise to highly cons...

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel project interface control plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This implementation process philosophy is in keeping with the ongoing reengineering of the WHC Controlled Manuals to achieve interface control within the SNF Project. This plan applies to all SNF Project sub-project to sub-project, and sub-project to exteranl (both on and off the Hanford Site) interfaces

  1. Core-shell particles at fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of particles as stabilizers for foams and emulsions. Applying hard particles for stabilization of fluid interface is referred to as Pickering stabilization. By using hard particles instead of surfactants and polymers, fluid interfaces can be effectively

  2. XML Interfaces to the Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven); C Foster

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe internet of things is predicated on tiny, cheap, lower power computers being embedded in devices everywhere. However such tiny devices by definition have very little memory and computing power available to support user interfaces or extended servers, and so the user interface

  3. Coded Schemes for Asymmetric Wireless Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, André; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    system with full duplex interfaces. Our second goal is to understand the practical implications of these results by designing a protocol for file transmissions, implement it in Android smart phones, and measure its performance when combining various interfaces, including, Bluetooth, WiFi, and 3G cellular...

  4. Inkjet color-printer control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F. J.; Marshall, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Special purpose interface permits computer-driven control of inkjet printers. Inkjet printers are answer to problem of high-speed peripheral output devices for computer systems. Control interface was developed to provide high-resolution color-classification maps quickly and economically from multispectral data.

  5. Learning Analytics for Natural User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Maldonado, Roberto; Shum, Simon Buckingham; Schneider, Bertrand; Charleer, Sven; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The continuous advancement of natural user interfaces (NUIs) allows for the development\tof novel and creative ways to support collocated collaborative work in a wide range of areas, including teaching and learning. The use of NUIs, such as those based on interactive multi-touch surfaces and tangible user interfaces (TUIs), can offer unique…

  6. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  7. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  8. Structure and properties of interfaces in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, D.; Ruehle, M.; Chowdhry, U.

    1995-01-01

    The motivation for the symposium was the observation that interfaces in crystallographically and compositionally complex systems often dictate the performance and reliability of devices that utilize functional ceramics. The current level of understanding of interface-property relations in silicon-based devices required over 30 years of intensive research. Similar issues influence the relationship between atomic bonding at interfaces and properties in functional ceramic systems. The current understanding of these complex interfaces does not allow correlation between atomic structure and interface properties, in spite of their importance to a number of emerging technologies (wireless communications, radar-based positioning systems, sensors, etc.). The objective of this symposium was to focus attention on these fundamental issues by featuring recent theoretical and experimental work from various disciplines that impact the understanding of interface chemistry, structure, and properties. The emphasis was on relating properties of surfaces and interfaces to structure through an understanding of atomic level phenomena. Interfaces of interest include metal/ceramic, ceramic/ceramic, ceramic/vapor, etc., in electronic, magnetic, optical, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric applications. Sixty one papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. A Smart Material Interfaces Learning Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, A.; Pittarello, Fabio; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience held with a class of primary school children who were introduced to a novel class of resources, named smart materials, and the interfaces built with them (Smart Material Interfaces). The pupils were guided along a multidisciplinary educational path in which

  10. Morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide at air–water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sungchul; Ahn, Sungmin; Cheng, Jie; Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Dae-Hong; Hyun, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • It is the first report on the interfacial properties of ELP monolayers formed at the air–water interface. • ELP monolayers could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. • The compressive behavior of thermo-sensitive ELP monolayers was imaged. • The SERS spectra showed a change in the ELP secondary structure at different preparation conditions. - Abstract: The morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide molecules at the air–water interface as a function of temperature and compression was described. The surface pressure–area (π–A) isotherms of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) monolayer were obtained under variable external conditions, and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited onto a mica substrate for characterization. As the compression of the ELP monolayer increased, the surface pressure increased gradually, indicating that the ELP monolayer could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. The temperature in the subphase of the ELP monolayer was critical in the preparation of LB monolayers. The change in temperature induced a shift in the π–A isotherms as well as a change in ELP secondary structures. Surprisingly, the compression of the ELP monolayer influenced the ELP secondary structure due to the reduction in the phase transition temperature with decreasing temperature. The change in the ELP secondary structure formed at the air–water interface was investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, the morphology of the ELP monolayer was subsequently imaged using atomic force microscopy. The temperature responsive behavior resulted in changes in surface morphology from relatively flat structures to rugged labyrinth structures, which suggested conformational changes in the ELP monolayers.

  11. Morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide at air–water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sungchul; Ahn, Sungmin; Cheng, Jie [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Dae-Hong [Department of Chemical Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jinho, E-mail: jhyun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea. (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • It is the first report on the interfacial properties of ELP monolayers formed at the air–water interface. • ELP monolayers could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. • The compressive behavior of thermo-sensitive ELP monolayers was imaged. • The SERS spectra showed a change in the ELP secondary structure at different preparation conditions. - Abstract: The morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide molecules at the air–water interface as a function of temperature and compression was described. The surface pressure–area (π–A) isotherms of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) monolayer were obtained under variable external conditions, and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited onto a mica substrate for characterization. As the compression of the ELP monolayer increased, the surface pressure increased gradually, indicating that the ELP monolayer could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. The temperature in the subphase of the ELP monolayer was critical in the preparation of LB monolayers. The change in temperature induced a shift in the π–A isotherms as well as a change in ELP secondary structures. Surprisingly, the compression of the ELP monolayer influenced the ELP secondary structure due to the reduction in the phase transition temperature with decreasing temperature. The change in the ELP secondary structure formed at the air–water interface was investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, the morphology of the ELP monolayer was subsequently imaged using atomic force microscopy. The temperature responsive behavior resulted in changes in surface morphology from relatively flat structures to rugged labyrinth structures, which suggested conformational changes in the ELP monolayers.

  12. Preparation of alumina microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.R. dos; Abrao, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inorganic exchangers are widely used for adsorption and column partition chromatography. The main difficulty of using commercial alumina (in powder) for column chromatography is related to its packing, and the operations through the column become diffcult and time-consuming; also it turns to be virtually impossible to use large dimension columns. In order to eliminate these problems, a process for the preparation of alumina micro-spheres was developed as an adaptation of a similar process used to prepare nuclear fuel microspheres (UO 2 , ThO 2 ). The flowsheet of this process is presented together with the analytical results of sphericity after calcination, granulometry, density and characterization by X-ray diffractometry. Solubility tests showed that the so-prepared microspheres are well resistant to strong acids and bases; retention tests showed their efficiency, mainly to copper. (C.L.B.) [pt

  13. Surface preparation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneisel, P.

    1980-01-01

    Any discussion of surface preparation for superconducting rf-surfaces is certainly connected with the question what is the best recipe for achieving high Q-values and high break-down fields. Since the break-down in a cavity is not understood so far and because several mechanisms play a role, it also is not possible to give one recipe which always works. Nevertheless in the past certain preparation techniques for niobium surfaces have been developed and certain rules for preparation can be applied. In the following the to-days state of the art will be described and it is attempted to give a short description of the surface in conjunction with the methods of surface treatments, which generally can be applied to niobium cavities. (orig./WTR)

  14. Preparation of shaped bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, P.W.; Isaacs, J.W.; Lyon, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a shaped body includes pressing a powder to give a 'green' shaped body, the powder having been made by comminuting a material prepared by means of a gelation process, the material prior to comminuting being of a selected physical configuration (e.g. spherical). Thus, a material prepared by means of a gelation process can be transported and handled in an environmentally desirable, substantially dust-free form (e.g. spherical particles) and then comminuted to produce a powder for pressing into e.g. a shaped nuclear fuel body (e.g. pellets of (70%U/30%Pu)O 2 ), which can be sintered. (author)

  15. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  16. Interface detection by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Monchy, A.R.; Kok, C.A.; Dorrepaal, J.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting an interface of materials having different hydrogen content present in a metal vessel or pipe eg. made of steel, are described. Steel walls of columns, reactors, pipelines etc can be monitored. It is very suitable for detection of liquid water or hydrocarbons present in gas pipelines and also for the detection of a liquid hydrocarbon in a vessel or column. A series of measurements of the hydrogen density of the contents of a vessel or pipe are made using at least one californium-252 neutron source located near the outer side of the pipe. Neutrons are emitted and are scattered by the contents of the pipe. At least one neutron detector is located near the outer side of the metal wall. The detectors have a higher sensitivity for scattered neutrons (from the light hydrogen nuclei present in water or hydrocarbons). A source of 0.1 - 1 micrograms produces enough neutrons for most technical applications so the handling is relatively safe although shielding is advocated. The detectors contain helium-3 at a pressure of about 10 bar. Current pulses from the detector are counted. (U.K.)

  17. Design and Realization of Universal Data Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Kim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available KARI studied data interface of Space Applications for developing Space Experimental Instrument in International Space Station, designed, and manufactured the UDIS (International Sapce Station Universal Data Interface simulator according to requirements of the data interface. This paper explains the design and implementation of UDIS for space application. UDIS is the instrument which simulate to interface the data from ISS to experiment module, payload and habitation module and use the development of a experiment system in the space. This simulator will be used to the GSE (Ground Support Equipment for test of experiment system. By realization of the simulator, we ensure data interface skills for a manned-space data communication system.

  18. Analysis of the interface tracking errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerne, G.; Tiselj, I.; Petelin, S.

