WorldWideScience

Sample records for tools specification release

  1. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  2. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  3. Specific environmental release categories--A tool for improving chemical safety assessment in the EC--report of a multi-stakeholder workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättler, Daniel; Schnöder, Frank; Aust, Nannett; Ahrens, Andreas; Bögi, Christian; Traas, Theo; Tolls, Johannes

    2012-10-01

    In April 2011, experts from industry and authorities met for a workshop to discuss experience and future developments regarding the use of specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) in chemicals safety assessment (CSA) under the European Chemicals Regulation Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH). This article provides a summary of the workshop. It briefly explains what a SPERC is, why SPERCs are needed, where the challenges of the concept are, and what improvements are needed to make SPERCs a useful tool for assessments under REACH. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  5. Hydraulic running and release tool with mechanical emergency release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a setting tool for connection in a well string to position a tubular member in a well bore. It comprises: a mandrel adapted to be connected to the well string; an outer sleeve surrounding the mandrel and releasably secured thereto; a latch nut releasably connected to the outer sleeve; piston means sealingly engaging the mandrel; shear means releasably securing the piston to the latch nut to maintain the latch nut releasably connected to the tubular member; the mandrel having port means for conducting fluid pressure from the well string to release the piston means from and the latch nut; cooperating engageable surfaces on the piston and latch nut to reengage them together after the piston moves a predetermined longitudinal distance relative to the latch nut; and additional cooperating engageable surfaces on the latch nut and the outer sleeve which are engageable when the piston and engaged latch nut are moved a predetermined additional longitudinal distance by fluid pressure to secure the engaged piston and latch nut with the outer sleeve for retrieval along with the mandrel from the well bore

  6. CMS Partial Releases Model, Tools, and Applications. Online and Framework-Light Releases

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Christopher D; Meschi, Emilio; Shahzad Muzaffar; Andreas Pfeiffer; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Software project CMSSW embraces more than a thousand packages organized in subsystems for analysis, event display, reconstruction, simulation, detector description, data formats, framework, utilities and tools. The release integration process is highly automated by using tools developed or adopted by CMS. Packaging in rpm format is a built-in step in the software build process. For several well-defined applications it is highly desirable to have only a subset of the CMSSW full package bundle. For example, High Level Trigger algorithms that run on the Online farm, and need to be rebuilt in a special way, require no simulation, event display, or analysis packages. Physics analysis applications in Root environment require only a few core libraries and the description of CMS specific data formats. We present a model of CMS Partial Releases, used for preparation of the customized CMS software builds, including description of the tools used, the implementation, and how we deal with technical challenges, suc...

  7. Student Model Tools Code Release and Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew; Bull, Susan; Masci, Drew

    of its strengths and areas of improvement (Section 6). Several key appendices are attached to this report including user manuals for teacher and students (Appendix 3). Fundamentally, all relevant information is included in the report for those wishing to do further development work with the tool...

  8. ATLAS and CMS Data Release and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00355153; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The data collected at the LHC has provided the basis for a vast body of scientific publications and the training of physicists. In light of these benefits it is desirable to also enable people outside the LHC collaborations to profit from the educational opportunities of the LHC data. The goal of the open data initiative is to provide these opportunities by making LHC data available to the general public. This talk will discuss the open data policies of both the ATLAS and CMS document and how these policies are implemented in practice. The open data portal will be presented and the contents made available by the collaborations reviewed emphasising possible use cases. The talk will be concluded with a summary of the plans for upcoming data releases.

  9. A vacuum microgripping tool with integrated vibration releasing capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Weibin; Fan, Zenghua, E-mail: zenghua-fan@163.com; Wang, Lefeng; Xie, Hui; Sun, Lining [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang (China)

    2014-08-01

    Pick-and-place of micro-objects is a basic task in various micromanipulation demands. Reliable releasing of micro-objects is usually disturbed due to strong scale effects. This paper focuses on a vacuum micro-gripper with vibration releasing functionality, which was designed and assembled for reliable micromanipulation tasks. Accordingly, a vibration releasing strategy of implementing a piezoelectric actuator on the vacuum microgripping tool is presented to address the releasing problem. The releasing mechanism was illustrated using a dynamic micro contact model. This model was developed via theoretical analysis, simulations and pull-off force measurement using atomic force microscopy. Micromanipulation experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the vacuum micro-gripper. The results show that, with the assistance of the vibration releasing, the vacuum microgripping tool can achieve reliable release of micro-objects. A releasing location accuracy of 4.5±0.5 μm and a successful releasing rate of around 100% (which is based on 110 trials) were achieved for manipulating polystyrene microspheres with radius of 35–100 μm.

  10. A vacuum microgripping tool with integrated vibration releasing capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Weibin; Fan, Zenghua; Wang, Lefeng; Xie, Hui; Sun, Lining

    2014-01-01

    Pick-and-place of micro-objects is a basic task in various micromanipulation demands. Reliable releasing of micro-objects is usually disturbed due to strong scale effects. This paper focuses on a vacuum micro-gripper with vibration releasing functionality, which was designed and assembled for reliable micromanipulation tasks. Accordingly, a vibration releasing strategy of implementing a piezoelectric actuator on the vacuum microgripping tool is presented to address the releasing problem. The releasing mechanism was illustrated using a dynamic micro contact model. This model was developed via theoretical analysis, simulations and pull-off force measurement using atomic force microscopy. Micromanipulation experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the vacuum micro-gripper. The results show that, with the assistance of the vibration releasing, the vacuum microgripping tool can achieve reliable release of micro-objects. A releasing location accuracy of 4.5±0.5 μm and a successful releasing rate of around 100% (which is based on 110 trials) were achieved for manipulating polystyrene microspheres with radius of 35–100 μm

  11. Release fractions for Rocky Flats specific accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    As Rocky Flats and other DOE facilities begin the transition process towards decommissioning, the nature of the scenarios to be studied in safety analysis will change. Whereas the previous emphasis in safety accidents related to production, now the emphasis is shifting to accidents related tc decommissioning and waste management. Accident scenarios of concern at Rocky Flats now include situations of a different nature and different scale than are represented by most of the existing experimental accident data. This presentation will discuss approaches at sign to use for applying the existing body of release fraction data to this new emphasis. Mention will also be made of ongoing efforts to produce new data and improve the understanding of physical mechanisms involved

  12. Specific energy released in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaritskaya, T.S.; Kiselev, G.V.; Rudik, A.P.; Tsenter, Eh.M.

    1986-01-01

    Technique of determination are described and analysis of specific energy for different methods of critically maintance of RBMK and WWER-440 reactors are conducted. Characteristics of the optimal mode of critically maintanance are determined

  13. Tool to release quick-fitting pipe union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.C.; Laurent, M.

    1993-01-01

    A tool is claimed to disconnect pipes feeding an apparatus with a fluid in a nuclear enclosure. It comprises a key with a disconnecting head and a lever that can be fixed on a manipulator. The disconnecting head is shaped for introduction between the plug and socket connection and to push a button releasing the pipe by tilting

  14. Oxaliplatin loaded PLAGA microspheres: design of specific release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarce, F; Cruaud, O; Deuschel, C; Bayssas, M; Griffon-Etienne, G; Benoit, J

    2002-08-21

    Oxaliplatin loaded PLAGA microspheres have been prepared by solvent extraction process. Parameters affecting the release kinetics in vitro have been studied in order to design specific release profiles suitable for direct intra-tumoral injection. By varying the nature and the relative proportions of different polymers we managed to prepare microspheres with good encapsulation efficiency (75-90%) and four different release profiles: zero order kinetics (type II) and the classical sigmoïd release profile with three different sizes of plateau and burst. These results, if correlated with in vivo activity, are promising to enhance effectiveness of local tumor treatment.

  15. Optimization Specifications for CUDA Code Restructuring Tool

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Ayaz

    2017-03-13

    In this work we have developed a restructuring software tool (RT-CUDA) following the proposed optimization specifications to bridge the gap between high-level languages and the machine dependent CUDA environment. RT-CUDA takes a C program and convert it into an optimized CUDA kernel with user directives in a configuration file for guiding the compiler. RTCUDA also allows transparent invocation of the most optimized external math libraries like cuSparse and cuBLAS enabling efficient design of linear algebra solvers. We expect RT-CUDA to be needed by many KSA industries dealing with science and engineering simulation on massively parallel computers like NVIDIA GPUs.

  16. A powerful tool for plant specific simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, J.; Ofstun, R.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, special emphasis has been placed by the Utilities and Safety Authorities on the training of plant operators and engineers to make them more familiar with the dynamic behavior of the plant in post-accident conditions. With a view to providing transient response under realistic operating conditions, concerns were raised over: the use of conservative safety analysis models for analyzing operational and accident transients; the ability to dynamically simulate the expected operator actions, and the need to simulate the plant during long term cooling recovery. To meet these requirements, an interactive, user friendly, cost efficient dynamic model capable of simulating two-phase conditions is needed. In response to these post-TMI concerns, Westinghouse has developed, the Transient Real-Time Engineering Analysis Tool (TREAT) which is a general purpose interactive thermal-hydraulic network code for thermal-hydraulic transient analysis. The applications of TREAT are numerous and range from engineering studies to plant operator training using the newly developed TREAT SIMULATOR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the TREAT program and potential applications. Special emphasis will be drawn at a plant specific training application performed for a French 4-loop plant

  17. AOV Facility Tool/Facility Safety Specifications -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Develop and maintain authorizing documents that are standards that facilities must follow. These standards are references of FAA regulations and are specific to the...

  18. Using CASE tools to write engineering specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James E.; Howard, Robert W.; Iveland, Scott T.

    1993-08-01

    There are always a wide variety of obstacles to writing and maintaining engineering documentation. To combat these problems, documentation generation can be linked to the process of engineering development. The same graphics and communication tools used for structured system analysis and design (SSA/SSD) also form the basis for the documentation. The goal is to build a living document, such that as an engineering design changes, the documentation will `automatically' revise. `Automatic' is qualified by the need to maintain textual descriptions associated with the SSA/SSD graphics, and the need to generate new documents. This paper describes a methodology and a computer aided system engineering toolset that enables a relatively seamless transition into document generation for the development engineering team.

  19. Prolactin-releasing peptide: a new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Pražienková, V.; Popelová, A.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, J.; Maletínská, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 230, č. 2 (2016), R51-R58 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * obesity * GPR10 * anorexigenic * mice Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  20. Prolactin-releasing peptide: a new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Pražienková, Veronika; Popelová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, Jana; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 230, č. 2 (2016), R51-R58 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * obesity * GPR10 * anorexigenic * mice Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  1. Colon-specific pulsatile drug release provided by electrospun shellac nanocoating on hydrophilic amorphous composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Yao; Liu, Zhe-Peng; Yu, Deng-Guang; Wang, Ke; Liu, Ping; Chen, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Colon-specific pulsatile drug release, as a combined drug controlled-release model, is a useful drug delivery manner for a series of diseases. New nanomedicines and related preparation methods are highly desired. With diclofenac sodium (DS) as a model drug, a new type of structural nanocomposite (SC), in which composite polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-DS core was coated by shellac, was fabricated via modified coaxial electrospinning. For comparison, traditional PVP-DS monolithic hydrophilic nanocomposites (HCs) were generated using a traditional blending process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle (WCA), and in vitro dissolution and ex vivo permeation tests were conducted to characterize the composites. SEM images demonstrated that both composites were linear nanofibers with smooth surface morphology and cross sections. TEM disclosed that the SCs had a thin shellac sheath layer of approximately 12 nm. XRD and ATR-FTIR results demonstrated that the crystalline DS was converted into amorphous composites with PVP because of favorable secondary interactions. WCA and in vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the sheath shellac layers in SC could resist acid conditions and provide typical colon-specific pulsatile release, rather than a pulsatile release of HC under acid conditions. Ex vivo permeation results demonstrated that the SCs were able to furnish a tenfold drug permeation rate than the DS particles on the colon membrane. A new SC with a shellac coating on hydrophilic amorphous nanocomposites could furnish a colon-specific pulsatile drug release profile. The modified coaxial process can be exploited as a useful tool to create nanocoatings.

  2. On-line Tools for Assessing Petroleum Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Internet tools described in this report provide methods and models for evaluation of contaminated sites. Two problems are addressed by models. The first is the placement of wells for correct delineation of contaminant plumes. Because aquifer recharge can displace plumes dow...

  3. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes

  4. An Experiment on Creating Enterprise Specific BPM Languages and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Steen

    Many enterprises use their own domain concepts in modeling business process and use technology in specialized ways when they implement them in a Business Process Management (BPM) system.In contrast, BPM tools used for modeling and implementing business processes often provide a standard modeling...... and automation to BPM tools through a tool experiment in Danske Bank, a large financial institute; We develop business process modeling languages, tools and transformations that capture Danske Banks specific modeling concepts and use of technology, and which automate the generation of code. An empirical...... language, a standard implementation technology and a fixed transformation that may generate the implementation from the model. This makes the tools inflexible and difficult to use.This paper presents another approach. It applies the basic model driven development principles of direct representation...

  5. EPICS release 3.11.6 specific documentation -- Release notes for EPICS 3.11.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These notes cover the following: (1) directions for switching to production APS release R3.11.6; (2) unbundling of channel access clients; (3) access security; (4) channel access additions; synchronous time support; and (5) description of major differences between R3.11.3 and R3.11.6 Also included is a list of new and/or updated documentation for the program

  6. Toxic release consequence analysis tool (TORCAT) for inherently safer design plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariff, Azmi Mohd; Zaini, Dzulkarnain

    2010-01-01

    Many major accidents due to toxic release in the past have caused many fatalities such as the tragedy of MIC release in Bhopal, India (1984). One of the approaches is to use inherently safer design technique that utilizes inherent safety principle to eliminate or minimize accidents rather than to control the hazard. This technique is best implemented in preliminary design stage where the consequence of toxic release can be evaluated and necessary design improvements can be implemented to eliminate or minimize the accidents to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) without resorting to costly protective system. However, currently there is no commercial tool available that has such capability. This paper reports on the preliminary findings on the development of a prototype tool for consequence analysis and design improvement via inherent safety principle by utilizing an integrated process design simulator with toxic release consequence analysis model. The consequence analysis based on the worst-case scenarios during process flowsheeting stage were conducted as case studies. The preliminary finding shows that toxic release consequences analysis tool (TORCAT) has capability to eliminate or minimize the potential toxic release accidents by adopting the inherent safety principle early in preliminary design stage.

  7. Analysis and specification tools in relation to the APSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Ada and the Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) specifically address the phases of the system/software life cycle which follow after the user's problem was translated into system and software development specifications. The waterfall model of the life cycle identifies the analysis and requirements definition phases as preceeding program design and coding. Since Ada is a programming language and the APSE is a programming support environment, they are primarily targeted to support program (code) development, tecting, and maintenance. The use of Ada based or Ada related specification languages (SLs) and program design languages (PDLs) can extend the use of Ada back into the software design phases of the life cycle. Recall that the standardization of the APSE as a programming support environment is only now happening after many years of evolutionary experience with diverse sets of programming support tools. Restricting consideration to one, or even a few chosen specification and design tools, could be a real mistake for an organization or a major project such as the Space Station, which will need to deal with an increasingly complex level of system problems. To require that everything be Ada-like, be implemented in Ada, run directly under the APSE, and fit into a rigid waterfall model of the life cycle would turn a promising support environment into a straight jacket for progress.

  8. Biomimetics approach for methods to release microobjects from the gripping tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Moon, Jack; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    of handling can be found in for example insect everyday life, cells, enzymes etc. To find out these principles we need special tools, like BioDlab database, which is created specially to find the examples form the biology in order to solve engineering problems. In this report different principles of handling...... at the micro and nano level are presented as well as solutions for micro assembly principles are introduced, concentrating on the adhesion and releasing during the picking and releasing stages of the handling scenario....

  9. Benchmarking of fast-running software tools used to model releases during nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devitt, P.; Viktorov, A., E-mail: Peter.Devitt@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca, E-mail: Alex.Viktorov@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Fukushima highlighted the importance of effective nuclear accident response. However, its complexity greatly impacted the ability to provide timely and accurate information to national and international stakeholders. Safety recommendations provided by different national and international organizations varied notably. Such differences can partially be attributed to different methods used in the initial assessment of accident progression and the amount of radioactivity release.Therefore, a comparison of methodologies was undertaken by the NEA/CSNI and its highlights are presented here. For this project, the prediction tools used by various emergency response organizations for estimating the source terms and public doses were examined. Those organizations that have a capability to use such tools responded to a questionnaire describing each code's capabilities and main algorithms. Then the project's participants analyzed five accident scenarios to predict the source term, dispersion of releases and public doses. (author)

  10. SpecSatisfiabilityTool: A tool for testing the satisfiability of specifications on XML documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Albors

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a prototype that implements a set of logical rules to prove the satisfiability for a class of specifications on XML documents. Specifications are given by means of constrains built on Boolean XPath patterns. The main goal of this tool is to test whether a given specification is satisfiable or not, and justify the decision showing the execution history. It can also be used to test whether a given document is a model of a given specification and, as a by-product, it permits to look for all the relations (monomorphisms between two patterns and to combine patterns in different ways. The results of these operations are visually shown and therefore the tool makes these operations more understandable. The implementation of the algorithm has been written in Prolog but the prototype has a Java interface for an easy and friendly use. In this paper we show how to use this interface in order to test all the desired properties.

  11. Specific Proteins in Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: New Potential Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Orduña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM have been isolated from water, soil, air, food, protozoa, plants, animals, and humans. Although most NTM are saprophytes, approximately one-third of NTM have been associated with human diseases. In this study, we did a comparative proteomic analysis among five NTM strains isolated from several sources. There were different numbers of protein spots from M. gordonae (1,264, M. nonchromogenicum type I (894, M. nonchromogenicum type II (935, M. peregrinum (806, and M. scrofulaceum/Mycobacterium mantenii (1,486 strains, respectively. We identified 141 proteins common to all strains and specific proteins to each NTM strain. A total of 23 proteins were selected for its identification. Two of the common proteins identified (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR and diguanylate cyclase did not align with M. tuberculosis complex protein sequences, which suggest that these proteins are found only in the NTM strains. Some of the proteins identified as common to all strains can be used as markers of NTM exposure and for the development of new diagnostic tools. Additionally, the specific proteins to NTM strains identified may represent potential candidates for the diagnosis of diseases caused by these mycobacteria.

  12. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  13. Development of software tools for supporting building clearance and site release at UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, G.; Pearl, M.

    2002-01-01

    UKAEA sites generally have complex histories and have been subject to a diverse range of nuclear operations. Most of the nuclear reactors, laboratories, workshops and other support facilities are now redundant and a programme of decommissioning works in accordance with IAEA guidance is in progress. Decommissioning is being carried out in phases with post- operative activities, care and maintenance and care and surveillance periods between stages to allow relatively short-lived radioactivity to decay. This reduces dose levels to personnel and minimises radioactive waste production. Following on from these stages is an end point phase which corresponds to the point at which the risks to human health and the environment are sufficiently low so that the buildings / land can be released for future use. Unconditional release corresponds to meeting the requirement for 'de-licensing'. Although reaching a de-licensable end point is the desired aim for UKAEA sites, it is recognised that this may take hundreds of years for parts of some UKAEA sites, or may never be attainable at a reasonable cost to the UK taxpayer. Thus on these sites, long term risk management systems are in place to minimise the impact on health, safety and the environment. In order to manage these short, medium and long term liabilities, UKAEA has developed a number of software tools based on good practice guidance. One of these tools in particular is being developed to address building clearance and site release. This tool, IMAGES (Information Management and Geographical Information System) integrates systematic data capture, with database management and spatial assessment (through a Geographical Information System). Details of IMAGES and its applications are discussed in the paper. This paper outlines the approach being adopted by UKAEA for building and site release and the integrated software system, IMAGES, being used to capture, collate, interpret and report results. The key to UKAEA's strategy for

  14. Cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heats ratio and duration of combustion for spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental work were conducted for investigating cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heat ratio and duration of combustion for multi cylinder spark ignition engine (SIE). Ccylinder pressure was measured for gasoline, kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) separately as a fuel for SIE. Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) was used to cylinder pressure data transform from time domain into frequency domain to develop empirical correlation for calculating cylinder pressures at different engine speeds and different fuels. In addition, Inverse Fast Fourier Transformations (IFFT) was used to cylinder pressure reconstruct into time domain. The results gave good agreement between the measured cylinder pressure and the reconstructed cylinder pressure in time domain with different engine speeds and different fuels. The measured cylinder pressure and hydraulic dynamotor were the sours of data for calculating engine performance parameters. First law of thermodynamics and single zone heat release model with temperature dependant specific heat ratio γ(T) were the main tools for calculating heat release and heat transfer to cylinder walls. Third order empirical correlation for calculating γ(T) was one of the main gains of the present study. The correlation gave good agreement with other researchers with wide temperatures range. For kerosene, cylinder pressure is higher than for gasoline and LPG due to high volumetric efficiency where kerosene density (mass/volume ratio) is higher than gasoline and LPG. In addition, kerosene heating value is higher than gasoline that contributes in heat release rate and pressure increases. Duration of combustion for different engine speeds was determined using four different methods: (I) Mass fuel burnt, (II) Entropy change, (III) Temperature dependant specific heat ratio γ(T), and (IV) Logarithmic scale of (P and V). The duration of combustion for kerosene is smaller than for gasoline and LPG due to high

  15. Cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heats ratio and duration of combustion for spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehata, M.S. [Mechanical Engineering Technology Department, Higher Institute of Technology, Banha University, 4Zagalol Street, Benha, Galubia 1235 Z (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    An experimental work were conducted for investigating cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heat ratio and duration of combustion for multi cylinder spark ignition engine (SIE). Ccylinder pressure was measured for gasoline, kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) separately as a fuel for SIE. Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) was used to cylinder pressure data transform from time domain into frequency domain to develop empirical correlation for calculating cylinder pressures at different engine speeds and different fuels. In addition, Inverse Fast Fourier Transformations (IFFT) was used to cylinder pressure reconstruct into time domain. The results gave good agreement between the measured cylinder pressure and the reconstructed cylinder pressure in time domain with different engine speeds and different fuels. The measured cylinder pressure and hydraulic dynamotor were the source of data for calculating engine performance parameters. First law of thermodynamics and single zone heat release model with temperature dependant specific heat ratio {gamma}(T) were the main tools for calculating heat release and heat transfer to cylinder walls. Third order empirical correlation for calculating {gamma}(T) was one of the main gains of the present study. The correlation gave good agreement with other researchers with wide temperatures range. For kerosene, cylinder pressure is higher than for gasoline and LPG due to high volumetric efficiency where kerosene density (mass/volume ratio) is higher than gasoline and LPG. In addition, kerosene heating value is higher than gasoline that contributes in heat release rate and pressure increases. Duration of combustion for different engine speeds was determined using four different methods: (I) Mass fuel burnt, (II) Entropy change, (III) Temperature dependant specific heat ratio {gamma}(T), and (IV) Logarithmic scale of (P and V). The duration of combustion for kerosene is smaller than for gasoline and

  16. ms 2: A molecular simulation tool for thermodynamic properties, release 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkai, Gábor; Köster, Andreas; Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Schappals, Michael; Glass, Colin W.; Bernreuther, Martin; Wafai, Amer; Stephan, Simon; Kohns, Maximilian; Reiser, Steffen; Deublein, Stephan; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran

    2017-12-01

    A new version release (3.0) of the molecular simulation tool ms 2 (Deublein et al., 2011; Glass et al. 2014) is presented. Version 3.0 of ms 2 features two additional ensembles, i.e. microcanonical (NVE) and isobaric-isoenthalpic (NpH), various Helmholtz energy derivatives in the NVE ensemble, thermodynamic integration as a method for calculating the chemical potential, the osmotic pressure for calculating the activity of solvents, the six Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients of quaternary mixtures, statistics for sampling hydrogen bonds, smooth-particle mesh Ewald summation as well as the ability to carry out molecular dynamics runs for an arbitrary number of state points in a single program execution.

  17. Levels of human and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor as determined by specific radioimmunoassay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audhya, T.; Manzione, M.M.; Nakane, T.; Kanie, N.; Passarelli, J.; Russo, M.; Hollander, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies to synthetic human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor [hpGRF(1-44)NH 2 ] and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor [rhGRF(1-43)OH] were produced in rabbits. A subsequent booster injection by the conventional intramuscular route resulted in high-titer antibodies, which at a 1:20,000 dilution were used to develop highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for these peptides. The antibody to hpGRF(1-44)NH 2 is directed against the COOH-terminal region of the molecule, as shown by its cross reactivity with various hpGRF analogues. Serial dilutions of human and rat hypothalamic extracts demonstrated parallelism with the corresponding species-specific standard and 125 I-labeled tracer. There was no cross reactivity with other neuropeptides, gastrointestinal peptides, or hypothalamic extracts of other species. Age-related changes in hypothalamic GRF content were present in rats, with a gradual increase from 2 to 16 weeks and a correlation between increasing body weight and GRF content. These radioimmunoassays will serve as important tools for understanding the regulation of growth hormone secretion in both human and rat

  18. Antigen-Specific IP-10 Release Is a Sensitive Biomarker of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven D C Parsons

    Full Text Available The most widely used ante-mortem diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in cattle are the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assay, both of which measure cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection. However, limitations in the performance of these tests results in a failure to identify all infected animals. In attempting to increase the range of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, measurement of the cytokine IP-10 in antigen-stimulated blood has previously been shown to improve the detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis infection, in humans and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer, respectively. In the present study, 60 cattle were identified by the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test as tuberculosis reactors (n = 24 or non-reactors (n = 36 and the release of IFN-γ and IP-10 in antigen-stimulated whole blood from these animals was measured using bovine specific ELISAs. There was a strong correlation between IP-10 and IFN-γ production in these samples. Moreover, measurement of the differential release of IP-10 in response to stimulation with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD and M. avium PPD distinguished between reactor and non-reactor cattle with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 86%-100% and a specificity of 97% (95% CI, 85%-100%. These results suggest that IP-10 might prove valuable as a diagnostic biomarker of M. bovis infection in cattle.

  19. Applying a Generic Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) Authoring Tool to Specific Military Domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stottler, Dick; Fu, Daniel; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Jackson, Terresa

    2006-01-01

    ... (ITS) authoring tool to specific training applications. The Internet ITS Authoring Tool (IITSAT) was developed to greatly decrease the time to develop tactical decision-making ITSs and was based on the experience from several previous ITS projects...

  20. National atmospheric release advisory center (NARAC) tools and services for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasstrom, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes recent scientific and technological advances in the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) that aid emergency management. The U.S. Department of Energy's NARAC system provides tools and services that help map the probable spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. Located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC is a national support and resource center for planning, real-time assessment and detailed studies of incidents involving a wide variety of hazards, including nuclear, radiological, chemical, or biological emissions. In recent years, the DOE National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) Office of Emergency Response and Chemical and Biological National Security Program (CBNP) have supported major upgrades and modernization of NARAC that have advanced the accuracy and utility of NARAC products for emergency planning and management. A new NARAC central modeling system, which became operational in the year 2000, has provided a higher-resolution suite of diagnostic and prognostic meteorological models, and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, for producing predictions of air concentration, ground deposition, and dose. The 3-D meteorological data assimilation model, ADAPT, and Lagrangian particle dispersion model, LODI, allow the simulation of mean wind advection, turbulent diffusion, radioactive decay and production, bio-agent degradation, first-order chemical reactions, wet deposition, gravitational settling, dry deposition, and buoyant/momentum plume rise. The functions performed by this system have been fully automated to minimized response time for emergencies. An in-house version of the Naval Research Laboratory's COAMPS numerical weather prediction model is used to provide mesoscale forecasts. The final plume predictions are plotted with key geographical information (including estimates of the counts of affected population), and with applicable U

  1. Verifying OCL specifications of UML models : tool support and compositionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyas, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Modelling Language (UML) and the Object Constraint Language (OCL) serve as specification languages for embedded and real-time systems used in a safety-critical environment. In this dissertation class diagrams, object diagrams, and OCL constraints are formalised. The formalisation

  2. SRTR center-specific reporting tools: Posttransplant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, D M; Shearon, T H; O'Keefe, J; Wong, H-H; Berg, C L; Rosendale, J D; Delmonico, F L; Webb, R L; Wolfe, R A

    2006-01-01

    Measuring and monitoring performance--be it waiting list and posttransplant outcomes by a transplant center, or organ donation success by an organ procurement organization and its partnering hospitals--is an important component of ensuring good care for people with end-stage organ failure. Many parties have an interest in examining these outcomes, from patients and their families to payers such as insurance companies or the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; from primary caregivers providing patient counseling to government agencies charged with protecting patients. The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients produces regular, public reports on the performance of transplant centers and organ procurement organizations. This article explains the statistical tools used to prepare these reports, with a focus on graft survival and patient survival rates of transplant centers--especially the methods used to fairly and usefully compare outcomes of centers that serve different populations. The article concludes with a practical application of these statistics--their use in screening transplant center performance to identify centers that may need remedial action by the OPTN/UNOS Membership and Professional Standards Committee.

  3. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  4. [Consultation/liaison addiction medicine: Tools and specificities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloméni, P; Cleirec, G; Icard, C; Ramos, A; Rolland, B

    2018-03-23

    Since the 1970s, the concept of "consultation/liaison (CL) psychiatry" has pertained to specialized mobile teams which meet inpatients hospitalized in non-psychiatric settings to offer them on-the-spot psychiatric assessment, treatment, and, if needed, adequate referral. Since the birth of CL psychiatry, a long set of theoretical books and articles has aimed at integrating CL psychiatry into the wider scope of psychosomatic medicine. In the year 2000, a circular issued by the Health Ministry defined the organization of "CL addiction services" in France. Official CL addiction teams are named "Équipes de Liaison et de Soins en Addictologie" (ELSAs) which are separated from CL psychiatry units. Though this separation can be questioned, it actually emphasizes that the work provided by CL addiction teams has some very specific features. The daily practice of ELSAs somewhat differs from that of psychiatric CL teams. Addictive behaviors often result from progressive substance misuse. In this respect, the ELSAs' practice frequently involves screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) interventions, which are rather specific of addiction medicine and consist more of prevention interventions than actual addiction treatment. Moreover, for patients with characterized substance use disorders substantial skills in motivational interviewing are required in ELSA consultations. Though motivational interviewing is not specific to addiction medicine, its regular use is uncommon for other liaison teams in France. Furthermore, substance misuse can induce many types of acute or delayed substance-specific medical consequences. These consequences are often poorly known and thus poorly explored by physicians of other specialties. ELSAs have therefore the role of advising their colleagues for a personalized somatic screening among patients with substance misuse. In this respect, the service undertaken by ELSAs is not only based on relational skills but also comprises a

  5. Insights into cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity after CD19-specific CAR-T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jordan; Turtle, Cameron J

    2018-04-03

    T-cells engineered to express CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CD19 CAR-T cells) can achieve high response rates in patients with refractory/relapsed (R/R) CD19+ hematologic malignancies. Nonetheless, the efficacy of CD19-specific CAR-T cell therapy can be offset by significant toxicities, such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity. In this report of our presentation at the 2018 Second French International Symposium on CAR-T cells (CAR-T day), we describe the clinical presentations of CRS and neurotoxicity in a cohort of 133 adults treated with CD19 CAR-T cells at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and provide insights into the mechanisms contributing to these toxicities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer Patient T Cells Genetically Targeted to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Specifically Lyse Prostate Cancer Cells and Release Cytokines in Response to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Gong

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of immunoglobulin-based artificial receptors in normal T lymphocytes provides a means to target lymphocytes to cell surface antigens independently of major histocompatibility complex restriction. Such artificial receptors have been previously shown to confer antigen-specific tumoricidal properties in murine T cells. We constructed a novel ζ chain fusion receptor specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA termed Pz-1. PSMA is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on prostate cancer cells and the neovascular endothelium of multiple carcinomas. We show that primary T cells harvested from five of five patients with different stages of prostate cancer and transduced with the Pz-1 receptor readily lyse prostate cancer cells. Having established a culture system using fibroblasts that express PSMA, we next show that T cells expressing the Pz-1 receptor release cytokines in response to cell-bound PSMA. Furthermore, we show that the cytokine release is greatly augmented by B7.1-mediated costimulation. Thus, our findings support the feasibility of adoptive cell therapy by using genetically engineered T cells in prostate cancer patients and suggest that both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte functions can be synergistically targeted against tumor cells.

  7. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D.; Bate, N. F.

    2014-01-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/

  8. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Bate, N. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/.

  9. Molecular analysis of volatile metabolites released specifically by staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipiak Wojciech

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The routinely used microbiological diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is time consuming and often requires invasive methods for collection of human specimens (e.g. bronchoscopy. Therefore, it is of utmost interest to develop a non-invasive method for the early detection of bacterial infection in ventilated patients, preferably allowing the identification of the specific pathogens. The present work is an attempt to identify pathogen-derived volatile biomarkers in breath that can be used for early and non- invasive diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP. For this purpose, in vitro experiments with bacteria most frequently found in VAP patients, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were performed to investigate the release or consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Results Headspace samples were collected and preconcentrated on multibed sorption tubes at different time points and subsequently analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. As many as 32 and 37 volatile metabolites were released by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Distinct differences in the bacteria-specific VOC profiles were found, especially with regard to aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, which were taken up only by P. aeruginosa but released by S. aureus. Differences in concentration profiles were also found for acids (e.g. isovaleric acid, ketones (e.g. acetoin, 2-nonanone, hydrocarbons (e.g. 2-butene, 1,10-undecadiene, alcohols (e.g. 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-butanol, esters (e.g. ethyl formate, methyl 2-methylbutyrate, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide and volatile nitrogen compounds (VNCs, e.g. 3-methylpyrrole. Importantly, a significant VOC release was found already 1.5 hours after culture start, corresponding to cell numbers of ~8*106 [CFUs/ml]. Conclusions The results obtained provide strong evidence that the detection and perhaps even

  10. The gamma spectrometry a powerful tool for irradiated fuel and fission products release studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontillon, Y.; Roure, C.; Lacroix, B.; Martella, T.; Ducros, G.; Ravel, S.; Gleizes, B.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, due to the potentially severe consequences of a nuclear incident and/or accident for surrounding populations as well as the environment, international safety authorities launched R and D programs in support of general policy on exploitation of nuclear energy. This increasing interest enabled starting of many research programs in CEA and particularly in Nuclear Energy Directorate (DEN). Most of them are devoted to (i) the source term of fission products (including gas) and actinides released from PWR fuel samples in normal or accident conditions, (ii) burn-up determination, (iii) isotopic repartition... by quantitative gamma spectrometry. In this context, the Department of Fuel Studies (DEC), part of the DEN, has acquired considerable experience in this field of research. In order to attain the required capabilities, specific technical facilities set up in shielded hot cells at the CEA-Grenoble and CEA-Cadarache have been developed. In particular, the researchers of the Department have developed several gamma scanning benches and a set of two thermal treatment devices, including the so-called 'VERCORS facility'. These devices are associated to on line quantitative gamma spectrometry, in order to measure emitted gas and fission products (FPs). The greatest asset of such installations is to ensure a high analytical experiments rate, and as a consequence to make parametrical approach of planned studies easier. The first part of the present communication focuses, on the one hand, on the peculiar aspects of the gamma spectrometry applied on irradiated fuel, mad on the other hand, on the technical aspect of the different facilities (i.e. quantitative gamma spectrometry apparatus and corresponding 'home made' software). The last part is devoted to the results which can be obtained with such installation. In particular, it will be explained how experimental programs on FPs and gas release in normal and/or accidental conditions can be conducted

  11. Cathepsin B-sensitive polymers for compartment-specific degradation and nucleic acid release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, David S H; Johnson, Russell N; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-02-10

    Degradable cationic polymers are desirable for in vivo nucleic acid delivery because they offer significantly decreased toxicity over non-degradable counterparts. Peptide linkers provide chemical stability and high specificity for particular endopeptidases but have not been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications. In this work, enzymatically degradable peptide-HPMA copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization of HPMA with methacrylamido-terminated peptide macromonomers, resulting in polymers with low polydispersity and near quantitative incorporation of peptides. Three peptide-HPMA copolymers were evaluated: (i) pHCathK(10), containing peptides composed of the linker phe-lys-phe-leu (FKFL), a substrate of the endosomal/lysosomal endopeptidase cathepsin B, connected to oligo-(L)-lysine for nucleic acid binding, (ii) pHCath(D)K(10), containing the FKFL linker with oligo-(D)-lysine, and (iii) pH(D)Cath(D)K(10), containing all (D) amino acids. Cathepsin B degraded copolymers pHCathK(10) and pHCath(D)K(10) within 1 h while no degradation of pH(D)Cath(D)K(10) was observed. Polyplexes formed with pHCathK(10) copolymers show DNA release by 4 h of treatment with cathepsin B; comparatively, polyplexes formed with pHCath(D)K(10) and pH(D)Cath(D)K(10) show no DNA release within 8 h. Transfection efficiency in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells were comparable between the copolymers but pHCathK(10) was less toxic. This work demonstrates the successful application of peptide linkers for degradable cationic polymers and DNA release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A SERS protocol as a potential tool to access 6-mercaptopurine release accelerated by glutathione-S-transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Sun, Jie; Yang, Qingran; Lu, Wenbo; Li, Yan; Dong, Jian; Qian, Weiping

    2015-11-21

    The developed method for monitoring GST, an important drug metabolic enzyme, could greatly facilitate researches on relative biological fields. In this work, we have developed a SERS technique to monitor the absorbance behaviour of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-accelerated glutathione (GSH)-triggered release behaviour on the surface of gold nanoflowers (GNFs), using the GNFs as excellent SERS substrates. The SERS signal was used as an indicator of absorbance or release of 6-MP on the gold surface. We found that GST can accelerate GSH-triggered release behaviour of 6-MP from the gold surface. We speculated that GST catalyzes nucleophilic GSH to competitively bind with the electrophilic substance 6-MP. Experimental results have proved that the presented SERS protocol can be utilized as an effective tool for accessing the release of anticancer drugs.

  13. HPMA Copolymer-Drug Conjugates with Controlled Tumor-Specific Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytil, Petr; Koziolová, Eva; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous polymer drug carrier systems are designed and synthesized, and their properties are evaluated. Many of these systems are based on water-soluble polymer carriers of low-molecular-weight drugs and compounds, e.g., cytostatic agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, or multidrug resistance inhibitors, all covalently bound to a carrier by a biodegradable spacer that enables controlled release of the active molecule to achieve the desired pharmacological effect. Among others, the synthetic polymer carriers based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers are some of the most promising carriers for this purpose. This review focuses on advances in the development of HPMA copolymer carriers and their conjugates with anticancer drugs, with triggered drug activation in tumor tissue and especially in tumor cells. Specifically, this review highlights the improvements in polymer drug carrier design with respect to the structure of a spacer to influence controlled drug release and activation, and its impact on the drug pharmacokinetics, enhanced tumor uptake, cellular trafficking, and in vivo antitumor activity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Specific attraction of fig-pollinating wasps: role of volatile compounds released by tropical figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison-Pigé, Laure; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2002-02-01

    Floral scents often act as pollinator attractants. In the case of obligate and specific plant-pollinator relationships, the role of floral signals may be crucial in allowing the encounter of the partners. About 750 Ficus species (Moraceae) are involved in such interactions, each with a distinct species of pollinating wasp (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae). Several species have been shown to release volatile compounds, but their role in pollinator attraction has rarely been simultaneously tested. We investigated the floral scents of four tropical fig species and combined chemical analysis with biological tests of stimulation of insects. Pollinators of three species were stimulated by the odor of their associated fig species and generally not by the odor of another species. The fourth actually comprised two distinct varieties. The main compound was often a different one in each species. Floral blends of different species always shared compounds, but ratios of these compounds varied among species.

  15. Approaches for Establishing Clinically Relevant Dissolution Specifications for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Andre; Abend, Andreas M; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Flanagan, Talia; Cohen, Michael J; Diaz, Dorys A; Mao, Y; Zhang, Limin; Webster, Gregory K; Lin, Yiqing; Hahn, David A; Coutant, Carrie A; Grady, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    This manuscript represents the perspective of the Dissolution Analytical Working Group of the IQ Consortium. The intent of this manuscript is to highlight the challenges of, and to provide a recommendation on, the development of clinically relevant dissolution specifications (CRS) for immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms. A roadmap toward the development of CRS for IR products containing active ingredients with a non-narrow therapeutic window is discussed, within the context of mechanistic dissolution understanding, supported by in-human pharmacokinetic (PK) data. Two case studies present potential outcomes of following the CRS roadmap and setting dissolution specifications. These cases reveal some benefits and challenges of pursuing CRS with additional PK data, in light of current regulatory positions, including that of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who generally favor this approach, but with the understanding that both industry and regulatory agency perspectives are still evolving in this relatively new field. The CRS roadmap discussed in this manuscript also describes a way to develop clinically relevant dissolution specifications based primarily on dissolution data for batches used in pivotal clinical studies, acknowledging that not all IR product development efforts need to be supported by additional PK studies, albeit with the associated risk of potentially unnecessarily tight manufacturing controls. Recommendations are provided on what stages during the life cycle investment into in vivo studies may be valuable. Finally, the opportunities for CRS within the context of post-approval changes, Modeling and Simulation (M&S), and the application of biowaivers, are briefly discussed.

  16. Affordances of Telecollaboration tools for English for Specific Purposes online learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Pavón, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores students’ perceptions of the affordances of different telecollaboration tools used in an innovation project for English for Specific Purposes online learning carried out between the University of Valencia (Spain) and Wofford College (South Carolina, United States) during the school year 2015-2016. Different tools for synchronous and asynchronous communication were used. The asynchronous tools included a discussion forum, a wiki, social networking websites and Google forms;...

  17. XMI2USE: A Tool for Transforming XMI to USE Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuliang; Song, Eunjee; Grabow, Paul C.; Simmonds, Devon M.

    The UML-based Specification Environment (USE) tool supports syntactic analysis, type checking, consistency checking, and dynamic validation of invariants and pre-/post conditions specified in the Object Constraint Language (OCL). Due to its animation and analysis power, it is useful when checking critical non-functional properties such as security policies. However, the USE tool requires one to specify (i.e., "write") a model using its own textual language and does not allow one to import any model specification files created by other UML modeling tools. Hence, to make the best use of existing UML tools, we often create a model with OCL constraints using a modeling tool such as the IBM Rational Software Architect (RSA) and then use the USE tool for model validation. This approach, however, requires a manual transformation between the specifications of two different tool formats, which is error-prone and diminishes the benefit of automated model-level validations. In this paper, we describe our own implementation of a specification transformation engine that is based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) framework and currently supports automatic tool-level transformations from RSA to USE.

  18. pH-sensitive inulin-based nanomicelles for intestinal site-specific and controlled release of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Delia; Trapani, Adriana; Perteghella, Sara; Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura; Torre, Maria Luisa; Trapani, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at a site-specific drug release in the lower intestinal tract, this paper deals with the synthesis and physicochemical/biological characterization of pH-sensitive nanomicelles from an inulin (INU) amphiphilic derivative. To allow an intestinal site specific release of the payload, INU-Vitamin E (INVITE) bioconjugates were functionalized with succinic anhydride to provide the system with pH-sensitive groups preventing a premature release of the payload into the stomach. The obtained INVITESA micelles resulted nanosized, with a low critical aggregation concentration and the release studies showed a marked pH-dependent release. The drug loading stabilized the micelles against the acidic hydrolysis. From transport studies on Caco-2 cells, resulted that INVITESA nanomicelles cross the cellular monolayer but are actively re-transported in the secretory (basolateral-apical) direction when loaded in apical side. It suggests that the entrapped drug could not be absorbed before the release from the micelles, enabling so a local release of the active. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of radioxenon releases in Australia using atmospheric dispersion modelling tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, Rick; Orr, Blake; Grzechnik, Marcus; Hoffmann, Emmy; Saey, Paul; Solomon, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The origin of a series of atmospheric radioxenon events detected at the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System site in Melbourne, Australia, between November 2008 and February 2009 was investigated. Backward tracking analyses indicated that the events were consistent with releases associated with hot commission testing of the Australian Nuclear Science Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical production facility in Sydney, Australia. Forward dispersion analyses were used to estimate release magnitudes and transport times. The estimated 133 Xe release magnitude of the largest event (between 0.2 and 34 TBq over a 2 d window), was in close agreement with the stack emission releases estimated by the facility for this time period (between 0.5 and 2 TBq). Modelling of irradiation conditions and theoretical radioxenon emission rates were undertaken and provided further evidence that the Melbourne detections originated from this radiopharmaceutical production facility. These findings do not have public health implications. This is the first comprehensive study of atmospheric radioxenon measurements and releases in Australia.

  20. Thermal treating of acrylic matrices as a tool for controlling drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Davood; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Al-Hallak, M H D-Kamal; Soltani, Ghazal; Azarmi, Shirzad

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of thermal-treating on the release of ibuprofen from the granules prepared using aqueous dispersions of Eudragit. To accomplish this goal, different formulations were prepared using wet granulation method containing two different types of Eudragit aqueous dispersions, RS30D, RL30D and Avicel as filler. Tablets were prepared using direct compression method. The prepared tablets were thermally treated at 50 and 70 degrees C for 24 h. The drug release from tablets was assessed before and after thermal-treating. The results of release study showed that, thermally-treating the tablets at the temperatures higher than glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer can decrease the drug release from matrices. For mechanistic evaluation of the effect of thermal-treating, powder X-ray diffraction (XPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and helium pycnometer have been employed. The SEM graphs showed that the tablets have smoother surface with less porosity after thermal-treating. FT-IR spectra showed no change in the spectrum of thermally-treated tablet compared to control. In DSC graphs, no crystalline change was seen in the heat-treated samples of ibuprofen tablets, but decreased and widened peak size were related to the probable formation of solid solution of ibuprofen in Eudragit matrix. The results of helium pycnometer showed a significant decrease in the total porosity of some heat-treated samples. This study revealed the importance of thermal treating on the drug release from sustained release tablets containing Eudragit polymer.

  1. Lipidized prolactin-releasing peptide analogs: A new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Pražienková, Veronika; Zemenová, Jana; Popelová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Mikulášková, Barbora; Holubová, Martina; Železná, Blanka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl S2 (2016), S179-S180 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /34./ and International Peptide Symposium /8./. 04.09.2016-09.09.2016, Leipzig] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * food intake * obesity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  2. The CRINE initiative -- Producing the engineering tools (functional specifications and common working practices)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuft, V.

    1995-01-01

    Alongside culture change, CRINE's other challenge is producing the right tools for the North Sea industry to change its traditional method of operation. CRINE, an acronym for Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era, is an industry-wide program now underway in the UK Continental Shelf whose main objective is to achieve thirty percent or more savings in capital costs and to half operating costs over the next few years. These tools cover functional specifications, common working practices and quality. Turning these tools into deliverables, and on time, was a mixture of painstaking work and willingness by people to adapt to the needs of the task

  3. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core–shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported a core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1, 4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N 2 adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV–vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of “on” and “off” states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Graphical abstract: A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by yellow light was constructed. Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Highlights: • A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system was constructed. • It consisted of Fe 3 O 4 core and MCM-41 shell grafted with light switch. • This delivery system was triggered by low energy light. • Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s

  4. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core–shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang [Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding 071000 (China); Chen, Meng [Department of Rheumatology, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding 071000 (China); Su, Likai, E-mail: zhangdong19992003@163.com [Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding 071000 (China)

    2015-03-15

    This paper reported a core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1, 4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV–vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of “on” and “off” states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Graphical abstract: A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by yellow light was constructed. Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Highlights: • A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system was constructed. • It consisted of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and MCM-41 shell grafted with light switch. • This delivery system was triggered by low energy light. • Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s.

  5. Affordances of telecollaboration tools for English for Specific Purposes online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sevilla-Pavón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores students’ perceptions of the affordances of different telecollaboration tools used in an innovation project for English for Specific Purposes online learning carried out between the University of Valencia (Spain and Wofford College (South Carolina, United States during the school year 2015-2016. Different tools for synchronous and asynchronous communication were used. The asynchronous tools included a discussion forum, a wiki, social networking websites and Google forms; while the tools used for synchronous communication were text, voice and video chat, videoconferencing tools and Google Drive. All the tools were accessible through the online platform used in the project, Google+. By using these tools, students from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean carried out a number of activities and tasks through online telecollaborative methods, involving both synchronous and asynchronous communication. The tasks completed by students through the use of the different tools were aimed at fostering distance online collaboration among American and Spanish students for the development of their linguistic, intercultural and digital literacies.

  6. Effects of peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients on the release of monocyte-specific chemokines by leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Seung-Chul; Joo, Jong-Kil; Wang, Ji-Won; Jin, Jun-O; Kwak, Jong-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2011-06-01

    Chemokines have been implicated in the pathological process of endometriosis. We compared the effects of peritoneal fluid obtained from patients with endometriosis (ePF) and controls without endometriosis (cPF) on the release of monocyte-specific CC chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) by neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells. Moreover, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of chemokines in ePF and their release by these cells. Cells were obtained from healthy young volunteers and cultured with ePF (n = 12) or cPF (n = 8). The chemokine levels in the ePF and the supernatants of cultured cells with ePF were then measured by ELISA. There was a positive correlation between the levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1α in ePF. The addition of ePF to the cell cultures failed to increase the release of MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α when compared to cPF, but the levels of RANTES in ePF were positively correlated with the release of RANTES by ePF-treated monocytes and T cells. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the levels of RANTES and MIP-1α released by neutrophils and between the levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1α released by T cells. Finally, the levels of RANTES released by monocyte-derived macrophages and monocytes cultured with ePF were positively correlated. These findings suggest that monocytes, neutrophils, and T cells release differential levels of MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α in response to stimulation with ePF.

  7. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating fingers-transmitted vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fingers-transmitted vibration can cause vibration-induced white finger. The effectiveness of vibration-reducing (VR) gloves for reducing hand transmitted vibration to the fingers has not been sufficiently examined. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine tool-specific performance of VR gloves for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions (3D) from powered hand tools. METHODS A transfer function method was used to estimate the tool-specific effectiveness of four typical VR gloves. The transfer functions of the VR glove fingers in three directions were either measured in this study or during a previous study using a 3D laser vibrometer. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were used in the estimations. RESULTS When assessed based on frequency-weighted acceleration, the gloves provided little vibration reduction. In some cases, the gloves amplified the vibration by more than 10%, especially the neoprene glove. However, the neoprene glove did the best when the assessment was based on unweighted acceleration. The neoprene glove was able to reduce the vibration by 10% or more of the unweighted vibration for 27 out of the 79 tools. If the dominant vibration of a tool handle or workpiece was in the shear direction relative to the fingers, as observed in the operation of needle scalers, hammer chisels, and bucking bars, the gloves did not reduce the vibration but increased it. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the effectiveness for reducing vibration varied with the gloves and the vibration reduction of each glove depended on tool, vibration direction to the fingers, and finger location. VR gloves, including certified anti-vibration gloves do not provide much vibration reduction when judged based on frequency-weighted acceleration. However, some of the VR gloves can provide more than 10% reduction of the unweighted vibration for some tools or workpieces. Tools and gloves can be matched for

  8. ACCI38 XL 2: a useful tool for dose assessment in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassin, A.; Merle-Szeremeta, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the scope of its assignments in the field of nuclear risks, the French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) develops tools to assess the impact of nuclear facilities on their environment and surrounding populations. The code ACCI38 XL 2 is a tool dedicated to the assessment of integrated concentrations in the environment and of dosimetric consequences on man, in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides (up to 170 radionuclides). This code is widely used by IRSN for studies on accidents, mainly for the analysis of regulatory documents from nuclear operators. The aim of this communication is to present the main features of the model used in the code ACCI38 XL 2, and to give details about the code. After a general presentation of the model, a detailed description of atmospheric dispersion, transfer in the environment and radiological impact is given. Then, some information on parameters and limitations of the model and the code are presented

  9. Cholinergic induction of input-specific late-phase LTP via localized Ca2+ release in the visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Jang, Hyun-Jong; Jo, Yang-Hyeok; Singer, Wolf; Rhie, Duck-Joo

    2012-03-28

    Acetylcholine facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), substrates of learning, memory, and sensory processing, in which acetylcholine also plays a crucial role. Ca(2+) ions serve as a canonical regulator of LTP/LTD but little is known about the effect of acetylcholine on intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics. Here, we investigated dendritic Ca(2+) dynamics evoked by synaptic stimulation and the resulting LTP/LTD in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the rat visual cortex. Under muscarinic stimulation, single-shock electrical stimulation (SES) inducing ∼20 mV EPSP, applied via a glass electrode located ∼10 μm from the basal dendrite, evoked NMDA receptor-dependent fast Ca(2+) transients and the subsequent Ca(2+) release from the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-sensitive stores. These secondary dendritic Ca(2+) transients were highly localized within 10 μm from the center (SD = 5.0 μm). The dendritic release of Ca(2+) was a prerequisite for input-specific muscarinic LTP (LTPm). Without the secondary Ca(2+) release, only muscarinic LTD (LTDm) was induced. D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid and intracellular heparin blocked LTPm as well as dendritic Ca(2+) release. A single burst consisting of 3 EPSPs with weak stimulus intensities instead of the SES also induced secondary Ca(2+) release and LTPm. LTPm and LTDm were protein synthesis-dependent. Furthermore, LTPm was confined to specific dendritic compartments and not inducible in distal apical dendrites. Thus, cholinergic activation facilitated selectively compartment-specific induction of late-phase LTP through IP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release.

  10. SafetyAnalyst : software tools for safety management of specific highway sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    SafetyAnalyst provides a set of software tools for use by state and local highway agencies for highway safety management. SafetyAnalyst can be used by highway agencies to improve their programming of site-specific highway safety improvements. SafetyA...

  11. A set of tools for determining the LAT performance in specific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, B.; Ballet, J.; Chiang, J.; Lonjou, V.; Funk, S.

    2007-01-01

    The poster presents a set of simple tools being developed to predict GLAST's performance for specific cases, like the accumulation time needed to reach a given significance or statistical accuracy for a particular source. Different examples are given, like the generation of a full-sky sensitivity map

  12. Compact microelectrode array system: tool for in situ monitoring of drug effects on neurotransmitter release from neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Chunxian; Lim, Layhar; Cheong, Serchoong; Zhang, Qingxin; Tang, Kumcheong; Reboud, Julien

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a compact microelectrode array (MEA) system, to study potassium ion-induced dopamine release from PC12 neural cells, without relying on a micromanipulator and a microscope. The MEA chip was integrated with a custom-made "test jig", which provides a robust electrical interfacing tool between the microchip and the macroenvironment, together with a potentiostat and a microfluidic syringe pump. This integrated system significantly simplifies the operation procedures, enhances sensing performance, and reduces fabrication costs. The achieved detection limit for dopamine is 3.8 x 10-2 muM (signal/noise, S/N = 3) and the dopamine linear calibration range is up to 7.39 +/- 0.06 muM (mean +/- SE). The effects of the extracelluar matrix collagen coating of the microelectrodes on dopamine sensing behaviors, as well as the influences of K+ and l-3,4-digydroxyphenylalanine concentrations and incubation times on dopamine release, were extensively studied. The results show that our system is well suited for biologists to study chemical release from living cells as well as drug effects on secreting cells. The current system also shows a potential for further improvements toward a multichip array system for drug screening applications.

  13. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  14. Release of a human platelet specific protein measured by a radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, C A; Moore, S; Bolton, A E; Pepper, D S; Cash, J D

    1975-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and characterize a protein released from human platelets during thrombin-induced aggregation. This protein appeared to be unique to platelets and was named ..beta..-thromboglobulin (..beta..-TG). The following communication describes a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of ..beta..-TG and gives an account of preliminary studies to examine the potential application of this assay for the detection of platelet involvement in thromboembolic disorders.

  15. Species-specific nested PCR as a diagnostic tool for Brucella ovis infection in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate a species-specific nested PCR based on a previously described species-specific PCR for detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples of experimentally infected rams. The performance of the species-specific nested PCR was compared with the results of a genus-specific PCR. Fourteen rams were experimentally infected with the Brucella ovis REO 198 strain and samples of semen and urine were collected every week up to 180 days post infection. Out of 83 semen samples collected, 42 (50.6% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, and 23 (27.7% were positive for the genus-specific PCR. Out of 75 urine samples, 49 (65.3% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, whereas 11 (14.6% were genus-specific PCR positive. Species-specific nested PCR was significantly more sensitive (P<0.001 than the genus-specific PCR in semen and urine from experimentally infected rams. In conclusion, the species-specific nested PCR developed in this study may be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples from suspected rams.

  16. New open source medical imaging tools released by CERN and University of Bath collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Rassat, KT group

    2016-01-01

    New toolbox has applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis.   3D X-ray imaging of a patient’s lungs and thorax. The TIGRE toolbox provides a high resolution image with only 1/30th of the radiation for the patient. (Image: Ander Biguri) CERN and the University of Bath have released a new toolbox for fast, accurate 3D X-ray image reconstruction with applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis. The software offers a very simple and affordable way to improve imaging and potentially reduce radiation doses for patients. The toolbox is based on Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), a type of scanning process that takes a series of 2D X-ray pictures and that then processes them into a 3D image. As part of the collaborative project between CERN and the University of Bath, Ander Biguri, a PhD student at Bath, has reviewed a broad range of published CBCT algorithms and adapted them to be faster. Ander Biguri modified the algorithms to run on a laptop fitted with a GPU &ndash...

  17. RETRANS - A tool to verify the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the competent technical standards (e.g. IEC 880) it is necessary to verify each step in the development process of safety critical software. This holds also for the verification of automatically generated source code. To avoid human errors during this verification step and to limit the cost effort a tool should be used which is developed independently from the development of the code generator. For this purpose ISTec has developed the tool RETRANS which demonstrates the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its underlying specification. (author)

  18. A Lower Temperature FDM 3D Printing for the Manufacture of Patient-Specific Immediate Release Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Stefaniak, Dominika; Arafat, Basel; Isreb, Abdullah; Wan, Ka-Wai; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2016-11-01

    The fabrication of ready-to-use immediate release tablets via 3D printing provides a powerful tool to on-demand individualization of dosage form. This work aims to adapt a widely used pharmaceutical grade polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), for instant on-demand production of immediate release tablets via FDM 3D printing. Dipyridamole or theophylline loaded filaments were produced via processing a physical mixture of API (10%) and PVP in the presence of plasticizer through hot-melt extrusion (HME). Computer software was utilized to design a caplet-shaped tablet. The surface morphology of the printed tablet was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical form of the drugs and its integrity following an FDM 3D printing were assessed using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and HPLC. In vitro drug release studies for all 3D printed tablets were conducted in a USP II dissolution apparatus. Bridging 3D printing process with HME in the presence of a thermostable filler, talc, enabled the fabrication of immediate release tablets at temperatures as low as 110°C. The integrity of two model drugs was maintained following HME and FDM 3D printing. XRPD indicated that a portion of the loaded theophylline remained crystalline in the tablet. The fabricated tablets demonstrated excellent mechanical properties, acceptable in-batch variability and an immediate in vitro release pattern. Combining the advantages of PVP as an impeding polymer with FDM 3D printing at low temperatures, this approach holds a potential in expanding the spectrum of drugs that could be used in FDM 3D printing for on demand manufacturing of individualised dosage forms.

  19. HPMA copolymer-drug conjugates with controlled tumor-specific drug release

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytil, Petr; Koziolová, Eva; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-15, č. článku 1700209. ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13283S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08084S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biodegradable spacer * controlled drug release * drug delivery systems Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.238, year: 2016

  20. Diffusivity database (DDB) system for major rocks and buffer materials (Released on 2007/specification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochigi, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Masahiro; Sato, Haruo; Kitamura, Akira

    2007-03-01

    The Diffusivity Database (DDB) System developed on early 2006 was upgraded to apply the data of effective diffusion coefficient of the nuclides in the rock matrix for the 'H12: Project to Establish the Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan', and the data in the buffer materials from literature survey was newly added. Some functions of data search and selection were reformed to improve the level of convenience. This DDB system (work on MS-Access TM ) is released to the public through Web server managed by JAEA. (author)

  1. Development of a context specific accreditation assessment tool for affirming quality midwifery education in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogren, Malin; Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy; Erlandsson, Kerstin; Akhter, Halima; Akter, Dalia; Begum, Momtaz; Chowdhury, Merry; Das, Lucky; Akter, Rehana; Begum, Sufia; Akter, Renoara; Yesmin, Syeada; Khatun, Yamin Ara

    2018-06-01

    using the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) Global Standards for Midwifery Education as a conceptual framework, the aim of this study was to explore and describe important 'must haves' for inclusion in a context-specific accreditation assessment tool in Bangladesh. A questionnaire study was conducted using a Likert rating scale and 111 closed-response single items on adherence to accreditation-related statements, ending with an open-ended question. The ICM Global Standards guided data collection, deductive content analysis and description of the quantitative results. twenty-five public institutes/colleges (out of 38 in Bangladesh), covering seven out of eight geographical divisions in the country. one hundred and twenty-three nursing educators teaching the 3-year diploma midwifery education programme. this study provides insight into the development of a context-specific accreditation assessment tool for Bangladesh. Important components to be included in this accreditation tool are presented under the following categories and domains: 'organization and administration', 'midwifery faculty', 'student body', 'curriculum content', 'resources, facilities and services' and 'assessment strategies'. The identified components were a prerequisite to ensure that midwifery students achieve the intended learning outcomes of the midwifery curriculum, and hence contribute to a strong midwifery workforce. The components further ensure well-prepared teachers and a standardized curriculum supported at policy level to enable effective deployment of professional midwives in the existing health system. as part of developing an accreditation assessment tool, it is imperative to build ownership and capacity when translating the ICM Global Standards for Midwifery Education into the national context. this initiative can be used as lessons learned from Bangladesh to develop a context-specific accreditation assessment tool in line with national priorities, supporting the

  2. Development of a golf-specific load monitoring tool: Content validity and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott B; Gastin, Paul B; Saw, Anna E; Robertson, Sam

    2018-05-01

    Athletes often record details of their training and competitions, supported by information such as environmental conditions, travel, as well as how they felt. However, it is not known how prevalent these practices are in golfers, or how valuable this process is perceived. The purpose of this study was to develop a golf-specific load monitoring tool (GLMT), and establish the content validity and feasibility of this tool amongst high-level golfers. In the first phase of development, 21 experts were surveyed to determine the suitability of items for inclusion in the GLMT. Of the 36 items, 21 received >78% agreement, a requirement to establish content validity and for inclusion in the GLMT. Total duration was the preferred metric for golf-specific activities, whilst rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was preferred for measuring physical training. In the second phase, feasibility of the tool was assessed by surveying 13 high-level male golfers following 28-days of daily GLMT use. All items included in the GLMT were deemed feasible to record, with all players participating in the feasibility study providing high to very high ratings. Golfers responded that they would consider using a load monitoring tool of this nature long term, provided it can be completed in less than five minutes per day.

  3. Towards tool support for spreadsheet-based domain-specific languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2015-01-01

    Spreadsheets are commonly used by non-programmers to store data in a structured form, this data can in some cases be considered to be a program in a domain-specific language (DSL). Unlike ordinary text-based domain-specific languages, there is however currently no formalism for expressing...... the syntax of such spreadsheet-based DSLs (SDSLs), and there is no tool support for automatically generating language infrastructure such as parsers and IDE support. In this paper we define a simple notion of two-dimensional grammars for SDSLs, and show how such grammars can be used for automatically...

  4. Cell-specific gain modulation by synaptically released zinc in cortical circuits of audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Kumar, Manoj; Xiong, Shanshan; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2017-09-09

    In many excitatory synapses, mobile zinc is found within glutamatergic vesicles and is coreleased with glutamate. Ex vivo studies established that synaptically released (synaptic) zinc inhibits excitatory neurotransmission at lower frequencies of synaptic activity but enhances steady state synaptic responses during higher frequencies of activity. However, it remains unknown how synaptic zinc affects neuronal processing in vivo. Here, we imaged the sound-evoked neuronal activity of the primary auditory cortex in awake mice. We discovered that synaptic zinc enhanced the gain of sound-evoked responses in CaMKII-expressing principal neurons, but it reduced the gain of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons. This modulation was sound intensity-dependent and, in part, NMDA receptor-independent. By establishing a previously unknown link between synaptic zinc and gain control of auditory cortical processing, our findings advance understanding about cortical synaptic mechanisms and create a new framework for approaching and interpreting the role of the auditory cortex in sound processing.

  5. Musite, a tool for global prediction of general and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianjiong; Thelen, Jay J; Dunker, A Keith; Xu, Dong

    2010-12-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most pervasive post-translational modifications, regulating diverse cellular processes in various organisms. High throughput experimental studies using mass spectrometry have identified many phosphorylation sites, primarily from eukaryotes. However, the vast majority of phosphorylation sites remain undiscovered, even in well studied systems. Because mass spectrometry-based experimental approaches for identifying phosphorylation events are costly, time-consuming, and biased toward abundant proteins and proteotypic peptides, in silico prediction of phosphorylation sites is potentially a useful alternative strategy for whole proteome annotation. Because of various limitations, current phosphorylation site prediction tools were not well designed for comprehensive assessment of proteomes. Here, we present a novel software tool, Musite, specifically designed for large scale predictions of both general and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. We collected phosphoproteomics data in multiple organisms from several reliable sources and used them to train prediction models by a comprehensive machine-learning approach that integrates local sequence similarities to known phosphorylation sites, protein disorder scores, and amino acid frequencies. Application of Musite on several proteomes yielded tens of thousands of phosphorylation site predictions at a high stringency level. Cross-validation tests show that Musite achieves some improvement over existing tools in predicting general phosphorylation sites, and it is at least comparable with those for predicting kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. In Musite V1.0, we have trained general prediction models for six organisms and kinase-specific prediction models for 13 kinases or kinase families. Although the current pretrained models were not correlated with any particular cellular conditions, Musite provides a unique functionality for training customized prediction models

  6. A method for measurements of neutral fragments kinetic energies released to a specific dissociation threshold: optical translational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, A.; Frigon, C.; Larzilliere, M.

    1999-01-01

    The optical translational spectroscopy technique, based on the principles of fast ion beam laser spectroscopy (FIBLAS) and translational spectroscopy, allows the kinetic energies study of neutral fragments released through free dissociation of a neutral molecule. This method presents interesting features such as near-threshold energy measurements and selection of a specific dissociation limit. The fragments resulting from free dissociation (not induced) of neutral molecules, produced by charge exchange processes with a fast ion beam, are probed by laser radiation. Monitoring of the laser-induced fluorescence allows high-resolution spectra due to the kinematic compression of the velocity spread. Measurements of kinetic energies released to the second limit of dissociation H(1s) + H(2l) of H 2 are put forth and compared with those obtained by means of off-axis translational spectroscopy

  7. Visualization in simulation tools: requirements and a tool specification to support the teaching of dynamic biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Katarina M; Haddow, Pauline C

    2011-08-01

    Simulation tools are playing an increasingly important role behind advances in the field of systems biology. However, the current generation of biological science students has either little or no experience with such tools. As such, this educational glitch is limiting both the potential use of such tools as well as the potential for tighter cooperation between the designers and users. Although some simulation tool producers encourage their use in teaching, little attempt has hitherto been made to analyze and discuss their suitability as an educational tool for noncomputing science students. In general, today's simulation tools assume that the user has a stronger mathematical and computing background than that which is found in most biological science curricula, thus making the introduction of such tools a considerable pedagogical challenge. This paper provides an evaluation of the pedagogical attributes of existing simulation tools for cell signal transduction based on Cognitive Load theory. Further, design recommendations for an improved educational simulation tool are provided. The study is based on simulation tools for cell signal transduction. However, the discussions are relevant to a broader biological simulation tool set.

  8. Pathogen-Specific Epitopes as Epidemiological Tools for Defining the Magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae Transmission in Areas Endemic for Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John S.; Hacker, Mariana A. V. B.; Costa, Luciana S.; Carvalho, Fernanda M.; Geluk, Annemieke; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J.; Pontes, Maria A. A.; Gonçalves, Heitor S.; de Morais, Janvier P.; Bandeira, Tereza J. P. G.; Pessolani, Maria C. V.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Pereira, Geraldo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy. In a previous study, 58 synthetic peptides derived from these sequences were tested for their ability to induce production of IFN-γ in PBMC from endemic controls (EC) with unknown exposure to M. leprae, household contacts of leprosy patients and patients, indicating the potential of these synthetic peptides for the diagnosis of sub- or preclinical forms of leprosy. In the present study, the patterns of IFN-γ release of the individuals exposed or non-exposed to M. leprae were compared using an Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and the most promising M. leprae peptides for the identification of exposed people were selected. This subset of M. leprae-specific peptides allowed the differentiation of groups of individuals from sites hyperendemic for leprosy versus those from areas with lower level detection rates. A progressive reduction in the IFN-γ levels in response to the peptides was seen when contacts of multibacillary (MB) patients were compared to other less exposed groups, suggesting a down modulation of IFN-γ production with an increase in bacillary load or exposure to M. leprae. The data generated indicate that an IFN-γ assay based on these peptides applied individually or as a pool can be used as a new tool for predicting the magnitude of M. leprae transmission in a given population. PMID:22545169

  9. SMM-system: A mining tool to identify specific markers in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuijing; Liu, Weibing; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Dan, Xianlong; Li, Xiao; Shi, Xianming

    2011-03-01

    This report presents SMM-system, a software package that implements various personalized pre- and post-BLASTN tasks for mining specific markers of microbial pathogens. The main functionalities of SMM-system are summarized as follows: (i) converting multi-FASTA file, (ii) cutting interesting genomic sequence, (iii) automatic high-throughput BLASTN searches, and (iv) screening target sequences. The utility of SMM-system was demonstrated by using it to identify 214 Salmonella enterica-specific protein-coding sequences (CDSs). Eighteen primer pairs were designed based on eighteen S. enterica-specific CDSs, respectively. Seven of these primer pairs were validated with PCR assay, which showed 100% inclusivity for the 101 S. enterica genomes and 100% exclusivity of 30 non-S. enterica genomes. Three specific primer pairs were chosen to develop a multiplex PCR assay, which generated specific amplicons with a size of 180bp (SC1286), 238bp (SC1598) and 405bp (SC4361), respectively. This study demonstrates that SMM-system is a high-throughput specific marker generation tool that can be used to identify genus-, species-, serogroup- and even serovar-specific DNA sequences of microbial pathogens, which has a potential to be applied in food industries, diagnostics and taxonomic studies. SMM-system is freely available and can be downloaded from http://foodsafety.sjtu.edu.cn/SMM-system.html. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. TACO: a general-purpose tool for predicting cell-type-specific transcription factor dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Aleksander; Prabhakar, Shyam; Tiuryn, Jerzy

    2014-03-19

    Cooperative binding of transcription factor (TF) dimers to DNA is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to binding specificity. However, it is likely that the set of known TF dimers is highly incomplete, given that they were discovered using ad hoc approaches, or through computational analyses of limited datasets. Here, we present TACO (Transcription factor Association from Complex Overrepresentation), a general-purpose standalone software tool that takes as input any genome-wide set of regulatory elements and predicts cell-type-specific TF dimers based on enrichment of motif complexes. TACO is the first tool that can accommodate motif complexes composed of overlapping motifs, a characteristic feature of many known TF dimers. Our method comprehensively outperforms existing tools when benchmarked on a reference set of 29 known dimers. We demonstrate the utility and consistency of TACO by applying it to 152 DNase-seq datasets and 94 ChIP-seq datasets. Based on these results, we uncover a general principle governing the structure of TF-TF-DNA ternary complexes, namely that the flexibility of the complex is correlated with, and most likely a consequence of, inter-motif spacing.

  11. Domain-Specific Thesaurus as a Tool for Information Retrieval and Collection of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Boikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports basic approaches to constructive creation of an open resource named ”Domain-specified thesaurus of poetics”, which is one of the levels of an information-analytical system of the Russian poetry (IAS RP. The poetics is a group of disciplines focused on a comprehensive theoretical and historical study of poetry. IAS RP will be used as a tool for a wide range of studies allowing to determine the characteristic features of the analyzed works of poetry. Consequently, the thesaurus is the knowledge base from which one can borrow input data for training the system. The aim of our research requires a specific approach to formating the knowledge base. Thesaurus is a web-based resource which includes a domain-specific directory, information retrieval tools and tools for further analyzes. The study of glossary consisting of three thousand terms and a set of semantic fields is reviewed in this paper. Rdf-graph of the domain-specified thesaurus of poetics is presented, containing 9 types of objects and different kinds of relationships among them. Wiki-tecnologies are used for implementing a resource which allows to store data in Semantic Web formats.

  12. Species and tissues specific differentiation of processed animal proteins in aquafeeds using proteomics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, J D; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Fumière, O; Mauro, S; Palmblad, M; Raes, M; Berntssen, M H G

    2016-09-16

    The rapidly growing aquaculture industry drives the search for sustainable protein sources in fish feed. In the European Union (EU) since 2013 non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAP) are again permitted to be used in aquafeeds. To ensure that commercial fish feeds do not contain PAP from prohibited species, EU reference methods were established. However, due to the heterogeneous and complex nature of PAP complementary methods are required to guarantee the safe use of this fish feed ingredient. In addition, there is a need for tissue specific PAP detection to identify the sources (i.e. bovine carcass, blood, or meat) of illegal PAP use. In the present study, we investigated and compared different protein extraction, solubilisation and digestion protocols on different proteomics platforms for the detection and differentiation of prohibited PAP. In addition, we assessed if tissue specific PAP detection was feasible using proteomics tools. All work was performed independently in two different laboratories. We found that irrespective of sample preparation gel-based proteomics tools were inappropriate when working with PAP. Gel-free shotgun proteomics approaches in combination with direct spectral comparison were able to provide quality species and tissue specific data to complement and refine current methods of PAP detection and identification. To guarantee the safe use of processed animal protein (PAP) in aquafeeds efficient PAP detection and monitoring tools are required. The present study investigated and compared various proteomics workflows and shows that the application of shotgun proteomics in combination with direct comparison of spectral libraries provides for the desired species and tissue specific classification of this heat sterilized and pressure treated (≥133°C, at 3bar for 20min) protein feed ingredient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tus-Ter as a tool to study site-specific DNA replication perturbation in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Hickson, Ian D; Mankouri, Hocine W

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity binding of the Tus protein to specific 21-bp sequences, called Ter, causes site-specific, and polar, DNA replication fork arrest in E coli. The Tus-Ter complex serves to coordinate DNA replication with chromosome segregation in this organism. A number of recent and ongoing studies...... have demonstrated that Tus-Ter can be used as a heterologous tool to generate site-specific perturbation of DNA replication when reconstituted in eukaryotes. Here, we review these recent findings and explore the molecular mechanism by which Tus-Ter mediates replication fork (RF) arrest in the budding...... yeast, S. cerevisiae. We propose that Tus-Ter is a versatile, genetically tractable, and regulatable RF blocking system that can be utilized for disrupting DNA replication in a diverse range of host cells....

  14. Tus-Ter as a tool to study site-specific DNA replication perturbation in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Hickson, Ian D; Mankouri, Hocine W

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity binding of the Tus protein to specific 21-bp sequences, called Ter, causes site-specific, and polar, DNA replication fork arrest in E coli. The Tus-Ter complex serves to coordinate DNA replication with chromosome segregation in this organism. A number of recent and ongoing studies have demonstrated that Tus-Ter can be used as a heterologous tool to generate site-specific perturbation of DNA replication when reconstituted in eukaryotes. Here, we review these recent findings and explore the molecular mechanism by which Tus-Ter mediates replication fork (RF) arrest in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae. We propose that Tus-Ter is a versatile, genetically tractable, and regulatable RF blocking system that can be utilized for disrupting DNA replication in a diverse range of host cells.

  15. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  16. The computer code SEURBNUK/EURDYN (Release 1). Input and output specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhouse, B.J.; Yerkess, A.

    1986-05-01

    SEURBNUK/EURODYN is an extension of SEURBNUK-2, a two dimensional, axisymmetric, Eulerian, finite element containment code in which the finite difference thin shell treatment is replaced by a finite element calculation for both thin and thick structures. These codes are designed to model the hydrodynamic development in time of a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) in a fast breeder reactor. This manual describes the input data specifications needed for the execution of SEURBNUK/EURDYN calculations, with information on output facilities, and aid to users to avoid some common difficulties. (UK)

  17. PWMScan: a fast tool for scanning entire genomes with a position-specific weight matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Giovanna; Groux, Romain; Bucher, Philipp

    2018-03-05

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding to specific short DNA sequences of 5 to 20-bp to regulate the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA. We present PWMScan, a fast web-based tool to scan server-resident genomes for matches to a user-supplied PWM or TF binding site model from a public database. The web server and source code are available at http://ccg.vital-it.ch/pwmscan and https://sourceforge.net/projects/pwmscan, respectively. giovanna.ambrosini@epfl.ch. SUPPLEMENTARY DATA ARE AVAILABLE AT BIOINFORMATICS ONLINE.

  18. Microencapsulation of Clostridium difficile specific bacteriophages using microfluidic glass capillary devices for colon delivery using pH triggered release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinder K Vinner

    Full Text Available The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria acquiring multidrug antibiotic resistance is a global health threat to mankind. This has motivated a renewed interest in developing alternatives to conventional antibiotics including bacteriophages (viruses as therapeutic agents. The bacterium Clostridium difficile causes colon infection and is particularly difficult to treat with existing antibiotics; phage therapy may offer a viable alternative. The punitive environment within the gastrointestinal tract can inactivate orally delivered phages. C. difficile specific bacteriophage, myovirus CDKM9 was encapsulated in a pH responsive polymer (Eudragit® S100 with and without alginate using a flow focussing glass microcapillary device. Highly monodispersed core-shell microparticles containing phages trapped within the particle core were produced by in situ polymer curing using 4-aminobenzoic acid dissolved in the oil phase. The size of the generated microparticles could be precisely controlled in the range 80 μm to 160 μm through design of the microfluidic device geometry and by varying flow rates of the dispersed and continuous phase. In contrast to free 'naked' phages, those encapsulated within the microparticles could withstand a 3 h exposure to simulated gastric fluid at pH 2 and then underwent a subsequent pH triggered burst release at pH 7. The significance of our research is in demonstrating that C. difficile specific phage can be formulated and encapsulated in highly uniform pH responsive microparticles using a microfluidic system. The microparticles were shown to afford significant protection to the encapsulated phage upon prolonged exposure to an acid solution mimicking the human stomach environment. Phage encapsulation and subsequent release kinetics revealed that the microparticles prepared using Eudragit® S100 formulations possess pH responsive characteristics with phage release triggered in an intestinal pH range suitable for therapeutic

  19. Multi-kinetics and site-specific release of gabapentin and flurbiprofen from oral fixed-dose combination: in vitro release and in vivo food effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonvico, Fabio; Conti, Chiara; Colombo, Gaia; Buttini, Francesca; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Barchielli, Marco; Leoni, Barbara; Loprete, Luca; Rossi, Alessandra

    2017-09-28

    In this work, a fixed-dose combination of gabapentin and flurbiprofen formulated as multilayer tablets has been designed, developed and studied in vitro and in vivo. The aim was to construct a single dosage form of the two drugs, able to perform a therapeutic program involving three release kinetics and two delivery sites, i.e., immediate release of gabapentin, intra-gastric prolonged release of gabapentin and intestinal (delayed) release of flurbiprofen. An oblong three-layer tablet was manufactured having as top layer a floating hydrophilic polymeric matrix for gastric release of gabapentin, as middle layer a disintegrating formulation for immediate release of a gabapentin loading dose and as bottom layer, an uncoated hydrophilic polymeric matrix, swellable but insoluble in gastric fluids, for delayed and prolonged release of flurbiprofen in intestinal environment. The formulations were studied in vitro and in vivo in healthy volunteers. The in vitro release rate assessment confirmed the programmed delivery design. A significant higher bioavailability of gabapentin administered 30min after meal, compared to fasting conditions or to dose administration 10min before meal, argued in favor of the gastro-retention of gabapentin prolonged release layer. The two drugs were delivered at different anatomical sites, since the food presence prolonged the gastric absorption of gabapentin from the floating layer and delayed the flurbiprofen absorption. The attainment of a successful delayed release of flurbiprofen was realized by a matrix based on a polymers' combination. The combined use of three hydrophilic polymers with different pH sensitivity provided the dosage form layer containing flurbiprofen with gastro-resistant characteristics without the use of film coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Genome Engineering Tools from Plant-Specific PPR Proteins Using Animal Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takehito; Yagi, Yusuke; Nakamura, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif is a sequence-specific RNA/DNA-binding module. Elucidation of the RNA/DNA recognition mechanism has enabled engineering of PPR motifs as new RNA/DNA manipulation tools in living cells, including for genome editing. However, the biochemical characteristics of PPR proteins remain unknown, mostly due to the instability and/or unfolding propensities of PPR proteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria and yeast. To overcome this issue, we constructed reporter systems using animal cultured cells. The cell-based system has highly attractive features for PPR engineering: robust eukaryotic gene expression; availability of various vectors, reagents, and antibodies; highly efficient DNA delivery ratio (>80 %); and rapid, high-throughput data production. In this chapter, we introduce an example of such reporter systems: a PPR-based sequence-specific translational activation system. The cell-based reporter system can be applied to characterize plant genes of interested and to PPR engineering.

  1. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  2. Characterization and validation of new tools for measuring site-specific cardiac troponin I phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Stephen F; Stutzke, Crystal A; Du, Yanmei; Browning, Michael D; Buttrick, Peter M; Walker, Lori A

    2014-01-31

    Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I is a well established mechanism by which cardiac contractility is modulated. However, there are a number of phosphorylation sites on TnI which contribute singly or in combination to influence cardiac function. Accordingly, methods for accurately measuring site-specific TnI phosphorylation are needed. Currently, two strategies are employed: mass spectrometry, which is costly, difficult and has a low throughput; and Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies, which is limited by the availability of reagents. In this report, we describe a cohort of new site-specific TnI phosphoantibodies, generated against physiologically relevant phosphorylation sites, that are superior to the current commercially available antibodies: to phospho-serine 22/23 which shows a >5-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI; to phospho-serine 43, which has >3-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI; and phospho-serine 150 which has >2-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI. These new antibodies demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity for the phosphorylated TnI than the most widely used commercially available reagents. For example, at a protein load of 20 μg of total cardiac extract, a commercially available antibody recognized both phosphorylated and dephosphorylated TnI to the same degree. At the same protein load our phospho-serine 22/23 antibody exhibited no cross-reactivity with dephosphorylated TnI. These new tools should allow a more accurate assessment and a better understanding of the role of TnI phosphorylation in the response of the heart to pathologic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Case Report: SPECT/CT as the New Diagnostic Tool for Specific Wrist Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Musters; Ten Broek, M; Kraan, G A

    2017-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography has been introduced as a promising new diagnostic tool in orthopaedic pathology since the early 90'. Computed tomography, the combined with SPECT, gives insight in the specific sight of wrist pathology. Literature already supports introduction of SPECT/CT in wrist pathology, but clinical application is lagging. A 40yr old patient reported first in 2004 with persisting pain after a right distal radius fracture. Several diagnostics and operative interventions were performed, all unsuccessful. Because of the persisting pain a SPECT-CT was performed which showed a cyst in the hamate bone, which was successfully enucleated. The patient was finally pain free at recent follow-up. With a QDash-score of 43 and a PRW (H) E-DLV-score of 58/150. In this case report, SPECT/CT proved a very sensitive diagnostic tool for specific pathology of the wrist. It offered precise localisation and thereby the clinically suspected diagnosis was confirmed and the patient successfully treated.