    2001-01-01

    An important limitation of the interface-tracking algorithm is the grid density, which determines the space scale of the surface tracking. In this paper the analysis of the interface tracking errors, which occur in a dispersed flow, is performed for the VOF interface tracking method. A few simple two-fluid tests are proposed for the investigation of the interface tracking errors and their grid dependence. When the grid density becomes too coarse to follow the interface changes, the errors can be reduced either by using denser nodalization or by switching to the two-fluid model during the simulation. Both solutions are analyzed and compared on a simple vortex-flow test.(author)

  19. Multiphase Microfluidics The Diffuse Interface Model

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase flows are typically described assuming that the different phases are separated by a sharp interface, with appropriate boundary conditions. This approach breaks down whenever the lengthscale of the phenomenon that is being studied is comparable with the real interface thickness, as it happens, for example, in the coalescence and breakup of bubbles and drops, the wetting and dewetting of solid surfaces and, in general, im micro-devices. The diffuse interface model resolves these probems by assuming that all quantities can vary continuously, so that interfaces have a non-zero thickness, i.e. they are "diffuse". The contributions in this book review the theory and describe some relevant applications of the diffuse interface model for one-component, two-phase fluids and for liquid binary mixtures, to model multiphase flows in confined geometries.

  20. Gestures in an Intelligent User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikkert, Wim; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    In this chapter we investigated which hand gestures are intuitive to control a large display multimedia interface from a user's perspective. Over the course of two sequential user evaluations, we defined a simple gesture set that allows users to fully control a large display multimedia interface, intuitively. First, we evaluated numerous gesture possibilities for a set of commands that can be issued to the interface. These gestures were selected from literature, science fiction movies, and a previous exploratory study. Second, we implemented a working prototype with which the users could interact with both hands and the preferred hand gestures with 2D and 3D visualizations of biochemical structures. We found that the gestures are influenced to significant extent by the fast paced developments in multimedia interfaces such as the Apple iPhone and the Nintendo Wii and to no lesser degree by decades of experience with the more traditional WIMP-based interfaces.

  1. Potential Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication is an output of a series of meetings to identify and evaluate issues and opportunities associated with interfaces in the back end of the fuel cycle (BEFC) and to describe effective management approaches based on the experience of Member States. During the meetings, participants from Member States and other international organizations shared and evaluated the main interfaces and potential interface issues among the spent fuel storage, transport, reprocessing and disposal of the BEFC, and also reviewed the national approaches to addressing these issues. The aim of this publication is to provide an approach to identify the interfaces in the BEFC as well as the potential issues that should be addressed. It also aims at responding to the solutions Member States most often find to be effective and, in some cases, were adjusted or revisited to reach the fixed target. Most of the interfaces and issues are country specific, as evidenced by the variety and diversity of examples provided in this publication

  2. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  3. Strength of interface in stainless clad steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohji, Kiyotsugu; Nakai, Yoshikazu; Hashimoto, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    Mechanical tests were conducted on four kinds of stainless clad steels to establish test methods for determining crack growth resistance of bimaterial interface. In tension tests, smooth specimens and shallow notched specimens were employed. In these tests, all of the smooth specimens were broken in carbon steel, not along the bimaterial interface. On the other hand, most of the shallow notched specimens were broken along the interface, when the notch root was located at the interface. Therefore, the shallow notched specimens were suitable for estimating the strength of the interface in tension tests. For fracture toughness tests, chevron notched specimens are recommended, since pre-fatigue cracks were susceptible to initiate and grow in carbon steel for conventional straight notched specimens. In fatigue crack growth tests, side-grooved and non-side-grooved specimens were employed. Although the side-grooves were machined so that the minimum cross-sectional plane of the specimens coincided with the plane of the bimaterial interface, cracks did not always propagate along the interface. Therefore, the side-grooves were judged not to be effective for cracks to propagate along the bimaterial interface. Both in fracture toughness tests and fatigue tests, the crack growth resistance along bimaterial interface was much lower than the resistance of matrix steels. In all of the mechanical tests conducted, the crack growth resistance along the interface was higher for the normalized material than that for the as-rolled material. The nickel foil inserted between carbon steel and stainless steel improved the growth resistance of interfacial cracks. (author)

  4. Degree of saturation effect on the grout-soil interface shear strength of soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the grouted soil nailing system, the bonding strength of cement grout-soil interface offers the required resistance to maintain the stability of whole structure. In practice, soil nailing applications are often placed at unsaturated conditions, such as soil slopes, shallow foundations, retaining walls and pavement structures. In these cases, the water content in the soil nail zone may increase or decrease due to rain water or dry weather, and even cannot become saturated during their design service life. In this study, the effect of water content (degree of saturation on the shear strength of interface between cement grout and sand are experimentally investigated by means of direct shear test. Meanwhile the water retention curve was determined and interface microstructure was observed. Experimental results show that the shear strength of interface changes non-monotonously with degree of saturation when the interface was prepared, due to the non-monotonousness of the cohesiveness between soil particles. The less the cohesiveness between sand particles, the more grout was observed been penetrated into the voids, and thus the larger the interface shear stress.

  5. Study of Direct-Contact HfO2/Si Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Miyata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Controlling monolayer Si oxide at the HfO2/Si interface is a challenging issue in scaling the equivalent oxide thickness of HfO2/Si gate stack structures. A concept that the author proposes to control the Si oxide interface by using ultra-high vacuum electron-beam HfO2 deposition is described in this review paper, which enables the so-called direct-contact HfO2/Si structures to be prepared. The electrical characteristics of the HfO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are reviewed, which suggest a sufficiently low interface state density for the operation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs but reveal the formation of an unexpected strong interface dipole. Kelvin probe measurements of the HfO2/Si structures provide obvious evidence for the formation of dipoles at the HfO2/Si interfaces. The author proposes that one-monolayer Si-O bonds at the HfO2/Si interface naturally lead to a large potential difference, mainly due to the large dielectric constant of the HfO2. Dipole scattering is demonstrated to not be a major concern in the channel mobility of MOSFETs.

  6. River Protection Project: Interface Management in the Multi Contract Project Environment at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHIKASHIO, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) is implementing the River Protection Project (RPP) using two prime contractors. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is responsible for operating the existing tank system, delivering the waste feed to the waste treatment plant, and managing the resulting low- and high-level glass waste ''product'' through a performance-based fee type contract. A separate prime contractor will be responsible for designing, constructing and commissioning of a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and preparing the waste for ultimate disposal. In addition to the prime contractors and their interfaces, the River Protection Project is being conducted on the Hanford Site, which is under the management of another DOE organization, DOE Richland Field Office (DOE-RL). The infrastructure and utilities are provided by DOE-RL, for example. In addition, there are multiple other technical interfaces with federal, state and other regulatory agencies that influence the management of the activities. This paper provides an overview of the approach employed by ORP to identify, coordinate, and manage the technical interfaces of RPP. In addition, this paper describes the approach and methodologies used to: Establish an overall framework for interface management. Establish the requirements for defining and managing interfaces for the prime contractors and DOE. Contractually requiring the prime contractors to control and manage the interfaces

  7. Study of interface properties in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, Stefan Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Interface effects, which play a crucial role in semiconductors, are also important in oxides. Over the last years several oxide heterostructures were investigated with interface properties, which are not found in the bulk properties of the constituting materials. An exciting example is the interface between the two oxides Lanthanumaluminate (LAO) and Strontiumtitanate (STO) which was investigated in this work. Both materials are band-insulators, however a conducting layer can form at the interface, a so called quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q2-DEG). After a brief introduction to this heterostructure the sample-preparation and characterization is described, and subsequently different projects are reported in detail. The investigation of the electronic transport properties as a function of the LAO film thickness revealed a transition from insulating to conducting behavior if the films exceed a critical thickness of 3 unit cells (uc). By electric field effect the conductivity of the interface can be tuned to a large extent. In samples with 3 uc of LAO a metal-insulator-transition can be induced. To be able to investigate defined structures a novel patterning technique was developed in the course of this thesis, which is based on the variation of the thickness of the epitaxial LAO. At 200 mK the q2-DEG condenses into a superconducting ground state. Investigations on bicrystalline samples reveal that the conducting interface is strongly influenced by dislocations in the STO substrate. (orig.)

  8. Influence of process parameters to composite interface organization and performance of liquid/solid bimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, S F; Zhu, Y C; Wu, Y H; Yang, P H; Duan, X L; Zhou, H T

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-solid composite technique was used to prepare the high carbon high chromium steel (HCHCS) and low alloy steel (LCS) bimetal composite materials by means of insert casting method. The influence of some process parameters such as liquid-solid ratio, preheat temperature, pouring temperature on the interface microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. Interface microstructure and element distribution were analyzed. The results show that the interface microstructure becomes better, and bonding area becomes thicker with the increase of the volume of liquid to solid ratio, preheating temperature and pouring temperature. When the liquid-solid ratio is 8:1, the preheating temperature is 300 °C and the pouring temperature is 1565 °C, a good metallurgical bonding area without any hole can be obtained with the interface combination of diffusion and fusion. The composite interface structure was composed of a core material diffusion layer, a cooling solidification layer, a direction growth layer and some cell particles. The elements of C, Cr and Mn diffuse from the HCHCS side to the alloy steel side. The microhardness increased in the gradient from the LCS side to the HCHCS. The microhardness of the interface is significantly higher than that of LCS. (paper)

  9. Two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Ying-Kun, E-mail: qyk@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xia; Chen, Lin; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Preparative MDLC system was developed for separation of complicated natural products. • Medium-pressure LC and preparative HPLC were connected by interface of SPE. • Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds was achieved by using this system. - Abstract: An on-line comprehensive two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system was developed for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products. Medium-pressure liquid chromatograph (MPLC) was applied as the first dimension and preparative HPLC as the second one, in conjunction with trapping column and makeup pump. The performance of the trapping column was evaluated, in terms of column size, dilution ratio and diameter-height ratio, as well as system pressure from the view of medium pressure liquid chromatograph. Satisfactory trapping efficiency can be achieved using a commercially available 15 mm × 30 mm i.d. ODS pre-column. The instrument operation and the performance of this MPLC × preparative HPLC system were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude macro-porous resin enriched water extract of Rheum hotaoense. Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds, whose structures were identified by MS, {sup 1}H NMR and even by less-sensitive {sup 13}C NMR, could be achieved in a short period of time using this system, exhibiting great advantages in analytical efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  10. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  11. Preparation of hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement by the use of oil-shale residues is characterized in that the oil-shale refuse is mixed with granular basic blast-furnace slag and a small amount of portland cement and ground together.