  4. Radioactive particulate release associated with the DOT specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    A testing program was conducted to determine the leakage of depleted uranium dioxide powder (DUO) from the inner containment components of the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions. Depleted uranium dioxide was selected as a surrogate for plutonium oxide because of the similarities in the powder characteristics, density and particle size, and because of the special handling and special facilities required for plutonium oxide. The DUO was packaged inside food pack cans in three different configurations inside the 2R vessel of the 6M container. The amount of DUO powder leakage ranged from none detectable ( -7 g) to a high of 1 x 10 -3 g. The combination of gravity, vibration and pressure produced the highest leakage of DUO. Containers that had hermetic seals (leak rates -4 atm cc/min) did not leak any detectable amount ( -7 g) of DUO under the test conditions. Impact forces had no effect on the leakage of particles with the packaging configurations used. 23 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures

  6. The computer code SEURBNUK/EURDYN (release 1). Input and output specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.L.; Broadhouse, B.J.; Yerkess, A.

    1986-05-01

    SEURBNUK-2 is a two-dimensional, axisymmetric, Eulerian, finite difference containment code developed initially by AWRE Aldermaston, AEE Winfrith and JRC-Ispra, and more recently by AEEW, JRC and EIR Wuerenlingen. The numerical procedure adopted in SEURBNUK to solve the hydrodynamic equations is based on the semi-implicit ICE method which itself is an extension of the MAC algorithm. SEURBNUK has a finite difference thin shell treatment for vessels and internal structures of arbitrary shape and includes the effects of the compressibility of the fluid. Fluid flow through porous media and porous structures can also be accommodated. SEURBNUK/EURDYN is an extension of SEURBNUK-2 in which the finite difference thin shell treatment is replaced by a finite element calculation for both thin or thick structures. This has been achieved by coupling the finite element code EURDYN with SEURBNUK-2, allowing the use of conical shell elements and axisymmetric triangular elements. Within the code, the equations of motion for the structures are solved quite separately from those for the fluid, and the timestep for the fluid can be an integer multiple of that for the structures. The interaction of the structures with the fluid is then considered as a modification to the coefficients in the pressure equations, the modifications naturally depending on the behaviour of the structures within the fluid cell. The code is limited to dealing with a single fluid, the coolant, and the bubble and the cover gas are treated as cavities of uniform pressure calculated via appropriate pressure-volume-energy relationships. This manual describes the input data specifications needed for the execution of SEURBNUK/EURDYN calculations. After explaining the output facilities information is included to aid users to avoid some common pit-falls. (author)

  7. Using Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE)--tools to document the current logical model of a system for DoD requirements specifications.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzer, Donna A.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Naval Postgraduate School's final exam scheduling system serves as a test case with which to compare two commercially available Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The tools, Nastec Corporation's DesignAid (Release 3.55) and Index Technology's Excelerator (Release 1.7) are used to create Section 4.1 of two Abbreviated Systems Decision Papers to determine if their output can satisfy and should replace some of the Life...

  8. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binds to a specific receptor and releases microsomal calcium in the arterior pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette, G.; Balla, T.; Baukal, A.J.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP 3 ) receptor sites in the anterior pituitary were evaluated by binding studies with InsP 3 labeled with 32 P to high specific radioactivity. Specific binding of Ins[ 32 P]P 3 was demonstrable in pituitary membrane preparations and was linearly proportional to the amount of membrane added over the range 0.5-2 mg of protein. Kinetic studies showed that specific InsP 3 binding was half-maximal in about 40 sec and reached a plateau after 15 min at 0 0 C. Scatchard analysis of the binding data was consistent with a single set of high affinity sites. The specificity of Ins[ 32 P]P 3 binding to these sites was illustrated by the much weaker affinity for structural analogs such as inositol 1-phosphate, phytic acid, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. To assess the functional relevance of the InsP 3 binding sites, the Ca 2+ -releasing activity of InsP 3 was measured in pituitary membrane preparations. Under physiological conditions within the cytosol, the high-affinity InsP 3 binding sites characterized in pituitary membranes could serve as the putative receptors through which InsP 3 triggers Ca 2+ mobilization in the anterior pituitary gland

  9. Chronic stress induces sex-specific alterations in methylation and expression of corticotropin-releasing factor gene in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sterrenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the higher prevalence of depression in women than in men is well known, the neuronal basis of this sex difference is largely elusive. METHODS: Male and female rats were exposed to chronic variable mild stress (CVMS after which immediate early gene products, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF mRNA and peptide, various epigenetic-associated enzymes and DNA methylation of the Crf gene were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, oval (BSTov and fusiform (BSTfu parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and central amygdala (CeA. RESULTS: CVMS induced site-specific changes in Crf gene methylation in all brain centers studied in female rats and in the male BST and CeA, whereas the histone acetyltransferase, CREB-binding protein was increased in the female BST and the histone-deacetylase-5 decreased in the male CeA. These changes were accompanied by an increased amount of c-Fos in the PVN, BSTfu and CeA in males, and of FosB in the PVN of both sexes and in the male BSTov and BSTfu. In the PVN, CVMS increased CRF mRNA in males and CRF peptide decreased in females. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm our hypothesis that chronic stress affects gene expression and CRF transcriptional, translational and secretory activities in the PVN, BSTov, BSTfu and CeA, in a brain center-specific and sex-specific manner. Brain region-specific and sex-specific changes in epigenetic activity and neuronal activation may play, too, an important role in the sex specificity of the stress response and the susceptibility to depression.

  10. Developing tools for the safety specification in risk management plans: lessons learned from a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew J P; Lettis, Sally; Chapman, Charlotte L; Evans, Stephen J W; Waller, Patrick C; Shakir, Saad; Payvandi, Nassrin; Murray, Alison B

    2008-05-01

    Following the adoption of the ICH E2E guideline, risk management plans (RMP) defining the cumulative safety experience and identifying limitations in safety information are now required for marketing authorisation applications (MAA). A collaborative research project was conducted to gain experience with tools for presenting and evaluating data in the safety specification. This paper presents those tools found to be useful and the lessons learned from their use. Archive data from a successful MAA were utilised. Methods were assessed for demonstrating the extent of clinical safety experience, evaluating the sensitivity of the clinical trial data to detect treatment differences and identifying safety signals from adverse event and laboratory data to define the extent of safety knowledge with the drug. The extent of clinical safety experience was demonstrated by plots of patient exposure over time. Adverse event data were presented using dot plots, which display the percentages of patients with the events of interest, the odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Power and confidence interval plots were utilised for evaluating the sensitivity of the clinical database to detect treatment differences. Box and whisker plots were used to display laboratory data. This project enabled us to identify new evidence-based methods for presenting and evaluating clinical safety data. These methods represent an advance in the way safety data from clinical trials can be analysed and presented. This project emphasises the importance of early and comprehensive planning of the safety package, including evaluation of the use of epidemiology data.

  11. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker - Control system specific tools and challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2013-01-01

    The experiment control system of the LHCb experiment is continuously evolving and improving. The guidelines and structure initially defined are kept, and more common tools are made available to all sub-detectors. Although the main system control is mostly integrated and actions are executed in common for the whole LHCb experiment, there is some degree of freedom for each sub-system to implement the control system using these tools or by creating new ones. The implementation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker control system was extremely disorganized and with little documentation. This was due to either lack of time and manpower, and/or to limited experience and specifications. Despite this, the Silicon Tracker control system has behaved well during the first LHC run. It has continuously evolved since the start of operation and been adapted to the needs of operators with very different degrees of expertise. However, improvements and corrections have been made on a best effort basis due to time constraints placed by t...

  12. Underwater fuel handling equipment maintenance. Verification of design assumptions, specific problems and tools, case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The majority of CANDU Fuel Transfer System equipment at Pickering is located under fourteen feet of water, as dictated by the containment and shielding requirements. Such arrangement, however, creates specific problems with equipment maintenance. Each single piece of equipment serves two generating units, which means in case of defect- double losses on production, or two units shut down simultaneously for planned maintenance. The requirement for underwater maintenance was not anticipated at the design stage, which multiples the level of difficulty, and creates requirement for developing special tools for each work. Removal of the damaged fuel from the receiving bays and decontamination of submerged equipment is also part of the problem. The purpose of this presentation is to share our experience with the designers, operators, maintenance mechanics and technical personnel of the other CANDU generating stations

  13. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Navdaev

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  14. Echicetin Coated Polystyrene Beads: A Novel Tool to Investigate GPIb-Specific Platelet Activation and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J.; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways. PMID:24705415

  15. 3D printing of patient-specific anatomy: A tool to improve patient consent and enhance imaging interpretation by trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Yaoren; Beveridge, Erin; Demetriades, Andreas K; Hughes, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We report the use of three-dimensional or 3D printed, patient-specific anatomy as a tool to improve informed patient consent and patient understanding in a case of posterior lumbar fixation. Next, we discuss its utility as an educational tool to enhance imaging interpretation by neurosurgery trainees.

  16. Site-specific selfish genes as tools for the control and genetic engineering of natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Austin

    2003-05-07

    Site-specific selfish genes exploit host functions to copy themselves into a defined target DNA sequence, and include homing endonuclease genes, group II introns and some LINE-like transposable elements. If such genes can be engineered to target new host sequences, then they can be used to manipulate natural populations, even if the number of individuals released is a small fraction of the entire population. For example, a genetic load sufficient to eradicate a population can be imposed in fewer than 20 generations, if the target is an essential host gene, the knockout is recessive and the selfish gene has an appropriate promoter. There will be selection for resistance, but several strategies are available for reducing the likelihood of it evolving. These genes may also be used to genetically engineer natural populations, by means of population-wide gene knockouts, gene replacements and genetic transformations. By targeting sex-linked loci just prior to meiosis one may skew the population sex ratio, and by changing the promoter one may limit the spread of the gene to neighbouring populations. The proposed constructs are evolutionarily stable in the face of the mutations most likely to arise during their spread, and strategies are also available for reversing the manipulations.

  17. European Union regulators and industry agree on improving specific environmental release categories: Report from the exchange network for exposure scenarios specific environmental release category workshop on May 13, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Andreas; Moilanen, Marianne; Martin, Sara; Garcia-John, Enrique; Sättler, Daniel; Bakker, Joost; Reihlen, Antonia; Wind, Thorsten; Tolls, Johannes

    2017-09-01

    Specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) are an instrument for lower-tier environmental emissions assessments. They support chemical safety assessments under the European Union (EU) regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals. SPERCs have been developed by industry and subjected to regulatory review. Within the framework of the Chemical Safety Report/Exposure Scenario Roadmap, the EU Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the EU Member State authorities, and European industry sector associations collaborate to improve the quality of the SPERCs. Following up on the outcome of ECHA's SPERC Best Practice Project, industry, together with ECHA, developed an updated SPERC factsheet template and guidance on how to fill it out. In addition, industry developed 2 sets of SPERC factsheet examples and the corresponding SPERC background documents. These documents were submitted to a multistakeholder review process. The comments from the review were discussed at a workshop in spring 2016. The workshop participants acknowledged the revised factsheet format including the corresponding guidance, the 2 SPERC factsheets, and the 2 SPERC background documents as best practice examples. The package is expected to support further improvement of the quality of the SPERCs. A common understanding was achieved of the need to match the level of detail of the use conditions description with the risk to be controlled (i.e., the emission intensity and hazard profile of the substances) and with the level of conservatism of SPERC release factors. The complete and transparent documentation of the derivation of the release factors and of their conservatism is conceived as crucial for the credibility of the SPERCs, such that they can be trusted by partners in the chemicals supply chain and by regulators. To that end, background documents will include a dedicated section describing the conservatism of SPERCs. The workshop concluded with an outline of the practical way

  18. PCR tools for the verification of the specific identity of ascaridoid nematodes from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M W; Lin, R Q; Chen, H H; Sani, R A; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q

    2007-01-01

    Based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxocara malaysiensis and Toxascaris leonina, specific forward primers were designed in the ITS-1 or ITS-2 for each of the four ascaridoid species of dogs and cats. These primers were used individually together with a conserved primer in the large subunit of rDNA to amplify partial ITS-1 and/or ITS-2 of rDNA from 107 DNA samples from ascaridoids from dogs and cats in China, Australia, Malaysia, England and the Netherlands. This approach allowed their specific identification, with no amplicons being amplified from heterogeneous DNA samples, and sequencing confirmed the identity of the sequences amplified. The minimum amounts of DNA detectable using the PCR assays were 0.13-0.54ng. These PCR assays should provide useful tools for the diagnosis and molecular epidemiological investigations of toxocariasis in humans and animals.

  19. Active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone : an effective tool to block the fertility axis in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, Jouwert Anne

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in fertility and reproduction in mammals. It induces the release of luteinising hormone (LH) en follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. These hormones are responsible for gonadal steroid production and indirectly for

  20. Using the INEL site-specific plan as a community relations tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Michael; Macdonald, Don; Couch, Brad; Reuel Smith, M.

    1992-01-01

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) activities have affected, or have the potential to affect the environment. For this reason) the issues surrounding INEL activities are of interest to a broad range of people. The preparation of the INEL Site-Specific Plan (SSP) reflects the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Field Office's (DOE-ID'S) initiative for open and clear communications with the public. The INEL SSP describes for the public DOE-ID'S plan to clean up inactive facilities and locations that were contaminated due to past waste management practices. It also discusses waste management strategies for avoiding future contamination by active operations. The SSP is an over-arching document and supplies 'the big picture' of environmental restoration and waste management activities to the public, including budget information and long-range plans. DOE-ID has been using the INEL Site-Specific Plan and its associated public comment period as a primary tool for public involvement and as way to get meaningful citizen input into DOE-ID planning. Public involvement in the INBL Site-Specific Plan has four main objectives: To inform public officials, Indian Tribes, interest groups, businesses, and individuals about current plans for environmental restoration and waste management activities at INEL; To ensure that public concerns and interests relating to environmental restoration and waste management are reflected in the SSP and DOE-ID planning; To provide flexibility so modifications can be made to DOE-ID plans and the SSP in response to changing concerns within the community, and; To ensure that DOE-ID and INEL contractors are given feedback regarding public interest in, and concerns about, the DOE-ID'S plans. To carry out these objectives, DOE-ID has implemented an aggressive public outreach effort that provides multiple opportunities for public participation in cleanup and waste management decisions. (author)

  1. Generation and functional analysis of T cell lines and clones specific for schistosomula released products (SRP-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonneville, M; Velge, F; Verwaerde, C; Pestel, J; Auriault, C; Capron, A

    1987-01-01

    Antigens present in the products released by the larval stage of schistosome (SRP-A) were shown to induce a strong cytotoxic and protective IgE response both in the rat and the monkey. T cell lines and clones specific for SRP-A or 26 kD antigens which are the main target of the cytotoxic IgE have been derived. The passive transfer of SRP-A specific T lymphocytes into infected rats led to an increase of the IgE response, conferring a significant level of protection to the rats. In coculture assays in vitro, these cell lines significantly enhanced the production of IgE by SRP-A sensitized rat spleen cells. This helper effect on the IgE response was confirmed with 26 kD T cell clone supernatants. Moreover, supernatants obtained after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate were able to enhance the IgE production of a hybridoma B cell line (B48-14) producing a monoclonal IgE antibody, cytotoxic for the schistosomula. PMID:3498590

  2. Generation and functional analysis of T cell lines and clones specific for schistosomula released products (SRP-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonneville, M; Velge, F; Verwaerde, C; Pestel, J; Auriault, C; Capron, A

    1987-08-01

    Antigens present in the products released by the larval stage of schistosome (SRP-A) were shown to induce a strong cytotoxic and protective IgE response both in the rat and the monkey. T cell lines and clones specific for SRP-A or 26 kD antigens which are the main target of the cytotoxic IgE have been derived. The passive transfer of SRP-A specific T lymphocytes into infected rats led to an increase of the IgE response, conferring a significant level of protection to the rats. In coculture assays in vitro, these cell lines significantly enhanced the production of IgE by SRP-A sensitized rat spleen cells. This helper effect on the IgE response was confirmed with 26 kD T cell clone supernatants. Moreover, supernatants obtained after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate were able to enhance the IgE production of a hybridoma B cell line (B48-14) producing a monoclonal IgE antibody, cytotoxic for the schistosomula.

  3. Specifics of marketing tools application in pharmacies: Case study Pharmacies Subotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of pharmacies in the social and health systems has gone through significant changes in the last decades of the twentieth century. From the place for the production of medicines, through procurement and distribution, pharmacy eventually became the modern health care facilities that participates in the health system and the retail pharmaceutical market. The dualistic role of pharmacy requires adjustment to the demands of contemporary health policy and market principles. Implementation of modern tools of business, such as marketing, was not present to a greater extent until recently in pharmacies, so this study is focused on the example of Pharmacy Subotica, which emphasizes the practical importance and specifics of marketing in pharmaceutical practice. Activities in the implementation of the marketing mix in the period 2009-2012 will be shown in this paper, as well as indicators of business success of Pharmacies Subotica in the same period. Following a four-year period in which strategy related to elements of the marketing mix strategy (4P, was implemented the growth of financial performance indicators (number of issued fiscal receipt and financially volume of business. At the same time, due to the more rigid regulations, the number of prescriptions in 2012 declined in amount. Pharmacy Subotica is one of the first pharmacies in Serbia, which has structured and implemented marketing planning tools for the purpose of positioning in the retail pharmaceutical market. By modeling business policy in line with modern market principles, developments of information technology and the ethics of health care workers, this institution has made pioneering steps in pharmaceutical marketing in the Serbian pharmacy.

  4. Improved Tumor-Specific Drug Accumulation by Polymer Therapeutics with pH-Sensitive Drug Release Overcomes Chemotherapy Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Anne-Kathrin; Lucas, Henrike; Schindler, Lucie; Chytil, Petr; Etrych, Tomáš; Mäder, Karsten; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The success of chemotherapy is limited by poor selectivity of active drugs combined with occurrence of tumor resistance. New star-like structured N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-based drug delivery systems containing doxorubicin attached via a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond were designed and investigated for their ability to overcome chemotherapy resistance. These conjugates combine two strategies to achieve a high drug concentration selectively at the tumor site: (I) high accumulation by passive tumor targeting based on enhanced permeability and retention effect and (II) pH-sensitive site-specific drug release due to an acidic tumor microenvironment. Mice bearing doxorubicin-resistant xenograft tumors were treated with doxorubicin, PBS, poly HPMA (pHPMA) precursor or pHPMA-doxorubicin conjugate at different equivalent doses of 5 mg/kg bodyweight doxorubicin up to a 7-fold total dose using different treatment schedules. Intratumoral drug accumulation was analyzed by fluorescence imaging utilizing intrinsic fluorescence of doxorubicin. Free doxorubicin induced significant toxicity but hardly any tumor-inhibiting effects. Administering at least a 3-fold dose of pHPMA-doxorubicin conjugate was necessary to induce a transient response, whereas doses of about 5- to 6-fold induced strong regressions. Tumors completely disappeared in some cases. The onset of response was differential delayed depending on the tumor model, which could be ascribed to distinct characteristics of the microenvironment. Further fluorescence imaging-based analyses regarding underlying mechanisms of the delayed response revealed a related switch to a more supporting intratumoral microenvironment for effective drug release. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that the concept of tumor site-restricted high-dose chemotherapy is able to overcome therapy resistance. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 998-1007. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. A real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool for patient specific VMAT QA and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Neelam; Yang Kai; Gersten, David; Yan Di

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool to identify and quantify sources of errors during patient specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery and quality assurance. Methods: The authors develop a VMAT delivery monitor tool called linac data monitor that connects to the linac in clinical mode and records, displays, and compares real time machine parameters with the planned parameters. A new measure, called integral error, keeps a running total of leaf overshoot and undershoot errors in each leaf pair, multiplied by leaf width, and the amount of time during which the error exists in monitor unit delivery. Another tool reconstructs Pinnacle 3 ™ format delivered plan based on the saved machine logfile and recalculates actual delivered dose in patient anatomy. Delivery characteristics of various standard fractionation and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) VMAT plans delivered on Elekta Axesse and Synergy linacs were quantified. Results: The MLC and gantry errors for all the treatment sites were 0.00 ± 0.59 mm and 0.05 ± 0.31°, indicating a good MLC gain calibration. Standard fractionation plans had a larger gantry error than SBRT plans due to frequent dose rate changes. On average, the MLC errors were negligible but larger errors of up to 6 mm and 2.5° were seen when dose rate varied frequently. Large gantry errors occurred during the acceleration and deceleration process, and correlated well with MLC errors (r= 0.858, p= 0.0004). PTV mean, minimum, and maximum dose discrepancies were 0.87 ± 0.21%, 0.99 ± 0.59%, and 1.18 ± 0.52%, respectively. The organs at risk (OAR) doses were within 2.5%, except some OARs that showed up to 5.6% discrepancy in maximum dose. Real time displayed normalized total positive integral error (normalized to the total monitor units) correlated linearly with MLC (r= 0.9279, p < 0.001) and gantry errors (r= 0.742, p= 0.005). There is a strong correlation between total integral

  6. Management of gas releases with greenhouse effect: which economical tools?; Maitriser les emissions de gaz a effet de serre: quels instruments economiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepeltier, Serge [Senat, Paris (France)

    2000-06-09

    The climatic change represents the most severe danger to the durable world development, public health and future prosperity. This document concerning the gas releases with greenhouse effect is a report of the Senate Planning delegation regarding the economic and fiscal tools envisaging abatement of releases of gases with greenhouse effect. These issues are presented in four chapters titled as follows: 1. Since the scientific evidencing, requirement of managing the releases of gas with greenhouse effect has been unanimously recognized at the summits of Rio (1992) and Kyoto (1997); 2. The economic theory suggests instruments for reducing the gas releases with greenhouse effect at a minimum cost; 3. Challenges and ways of international cooperation in the field of climatic change; 4. Joining the political will with the pragmatic use of the economic instruments at national scale. The document contains a synthesis of proposals directed towards the following goals: international negotiations relating to climatic change; creating the community framework of managing the gas releases resulting in greenhouse effect; establishing national measures for managing the gas releases leading to greenhouse effect; actions to be undertaken by the territorial collectivities.

  7. MEASURING SPORT-SPECIFIC PHYSICAL ABILITIES IN MALE GYMNASTS: THE MEN'S GYMNASTICS FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K.; Elliott, James M; Cheng, M. Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Background Despite the availability of various field-tests for many competitive sports, a reliable and valid test specifically developed for use in men's gymnastics has not yet been developed. The Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (MGFMT) was designed to assess sport-specific physical abilities in male competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to develop the MGFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing test-retest reliability and construct validity. Methods A total of 83 competitive male gymnasts ages 7-18 underwent testing using the MGFMT. Thirty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total MGFMT scores and the gymnasts’ USA-Gymnastics competitive level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r2). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. Results The relationship between total MGFMT scores and subjects’ current USA-Gymnastics competitive level was found to be good (r2 = 0.63). Reliability testing of the MGFMT composite test score showed excellent test-retest reliability over a one-week period (ICC = 0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component tests ranged from good to excellent (ICC = 0.75-0.97). Conclusions The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the MGFMT. Level of Evidence Level 3 PMID:27999723

  8. Rare splenic complications and specific serology: decisive diagnostic tools in two cases of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Celestini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major endemic vector-borne disease in Southern Europe. We present two cases of VL, both characterized by splenic complications. Methods and results: Case 1: A 47-year-old female presented with effort angina, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The clinical course was complicated by splenic infarction. Although bone marrow biopsy failed to show amastigotes, diagnosis was performed by a fast agglutinating screening test (FAST and confirmed by a direct agglutinating test (DAT. The patient was treated successfully with AmBisome. Case 2: A 22-year-old male who had undergone a splenectomy to treat splenic rupture related to a minor trauma four months earlier presented with fever, nocturnal sweats and weight loss. The lack of pancytopenia was due to the absence of the spleen. The first biopsy did not identify parasites, but because the FAST had been positive, another bone marrow biopsy was performed, which demonstrated leishmaniasis. This patient was treated with the same schedule of AmBisome infusion. Discussion: 1 The clinical presentation of VL can be atypical, 2 splenic complications can characterize this disease, and 3 specific serology may be an important tool to reach a diagnosis.

  9. Subtype-specific suppression of Shiga toxin 2 released from Escherichia coli upon exposure to protein synthesis inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Gantzhorn; Hansen, Claus; Riise, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of severe disease including hemolytic-uremic syndrome, caused by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). STEC strains increase the release of Stx in vitro following the addition of fluoroquinolones, whereas protein synthesis...... inhibitors previously have been reported to suppress the release of Stx. The amount of Stx released from wild-type STEC strains incubated with protein synthesis inhibitors was examined by a Vero cell cytotoxicity assay. The amounts released were compared to the Stx type (Stx1 or Stx2) and additionally...... to the individual subtypes and toxin variants of Stx2. In general, Stx2 release was suppressed significantly upon exposure to protein synthesis inhibitors at MICs, which was not observed in the case of Stx1. Also, the average amount of different Stx2 toxin variants released was suppressed to various levels ranging...

  10. Specific association of growth-associated protein 43 with calcium release units in skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Caprara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43, is a strictly conserved protein among vertebrates implicated in neuronal development and neurite branching. Since GAP43 structure contains a calmodulin-binding domain, this protein is able to bind calmodulin and gather it nearby membrane network, thus regulating cytosolic calcium and consequently calcium-dependent intracellular events. Even if for many years GAP43 has been considered a neuronal-specific protein, evidence from different laboratories described its presence in myoblasts, myotubes and adult skeletal muscle fibers. Data from our laboratory showed that GAP43 is localized between calcium release units (CRUs and mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle suggesting that, also in skeletal muscle, this protein can be a key player in calcium/calmodulin homeostasis. However, the previous studies could not clearly distinguish between a mitochondrion- or a triad-related positioning of GAP43. To solve this question, the expression and localization of GAP43 was studied in skeletal muscle of Xenopus and Zebrafish known to have triads located at the level of the Z-lines and mitochondria not closely associated with them. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments revealed the expression of GAP43 also in skeletal muscle of lower vertebrates (like amphibians and fishes, and that the protein is localized closely to the triad junction. Once more, these results and GAP43 structural features, support an involvement of the protein in the dynamic intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, a common conserved role among the different species.

  11. A family of octopamine [corrected] receptors that specifically induce cyclic AMP production or Ca2+ release in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Sabine; Strünker, Timo; Frings, Stephan; Baumann, Arnd

    2005-04-01

    In invertebrates, the biogenic-amine octopamine is an important physiological regulator. It controls and modulates neuronal development, circadian rhythm, locomotion, 'fight or flight' responses, as well as learning and memory. Octopamine mediates its effects by activation of different GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor types, which induce either cAMP production or Ca(2+) release. Here we describe the functional characterization of two genes from Drosophila melanogaster that encode three octopamine receptors. The first gene (Dmoa1) codes for two polypeptides that are generated by alternative splicing. When heterologously expressed, both receptors cause oscillatory increases of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in response to applying nanomolar concentrations of octopamine. The second gene (Dmoa2) codes for a receptor that specifically activates adenylate cyclase and causes a rise of intracellular cAMP with an EC(50) of approximately 3 x 10(-8) m octopamine. Tyramine, the precursor of octopamine biosynthesis, activates all three receptors at > or = 100-fold higher concentrations, whereas dopamine and serotonin are non-effective. Developmental expression of Dmoa genes was assessed by RT-PCR. Overlapping but not identical expression patterns were observed for the individual transcripts. The genes characterized in this report encode unique receptors that display signature properties of native octopamine receptors.

  12. Development of a PubMed Based Search Tool for Identifying Sex and Gender Specific Health Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Michael M; Simonsen, Cheryl K; Wilson, Joanna D; Jenkins, Marjorie R

    2016-02-01

    An effective literature search strategy is critical to achieving the aims of Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH): to understand sex and gender differences through research and to effectively incorporate the new knowledge into the clinical decision making process to benefit both male and female patients. The goal of this project was to develop and validate an SGSH literature search tool that is readily and freely available to clinical researchers and practitioners. PubMed, a freely available search engine for the Medline database, was selected as the platform to build the SGSH literature search tool. Combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms, text words, and title words were evaluated for optimal specificity and sensitivity. The search tool was then validated against reference bases compiled for two disease states, diabetes and stroke. Key sex and gender terms and limits were bundled to create a search tool to facilitate PubMed SGSH literature searches. During validation, the search tool retrieved 50 of 94 (53.2%) stroke and 62 of 95 (65.3%) diabetes reference articles selected for validation. A general keyword search of stroke or diabetes combined with sex difference retrieved 33 of 94 (35.1%) stroke and 22 of 95 (23.2%) diabetes reference base articles, with lower sensitivity and specificity for SGSH content. The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center SGSH PubMed Search Tool provides higher sensitivity and specificity to sex and gender specific health literature. The tool will facilitate research, clinical decision-making, and guideline development relevant to SGSH.

  13. Butyrate-Loaded Chitosan/Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Suitable Tool for Sustained Inhibition of ROS Release by Activated Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacco, Pasquale; Decleva, Eva; Tentor, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    that butyrate inhibits neutrophil ROS release in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Given the short half-life of butyrate, chitosan/hyaluronan nanoparticles are next designed and developed as controlled release carriers able to provide cells with a long-lasting supply of this SCFA. Notably, while the inhibition...... of neutrophil ROS production by free butyrate declines over time, that of butyrate-loaded chitosan/hyaluronan nanoparticles (B-NPs) is sustained. Additional valuable features of these nanoparticles are inherent ROS scavenger activity, resistance to cell internalization, and mucoadhesiveness. B-NPs appear...

  14. Feruloyl esterases as a tool for the release of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoit, Isabelle; Navarro, David; Marnet, Nathalie; Rakotomanomana, Nnjara; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Asther, Marcel; Asther, Michèle

    2006-01-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are a potential source of added-value phenolic acids with promising applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here two purified feruloyl esterases from Aspergillus niger, FAEA and FAEB were tested for their ability to release phenolic acids such as caffeic

  15. ToxRefDB - Release user-friendly web-based tool for mining ToxRefDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    The updated URL link is for a table of NCCT ToxCast public datasets. The next to last row of the table has the link for the US EPA ToxCast ToxRefDB Data Release October 2014. ToxRefDB provides detailed chemical toxicity data in a publically accessible searchable format. ToxRefD...

  16. SU-E-T-159: Evaluation of a Patient Specific QA Tool Based On TG119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmeg, S; Zhang, Y; O'Daniel, J; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a 3D patient specific QA tool by analysis of the results produced from associated software in homogenous phantom and heterogonous patient CT. Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans of five test suites introduced by TG119 were created in ECLIPSE on a solid water phantom. The ten plans -of increasing complexity- were delivered to Delta4 to give a 3D measurement. The Delta4's “Anatomy” software uses the measured dose to back-calculate the energy fluence of the delivered beams, which is used for dose calculation in a patient CT using a pencilbeam algorithm. The effect of the modulated beams' complexity on the accuracy of the “Anatomy” calculation was evaluated. Both measured and Anatomy doses were compared to ECLIPSE calculation using 3% - 3mm gamma criteria.We also tested the effect of heterogeneity by analyzing the results of “Anatomy” calculation on a Brain VMAT and a 3D conformal lung cases. Results: In homogenous phantom, the gamma passing rates were found to be as low as 74.75% for a complex plan with high modulation. The mean passing rates were 91.47% ± 6.35% for “Anatomy” calculation and 99.46% ± 0.62% for Delta4 measurements.As for the heterogeneous cases, the rates were 96.54%±3.67% and 83.87%±9.42% for Brain VMAT and 3D lung respectively. This increased error in the lung case could be due to the use of the pencil beam algorithm as opposed to the AAA used by ECLIPSE.Also, gamma analysis showed high discrepancy along the beam edge in the “Anatomy” calculated results. This suggests a poor beam modeling in the penumbra region. Conclusion: The results show various sources of errors in “Anatomy” calculations. These include beam modeling in the penumbra region, complexity of a modulated beam (shown in homogenous phantom and brain cases) and dose calculation algorithms (3D conformal lung case)

  17. Improved Orbit Determination and Forecasts with an Assimilative Tool for Atmospheric Density and Satellite Drag Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, G.; Pilinski, M.; Sutton, E. K.; Codrescu, M.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Matsuo, T.; Fedrizzi, M.; Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.; Thayer, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Much as aircraft are affected by the prevailing winds and weather conditions in which they fly, satellites are affected by the variability in density and motion of the near earth space environment. Drastic changes in the neutral density of the thermosphere, caused by geomagnetic storms or other phenomena, result in perturbations of LEO satellite motions through drag on the satellite surfaces. This can lead to difficulties in locating important satellites, temporarily losing track of satellites, and errors when predicting collisions in space. We describe ongoing work to build a comprehensive nowcast and forecast system for specifying the neutral atmospheric state related to orbital drag conditions. The system outputs include neutral density, winds, temperature, composition, and the satellite drag derived from these parameters. This modeling tool is based on several state-of-the-art coupled models of the thermosphere-ionosphere as well as several empirical models running in real-time and uses assimilative techniques to produce a thermospheric nowcast. This software will also produce 72 hour predictions of the global thermosphere-ionosphere system using the nowcast as the initial condition and using near real-time and predicted space weather data and indices as the inputs. Features of this technique include: • Satellite drag specifications with errors lower than current models • Altitude coverage up to 1000km • Background state representation using both first principles and empirical models • Assimilation of satellite drag and other datatypes • Real time capability • Ability to produce 72-hour forecasts of the atmospheric state In this paper, we will summarize the model design and assimilative architecture, and present preliminary validation results. Validation results will be presented in the context of satellite orbit errors and compared with several leading atmospheric models including the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model, which is currently used

  18. Operator competence in fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome: validation of a procedure-specific evaluation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, S H P; Akkermans, J; Bustraan, J; Middeldorp, J M; Lopriore, E; Devlieger, R; Lewi, L; Deprest, J; Oepkes, D

    2016-03-01

    Fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome is a procedure for which no objective tools exist to assess technical skills. To ensure that future fetal surgeons reach competence prior to performing the procedure unsupervised, we developed a performance assessment tool. The aim of this study was to validate this assessment tool for reliability and construct validity. We made use of a procedure-specific evaluation instrument containing all essential steps of the fetoscopic laser procedure, which was previously created using Delphi methodology. Eleven experts and 13 novices from three fetal medicine centers performed the procedure on the same simulator. Two independent observers assessed each surgery using the instrument (maximum score: 52). Interobserver reliability was assessed using Spearman correlation. We compared the performance of novices and experts to assess construct validity. The interobserver reliability was high (Rs  = 0.974, P performed by experts and in 9/13 (69%) procedures performed by novices (P = 0.005). Multivariable analysis showed that the checklist score, independent of age and gender, predicted competence. The procedure-specific assessment tool for fetoscopic laser surgery shows good interobserver reliability and discriminates experts from novices. This instrument may therefore be a useful tool in the training curriculum for fetal surgeons. Further intervention studies with reassessment before and after training may increase the construct validity of the tool. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Industry Strength Tool and Technology for Automated Synthesis of Safety-Critical Applications from Formal Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 100 Listing 3.7.1 SMT formula to check Type Consistency ;; DECLARATIONS : Data types (define-type DATATYPE ...that maps VARNAME to DATATYPE (define typeof::(-> VARNAME DATATYPE )) ;; DECLARATIONS : Clock variables (define clk_x::bool) (define clk_y::bool...clk_c true) (= clk_x false) (= clk_y true) (function typeof (type (-> VARNAME DATATYPE )) (= (typeof d_x) T1) (default T2)) Approved for

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-loxP-Mediated Gene Editing as a Novel Site-Specific Genetic Manipulation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fayu; Liu, Changbao; Chen, Ding; Tu, Mengjun; Xie, Haihua; Sun, Huihui; Ge, Xianglian; Tang, Lianchao; Li, Jin; Zheng, Jiayong; Song, Zongming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2017-06-16

    Cre-loxP, as one of the site-specific genetic manipulation tools, offers a method to study the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression/inactivation in order to decipher gene function. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted genome engineering technologies are sparking a new revolution in biological research. Whether the traditional site-specific genetic manipulation tool and CRISPR/Cas9 could be combined to create a novel genetic tool for highly specific gene editing is not clear. Here, we successfully generated a CRISPR/Cas9-loxP system to perform gene editing in human cells, providing the proof of principle that these two technologies can be used together for the first time. We also showed that distinct non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) patterns from CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing of the targeting sequence locates at the level of plasmids (episomal) and chromosomes. Specially, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated NHEJ pattern in the nuclear genome favors deletions (64%-68% at the human AAVS1 locus versus 4%-28% plasmid DNA). CRISPR/Cas9-loxP, a novel site-specific genetic manipulation tool, offers a platform for the dissection of gene function and molecular insights into DNA-repair pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of auto-immune and infectious disease specific antibodies using a high throughput multiplexing tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Asati

    Full Text Available Considering importance of ganglioside antibodies as biomarkers in various immune-mediated neuropathies and neurological disorders, we developed a high throughput multiplexing tool for the assessment of gangliosides-specific antibodies based on Biolpex/Luminex platform. In this report, we demonstrate that the ganglioside high throughput multiplexing tool is robust, highly specific and demonstrating ∼100-fold higher concentration sensitivity for IgG detection than ELISA. In addition to the ganglioside-coated array, the high throughput multiplexing tool contains beads coated with influenza hemagglutinins derived from H1N1 A/Brisbane/59/07 and H1N1 A/California/07/09 strains. Influenza beads provided an added advantage of simultaneous detection of ganglioside- and influenza-specific antibodies, a capacity important for the assay of both infectious antigen-specific and autoimmune antibodies following vaccination or disease. Taken together, these results support the potential adoption of the ganglioside high throughput multiplexing tool for measuring ganglioside antibodies in various neuropathic and neurological disorders.

  2. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...

  3. Integration of ROOT notebook as an ATLAS analysis web-based tool in outreach and public data release projects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237353; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Integration of the ROOT data analysis framework with the Jupyter Notebook technology presents the potential of enhancement and expansion of educational and training programs. It can be beneficial for university students in their early years, new PhD students and post-doctoral researchers, as well as for senior researchers and teachers who want to refresh their data analysis skills or to introduce a more friendly and yet very powerful open source tool in the classroom. Such tools have been already tested in several environments. A fully web-based integration of the tools and the Open Access Data repositories brings the possibility to go a step forward in the ATLAS quest of making use of several CERN projects in the field of the education and training, developing new computing solutions on the way.

  4. The human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat and its discrete fragments evoke selective release of acetylcholine from human and rat cerebrocortical terminals through species-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feligioni, Marco; Raiteri, Luca; Pattarini, Roberto; Grilli, Massimo; Bruzzone, Santina; Cavazzani, Paolo; Raiteri, Maurizio; Pittaluga, Anna

    2003-07-30

    The effect of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat was investigated on neurotransmitter release from human and rat cortical nerve endings. Tat failed to affect the release of several neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, and others, but it evoked the release of [3H]ACh via increase of cytosolic [Ca2+]. In human nerve terminals, the Tat effect partly depends on Ca2+ entry through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, because Cd2+ halved the Tat-evoked release. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and mobilization of Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive intraterminal stores are also involved, because the Tat effect was prevented by mGluR antagonists 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride and 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester and by the IP3 receptor antagonists heparin and xestospongin C. Furthermore, the group I selective mGlu agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine enhanced [3H]ACh release. In rat nerve terminals, the Tat-evoked release neither depends on external Ca2+ ions entry nor on IP3-mediated mechanisms. Tat seems to cause mobilization of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive internal stores because its effect was prevented by both 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose and dantrolene. The Tat-evoked release from human synaptosomes was mimicked by the peptide sequences Tat 32-62, Tat 49-86, and Tat 41-60. In contrast, the Tat 49-86 and Tat 61-80 fragments, but not the Tat 32-62 fragment, were active in rat synaptosomes. In conclusion, Tat elicits Ca2+-dependent [3H]ACh release by species-specific intraterminal mechanisms by binding via discrete amino acid sequences to different receptive sites on human and rat cholinergic terminals.

  5. NESHAP Area-Specific Dose-Release Factors for Potential Onsite Member-of-the-Public Locations at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). In this report, the DRFs were calculated for potential radionuclide atmospheric releases from 13 SRS release points. The three potential onsite MEI locations to be evaluated are B-Area, Three Rivers Landfill (TRL), and Savannah River Ecology Lab Conference Center (SRELCC) with TRL’s onsite workers considered as members-of-the-public, and the potential future constructions of dormitories at SRELCC and Barracks at B-Area. Each MEI location was evaluated at a specified compass sector with different area to receptor distances and was conducted for both ground-level and elevated release points. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014). The resulting DRFs are compared to the 2014 NESHAP offsite MEI DRFs for three operational areas; A-Area, H-Area, and COS for a release rate of 1 Ci of tritium oxide at 0 ft. elevation. CAP88 was executed again using the 2016 NESHAP MEI release rates for 0 and 61 m stack heights to determine the radionuclide dose at TRL from the center-of-site (COS).

  6. A Domain Specific Lexicon Acquisition Tool for Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Kraaij, Wessel

    1997-01-01

    With the recent enormous increase of information dissemination via the web as incentive there is a growing interest in supporting tools for cross-language retrieval. In this paper we describe a disclosure and retrieval approach that fulfils the needs of both information providers and users by

  7. Diagnostic flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy: development of a procedure specific assessment tool using a Delphi methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Dikkers, Frederik G; Gavilán, Javier; Noordzij, J Pieter; Fried, Marvin P; Novakovic, Daniel; Fagan, Johannes; Charabi, Birgitte W; Konge, Lars; von Buchwald, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Proper training and assessment of skill in flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy are central in the education of otorhinolaryngologists. To facilitate an evidence-based approach to curriculum development in this field, a structured analysis of what constitutes flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy is necessary. Our aim was to develop an assessment tool based on this analysis. We conducted an international Delphi study involving experts from twelve countries in five continents. Utilizing reiterative assessment, the panel defined the procedure and reached consensus (defined as 80% agreement) on the phrasing of an assessment tool. FIFTY PANELISTS COMPLETED THE DELPHI PROCESS. THE MEDIAN AGE OF THE PANELISTS WAS 44 YEARS (RANGE 33-64 YEARS). MEDIAN EXPERIENCE IN OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY WAS 15 YEARS (RANGE 6-35 YEARS). TWENTY-FIVE WERE SPECIALIZED IN LARYNGOLOGY, 16 WERE HEAD AND NECK SURGEONS, AND NINE WERE GENERAL OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGISTS. AN ASSESSMENT TOOL WAS CREATED CONSISTING OF TWELVE DISTINCT ITEMS.: Conclusion The gathering of validity evidence for assessment of core procedural skills within Otorhinolaryngology is central to the development of a competence-based education. The use of an international Delphi panel allows for the creation of an assessment tool which is widely applicable and valid. This work allows for an informed approach to technical skills training for flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy and as further validity evidence is gathered allows for a valid assessment of clinical performance within this important skillset.

  8. Effects of Muscle-Specific Oxidative Stress on Cytochrome c Release and Oxidation-Reduction Potential Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yiling; Mitacek, Rachel M; Abraham, Anupam; Mafi, Gretchen G; VanOverbeke, Deborah L; DeSilva, Udaya; Ramanathan, Ranjith

    2017-09-06

    Mitochondria play a significant role in beef color. However, the role of oxidative stress in cytochrome c release and mitochondrial degradation is not clear. The objective was to determine the effects of display time on cytochrome c content and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of beef longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles. PM discolored by day 3 compared with LL. On day 0, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were greater in PM than LL. However, mitochondrial content and oxygen consumption were lower (P stress can affect cytochrome c release and ORP changes.

  9. Improvement of tool support of the spatial approach to regional planning: problems, specifics, trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Gennadievna Yushkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging imperatives of innovation economic development in Russia determine the content of conceptual and institutional constraints to the development of regional economic systems (RES. They consider the regional planning system as a leading priority in its inseparable unity with modern public administration tasks. However, the practice of development of long-term plans in the RF subjects proves that the innovation challenges of economic policy are not reflected properly in them or they are significantly distorted. The following reasons reduce the effectiveness of modernization processes in the RF subjects and hamper the appropriate reaction of RES on their impact: the lack of coordination between socio-economic and spatial regional plans, the imbalance of interaction between state authorities engaged in long-term planning, the lack of real prerequisites for the implementation of innovation initiatives in the regions. Systematization and analysis of long-term plans make it possible to substantiate the consistency of the spatial approach to regional planning expressed in the dominance of the transformational function that synchronizes the configuration and parameters of RES, and to establish ways to integrate spatial components in the system of regional planning through optimization of its tool support. The change in the content of the instrumentation support is based on the synthesis of the predominant basic characteristics of the existing tools used in isolated subsystems of regional planning of socio-economic and territorial development. The study has established a system of tool support for regional planning that adapts to the changes in both internal and external factors in the development of RES. Three main groups of tools: organizing, regulating, and coordinating are defined by their typing in accordance with the groups of management functions. The article proposes the modeling of combinations of tools that are subordinated to the

  10. Integration of ROOT Notebooks as a Web-based ATLAS Analysis tool for public data releases and outreach

    CERN Document Server

    Banda, Tea; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The project consists in the initial development of ROOT notebooks for a Z boson analysis in C++ programming language that will allow students and researches to perform fast and very useful data analysis, using ATLAS public data and Monte- Carlo simulations. Several tools are considered: ROOT Data Analysis Frame- work, Jupyter Notebook Technology and CERN-ROOT computing service so-called SWAN.

  11. Diabetes is associated with lower tuberculosis antigen-specific interferon gamma release in Tanzanian tuberculosis patients and non-tuberculosis controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Aabye, Martine Grosos; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    in diabetes patients and therefore the validity of interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) may be compromised. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between diabetes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release in a TB endemic area among culture......-confirmed TB patients and non-TB controls. Methods: Culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients (n = 187) and healthy non-TB neighbourhood controls (n = 190) from Mwanza, Tanzania were tested for the presence of circulating T cells recognizing Mtb antigens using an IGRA. The diabetes status of all participants...

  12. Calculating the radiological parameters used in non-human biota dose assessment tools using ERICA Tool and site-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiropoulou, Maria [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece); Florou, Heleny [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Kitis, Georgios [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    The substantial complexity in ecosystem-radionuclide interactions is difficult to be represented in terms of radiological doses. Thus, radiological dose assessment tools use typical exposure situations for generalized organisms and ecosystems. In the present study, site-specific data and radioactivity measurements of terrestrial organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) are provided. The retrieved data are used in combination with the ERICA Assessment Tool for calculation of radiological parameters. The process of radionuclide transfer within ecosystem components is represented using concentration ratios (CRs), while for the calculation of dose rates the dose conversion coefficient (DCC) methodology is applied. Comparative assessments are performed between the generic and assessment-specific radiological parameters and between the resulting dose rates. Significant differences were observed between CRs calculated in this study and those reported in the literature for cesium and thorium, which can easily be explained. On the other hand, CRs calculated for radium are in very good agreement with those reported in the literature. The DCCs exhibited some small differences between the reference and the assessment-specific organism due to mass differences. The differences were observed for internal and external dose rates, but they were less pronounced for total dose rates which are typically used in the assessment of radiological impact. The results of the current work can serve as a basis for further studies of the radiological parameters in environments that have not been studied yet. (orig.)

  13. Effect of co-administration of probiotics with polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery systems to optimize site specific drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhviraj, G; Vaidya, Yogyata; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Kaur, Puneet; Gulati, Monica; Gowthamarajan, K

    2015-11-01

    Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CRISP. Requirements Specifications of Intelligent ICT Simulation Tools for Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kester, J.C.P.; Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands); Carlsson, P [EnerSearch, Malmoe (Sweden); Fontela, M. [Laboratory of Electrical Engineering LEG, Grenoble (France); Gustavsson, R. [Blekinge Institute of Technology BTH, Karlskrona (Sweden)

    2003-10-15

    This report, deliverable D2.1 in the CRISP project, serves as a preparation report for the development of simulation tools and prototype software which will be developed in forthcoming stages of the CRISP project. Application areas for these simulations are: fault detection and diagnosis, supply and demand matching and intelligent load shedding. The context in which these applications function is the power network with a high degree of distributed generation, including renewables. In order to control a so called distributed grid we can benefit from a high level of distributed control and intelligence. This requires, on top of the power system network, an information and communication network.. We argue that such a network should be seen as an enabler of distributed control and intelligence. The applications, through which control and intelligence is implemented, then form a third network layer, the service oriented network. Building upon this three-layered network model we derive in this report the requirements for a simulation tool and experiments which study new techniques for fault detection and diagnostics and for simulation tools and experiments implementing intelligent load shedding and supply and demand matching scenarios. We also look at future implementation of these services within the three-layered network model and the requirements that follow for the core information and communication network and for the service oriented network. These requirements, supported by the studies performed in the CRISP Workpackage 1, serve as a basis for development of the simulation tools in the tasks 2.2 to 2.4.

  15. CRISP. Requirements Specifications of Intelligent ICT Simulation Tools for Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kester, J.C.P.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Carlsson, P; Fontela, M.; Gustavsson, R.

    2003-10-01

    This report, deliverable D2.1 in the CRISP project, serves as a preparation report for the development of simulation tools and prototype software which will be developed in forthcoming stages of the CRISP project. Application areas for these simulations are: fault detection and diagnosis, supply and demand matching and intelligent load shedding. The context in which these applications function is the power network with a high degree of distributed generation, including renewables. In order to control a so called distributed grid we can benefit from a high level of distributed control and intelligence. This requires, on top of the power system network, an information and communication network.. We argue that such a network should be seen as an enabler of distributed control and intelligence. The applications, through which control and intelligence is implemented, then form a third network layer, the service oriented network. Building upon this three-layered network model we derive in this report the requirements for a simulation tool and experiments which study new techniques for fault detection and diagnostics and for simulation tools and experiments implementing intelligent load shedding and supply and demand matching scenarios. We also look at future implementation of these services within the three-layered network model and the requirements that follow for the core information and communication network and for the service oriented network. These requirements, supported by the studies performed in the CRISP Workpackage 1, serve as a basis for development of the simulation tools in the tasks 2.2 to 2.4

  16. Integration of ROOT Notebooks as an ATLAS analysis web-based tool in outreach and public data release

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Arturo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The integration of the ROOT data analysis framework with the Jupyter Notebook technology presents an incredible potential in the enhance and expansion of educational and training programs: starting from university students in their early years, passing to new ATLAS PhD students and post doctoral researchers, to those senior analysers and professors that want to restart their contact with the analysis of data or to include a more friendly but yet very powerful open source tool in the classroom. Such tools have been already tested in several environments and a fully web-based integration together with Open Access Data repositories brings the possibility to go a step forward in the search of ATLAS for integration between several CERN projects in the field of the education and training, developing new computing solutions on the way.

  17. An integrated system for dissolution studies and magnetic resonance imaging of controlled release, polymer-based dosage forms-a tool for quantitative assessment of hydrogel formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Dorozyński, Przemysław; Jachowicz, Renata; Weglarz, Władysław P

    2008-11-04

    Controlled release (CR) dosage forms are often based on polymeric matrices, e.g., sustained-release tablets and capsules. It is crucial to visualise and quantify processes of the hydrogel formation during the standard dissolution study. A method for imaging of CR, polymer-based dosage forms during dissolution study in vitro is presented. Imaging was performed in a non-invasive way by means of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to simulate in vivo conditions regarding temperature, volume, state and composition of dissolution media. Two formulations of hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS) were chosen as model CR dosage forms. HBS release active substance in stomach while floating on the surface of the gastric content. Time evolutions of the diffusion region, hydrogel formation region and "dry core" region were obtained during a dissolution study of L-dopa as a model drug in two simulated gastric fluids (i.e. in fed and fasted state). This method seems to be a very promising tool for examining properties of new formulations of CR, polymer-based dosage forms or for comparison of generic and originator dosage forms before carrying out bioequivalence studies.

  18. Integration of ROOT Notebooks as a Web-based ATLAS Analysis tool for Public Data Releases and Outreach

    CERN Document Server

    Abah, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The project worked on the development of a physics analysis and its software under ROOT framework and Jupyter notebooks for the the ATLAS Outreach and the Naples teams. This analysis is created in the context of the release of data and Monte Carlo samples by the ATLAS collaboration. The project focuses on the enhancement of the recent opendata.atlas.cern web platform to be used as educational resources for university students and new researches. The generated analysis structure and tutorials will be used to extend the participation of students from other locations around the World. We conclude the project with the creation of a complete notebook representing the so-called W analysis in C + + language for the mentioned platform.

  19. Applying a Generic Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) Authoring Tool to Specific Military Domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stottler, Dick; Fu, Daniel; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Jackson, Terresa

    2006-01-01

    .... IITSAT allows ITS authors to organize course principles, articulate teaching methods, specify courseware, and develop a case base of scenarios for students along with a specification of how the student's...

  20. E-Learning Lifecycles:How Communities and Context can affect E-learning Specifications and Tool Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Magee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a large body of e-learning specifications, such as IMS and SCORM, has led to the proposal for a new way to facilitate content workflow. This involves the movement of educational digital content and the knowledge of pedagogical communities into an online space. Several projects have looked at the theoretical structure of these specifications. They implemented a series of tools in order to examine and research the issues around the actual usage of these specifications. The CAREO, ALOHA and ALOHA 2 projects were designed to expose both individual users and whole institutions to these ideas. Initial research into the result of those interactions indicates that there is some utility in the adoption of e-learning specifications. The future success of them will depend on their ability to adapt and meet the needs of the educational community as they begin to adopt, use and evolve the way they use the specifications and the tools created around them.

  1. WASP: a Web-based Allele-Specific PCR assay designing tool for detecting SNPs and mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assawamakin Anunchai

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allele-specific (AS Polymerase Chain Reaction is a convenient and inexpensive method for genotyping Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and mutations. It is applied in many recent studies including population genetics, molecular genetics and pharmacogenomics. Using known AS primer design tools to create primers leads to cumbersome process to inexperience users since information about SNP/mutation must be acquired from public databases prior to the design. Furthermore, most of these tools do not offer the mismatch enhancement to designed primers. The available web applications do not provide user-friendly graphical input interface and intuitive visualization of their primer results. Results This work presents a web-based AS primer design application called WASP. This tool can efficiently design AS primers for human SNPs as well as mutations. To assist scientists with collecting necessary information about target polymorphisms, this tool provides a local SNP database containing over 10 million SNPs of various populations from public domain databases, namely NCBI dbSNP, HapMap and JSNP respectively. This database is tightly integrated with the tool so that users can perform the design for existing SNPs without going off the site. To guarantee specificity of AS primers, the proposed system incorporates a primer specificity enhancement technique widely used in experiment protocol. In particular, WASP makes use of different destabilizing effects by introducing one deliberate 'mismatch' at the penultimate (second to last of the 3'-end base of AS primers to improve the resulting AS primers. Furthermore, WASP offers graphical user interface through scalable vector graphic (SVG draw that allow users to select SNPs and graphically visualize designed primers and their conditions. Conclusion WASP offers a tool for designing AS primers for both SNPs and mutations. By integrating the database for known SNPs (using gene ID or rs number

  2. Estimating nutrient releases from agriculture in China: An extended substance flow analysis framework and a modeling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Chen, J.; Sun, F.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture related pollution has attracted the attention of policy makers as well as scientists in China as its contribution to water impairment has increased, and quantitative information at the national and regional levels is being sought to support decision making. However, traditional approaches are either time-consuming, expensive (e.g. national surveys) or oversimplified and crude (e.g. coefficient methods). Therefore, this study proposed an extended substance flow analysis (SFA) framework to estimate nutrient releases from agricultural and rural activities in China by depicting the nutrient flows in Chinese agro-ecosystems. The six-step process proposed herein includes: (a) system definition; (b) model development; (c) database development; (d) model validation; (e) results interpretation; and (f) uncertainty analysis. The developed Eubolism (Elementary Unit based nutrient Balance mOdeLIng in agro-ecoSysteM) model combined a nutrient balance module with an emission inventory module to quantify the nutrient flows in the agro-ecosystem. The model was validated and then applied to estimate the total agricultural nutrient loads, identify the contribution of different agricultural and rural activities and different land use types to the total loads, and analyze the spatial pattern of agricultural nutrient emissions in China. These results could provide an entire picture of agricultural pollution at the national level and be used to support policy making. Furthermore, uncertainties associated with the structure of the elementary units, spatial resolution, and inputs/parameters were also analyzed to evaluate the robustness of the model results.

  3. The Solar Reflectance Index as a Tool to Forecast the Heat Released to the Urban Environment: Potentiality and Assessment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Muscio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Overheating of buildings and urban areas is a more and more severe issue in view of global warming combined with increasing urbanization. The thermal behavior of urban surfaces in the hot seasons is the result of a complex balance of construction and environmental parameters such as insulation level, thermal mass, shielding, and solar reflective capability on one side, and ambient conditions on the other side. Regulations makers and the construction industry have favored the use of parameters that allow the forecasting of the interaction between different material properties without the need for complex analyses. Among these, the solar reflectance index (SRI takes into account solar reflectance and thermal emittance to predict the thermal behavior of a surface subjected to solar radiation through a physically rigorous mathematical procedure that considers assigned air and sky temperatures, peak solar irradiance, and wind velocity. The correlation of SRI with the heat released to the urban environment is analyzed in this paper, as well as the sensitivity of its calculation procedure to variation of the input parameters, as possibly induced by the measurement methods used or by the material ageing.

  4. Efficacy of specific gravity as a tool for prediction of biodiesel-petroleum diesel blend ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediction of volumetric biodiesel/petrodiesel blend ratio (VBD) from specific gravity (SG) data was the subject of the current investigation. Fatty acid methyl esters obtained from soybean, palm, and rapeseed oils along with chicken fat (SME-1, SME-2, PME, RME, and CFME) were blended (0 to 20 volum...

  5. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful....

  6. Myositis-specific autoantibodies: an important tool to support diagnosis of myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteridge, Z; McHugh, N

    2016-07-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are characterized by muscle weakness, skin disease and internal organ involvement. Autoimmunity is known to have a role in myositis pathogenesis, and myositis-specific autoantibodies, targeting important intracellular proteins, are regarded as key biomarkers aiding in the diagnosis of patients. In recent years, a number of novel myositis autoantibodies including anti-TIF1, anti-NXP2, anti-MDA5, anti-SAE, anti-HMGCR and anti-cN1A have been identified in both adult and juvenile patients. These autoantibodies correlate with distinct clinical manifestations and importantly are found in inclusion body, statin-induced, clinically amyopathic and juvenile groups of myositis patients, previously believed to be mainly autoantibody negative. In this review, we will describe the main myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies and their frequencies and clinical associations across different ages and ethnic groups. We will also discuss preliminary studies investigating correlations between specific myositis autoantibody titres and clinical markers of disease course, collectively demonstrating the utility of myositis autoantibodies as both diagnostic and prognostic markers of disease. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  7. Patient-specific surgical planning and hemodynamic computational fluid dynamics optimization through free-form haptic anatomy editing tool (SURGEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkan, Kerem; Whited, Brian; Kanter, Kirk; Sharma, Shiva; de Zelicourt, Diane; Sundareswaran, Kartik; Frakes, David; Rossignac, Jarek; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2008-11-01

    The first version of an anatomy editing/surgical planning tool (SURGEM) targeting anatomical complexity and patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is presented. Novel three-dimensional (3D) shape editing concepts and human-shape interaction technologies have been integrated to facilitate interactive surgical morphology alterations, grid generation and CFD analysis. In order to implement "manual hemodynamic optimization" at the surgery planning phase for patients with congenital heart defects, these tools are applied to design and evaluate possible modifications of patient-specific anatomies. In this context, anatomies involve complex geometric topologies and tortuous 3D blood flow pathways with multiple inlets and outlets. These tools make it possible to freely deform the lumen surface and to bend and position baffles through real-time, direct manipulation of the 3D models with both hands, thus eliminating the tedious and time-consuming phase of entering the desired geometry using traditional computer-aided design (CAD) systems. The 3D models of the modified anatomies are seamlessly exported and meshed for patient-specific CFD analysis. Free-formed anatomical modifications are quantified using an in-house skeletization based cross-sectional geometry analysis tool. Hemodynamic performance of the systematically modified anatomies is compared with the original anatomy using CFD. CFD results showed the relative importance of the various surgically created features such as pouch size, vena cave to pulmonary artery (PA) flare and PA stenosis. An interactive surgical-patch size estimator is also introduced. The combined design/analysis cycle time is used for comparing and optimizing surgical plans and improvements are tabulated. The reduced cost of patient-specific shape design and analysis process, made it possible to envision large clinical studies to assess the validity of predictive patient-specific CFD simulations. In this paper, model

  8. Serum biomarkers reflecting specific tumor tissue remodeling processes are valuable diagnostic tools for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willumsen, Nicholas; Bager, Cecilie L; Leeming, Diana J; Smith, Victoria; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A; Dornan, David; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen type I and elastin, and intermediate filament (IMF) proteins, such as vimentin are modified and dysregulated as part of the malignant changes leading to disruption of tissue homeostasis. Noninvasive biomarkers that reflect such changes may have a great potential for cancer. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) generated fragments of type I collagen (C1M), of elastin (ELM), and of citrullinated vimentin (VICM) were measured in serum from patients with lung cancer (n = 40), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 25), prostate cancer (n = 14), malignant melanoma (n = 7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 13), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 10), as well as in age-matched controls (n = 33). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) was calculated and a diagnostic decision tree generated from specific cutoff values. C1M and VICM were significantly elevated in lung cancer patients as compared with healthy controls (AUROC = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and other cancers (AUROC = 0.83 P < 0.0001). A trend was detected when comparing lung cancer with COPD+IPF. No difference could be seen for ELM. Interestingly, C1M and VICM were able to identify patients with lung cancer with a positive predictive value of 0.9 and an odds ratio of 40 (95% CI = 8.7–186, P < 0.0001). Biomarkers specifically reflecting degradation of collagen type I and citrullinated vimentin are applicable for lung cancer patients. Our data indicate that biomarkers reflecting ECM and IMF protein dysregulation are highly applicable in the lung cancer setting. We speculate that these markers may aid in diagnosing and characterizing patients with lung cancer

  9. A comparison of systemwide and hospital-specific performance measurement tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Clarence; Siu, Emily; Baker, G Ross; Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2005-01-01

    Balanced scorecards are being implemented at the system and organizational levels to help managers link their organizational strategies with performance data to better manage their healthcare systems. Prior to this study, hospitals in Ontario, Canada, received two editions of the system-level scorecard (SLS)--a framework, based on the original balanced scorecard, that includes four quadrants: system integration and management innovation (learning and growth), clinical utilization and outcomes (internal processes), patient satisfaction (customer), and financial performance and condition (financial). This study examines the uptake of the SLS framework and indicators into institution-specific scorecards for 22 acute care institutions and 2 non-acute-care institutions. This study found that larger (teaching and community) hospitals were significantly more likely to use the SLS framework to report performance data than did small hospitals (p < 0.0049 and 0.0507) and that teaching hospitals used the framework significantly more than community hospitals did (p < 0.0529). The majority of hospitals in this study used at least one indicator from the SLS in their own scorecards. However, all hospitals in the study incorporated indicators that required data collection and analysis beyond the SLS framework. The study findings suggest that SLS may assist hospitals in developing institution-specific scorecards for hospital management and that the balanced scorecard model can be modified to meet the needs of a variety of hospitals. Based on the insight from this study and other activities that explore top priorities for hospital management, the issues related to efficiency and human resources should be further examined using SLSs.

  10. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, Catherine A; Copeland, Benjamin T; Morath, Volker; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, Arne; Pomper, Martin G; Barinka, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was used to compare the suitability of the mAbs for in vivo applications. All mAbs demonstrate high specificity for PSMA as documented by the lack of cross-reactivity to unrelated human proteins. The 3F11 and 1A11 mAbs bind linear epitopes spanning residues 226-243 and 271-288 of human PSMA, respectively. 3F11 is also suitable for the detection of PSMA orthologs from mouse, pig, dog, and rat in experimental setups where the denatured form of PSMA is used. 5D3 and 5B1 mAbs recognize distinct surface-exposed conformational epitopes and are useful for targeting PSMA in its native conformation. Most importantly, using a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer we show that both the intact 5D3 and its Fab fragment are suitable for in vivo imaging. With apparent affinities of 0.14 and 1.2 nM as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, 5D3 has approximately 10-fold higher affinity for PSMA than the clinically validated mAb J591 and, therefore, is a prime candidate for the development of next-generation theranostics to target PSMA. Prostate 77:749-764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Criterion Validity of the “HRQOLISP-E”: A New Context-Specific Screening Tool for Poststroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The optimal tool for identifying postsroke depression (PSD is yet to be identified. In the present study, we rely on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D as a meaningful criterion to investigate the psychometric properties of the HRQOLISP-E, a new context-specific screening tool for PSD developed from a large cross-cultural sample. Methods. We assessed baseline data being collected as part of an intervention to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤one month stroke survivors. Depression was measured using the HADS-D and the HRQOLISP-E. We determined sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and posttest probability. The area under a receiver operator curve (AUC and the most appropriate HRQOLISP-E cut-off were also determined using standard procedures. Results. Using data derived from 387 recent stroke survivors, the HRQOLISP-E showed high agreement with the HADS-D, sensitivity = 73.7%, specificity = 79.3%, and posterior test probability = 88% (95% CI = 84%–91%. The AUC was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.76–0.86. The HRQOLISP-E cut-off, corresponding to HADS-D score ≥ 8, was 20/21 (out of a total score of 30. Conclusions. Within limitations of using the HADS-D as a referent criterion, the present results provide justification for further development of the HRQOLISP-E as the first stroke-specific screening tool for depression.

  12. Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate as a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart; Edwards, Alistair; Liddy, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    -rich plasma, in which the wide dynamic range of the native protein complement hinders classical proteomic investigations. We employed an ex vivo rabbit model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using Langendorff buffer perfusion. Nonrecirculating perfusate was collected over a temporal profile...... reperfusion post-15I. Proteins released during irreversible I/R (60I/60R) were profiled using gel-based (2-DE and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; geLC–MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) methods. A total of 192 tissue-specific proteins were identified...... release using ex vivo buffer perfused tissue to limit the presence of obfuscating plasma proteins may identify candidates for further study in humans....

  13. The Qatar genome: a population-specific tool for precision medicine in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhro, Khalid A; Staudt, Michelle R; Ramstetter, Monica Denise; Robay, Amal; Malek, Joel A; Badii, Ramin; Al-Marri, Ajayeb Al-Nabet; Khalil, Charbel Abi; Al-Shakaki, Alya; Chidiac, Omar; Stadler, Dora; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Salit, Jacqueline; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L

    2016-01-01

    Reaching the full potential of precision medicine depends on the quality of personalized genome interpretation. In order to facilitate precision medicine in regions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a population-specific genome for the indigenous Arab population of Qatar (QTRG) was constructed by incorporating allele frequency data from sequencing of 1,161 Qataris, representing 0.4% of the population. A total of 20.9 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3.1 million indels were observed in Qatar, including an average of 1.79% novel variants per individual genome. Replacement of the GRCh37 standard reference with QTRG in a best practices genome analysis workflow resulted in an average of 7* deeper coverage depth (an improvement of 23%) and 756,671 fewer variants on average, a reduction of 16% that is attributed to common Qatari alleles being present in QTRG. The benefit for using QTRG varies across ancestries, a factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting an appropriate reference for analysis. PMID:27408750

  14. Cell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Keigo; Pignatelli, Michele; Rivest, Alexander J; Jung, Hae-Yoon; Kitamura, Takashi; Suh, Junghyup; Frank, Dominic; Kajikawa, Koichiro; Mise, Nathan; Obata, Yuichi; Wickersham, Ian R; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    The formation and recall of episodic memory requires precise information processing by the entorhinal-hippocampal network. For several decades, the trisynaptic circuit entorhinal cortex layer II (ECII)→dentate gyrus→CA3→CA1 and the monosynaptic circuit ECIII→CA1 have been considered the primary substrates of the network responsible for learning and memory. Circuits linked to another hippocampal region, CA2, have only recently come to light. Using highly cell type-specific transgenic mouse lines, optogenetics and patch-clamp recordings, we found that dentate gyrus cells, long believed to not project to CA2, send functional monosynaptic inputs to CA2 pyramidal cells through abundant longitudinal projections. CA2 innervated CA1 to complete an alternate trisynaptic circuit, but, unlike CA3, projected preferentially to the deep, rather than to the superficial, sublayer of CA1. Furthermore, contrary to existing knowledge, ECIII did not project to CA2. Our results allow a deeper understanding of the biology of learning and memory.

  15. Quantitative PCR--new diagnostic tool for quantifying specific mRNA and DNA molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlemmer, B O; Sorensen, B S; Overgaard, J

    2004-01-01

    of a subset of ligands from the EGF system is increased in bladder cancer. Furthermore, measurement of the mRNA concentration gives important information such as the expression of these ligands correlated to the survival of the patients. In addition to the alterations at the mRNA level, changes also can occur...... at the DNA level in the EGF system. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the number of genes coding for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is increased in a number of breast tumors. It is now possible to treat breast cancer patients with a humanized antibody reacting with HER2...... of mRNA or DNA in biological samples. In this study quantitative PCR was used to investigate the role of the EGF (epidermal growth factor) system in cancer both for measurements of mRNA concentrations and for measurements of the number of copies of specific genes. It is shown that the mRNA expression...

  16. Rational Catalyst Design of Titanium-Silica Materials Aided by Site-Specific Titration Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Todd Robert

    Silica-supported titanium materials are widely used for thermocatalytic applications such as hydroxylation of alkanes and aromatics, oxidation of alcohols and ethers, ammoximation of carbonyls, and sulfoxidations, while Ti-based materials are widely studied for photocatalytic applications such as photo-oxidation of organic substrates and photo-reduction of CO 2. However, the underlying phenomena of how to synthesize, identify, and control the active structures in these materials is not well understood because of the narrow scope of previous work. Studies of titanium-based catalysts typically focus on materials where the metal is present as either highly-dispersed Ti cations or in bulk crystalline TiO2 form, neglecting the numerous and potentially useful intermediate structures. Furthermore, these works typically focus on a single synthesis technique and rely upon bulk characterization techniques to understand the materials. Here rigorous titanium-silica synthesis-structure-function relationships are established by examining several different synthetic method and utilizing characterization techniques that enable an atomic-level understanding of the materials. The materials studied span the range from isolated Ti cations to clustered TiOx domains, polymeric TiO x domains, anatase-like 2D TiO2 domains, and 3D crystalline TiO2. Tools to quantify accessible TiO x and tetrahedral Ti sites are developed, utilizing the selective titration of titanium with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA). Catalytic properties are probed with the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and the thermocatalytic epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene with H2O2 . PPA titration data indicate that the rate of benzyl alcohol photo-oxidation is independent of titanium coordination, while the rate of alkene epoxidation with H2O2 is proportional to the number of tetrahedral titanium sites on the catalyst. PPA titration data also enables the estimation of TiO2 particle size and reveals an important distinction

  17. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a Specific And Safe Tool for Insect Pest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully used bioinsecticide in the integrated pest management programs in the world. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Compound-specific isotopic analyses: a novel tool for reconstruction of ancient biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.; Freeman, K. H.; Popp, B. N.; Hoham, C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Patterns of isotopic fractionation in biogeochemical processes are reviewed and it is suggested that isotopic fractionations will be small when substrates are large. If so, isotopic compositions of biomarkers will reflect those of their biosynthetic precursors. This prediction is tested by consideration of results of analyses of geoporphyrins and geolipids from the Greenhorn Formation (Cretaceous, Western Interior Seaway of North America) and the Messel Shale (Eocene, lacustrine, southern Germany). It is shown (i) that isotopic compositions of porphyrins that are related to a common source, but which have been altered structurally, cluster tightly and (ii) that isotopic differences between geolipids and porphyrins related to a common source are equal to those observed in modern biosynthetic products. Both of these observations are consistent with preservation of biologically controlled isotopic compositions during diagenesis. Isotopic compositions of individual compounds can thus be interpreted in terms of biogeochemical processes in ancient depositional environments. In the Cretaceous samples, isotopic compositions of n-alkanes are covariant with those of total organic carbon, while delta values for pristane and phytane are covariant with those of porphyrins. In this unit representing an open marine environment, the preserved acyclic polyisoprenoids apparently derive mainly from primary material, while the extractable, n-alkanes derive mainly from lower levels of the food chain. In the Messel Shale, isotopic compositions of individual biomarkers range from -20.9 to -73.4% vs PDB. Isotopic compositions of specific compounds can be interpreted in terms of origin from methylotrophic, chemautotrophic, and chemolithotrophic microorganisms as well as from primary producers that lived in the water column and sediments of this ancient lake.

  19. Computational Biology Tools for Identifying Specific Ligand Binding Residues for Novel Agrochemical and Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshich, Izabella Agostinho Pena; Nishimura, Leticia; de Moraes, Fabio Rogerio; Salim, Jose Augusto; Villalta-Romero, Fabian; Borro, Luiz; Yano, Inacio Henrique; Mazoni, Ivan; Tasic, Ljubica; Jardine, Jose Gilberto; Neshich, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The term "agrochemicals" is used in its generic form to represent a spectrum of pesticides, such as insecticides, fungicides or bactericides. They contain active components designed for optimized pest management and control, therefore allowing for economically sound and labor efficient agricultural production. A "drug" on the other side is a term that is used for compounds designed for controlling human diseases. Although drugs are subjected to much more severe testing and regulation procedures before reaching the market, they might contain exactly the same active ingredient as certain agrochemicals, what is the case described in present work, showing how a small chemical compound might be used to control pathogenicity of Gram negative bacteria Xylella fastidiosa which devastates citrus plantations, as well as for control of, for example, meningitis in humans. It is also clear that so far the production of new agrochemicals is not benefiting as much from the in silico new chemical compound identification/discovery as pharmaceutical production. Rational drug design crucially depends on detailed knowledge of structural information about the receptor (target protein) and the ligand (drug/agrochemical). The interaction between the two molecules is the subject of analysis that aims to understand relationship between structure and function, mainly deciphering some fundamental elements of the nanoenvironment where the interaction occurs. In this work we will emphasize the role of understanding nanoenvironmental factors that guide recognition and interaction of target protein and its function modifier, an agrochemical or a drug. The repertoire of nanoenvironment descriptors is used for two selected and specific cases we have approached in order to offer a technological solution for some very important problems that needs special attention in agriculture: elimination of pathogenicity of a bacterium which is attacking citrus plants and formulation of a new fungicide. Finally

  20. The specific monomer/dimer equilibrium of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 is established in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Anke; Gibert, Arthur; Lampe, André; Grzesik, Paul; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Schmoranzer, Jan; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2014-08-29

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the most important drug targets. Although the smallest functional unit of a GPCR is a monomer, it became clear in the past decades that the vast majority of the receptors form dimers. Only very recently, however, data were presented that some receptors may in fact be expressed as a mixture of monomers and dimers and that the interaction of the receptor protomers is dynamic. To date, equilibrium measurements were restricted to the plasma membrane due to experimental limitations. We have addressed the question as to where this equilibrium is established for the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1. By developing a novel approach to analyze single molecule fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy data for intracellular membrane compartments, we show that the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 has a specific monomer/dimer equilibrium that is already established in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It remains constant at the plasma membrane even following receptor activation. Moreover, we demonstrate for seven additional GPCRs that they are expressed in specific but substantially different monomer/dimer ratios. Although it is well known that proteins may dimerize in the ER in principle, our data show that the ER is also able to establish the specific monomer/dimer ratios of GPCRs, which sheds new light on the functions of this compartment. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Health-related quality of life of chemical warfare victims: an assessment with the use of a specific tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL.

  2. A Mycorrhizal-Specific Ammonium Transporter from Lotus japonicus Acquires Nitrogen Released by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guether, Mike; Neuhäuser, Benjamin; Balestrini, Raffaella; Dynowski, Marek; Ludewig, Uwe; Bonfante, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In mycorrhizal associations, the fungal partner assists its plant host by providing nitrogen (N) in addition to phosphate. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have access to inorganic or organic forms of N and translocate them via arginine from the extra- to the intraradical mycelium, where the N is transferred to the plant without any carbon skeleton. However, the molecular form in which N is transferred, as well as the involved mechanisms, is still under debate. NH4+ seems to be the preferential transferred molecule, but no plant ammonium transporter (AMT) has been identified so far. Here, we offer evidence of a plant AMT that is involved in N uptake during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The gene LjAMT2;2, which has been shown to be the highest up-regulated gene in a transcriptomic analysis of Lotus japonicus roots upon colonization with Gigaspora margarita, has been characterized as a high-affinity AMT belonging to the AMT2 subfamily. It is exclusively expressed in the mycorrhizal roots, but not in the nodules, and transcripts have preferentially been located in the arbusculated cells. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant complementation has confirmed its functionality and revealed its dependency on acidic pH. The transport experiments using Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that, unlike other plant AMTs, LjAMT2;2 transports NH3 instead of NH4+. Our results suggest that the transporter binds charged ammonium in the apoplastic interfacial compartment and releases the uncharged NH3 into the plant cytoplasm. The implications of such a finding are discussed in the context of AM functioning and plant phosphorus uptake. PMID:19329566

  3. The Impact of Lipoprotein-Associated Oxidative Stress on Cell-Specific Microvesicle Release in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Microvesicles (MVs are small cell-derived particles shed upon activation. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH particularly when associated with Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX predisposes to atherosclerosis, possibly through oxLDL-C interaction with the CD36 receptor. To investigate the hypothesis that MVs derived from cells involved in atherosclerosis are increased in FH and that CD36 expressing MVs (CD36+ MVs may be markers of oxLDL-C-induced cell activation, cell-specific MVs were measured in FH patients with and without ATX and their association with atherogenic lipid profile was studied. Approach and Results. Thirty FH patients with and without ATX and twenty-three controls were included. Plasma concentrations of MVs and CD36+ MVs derived from platelets (PMVs, erythrocytes (ErytMVs, monocytes (MMVs, and endothelial cells (EMVs, as well as tissue factor-positive cells (TF+ MVs, were measured by flow cytometry. Total MVs, MMVs, EMVs, ErytMVs, and TF+ MVs were significantly increased in FH patients, compared to controls. CD36+ MVs derived from endothelial cells and monocytes were significantly higher in FH patients and oxLDL-C predicted all the investigated cell-specific CD36+ MVs in FH patients with ATX. Conclusions. MVs derived from cells involved in atherosclerosis were increased in FH and may contribute to elevated atherothrombosis risk. The increased cell-specific CD36+ MVs observed in FH may represent markers of oxLDL-C-induced cell activation.

  4. Developing site-specific interactive environmental management tools: An exciting method of communicating training, procedures, and other information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckels, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with numerous programs that must be communicated throughout their organizations. Among these are regulatory training programs, internal environmental policy, regulatory guidance/procedures and internal guidance/procedures. Traditional methods of delivering this type of information are typically confined to written materials and classroom training. There are many challenges faced by environmental managers with these traditional approaches including: determining if recipients of written plans or procedures are reading and comprehending the information; scheduling training sessions to reach all affected people across multiple schedules/shifts; and maintaining adequate training records. In addition, current trends toward performance-based or competency-based training requires a more consistent method of measuring and documenting performance. The use of interactive computer applications to present training or procedural information is a new and exciting tool for delivering environmental information to employees. Site-specific pictures, text, sound, and even video can be combined with multimedia software to create informative and highly interactive applications. Some of the applications that can be produced include integrated environmental training, educational pieces, and interactive environmental procedures. They can be executed from a CD-ROM, hard drive, network or a company Intranet. Collectively, the authors refer to these as interactive environmental management tools (IEMTs). This paper focuses on site-specific, interactive training as an example of an IEMT. Interactive training not only delivers a highly effective message, but can also be designed to focus on site-specific environmental issues that are unique to each company. Interactive training also lends itself well to automated record keeping functions and to reaching all affected employees.

  5. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition via RGFP966 Releases the Brakes on Sensory Cortical Plasticity and the Specificity of Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Bechay, Kiro; Rusche, James R; Jacques, Vincent; Kudugunti, Shashi; Miao, Wenyan; Weinberger, Norman M; McGaugh, James L; Wood, Marcelo A

    2015-09-23

    Research over the past decade indicates a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation. Of particular interest is chromatin modification by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which, in general, negatively regulate transcription. HDAC deletion or inhibition facilitates transcription during memory consolidation and enhances long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. A key open question remains: How does blocking HDAC activity lead to memory enhancements? To address this question, we tested whether a normal function of HDACs is to gate information processing during memory formation. We used a class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP966 (C21H19FN4O), to test the role of HDAC inhibition for information processing in an auditory memory model of learning-induced cortical plasticity. HDAC inhibition may act beyond memory enhancement per se to instead regulate information in ways that lead to encoding more vivid sensory details into memory. Indeed, we found that RGFP966 controls memory induction for acoustic details of sound-to-reward learning. Rats treated with RGFP966 while learning to associate sound with reward had stronger memory and additional information encoded into memory for highly specific features of sounds associated with reward. Moreover, behavioral effects occurred with unusually specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Class I HDAC inhibition appears to engage A1 plasticity that enables additional acoustic features to become encoded in memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms act to regulate sensory cortical plasticity, which offers an information processing mechanism for gating what and how much is encoded to produce exceptionally persistent and vivid memories. Significance statement: Here we provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism for information processing. The study reveals that a class I HDAC inhibitor (Malvaez et al., 2013; Rumbaugh et al., 2015; RGFP966, chemical formula C21H19FN4O) alters the formation of auditory memory by

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition via RGFP966 Releases the Brakes on Sensory Cortical Plasticity and the Specificity of Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechay, Kiro; Rusche, James R.; Jacques, Vincent; Kudugunti, Shashi; Miao, Wenyan; Weinberger, Norman M.; McGaugh, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past decade indicates a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation. Of particular interest is chromatin modification by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which, in general, negatively regulate transcription. HDAC deletion or inhibition facilitates transcription during memory consolidation and enhances long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. A key open question remains: How does blocking HDAC activity lead to memory enhancements? To address this question, we tested whether a normal function of HDACs is to gate information processing during memory formation. We used a class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP966 (C21H19FN4O), to test the role of HDAC inhibition for information processing in an auditory memory model of learning-induced cortical plasticity. HDAC inhibition may act beyond memory enhancement per se to instead regulate information in ways that lead to encoding more vivid sensory details into memory. Indeed, we found that RGFP966 controls memory induction for acoustic details of sound-to-reward learning. Rats treated with RGFP966 while learning to associate sound with reward had stronger memory and additional information encoded into memory for highly specific features of sounds associated with reward. Moreover, behavioral effects occurred with unusually specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Class I HDAC inhibition appears to engage A1 plasticity that enables additional acoustic features to become encoded in memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms act to regulate sensory cortical plasticity, which offers an information processing mechanism for gating what and how much is encoded to produce exceptionally persistent and vivid memories. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism for information processing. The study reveals that a class I HDAC inhibitor (Malvaez et al., 2013; Rumbaugh et al., 2015; RGFP966, chemical formula C21H19FN4O) alters the formation of auditory memory by

  7. [Design of an educational tool for Primary Care patients with chronic non-specific low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cerrillo, Juan Luis; Rondón-Ramos, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Current scientific evidence on the management of chronic non-specific low back pain highlights the benefits of physical exercise. This goal is frequently undermined due to lack of education of the subjects on the multifactorial, benign, and non-specific nature of low back pain, which can lead to a chronic disease with genuine psychosocial risk factors. Its influence may not only interfere with individual decision to adopt more adaptive coping behaviors, but also with the endogenous mechanisms of pain neuromodulation. Thus, the educational strategies and control of these factors have become important objectives to be incorporated into the management of the disorder and research guidelines. This paper presents the theoretical models and the scientific basis on which it has based the design of an educational tool for patients with chronic non-specific low back pain treated in Primary Care physiotherapy. Structure, content and objectives are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    details about variables listed in this file specification can be found in a separate document, the GEOS-5 File Specification Variable Definition Glossary. Documentation about the current access methods for products described in this document can be found on the GEOS-5 Nature Run portal: http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/projects/G5NR. Information on the scientific quality of this simulation will appear in a forthcoming NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation to be available from http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/pubs/tm/.