  12. Preparation of uranium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.A.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride

  13. Preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.; Hernandez, A.; Gonzalez, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Alkybromides are ones of the main organic precursors for fatty acids and alcohols labelling with Carbon 1-14. In this work the preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane by bromodescarboxylation of 1-octacosanoic acid is described. The synthesis yielded 80.5% of final product and more than 97% of chemical purity. Clean-up procedure modifications and spectral data bromoheptacosane are also reported

  14. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  15. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing beryllium hydride by the direct reaction of beryllium borohydride and aluminum hydride trimethylamine adduct. Volatile by-products and unreacted reactants are readily removed from the product mass by sublimation and/or evaporation. (U.S.)

  16. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, M.; Winchell, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical

  17. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as Ψ → e iθ Ψ. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  18. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  19. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  20. Innovative interfaces for Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The tangible interaction approach has, in recent years, become a promising alternative to tactile interaction for very young children. Children playing with Tangible User Interfaces (TUI are motivated by the novel and digital environment and benefit from the same values as conventional physical playing. Young children build their mental image of the world through action and motor responses and, with physical handling, they become conscious of reality. Within TUIs, digitally augmented surfaces (interactive blackboards and tabletops are becoming popular in educative environments. Tabletop devices are horizontal surfaces capable of supporting interaction and image feedback on their surface, and are especially interesting for reinforcing face-to-face social relations and group activities. However, most of current children-oriented applications for tabletops are based on tactile interaction, thus losing the benefits of physical playing. The paper describes our experiences building tangible tabletops, and designing tangible games and toys. In particular, we present NIKVision, a tabletop device intended to give leisure and fun while reinforcing physical manipulation and colocated gaming for 3-6 year old children. Several hybrid (physical/digital games based on the manipulation of passive and active toys have been developed for NIKVision. From our experience several useful lessons can be extracted. Among them, the necessity of bridging the gap between designers and developers making it easier the prototyping of tabletop games stands out. To tackle this difficulty a toolkit for the prototyping of tabletop games called ToyVision has been created. The toolkit supports designers to fully explore the physical feasibilities of the manipulation of physical playing pieces, while minimizing the technical difficulties of implementing tabletop games based on physical manipulation. This way, NIKVision and ToyVision are becoming powerful tools to develop innovative

  1. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, Ian N.; Rots, Arnold H.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray Center CSC website (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/) is the place to visit for high-level descriptions of each source property and data product included in the catalog, along with other useful information, such as step-by-step catalog tutorials, answers to FAQs, and a thorough summary of the catalog statistical characterization. Eight categories of detailed catalog documents may be accessed from the navigation bar on most of the 50+ CSC pages; these categories are: About the Catalog, Creating the Catalog, Using the Catalog, Catalog Columns, Column Descriptions, Documents, Conferences, and Useful Links. There are also prominent links to CSCview, the CSC data access GUI, and related help documentation, as well as a tutorial for using the new CSC/Google Earth interface. Catalog source properties are presented in seven scientific categories, within two table views: the Master Source and Source Observations tables. Each X-ray source has one ``master source'' entry and one or more ``source observation'' entries, the details of which are documented on the CSC ``Catalog Columns'' pages. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source; these are extensively described on the following pages of the website: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The eight tutorials (``threads'') available on the website serve as a collective guide for accessing, understanding, and manipulating the source properties and data products provided by the catalog.

  2. The utility perspective on the transportation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Describing interface between the transportation system and the operating plants, the author thinks there are really three, interrelated dimensions to the interface; the technical; physical interface; the business (i.e. economic) interface; and the institutional interface. A principal mission of the Nuclear Transportation Group is to help assure that these interfaces are smoothly bridged and that the resources of the utility industry are brought to bear to achieve this result. The physical interface is the most readily understood. The analysis must also consider the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) radiation exposure evaluation of the waste system design and operation. ALARA evaluations of the waste system design and operation. ALARA evaluations must be done on a systems basis to ensure that the effects of particular designs that may be beneficial in some aspects of the system do not adversely impact nuclear power plant workers or operations. Regardless of one's political persuasion or technical training, the author doesn't think there is any question that spent fuel must be moved, sooner or later, somewhere. It's in the best interests of all that those shipments be made safely, and economically, with the proper attention to doing it right and not needlessly wasting resources, including money

  3. Invasive Intraneural Interfaces: Foreign Body Reaction Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Fiorenza; Ranieri, Federico; Vadalà, Gianluca; Zollo, Loredana; Di Pino, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Intraneural interfaces are stimulation/registration devices designed to couple the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with the environment. Over the last years, their use has increased in a wide range of applications, such as the control of a new generation of neural-interfaced prostheses. At present, the success of this technology is limited by an electrical impedance increase, due to an inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR), which leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the interface, eventually causing an inefficient transduction of the electrical signal. Based on recent developments in biomaterials and inflammatory/fibrotic pathologies, we explore and select the biological solutions that might be adopted in the neural interfaces FBR context: modifications of the interface surface, such as organic and synthetic coatings; the use of specific drugs or molecular biology tools to target the microenvironment around the interface; the development of bio-engineered-scaffold to reduce immune response and promote interface-tissue integration. By linking what we believe are the major crucial steps of the FBR process with related solutions, we point out the main issues that future research has to focus on: biocompatibility without losing signal conduction properties, good reproducible in vitro/in vivo models, drugs exhaustion and undesired side effects. The underlined pros and cons of proposed solutions show clearly the importance of a better understanding of all the molecular and cellular pathways involved and the need of a multi-target action based on a bio-engineered combination approach. PMID:28932181

  4. Ultralow-Carbon Nanotube-Toughened Epoxy: The Critical Role of a Double-Layer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Chen, Chao; Feng, Yuezhan; Liao, Yonggui; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2018-01-10

    Understanding the chemistry and structure of interfaces within epoxy resins is important for studying the mechanical properties of nanofiller-filled nanocomposites as well as for developing high-performance polymer nanocomposites. Despite the intensive efforts to construct nanofiller/matrix interfaces, few studies have demonstrated an enhanced stress-transferring efficiency while avoiding unfavorable deformation due to undesirable interface fractures. Here, we report an optimized method to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites whose interfaces are chemically modulated by poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) (PGMA-b-PHMA)-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (bc@fMWNTs) and also offer a fundamental explanation of crack growth behavior and the toughening mechanism of the resulting nanocomposites. The presence of block copolymers on the surface of the MWNT results in a promising double-layered interface, in which (1) the outer-layered PGMA segment provides good dispersion in and strong interface bonding with the epoxy matrix, which enhances load transfer efficiency and debonding stress, and (2) the interlayered rubbery PHMA segment around the MWNT provides the maximum removable space for nanotubes as well as triggering cavitation while promoting local plastic matrix deformation, for example, shear banding to dissipate fracture energy. An outstanding toughening effect is achieved with only a 0.05 wt % carbon nanotube loading with the bc@fMWNT, that is, needing only a 20-times lower loading to obtain improvements in fracture toughness comparable to epoxy-based nanocomposites. The enhancements of their corresponding ultimate mode-I fracture toughnesses and fracture energies are 4 times higher than those of pristine MWNT-filled epoxy. These results demonstrate that a MWNT/epoxy interface could be optimized by changing the component structure of grafted modifiers, thereby facilitating the transfer of both mechanical load and energy dissipation

  5. Mixed mode fracture of dental interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, Nima; Yang, Yong; Soboyejo, Winston

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and computational study of mixed mode fracture in glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces that are relevant to dental restorations. The interfacial fracture is investigated using Brazil-nut specimens. The kinking in-and-out of the interface that occurs between glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces, is also shown to be consistent with predictions from a microstructure-based finite element model. The predictions later verified using focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy images

  6. 200 Area TEDF interface control document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; Hildebrand, R.A.

    1994-11-15

    Because the TEDF does not have any treatment or retention capacity, strict control at the generator interface is essential to operate the TEDF in compliance with good engineering practices, Hanford site requirements, and the 216 Discharge Permit. The information in the Interface Control Document (ICD) forms the basis of understanding between all parties involved in the TEDF; DOE, WHC, and the generating facilities. The ICD defines the controlling document hierarchy; LEF, and generator responsibilities; monitoring and sampling requirements; and specifies the TEDF/Generator Interface points.