  9. Differentiating Delirium From Sedative/Hypnotic-Related Iatrogenic Withdrawal Syndrome: Lack of Specificity in Pediatric Critical Care Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kate; Burns, Michele M; Tasker, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    To identify available assessment tools for sedative/hypnotic iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in PICU patients, the evidence supporting their use, and describe areas of overlap between the components of these tools and the symptoms of anticholinergic burden in children. Studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE from the earliest available date until July 3, 2016, using a combination of MeSH terms "delirium," "substance withdrawal syndrome," and key words "opioids," "benzodiazepines," "critical illness," "ICU," and "intensive care." Review article references were also searched. Human studies reporting assessment of delirium or iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome in children 0-18 years undergoing critical care. Non-English language, exclusively adult, and neonatal intensive care studies were excluded. References cataloged by study type, population, and screening process. Iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium are both prevalent in the PICU population. Commonly used scales for delirium and iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome assess signs and symptoms in the motor, behavior, and state domains, and exhibit considerable overlap. In addition, signs and symptoms of an anticholinergic toxidrome (a risk associated with some common PICU medications) overlap with components of these scales, specifically in motor, cardiovascular, and psychiatric domains. Although important studies have demonstrated apparent high prevalence of iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in the PICU population, the overlap in these scoring systems presents potential difficulty in distinguishing syndromes, both clinically and for research purposes.

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of waist circumference as a single screening tool for identification of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C C; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ali, Z Ahmad; Safiza, M N Noor; Suzana, S; Khor, G L; Rahmah, R; Jamalludin, A R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H; Faudzi, Y Ahmad; Amal, N M

    2011-12-01

    Generalised obesity and central obesity are risk factors for Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Waist circumference (WC) has been suggested as a single screening tool for identification of overweight or obese subjects in lieu of the body mass index (BMI) for weight management in public health program. Currently, the recommended waist circumference cut-off points of > or = 94cm for men and > or =80cm for women (waist action level 1) and > or = 102cm for men and > or = 88cm for women (waist action level 2) used for identification of overweight and obesity are based on studies in Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended waist action levels, and to determine optimal WC cut-off points for identification of overweight or obesity with central fat distribution based on BMI for Malaysian adults. Data from 32,773 subjects (14,982 men and 17,791 women) aged 18 and above who participated in the Third National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity of WC at waist action level 1 were 48.3% and 97.5% for men; and 84.2% and 80.6% for women when compared to the cut-off points based on BMI > or = 25kg/m2. At waist action level 2, sensitivity and specificity were 52.4% and 98.0% for men, and 79.2% and 85.4% for women when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the appropriatescreening cut-off points for WC to identify subjects with overweight (> or = 25kg/m2) was 86.0cm (sensitivity=83.6%, specificity=82.5%) for men, and 79.1cm (sensitivity=85.0%, specificity=79.5%) for women. Waist circumference cut-off points to identify obese subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was 93.2cm (sensitivity=86.5%, specificity=85.7%) for men and 85.2cm (sensitivity=77.9%, specificity=78.0%) for women. Our findings demonstrated that the current recommended waist circumference cut-off points have low

  11. Analog specificity of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the central nervous system: possible clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, E.F.; Engel, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    TRH has rapid-onset (30 sec), slow-offset (1-12 days) clinical benefit in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron disorders. This benefit is probably receptor-mediated and may have at least 2 components. To obtain a better understanding of the various responses to TRH of the spinal lower motor neurons (LMNs) in patients, and possibly to help guide selection of additional therapeutic agents, the authors utilized rat CNS (spinal-cord and brain membranes) to analyze the ability of certain molecules to inhibit specific binding of [ 3 H]methyl TRH ([ 3 H]MeTRH) to the TRH receptor. They found: a) lack of high-affinity binding of the TRH-analog DN-1417 by spinal-cord and brain TRH receptor, despite its known strong TRH-like action physiologically on LMNs; b) lack of high-affinity binding of the TRH-product cyclo(His-Pro) by spinal cord and brain TRH receptor despite its having some strong TRH-like physiologic actions on the CNS; and c) lack of any identifiable high-affinity receptor for cyclo(His-Pro) in spinal cord and brain. From these data the authors hypothesize that the acute transmitter-like action of DN-1417, TRH, and possibly other TRH-analogs and products on LMNs is via a non-TRH receptor, such as an amine or amino acid neurotransmitter receptor, e.g. a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor. They further postulate that the CNS TRH-receptor may modulate a trophic-like influence of TRH on LMNs

  12. In silico site-directed mutagenesis informs species-specific predictions of chemical susceptibility derived from the Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to address needs for rapid, cost effective methods of species extrapolation of chemical susceptibility. Specifically, the SeqAPASS tool compares the primary sequence (Level 1), functiona...

  13. DP-THOT - a calculational tool for bundle-specific decay power based on actual irradiation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.; Morrison, C.A.; Albasha, H.; Arguner, D.

    2005-01-01

    A tool has been created for calculating the decay power of an individual fuel bundle to take account of its actual irradiation history, as tracked by the fuel management code SORO. The DP-THOT tool was developed in two phases: first as a standalone executable code for decay power calculation, which could accept as input an entirely arbitrary irradiation history; then as a module integrated with SORO auxiliary codes, which directly accesses SORO history files to retrieve the operating power history of the bundle since it first entered the core. The methodology implemented in the standalone code is based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1994 formulation, which has been specifically adapted for calculating decay power in irradiated CANDU reactor fuel, by making use of fuel type specific parameters derived from WIMS lattice cell simulations for both 37 element and 28 element CANDU fuel bundle types. The approach also yields estimates of uncertainty in the calculated decay power quantities, based on the evaluated error in the decay heat correlations built-in for each fissile isotope, in combination with the estimated uncertainty in user-supplied inputs. The method was first implemented in the form of a spreadsheet, and following successful testing against decay powers estimated using the code ORIGEN-S, the algorithm was coded in FORTRAN to create an executable program. The resulting standalone code, DP-THOT, accepts an arbitrary irradiation history and provides the calculated decay power and estimated uncertainty over any user-specified range of cooling times, for either 37 element or 28 element fuel bundles. The overall objective was to produce an integrated tool which could be used to find the decay power associated with any identified fuel bundle or channel in the core, taking into account the actual operating history of the bundles involved. The benefit is that the tool would allow a more realistic calculation of bundle and channel decay powers for outage heat sink planning

  14. Induction of Interleukin-10 Producing Dendritic Cells As a Tool to Suppress Allergen-Specific T Helper 2 Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schülke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are gatekeepers of the immune system that control induction and polarization of primary, antigen-specific immune responses. Depending on their maturation/activation status, the molecules expressed on their surface, and the cytokines produced DCs have been shown to either elicit immune responses through activation of effector T cells or induce tolerance through induction of either T cell anergy, regulatory T cells, or production of regulatory cytokines. Among the cytokines produced by tolerogenic DCs, interleukin 10 (IL-10 is a key regulatory cytokine limiting und ultimately terminating excessive T-cell responses to microbial pathogens to prevent chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Because of their important role in preventing autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, allergic reactions, or in controlling chronic inflammation DCs have become an interesting tool to modulate antigen-specific immune responses. For the treatment of allergic inflammation, the aim is to downregulate allergen-specific T helper 2 (Th2 responses and the associated clinical symptoms [allergen-driven Th2 activation, Th2-driven immunoglobulin E (IgE production, IgE-mediated mast cell and basophil activation, allergic inflammation]. Here, combining the presentation of allergens by DCs with a pro-tolerogenic, IL-10-producing phenotype is of special interest to modulate allergen-specific immune responses in the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the reported strategies to induce DC-derived IL-10 secretion for the suppression of allergen-specific Th2-responses with a focus on IL-10 treatment, IL-10 transduction, and the usage of both whole bacteria and bacteria-derived components. Interestingly, while IL-10-producing DCs induced either by IL-10 treatment or IL-10 transduction are arrested in an immature/semi-mature state, treatment of DCs with live or killed bacteria as well as isolated bacterial components results in the induction of

  15. Percentage of free serum prostate-specific antigen: a new tool in the early diagnosis of prostatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubert, M E; Guillet, J; Chiron, M; Meria, P; Role, C; Schlageter, M H; Francois, H; Borschneck, C; Nivelon, F; Desgrandchamps, F; Rastel, D; Cussenot, O; Teillac, P; Le Duc, A; Najean, Y

    1996-11-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protease able to bind to serum antiproteases as alpha 1 antichymotrypsin (ACT). Free PSA (FPSA) corresponds to the fraction of total PSA (TPSA) which is unbound to ACT. Specific detection of the FPSA seems to be a valuable tool in the distinction between prostatic cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Our aim was to evaluate retrospectively the FPSA/TPSA ratio in comparison to TPSA or FPSA determination, using two new immunoradiometric assays (PSA-RIACT and FPSA-RIACT, CIS bio international, Gif Sur Yvette, France) in the early diagnosis of PCa. 256 men, with TPSA levels between 0.7 and 44.7 ng/ml (median age = 69 years), including 164 sera obtained from patients with BPH and 92 sera from patients with untreated PCa were assayed. All diagnoses were histologically confirmed and patients tested before any adjuvant treatment. The evaluation of the median FPSA/TPSA ratio in the two groups showed significantly different values (BPH group: 24.2%, PCa group: 12.1%, P 10 ng/ml).

  16. SIRT1 Regulates Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Release by Enhancing PIP5Kgamma Activity through Deacetylation of Specific Lysine Residues in Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Akieda-Asai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, has diverse roles in a variety of organs such as regulation of endocrine function and metabolism. However, it remains to be addressed how it regulates hormone release there. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that SIRT1 is abundantly expressed in pituitary thyrotropes and regulates thyroid hormone secretion. Manipulation of SIRT1 level revealed that SIRT1 positively regulated the exocytosis of TSH-containing granules. Using LC/MS-based interactomics, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5Kgamma was identified as a SIRT1 binding partner and deacetylation substrate. SIRT1 deacetylated two specific lysine residues (K265/K268 in PIP5Kgamma and enhanced PIP5Kgamma enzyme activity. SIRT1-mediated TSH secretion was abolished by PIP5Kgamma knockdown. SIRT1 knockdown decreased the levels of deacetylated PIP5Kgamma, PI(4,5P(2, and reduced the secretion of TSH from pituitary cells. These results were also observed in SIRT1-knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicated that the control of TSH release by the SIRT1-PIP5Kgamma pathway is important for regulating the metabolism of the whole body.

  17. Localized sequence-specific release of a chemopreventive agent and an anticancer drug in a time-controllable manner to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Yu; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chieh-Cheng; Chiang, Wei-Lun; Lin, Yu-Jung; Lin, Wei-Chih; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Chang, Yen; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Combination chemotherapy with multiple drugs commonly requires several injections on various schedules, and the probability that the drug molecules reach the diseased tissues at the proper time and effective therapeutic concentrations is very low. This work elucidates an injectable co-delivery system that is based on cationic liposomes that are adsorbed on anionic hollow microspheres (Lipos-HMs) via electrostatic interaction, from which the localized sequence-specific release of a chemopreventive agent (1,25(OH)2D3) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin; DOX) can be thermally driven in a time-controllable manner by an externally applied high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF). Lipos-HMs can greatly promote the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tumor cells by reducing their cytoplasmic expression of an antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) by 1,25(OH)2D3, increasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to the cytotoxic action of DOX. In nude mice that bear xenograft tumors, treatment with Lipos-HMs under exposure to HFMF effectively inhibits tumor growth and is the most effective therapeutic intervention among all the investigated. These empirical results demonstrate that the synergistic anticancer effects of sequential release of 1,25(OH)2D3 and DOX from the Lipos-HMs may have potential for maximizing DOX cytotoxicity, supporting more effective cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel dissolution media for testing drug release from a nanostructured polysaccharide-based colon specific drug delivery system: an approach to alternative colon media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotla NG

    2016-03-01

    comparable to those obtained from the rat cecal and human fecal-based fermentation model, thereby suggesting that a probiotic dissolution method can be successfully applied for drug release testing of any polysaccharide-based oral formulation meant for colonic delivery. As such, this study significantly adds to the nanostructured biomaterials’ community by elucidating an easier assay for colonic drug delivery. Keywords: probiotic media, colon specific drug delivery, dissolution methodologies, simulated colonic media, microbially triggered drug delivery

  19. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...... stage patients and 71% in limited stage patients. Frequent initial monitoring of the substances showed an increase in the concentrations of pretherapeutic elevated CK-BB and NSE on day 1 or 2 followed by a sharp decrease within 1 week. These changes were correlated to objective clinical response...... determined within 4-8 weeks. The results indicate that serum CK-BB and NSE are potential markers for SCC at the time of diagnosis and that changes in the concentrations during the first course of cytostatic therapy are promising as biochemical tests for early detection of response to chemotherapy....

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of a two-question screening tool for depression in a specialist palliative care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Payne, Ann

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective in this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a two-item screening interview for depression versus the formal psychiatric interview, in the setting of a specialist palliative in-patient unit so that we may identify those individuals suffering from depressive disorder and therefore optimise their management in this often-complex population. METHODS: A prospective sample of consecutive admissions (n = 167) consented to partake in the study, and the screening interview was asked separately to the formal psychiatric interview. RESULTS: The two-item questionnaire, achieved a sensitivity of 90.7% (95% CI 76.9-97.0) but a lower specificity of 67.7% (95% CI 58.7-75.7). The false positive rate was 32.3% (95% CI 24.3-41.3), but the false negative rate was found to be a low 9.3% (95% CI 3.0-23.1). A subgroup analysis of individuals with a past experience of depressive illness, (n = 95), revealed that a significant number screened positive for depression by the screening test, 55.2% (16\\/29) compared to those with no background history of depression, 33.3% (22\\/66) (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity and low false negative rate of the two-question screening tool will aid health professionals in identifying depression in the in-patient specialist palliative care unit. Individuals, who admit to a previous experience of depressive illness, are more likely to respond positively to the two-item questionnaire than those who report no prior history of depressive illness (P = 0.045).

  1. An fMRI study of the neural basis hand postures specific to tool use. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgami, Yuko; Uchida, Nobuko; Matsuo, Kayako; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2007-01-01

    Patients with apraxia are often unable to mimic the use of a tool, even when it is presented visually. Such mimicking involves various cognitive and motor processes, including the visual perception of a tool and the manipulation of imagined tools. Although previous studies reported the involvement of several brain areas, including the left inferior parietal lobule, in such tool-use action, the details of each process have not been well understood. To clarify the neural basis of the process involved in forming hand postures for using tools, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in normal volunteers to investigate brain activation while they formed hand postures for tool manipulation. Three conditions were evaluated in separate block-designed fMRI series, formation of hand posture (A) using a tool, (B) imitating such a hand posture, and (C) to imitate the shape of a tool. Subjects formed their right hand in a manner specified according to the task conditions. Hand posturing for condition (A) induced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45), left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), and the premotor area compared with the imitative posturing of condition (B). Activation in these areas might be related to processes shared by tool-use pantomime. On the other hand, comparison between conditions (A) and (C) demonstrated activation in the right superior parietal lobule (BA 7). This activation may reflect spatial regulation, in which the subject was prepared to hold and manipulate the tool. Formation of static hand postures to prepare for tool use may employ a neural network shared by various tool-use actions, such as pantomime. In addition, forming hand postures may require close coordination between the tool and hand. (author)

  2. Malaria-specific metabolite hemozoin mediates the release of several potent endogenous pyrogens (TNF, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta) in vitro, and altered thermoregulation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, B A; Alava, G; Tracey, K J; Martiney, J; Cerami, A; Slater, A F

    1995-01-01

    A characteristic feature of malaria infection is the occurrence of periodic bouts of fever. Experimental and clinical studies have strongly implicated inflammatory cytokines, like tumour necrosis factor (TNF), in the induction of these intermittent fevers [Clark et al., Infect Immunol 32:1058-1066, 1981; Clark et al., Am J Pathol 129:192-199, 1987; Karunaweera et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:3200-3203, 1992], but the malaria-specific metabolite(s) which induce the production of such endogenous pyrogens have not yet been fully characterized. It is well known that during the course of malaria infection, a unique schizont component, alternatively referred to as "malaria pigment" or hemozoin, is released along with merozoites as the host erythrocyte bursts [Urquhart, Clin Infect Dis 19:117-131, 1994]. We have recently determined that the core structure of hemozoin comprises a novel insoluble polymer of heme units linked by iron-carboxylate bonds [Slater et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:325-329, 1991; Slater et al., Nature 355:167-169, 1992]. We now report that purified native, as well as chemically synthesized, hemozoin crystals potently induce the release of several pyrogenic cytokines, including TNF, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta, from murine macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. Also, intravenous administration of chemically synthesized preparations of hemozoin to anaesthetized rats results in a marked drop in body temperature. A similar drop in body temperature is observed following the intravenous injection of other well-characterized pyrogenic cytokines (e.g., TNF) which are known to induce a fever response in awake animals, and is thought to reflect the inability of rats to appropriately regulate their body temperature while anaesthetized. As a consequence of its ability to induce pyrogenic cytokines in vitro, and thermal dysregulation in vivo, we propose that this unique parasite metabolite is an important pyrogen released by malaria

  3. Verification of computer system PROLOG - software tool for rapid assessments of consequences of short-term radioactive releases to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Alexey A.; Krylov, Alexey L.; Bogatov, Sergey A. [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Bolshaya Tulskaya st. 52, 115191, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In case of nuclear and radiation accidents emergency response authorities require a tool for rapid assessments of possible consequences. One of the most significant problems is lack of data on initial state of an accident. The lack can be especially critical in case the accident occurred in a location that was not thoroughly studied beforehand (during transportation of radioactive materials for example). One of possible solutions is the hybrid method when a model that enables rapid assessments with the use of reasonable minimum of input data is used conjointly with an observed data that can be collected shortly after accidents. The model is used to estimate parameters of the source and uncertain meteorological parameters on the base of some observed data. For example, field of fallout density can be observed and measured within hours after an accident. After that the same model with the use of estimated parameters is used to assess doses and necessity of recommended and mandatory countermeasures. The computer system PROLOG was designed to solve the problem. It is based on the widely used Gaussian model. The standard Gaussian model is supplemented with several sub-models that allow to take into account: polydisperse aerosols, aerodynamic shade from buildings in the vicinity of the place of accident, terrain orography, initial size of the radioactive cloud, effective height of the release, influence of countermeasures on the doses of radioactive exposure of humans. It uses modern GIS technologies and can use web map services. To verify ability of PROLOG to solve the problem it is necessary to test its ability to assess necessary parameters of real accidents in the past. Verification of the computer system on the data of Chazhma Bay accident (Russian Far East, 1985) was published previously. In this work verification was implemented on the base of observed contamination from the Kyshtym disaster (PA Mayak, 1957) and the Tomsk accident (1993). Observations of Sr-90

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and neurone-specific enolase in the uterus of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, A; Sasaki, M; Budipitojo, T; Kitamura, N; Krause, W J; Yamada, J

    2005-08-01

    The present study has demonstrated the immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and neurone-specific enolase (NSE) in the uterus of the North American opossum. Although the presence of GRP, nNOS and NSE has been reported recently in the uterus of eutherian species this is the first description of these peptides in a metatherian species. Metatherian mammals are of interest because in these species it is the prolonged lactation phase of development that is the period of primary reproductive investment rather than intrauterine development as is true of eutherian mammals. The opossum, like other marsupial species, has a very abbreviated gestation period which in Didelphis lasts only 12.5 days. GRP was localized in the cytoplasm of cells forming the surface lining epithelium and the glandular epithelium of the opossum endometrium late in pregnancy, at 11.5 days of gestation. Likewise, immunoreactivities of nNOS and NSE were found primarily within the epithelial cells of the endometrium at 11.5 days of gestation. As these peptides and enzymes appear primarily at the time of establishment of the yolk sac placenta (between day 10 and day 12.5 gestation), the present results strongly suggest that these factors may play a fundamental role in the placentation of the opossum.

  5. SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmeg, S; Jackson, J; Zhang, Y; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis

  6. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep' proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep', in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replica...

  7. Developing a Physiotherapy-Specific Preliminary Clinical Decision-Making Tool for Oxygen Titration: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Michelle; Bertin, Kendra; Henry, Renee; Singh, Deepti; Timmins, Nolla; Brooks, Dina; Mathur, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop and evaluate a preliminary clinical decision-making tool (CDMT) to assist physiotherapists in titrating oxygen for acutely ill adults in Ontario. Methods: A panel of 14 experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists was recruited. Factors relating to oxygen titration were identified using a modified Delphi technique. Four rounds of questionnaires were conducted, during which the goals were to (1) generate factors, (2) reduce factors and debate contentious factors, (3) finalize factors and develop the preliminary CDMT, and (4) evaluate the usability of the tool in a clinical context. Results: The panel reached consensus on a total of 89 factors, which were compiled to create the preliminary CDMT. The global tool reached consensus for sensibility, receiving a mean score of 6/7 on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1=unacceptable; 7=excellent). Five of the nine individual components of evaluation of the tool achieved scores ≥6.0; the remaining four had mean scores between 5.4 and 5.9. Conclusion: This study produced a preliminary CDMT for oxygen titration, which the panel agreed was highly comprehensible and globally sensible. Further research is necessary to evaluate the sensibility and applicability of the tool in a clinical setting. PMID:25125782

  8. Designing Process Improvement of Finished Good On Time Release and Performance Indicator Tool in Milk Industry Using Business Process Reengineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachyar, M.; Christy, E.

    2014-04-01

    To maintain position as a major milk producer, the Indonesian milk industry should do some business development with the purpose of increasing customer service level. One strategy is to create on time release conditions for finished goods which will be distributed to customers and distributors. To achieve this condition, management information systems of finished goods on time release needs to be improved. The focus of this research is to conduct business process improvement using Business Process Reengineering (BPR). The deliverable key of this study is a comprehensive business strategy which is the solution of the root problems. To achieve the goal, evaluation, reengineering, and improvement of the ERP system are conducted. To visualize the predicted implementation, a simulation model is built by Oracle BPM. The output of this simulation showed that the proposed solution could effectively reduce the process lead time and increase the number of quality releases.

  9. Resuspension of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated field sediment: release to the water column and determination of site-specific K DOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L; Lohmann, Rainer; Burgess, Robert M; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G

    2011-02-01

    Sediments from the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund site (Massachusetts, USA), contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were resuspended under different water column redox conditions: untreated, oxidative, and reductive. The partitioning of PCBs to the overlying water column was measured with polyethylene samplers and compared to partitioning without resuspension. Greater concentrations of total aqueous (freely dissolved + dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-associated) PCBs were found in all resuspended treatments for PCBs with mid-range K(OW)s, but no difference was observed in total aqueous concentrations among different redox conditions. The magnitude of increased concentrations depended on resuspension time and congener K(OW), but ranged from approximately one to eight times those found without resuspension. In a parallel study, DOC was flocculated and removed from smaller-scale NBH sediment resuspensions. In situ K(DOC)s were determined and used to calculate freely dissolved and DOC-associated fractions of the increase in total aqueous PCB concentrations due to resuspension. The importance of DOC-associated PCBs increased with increasing K(OW). In situ K(DOC)s were approximately one to two orders of magnitude greater than those calculated with a commonly used linear free energy relationship (LFER). The present study demonstrates that resuspension of contaminated sediments releases PCBs to the water column, of which a significant fraction are DOC-associated (e.g., 28, 65, and 90% for PCBs 28, 66, and 110, respectively). Results also imply that site-specific PCB K(DOC)s are superior to those calculated with generic LFERs. © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Generic tools to assess genuine carbohydrate specific effects on in vitro immune modulation exemplified by β-glucans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieder, Anne; Grimmer, Stine; Aachmann, Finn L.

    2013-01-01

    Even if carbohydrate preparations from plant/fungal sources have a high degree of purity, observed immune-stimulation may be caused by minute sample contaminations. Using the example of different β-glucans we present a range of analytical tools crucial for validation of possible immune-stimulator...

  11. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lacalle, Luis Norberto; Urbicain Pelayo, Gorka; Fernández-Valdivielso, Asier; Alvarez, Alvaro; González, Haizea

    2017-09-01

    Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation. This paper establishes the cutting force relation between work-piece and tool in the turning of such difficult-to-cut alloys by means of a mechanistic cutting force model that considers the tool wear effect. The cutting force model demonstrates the force sensitivity to the cutting engagement parameters (ap, f) when using ceramic inserts and wear is considered. Wear is introduced through a cutting time factor, being useful in real conditions taking into account that wear quickly appears in alloys machining. A good accuracy in the cutting force model coefficients is the key issue for an accurate prediction of turning forces, which could be used as criteria for tool replacement or as input for chatter or other models.

  12. Machine Learning-Based App for Self-Evaluation of Teacher-Specific Instructional Style and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzhin, Fedor; Gustafsson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Course instructors need to assess the efficacy of their teaching methods, but experiments in education are seldom politically, administratively, or ethically feasible. Quasi-experimental tools, on the other hand, are often problematic, as they are typically too complicated to be of widespread use to educators and may suffer from selection bias…

  13. HANDS: a tool for genome-wide discovery of subgenome-specific base-identity in polyploids.

    KAUST Repository

    Mithani, Aziz

    2013-09-24

    The analysis of polyploid genomes is problematic because homeologous subgenome sequences are closely related. This relatedness makes it difficult to assign individual sequences to the specific subgenome from which they are derived, and hinders the development of polyploid whole genome assemblies.We here present a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach for assignment of subgenome-specific base-identity at sites containing homeolog-specific polymorphisms (HSPs): \\'HSP base Assignment using NGS data through Diploid Similarity\\' (HANDS). We show that HANDS correctly predicts subgenome-specific base-identity at >90% of assayed HSPs in the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcriptome, thus providing a substantial increase in accuracy versus previous methods for homeolog-specific base assignment.We conclude that HANDS enables rapid and accurate genome-wide discovery of homeolog-specific base-identity, a capability having multiple applications in polyploid genomics.

  14. HANDS: a tool for genome-wide discovery of subgenome-specific base-identity in polyploids.

    KAUST Repository

    Mithani, Aziz; Belfield, Eric J; Brown, Carly; Jiang, Caifu; Leach, Lindsey J; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of polyploid genomes is problematic because homeologous subgenome sequences are closely related. This relatedness makes it difficult to assign individual sequences to the specific subgenome from which they are derived, and hinders the development of polyploid whole genome assemblies.We here present a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach for assignment of subgenome-specific base-identity at sites containing homeolog-specific polymorphisms (HSPs): 'HSP base Assignment using NGS data through Diploid Similarity' (HANDS). We show that HANDS correctly predicts subgenome-specific base-identity at >90% of assayed HSPs in the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcriptome, thus providing a substantial increase in accuracy versus previous methods for homeolog-specific base assignment.We conclude that HANDS enables rapid and accurate genome-wide discovery of homeolog-specific base-identity, a capability having multiple applications in polyploid genomics.

  15. Friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle,; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy, A [Ammon, ID

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  16. Expression of the Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor, the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen and the Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo J. K.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Helfrich, Wijnand; de Jong, Igle J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Cell membrane antigens like the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), expressed in prostate cancer, are attractive targets for new therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Therefore, we

  17. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Lacalle Luis Norberto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation.

  18. The CSSIAR v.1.00 Software: A new tool based on SIAR to assess soil redistribution using Compound Specific Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de los Santos-Villalobos Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the biggest challenges for food production around the world. Many techniques have been used to evaluate and mitigate soil degradation. Nowadays isotopic techniques are becoming a powerful tool to assess soil apportionment. One of the innovative techniques used is the Compound Specific Stable Isotopes (CSSI analysis, which has been used to track down sediments and specify their sources by the isotopic signature of δ13C in specific fatty acids. The application of this technique on soil apportionment has been recently developed, however there is a lack of user-friendly Software for data processing and interpretation. The aim of this article is to introduce a new open source tool for working with data sets generated by the use of the CSSI technique to assess soil apportionment, called the CSSIARv1.00 Software

  19. The CSSIAR v.1.00 Software: A new tool based on SIAR to assess soil redistribution using Compound Specific Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio, de los Santos-Villalobos; Claudio, Bravo-Linares; dos Anjos Roberto, Meigikos; Renan, Cardoso; Max, Gibbs; Andrew, Swales; Lionel, Mabit; Gerd, Dercon

    Soil erosion is one of the biggest challenges for food production around the world. Many techniques have been used to evaluate and mitigate soil degradation. Nowadays isotopic techniques are becoming a powerful tool to assess soil apportionment. One of the innovative techniques used is the Compound Specific Stable Isotopes (CSSI) analysis, which has been used to track down sediments and specify their sources by the isotopic signature of δ13 C in specific fatty acids. The application of this technique on soil apportionment has been recently developed, however there is a lack of user-friendly Software for data processing and interpretation. The aim of this article is to introduce a new open source tool for working with data sets generated by the use of the CSSI technique to assess soil apportionment, called the CSSIARv1.00 Software

  20. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  1. GPCC - A weather generator-based statistical downscaling tool for site-specific assessment of climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resolution of climate model outputs are too coarse to be used as direct inputs to impact models for assessing climate change impacts on agricultural production, water resources, and eco-system services at local or site-specific scales. Statistical downscaling approaches are usually used to bridge th...

  2. The Development of a Tool for Measuring Graduate Students' Topic Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Thin Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, L. V. A.; Lutter, J. C.; Shultz, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students play a critical role in undergraduate education at doctorate granting institutions; but generally have minimal opportunity to develop teaching expertise. Furthermore, little is known about how graduate students develop teaching expertise in this context. We investigated the development of topic-specific pedagogical content…

  3. Differentiating Second Language Acquisition from Specific Learning Disability: An Observational Tool Assessing Dual Language Learners' Pragmatic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Overrepresentation of Dual Language Learners (DLLs) in special education remains a problem even after 40 years of inquiry. One factor is that the U.S. federal government has neither clearly explained the definition of Specific Learning Disability (SLD) nor operationally defined it to identify children for special education services. This lack of…

  4. AspenTech shows specific tools for refiners; AspenTech deploie des outils specifiques pour les raffineurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, E

    2003-10-01

    The supplier of integrated softwares AspenTech has organized last May, the 7 in Gelsenkirchen, on the site of the Veba Oel refinery, a seminar 'refining' intended to show the specificities of its products: Hysys, Aspen Utilities, Icarus...About fifty German engineers and responsible persons coming from refining and engineering firms have participated to this studies day. (O.M.)

  5. Design of a Domain-Specific Language for Material Flow Analysis using Microsoft DSL tools: An Experience Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is the procedure of measuring and assessing the mass flows of matter (solid waste, water, food...) and substances (carbon, phosphorus ...) within a process or a system for the period of time. In this paper we propose a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) to model MFA in a ...

  6. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0069] Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector... comments concerning new Information Collection Request--Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency... http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal information provided. OMB is particularly...

  7. Application of Soft Computing Tools for Wave Prediction at Specific Locations in the Arabian Sea Using Moored Buoy Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vimala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of design and operational values of significant wave heights is perhaps the single most important input needed in ocean engineering studies. Conventionally such information is obtained using classical statistical analysis and stochastic methods. As the causative variables are innumerable and underlying physics is too complicated, the results obtained from the numerical models may not always be very satisfactory. Soft computing tools like Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Adaptive Network based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS may therefore be useful to predict significant wave heights in some situations. The study is aimed at forecasting of significant wave height values in real time over a period of 24hrs at certain locations in Indian seas using the models of ANN and ANFIS. The data for the work were collected by National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai. It was found that the predictions of wave heights can be done by both methods with equal efficiency and satisfaction.

  8. Rational design of urea-based glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors as versatile tools for specific drug targeting and delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykvart, Jan; Schimer, Jiří; Bařinková, Jitka; Pachl, Petr; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Majer, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan; Šácha, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 15 (2014), s. 4099-4108 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:OPPK(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : GCPII * PSMA * structure-aided drug design * specific drug targeting Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2014

  9. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep׳ proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2015-07-01

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep׳, in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replication) and generates the single-stranded circular (ssc) genome from the displaced DNA strand. In the process, a minus-genome primer (MGP) necessary for complementary-strand synthesis, from ssc to ccc, is synthesized. Rep׳ cleaves the growing nascent-strand to regenerate the parent ccc molecule. In the process, a Rep׳-DNA hybrid containing the right palindromic sequence (at the origin of DNA replication) is generated. Analysis of the virus particle showed that it is composed of four components: ssc, MGP, capsid protein and a novel Rep-related protein (designated Protein-3). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Use of Radioactive Marker as a Tool to Evaluate the Drug Release in Plasma and Particle Biodistribution of Block Copolymer Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Johnstone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diblock copolymer nanoparticles encapsulating a paclitaxel prodrug, Propac 7, have been used to demonstrate the usefulness of a nonmetabolizable radioactive marker, cholesteryl hexadecyl ether (CHE, to evaluate nanoparticle formulation variables. Since CHE did not exchange out of the nanoparticles, the rate of clearance of the CHE could be used as an indicator of nanoparticle stability in vivo. We simultaneously monitored prodrug circulation and carrier circulation in the plasma and the retention of CHE relative to the retention of prodrug in the plasma was used to distinguish prodrug release from nanoparticle plasma clearance. Nanoparticles labelled with CHE were also used to evaluate accumulation of nanoparticles in the tumour. This marker has provided relevant data which we have applied to optimise our nanoparticle formulations.

  11. Profiling extracellular vesicle release by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi reveals sex-specific differences in cargo and a sensitivity to ivermectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiruni Harischandra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B. malayi and here we profile vesicle release across all intra-mammalian life cycle stages (microfilariae, L3, L4, adult male and female worms. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis was used to quantify and size EVs revealing discrete vesicle populations and indicating a secretory process that is conserved across the life cycle. Brugia EVs are internalized by murine macrophages with no preference for life stage suggesting a uniform mechanism for effector molecule trafficking. Further, the use of chemical uptake inhibitors suggests all life stage EVs are internalized by phagocytosis. Proteomic profiling of adult male and female EVs using nano-scale LC-MS/MS described quantitative and qualitative differences in the adult EV proteome, helping define the biogenesis of Brugia EVs and revealing sexual dimorphic characteristics in immunomodulatory cargo. Finally, ivermectin was found to rapidly inhibit EV release by all Brugia life stages. Further this drug effect was also observed in the related filarial nematode, the canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis but not in an ivermectin-unresponsive field isolate of that parasite, highlighting a potential mechanism of action for this drug and suggesting new screening platforms for anti-filarial drug development.

  12. A novel dissolution media for testing drug release from a nanostructured polysaccharide-based colon specific drug delivery system: an approach to alternative colon media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotla, Niranjan G; Singh, Sima; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Sunnapu, Omprakash; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel microbially triggered and animal-sparing dissolution method for testing of nanorough polysaccharide-based micron granules for colonic drug delivery. In this method, probiotic cultures of bacteria present in the colonic region were prepared and added to the dissolution media and compared with the performance of conventional dissolution methodologies (such as media with rat cecal and human fecal media). In this study, the predominant species (such as Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus species, Eubacterium and Streptococcus) were cultured in 12% w/v skimmed milk powder and 5% w/v grade "A" honey. Approximately 10(10)-10(11) colony forming units m/L of probiotic culture was added to the dissolution media to test the drug release of polysaccharide-based formulations. A USP dissolution apparatus I/II using a gradient pH dissolution method was used to evaluate drug release from formulations meant for colonic drug delivery. Drug release of guar gum/Eudragit FS30D coated 5-fluorouracil granules was assessed under gastric and small intestine conditions within a simulated colonic environment involving fermentation testing with the probiotic culture. The results with the probiotic system were comparable to those obtained from the rat cecal and human fecal-based fermentation model, thereby suggesting that a probiotic dissolution method can be successfully applied for drug release testing of any polysaccharide-based oral formulation meant for colonic delivery. As such, this study significantly adds to the nanostructured biomaterials' community by elucidating an easier assay for colonic drug delivery.

  13. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of petroleum hydrocarbons as a tool for tracing the source of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Xiong Yongqiang; Yang Wanying; Xie Yueliang; Li Siyuan; Sun Yongge

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for and consumption of crude oils, oil spill accidents happen frequently during the transportation of crude oils and oil products, and the environmental hazard they pose has become increasingly serious in China. The exact identification of the source of spilled oil can act as forensic evidence in the investigation and handling of oil spill accidents. In this study, a weathering simulation experiment demonstrates that the mass loss of crude oils caused by short-term weathering mainly occurs within the first 24 h after a spill, and is dominated by the depletion of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons ( 18 n-alkanes). Short-term weathering has no significant effect on δ 13 C values of individual n-alkanes (C 12 -C 33 ), suggesting that a stable carbon isotope profile of n-alkanes can be a useful tool for tracing the source of an oil spill, particularly for weathered oils or those with a relatively low concentration or absence of sterane and terpane biomarkers

  14. ORRION: A specific information sharing tool to (rebuild a “flood risk culture” in the Rhine Graben (France - Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When is led a prevention initiative concerning flood risk, the recall of old events allows just as much to act as pedagogy to legitimize the initiative. So as it is written in the information leaflet on the “Plan de Prévention des Risques d’Inondation” (PPRI:«Alsace did not know any more exceptional floods since 1910. In almost a century, the flood risk thus naturally faded of our memory”. A paradoxical assertion because the floods of 1910 are not taken into account for risk mapping. Only the recent floods (1983, 1990 are used as benchmarks. We were able to show [1] that, although legitimate as reference events, the floods of 1910 and many others had become manifestly underestimated for multiple reasons connected to the history of Alsace, or due to disorganization of the archives. Worse, these riks unawareness is shared by all the actors, causing problems of acceptance of the risk and their management, and an additional vulnerability in terms of population behavior before, during and after the crises. This is the reason why an online participative database (ORRION has been created. the objective of this database is to inform and to share the information about floods history, in the particular context of a cross-border territory (France, Germany, Switzerland. This tool has been immediately involved into risks prevention actions (PAPI, PPRI.

  15. Proximity Ligation In situ Assay is a Powerful Tool to Monitor Specific ATG Protein Interactions following Autophagy Induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Gauthier

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy is a highly regulated intracellular degradation process which has been extensively studied over the last decade. This pathway has been initially described as a non selective process inducing the degradation of parts of the cytoplasm as well as organelles at random. Nevertheless, over the last few years, new research highlighted the existence of a more selective autophagy pathway specifically recruiting some organelles or aggregates to the autophagosomes in order to induce their degradation. These selective autophagy pathways such as aggrephagy, mitophagy, pexophagy or xenophagy, involve the intervention of a cargo, the material to be degraded, cargo adapters, the molecules allowing the recruitment of the cargo to the autophagosome, and the proteins of the ATG8 family which link the cargo adapters to the autophagosome. One of the main questions which now remain is to develop new techniques and protocols able to discriminate between these different types of induced autophagy. In our work, we studied the possibility to use the P-LISA technique, which has been recently developed to study endogenous in vivo protein interactions, as a new technique to characterize the ATG proteins specifically involved in bulk or selective autophagy. In this manuscript, we indeed demonstrate that this technique allows the study of endogenous ATG protein interactions in cells following autophagy induction, but more interestingly that this technique might be used to characterize the ATG proteins involved in selective autophagy.

  16. Compound-Specific Isotopic Analysis of Meteoritic Amino Acids as a Tool for Evaluating Potential Formation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael C.; Charnley, Steven B.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of stable hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic ratios (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) of organic compounds can reveal information about their origin and formation pathways. Several formation mechanisms and environments have been postulated for the amino acids detected in carbonaceous chondrites. As each proposed mechanism utilizes different precursor molecules, the isotopic signatures of the resulting amino acids may point towards the most likely of these proposed pathways. The technique of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry provides compound-specific structural and isotopic information from a single splitless injection, enhancing the amount of information gained from small amounts of precious samples such as carbonaceous chondrites. We have applied this technique to measure the compound-specific C, N, and H isotopic ratios of amino acids from seven CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites. We are using these measurements to evaluate predictions of expected isotopic enrichments from potential formation pathways and environments, leading to a better understanding of the origin of these compounds.

  17. ARS-Media for Excel: A Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating Media Recipes Based on Ion-Specific Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedz, Randall P

    2016-01-01

    ARS-Media for Excel is an ion solution calculator that uses "Microsoft Excel" to generate recipes of salts for complex ion mixtures specified by the user. Generating salt combinations (recipes) that result in pre-specified target ion values is a linear programming problem. Excel's Solver add-on solves the linear programming equation to generate a recipe. Calculating a mixture of salts to generate exact solutions of complex ionic mixtures is required for at least 2 types of problems- 1) formulating relevant ecological/biological ionic solutions such as those from a specific lake, soil, cell, tissue, or organ and, 2) designing ion confounding-free experiments to determine ion-specific effects where ions are treated as statistical factors. Using ARS-Media for Excel to solve these two problems is illustrated by 1) exactly reconstructing a soil solution representative of a loamy agricultural soil and, 2) constructing an ion-based experiment to determine the effects of substituting Na+ for K+ on the growth of a Valencia sweet orange nonembryogenic cell line.

  18. ARS-Media for Excel: A Spreadsheet Tool for Calculating Media Recipes Based on Ion-Specific Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedz, Randall P.

    2016-01-01

    ARS-Media for Excel is an ion solution calculator that uses “Microsoft Excel” to generate recipes of salts for complex ion mixtures specified by the user. Generating salt combinations (recipes) that result in pre-specified target ion values is a linear programming problem. Excel’s Solver add-on solves the linear programming equation to generate a recipe. Calculating a mixture of salts to generate exact solutions of complex ionic mixtures is required for at least 2 types of problems– 1) formulating relevant ecological/biological ionic solutions such as those from a specific lake, soil, cell, tissue, or organ and, 2) designing ion confounding-free experiments to determine ion-specific effects where ions are treated as statistical factors. Using ARS-Media for Excel to solve these two problems is illustrated by 1) exactly reconstructing a soil solution representative of a loamy agricultural soil and, 2) constructing an ion-based experiment to determine the effects of substituting Na+ for K+ on the growth of a Valencia sweet orange nonembryogenic cell line. PMID:27812202

  19. Species-Specific Thiol-Disulfide Equilibrium Constant: A Tool To Characterize Redox Transitions of Biological Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Somlyay, Máté; Noszál, Béla

    2015-08-13

    Microscopic redox equilibrium constants, a new species-specific type of physicochemical parameters, were introduced and determined to quantify thiol-disulfide equilibria of biological significance. The thiol-disulfide redox equilibria of glutathione with cysteamine, cysteine, and homocysteine were approached from both sides, and the equilibrium mixtures were analyzed by quantitative NMR methods to characterize the highly composite, co-dependent acid-base and redox equilibria. The directly obtained, pH-dependent, conditional constants were then decomposed by a new evaluation method, resulting in pH-independent, microscopic redox equilibrium constants for the first time. The 80 different, microscopic redox equilibrium constant values show close correlation with the respective thiolate basicities and provide sound means for the development of potent agents against oxidative stress.