  7. PFP Interface identification and management planning guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of-this planning guide is to present the process used to identify, document, and control PFP Stabilization and Deactivation Project interfaces. Revisions to this document will include, as attachments, the most recent version of the Project Interface Management List. A preliminary Interface Management List is included in Appendix A. This document is intended be a Project owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. For most revisions that suggest improved processes, PFP management approval is all that will be required

  8. Diffuse-Interface Methods in Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; McFadden, G. B.; Wheeler, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review the development of diffuse-interface models of hydrodynamics and their application to a wide variety of interfacial phenomena. The authors discuss the issues involved in formulating diffuse-interface models for single-component and binary fluids. Recent applications and computations using these models are discussed in each case. Further, the authors address issues including sharp-interface analyses that relate these models to the classical free-boundary problem, related computational approaches to describe interfacial phenomena, and related approaches describing fully-miscible fluids.

  9. Concept of software interface for BCI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejda, Jaromir; Zak, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is intended to control external system by brain activity. One of main part of such system is software interface, which carries about clear communication between brain and either computer or additional devices connected to computer. This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, current knowledge about human brain is briefly summarized to points out its complexity. Secondly, there is described a concept of BCI system, which is then used to build an architecture of proposed software interface. Finally, there are mentioned disadvantages of sensing technology discovered during sensing part of our research.

  10. Quantitative interface models for simulating microstructure evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Z.; Wang, T.; Zhou, S.H.; Liu, Z.K.; Chen, L.Q.

    2004-01-01

    To quantitatively simulate microstructural evolution in real systems, we investigated three different interface models: a sharp-interface model implemented by the software DICTRA and two diffuse-interface models which use either physical order parameters or artificial order parameters. A particular example is considered, the diffusion-controlled growth of a γ ' precipitate in a supersaturated γ matrix in Ni-Al binary alloys. All three models use the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters from the same databases. The temporal evolution profiles of composition from different models are shown to agree with each other. The focus is on examining the advantages and disadvantages of each model as applied to microstructure evolution in alloys

  11. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  12. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  13. Skin interface pressure on the NATO litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Elizabeth J; Schmelz, Joseph O; Mazer, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    The NATO litter serves as a transport device and hospital bed during all types of operations. Little is known about the skin interface pressure on this litter. The purpose of this study was to determine whether various types of padding on the litter and body position affect the peak skin interface pressure and the total body area exposed to interface pressures above 30 mm Hg at different body areas. Thirty-two subjects participated. A repeated measures design was used. The surface effect was statistically significant for all peak pressure and surface area analyses (repeated-measures analysis of variance, p patients if feasible. Preventive measures (turning, elevating the heels) are still required.

  14. Development of INFRA graphic user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y. S.; Lee, C. B.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. K.

    2004-01-01

    GUI(Graphic User Interface) has been developed for high burnup fuel performance code INFRA. Based upon FORTRAN program language, INFRA was developed by COMPAQ Visual FORTRAN 6.5. Graphic user input and output interface have been developed by using Visual Basic and MDB which are the most widely used program language and database for windows application development. Various input parameters, which are required for INFRA calculation, can be input more conveniently by newly developed input interface. Without any additional data handling, INFRA calculation results can be investigated intuitively by 2D or 3D graphs on screen and animation function

  15. Interface structure between tetraglyme and graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Araki, Yuki; Umeda, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Okazaki, Ken-ichi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2017-09-01

    Clarification of the details of the interface structure between liquids and solids is crucial for understanding the fundamental processes of physical functions. Herein, we investigate the structure of the interface between tetraglyme and graphite and propose a model for the interface structure based on the observation of frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy in liquids. The ordering and distorted adsorption of tetraglyme on graphite were observed. It is found that tetraglyme stably adsorbs on graphite. Density functional theory calculations supported the adsorption structure. In the liquid phase, there is a layered structure of the molecular distribution with an average distance of 0.60 nm between layers.

  16. Ludic interfaces. Driver and product of gamification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Fuchs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of non-standard and playful interface devices like Wii Remote, Move, and Kinect is an indicator of a process that demonstrates that ludic interfaces might be the core driver for a transformation in the sector of video games cultures and beyond. Yet, ludic interfaces are drivers—as well as driven by social developments known as the ludification (Raessens, 2006; Fuchs & Strouhal, 2008, or the gamification of society (Schell, 2010; Bogost, 2010; Ionifides, 2011; Deterding, Khaled, Nacke, & Dixon, 2011.

  17. 200 Area TEDF interface control document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; Hildebrand, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Because the TEDF does not have any treatment or retention capacity, strict control at the generator interface is essential to operate the TEDF in compliance with good engineering practices, Hanford site requirements, and the 216 Discharge Permit. The information in the Interface Control Document (ICD) forms the basis of understanding between all parties involved in the TEDF; DOE, WHC, and the generating facilities. The ICD defines the controlling document hierarchy; LEF, and generator responsibilities; monitoring and sampling requirements; and specifies the TEDF/Generator Interface points

  18. iPhone User Interface Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Banga, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Written in a cookbook style, this book offers solutions using a recipe based approach. Each recipe contains step-by-step instructions followed by an analysis of what was done in each task and other useful information. The cookbook approach means you can dive into whatever recipes you want in no particular order. The iPhone Interface Cookbook is written from the ground up for people who are new to iOS or application interface design in general. Each chapter discusses the reasoning and design strategy behind critical interface components, as well as how to best integrate each into any iPhone or

  19. The influence of nickel coating on the interface of pressureless infiltrated with vibration Al-SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahinejad, Setare; Sharifi, Hassan; Tayebi, Morteza; Rajaee, Ali

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nickel coatings on infiltration and interface of SiC reinforced Al-Mg composite. To this end, the pressureless infiltration procedure with vibration applied to produce composites with uncoated and nickel coated reinforcements at two temperatures of 650 °C and 850 °C. The microstructure of the infiltrated cross section was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, linear and point analyses. Results indicated that coated ceramic preforms improved infiltration and strong interfaces in both temperatures were achieved. Also uncoated preform infiltrated at a temperature of 650 °C, was not proved to be appropriate and it did not form any interface. In this condition a small gap was found between aluminum matrix and ceramic reinforcement, and no bonding was established between the reinforcement and matrix, however the composite prepared in 850 °C had an acceptable interface and the presence of MgAl2O4 at the interface caused improvement in interface bonding. In addition, in the composite sample with coated reinforcement, the existence of Ni as coating prevented the SiC dissolution in the alloy and there was no sign of carbide formation at the interface. At the interface of produced composite, Al3Ni and Al3Ni2 compounds were formed in the matrix around the reinforcement.

  20. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  1. Porous electrode preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  2. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  3. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  4. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  5. Exploring Dynamic User–Interface in Achieving Software Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... rudiments of user interface in application development may be a diffults task and time consuming, but there ... screen. Such interface is described as menu- driven. (3) Graphical user interface (GUI): user .... using green colour.

  6. Preparation to exceptional operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sort, M.

    1984-01-01

    Preparation to special maintenance operations requires a specific approach according to the considered intervention type. Replacement of vapor generators is representative of a kind of intervention where technics is generally only an adaptation to the power plant context of processes already in application in construction, and where methodology, planning and organization have an important role because of the variety and the quantity of taskworks to be done, the involved manpower, the dosimetry and time lag requirements [fr

  7. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  8. Overview of Site Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of Cadarache as the host of ITER is organised at a double level: Europe, since the beginning of the candidature in 2001, is coordinating the so-called European ITER Site Studies; France, as the host country, has put in place a dedicated structure at a decisional level (close to the government), and operational level in the PACA region with two entities: The Agency Iter France (AIF), inside the CEA, interlocutor of international and European entities, in charge of site preparation and fund recollection; An accompanying prefectoral mission, in charge mainly of road adaptation and the international school. The paper will cover all the aspects related to the preparation of the implementation of ITER: Technical aspects: the progress of site preparation itself, its servicing (water supply, electrical supply, Internet...), the road adaptation between the large harbour of Fos-sur-mer and Cadarache, etc. will be detailed. Regulatory procedures: in the framework of the delegation that the ITER partners gave to the CEA/AIF on 14 th September 2005, two main large files are in progress: The public debate, organised by an independent authority, informs the population of the challenges and impacts of ITER in Provence; The safety documents: the writing of the preliminary safety report, which will be submitted to the Nuclear Safety Authority and the files submitted to the public during the public enquiries are ongoing. Socioeconomic aspects: the welcome of ITER staff and their families is operational, via a dedicated Welcome Office; the location of an international school in Manosque leads now to its pre-figuration. The overall organisation will be described, as well as all planning forecast for the coming years, leading to the start of construction. (author)

  9. Preparing for evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroff, Ian I; Alpaslan, Murat C

    2003-04-01

    How can you plan for every crisis that might occur, even for ones you can't imagine? The task seems so daunting and so limitless that many firms don't even start. In fact, as the authors' 20 years of research shows, three out of four Fortune 500 companies are prepared to handle only the types of calamities they've already suffered, and not even all of those. That's unfortunate because the research also shows that crisis-prepared companies fare better financially, have stronger reputations, and ultimately stay in business longer than their crisis prone counterparts. Crisis-prepared companies use a systematic approach to focus their efforts. In addition to planning for natural disasters, they divide man-made calamities into two sorts--accidental or "normal" ones, like the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and deliberate or "abnormal" ones, like product tampering. Then they take steps to broaden their thinking about such potential crises. They consider threats that would be common in other industries, for instance. And they seek input from outsiders such as investigative journalists and even reformed criminals. But if these companies think broadly about possible threats, they think narrowly about implementation. Each year, smart companies focus their resources and attention on a few facilities picked at random, just as airlines conduct detailed security checks on just a few passengers for each flight. That reduces the probability of an attack on the entire organization even as it allows the business to migrate steadily to a higher level of crisis readiness. Crisis-prepared companies know that disasters cannot be managed through cost-benefit analyses. It is precisely because the effects of a disaster cannot be predicted or controlled that smart companies focus their efforts on preventing crises rather than containing them after the fact.