  20. A tool for design of primers for microRNA-specific quantitative RT-qPCR. BMC Bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp

    2014-01-01

    of formation of secondary structures and primer dimers. Testing of the primers showed that 76 out of 79 primers (96%) worked for quantification of microRNAs by miR-specific RT-qPCR of mammalian RNA samples. This success rate corresponds to the success rate of manual primer design. Furthermore, primers designed......Background MicroRNAs are small but biologically important RNA molecules. Although different methods can be used for quantification of microRNAs, quantitative PCR is regarded as the reference that is used to validate other methods. Several commercial qPCR assays are available but they often come...... at a high price and the sequences of the primers are not disclosed. An alternative to commercial assays is to manually design primers but this work is tedious and, hence, not practical for the design of primers for a larger number of targets. Results I have developed the software miRprimer for automatic...

  1. A failure-type specific risk prediction tool for selection of head-and-neck cancer patients for experimental treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Katrin; Rasmussen, Jacob H.; Rasmussen, Gregers B.

    2017-01-01

    : Retrospective data for 560HNSCC patients were used to generate a multi-endpoint model, combining three cause-specific Cox models (LRF, DM and death with no evidence of disease (death NED)). The model was used to generate risk profiles of patients eligible for/included in a de-intensification study (RTOG 1016...... variables (tumor subsite, T stage, N stage, smoking status, age and performance status) and one additional variable (tumor volume). The treatment failure discrimination ability of the developed model was superior of that of UICC staging, 8(th) edition (AUCLRF=72.7% vs 64.2%, p....8%, pde-intensification study had>20% risk of tumor relapse. Conversely, 9 of the 15 dose escalation trial participants had LRF risks

  2. Cancer in silico drug discovery: a systems biology tool for identifying candidate drugs to target specific molecular tumor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Lucas, F Anthony; Fowler, Jerry; Chang, Kyle; Kopetz, Scott; Vilar, Eduardo; Scheet, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale cancer datasets such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) allow researchers to profile tumors based on a wide range of clinical and molecular characteristics. Subsequently, TCGA-derived gene expression profiles can be analyzed with the Connectivity Map (CMap) to find candidate drugs to target tumors with specific clinical phenotypes or molecular characteristics. This represents a powerful computational approach for candidate drug identification, but due to the complexity of TCGA and technology differences between CMap and TCGA experiments, such analyses are challenging to conduct and reproduce. We present Cancer in silico Drug Discovery (CiDD; scheet.org/software), a computational drug discovery platform that addresses these challenges. CiDD integrates data from TCGA, CMap, and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) to perform computational drug discovery experiments, generating hypotheses for the following three general problems: (i) determining whether specific clinical phenotypes or molecular characteristics are associated with unique gene expression signatures; (ii) finding candidate drugs to repress these expression signatures; and (iii) identifying cell lines that resemble the tumors being studied for subsequent in vitro experiments. The primary input to CiDD is a clinical or molecular characteristic. The output is a biologically annotated list of candidate drugs and a list of cell lines for in vitro experimentation. We applied CiDD to identify candidate drugs to treat colorectal cancers harboring mutations in BRAF. CiDD identified EGFR and proteasome inhibitors, while proposing five cell lines for in vitro testing. CiDD facilitates phenotype-driven, systematic drug discovery based on clinical and molecular data from TCGA. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaibelet, Gérald [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tercé, François [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Bertrand-Michel, Justine [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Lipidomic Platform Metatoul, Toulouse (France); Allart, Sophie [Plateau Technique d’Imagerie Cellulaire, INSERM U1043, Toulouse (France); Azalbert, Vincent [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Lecompte, Marie-France [INSERM U563, Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Collet, Xavier [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Orlowski, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.orlowski@cea.fr [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  4. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaibelet, Gérald; Tercé, François; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Allart, Sophie; Azalbert, Vincent; Lecompte, Marie-France; Collet, Xavier; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  5. [When and how to report suspected child abuse to child protective services. Construction and evaluation of a specific support tool for primary care physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, E; Fleury, J; Launay, E; Pendezec, G; Gras-Le-Guen, C; Vabres, N

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to create a specific tool and evaluate its impact on the knowledge of primary care physicians (PCPs) in reporting child abuse to child protective services (CPS). Prospective "before/after" study assessing the knowledge of general practitioners (GPs) registered at the medical board in a French administrative area through anonymous questionnaires. The tool was adapted from the guidelines published in 2014 by the French Health authorities. The main criterion was the median score (/100) calculated for each questionnaire before (Q1) and after (Q2) the dissemination of the tool. These median scores were compared and associations between scores and some PCPs' characteristics were tested through multiple linear regression. A total of 279 GPs answered the first questionnaire (Q1) and 172 answered the second (Q2). PCPs who answered were mainly women (68% and 74%), were between 30 and 50 years old (61% and 66%), practiced in association with other physicians (82% and 84), and had 15-30% children in their patient population. For Q1, the general median was 65 [IQR: 40-81] versus 82 [IQR: 71-91] for Q2 (P<0.001). The PCPs' characteristics leading to significant variations in the scores for Q1 were age older than 50 years, being female, and having been trained in diagnosis and management of child abuse, with the β coefficient at -16.4 [95% CI: -31.1; -1.69], +8.93 [95% CI: 2.58; 15.27] and +12 [95% CI: 6.33; 17.73], respectively. This study confirms the significant impact of this new tool on PCPs' knowledge concerning reporting suspected child abuse to the CPS. Wider dissemination of this tool could increase PCPs' awareness and comprehension of when and how to make a report to the CPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    In accelerator production of radionuclides, thin-target yield, y(E), is defined as a function of the projectile energy E, at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment (EOIB), as the slope at the origin of the growing curve of the activity per unit beam current (A/I) of a specific radionuclide vs. irradiation time, for a target in which the energy loss is negligible with respect to the projectile energy itself. In practice, y(E) is defined as the second derivative of A/I with respect to particle energy and irradiation time, calculated when the irradiation time tends to zero (EOIB). The thin-target yields of different radionuclides, produced by direct and side reactions, are numerically fitted, taking into account the overall statistical errors as weights. The 'effective' cross-section σ ± (E) as a function of projectile energy is proportional to thin-target yield, but the physical meaning of this parameter is poor, being only a raw summation of the several cross sections of the reaction channels concerned, weighted on target isotopic composition. Conversely, Thick-Target Yield, Y(E,ΔE), is defined as a two parameter function of the incident particle energy E(MeV) onto the target and the energy loss ΔE (MeV), in the target itself, obtained by integration of thin-target excitation function, y(E). This approach holds in the strict approximation of a monochromatic beam of energy E, not affected by either intrinsic energy spread or straggling. The energy straggling is computed by Monte Carlo computer codes, like TRIM 2001. In case of total particle energy absorption in the target, for a nuclear reaction of energy threshold E th , the function Y(E,ΔE) reaches a value Y(E,E- E th ), for ΔE=E- E th , that represents mathematically the envelope of the Y(E,ΔE) family of curves. This envelope is a monotonically increasing curve, never reaching either a maximum or a saturation value, even if its slope becomes negligible for high particle energies and energy losses. Some

  7. A formal MIM specification and tools for the common exchange of MIM diagrams: an XML-Based format, an API, and a validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Augustin; Karac, Evrim I; Sunshine, Margot; Chang, Lucas; Nussinov, Ruth; Aladjem, Mirit I; Kohn, Kurt W

    2011-05-17

    The Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) notation offers a standard set of symbols and rules on their usage for the depiction of cellular signaling network diagrams. Such diagrams are essential for disseminating biological information in a concise manner. A lack of software tools for the notation restricts wider usage of the notation. Development of software is facilitated by a more detailed specification regarding software requirements than has previously existed for the MIM notation. A formal implementation of the MIM notation was developed based on a core set of previously defined glyphs. This implementation provides a detailed specification of the properties of the elements of the MIM notation. Building upon this specification, a machine-readable format is provided as a standardized mechanism for the storage and exchange of MIM diagrams. This new format is accompanied by a Java-based application programming interface to help software developers to integrate MIM support into software projects. A validation mechanism is also provided to determine whether MIM datasets are in accordance with syntax rules provided by the new specification. The work presented here provides key foundational components to promote software development for the MIM notation. These components will speed up the development of interoperable tools supporting the MIM notation and will aid in the translation of data stored in MIM diagrams to other standardized formats. Several projects utilizing this implementation of the notation are outlined herein. The MIM specification is available as an additional file to this publication. Source code, libraries, documentation, and examples are available at http://discover.nci.nih.gov/mim.

  8. Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: a tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, L.D.; Christ, A.M.; Hayden, A.B.; Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mellish, J.E.; Maniscalco, John M.; Waite, J.N.; Burkanov, V.N.; Pitcher, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 ± 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 ± 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 ± 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 ± 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

  9. A zone-specific fish-based biotic index as a management tool for the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Jan; Quataert, Paul; Stevens, Maarten; Ollevier, Frans; Volckaert, Filip A M; Van den Bergh, Ericia; Maes, Joachim

    2010-07-01

    Fish-based indices monitor changes in surface waters and are a valuable aid in communication by summarising complex information about the environment (Harrison and Whitfield, 2004). A zone-specific fish-based multimetric estuarine index of biotic integrity (Z-EBI) was developed based on a 13 year time series of fish surveys from the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium). Sites were pre-classified using indicators of anthropogenic impact. Metrics showing a monotone response with pressure classes were selected for further analysis. Thresholds for the good ecological potential (GEP) were defined from references. A modified trisection was applied for the other thresholds. The Z-EBI is defined by the average of the metric scores calculated over a one year period and translated into an ecological quality ratio (EQR). The indices integrate structural and functional qualities of the estuarine fish communities. The Z-EBI performances were successfully validated for habitat degradation in the various habitat zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PCOGR: Phylogenetic COG ranking as an online tool to judge the specificity of COGs with respect to freely definable groups of organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmann Michael

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapidly increasing number of completely sequenced genomes led to the establishment of the COG-database which, based on sequence homologies, assigns similar proteins from different organisms to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs. There are several bioinformatic studies that made use of this database to determine (hyperthermophile-specific proteins by searching for COGs containing (almost exclusively proteins from (hyperthermophilic genomes. However, public software to perform individually definable group-specific searches is not available. Results The tool described here exactly fills this gap. The software is accessible at http://www.uni-wh.de/pcogr and is linked to the COG-database. The user can freely define two groups of organisms by selecting for each of the (current 66 organisms to belong either to groupA, to the reference groupB or to be ignored by the algorithm. Then, for all COGs a specificity index is calculated with respect to the specificity to groupA, i. e. high scoring COGs contain proteins from the most of groupA organisms while proteins from the most organisms assigned to groupB are absent. In addition to ranking all COGs according to the user defined specificity criteria, a graphical visualization shows the distribution of all COGs by displaying their abundance as a function of their specificity indexes. Conclusions This software allows detecting COGs specific to a predefined group of organisms. All COGs are ranked in the order of their specificity and a graphical visualization allows recognizing (i the presence and abundance of such COGs and (ii the phylogenetic relationship between groupA- and groupB-organisms. The software also allows detecting putative protein-protein interactions, novel enzymes involved in only partially known biochemical pathways, and alternate enzymes originated by convergent evolution.

  11. PCOGR: phylogenetic COG ranking as an online tool to judge the specificity of COGs with respect to freely definable groups of organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meereis, Florian; Kaufmann, Michael

    2004-10-15

    The rapidly increasing number of completely sequenced genomes led to the establishment of the COG-database which, based on sequence homologies, assigns similar proteins from different organisms to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). There are several bioinformatic studies that made use of this database to determine (hyper)thermophile-specific proteins by searching for COGs containing (almost) exclusively proteins from (hyper)thermophilic genomes. However, public software to perform individually definable group-specific searches is not available. The tool described here exactly fills this gap. The software is accessible at http://www.uni-wh.de/pcogr and is linked to the COG-database. The user can freely define two groups of organisms by selecting for each of the (current) 66 organisms to belong either to groupA, to the reference groupB or to be ignored by the algorithm. Then, for all COGs a specificity index is calculated with respect to the specificity to groupA, i. e. high scoring COGs contain proteins from the most of groupA organisms while proteins from the most organisms assigned to groupB are absent. In addition to ranking all COGs according to the user defined specificity criteria, a graphical visualization shows the distribution of all COGs by displaying their abundance as a function of their specificity indexes. This software allows detecting COGs specific to a predefined group of organisms. All COGs are ranked in the order of their specificity and a graphical visualization allows recognizing (i) the presence and abundance of such COGs and (ii) the phylogenetic relationship between groupA- and groupB-organisms. The software also allows detecting putative protein-protein interactions, novel enzymes involved in only partially known biochemical pathways, and alternate enzymes originated by convergent evolution.

  12. Thermal plumes and micro-contaminants release from power plants in water bodies. Development of innovative software tools to support plant management and real case applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guandalini, R.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues are a fundamental aspect of energy generation by thermal power plants. Numerical modeling can be used to develop innovative software tools to support plant management and to analyze critical scenarios also considering meteorology forecasts. Compliance with regulatory obligations of thermal/contaminant plumes and prediction of water body physical properties at the intake/discharge location can be performed by real time systems, in order to optimize plant operations and to evaluate the amount of energy that will be generated. A procedure coupling hydrodynamic and water quality modeling for the prediction of possible areas of accumulation of micro-contaminants in a short, medium and long period is also presented. Finally, applications of thermal/pollutant prediction systems and numerical modeling of particular environmental aspects of energy production and transport are shown (e.g. chlorine diffusion from a HVDC marine anode, impact on aquatic ecosystems in coastal regions). (author)

  13. The Drosophila Gr28bD product is a non-specific cation channel that can be used as a novel thermogenetic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Aditi; Salari, Autoosa; Berigan, Benton R; Miguel, Kayla C; Amirshenava, Marzie; Robinson, Abbey; Zars, Benjamin C; Lin, Jenna L; Milescu, Lorin S; Milescu, Mirela; Zars, Troy

    2018-01-17

    Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila. Our results show that Gr28bD expression in Xenopus oocytes produces a non-specific cationic current that is activated by elevated temperatures. This current is non-inactivating and non-voltage dependent. When expressed in Drosophila motor neurons, Gr28bD can be used to change the firing pattern of individual cells in a temperature-dependent fashion. Finally, we show that pan-neuronal or motor neuron expression of Gr28bD can be used to alter fruit fly behavior with elevated temperatures. Together, these results validate the potential of the Gr28bD gene as a founding member of a new class of thermogenetic tools.

  14. Determination of Specific Forces and Tool Deflections in Micro-milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using Finite Element Simulations and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Simone; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Thepsonti, Thanongsak; Oezel, Tugrul

    2011-01-01

    Titanium alloys offer superb properties in strength, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility and are commonly utilized in medical devices and implants. Micro-end milling process is a direct and rapid fabrication method for manufacturing medical devices and implants in titanium alloys. Process performance and quality depend upon an understanding of the relationship between cutting parameters and forces and resultant tool deflections to avoid tool breakage. For this purpose, FE simulations of chip formation during micro-end milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with an ultra-fine grain solid carbide two-flute micro-end mill are investigated using DEFORM software.At first, specific forces in tangential and radial directions of cutting during micro-end milling for varying feed advance and rotational speeds have been determined using designed FE simulations for chip formation process. Later, these forces are applied to the micro-end mill geometry along the axial depth of cut in 3D analysis of ABAQUS. Consequently, 3D distributions for tool deflections and von Misses stress are determined. These analyses will yield in establishing integrated multi-physics process models for high performance micro-end milling and a leap-forward to process improvements.

  15. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 of Mortierella alpina with specificity on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: A potential tool for reconstituting lipids with nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeennor, Sukanya; Veerana, Mayura; Anantayanon, Jutamas; Panchanawaporn, Sarocha; Chutrakul, Chanikul; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2017-12-10

    Based on available genome sequences and bioinformatics tools, we searched for an uncharacterized open reading frame of Mortierella alpina (MaDGAT2) using diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequence (fungal DGAT type 2B) as a query. Functional characterization of the identified native and codon-optimized M. alpina genes were then performed by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain defective in synthesis of neutral lipid (NL). Lipid analysis of the yeast tranformant carrying MaDGAT2 showed that the NL biosynthesis and lipid particle formation were restored by the gene complementation. Substrate specificity study of the fungal enzyme by fatty acid supplementation in the transformant cultures showed that it had a broad specificity on saturated and unsaturated fatty acid substrates for esterification into triacylglycerol (TAG). The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with 18 and 20 carbon atoms, including linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, dihomo γ-linolenic and arachidonic acid could be incorporated into TAG fraction in the yeast cells. Interestingly, among n-3 PUFAs tested, the MaDGAT2 enzyme preferred eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) substrate as its highly proportional constituent found in TAG fraction. This study provides a potential genetic tool for reconstituting oils rich in long-chain PUFAs with nutritional value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Refinement and cross-validation of nickel bioavailability in PNEC-Pro, a regulatory tool for site-specific risk assessment of metals in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Anja J; Vijver, Martina G; Vink, Jos P M

    2017-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive prescribes that the environmental quality standards for nickel in surface waters should be based on bioavailable concentrations. Biotic ligand models (BLMs) are powerful tools to account for site-specific bioavailability within risk assessments. Several BLMs and simplified tools are available. For nickel, most of them are based on the same toxicity dataset and chemical speciation methodology as laid down in the 2008 European Union Environmental Risk Assessment Report (RAR). Since then, further insights into the toxic effects of nickel on aquatic species have been gained, and new data and methodologies have been generated and implemented using the predicted-no-effect-concentration (PNEC)-pro tool. The aim of the present study is to provide maximum transparency on data revisions and how this affects the derived environmental quality standards. A case study with 7 different ecoregions was used to determine differences in species sensitivity distributions and in hazardous concentrations for 5% of the species (HC5) values between the original Ni-RAR BLMs and the PNEC-pro BLMs. The BLM parameters used were pH dependent, which extended the applicability domain of PNEC-pro up to a pH of 8.7 for surface waters. After inclusion of additional species and adjustment for cross-species extrapolation, the HC5s were well within the prediction range of the RAR. Based on the latest data and scientific insights, transfer functions in the user-friendly PNEC-pro tool have been updated accordingly without compromising the original considerations of the Ni-RAR. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2367-2376. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of the Eating Assessment Tool and the Volume-Viscosity Swallow Test for clinical evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Mukherjee, R; Clavé, P

    2014-01-01

    Background Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is an underdiagnosed digestive disorder that causes severe nutritional and respiratory complications. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and the Volume-Viscosity Swallow Test (V-VST) for clinical evaluation of OD. Methods We studied 120 patients with swallowing difficulties and 14 healthy subjects. OD was evaluated by the 10-item screening questionnaire EAT-10 and the bedside method V-VST, videofluoroscopy (VFS) being the reference standard. The V-VST is an effort test that uses boluses of different volumes and viscosities to identify clinical signs of impaired efficacy (impaired labial seal, piecemeal deglutition, and residue) and impaired safety of swallow (cough, voice changes, and oxygen desaturation ≥3%). Discriminating ability was assessed by the AUC of the ROC curve and sensitivity and specificity values. Key Results According to VFS, prevalence of OD was 87%, 75.6% with impaired efficacy and 80.9% with impaired safety of swallow including 17.6% aspirations. The EAT-10 showed a ROC AUC of 0.89 for OD with an optimal cut-off at 2 (0.89 sensitivity and 0.82 specificity). The V-VST showed 0.94 sensitivity and 0.88 specificity for OD, 0.79 sensitivity and 0.75 specificity for impaired efficacy, 0.87 sensitivity and 0.81 specificity for impaired safety, and 0.91 sensitivity and 0.28 specificity for aspirations. Conclusions & Inferences Clinical methods for screening (EAT-10) and assessment (V-VST) of OD offer excellent psychometric proprieties that allow adequate management of OD. Their universal application among at-risk populations will improve the identification of patients with OD at risk for malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. PMID:24909661

  18. Colocalization properties of elementary Ca(2+) release signals with structures specific to the contractile filaments and the tubular system of intact mouse skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Tihomir; Zapiec, Bolek; Förderer, Moritz; Fink, Rainer H A; Vogel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Ca(2+) regulates several important intracellular processes. We combined second harmonic generation (SHG) and two photon excited fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) to simultaneously record the SHG signal of the myosin filaments and localized elementary Ca(2+) release signals (LCSs). We found LCSs associated with Y-shaped structures of the myosin filament pattern (YMs), so called verniers, in intact mouse skeletal muscle fibers under hypertonic treatment. Ion channels crucial for the Ca(2+) regulation are located in the tubular system, a system that is important for Ca(2+) regulation and excitation-contraction coupling. We investigated the tubular system of intact, living mouse skeletal muscle fibers using 2PFM and the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4 dissolved in the external solution or the membrane dye di-8-ANEPPS. We simultaneously measured the SHG signal from the myosin filaments of the skeletal muscle fibers. We found that at least a subset of the YMs observed in SHG images are closely juxtaposed with Y-shaped structures of the transverse tubules (YTs). The distances of corresponding YMs and YTs yield values between 1.3 μm and 4.1 μm including pixel uncertainty with a mean distance of 2.52±0.10 μm (S.E.M., n=41). Additionally, we observed that some of the linear-shaped areas in the tubular system are colocalized with linear-shaped areas in the SHG images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Broad-range (pan) Salmonella and Salmonella serotype typhi-specific real-time PCR assays: potential tools for the clinical microbiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, John J; Doyle, Laura J; Addison, Rachel M; Reller, L Barth; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W

    2005-03-01

    We describe broad-range salmonellae (ie, Salmonella) and Salmonella serotype Typhi-specific LightCycler (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. We validated these with a battery of 280 bacteria, 108 of which were salmonellae representing 20 serotypes. In addition, 298 isolates from 170 clinical specimens that were suspected to possibly represent Salmonella were tested with the pan- Salmonella assay. Finally, the pan-Salmonella assay also was used to test DNA extracts from 101 archived, frozen stool specimens, 55 of which were culture-positive for salmonellae. Both assays were 100% sensitive and specific when cultured isolates of the battery were tested. The pan- Salmonella assay also characterized correctly all salmonellae on the primary isolation agar and was 96% sensitive (53/55) and 96% specific (49/51) when nucleic acid extracts from direct stool specimens were tested. These assays represent potential tools the clinical microbiologist could use to screen suspect isolates or stool specimens for Salmonella.

  20. Performance of Edmonton Frail Scale on frailty assessment: its association with multi-dimensional geriatric conditions assessed with specific screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Francis, Matthew D'Arcy; Bologna, Chiara; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Isu, Antonio; Vigo, Beatrice; Guerriero, Fabio; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS) on frailty assessment in association with multi-dimensional conditions assessed with specific screening tools and to explore the prevalence of frailty by gender. We enrolled 366 hospitalised patients (women\\men: 251\\115), mean age 81.5 years. The EFS was given to the patients to evaluate their frailty. Then we collected data concerning cognitive status through Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), health status (evaluated with the number of diseases), functional independence (Barthel Index and Activities Daily Living; BI, ADL, IADL), use of drugs (counting of drugs taken every day), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Skeletal Muscle Index of sarcopenia (SMI), osteoporosis and functionality (Handgrip strength). According with the EFS, the 19.7% of subjects were classified as non frail, 66.4% as apparently vulnerable and 13.9% with severe frailty. The EFS scores were associated with cognition (MMSE: β = 0.980; p nutrition (MNA: β = -0.413; p performance (Handgrip: β = -0.114, p performance tool for stratifying the state of fragility in a group of institutionalized elderly. As matter of facts the EFS has been shown to be associated with several geriatric conditions such independence, drugs assumption, mood, mental, functional and nutritional status.

  1. First Detailed Anatomical Study of Bonobos Reveals Intra-Specific Variations and Exposes Just-So Stories of Human Evolution, Bipedalism, and Tool Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Diogo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Just-so stories are prominent in human evolution literature because of our tendency to create simple progressionist narratives about our “special” place in nature, despite the fact that these stories are almost exclusively based on hard tissue data. How can we be so certain about the evolution of human facial communication, bipedalism, tool use, or speech without detailed knowledge of the internal anatomy of for instance, one of the two extant species more closely related to us, the bonobos? Here I show how many of these stories now become obsolete, after such a comprehensive knowledge on the anatomy of bonobos and other primates is finally put together. Each and every muscle that has been long accepted to be “uniquely human” and to provide “crucial singular functional adaptations” for our bipedalism, tool use and/or vocal/facial communication, is actually present as an intra-specific variant or even as normal phenotype in bonobos and/or other apes.

  2. Radiological and nuclear terrorism: within the framework of a re-thought planning system, specific tools are complementary to the general purpose instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaert, E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, France engaged in the revision of its emergency planning system in order to improve its answer to a major crisis in the field of civil defence and protection. On one side, the Vigipirate, which deals with vigilance and prevention and the response plan of the Pirate family, and particularly Piratom, which is intended to answer the radiological or nuclear terrorist events, are specific and up-to-date tools to deal with the issues of hyper-terrorism. On the other side, the new ORSEC system, the last evolution of one of the main pillars of the global public protection against risks and threats of all kinds, provides the modern methods of emergency planning which allow to consider in the most pragmatic way the response to the risks and threats of our modern world. This coherent planning system establishes the general framework for the action of the responders including medical resources. (author)

  3. IL-1β-specific recruitment of GCN5 histone acetyltransferase induces the release of PAF1 from chromatin for the de-repression of inflammatory response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nari; Sun, Hwa-Young; Youn, Min-Young; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2013-04-01

    To determine the functional specificity of inflammation, it is critical to orchestrate the timely activation and repression of inflammatory responses. Here, we explored the PAF1 (RNA polymerase II associated factor)-mediated signal- and locus-specific repression of genes induced through the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. Using microarray analysis, we identified the PAF1 target genes whose expression was further enhanced by PAF1 knockdown in IL-1β-stimulated HepG2 hepatocarcinomas. PAF1 bound near the transcription start sites of target genes and dissociated on stimulation. In PAF1-deficient cells, more elongating RNA polymerase II and acetylated histones were observed, although IL-1β-mediated activation and recruitment of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were not altered. Under basal conditions, PAF1 blocked histone acetyltransferase general control non-depressible 5 (GCN5)-mediated acetylation on H3K9 and H4K5 residues. On IL-1β stimulation, activated GCN5 discharged PAF1 from chromatin, allowing productive transcription to occur. PAF1 bound to histones but not to acetylated histones, and the chromatin-binding domain of PAF1 was essential for target gene repression. Moreover, IL-1β-induced cell migration was similarly controlled through counteraction between PAF1 and GCN5. These results suggest that the IL-1β signal-specific exchange of PAF1 and GCN5 on the target locus limits inappropriate gene induction and facilitates the timely activation of inflammatory responses.

  4. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA + solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens.

  5. A self-referential HOWTO on release engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galassi, Mark C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Release engineering is a fundamental part of the software development cycle: it is the point at which quality control is exercised and bug fixes are integrated. The way in which software is released also gives the end user her first experience of a software package, while in scientific computing release engineering can guarantee reproducibility. For these reasons and others, the release process is a good indicator of the maturity and organization of a development team. Software teams often do not put in place a release process at the beginning. This is unfortunate because the team does not have early and continuous execution of test suites, and it does not exercise the software in the same conditions as the end users. I describe an approach to release engineering based on the software tools developed and used by the GNU project, together with several specific proposals related to packaging and distribution. I do this in a step-by-step manner, demonstrating how this very paper is written and built using proper release engineering methods. Because many aspects of release engineering are not exercised in the building of the paper, the accompanying software repository also contains examples of software libraries.

  6. Development of In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation for Amorphous Solid Dispersion Immediate-Release Suvorexant Tablets and Application to Clinically Relevant Dissolution Specifications and In-Process Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Hermans, Andre; Neu, Colleen; Yee, Ka Lai; Palcza, John; Miller, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    Although in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVCs) are commonly pursued for modified-release products, there are limited reports of successful IVIVCs for immediate-release (IR) formulations. This manuscript details the development of a Multiple Level C IVIVC for the amorphous solid dispersion formulation of suvorexant, a BCS class II compound, and its application to establishing dissolution specifications and in-process controls. Four different 40 mg batches were manufactured at different tablet hardnesses to produce distinct dissolution profiles. These batches were evaluated in a relative bioavailability clinical study in healthy volunteers. Although no differences were observed for the total exposure (AUC) of the different batches, a clear relationship between dissolution and Cmax was observed. A validated Multiple Level C IVIVC against Cmax was developed for the 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 min dissolution time points and the tablet disintegration time. The relationship established between tablet tensile strength and dissolution was subsequently used to inform suitable tablet hardness ranges within acceptable Cmax limits. This is the first published report for a validated Multiple Level C IVIVC for an IR solid dispersion formulation demonstrating how this approach can facilitate Quality by Design in formulation development and help toward clinically relevant specifications and in-process controls. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. EPICS application source/release control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Anderson, J.; Kraimer, M.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes a set of Application Source/Release Control tools (appSR) that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. The Application Source/Release Control System (appSR) has been unbundled from base EPICS and is now available as an EPICS extension. Due to this unbundling, two new directories must be added to a user's path (see section ''Environment'' on page 3 for more information) and a new command getapp must be issued after the getrel command to get a specific version of appSR (see section ''Creating The Initial Application System Area'' on page 7 for more information). It is now required that GNU make version 3.71 or later be used for makes instead of SUN make. Users should now type gmake instead of make

  8. Men, hearts and minds: developing and piloting culturally specific psychometric tools assessing psychosocial stress and depression in central Australian Aboriginal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alex; Mentha, Ricky; Howard, Michael; Rowley, Kevin; Reilly, Rachel; Paquet, Catherine; O'Dea, Kerin

    2016-02-01

    The health inequalities experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are well documented but there are few empirical data outlining the burden, consequences, experience and expression of depressive illness. This paper seeks to address the lack of accessible, culturally specific measures of psychosocial stress, depression or quality of life developed for, and validated within, this population. Building on an extensive qualitative phase of research, a psychosocial questionnaire comprising novel and adapted scales was developed and piloted with 189 Aboriginal men across urban and remote settings in central Australia. With a view to refining this tool for future use, its underlying structure was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, and the predictive ability of the emergent psychosocial constructs assessed with respect to depressive symptomatology. The latent structure of the psychosocial questionnaire was conceptually aligned with the components of the a priori model on which the questionnaire was based. Regression modelling indicated that depressive symptoms were driven by a sense of injury and chronic stress and had a non-linear association with socioeconomic position. This represents the first community-based survey of psychosocial stress and depression in Aboriginal men. It provides both knowledge of, and an appropriate process for, the further development of psychometric tools, including quality of life, in this population. Further research with larger and more diverse samples of Aboriginal people is required to refine the measurement of key constructs such as chronic stress, socioeconomic position, social support and connectedness. The further refinement, validation against criterion-based methods and incorporation within primary care services is essential.

  9. Clinical presentation of women with pelvic source varicose veins in the perineum as a first step in the development of a disease-specific patient assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kathleen; Minjarez, Renee; Ferris, Brian; Neradilek, Moni; Wise, Matthew; Stoughton, Julianne; Meissner, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic venous incompetence can cause symptomatic varicose veins in the perineum, buttock, and thigh. Presentation, symptom severity, and response to treatment of pelvic source varicose veins are not well defined. Currently available tools to measure the severity of lower extremity venous disease and its effects on quality of life may be inadequate to assess disease severity in these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histories, demographics, and clinical presentations of women with pelvic source varicose veins and to compare these data to a population of women with nonpelvic source varicose veins. A total of 72 female patients with symptomatic pelvic source varicose veins were prospectively followed up. Age, weight, height, parity, and birth weights of offspring were recorded. Both pelvic source varicose veins and saphenous incompetence were identified by duplex ultrasound. Patients were queried as to their primary symptoms, activities that made their symptoms worse, and time when their symptoms were most prominent. Severity of disease was objectively evaluated using the revised Venous Clinical Severity Score (rVCSS) and 10-point numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). Compared with women without a pelvic source of varicose veins (N = 1163), patients with pelvic source varicose veins were younger (mean, 44.6 ± 8.6 vs 52.6 ± 12.9 years; P source varicose veins are a unique subset of patients. They are younger and thinner than those with nonpelvic source varicose veins, have larger infants than the general U.S. population, and have an inverse correlation between age and pain. As the majority of premenopausal patients have increased symptoms during menses, this may be due to hormonal influence. As it is poorly associated with patient-reported discomfort, the rVCSS is a poor tool for evaluating pelvic source varicose veins. A disease-specific tool for the evaluation of pelvic source varicose veins is critically needed, and this study is a first

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody as a new tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Chunmei; Tang Yong; Fan Huiying; Chen Jinding

    2008-01-01

    To set up an immunoassay-based method to detect Sudan dyes and Para red, we generated a monoclonal antibody (Mab) using a specially designed carboxyl derivative of Sudan I (CSD I) as the immunogen. CSD I was synthesized by azocoupling reaction using 2-naphthol and diazotised 4-aminobenzoic acid. The antibody was obtained from a hybridoma, which was derived from the fusion of the mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells and the splenocytes from the mice immunized with the CSD I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate. In addition, we showed that the Mab was highly specific for Sudan I, III and Para red. The limit of detection was approximately 0.01 ng mL -1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and 0.5 ng g -1 in chilli tomato sauce. The recoveries of Sudan I, III and Para red for the chilli tomato sauce were from 84% to 99% and coefficients of variation were from 14.9% to 33.3%. Thus, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is a rapid and high throughput screening tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red in food products

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody as a new tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju Chunmei [College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Tang Yong [Center of Antibody Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Fan Huiying [College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Chen Jinding [College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)], E-mail: jdchen@scau.edu.cn

    2008-07-28

    To set up an immunoassay-based method to detect Sudan dyes and Para red, we generated a monoclonal antibody (Mab) using a specially designed carboxyl derivative of Sudan I (CSD I) as the immunogen. CSD I was synthesized by azocoupling reaction using 2-naphthol and diazotised 4-aminobenzoic acid. The antibody was obtained from a hybridoma, which was derived from the fusion of the mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells and the splenocytes from the mice immunized with the CSD I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate. In addition, we showed that the Mab was highly specific for Sudan I, III and Para red. The limit of detection was approximately 0.01 ng mL{sup -1} in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and 0.5 ng g{sup -1} in chilli tomato sauce. The recoveries of Sudan I, III and Para red for the chilli tomato sauce were from 84% to 99% and coefficients of variation were from 14.9% to 33.3%. Thus, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is a rapid and high throughput screening tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red in food products.

  12. From "five" to 5 for 5 minutes: Arabic number transcoding as a short, specific, and sensitive screening tool for mathematics learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Ricardo; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Vieira, Laura Rodrigues; Paiva, Giulia Moreira; Prado, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Wood, Guilherme; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2015-02-01

    Number transcoding (e.g., writing 29 when hearing "twenty-nine") is one of the most basic numerical abilities required in daily life and is paramount for mathematics achievement. The aim of this study is to investigate psychometric properties of an Arabic number-writing task and its capacity to identify children with mathematics difficulties. We assessed 786 children (55% girls) from first to fourth grades, who were classified as children with mathematics difficulties (n = 103) or controls (n = 683). Although error rates were low, the task presented adequate internal consistency (0.91). Analyses revealed effective diagnostic accuracy in first and second school grades (specificity equals to 0.67 and 0.76 respectively, and sensitivity equals to 0.70 and 0.88 respectively). Moreover, items tapping the understanding of place-value syntax were the most sensitive to mathematics achievement. Overall, we propose that number transcoding is a useful tool for the assessment of mathematics abilities in early elementary school. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  14. Video-game-assisted physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for idiopathic scoliosis: case series and introduction of a new tool to increase motivation and precision of exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Christine; Groebl, Petra; Nischelwitzer, Alexander; Salchinger, Beate; Sperl, Matthias; Wegmann, Helmut; Holzer, Hans-Peter; Saraph, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    It is important to monitor how patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis comply with their physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE). Physiogame, a newly developed video game using the Game-Trak 3D interactive game controller, combines correct PSSE performance with gaming. It tracks the position of the working limb in 3D space during the exercises as participants aim to hit certain targets and avoid others, and gives direct feedback by stopping the game if the working limb leaves the target 3D space, which is chosen to secure the corrective position according to the Schroth method. Physiogame records the quality and frequency of the exercises performed. We aimed to investigate the influence of this tool on motivation to perform regularly and, correctly, and with self-assessment of performance quality. This case series included 8 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis (thoracolumbar 7, lumbar 1), ages 7-13 years, all female and treated according to SOSORT guidelines; the COBB angle of primary curve at the start of brace therapy was 22-34°. In addition to Full Time Rigid Bracing (FTRB, Cheneau) and PSSE (Schroth), the participants were to perform two standardized Schroth exercises (muscle cylinder in standing position, mainly addressing the thoracic curve, and in side-lying position, mainly addressing the lumbar curve) with video game assistance every day for 6 months. The development (first to last month) of the following parameters was analyzed with descriptive methods: the actual training time to assess motivation, the ratio of the actual playing time versus total playing time to assess exercise improvement, and self-assessment of quality of performance. The average number of sessions with Physiogame was 217 per study participant (range 24 to 572, the study protocol targeted at least 180); actual training time decreased from 79 to 52 min (first to last month). Actual playing time increased from 73% of the total playing time

  15. Validation of the LupusPRO version 1.8: an update to a disease-specific patient-reported outcome tool for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoddin, D R; Weinberg, S; Gandhi, N; Arora, S; Block, J A; Sequeira, W; Jolly, M

    2018-04-01

    Objectives LupusPRO has shown good measurement properties as a disease-specific patient-reported outcome tool in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For the purpose of clinical trials, the version 1.7 (v1.7) domain of Pain-Vitality was separated into distinct Pain, Vitality and Sleep domains in v1.8, and the psychometric properties examined. Methods A total of 131 consecutive SLE patients were self-administered surveys assessing fatigue (FACIT, SF-36), pain (Pain Inventory, SF-36), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), emotional health (PHQ-9, SF-36) and quality of life (SF-36, LupusPRO) at routine care visits. Internal consistency reliability (ICR) for each domain was obtained using Cronbach's alpha. The convergent construct validity of LupusPRO domains with corresponding SF-36 domains or tools were tested using Spearman correlation. Varimax rotations were conducted to assess factor structures of the LupusPRO v1.8. Results Mean (SD) age was 40.04 (14.10) years. Scores from the LupusPRO-Sleep domain strongly correlated with insomnia scores, while LupusPRO-Vitality correlated strongly with fatigue (FACIT) and SF-36 vitality. The LupusPRO-Pain domain correlated strongly with pain (SF36 Bodily-Pain, Pain Inventory) scores. Similarly, the LupusPRO domains of Physical and Emotional Health had significant correlations with corresponding SF-36 domains. The ICR for HRQoL and non-HRQoL were 0.96 and 0.81. LupusPRO (domains HRQoL and QoL) scores correlated with disease activity. Principal component analysis included seven factor loadings presenting for the HRQOL subscales (combined Sleep, Vitality, and Pain), and three factors for the NHRQoL (Combined Coping and Social Support). Conclusions LupusPRO v1.8 (including its Sleep, Vitality, and Pain domains) has acceptable reliability and validity. Use of LupusPRO as an outcome measure in clinical trials would facilitate responsiveness assessment.

  16. SU-E-T-746: The Use of Radiochromic Film Analyzed with Three Channel Dosimetry as a Secondary Patient-Specific QA Tool for Small SBRT Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadsell, M; Holcombe, C; Chin, E; Hsu, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As diagnostic techniques become more sensitive and targeting methods grow in accuracy, target volumes continue to shrink and SBRT becomes more prevalent. Due to this fact, patient-specific QA must also enhance resolution and accuracy in order to verify dose delivery in these volumes. It has been suggested that when measuring small fields at least two separate detectors be used to verify delivered dose. Therefore, we have instituted a secondary patient QA verification for small (<3cm) SBRT fields using Gafchromic EBT2 film. Methods: Films were cross-calibrated using a Farmer chamber in plastic water at reference conditions as defined by TG-51. Films were scanned, and an RGB calibration curve was created according to best practices published by Ashland, Inc. Four SBRT cases were evaluated both with the Scandidos Delta4 and with EBT2 films sandwiched in plastic water. Raw values obtained from the film were converted to dose using an in-house algorithm employing all three color channels to increase accuracy and dosimetric range. Gamma and dose profile comparisons to Eclipse dose calculations were obtained using RIT and compared to values obtained with the Delta4. Results: Film gamma pass rates at 2% and 2mm were similar to those obtained with the Delta4. However, dose difference histograms showed better absolute dose agreement, with the average mean film dose agreeing with calculation to 0.3% and the Delta4 only agreeing to 3.1% across the cases. Additionally, films provided more resolution than the Delta4 and thus their dose profiles better succeeded in diagnosing dose calculation inaccuracies. Conclusion: We believe that the implementation of secondary patient QA using EBT2 film analyzed with all three color channels is an invaluable tool for evaluation of small SBRT fields. Furthermore, we have shown that this method can sometimes provide a more detailed and faithful reproduction of plan dose than the Delta4

  17. The Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT): A Discipline-Specific Rubric for Utilizing Bloom's Taxonomy in the Design and Evaluation of Assessments in the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy is a resource commonly used to assess the cognitive level associated with course assignments and examination questions. Although widely utilized in educational research, Bloom's taxonomy has received limited attention as an analytical tool in the anatomical sciences. Building on previous research, the Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT)…

  18. Video-game-assisted physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for idiopathic scoliosis: case series and introduction of a new tool to increase motivation and precision of exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wibmer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to monitor how patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis comply with their physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE. Physiogame, a newly developed video game using the Game-Trak 3D interactive game controller, combines correct PSSE performance with gaming. It tracks the position of the working limb in 3D space during the exercises as participants aim to hit certain targets and avoid others, and gives direct feedback by stopping the game if the working limb leaves the target 3D space, which is chosen to secure the corrective position according to the Schroth method. Physiogame records the quality and frequency of the exercises performed. We aimed to investigate the influence of this tool on motivation to perform regularly and, correctly, and with self-assessment of performance quality. Methods This case series included 8 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis (thoracolumbar 7, lumbar 1, ages 7-13 years, all female and treated according to SOSORT guidelines; the COBB angle of primary curve at the start of brace therapy was 22-34°. In addition to Full Time Rigid Bracing (FTRB, Cheneau and PSSE (Schroth, the participants were to perform two standardized Schroth exercises (muscle cylinder in standing position, mainly addressing the thoracic curve, and in side-lying position, mainly addressing the lumbar curve with video game assistance every day for 6 months. The development (first to last month of the following parameters was analyzed with descriptive methods: the actual training time to assess motivation, the ratio of the actual playing time versus total playing time to assess exercise improvement, and self-assessment of quality of performance. Results The average number of sessions with Physiogame was 217 per study participant (range 24 to 572, the study protocol targeted at least 180; actual training time decreased from 79 to 52 min (first to last month. Actual playing

  19. Training Materials for Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wake, Jo Dugstad; Hansen, Cecilie; Debus, Kolja

    This document, D7.4 – training materials for release 3, provides an overview of the training material for version 3 of the NEXT-TELL tools and methods. Previous documents submitted as part of work package 7, which is about teacher training, are D7.1 – Training Concept, D7.2 – Training Materials...... for Release 1 and D7.3 – Training Materials for Release 2. D7.4 builds on D7.1 and D7.2 and D7.3. D7.4 contains further development of previous work within WP7, essentially a revised theoretical approach to the teacher training, and expansion of the notion of tool training. The media in use have been expanded...

  20. Releasing CSS

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In an industry that communicates with terms such as "Browser Hell" and "browser wars," a web designer can be excused for having some anxiety over Microsoft's recent upgrade of Internet Explorer 6 (IE6) to Internet Explorer 7 (IE7). Web designers should ask the following questions: What problems does IE6 possess and what fixes does IE7 provide? What part of the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) specification does IE7 for Windows support? How can web designers work around any problems that exist within IE7's support for CSS? While web designers are testing their designs on the latest browser, how f

  1. DemTect, PANDA, EASY, and MUSIC : Cognitive Screening Tools with Age Correction and Weighting of Subtests According to Their Sensitivity and Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalbe, Elke; Calabrese, Pasquale; Fengler, Sophie; Kessler, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Many cognitive screening instruments have been developed during the last decades to detect mild cognitive dysfunction and dementia, and there is an ongoing discussion as to which tool should be used in which setting and which challenges have to be considered. Among other aspects, dependence on age

  2. Dynamic changes in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the lateral septum during social play behavior in juvenile rats: Implications for sex-specific regulation of social play behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredewold, Remco; Schiavo, Jennifer K.; van der Hart, Marieke; Verreij, Michelle; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Social play is a motivated and rewarding behavior that is displayed by nearly all mammals and peaks in the juvenile period. Moreover, social play is essential for the development of social skills and is impaired in social disorders like autism. We recently showed that the lateral septum (LS) is involved in the regulation of social play behavior in juvenile male and female rats. The LS is largely modulated by GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, but their role in social play behavior is unknown. Here, we determined whether social play behavior is associated with changes in the extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS and to what extent such changes modulate social play behavior in male and female juvenile rats. Using intracerebral microdialysis in freely behaving rats, we found no sex difference in extracellular GABA concentrations, but extracellular glutamate concentrations are higher in males than in females under baseline condition and during social play. This resulted in a higher glutamate/GABA concentration ratio in males versus females and thus, an excitatory predominance in the LS of males. Furthermore, social play behavior in both sexes is associated with significant increases in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS. Pharmacological blockade of GABA-A receptors in the LS with bicuculline (100 ng/0.5 µl, 250 ng/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in both sexes. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors) in the LS with AP-5 + CNQX (2 mM+0.4 mM/0.5 µl, 30 mM+3 mM/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in females, but did not alter social play behavior in males. Together, these data suggest a role for GABA neurotransmission in the LS in the regulation of juvenile social play behavior in both sexes, while glutamate neurotransmission in the LS is involved in the sex-specific regulation of juvenile

  3. Tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  4. Improved tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  5. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  6. VCFtoTree: a user-friendly tool to construct locus-specific alignments and phylogenies from thousands of anthropologically relevant genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duo; Jaber, Yousef; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Gokcumen, Omer

    2017-09-26

    Constructing alignments and phylogenies for a given locus from large genome sequencing studies with relevant outgroups allow novel evolutionary and anthropological insights. However, no user-friendly tool has been developed to integrate thousands of recently available and anthropologically relevant genome sequences to construct complete sequence alignments and phylogenies. Here, we provide VCFtoTree, a user friendly tool with a graphical user interface that directly accesses online databases to download, parse and analyze genome variation data for regions of interest. Our pipeline combines popular sequence datasets and tree building algorithms with custom data parsing to generate accurate alignments and phylogenies using all the individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project, Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes, as well as reference genomes of Chimpanzee and Rhesus Macaque. It can also be applied to other phased human genomes, as well as genomes from other species. The output of our pipeline includes an alignment in FASTA format and a tree file in newick format. VCFtoTree fulfills the increasing demand for constructing alignments and phylogenies for a given loci from thousands of available genomes. Our software provides a user friendly interface for a wider audience without prerequisite knowledge in programming. VCFtoTree can be accessed from https://github.com/duoduoo/VCFtoTree_3.0.0 .

  7. The Development of a Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) Tool for Assessing the Invasive Potential of Ornamental Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Conser, Christiana; Seebacher, Lizbeth; Fujino, David W.; Reichard, Sarah; DiTomaso, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) methods for evaluating invasiveness in plants have evolved rapidly in the last two decades. Many WRA tools exist, but none were specifically designed to screen ornamental plants prior to being released into the environment. To be accepted as a tool to evaluate ornamental plants for the nursery industry, it is critical that a WRA tool accurately predicts non-invasiveness without falsely categorizing them as invasive. We developed a new Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) too...

  8. Patient pools and the use of "patient means" are valuable tools in quality control illustrated by a bone-specific alkaline phosphatase assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Lund, Erik D.; Brandslund, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality control (QC) is an essential part of clinical biochemistry to ensure that laboratory test results are reliable and correct. Those tests without a defined reference method constitute a special challenge, as is the case with bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP). METHODS...... AND RESULTS: The present study reports an example where a shift in a BAP assay was detected by use of a patient pool and supported by a retrospective calculation of "patient mean", while the external QC and specific assay control material were unaffected by the shift. CONCLUSIONS: Patient pools and the use...

  9. NK cell-released exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported that human natural killer (NK) cells release exosomes that express both NK-cell markers and cytotoxic molecules. Similar results were obtained with circulating exosomes from human healthy donors. Both NK-cell derived and circulating exosomes exerted a full functional activity and killed both tumor and activated immune cells. These findings indicate that NK-cell derived exosomes might constitute a new promising therapeutic tool. PMID:23482694

  10. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability Site Workstation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.T.; Sumikawa, D.A.; Foster, C.S.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is a centralized emergency response service that assesses the consequences that may result from an atmospheric release of toxic material. ARAC was developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense (DOD) and responds principally to radiological accidents. ARAC provides radiological health and safety guidance to decision makers in the form of computer-generated estimates of the effects of an actual, or potential release of radioactive material into the atmosphere. Upon receipt of the release scenario, the ARAC assessment staff extracts meteorological, topographic, and geographic data from resident world-wide databases for use in complex, three-dimensional transport and diffusion models. These dispersion models generate air concentration (or dose) and ground deposition contour plots showing estimates of the contamination patterns produced as the toxic material is carried by the prevailing winds. To facilitate the ARAC response to a release from specific DOE and DOD sites and to provide these sites with a local emergency response tool, a remote Site Workstation System (SWS) is being placed at various ARAC-supported facilities across the country.. This SWS replaces the existing antiquated ARAC Site System now installed at many of these sites. The new system gives users access to complex atmospheric dispersion models that may be run either by the ARAC staff at LLNL, or (in a later phase of the system) by site personnel using the computational resources of the SWS. Supporting this primary function are a variety of SWS-resident supplemental capabilities that include meteorological data acquisition, manipulation of release-specific databases, computer-based communications, and the use of a simpler Gaussian trajectory puff model that is based on Environmental Protection Agency's INPUFF code

  11. Review of specific effects in atmospheric dispersion calculations. The impact of source-term characteristics -and the processes that modify them post release- on dry and wet deposition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.J.; Underwood, B.Y.; Brearley, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the first half of the work the source-term characteristics potentially influencing behaviour were identified and examined. It was concluded that a number of source characteristics, in addition to those conventionally provided for consequence assessment, could significantly influence deposition behaviour. Linking with this, a review was undertaken of past reactor-accident risk assessment and more recent source-term studies to pick out information, if any, on the parameters of interest. The second half of the study resulted in a list of processes capable of transforming the released material vis-a-vis deposition characteristics, including processes occurring in the near field associated with the initial release transient and also those occurring over a longer time span as the plume travels downwind. Scoping calculations were performed for some of the processes in the context of idealized accident scenarios, leading to the conclusions that in some circumstances post-release mechanisms could have an important impact on the deposition behaviour of released material. Statistical theory was used to describe the behaviour of a plume both before and after detachment, and the limitations of the theory were discussed. A review of the lateral wind velocity spectra was undertaken so that simplified spectra could be constructed and used to predict the plume behaviour as a function of travel time, stability category and release duration. It was found that commonly used methods of allowing for release duration overpredicted the dependence, in general, upon release duration. For example the adoption of a stability-independent meandering term would lead to the underprediction of threshold effects such as early death and land/crop interdiction. In addition, theory indicated that the 'Y' curves for different stability categories would converge gradually with increasing travel time

  12. Purification and Characterization of a Mycelial Catalase from Scedosporium boydii, a Useful Tool for Specific Antibody Detection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara; Cimon, Bernard; Larcher, Gérald; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Robert, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Scedosporium boydii is an opportunistic filamentous fungus which may be responsible for a wide variety of infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. This fungus belongs to the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, which usually ranks second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and may lead to allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, sensitization, or respiratory infections. Upon microbial infection, host phagocytic cells release reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, as part of the antimicrobial response. Catalases are known to protect pathogens against ROS by detoxification of the hydrogen peroxide. Here, we investigated the catalase equipment of Scedosporium boydii, one of the major pathogenic species in the S. apiospermum species complex. Three catalases were identified, and the mycelial catalase A1 was purified to homogeneity by a three-step chromatographic process. This enzyme is a monofunctional tetrameric protein of 460 kDa, consisting of four 82-kDa glycosylated subunits. The potential usefulness of this enzyme in serodiagnosis of S. apiospermum infections was then investigated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using 64 serum samples from CF patients. Whatever the species involved in the S. apiospermum complex, sera from infected patients were clearly differentiated from sera from patients with an Aspergillus fumigatus infection or those from CF patients without clinical and biological signs of a fungal infection and without any fungus recovered from sputum samples. These results suggest that catalase A1 is a good candidate for the development of an immunoassay for serodiagnosis of infections caused by the S. apiospermum complex in patients with CF. PMID:25355796

  13. PCOGR: Phylogenetic COG ranking as an online tool to judge the specificity of COGs with respect to freely definable groups of organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Meereis, Florian; Kaufmann, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The rapidly increasing number of completely sequenced genomes led to the establishment of the COG-database which, based on sequence homologies, assigns similar proteins from different organisms to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). There are several bioinformatic studies that made use of this database to determine (hyper)thermophile-specific proteins by searching for COGs containing (almost) exclusively proteins from (hyper)thermophilic genomes. However, public softwar...

  14. Compartment-specific pH monitoring in Bacillus subtilis using fluorescent sensor proteins: a tool to analyze the antibacterial effect of weak organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beilen, Johan W A; Brul, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The internal pH (pHi) of a living cell is one of its most important physiological parameters. To monitor the pH inside Bacillus subtilis during various stages of its life cycle, we constructed an improved version (IpHluorin) of the ratiometric, pH-sensitive fluorescent protein pHluorin by extending it at the 5' end with the first 24 bp of comGA. The new version, which showed an approximate 40% increase in fluorescence intensity, was expressed from developmental phase-specific, native promoters of B. subtilis that are specifically active during vegetative growth on glucose (PptsG) or during sporulation (PspoIIA, PspoIIID, and PsspE). Our results show strong, compartment-specific expression of IpHluorin that allowed accurate pHi measurements of live cultures during exponential growth, early and late sporulation, spore germination, and during subsequent spore outgrowth. Dormant spores were characterized by an pHi of 6.0 ± 0.3. Upon full germination the pHi rose dependent on the medium to 7.0-7.4. The presence of sorbic acid in the germination medium inhibited a rise in the intracellular pH of germinating spores and inhibited germination. Such effects were absent when acetic was added at identical concentrations.

  15. Compartment-specific pH monitoring in Bacillus subtilis using fluorescent sensor proteins; a tool to analyse the antibacterial effect of weak organic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W.A. van Beilen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal pH (pHi of a living cell is one of its most important physiological parameters. To monitor the pH inside B. subtilis during various stages of its life cycle, we constructed an improved version (IpHluorin of the ratiometric, pH-sensitive fluorescent protein pHluorin by extending it at the 5’ end with the first 24 bp of comGA. The new version, which showed an approximate 40% increase in fluorescence intensity, was expressed from developmental phase-specific, native promoters of B. subtilis that are specifically active during vegetative growth on glucose (PptsG or during sporulation (PspoIIA, PspoIIID and PsspE. Our results show strong, compartment-specific expression of IpHluorin that allowed accurate pHi measurements of live cultures during exponential growth, early and late sporulation, spore germination, and during subsequent spore outgrowth. Dormant spores were characterised by an internal pH of 6.0 ± 0.3. Upon full germination the internal pH rose dependent on the medium to 7.0-7.4. The presence of sorbic acid in the germination medium inhibited a rise in the intracellular pH of germinating spores and inhibited germination. Such effects were absent when acetic was added at identical concentrations.

  16. Database for High Throughput Screening Hits (dHITS): a simple tool to retrieve gene specific phenotypes from systematic screens done in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuartzman, Silvia G; Schuldiner, Maya

    2018-03-25

    In the last decade several collections of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains have been created. In these collections every gene is modified in a similar manner such as by a deletion or the addition of a protein tag. Such libraries have enabled a diversity of systematic screens, giving rise to large amounts of information regarding gene functions. However, often papers describing such screens focus on a single gene or a small set of genes and all other loci affecting the phenotype of choice ('hits') are only mentioned in tables that are provided as supplementary material and are often hard to retrieve or search. To help unify and make such data accessible, we have created a Database of High Throughput Screening Hits (dHITS). The dHITS database enables information to be obtained about screens in which genes of interest were found as well as the other genes that came up in that screen - all in a readily accessible and downloadable format. The ability to query large lists of genes at the same time provides a platform to easily analyse hits obtained from transcriptional analyses or other screens. We hope that this platform will serve as a tool to facilitate investigation of protein functions to the yeast community. © 2018 The Authors Yeast Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Identification of the first multi-exonic WDR72 deletion in isolated amelogenesis imperfecta, and generation of a WDR72-specific copy number screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Julia; Tatun, Dana; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Kurth, Ingo; Schimmel, Bettina; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Bertzbach, Sabine; Peters, Hartmut; Beetz, Christian

    2016-09-15

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder of tooth development which is due to aberrant deposition or composition of enamel. Both syndromic and isolated forms exist; they may be inherited in an X-linked, autosomal recessive, or autosomal dominant manner. WDR72 is one of ten currently known genes for recessive isolated AI; nine WDR72 mutations affecting single nucleotides have been described to date. Based on whole exome sequencing in a large consanguineous AI pedigree, we obtained evidence for presence of a multi-exonic WDR72 deletion. A home-made multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay was used to confirm the aberration, to narrow its extent, and to identify heterozygous carriers. Our study extends the mutational spectrum for WDR72 to include large deletions, and supports a relevance of the previously proposed loss-of-function mechanism. It also introduces an easy-to-use and highly sensitive tool for detecting WDR72 copy number alterations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend trend trend 0.07) for the OC-PRBS. The PRBS and OP-PRBS had similar performance when they were derived from fruits and vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Infinity: An In-Silico Tool for Genome-Wide Prediction of Specific DNA Matrices in miRNA Genomic Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Emmanuela; Grandoni, Luca; Garibaldi, Francesca; Manni, Isabella; Filligoi, Giancarlo; Piaggio, Giulia; Gurtner, Aymone

    2016-01-01

    miRNAs are potent regulators of gene expression and modulate multiple cellular processes in physiology and pathology. Deregulation of miRNAs expression has been found in various cancer types, thus, miRNAs may be potential targets for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms through which miRNAs are regulated in cancer remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of transcriptional factor-miRNA crosstalk is one of the most update aspects of the study of miRNAs regulation. In the present study we describe the development of a fast and user-friendly software, named infinity, able to find the presence of DNA matrices, such as binding sequences for transcriptional factors, on ~65kb (kilobase) of 939 human miRNA genomic sequences, simultaneously. Of note, the power of this software has been validated in vivo by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on a subset of new in silico identified target sequences (CCAAT) for the transcription factor NF-Y on colon cancer deregulated miRNA loci. Moreover, for the first time, we have demonstrated that NF-Y, through its CCAAT binding activity, regulates the expression of miRNA-181a, -181b, -21, -17, -130b, -301b in colon cancer cells. The infinity software that we have developed is a powerful tool to underscore new TF/miRNA regulatory networks. Infinity was implemented in pure Java using Eclipse framework, and runs on Linux and MS Windows machine, with MySQL database. The software is freely available on the web at https://github.com/bio-devel/infinity. The website is implemented in JavaScript, PHP and HTML with all major browsers supported.

  20. Infinity: An In-Silico Tool for Genome-Wide Prediction of Specific DNA Matrices in miRNA Genomic Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuela Falcone

    Full Text Available miRNAs are potent regulators of gene expression and modulate multiple cellular processes in physiology and pathology. Deregulation of miRNAs expression has been found in various cancer types, thus, miRNAs may be potential targets for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms through which miRNAs are regulated in cancer remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of transcriptional factor-miRNA crosstalk is one of the most update aspects of the study of miRNAs regulation.In the present study we describe the development of a fast and user-friendly software, named infinity, able to find the presence of DNA matrices, such as binding sequences for transcriptional factors, on ~65kb (kilobase of 939 human miRNA genomic sequences, simultaneously. Of note, the power of this software has been validated in vivo by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on a subset of new in silico identified target sequences (CCAAT for the transcription factor NF-Y on colon cancer deregulated miRNA loci. Moreover, for the first time, we have demonstrated that NF-Y, through its CCAAT binding activity, regulates the expression of miRNA-181a, -181b, -21, -17, -130b, -301b in colon cancer cells.The infinity software that we have developed is a powerful tool to underscore new TF/miRNA regulatory networks.Infinity was implemented in pure Java using Eclipse framework, and runs on Linux and MS Windows machine, with MySQL database. The software is freely available on the web at https://github.com/bio-devel/infinity. The website is implemented in JavaScript, PHP and HTML with all major browsers supported.

  1. A Novel Tool for High-Throughput Screening of Granulocyte-Specific Antibodies Using the Automated Flow Cytometric Granulocyte Immunofluorescence Test (Flow-GIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Duc Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI is a severe complication related with blood transfusion. TRALI has usually been associated with antibodies against leukocytes. The flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT has been introduced for routine use when investigating patients and healthy blood donors. Here we describe a novel tool in the automation of the Flow-GIFT that enables a rapid screening of blood donations. We analyzed 440 sera from healthy female blood donors for the presence of granulocyte antibodies. As positive controls, 12 sera with known antibodies against anti-HNA-1a, -b, -2a; and -3a were additionally investigated. Whole-blood samples from HNA-typed donors were collected and the test cells isolated using cell sedimentation in a Ficoll density gradient. Subsequently, leukocytes were incubated with the respective serum and binding of antibodies was detected using FITC-conjugated antihuman antibody. 7-AAD was used to exclude dead cells. Pipetting steps were automated using the Biomek NXp Multichannel Automation Workstation. All samples were prepared in the 96-deep well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry. The standard granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT and granulocyte agglutination test (GAT were also performed as reference methods. Sixteen sera were positive in the automated Flow-GIFT, while five of these sera were negative in the standard GIFT (anti—HNA 3a, n = 3; anti—HNA-1b, n = 1 and GAT (anti—HNA-2a, n = 1. The automated Flow-GIFT was able to detect all granulocyte antibodies, which could be only detected in GIFT in combination with GAT. In serial dilution tests, the automated Flow-GIFT detected the antibodies at higher dilutions than the reference methods GIFT and GAT. The Flow-GIFT proved to be feasible for automation. This novel high-throughput system allows an effective antigranulocyte antibody detection in a large donor population in order to prevent TRALI due to transfusion of

  2. A novel tool for high-throughput screening of granulocyte-specific antibodies using the automated flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan Duc; Dengler, Thomas; Schulz-Linkholt, Monika; Klüter, Harald

    2011-02-03

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe complication related with blood transfusion. TRALI has usually been associated with antibodies against leukocytes. The flow cytometric granulocyte immunofluorescence test (Flow-GIFT) has been introduced for routine use when investigating patients and healthy blood donors. Here we describe a novel tool in the automation of the Flow-GIFT that enables a rapid screening of blood donations. We analyzed 440 sera from healthy female blood donors for the presence of granulocyte antibodies. As positive controls, 12 sera with known antibodies against anti-HNA-1a, -b, -2a; and -3a were additionally investigated. Whole-blood samples from HNA-typed donors were collected and the test cells isolated using cell sedimentation in a Ficoll density gradient. Subsequently, leukocytes were incubated with the respective serum and binding of antibodies was detected using FITC-conjugated antihuman antibody. 7-AAD was used to exclude dead cells. Pipetting steps were automated using the Biomek NXp Multichannel Automation Workstation. All samples were prepared in the 96-deep well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry. The standard granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and granulocyte agglutination test (GAT) were also performed as reference methods. Sixteen sera were positive in the automated Flow-GIFT, while five of these sera were negative in the standard GIFT (anti-HNA 3a, n = 3; anti-HNA-1b, n = 1) and GAT (anti-HNA-2a, n = 1). The automated Flow-GIFT was able to detect all granulocyte antibodies, which could be only detected in GIFT in combination with GAT. In serial dilution tests, the automated Flow-GIFT detected the antibodies at higher dilutions than the reference methods GIFT and GAT. The Flow-GIFT proved to be feasible for automation. This novel high-throughput system allows an effective antigranulocyte antibody detection in a large donor population in order to prevent TRALI due to transfusion of blood products.

  3. Real-time patient-specific finite element analysis of internal stresses in the soft tissues of a residual limb: a new tool for prosthetic fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, S; Yarnitzky, G; Yizhar, Z; Kristal, A; Oppenheim, U; Siev-Ner, I; Gefen, A

    2007-01-01

    Fitting of a prosthetic socket is a critical stage in the process of rehabilitation of a trans-tibial amputation (TTA) patient, since a misfit may cause pressure ulcers or a deep tissue injury (DTI: necrosis of the muscle flap under intact skin) in the residual limb. To date, prosthetic fitting typically depends on the subjective skills of the prosthetist, and is not supported by biomedical instrumentation that allows evaluation of the quality of fitting. Specifically, no technology is presently available to provide real-time continuous information on the internal distribution of mechanical stresses in the residual limb during fitting of the prosthesis, or while using it and this severely limits patient evaluations. In this study, a simplified yet clinically oriented patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the residual limb was developed for real-time stress analysis. For this purpose we employed a custom-made FE code that continuously calculates internal stresses in the residual limb, based on boundary conditions acquired in real-time from force sensors, located at the limb-prosthesis interface. Validation of the modeling system was accomplished by means of a synthetic phantom of the residual limb, which allowed simultaneous measurements of interface pressures and internal stresses. Human studies were conducted subsequently in five TTA patients. The dimensions of bones and soft tissues were obtained from X-rays of the residual limb of each patient. An indentation test was performed in order to obtain the effective elastic modulus of the soft tissues of the residual limb. Seven force sensors were placed between the residual limb and the prosthetic liner, and subjects walked on a treadmill during analysis. Generally, stresses under the shinbones were approximately threefold higher than stresses at the soft tissues behind the bones. Usage of a thigh corset decreased the stresses in the residual limb during gait by approximately 80%. Also, the stresses

  4. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  5. Specificity enhancement by electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry--a valuable tool for differentiation and identification of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissberg, Avi; Tzanani, Nitzan; Dagan, Shai

    2013-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents has become an issue of emerging concern. One of the challenges in analytical monitoring of the extremely toxic 'V'-type chemical weapons [O-alkyl S-(2-dialkylamino)ethyl alkylphosphonothiolates] is to distinguish and identify compounds of similar structure. MS analysis of these compounds reveals mostly fragment/product ions representing the amine-containing residue. Hence, isomers or derivatives with the same amine residue exhibit similar mass spectral patterns in both classical EI/MS and electrospray ionization-MS, leading to unavoidable ambiguity in the identification of the phosphonate moiety. A set of five 'V'-type agents, including O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (RVX) and O-ethyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VM) were studied by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/MS, utilizing a QTRAP mass detector. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans and multistage MS(3) experiments were carried out. Based on the results, possible fragmentation pathways were proposed, and a method for the differentiation and identification of structural isomers and derivatives of 'V'-type chemical warfare agents was obtained. MS/MS enhanced product ion scans at various collision energies provided information-rich spectra, although many of the product ions obtained were at low abundance. Employing MS(3) experiments enhanced the selectivity for those low abundance product ions and provided spectra indicative of the different phosphonate groups. Study of the fragmentation pathways, revealing some less expected structures, was carried out and allowed the formulation of mechanistic rules and the determination of sets of ions typical of specific groups, for example, methylphosphonothiolates versus ethylphosphonothiolates. The new group-specific ions elucidated in this work are also useful for screening unknown 'V'-type agents and related

  6. Integrated site-specific quantification of faecal bacteria and detection of DNA markers in faecal contamination source tracking as a microbial risk tracking tool in urban Lake ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donde, Oscar Omondi; Tian, Cuicui; Xiao, Bangding

    2017-11-01

    The presence of feacal-derived pathogens in water is responsible for several infectious diseases and deaths worldwide. As a solution, sources of fecal pollution in waters must be accurately assessed, properly determined and strictly controlled. However, the exercise has remained challenging due to the existing overlapping characteristics by different members of faecal coliform bacteria and the inadequacy of information pertaining to the contribution of seasonality and weather condition on tracking the possible sources of pollution. There are continued efforts to improve the Faecal Contamination Source Tracking (FCST) techniques such as Microbial Source Tracking (MST). This study aimed to make contribution to MST by evaluating the efficacy of combining site specific quantification of faecal contamination indicator bacteria and detection of DNA markers while accounting for seasonality and weather conditions' effects in tracking the major sources of faecal contamination in a freshwater system (Donghu Lake, China). The results showed that the use of cyd gene in addition to lacZ and uidA genes differentiates E. coli from other closely related faecal bacteria. The use of selective media increases the pollution source tracking accuracy. BSA addition boosts PCR detection and increases FCST efficiency. Seasonality and weather variability also influence the detection limit for DNA markers.

  7. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  8. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  9. Computer enhanced release scenario analysis for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Petrie, G.M.; Mullen, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    An interactive (user-oriented) computer tool is being developed at PNL to assist in the analysis of release scenarios for long-term safety assessment of a continental geologic nuclear waste repository. Emphasis is on characterizing the various ways the geologic and hydrologic system surrounding a repository might vary over the 10 6 to 10 7 years subsequent to final closure of the cavern. The potential disruptive phenomena are categorized as natural geologic and man-caused and tend to be synergistic in nature. The computer tool is designed to permit simulation of the system response as a function of the ongoing disruptive phenomena and time. It is designed to be operated in a determinatic manner, i.e., user selection of the desired scenarios and associated rate, magnitude, and lag time data; or in a stochastic mode. The stochastic mode involves establishing distributions for individual phenomena occurrence probabilities, rates, magnitudes, and phase relationships. A Monte-Carlo technique is then employed to generate a multitude of disruptive event scenarios, scan for breaches of the repository isolation, and develop input to the release consequence analysis task. To date, only a simplified one-dimensional version of the code has been completed. Significant modification and development is required to expand its dimensionality and apply the tool to any specific site

  10. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  11. Modeling of isotope fractionation at the catchment scale: How promising is compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) as a tool for analyzing diffuse pollution by agrochemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, S. R.; van Meerveld, H. J.; Waterloo, M. J.; Broers, H. P.; van Breukelen, B. M.

    2012-04-01

    Concentration measurements are indispensable for the assessment of subsurface and surface water pollution by agrochemicals such as pesticides. However, monitoring data is often ambiguous and easily misinterpreted as a decrease in concentration could be caused by transformation, dilution or changes in the application of the pesticide. In this context, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has recently emerged as a complementary monitoring technique. It is based on the measurement of the isotopic composition (e.g. δ13C and δ2H) of the contaminant. Since transformation processes are likely accompanied by isotope fractionation, thus a change in this composition, CSIA offers the opportunity to gain additional knowledge about transport and degradation processes as well as to track pollutants back to their sources. Isotopic techniques have not yet been applied in a comprehensive way in the analysis of catchment-wide organic pollution. We therefore incorporated fractionation processes associated with the fate of pesticides into the numerical flow and solute transport model HydroGeoSphere in order to assess the feasibility of CSIA within the context of catchment monitoring. The model was set up for a hypothetical hillslope transect which drains into a river. Reactive solute transport was driven by two pesticides applications within one year and actual data for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration from a meteorological station in the Netherlands. Degradation of the pesticide was assumed to take place at a higher rate under the prevailing oxic conditions in the topsoil than in deeper, anoxic subsurface layers. In terms of CSIA, these two degradation pathways were associated with different strengths of isotope fractionation for both hydrogen and carbon atoms. By simulating changes in δ13C and δ2H, the share of the oxic and the anoxic reaction on the overall degradation could be assessed. Model results suggest that CSIA is suitable for assessing degradation of

  12. Analysis of accidental UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yumao; Tan Rui; Gao Qifa

    2012-01-01

    As interim substance in the nuclear fuel enrichment process, Uranium Hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is widely applied in nuclear processing, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants. Because of its vivid chemical characteristics and special radiological hazard and chemical toxicity, great attention must be paid to accident of UF 6 leakage. The chemical reactions involved in UF 6 release processes were introduced, therewith potential release styles, pathways and characteristics of diffusion were analyzed. The results indicated that the accidental release process of UF 6 is not a simple passive diffusion. So, specific atmospheric diffusion model related to UF 6 releases need be used in order to analyze and evaluate accurately the accidental consequences. (authors)

  13. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  14. Bacterial inclusion bodies as potential synthetic devices for pathogen recognition and a therapeutic substance release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafová, Klaudia; Hrabárová, Eva; Chorvát, Dušan; Nahálka, Jozef

    2013-02-07

    Adhesins of pathogens recognise the glycans on the host cell and mediate adherence. They are also crucial for determining the tissue preferences of pathogens. Currently, glyco-nanomaterials provide potential tool for antimicrobial therapy. We demonstrate that properly glyco-tailored inclusion bodies can specifically bind pathogen adhesins and release therapeutic substances. In this paper, we describe the preparation of tailored inclusion bodies via the conjugation of indicator protein aggregated to form inclusion bodies with soluble proteins. Whereas the indicator protein represents a remedy, the soluble proteins play a role in pathogen recognition. For conjugation, glutaraldehyde was used as linker. The treatment of conjugates with polar lysine, which was used to inactivate the residual glutaraldehyde, inhibited unwanted hydrophobic interactions between inclusion bodies. The tailored inclusion bodies specifically interacted with the SabA adhesin from Helicobacter pylori aggregated to form inclusion bodies that were bound to the sialic acids decorating the surface of human erythrocytes. We also tested the release of indicator proteins from the inclusion bodies using sortase A and Ssp DNAB intein self-cleaving modules, respectively. Sortase A released proteins in a relatively short period of time, whereas the intein cleavage took several weeks. The tailored inclusion bodies are promising "nanopills" for biomedical applications. They are able to specifically target the pathogen, while a self-cleaving module releases a soluble remedy. Various self-cleaving modules can be enabled to achieve the diverse pace of remedy release.

  15. Benchmarking Tool Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Health Libraries Association.

    Nine Canadian health libraries participated in a pilot test of the Benchmarking Tool Kit between January and April, 1998. Although the Tool Kit was designed specifically for health libraries, the content and approach are useful to other types of libraries as well. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to…

  16. Optimization Specifications for CUDA Code Restructuring Tool

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Ayaz

    2017-01-01

    and convert it into an optimized CUDA kernel with user directives in a configuration file for guiding the compiler. RTCUDA also allows transparent invocation of the most optimized external math libraries like cuSparse and cuBLAS enabling efficient design

  17. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2015. It is the seventh report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined WYs 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011); a report released in August 2011 examined WYs 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011); a report released June 2012 examined WY 2011 (Poch et al. 2012); a report released April 2013 examined WY 2012 (Poch et al. 2013); a report released June 2014 examined WY 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014); and a report released September 2015 examined WY 2014 (Graziano et al. 2015). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. Only one experimental release was conducted at GCD in WY 2015; specifically, a high flow experimental (HFE) release conducted in November 2014. For this experimental release, financial costs of approximately $2.1 million were incurred because the HFE required sustained water releases that exceeded the powerplant’s maximum flow rate. In addition, during the month of the experiment, operators were not allowed to shape GCD power production to either follow firm power customer loads or to respond to market prices. This study identifies the main factors that contribute to HFE costs and examines the interdependencies among these factors. It applies an integrated set of tools to estimate financial impacts by simulating the GCD operations under two scenarios: (1) a baseline scenario that mimics both HFE operations during the experiment and during the rest of the year when it complies with the 1996 ROD operating criteria, and (2) a “without experiments” scenario that is identical to the baseline except it assumes that the HFE did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the

  18. Audi Multi Media Interface (MMI) - A multidisciplinary development process for in car operating concepts based on new specification tools; Audi Multi Media Interface (MMI) - Neue Spezifikationsmethoden zur interdisziplinaeren Bedienkonzeptentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamberger, W.; Mauter, G. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The Audi MMI, proprietary development of the AUDI AG, resulted from the close and efficient collaboration of a multidisciplinary so-called ''MMI-Team'' formed by members of the design, ergonomics and electronics divisions. How to ensure an effective communication among engineers, software developers, designers and ergonomists turned out to be a challenge as no commonly comprehensible specification tools existed. While designers express themselves mainly using graphics and animations, ergonomists tend to call for abstract requirements. The other end is formed by the software developers who demand precise menu specifications. This problem was solved by developing a new specification environment. (orig.) [German] Das Audi MMI ist von einem interdisziplinaeren, dem sogen. ''MMI-Team'' in enger, effizienter Zusammenarbeit der Bereiche Design, Ergonomie und Elektronik bei der AUDI AG in Eigenentwicklung entstanden. Die Herausforderung war die Gewaehrleistung einer effektiven Kommunikation zwischen Ingenieurwesen, Softwareentwicklern, Designern und Ergonomen. Das Problem dabei bestand im Fehlen von allgemein verstaendlichen Spezifikationsmitteln. Waehrend sich die Designer vorwiegend in Grafiken und Animationen ausdruecken, kommen von den Ergonomen groesstenteils abstrakte Forderungen. Den Gegenpol bilden die Softwareentwickler, die konkrete Menuespezifikationen fordern. Geloest wurde dieses Problem durch eine neue Spezifikationslandschaft. (orig.)

  19. A comparative evaluation of genome assembly reconciliation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhakami, Hind; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Lonardi, Stefano

    2017-05-18

    The majority of eukaryotic genomes are unfinished due to the algorithmic challenges of assembling them. A variety of assembly and scaffolding tools are available, but it is not always obvious which tool or parameters to use for a specific genome size and complexity. It is, therefore, common practice to produce multiple assemblies using different assemblers and parameters, then select the best one for public release. A more compelling approach would allow one to merge multiple assemblies with the intent of producing a higher quality consensus assembly, which is the objective of assembly reconciliation. Several assembly reconciliation tools have been proposed in the literature, but their strengths and weaknesses have never been compared on a common dataset. We fill this need with this work, in which we report on an extensive comparative evaluation of several tools. Specifically, we evaluate contiguity, correctness, coverage, and the duplication ratio of the merged assembly compared to the individual assemblies provided as input. None of the tools we tested consistently improved the quality of the input GAGE and synthetic assemblies. Our experiments show an increase in contiguity in the consensus assembly when the original assemblies already have high quality. In terms of correctness, the quality of the results depends on the specific tool, as well as on the quality and the ranking of the input assemblies. In general, the number of misassemblies ranges from being comparable to the best of the input assembly to being comparable to the worst of the input assembly.

  20. Health-related quality of life in cancer patients at the end of life, translation, validation, and longitudinal analysis of specific tools: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Anne-Lise; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Commer, Jean-Marie; D'Aillières, Bénédicte; Berger, Virginie; Mercier, Mariette; Bonnetain, Franck

    2012-04-20

    The end of life for cancer patients is the ultimate stage of the disease, and care in this setting is important as it can improve the wellbeing not only of patients, but also the patients' family and close friends. As it is a matter of profoundly personal concerns, patients' perception of this phase of the disease is difficult to assess and has thus been insufficiently studied. Nonetheless, caregivers are required to provide specific care to help patients and to treat them in order to improve their wellbeing during this period.While tools to assess health-related quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients at the end of life exist in English, to our knowledge, no validated tools are available in French. This randomized multicenter cohort study will be carried out to cross-culturally adapt and validate a French version of the English QUAL-E and the Missoula Vitas Quality Of Life Index (MVQOLI) questionnaires for advanced cancer patients in a palliative setting. A randomized clinical trial component in addition to a cohort study is implemented in order to test psychometric hypotheses: order effect and improvement of sensibility to change.The validation procedure will ensure that the psychometric properties are maintained.The main criterion to assess the reliability of the questionnaires will be reproducibility (test-retest method) using intraclass correlation coefficients. It will be necessary to include 372 patients. The sensitivity to change, discriminant capability as well as convergent validity will be also investigated. If the cross-cultural validation of the MVQOLI and QUAL-E questionnaires for advanced cancer patients in a palliative setting have satisfactory psychometric properties, it will allow us to assess the specific dimensions of QoL at the end of life. Current Controlled Trials NCT01545921.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion models of radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the rapid industrialization in recent time, atmospheric dispersion models have become indispensible 'tools' to ensure that the effects of releases are well within the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority. In the case of radioactive releases from the nuclear facility, though negligible in quantity and many a times not even measurable, it is required to demonstrate the compliance of these releases to the regulatory limits set by the regulatory authority by carrying out radiological impact assessment. During routine operations of nuclear facility, the releases are so low that environmental impact is usually assessed with the help of atmospheric dispersion models as it is difficult to distinguish negligible contribution of nuclear facility to relatively high natural background radiation. The accidental releases from nuclear facility, though with negligible probability of occurrence, cannot be ruled out. In such cases, the atmospheric dispersion models are of great help to emergency planners for deciding the intervention actions to minimize the consequences in public domain and also to workout strategies for the management of situation. In case of accidental conditions, the atmospheric dispersion models are also utilized for the estimation of probable quantities of radionuclides which might have got released to the atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric dispersion models are an essential tool for nuclear facility during routine operation as well as in the case of accidental conditions

  2. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  3. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  4. Guidance for Evaluating the Safety of Experimental Releases of Mosquitoes, Emphasizing Mark-Release-Recapture Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Mark Q; Charlwood, J Derek; Harrington, Laura C; Lounibos, L Philip; Reisen, William K; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2018-01-01

    Experimental releases of mosquitoes are performed to understand characteristics of populations related to the biology, ability to transmit pathogens, and ultimately their control. In this article, we discuss considerations related to the safety of experimental releases of living mosquitoes, applying principles of good practice in vector biology that protect human health and comfort. We describe specific factors of experimental releases of mosquitoes that we believe are critical to inform institutional biosafety committees and similar review boards to which proposals to conduct mosquito release experiments have been submitted. In this study, "experimental releases" means those that do not significantly increase vector capacity or nuisance biting relative to the unperturbed natural baseline. This document specifically does not address releases of mosquitoes for ongoing control programs or trials of new control methods for which broader assessments of risk are required. It also does not address releases of transgenic or exotic (non-native) mosquito species, both of which require particular regulatory approval. Experimental releases may include females and males and evaluation must consider their effects based on the number released, their genotype and phenotype, the environment into which they are released, and postrelease collection activities. We consider whether increases of disease transmission and nuisance biting might result from proposed experimental releases against the backdrop of natural population size variation. We recommend that experimental releases be conducted in a manner that can be reasonably argued to have insignificant negative effects. Reviewers of proposals for experimental releases should expect applicants to provide such an argument based on evidence from similar studies and their planned activities. This document provides guidance for creating and evaluating such proposals.