  10. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  11. PREPARING A MARKETING STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Grönholm, Eija

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to prepare a marketing strategy for Living City Centre of Kotka Association. The work was implemented with the members of the association and the executive director Reijo Saksa. Living City Centre of Kotka Association was founded in spring 2006 for promoting living, enjoyable and safe centers in the City of Kotka. The association has two permanent employees. The main duties are managing the Kotka market places and promoting the stakeholder connections betw...

  12. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.R.; Baker, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Beryllium hydride of high bulk density, suitable for use as a component of high-energy fuels, is prepared by the pyrolysis, in solution in an inert solvent, of a ditertiary-alkyl beryllium. An agitator introduces mechanical energy into the reaction system, during the pyrolysis, at the rate of 0.002 to 0.30 horsepower per gallon of reaction mixture. (U.S.)

  13. Haptic interface for vehicular touch screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Once the domain of purely physical controls such as knobs, : levers, buttons, and sliders, the vehicle dash is rapidly : transforming into a computer interface. This presents a : challenge for drivers, because the physics-based cues which : make trad...

  14. TOWN AND GOWN INTERFACE: ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    TOWN AND GOWN INTERFACE: ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN FEDERAL. UNIVERSITIES AND .... Descriptive statistical tools were used in the analysis of the data collected. In terms of ... Response. Frequency. % ... This disparity in response.

  15. Applying Cognitive Psychology to User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Sabeen; Durrani, Qaiser S.

    This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.

  16. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelšvartas, Julius; Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-01-01

    Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.

  17. Peptide segments in protein-protein interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-09-06

    Sep 6, 2006 ... contact surface from the rest of the protein surface have been used to identify ..... interfaces the contribution of the charged residues, such as. Lys, Asp and ..... Lawrence M C and Colman P M 1993 Shape complementarity at.

  18. Graphic Interface for LCP2 Optimization Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolae, Taropa Laurentiu; Gaunholt, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This report provides information about the software interface that is programmed for the Optimization Program LCP2. The first part is about the general description of the program followed by a guide for using the interface. The last chapters contain a discussion about problems or futute extension...... of the project. The program is written in Visual C++5.0 on a Windows NT4.0 operating system.......This report provides information about the software interface that is programmed for the Optimization Program LCP2. The first part is about the general description of the program followed by a guide for using the interface. The last chapters contain a discussion about problems or futute extensions...

  19. Advanced Display Interface Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CMC proposes, along with our collaborator, Dr. Mica Endlsey of SA Technologies, to produce a framework from which an Adaptive User Interface (AUI) can be modeled and...

  20. Interface stress in Au/Ni multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweitz, K.O.; Böttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intermixing on the apparent interface stress is studied in -textured dc-magnetron sputtered Au/Ni multilayers by use of two methods commonly used for determining interface stress. The method using profilometry and in-plane x-ray diffraction does not take intermixing...... into account and yields an apparent interface stress of -8.46 +/- 0.99 J m(-2). However, observed discrepancies between model calculations and measured high-angle x-ray diffractograms indicate intermixing, and by use of the profilometry and sin(2) psi method the real interface stress value of -2.69 +/- 0.43 J...... m(-2) is found. This method also reveals a significant and systematic change of the stress-free lattice parameter of both constituents as a function of modulation period which is shown to account for the difference between the two findings. The method using in-plane diffraction is thus shown...

  1. Zoomable User Interfaces for the Semantic WEB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorniak, Mark

    2004-01-01

    .... The University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) developed an interface, to visualize the taxonomic hierarchy of data, and applied integrated searching and browsing so that users need not have complete knowledge either of appropriate keyword...

  2. Proton storage ring: man/machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, R.F.; Clout, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The human interface of the Proton Storage Ring Control System at Los Alamos is described in some detail, together with the software environment in which operator interaction programs are written. Some examples of operator interaction programs are given

  3. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter; Ravera, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), allowing the coordination of nationally funded research across Europe. With contributions by leading experts, this book covers a wide range of topics. Chapters are grouped into three sections: "Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization," "New Experimental Tools and Interpretation," and "Nanocolloidal Dispersions and Interfaces." The topics covered belong to six basic research areas: (1) The synthes...

  4. Navigation with a passive brain based interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.; Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.-M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) for navigation. The system is based on detecting brain signals that are elicited by tactile stimulation on the torso indicating the desired direction.

  5. User Interfaces for Cooperative Remote Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodges, Larry

    1998-01-01

    .... We seek to develop new methods to facilitate cooperative remote design utilizing both high-bandwidth networking capability and virtual reality with appropriate graphical interfaces to support the collaborative effort...

  6. Smart Interfaces for Decisive Counterspace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ianni, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Research in "smart" man-machine interfaces for counterspace operations has been performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory to improve the warfighter's ability to gain situational awareness during satellite attacks...

  7. Inflatable Module Seal Interface Development and Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a repeatable low permeable sealing interface evaluating O-ring, RTV bond and flowed RTV bond methods. Advanced Bladder materials (ArmorFlex, Nanoclay, etc)...

  8. Synchronization Interfaces for Improving Moodle Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Arya Sasmita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many universities have applied e-learning on more than one LMS (Learning Management System platforms such as Wordpress and Moodle. In addition, difficulties implementations in developing countries have occurred. Those are mainly caused by limitations and expensive of Internet infrastructure. Therefore to increase Moodle application as an e-learning system, the paper proposed two synchronization interfaces. The first interface is for Moodle and Wordpress. This assists teachers to migrate their learning material in their blog in Wordpress into Moodle. Second interface is for Moodle portable performing offline LMS and Moodle performing online LMS. Moodle portable was installed in teachers and students notebooks. Moodle itself was installed and run in e-learning server. The aim is to improve Moodle utilization in the class. The results showed satisfied outcomes. Students and teachers could employ the interfaces easily and secure as they have to login using student/teacher ID, course ID, username and password.

  9. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-01-01

    Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities. PMID:29686827

  10. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Gelšvartas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.

  11. Biological growth in bodies with incoherent interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag

    2018-01-01

    A general theory of thermodynamically consistent biomechanical-biochemical growth in a body, considering mass addition in the bulk and at an incoherent interface, is developed. The incoherency arises due to incompatibility of growth and elastic distortion tensors at the interface. The incoherent interface therefore acts as an additional source of internal stress besides allowing for rich growth kinematics. All the biochemicals in the model are essentially represented in terms of nutrient concentration fields, in the bulk and at the interface. A nutrient balance law is postulated which, combined with mechanical balances and kinetic laws, yields an initial-boundary-value problem coupling the evolution of bulk and interfacial growth, on the one hand, and the evolution of growth and nutrient concentration on the other. The problem is solved, and discussed in detail, for two distinct examples: annual ring formation during tree growth and healing of cutaneous wounds in animals.

  12. The Chandra Source Catalog: Storage and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stone, David; Harbo, Peter N.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Zografou, Panagoula; Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is part of the Chandra Data Archive (CDA) at the Chandra X-ray Center. The catalog contains source properties and associated data objects such as images, spectra, and lightcurves. The source properties are stored in relational databases and the data objects are stored in files with their metadata stored in databases. The CDA supports different versions of the catalog: multiple fixed release versions and a live database version. There are several interfaces to the catalog: CSCview, a graphical interface for building and submitting queries and for retrieving data objects; a command-line interface for property and source searches using ADQL; and VO-compliant services discoverable though the VO registry. This poster describes the structure of the catalog and provides an overview of the interfaces.

  13. The Mo/Ta (100) interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanar, C.; Velasco, V.R.; Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1990-12-01

    We have calculated the interface local density of states (ILDOS) formed by the transition metals Mo/Ta using a tight-binding Slater-Koster description and the Green Function matching method together with quickly converging algorithms to compute the transfer matrices. We obtain the surface LDOS as a byproduct. Our result is a useful tool to analyze experimental results and to check models as a function of the value of the tight-binding parameters either of the bulk or at the interface itself. We consider the (100) direction. We compare the interface to the bulk and to the surface and comment on some recently found experimental results for this interface. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs

  14. Simulation of Magnetic Phenomena at Realistic Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsyuk, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    (4d) and ferromagnetic 3d-metal interfaces and their dependences on aspects such as interdiffusion, surface oxidation, thin film thickness and lattice mismatch. We find that changes of structural details strongly alter the electronic states, which

  15. Legal Aspects of Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php

  16. Soft particles at a fluid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hadi; Harting, Jens; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2015-11-01

    Particles added to a fluid interface can be used as a surface stabilizer in the food, oil and cosmetic industries. As an alternative to rigid particles, it is promising to consider highly deformable particles that can adapt their conformation at the interface. In this study, we compute the shapes of soft elastic particles using molecular dynamics simulations of a cross-linked polymer gel, complemented by continuum calculations based on the linear elasticity. It is shown that the particle shape is not only affected by the Young's modulus of the particle, but also strongly depends on whether the gel is partially or completely wetting the fluid interface. We find that the molecular simulations for the partially wetting case are very accurately described by the continuum theory. By contrast, when the gel is completely wetting the fluid interface the linear theory breaks down and we reveal that molecular details have a strong influence on the equilibrium shape.

  17. TMACS Test Procedure TP011: Panalarm Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seghers, R.; Washburn, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. The TMACS Test Plan (WHC-SD-WM-TP-148) is fulfilled when all Test Cases are approved. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Panalarm Interface functions

  18. Human-machine Interface for Presentation Robot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Ondroušek, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 17-21 ISSN 1897-8649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : human-robot interface * mobile robot * presentation robot Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  19. New ROOT Graphical User Interfaces for fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maline, D Gonzalez; Moneta, L; Antcheva, I

    2010-01-01

    ROOT, as a scientific data analysis framework, provides extensive capabilities via Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for performing interactive analysis and visualizing data objects like histograms and graphs. A new interface for fitting has been developed for performing, exploring and comparing fits on data point sets such as histograms, multi-dimensional graphs or trees. With this new interface, users can build interactively the fit model function, set parameter values and constraints and select fit and minimization methods with their options. Functionality for visualizing the fit results is as well provided, with the possibility of drawing residuals or confidence intervals. Furthermore, the new fit panel reacts as a standalone application and it does not prevent users from interacting with other windows. We will describe in great detail the functionality of this user interface, covering as well new capabilities provided by the new fitting and minimization tools introduced recently in the ROOT framework.

  20. Full Plant STWAVE: SMS Graphical Interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKee Smith, Jane; Zundel, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to describe the graphical interface for the full-plane version of the wave model STWAVE (Smith et al. 2001; Smith 2001...

  1. On persistence interfaces for scientific data stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malon, D.M.; May, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    A common dilemma among builders of large scientific data stores is whether to use a lightweight object persistence manager or a genuine object-oriented database. There are often good reasons to consider each of these strategies; a few are described in this paper. Too often, however, electing to use a lightweight approach has meant programming to an interface that is entirely different than that expected by commercial object-oriented databases. With the emergence of object database standards, it is possible to provide an interface to persistence managers that does not needlessly inhibit coexistence with (and, perhaps, eventual migration to) object-oriented databases. This paper describes an implementation of a substantial subset of the ODMG-93[1]C++ specification that allows clients to use many of today's lightweight object persistence managers through an interface that conforms to the ODMG standard. We also describe a minimal interface that persistence software should support in order to provide persistence services for ODMG implementations

  2. Inorganic Polymer Matrix Composite Strength Related to Interface Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bridge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding of an inorganic polymer binder was successfully demonstrated in the preparation of ceramic fiber reinforced engine exhaust valves. Unfortunately, in the preliminary processing trials, the resulting composite valves were too brittle for in-engine evaluation. To address this limited toughness, the effectiveness of a modified fiber-matrix interface is investigated through the use of carbon as a model material fiber coating. After sequential heat treatments composites molded from uncoated and carbon coated fibers are compared using room temperature 3-point bend testing. Carbon coated Nextel fiber reinforced geopolymer composites demonstrated a 50% improvement in strength, versus that of the uncoated fiber reinforced composites, after the 250 °C postcure.

  3. X-ray investigation of Nb/O interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delheusy, M.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers and the future International Linear Collider project are based on the performance of niobium superconducting RF cavities for efficient particle acceleration. A remarkable increase of the RF accelerating field is usually achieved by low-temperature annealing of the cavities (T≤150 C, several hours). The microscopic origin of this effect has remained unclear; however, it has been argued that a redistribution of subsurface interstitial oxygen into niobium is involved. In this study, the near surface structure of oxidized niobium single crystals and its evolution upon vacuum annealing has been studied by means of non-destructive in-situ surface sensitive x-ray techniques: x-ray reflectivity (XRR), grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), diffuse scattering (GIDXS), crystal truncation rods measurements (CTRs), and high-resolution core-level spectroscopy (HRCLS). A first insight into the interplay between the oxide formation/dissolution and the occurrence of 181 subsurface interstitial oxygen has been given. The natural oxide on Nb(110) and Nb(100) surfaces is constituted of Nb 2 O 5 , NbO 2 and NbO, from the surface to the interface. It reduces progressively upon heating from Nb 2 O 5 to NbO 2 at low temperatures, and to NbO at 300 C. The Nb(110)/NbO(111) interface presents a Nishiyma-Wassermann epitaxial orientation relationship. The depth-distribution of interstitial oxygen has been established indicating that most of the oxygen is located in the direct vicinity of the oxide/niobium interface. No evidence of oxygen depletion below the oxide layer has been observed for the low temperature thermal treatments and surface preparations investigated in this study. (author) [fr

  4. Behavior of asphaltene model compounds at w/o interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgård, Erland L; Sørland, Geir; Sjöblom, Johan

    2010-02-16

    Asphaltenes, present in significant amounts in heavy crude oil, contains subfractions capable of stabilizing water-in-oil emulsions. Still, the composition of these subfractions is not known in detail, and the actual mechanism behind emulsion stability is dependent on perceived interfacial concentrations and compositions. This study aims at utilizing polyaromatic surfactants which contains an acidic moiety as model compounds for the surface-active subfraction of asphaltenes. A modified pulse-field gradient (PFG) NMR method has been used to study droplet sizes and stability of emulsions prepared with asphaltene model compounds. The method has been compared to the standard microscopy droplet counting method. Arithmetic and volumetric mean droplet sizes as a function of surfactant concentration and water content clearly showed that the interfacial area was dependent on the available surfactant at the emulsion interface. Adsorption of the model compounds onto hydrophilic silica has been investigated by UV depletion, and minor differences in the chemical structure of the model compounds caused significant differences in the affinity toward this highly polar surface. The cross-sectional areas obtained have been compared to areas from the surface-to-volume ratio found by NMR and gave similar results for one of the two model compounds. The mean molecular area for this compound suggested a tilted geometry of the aromatic core with respect to the interface, which has also been proposed for real asphaltenic samples. The film behavior was further investigated using a liquid-liquid Langmuir trough supporting the ability to form stable interfacial films. This study supports that acidic, or strong hydrogen-bonding fractions, can promote stable water-in-oil emulsion. The use of model compounds opens up for studying emulsion behavior and demulsifier efficiency based on true interfacial concentrations rather than perceived interfaces.

  5. X-ray investigation of Nb/O interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delheusy, Melissa

    2008-07-07

    X-ray free electron lasers and the future International Linear Collider project are based on the performance of niobium superconducting rf cavities for efficient particle acceleration. A remarkable increase of the rf accelerating field is usually achieved by low-temperature annealing of the cavities (T<150 C, several hours). The microscopic origin of this effect has remained unclear; however, it has been argued that a redistribution of subsurface interstitial oxygen into niobium is involved. In this study, the near surface structure of oxidized niobium single crystals and its evolution upon vacuum annealing has been studied by means of non-destructive in-situ surface sensitive X-ray techniques: X-ray reflectivity (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), diffuse scattering (GIDXS), crystal truncation rods measurements (CTRs), and high-resolution core-level spectroscopy (HRCLS). A first insight into the interplay between the oxide formation/dissolution and the occurrence of subsurface interstitial oxygen has been given. The natural oxide on Nb(110) and Nb(100) surfaces is constituted of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, NbO{sub 2} and NbO, from the surface to the interface. It reduces progressively upon heating from Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to NbO{sub 2} at low temperatures, and to NbO at 300 C. The Nb(110)/NbO(111) interface presents a Nishiyama-Wassermann epitaxial orientation relationship. The depth-distribution of interstitial oxygen has been established indicating that most of the oxygen is located in the direct vicinity of the oxide/niobium interface. No evidence of oxygen depletion below the oxide layer has been observed for the low temperature thermal treatments and surface preparations investigated in this study. (orig.)

  6. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included

  7. InP/ZnS nanocrystals: coupling NMR and XPS for fine surface and interface description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virieux, Héloïse; Le Troedec, Marianne; Cros-Gagneux, Arnaud; Ojo, Wilfried-Solo; Delpech, Fabien; Nayral, Céline; Martinez, Hervé; Chaudret, Bruno

    2012-12-05

    Advanced (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P solution- and solid-state NMR studies combined with XPS were used to probe, at the molecular scale, the composition (of the core, the shell, and the interface) and the surface chemistry of InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots prepared via a non-coordinating solvent strategy. The interface between the mismatched InP and ZnS phases is composed of an amorphous mixed oxide phase incorporating InPO(x) (with x = 3 and predominantly 4), In(2)O(3), and InO(y)(OH)(3-2y) (y = 0, 1). Thanks to the analysis of the underlying reaction mechanisms, we demonstrate that the oxidation of the upper part of the InP core is the consequence of oxidative conditions brought by decarboxylative coupling reactions (ketonization). These reactions occur during both the core preparation and the coating process, but according to different mechanisms.

  8. Infrared Spectroscopy as Molecular Probe of the Macroscopic Metal-Liquid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kiefer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal-liquid interfaces are of the utmost importance in a number of scientific areas, including electrochemistry and catalysis. However, complicated analytical methods and sample preparation are usually required to study the interfacial phenomena. We propose an infrared spectroscopic approach that enables investigating the molecular interactions at the interface, but needing only minimal or no sample preparation. For this purpose, the internal reflection element (IRE is wetted with a solution as first step. Second, a small plate of the metal of interest is put on top and pressed onto the IRE. The tiny amount of liquid that is remaining between the IRE and the metal is sufficient to produce an IR spectrum with good signal to noise ratio, from which information about molecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, can be deduced. Proof-of-concept experiments were carried out with aqueous salt and acid solutions and an aluminum plate.

  9. Nurses perceptions of a user friendly interface

    OpenAIRE

    Alshafai, Fatimah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The successful implementation of clinical information systems depends to a large extent on its usability. Usability can be achieved by a strong focus on interface quality. With a focus on improving the quality of patient care, growing numbers of clinical information systems have been advertised as being "user-friendly". However, the term "user-friendly" may not be quite accurate and in some circumstances could be misleading. Within a clinical setting, an interface designed as ea...

  10. Distributed user interfaces usability and collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, María D; Tesoriero, Ricardo; Penichet, Victor MR

    2013-01-01

    Written by international researchers in the field of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs), this book brings together important contributions regarding collaboration and usability in Distributed User Interface settings. Throughout the thirteen chapters authors address key questions concerning how collaboration can be improved by using DUIs, including: in which situations a DUI is suitable to ease the collaboration among users; how usability standards can be used to evaluate the usability of systems based on DUIs; and accurately describe case studies and prototypes implementing these concerns

  11. Web services interface to EPICS channel access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Lei; SHEN Liren

    2008-01-01

    Web services is used in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Combined with EPICS Channel Access protocol, Web services' high usability, platform independence and language independence can be used to design a fully transparent and uniform software interface layer, which helps us complete channel data acquisition, modification and monitoring functions. This software interface layer, a cross-platform of cross-language,has good interopcrability and reusability.

  12. Mobile Phone User Interfaces in Multiplayer Games

    OpenAIRE

    NURMINEN, MINNA

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the user interface elements of mobile phones and their qualities in multiplayer games. Mobile phone is not intended as a gaming device. Therefore its technology has many shortcomings when it comes to playing mobile games on the device. One of those is the non-standardized user interface design. However, it has also some strengths, such as the portability and networked nature. In addition, many mobile phone models today have a camera, a feature only few gaming devices hav...

  13. Web services interface to EPICS channel access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lei; Shen Liren

    2008-01-01

    Web services is used in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Combined with EPICS Channel Access protocol, Web services high usability, platform independence and language independence can be used to design a fully transparent and uniform software interface layer, which helps us complete channel data acquisition, modification and monitoring functions. This software interface layer, a cross-platform of cross-language, has good interoperability and reusability. (authors)

  14. TMS communications software. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications system, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) as well as for evaluation of the bus concept is considered. Hardware and software interfaces to the MODCOMP and NOVA minicomputers are included. The system software required to drive the interfaces in each TMS computer is described. Documentation of other software for bus statistics monitoring and for transferring files across the bus is also included.

  15. Designing Gestural Interfaces Touchscreens and Interactive Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Saffer, Dan

    2008-01-01

    If you want to get started in new era of interaction design, this is the reference you need. Packed with informative illustrations and photos, Designing Gestural Interfaces provides you with essential information about kinesiology, sensors, ergonomics, physical computing, touchscreen technology, and new interface patterns -- information you need to augment your existing skills in traditional" websites, software, or product development. This book will help you enter this new world of possibilities."

  16. An Analogue Interface for Musical Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Jason; Kapur, Ajay; Carnegie, Dale

    2016-01-01

    The majority of musical robotics performances, projects and installations utilise microcontroller hardware to digitally interface the robotic instruments with sequencer software and other musical controllers, often via a personal computer. While in many ways digital interfacing offers considerable power and flexibility, digital protocols, equipment and audio workstations often tend to suggest particular music-making work-flows and have resolution and timing limitations. This paper describes t...

  17. Segregation of chain ends to polymer melt surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W.; Zhao, X.; Rafailovich, M.H.; Sokolov, J.; Composto, R.J.; Smith, S.D.; Satkowski, M.; Russell, T.P.; Dozier, W.D.; Mansfield, T.

    1993-01-01

    The conformation of polymer chains in the melt near an impenetrable boundary has recently been studied by molecular dynamics and off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Both types of calculations show an enhancement of the chain end density within a distance of approximately two polymer segment lengths of the interface relative to the bulk. In the absence of preferential interactions between monomers and the interface, the segregation arises from minimizing the loss of conformational entropy near an impenetrable boundary; i.e., by positioning an end near the surface, only one unit rather than two is reflected. In order to obtain an experimental measure of this effect, monodisperse polystyrene (PS) chains of molecular weight 63 000 with short blocks of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) at each end were prepared. The block length was kept as short as possible, while yet producing sufficient neutron scattering contrast in order to minimize any preferential surface segregation due to isotopic effects. The synthesis was carried out via living anionic polymerization of a purified styrene monomer in cyclohexane at 60 C, utilizing sec-butyllithium as the initiator. The process was terminated using degassed methanol

  18. Virtual Diagnostic Interface: Aerospace Experimentation in the Synthetic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    The Virtual Diagnostics Interface (ViDI) methodology combines two-dimensional image processing and three-dimensional computer modeling to provide comprehensive in-situ visualizations commonly utilized for in-depth planning of wind tunnel and flight testing, real time data visualization of experimental data, and unique merging of experimental and computational data sets in both real-time and post-test analysis. The preparation of such visualizations encompasses the realm of interactive three-dimensional environments, traditional and state of the art image processing techniques, database management and development of toolsets with user friendly graphical user interfaces. ViDI has been under development at the NASA Langley Research Center for over 15 years, and has a long track record of providing unique and insightful solutions to a wide variety of experimental testing techniques and validation of computational simulations. This report will address the various aspects of ViDI and how it has been applied to test programs as varied as NASCAR race car testing in NASA wind tunnels to real-time operations concerning Space Shuttle aerodynamic flight testing. In addition, future trends and applications will be outlined in the paper.

  19. The CBM first-level event selector input interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, Dirk; Lindenstruth, Volker [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBM First-level Event Selector (FLES) is the central event selection system of the upcoming CBM experiment at FAIR. Designed as a high-performance computing cluster, its task is an online analysis of the physics data at a total data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. To allow efficient event selection, the FLES has to combine the data from all given input links to self-contained, overlapping processing intervals and distribute them to compute nodes. This task can be performed efficiently by partitioning the detector data streams into specialized containers. The FLES Interface Board (FLIB), implemented as a custom FPGA board, receives these containers via optical links, prepares them for subsequent interval building, and transfers the data via DMA to the PC's memory. A prototype of the FLIB has been implemented. The inclusion of features foreseen for other parts of the CBM read-out chain allows the evaluation of the interval building concept. Performance studies demonstrated high read-out bandwidth with low overhead. In addition, the FLIB has been used successfully as a readout device in test-beams and lab setups. An overview of the FLES Interface Board as well as results from latest studies is presented.

  20. SXPS study of model GaAs(100)/electrolyte interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Mikhail V. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mankel, Eric; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram [Institute of Material Sciences, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Model GaAs(100)/electrolyte interfaces are prepared in vacuum by co-adsorption of Cl{sub 2} and 2-propanol molecules at LN{sub 2} temperature. On adsorption of Cl{sub 2} molecules gallium chlorides, elemental arsenic and arsenic chlorides are formed. Co-adsorption of 2-propanol causes formation of additional GaCl{sub 3} and AsCl, as well as soluble/volatile As-based complexes, which are released from the surface depleting the sur- face by arsenic. Comparison of the As 3d and Ga 3d spectra obtained after heating the model interface to room temperature with the corresponding spectra obtained after emersion of the GaAs(100) surface from HCl/2-propanol solution allows to conclude that in HCl solution Cl{sup -} ions attack gallium sites and H{sup +} ions mostly attack arsenic sites. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Modeling Europa's Ice-Ocean Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenousy, A.; Vance, S.; Bills, B. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on modeling the ice-ocean interface on Jupiter's Moon (Europa); mainly from the standpoint of heat and salt transfer relationship with emphasis on the basal ice growth rate and its implications to Europa's tidal response. Modeling the heat and salt flux at Europa's ice/ocean interface is necessary to understand the dynamics of Europa's ocean and its interaction with the upper ice shell as well as the history of active turbulence at this area. To achieve this goal, we used McPhee et al., 2008 parameterizations on Earth's ice/ocean interface that was developed to meet Europa's ocean dynamics. We varied one parameter at a time to test its influence on both; "h" the basal ice growth rate and on "R" the double diffusion tendency strength. The double diffusion tendency "R" was calculated as the ratio between the interface heat exchange coefficient αh to the interface salt exchange coefficient αs. Our preliminary results showed a strong double diffusion tendency R ~200 at Europa's ice-ocean interface for plausible changes in the heat flux due to onset or elimination of a hydrothermal activity, suggesting supercooling and a strong tendency for forming frazil ice.

  2. The Mineral–Collagen Interface in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The interface between collagen and the mineral reinforcement phase, carbonated hydroxyapatite (cAp), is essential for bone’s remarkable functionality as a biological composite material. The very small dimensions of the cAp phase and the disparate natures of the reinforcement and matrix are essential to the material’s performance but also complicate study of this interface. This article summarizes what is known about the cAp-collagen interface in bone and begins with descriptions of the matrix and reinforcement roles in composites, of the phases bounding the interface, of growth of cAp growing within the collagen matrix, and of the effect of intra- and extrafibrilar mineral on determinations of interfacial properties. Different observed interfacial interactions with cAp (collagen, water, non-collagenous proteins) are reviewed; experimental results on interface interactions during loading are reported as are their influence on macroscopic mechanical properties; conclusions of numerical modeling of interfacial interactions are also presented. The data suggest interfacial interlocking (bending of collagen molecules around cAp nanoplatelets) and water-mediated bonding between collagen and cAp are essential to load transfer. The review concludes with descriptions of areas where new research is needed to improve understanding of how the interface functions. PMID:25824581

  3. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO 3 over SrTiO 3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  4. Easy GROMACS: A Graphical User Interface for GROMACS Molecular Dynamics Simulation Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizkirici, Ayten; Tekpinar, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    GROMACS is a widely used molecular dynamics simulation package. Since it is a command driven program, it is difficult to use this program for molecular biologists, biochemists, new graduate students and undergraduate researchers who are interested in molecular dynamics simulations. To alleviate the problem for those researchers, we wrote a graphical user interface that simplifies protein preparation for a classical molecular dynamics simulation. Our program can work with various GROMACS versions and it can perform essential analyses of GROMACS trajectories as well as protein preparation. We named our open source program `Easy GROMACS'. Easy GROMACS can give researchers more time for scientific research instead of dealing with technical intricacies.

  5. Design and Construction of Strain Gauge Interface Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and Construction of Strain Gauge Interface Pressure Transducer for Measurement of Static and Dynamic Interface Pressure Applied by Pressure Garments and its Relationship to Deep Vein Thrombosis.

  6. Simulation of Magnetic Phenomena at Realistic Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsyuk, Sergiy

    2016-02-04

    In modern technology exciting developments are related to the ability to understand and control interfaces. Particularly, magnetic interfaces revealing spindependent electron transport are of great interest for modern spintronic devices, such as random access memories and logic devices. From the technological point of view, spintronic devices based on magnetic interfaces enable manipulation of the magnetism via an electric field. Such ability is a result of the different quantum effects arising from the magnetic interfaces (for example, spin transfer torque or spin-orbit torque) and it can reduce the energy consumption as compared to the traditional semiconductor electronic devices. Despite many appealing characteristics of these materials, fundamental understanding of their microscopic properties and related phenomena needs to be established by thorough investigation. In this work we implement first principles calculations in order to study the structural, electric, and magnetic properties as well as related phenomena of two types of interfaces with large potential in spintronic applications: 1) interfaces between antiferromagnetic 3d-metal-oxides and ferromagnetic 3d-metals and 2) interfaces between non-magnetic 5d(4d)- and ferromagnetic 3d-metals. A major difficulty in studying such interfaces theoretically is the typically large lattice mismatch. By employing supercells with Moir e patterns, we eliminate the artificial strain that leads to doubtful results and are able to describe the dependence of the atomic density at the interfaces on the component materials and their thicknesses. After establishing understanding about the interface structures, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties. A Moir e supercell with transition layer is found to reproduce the main experimental findings and thus turns out to be the appropriate model for simulating magnetic misfit interfaces. In addition, we systematically study the magnetic anisotropy and Rashba band

  7. Electronic and Mechanical Properties of GrapheneGermanium Interfaces Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-27

    that graphene acts as a diffusion barrier to ambient contaminants, as similarly prepared bare Ge exposed to ambient conditions possesses a much...in-plane order underneath the graphene (Figure 1b,f). The stabilization of Ge terraces with half-step heights indicates that the graphene modifies the...Electronic and Mechanical Properties of Graphene −Germanium Interfaces Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition Brian Kiraly,†,‡ Robert M. Jacobberger

  8. System requirements and design description for the environmental requirements management interface (ERMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI). The ERMI database assists Tank Farm personnel with scheduling, planning, and documenting procedure compliance, performance verification, and selected corrective action tracking activities for Tank Farm S/RID requirements. The ERMI database was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This document was prepared by SAIC and edited by LMHC

  9. Elucidation of the Dynamics for Hot-Spot Initiation at Nonuniform Interfaces of Highly Shocked Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    with nonuniform interfaces plays an essential role in the interfacial instabilities in iner- tial confinement fusion (ICF), in shock-induced...involved in interfacial instabilities at the atomic scale, providing insights on such phenomenon. Thus ReaxFF provides the possibility of realistic...on the IPDI and DOA to determine the charges and structures for the binder model. These QM results and model preparation procedure are provided as part

  10. Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA): Software Developer for Avionics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sherry L.

    2018-01-01

    The Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) supports the testing of the Launch Control System (LCS), NASA's command and control system for the Space Launch System (SLS), Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), and ground support equipment. The objective of the semester-long internship was to support day-to-day operations of CAIDA and help prepare for verification and validation of CAIDA software.

  11. HCIDL: Human-computer interface description language for multi-target, multimodal, plastic user interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Gaouar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available From the human-computer interface perspectives, the challenges to be faced are related to the consideration of new, multiple interactions, and the diversity of devices. The large panel of interactions (touching, shaking, voice dictation, positioning … and the diversification of interaction devices can be seen as a factor of flexibility albeit introducing incidental complexity. Our work is part of the field of user interface description languages. After an analysis of the scientific context of our work, this paper introduces HCIDL, a modelling language staged in a model-driven engineering approach. Among the properties related to human-computer interface, our proposition is intended for modelling multi-target, multimodal, plastic interaction interfaces using user interface description languages. By combining plasticity and multimodality, HCIDL improves usability of user interfaces through adaptive behaviour by providing end-users with an interaction-set adapted to input/output of terminals and, an optimum layout. Keywords: Model driven engineering, Human-computer interface, User interface description languages, Multimodal applications, Plastic user interfaces

  12. Interface manipulation in GaxIn1-xAs/InP multiple layer structures grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, R.T.H.; van Rijswijk, A.J.C.; Leijs, M.R.; Es, van C.M.; Vonk, H.; Wolter, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this study the control of interfacial layers in nanometre thin heterostructures is demonstrated by variation of the growth interruption sequence (GIS) at the binary - ternary interfaces. All samples have been prepared by chemical beam epitaxy simultaneously growing the structures on exact (100)

  13. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  14. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, B.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of beryllium hydride which comprises pyrolyzing, while in solution in a solvent inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products and at a temperature in the range of about 100 0 to about 200 0 C, sufficient to result in the formation of beryllium hydride, a di-t-alkyl beryllium etherate wherein each tertiary alkyl radical contains from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. The pyrolysis is carried out under an atmosphere inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products. (U.S.)

  15. Potassium fluorotitanate preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Patricia; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the best conditions for potassium fluotitanate preparation as intermediate step in the electrolytic production of metalic titanium, the effects of a number of experimental variables have been studied. This method is a process of sintering titanium dioxide with potassium fluosilicate and potassium chloride, followed by leaching with boiling water and further crystallization by cooling the solution. An overall yield of 90% has been attained under the following conditions: working temperature: 750 deg C; heating time for sintering: 3 hours; molar ratio: titanium dioxide: potassium fluosilicate: potassium chloride: 1 : 2 : 0.4; number of leachings: 6. (Author) [es

  16. Understanding and Design of Polymer Device Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Antoine [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The research performed under grant DE-FG02-04ER46165 between May 2008 and April 2011 focused on the understanding and control of interfaces of organic semiconductors in general, and polymer interfaces more specifically. This work was a joined effort by three experimentalists and a theoretician. Emphasis was placed on the determination of the electronic structure of these interfaces, i.e. the relative energy position of molecular levels across these interfaces. From these electronic structures depend the injection, extraction and transport of charge carriers into, from and across, respectively, all (opto)electronic devices made of these semiconductors. A significant fraction of our work focused on ways to modify and optimize interfaces, for example via chemical doping of the semiconductors to reduce interface energy barriers or via deposition of ultra-thin work function-reducing polymer or self-assembled monolayers of dipolar molecules. Another significant fraction of our work was devoted to exploring alternate and unconventional interface formation methods, in particular the soft-contact lamination of both metal contacts and polymer overlayers on top of polymer films. These methods allowed us to better understand the impact of hot metal atom evaporation on a soft organic surface, as well as the key mechanisms that control the energetics of polymer/polymer heterojunctions. Finally, a significant fraction of the research was directed to understanding the electronic structure of buried polymer heterojunctions, in particular within donor/acceptor blends of interest in organic photovoltaic applications. The work supported by this grant resulted in 17 publications in some of the best peer-reviewed journals of the field, as well as numerous presentations at US and international conferences.

  17. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  18. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  19. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M. Benson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/.

  20. Spectrometer user interface to computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.; Davies, M.; Fry, F.A.; Venn, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    A computer system for use in radiation spectrometry should be designed around the needs and comprehension of the user and his operating environment. To this end, the functions of the system should be built in a modular and independent fashion such that they can be joined to the back end of an appropriate user interface. The point that this interface should be designed rather than just allowed to evolve is illustrated by reference to four related computer systems of differing complexity and function. The physical user interfaces in all cases are keyboard terminals, and the virtues and otherwise of these devices are discussed and compared with others. The language interface needs to satisfy a number of requirements, often conflicting. Among these, simplicity and speed of operation compete with flexibility and scope. Both experienced and novice users need to be considered, and any individual's needs may vary from naive to complex. To be efficient and resilient, the implementation must use an operating system, but the user needs to be protected from its complex and unfamiliar syntax. At the same time the interface must allow the user access to all services appropriate to his needs. The user must also receive an image of privacy in a multi-user system. The interface itself must be stable and exhibit continuity between implementations. Some of these conflicting needs have been overcome by the SABRE interface with languages operating at several levels. The foundation is a simple semimnemonic command language that activates indididual and independent functions. The commands can be used with positional parameters or in an interactive dialogue the precise nature of which depends upon the operating environment and the user's experience. A command procedure or macrolanguage allows combinations of commands with conditional branching and arithmetic features. Thus complex but repetitive operations are easily performed