  5. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  6. Methodology of external exposure calculation for reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning - 59138

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondra, Frantisek; Vasko, Marek; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The article presents methodology of external exposure calculation for reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. Production of rails has been used as an example application of proposed methodology within the CONRELMAT project. The article presents a methodology for determination of radiological, material, organizational and other conditions for conditionally released materials reuse to ensure that workers and public exposure does not breach the exposure limits during scenario's life cycle (preparation, construction and operation of scenario). The methodology comprises a proposal of following conditions in the view of workers and public exposure: - radionuclide limit concentration of conditionally released materials for specific scenarios and nuclide vectors, - specific deployment of conditionally released materials eventually shielding materials, workers and public during the scenario's life cycle, - organizational measures concerning time of workers or public stay in the vicinity on conditionally released materials for individual performed scenarios and nuclide vectors. The above mentioned steps of proposed methodology have been applied within the CONRELMAT project. Exposure evaluation of workers for rail production is introduced in the article as an example of this application. Exposure calculation using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool was done within several models. The most exposed profession for scenario was identified. On the basis of this result, an increase of radionuclide concentration in conditional released material was proposed more than two times to 681 Bq/kg without no additional safety or organizational measures being applied. After application of proposed safety and organizational measures (additional shielding, geometry changes and limitation of work duration) it is possible to increase concentration of radionuclide in conditional released material more than ten times to 3092 Bq/kg. Storage

  7. A novel genotoxin-specific qPCR array based on the metabolically competent human HepaRG™ cell line as a rapid and reliable tool for improved in vitro hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Mertens, Birgit; Heymans, Anja; Verschaeve, Luc; Milushev, Dimiter; Vanparys, Philippe; Roosens, Nancy H C; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Rogiers, Vera; Doktorova, Tatyana Y

    2018-04-01

    Although the value of the regulatory accepted batteries for in vitro genotoxicity testing is recognized, they result in a high number of false positives. This has a major impact on society and industries developing novel compounds for pharmaceutical, chemical, and consumer products, as afflicted compounds have to be (prematurely) abandoned or further tested on animals. Using the metabolically competent human HepaRG ™ cell line and toxicogenomics approaches, we have developed an upgraded, innovative, and proprietary gene classifier. This gene classifier is based on transcriptomic changes induced by 12 genotoxic and 12 non-genotoxic reference compounds tested at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, i.e., IC10 concentrations as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The resulting gene classifier was translated into an easy-to-handle qPCR array that, as shown by pathway analysis, covers several different cellular processes related to genotoxicity. To further assess the predictivity of the tool, a set of 5 known positive and 5 known negative test compounds for genotoxicity was evaluated. In addition, 2 compounds with debatable genotoxicity data were tested to explore how the qPCR array would classify these. With an accuracy of 100%, when equivocal results were considered positive, the results showed that combining HepaRG ™ cells with a genotoxin-specific qPCR array can improve (geno)toxicological hazard assessment. In addition, the developed qPCR array was able to provide additional information on compounds for which so far debatable genotoxicity data are available. The results indicate that the new in vitro tool can improve human safety assessment of chemicals in general by basing predictions on mechanistic toxicogenomics information.

  8. Clinical Outcomes after Arthroscopic Release for Recalcitrant Frozen Shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Pour, Mostafa Khalili; Moghadam, Mohammad Hallaj; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To explain the role of arthroscopic release in intractable frozen shoulders. We used different questionnaires and measuring tools to understand whether arthroscopic release is the superior modality to treat patients with intractable frozen shoulders. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, in a prospective study, we enrolled 80 patients (52 females and 28 males) with recalcitrant frozen shoulder, who underwent arthroscopic release at Ghaem Hospital, a tertiary referral center, in Mashhad,...

  9. Determination of Radiological, Material and Organizational Measures for Reuse of Conditionally Released Materials from Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondra, F.; Vasko, M.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of nuclear installation decommissioning is conditional release of materials. The mass of conditionally released materials can significantly influence radioactive waste management and capacity of radioactive waste repository. The influence on a total decommissioning cost is also not negligible. Several scenarios for reuse of conditionally released materials were developed within CONRELMAT project. Each scenario contains preparation phase, construction phase and operation phase. For each above mentioned phase is needed to determine radiological, material, organizational and other constraints for conditionally released materials reuse to not break exposure limits for staff and public. Constraints are determined on the basis of external and internal exposure calculations in created models for selected takes in particular scenarios phases. The paper presents a developed methodology for determination of part of above mentioned constraints concerning external exposure of staff or public. Values of staff external exposure are also presented in paper to ensure that staff or public exposure does not break the limits. The methodology comprises a proposal of following constraints: radionuclide limit concentration of conditionally released materials for specific scenarios and nuclide vectors, specific deployment of conditionally released materials eventually shielding materials, staff and public during the scenario's phases, organizational measures concerning time of staff's or public's stay in the vicinity of conditionally released materials for individual performed scenarios and nuclide vectors. The paper further describes VISIPLAN 3D ALARA calculation planning software tool used for calculation of staff's and public's external exposure for individual scenarios. Several other parallel papers proposed for HND2012 are presenting selected details of the project.(author).

  10. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs

  12. Release-ability of nano fillers from different nanomaterials (toward the acceptability of nanoproduct)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golanski, L.; Guiot, A.; Pras, M.; Malarde, M.; Tardif, F.

    2012-01-01

    It is of great interest to set up a reproducible and sensitive method able to qualify nanomaterials before their market introduction in terms of their constitutive nanoparticle release-ability in usage. Abrasion was performed on polycarbonate, epoxy, and PA11 polymers containing carbone nanotubes (CNT) up to 4 %wt. Using Taber linear standard tool and standard abrasion conditions no release from polymer coatings containing CNT was measured. In this study, new practical tools inducing non-standardized stresses able to compete with van der Waals forces were developed and tested on model polymers, showing controlled CNT dispersion. These stresses are still realistic, corresponding to scratching, instantaneous mechanical shocks, and abrasion of the surface. They offer an efficient way to quantify if release is possible from nanomaterials under different mechanical stresses and therefore give an idea about the mechanisms that favors it. Release under mechanical shocks and hard abrasion was obtained using these tools but only when nanomaterials present a bad dispersion of CNT within the epoxy matrix. Under the same conditions no release was obtained from the same material presenting a good dispersion. The CNT used in this study showed an external diameter Dext = 12 nm, an internal diameter Din = 5 nm, and a mean length of 1 μm. Release from paints under hard abrasion using a standard rotative Taber tool was obtained from a intentionaly non-optimized paint containing SiO 2 nanoparticles up to 35 %wt. The primary diameter of the SiO 2 was estimated to be around 12 nm. A metallic rake was efficient to remove nanoparticles from a non-woven fabric nanomaterial.

  13. Insights into the swelling process and drug release mechanisms from cross-linked pectin/high amylose starch matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Carbinatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked pectin/high amylose mixtures were evaluated as a new excipient for matrix tablets formulations, since the mixing of polymers and cross-linking reaction represent rational tools to reach materials with modulated and specific properties that meet specific therapeutic needs. Objective: In this work the influence of polymer ratio and cross-linking process on the swelling and the mechanism driving the drug release from swellable matrix tablets prepared with this excipient was investigated. Methods: Cross-linked samples were characterized by their micromeritic properties (size and shape, density, angle of repose and flow rate and liquid uptake ability. Matrix tablets were evaluated according their physical properties and the drug release rates and mechanisms were also investigated. Results: Cross-linked samples demonstrated size homogeneity and irregular shape, with liquid uptake ability insensible to pH. Cross-linking process of samples allowed the control of drug release rates and the drug release mechanism was influenced by both polymer ratio and cross-linking process. The drug release of samples with minor proportion of pectin was driven by an anomalous transport and the increase of the pectin proportion contributed to the erosion of the matrix. Conclusion: The cross-linked mixtures of high amylose and pectin showed a suitable excipient for slowing the drug release rates.

  14. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  15. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  16. News Releases, Press Releases, Tip Sheet Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  17. Surface chemistry and size influence the release of model therapeutic nanoparticles from poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Jeerage, Kavita M.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have emerged as promising therapeutic and diagnostic tools, due to their unique physicochemical properties. The specific core and surface chemistries, as well as nanoparticle size, play critical roles in particle transport and interaction with biological tissue. Localized delivery of therapeutics from hydrogels is well established, but these systems generally release molecules with hydrodynamic radii less than ∼5 nm. Here, model nanoparticles with biologically relevant surface chemistries and diameters between 10 and 35 nm are analyzed for their release from well-characterized hydrogels. Functionalized gold nanoparticles or quantum dots were encapsulated in three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with varying mesh size. Nanoparticle size, surface chemistry, and hydrogel mesh size all influenced the release of particles from the hydrogel matrix. Size influenced nanoparticle release as expected, with larger particles releasing at a slower rate. However, citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles were not released from hydrogels. Negatively charged carboxyl or positively charged amine-functionalized quantum dots were released from hydrogels at slower rates than neutrally charged PEGylated nanoparticles of similar size. Transmission electron microscopy images of gold nanoparticles embedded within hydrogel sections demonstrated uniform particle distribution and negligible aggregation, independent of surface chemistry. The nanoparticle-hydrogel interactions observed in this work will aid in the development of localized nanoparticle delivery systems.

  18. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  19. Expert tool use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Kathrine Liedtke; Ravn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    on a case study of elite rope skipping, we argue that the phenomenological concept of incorporation does not suffice to adequately describe how expert tool users feel when interacting with their tools. By analyzing a combination of insights gained from participant observation of 11 elite rope skippers......According to some phenomenologists, a tool can be experienced as incorporated when, as a result of habitual use or deliberate practice, someone is able to manipulate it without conscious effort. In this article, we specifically focus on the experience of expertise tool use in elite sport. Based...... and autoethnographic material from one former elite skipper, we take some initial steps toward the development of a more nuanced understanding of the concept of incorporation; one that is able to accommodate the experiences of expert tool users. In sum, our analyses indicate that the possibility for experiencing...

  20. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  1. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion

  2. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  3. A survey of tools for the analysis of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabinger, Stephan; Rödiger, Stefan; Kriegner, Albert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) is a standard technique in most laboratories used for various applications in basic research. Analysis of qPCR data is a crucial part of the entire experiment, which has led to the development of a plethora of methods. The released tools either cover specific parts of the workflow or provide complete analysis solutions. Here, we surveyed 27 open-access software packages and tools for the analysis of qPCR data. The survey includes 8 Microsoft Windows, 5 web-based, 9 R-based and 5 tools from other platforms. Reviewed packages and tools support the analysis of different qPCR applications, such as RNA quantification, DNA methylation, genotyping, identification of copy number variations, and digital PCR. We report an overview of the functionality, features and specific requirements of the individual software tools, such as data exchange formats, availability of a graphical user interface, included procedures for graphical data presentation, and offered statistical methods. In addition, we provide an overview about quantification strategies, and report various applications of qPCR. Our comprehensive survey showed that most tools use their own file format and only a fraction of the currently existing tools support the standardized data exchange format RDML. To allow a more streamlined and comparable analysis of qPCR data, more vendors and tools need to adapt the standardized format to encourage the exchange of data between instrument software, analysis tools, and researchers.

  4. VLSI Design Tools, Reference Manual, Release 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    eder. 2.3 ITACV: Libary ofC readne. far oesumdg a layoit 1-,, tiling. V ~2.4 "QUILT: CeinS"Wbesa-i-M-8euar ray f atwok til 2.5 "TIL: Tockmeleff...8217patterns package was added so that complex and repetitive digital waveforms could be generated far more easily. The recently written program MTP (Multiple...circuit model to estimate timing delays through digital circuits. It also has a mode that allows it to be used as a switch (gate) level simulator

  5. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  6. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  7. A tool based on Ligation Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA) for the characterization of VTEC by identification of virulence-associated and serogroup-specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Andrea; Castiglioni, Bianca; Morabito, Stefano; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Consolandi, Clarissa; Mariani, Paola

    2011-02-01

    Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are zoonotic pathogens whose natural reservoir is represented by ruminants, particularly cattle. Infections are mainly acquired by consumption of undercooked contaminated food of animal origin, contact with infected animals and contaminated environment. VTEC O157 is the most frequently isolated serogroup from cases of human disease, however, other VTEC serogroups, such as O26, O111, O145 and O103, are increasingly reported as causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) worldwide. The identification of VTEC is troublesome, hindering the development of effective prevention strategies. In fact, VTEC are morphologically indistinguishable from harmless E. coli and their pathogenic potential is not strictly dependent on the serogroup, but relies on the presence of a collection of virulence genes. We developed a diagnostic tool for VTEC based on the Ligation Detection Reaction coupled to Universal Array (LDR-UA) for the simultaneous identification of virulence factors and serogroup-associated genes. The method includes the investigation of 40 sites located in 13 fragments from 12 genes (sodCF1/F2, adfO, terB, ehxA, eae, vtx1, vtx2, ihp1, wzx, wbdI, rfbE, dnaK) and was evaluated by performing a trial on a collection of 67 E. coli strains, both VTEC and VT-negative E. coli, as well as on 25 isolates belonging to other related species. Results of this study showed that the LDR-UA technique was specific in identifying the target microorganism. Moreover, due to its higher throughput, the LDR-UA can be a valid and cheaper alternative to real time PCR-based (rt-PCR) methods for VTEC identification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MCNP Version 6.2 Release Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, C. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKinney, Gregg Walter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martz, Roger Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cox, Lawrence James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zukaitis, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, J. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forster, Robert Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casswell, Laura [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Monte Carlo N-Particle or MCNP® is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. This MCNP Version 6.2 follows the MCNP6.1.1 beta version and has been released in order to provide the radiation transport community with the latest feature developments and bug fixes for MCNP. Since the last release of MCNP major work has been conducted to improve the code base, add features, and provide tools to facilitate ease of use of MCNP version 6.2 as well as the analysis of results. These release notes serve as a general guide for the new/improved physics, source, data, tallies, unstructured mesh, code enhancements and tools. For more detailed information on each of the topics, please refer to the appropriate references or the user manual which can be found at http://mcnp.lanl.gov. This release of MCNP version 6.2 contains 39 new features in addition to 172 bug fixes and code enhancements. There are still some 33 known issues the user should familiarize themselves with (see Appendix).

  9. Authoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  10. APASS Data Release 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Arne A.; Levine, Stephen; Terrell, Dirk; Welch, Douglas L.; Munari, Ulisse; Kloppenborg, Brian K.

    2018-06-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) has been underway since 2010. This survey covers the entire sky from 7.5 knowledge of the optical train distortions. With these changes, DR10 includes many more stars than prior releases. We describe the survey, its remaining limitations, and prospects for the future, including a very-bright-star extension.

  11. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  12. New tools for investigating astrocyte-to-neuron communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Agulhon, Cendra; Schmidt, Elke; Oheim, Martin; Ropert, Nicole

    2013-10-29

    Gray matter protoplasmic astrocytes extend very thin processes and establish close contacts with synapses. It has been suggested that the release of neuroactive gliotransmitters at the tripartite synapse contributes to information processing. However, the concept of calcium (Ca(2+))-dependent gliotransmitter release from astrocytes, and the release mechanisms are being debated. Studying astrocytes in their natural environment is challenging because: (i) astrocytes are electrically silent; (ii) astrocytes and neurons express an overlapping repertoire of transmembrane receptors; (iii) the size of astrocyte processes in contact with synapses are below the resolution of confocal and two-photon microscopes (iv) bulk-loading techniques using fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators lack cellular specificity. In this review, we will discuss some limitations of conventional methodologies and highlight the interest of novel tools and approaches for studying gliotransmission. Genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs), light-gated channels, and exogenous receptors are being developed to selectively read out and stimulate astrocyte activity. Our review discusses emerging perspectives on: (i) the complexity of astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling revealed by GECIs; (ii) new pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches to activate specific Ca(2+) signaling pathways in astrocytes; (iii) classical and new techniques to monitor vesicle fusion in cultured astrocytes; (iv) possible strategies to express specifically reporter genes in astrocytes.

  13. New Tools for Investigating Astrocyte-to-Neuron Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong eLi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Grey matter protoplasmic astrocytes extend very thin processes and establish close contacts with synapses. It has been suggested that the release of neuroactive gliotransmitters at the tripartite synapse contributes to information processing. However, the concept of calcium (Ca2+-dependent gliotransmitter release from astrocytes, and the release mechanisms are being debated.Studying astrocytes in their natural environment is challenging because: i astrocytes are electrically silent; ii astrocytes and neurons express an overlapping repertoire of transmembrane receptors; iii astrocyte processes in contact with synapses are below confocal and two-photon microscope resolution; iv bulk-loading techniques using fluorescent Ca2+ indicators lack cellular specificity.In this review, we will discuss some limitations of conventional methodologies and highlight the interest of novel tools and approaches for studying gliotransmission. Genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs, light-gated channels, and exogenous receptors are being developed to selectively read out and stimulate astrocyte activity. Our review discusses emerging perspectives on: i the complexity of astrocyte Ca2+ signalling revealed by GECIs; ii new pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches to activate specific Ca2+ signalling pathways in astrocytes; iii classical and new techniques to monitor vesicle fusion in cultured astrocytes; iv possible strategies to express specifically reporter genes in astrocytes.

  14. New Conceptual Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    hand, the main software houses are trying to introduce powerful and effective user-friendly applications in the world of building designers, that are more and more able to fit their specific requirements; on the other hand, some groups of expert users with a basic programming knowledge seem to deal......This paper aims to discuss recent approaches in using more and more frequently computer tools as supports for the conceptual design phase of the architectural project. The present state-of-the-art about software as conceptual design tool could be summarized in two parallel tendencies. On the one...... with the problem of software as conceptual design tool by means of 'scripting', in other words by self-developing codes able to solve specific and well defined design problems. Starting with a brief historical recall and the discussion of relevant researches and practical experiences, this paper investigates...

  15. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  16. Management Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Manugistics, Inc. (formerly AVYX, Inc.) has introduced a new programming language for IBM and IBM compatible computers called TREES-pls. It is a resource management tool originating from the space shuttle, that can be used in such applications as scheduling, resource allocation project control, information management, and artificial intelligence. Manugistics, Inc. was looking for a flexible tool that can be applied to many problems with minimal adaptation. Among the non-government markets are aerospace, other manufacturing, transportation, health care, food and beverage and professional services.

  17. Technical specification for the Quality Information Management System (QIMS) Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.C.; Claussen, L.M.; Thurston, I.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains implementation details for the Quality Information Management System (QIMS) Pilot Project, which has been released for VAX/VMS systems using the INGRES RDBMS. The INGRES Applications-By-Forms (ABF) software development tool was used to define the modules and screens which comprise the QIMS Pilot application. These specifications together with the QIMS information model and corresponding database definition constitute the QIMS technical specification and implementation description presented herein. The QIMS Pilot Project represents a completed software product which has been released for production use. Further extension projects are planned which will release new versions for QIMS. These versions will offer expanded and enhanced functionality to meet further customer requirements not accommodated by the QIMS Pilot Project.

  18. Taking inventory on VOC releases from Amoco's Yorktown refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.H. Jr.; Schmitt, R.E.; Harrass, M.C.; Podar, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Amoco's Yorktown, Virginia, refinery is a 35-year-old, 53,000 bbl/day facility that manufacturers gasoline, heating oil, liquid petroleum gas, sulfur, and coke. In a cooperative and voluntary effort, Amoco Corporation and the US Environmental Protection Agency conducted a joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an operating industrial facility. Source reduction efforts--key to pollution prevention strategies--require knowledge of specific sources of releases. However, data on releases from individual process units are limited in favor of data to monitor existing end-of-pipe pollution control requirements. The study's sampling program sought to portray the distribution of releases within the refinery, their management within the refinery, and ultimate releases leaving the refinery. Subsequent tests of blowdown stack and fugitive emissions further improved total release estimates. The initial study estimated that the refinery generates about 25,000 metric tons (t)/year of potential pollutants. Of these, about half are released from the refinery as airborne, waterborne, or land-disposed releases. Airborne releases comprise the majority of releases by mass, about 12,000 t/year. Most of the airborne releases are volatile organic compound hydrocarbons. The inventory sampling project and subsequent work identified differences with Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) values and standard emission factors (AP-42). The inventory and other data provided an opportunity to consider options for, and limitations of, specific pollution prevention or source reduction strategies

  19. Specificity of the Tuberculin Skin Test and the T-SPOT."TB" Assay among Students in a Low-Tuberculosis Incidence Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Harland, Dawn; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Burrer, Sherry; Adams, Lisa V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Interferon-[gamma] release assays (IGRAs) are an important tool for detecting latent "Mycobacterium tuberculosis" infection (LTBI). Insufficient data exist about IGRA specificity in college health centers, most of which screen students for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST). Participants: Students at a low-TB incidence college…

  20. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a natural GHRP-like ligand which, however, has not yet been found. The mechanisms underlying the GHRP effect are still unclear. At present, several data favor the hypothesis that GHRPs could act by counteracting somatostatinergic activity both at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that GHRPs act via an unknown hypothalamic factor (U factor) is still open. GHRP-6 was the first hexapeptide to be extensively studied in humans. More recently, a heptapeptide, GHRP-1, and two other hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and Hexarelin, have been synthesized and are now available for human studies. Moreover, non-peptidyl GHRP mimetics have been developed which act via GHRP receptors and their effects have been clearly demonstrated in animals and in humans in vivo. Among non-peptidyl GHRPs, MK-0677 seems the most interesting molecule. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is marked and dose-related after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHRPs is reproducible and undergoes partial desensitization, more during continuous infusion, less during intermittent administration: in fact, prolonged administration of GHRPs increases IGF-1 levels both in animals and in humans. The GH-releasing effect of GHRPs does not depend on sex but undergoes age-related variations. It increases from birth to puberty, persists at a similar level in adulthood and

  1. Survey of Non-Rigid Registration Tools in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszei, András P; Berkels, Benjamin; Deserno, Thomas M

    2017-02-01

    We catalogue available software solutions for non-rigid image registration to support scientists in selecting suitable tools for specific medical registration purposes. Registration tools were identified using non-systematic search in Pubmed, Web of Science, IEEE Xplore® Digital Library, Google Scholar, and through references in identified sources (n = 22). Exclusions are due to unavailability or inappropriateness. The remaining (n = 18) tools were classified by (i) access and technology, (ii) interfaces and application, (iii) living community, (iv) supported file formats, and (v) types of registration methodologies emphasizing the similarity measures implemented. Out of the 18 tools, (i) 12 are open source, 8 are released under a permissive free license, which imposes the least restrictions on the use and further development of the tool, 8 provide graphical processing unit (GPU) support; (ii) 7 are built on software platforms, 5 were developed for brain image registration; (iii) 6 are under active development but only 3 have had their last update in 2015 or 2016; (iv) 16 support the Analyze format, while 7 file formats can be read with only one of the tools; and (v) 6 provide multiple registration methods and 6 provide landmark-based registration methods. Based on open source, licensing, GPU support, active community, several file formats, algorithms, and similarity measures, the tools Elastics and Plastimatch are chosen for the platform ITK and without platform requirements, respectively. Researchers in medical image analysis already have a large choice of registration tools freely available. However, the most recently published algorithms may not be included in the tools, yet.

  2. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate

  3. Gaia Data Release 1. Catalogue validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenou, F.; Luri, X.; Babusiaux, C.; Fabricius, C.; Helmi, A.; Robin, A. C.; Vallenari, A.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Findeisen, K.; Reylé, C.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sordo, R.; Turon, C.; Walton, N. A.; Shih, I.-C.; Antiche, E.; Barache, C.; Barros, M.; Breddels, M.; Carrasco, J. M.; Costigan, G.; Diakité, S.; Eyer, L.; Figueras, F.; Galluccio, L.; Heu, J.; Jordi, C.; Krone-Martins, A.; Lallement, R.; Lambert, S.; Leclerc, N.; Marrese, P. M.; Moitinho, A.; Mor, R.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Sartoretti, P.; Soria, S.; Soubiran, C.; Souchay, J.; Veljanoski, J.; Ziaeepour, H.; Giuffrida, G.; Pancino, E.; Bragaglia, A.

    Context. Before the publication of the Gaia Catalogue, the contents of the first data release have undergone multiple dedicated validation tests. Aims: These tests aim to provide in-depth analysis of the Catalogue content in order to detect anomalies and individual problems in specific objects or in

  4. Design tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Mark T. Bomberg

    2009-01-01

    Overall, despite the lack of exact input data, the use of design tools, including models, is much superior to the simple following of rules of thumbs, and a moisture analysis should be standard procedure for any building envelope design. Exceptions can only be made for buildings in the same climate, similar occupancy, and similar envelope construction. This chapter...

  5. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    A specification theory combines notions of specifications and implementations with a satisfaction relation, a refinement relation, and a set of operators supporting stepwise design. We develop a specification framework for real-time systems using Timed I/O Automata as the specification formalism......, with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar...

  6. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  7. Decontamination for free release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, K A; Elder, G R [Bradtec Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    Many countries are seeking to treat radioactive waste in ways which meet the local regulatory requirements, but yet are cost effective when all contributing factors are assessed. In some countries there are increasing amounts of waste, arising from nuclear plant decommissioning, which are categorized as low level waste: however with suitable treatment a large part of such wastes might become beyond regulatory control and be able to be released as non-radioactive. The benefits and disadvantages of additional treatment before disposal need to be considered. Several processes falling within the overall description of decontamination for free release have been developed and applied, and these are outlined. In one instance the process seeks to take advantage of techniques and equipment used for decontaminating water reactor circuits intermittently through reactor life. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  9. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  10. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  11. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  12. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  13. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students

  14. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  15. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  16. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  17. Authoring Issues beyond Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierling, Ulrike; Szilas, Nicolas

    Authoring is still considered a bottleneck in successful Interactive Storytelling and Drama. The claim for intuitive authoring tools is high, especially for tools that allow storytellers and artists to define dynamic content that can be run with an AI-based story engine. We explored two concrete authoring processes in depth, using various Interactive Storytelling prototypes, and have provided feedback from the practical steps. The result is a presentation of general issues in authoring Interactive Storytelling, rather than of particular problems with a specific system that could be overcome by 'simply' designing the right interface. Priorities for future developments are also outlined.

  18. Innovative tool for specifying customer requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, A.; Wendrich, Robert E.; Tiainen, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an App based tool for specification of customer requirements (CR) for product development. The most Quality Function Deployment (QFD) tools and methods are system based or used as an Excel document for specification and evaluation. Nowadays tool

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants (1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, T.R.

    1978-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1976 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1976 release data are compared with previous year releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, T.R.

    1978-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1977 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1977 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  1. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  2. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  3. Enhancing bioactive peptide release and identification using targeted enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-06-01

    Milk proteins have been extensively studied for their ability to yield a range of bioactive peptides following enzymatic hydrolysis/digestion. However, many hurdles still exist regarding the widespread utilization of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides as health enhancing agents for humans. These mostly arise from the fact that most milk protein-derived bioactive peptides are not highly potent. In addition, they may be degraded during gastrointestinal digestion and/or have a low intestinal permeability. The targeted release of bioactive peptides during the enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins may allow the generation of particularly potent bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Therefore, the development of milk protein hydrolysates capable of improving human health requires, in the first instance, optimized targeted release of specific bioactive peptides. The targeted hydrolysis of milk proteins has been aided by a range of in silico tools. These include peptide cutters and predictive modeling linking bioactivity to peptide structure [i.e., molecular docking, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR)], or hydrolysis parameters [design of experiments (DOE)]. Different targeted enzymatic release strategies employed during the generation of milk protein hydrolysates are reviewed herein and their limitations are outlined. In addition, specific examples are provided to demonstrate how in silico tools may help in the identification and discovery of potent milk protein-derived peptides. It is anticipated that the development of novel strategies employing a range of in silico tools may help in the generation of milk protein hydrolysates containing potent and bioavailable peptides, which in turn may be used to validate their health promoting effects in humans. Graphical abstract The targeted enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins may allow the generation of highly potent and bioavailable bioactive peptides.

  4. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  5. Fluorescence imaging of glutamate release in neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ziqiang; Yeung, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging is down to μM levels of glutamate with reasonable response time (∼30 s). The standard glutamate test shows a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude, from μM to 0.1 mM range. The in vitro monitoring of glutamate release from cultured neuron cells demonstrated excellent spatial and temporal resolution. (c) 1999 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  6. Release process for non-real property containing residual radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranek, N.L.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Burns, D.; Fleming, R.; Warren, S.; Wallo, A.

    1997-01-01

    It is DOE's objective to operate its facilities and to conduct its activities so that radiation exposures to members of the public are maintained within acceptable limits and exposures to residual radioactive materials are controlled. To accomplish this, DOE has adopted Order DOE 5400.51 'Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment', and will be promulgating IO CR Part 834 to codify and clarify the requirements of DOE 5400.5. Under both DOE 5400.5 and 10 CR Part 834, radioactively contaminated DOE property is prohibited from release unless specific actions have been completed prior to the release. This paper outlines a ten-step process that, if followed, will assist DOE Operations and contractor personnel in ensuring that the required actions established by Order DOE 5400.5 and 10 CR Part 834 have been appropriately completed prior to the release for reuse or recycle of non-real property (e.g., office furniture, computers, hand tools, machinery, vehicles and scrap metal). Following the process will assist in ensuring that radiological doses to the public from the released materials will meet applicable regulatory standards and be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

  7. Near-infrared light-responsive liposomal contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging and drug release applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mathiyazhakan, Malathi; Wiraja, Christian; Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has become an emerging tool for theranostic applications. Not only does it help in release and therapeutic applications. We explore near-infrared light-sensitive liposomes coated with gold nanostars (AuNSs) for both imaging and drug release applications using a photoacoustic imaging system. Being amphiphilic, the liposomes lipid bilayer and the aqueous core enable encapsulation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The AuNSs on the surface of the liposomes act as photon absorbers due to their intrinsic surface plasmon resonance. Upon excitation by laser light at specific wavelength, AuNSs facilitate rapid release of the contents encapsulated in the liposomes due to local heating and pressure wave formation (photoacoustic wave). Herein, we describe the design and optimization of the AuNSs-coated liposomes and demonstrate the release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs (paclitaxel and calcein, respectively) through laser excitation at near-infrared wavelength. The use of AuNSs-coated liposomes as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging is also explored with tissue phantom experiments. In comparison to blood, the AuNSs-coated liposomes have better contrast (approximately two times) at 2-cm imaging depth.

  8. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry: a new approach to study the release properties of hydrogel cylinders and microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhl-Bruhn, S; Heim, E; Schwoerer, A; Bertz, A; Harling, S; Menzel, H; Schilling, M; Ludwig, F; Bunjes, H

    2012-10-15

    Hydrogels are under investigation as long term delivery systems for biomacromolecules as active pharmaceutical ingredients. The release behavior of hydrogels can be tailored during the fabrication process. This study investigates the applicability of fluxgate magnetorelaxometry (MRX) as a tool to characterize the release properties of such long term drug delivery depots. MRX is based on the use of superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles as model substances. The feasibility of using superparamagnetic nanoparticles to study the degradation of and the associated release from hydrogel cylinders and hydrogel microspheres was a major point of interest. Gels prepared from two types of photo crosslinkable polymers based on modified hydroxyethylstarch, specifically hydroxyethyl starch-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HES-HEMA) and hydroxyethyl starch-polyethylene glycol methacrylate (HES-P(EG)(6)MA), were analyzed. MRX analysis of the incorporated nanoparticles allowed to evaluate the influence of different crosslinking conditions during hydrogel production as well as to follow the increase in nanoparticle mobility as a result of hydrogel degradation during release studies. Conventional release studies with fluorescent markers (half-change method) were performed for comparison. MRX with superparamagnetic nanoparticles as model substances is a promising method to analyze pharmaceutically relevant processes such as the degradation of hydrogel drug carrier systems. In contrast to conventional release experiments MRX allows measurements in closed vials (reducing loss of sample and sampling errors), in opaque media and at low magnetic nanoparticle concentrations. Magnetic markers possess a better long-term stability than fluorescent ones and are thus also promising for the use in in vivo studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing a mapping tool for tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

  10. Riola release report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  11. Riola release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables

  12. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  13. PWR-GALE, Radioactive Gaseous Release and Liquid Release from PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The PWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment. 2 - Method of solution: GALE calculates expected releases based on 1) standardized coolant activities derived from ANS Standards 18.1 Working Group recommendations, 2) release and transport mechanisms that result in the appearance of radioactive material in liquid and gaseous waste streams, 3) plant-specific design features used to reduce the quantities of radioactive materials ultimately released to the environs, and 4) information received on the operation of nuclear power plants. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The liquid release portion of GALE uses subroutines taken from the ORIGEN (CCC-217) to calculate radionuclide buildup and decay during collection, processing, and storage of liquid radwaste. Memory requirements for this part of the program are determined by the large nuclear data base accessed by these subroutines

  14. Site release in the decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revilla, Jose Luis; Sanz, Maria Teresa; Marugan, Inmaculada; Simon, Inmaculada; Martin, Manuel; Solis, Susana; Sterling, Agustina

    2008-01-01

    Spanish regulatory framework for the decommissioning process of a nuclear facility ends up with a decommission statement, which releases the licence-holder of the facility from its responsibilities as an operator. It also establishes -where a restricted site release applies- the appropriate future use restrictions, and the responsible of both maintaining such restrictions and ensuring their compliance. Releasing a site implies eliminating all radiological monitoring. The Regulations, however, did not specify either the radiological conditions to be met for the site to be released, or the possibility of a partial release -with or without restrictions-. In case of restricted site release, the Regulations did not specify either the required criteria for such a release. This paper presents the main features of the Safety Instruction IS-13 'Radiological criteria for the release of nuclear facilities sites' issued recently by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council as a new specific regulation. This Safety Instruction establishes the requirements and conditions for the release of nuclear facility sites, that is, radiological criteria on the effective dose to the public, partial release of nuclear facility sites and restricted release of nuclear facility sites. (author).

  15. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...

  16. CERN Web Application Detection. Refactoring and release as open source software

    CERN Document Server

    Lizonczyk, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers my work during my assignment as participant of CERN Summer Students 2015 programme. The project was aimed at refactoring and publication of the Web Application Detection tool, which was developed at CERN and priorly used internally by the Computer Security team. The range of tasks performed include initial refactoring of code, which was developed like a script rather than a Python package, through extracting components that were not specific to CERN usage, the subsequent final release of the source code on GitHub and the integration with third-party software i.e. the w3af tool. Ultimately, Web Application Detection software received positive responses, being downloaded ca. 1500 times at the time of writing this report.

  17. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  18. Presynaptic M1 muscarinic receptor modulates spontaneous release of acetylcholine from rat basal forearm slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Fujimoto, LK.; Oohata, H.; Kawashima, K.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous release of (ACh) from rat basal forebrain slices in the presence of cholinesterase inhibitor was directly determined using a specific radioimmunoassay for ACh. The release was calcium dependent. A consistent amount of ACh release was observed throughout the experiment. Atropine (10- 8 to 10- 5 M) and pirenzepine (10- 7 to 10- 5 M) enhanced spontaneous ACh release. These findings indicate the presence of an M 1 muscarenic autoreceptor that modulates spontaneous release of ACh in the rat forebrain

  19. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  20. Fuel pin transfer tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel pin transfer tool has a latching device of the collet type attached to a first member movable vertically through a long work stroke enabling a fuel pin in an under water assembly to be engaged and withdrawn therefrom or placed therein and released. The latching device has a collet provided with a plurality of resilient fingers having cam portions normally spaced apart to receive the upper end of a fuel pin between them and a second member, movable vertically through a short stroke relative to the first member is provided with cam portions engageable with those of the fingers and is yieldably and resiliently held in a raised position in which its cam portions engage those of the fingers and force the fingers into their pin-gripping positions. When a predetermined force is applied to the second member, it is so moved that its cam portions are disengaged from the cam portions of the fingers permitting the latter to move into their normal relationship in which a gripped pin is released or another pin received but with their pin-gripping relationship positively re-established and maintained once the force on the tubular member is lessened. Movement of the first member in either direction and movement of the second member into its raised position is attended by forces inadequate to affect the integrity of fuel pin cladding. That force is applied in the preferred embodiment, by a power operated actuator which is within the upper portion of a housing and, in the preferred embodiment, carried by the long stroke member but always in the upper housing portion which is of a material sufficiently translucent to enable the actuator to be observed throughout the work stroke and is sufficiently light in weight to prevent the tool from being top heavy

  1. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future......Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items...

  2. Report on tool transfer and alignment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania; De Grave, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, research work has been carried out regarding the feature miniaturization and tooling performance achievable with specific process chains combining different micro machining processes. On the other hand, technologies, strategies and tool design rules in order to optimize the...... process chain for tooling (i.e. hybrid tooling) based on the combination of micro milling and micro electrical discharge machining (EDM) milling, both at machine tool and at machining technology levels....

  3. Scenarios and analytical methods for UF6 releases at NRC-licensed fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siman-Tov, M.; Dykstra, J.; Holt, D.D.; Huxtable, W.P.; Just, R.A.; Williams, W.R.

    1984-06-01

    This report identifies and discusses potential scenarios for the accidental release of UF 6 at NRC-licensed UF 6 production and fuel fabrication facilities based on a literature review, site visits, and DOE enrichment plant experience. Analytical tools needed for evaluating source terms for such releases are discussed, and the applicability of existing methods is reviewed. Accident scenarios are discussed under the broad headings of cylinder failures, UF 6 process system failures, nuclear criticality events, and operator errors and are categorized by location, release source, phase of UF 6 prior to release, release flow characteristics, release causes, initiating events, and UF 6 inventory at risk. At least three types of releases are identified for further examination: (1) a release from a liquid-filled cylinder outdoors, (2) a release from a pigtail or cylinder in a steam chest, (3) an indoor release from either (a) a pigtail or liquid-filled cylinder or (b) other indoor source depending on facility design and operating procedures. Indoor release phenomena may be analyzed to determine input terms for a ventilation model by using a time-dependent homogeneous compartment model or a more complex hydrodynamic model if time-dependent, spatial variations in concentrations, temperature, and pressure are important. Analytical tools for modeling directed jets and explosive releases are discussed as well as some of the complex phenomena to be considered in analyzing UF 6 releases both indoors and outdoors

  4. Antimicrobial beeswax coated polylactide films with silver control release capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abad, Antonio; Lagarón, Jose Maria; Ocio, María Jose

    2014-03-17

    Although the application of silver based antimicrobial systems is a widespread technology, its implementation in areas such as food packaging is still challenging. The present paper describes the fabrication of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coated with beeswax with controlled release properties for sustained antimicrobial performance. Release of silver ions from the polymers was monitored voltammetrically under various conditions (surface contact, immersion in various liquid media and at different pH values) throughout at least 7days. A higher release was noted with decreasing pH while surface release was much slower than the release when immersed in liquid medium. While uncoated films demonstrated a high burst release which in some instances implied surpassing some current migration restrictions (food), the addition of a beeswax layer allowed a sustained release of the antimicrobial compound. Increasing the thickness of the beeswax layer resulted in an increase in the water barrier properties of the films while reducing the relatively constant values of sustained release. Antimicrobial performance was correlated with the release of silver ions, indicating threshold concentrations for biocide action of films displayed a strong bactericidal effect against Salmonella enterica. The application of this functional barrier thus offers the possibility of tuning the release profiles of the films to suit a specific application and puts forth the possible suitability of these materials for food packaging or other migration sensitive applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  6. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  7. Application of Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling to Characterize the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Oral Extended Release Methylphenidate Products in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Yang

    Full Text Available A previously presented physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for immediate release (IR methylphenidate (MPH was extended to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviors of oral extended release (ER MPH formulations in adults for the first time. Information on the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, together with the biopharmaceutical properties of MPH, was integrated into the original model, with model parameters representing hepatic metabolism and intestinal non-specific loss recalibrated against in vitro and in vivo kinetic data sets with IR MPH. A Weibull function was implemented to describe the dissolution of different ER formulations. A variety of mathematical functions can be utilized to account for the engineered release/dissolution technologies to achieve better model performance. The physiological absorption model tracked well the plasma concentration profiles in adults receiving a multilayer-release MPH formulation or Metadate CD, while some degree of discrepancy was observed between predicted and observed plasma concentration profiles for Ritalin LA and Medikinet Retard. A local sensitivity analysis demonstrated that model parameters associated with the GI tract significantly influenced model predicted plasma MPH concentrations, albeit to varying degrees, suggesting the importance of better understanding the GI tract physiology, along with the intestinal non-specific loss of MPH. The model provides a quantitative tool to predict the biphasic plasma time course data for ER MPH, helping elucidate factors responsible for the diverse plasma MPH concentration profiles following oral dosing of different ER formulations.

  8. Tools for Embedded Computing Systems Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was held to assess the state of tools for embedded systems software and to determine directions for tool development. A synopsis of the talk and the key figures of each workshop presentation, together with chairmen summaries, are presented. The presentations covered four major areas: (1) tools and the software environment (development and testing); (2) tools and software requirements, design, and specification; (3) tools and language processors; and (4) tools and verification and validation (analysis and testing). The utility and contribution of existing tools and research results for the development and testing of embedded computing systems software are described and assessed.

  9. Vulnerability Assessment Tools for Complex Information Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassandras, Christos G; Gong, Weibo; Pepyne, David L; Lee, Wenke; Liu, Hong; Ho, Yu-Chi; Pfeffer, Avrom

    2006-01-01

    The specific aims of this research is to develop theories, methodologies, tools, and implementable solutions for modeling, analyzing, designing, and securing information networks against information-based attack...

  10. Using bio.tools to generate and annotate workbench tool descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillion, Kenzo-Hugo; Kuzmin, Ivan; Khodak, Anton

    2017-01-01

    - which have been registered in the ELIXIR tools registry (https://bio.tools) - into workbench environments by generating tool description templates. ToolDog includes two modules. The first module analyses the source code of the bioinformatics software with language-specific plugins, and generates...

  11. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles as a New Delivery System for Sustained 5-Fluorouracil Release: Characterization and Evaluation of Drug Release Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. El-Kady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass nanoparticles were synthesized and tested for the first time as a new delivery system for sustained 5-fluorouracil (5-FU release. They were characterized by TEM, DTA, TGA, and FT-IR. The porosity % and specific surface area of glass nanoparticles were 85.59% and 378.36 m2/g, respectively. The in vitro bioactivity evaluation confirmed that bioactive glass disks prepared from these nanoparticles could induce hydroxyapatite layer over their surfaces in simulated body fluid. The in vitro drug release experiment indicated that glass nanoparticles could serve as long-term local delivery vehicles for sustained 5-FU release. The release profile of 5-FU showed an initial fast release stage followed by a second stage of slower release. The initial burst release of 5-FU in the first day was about 23% (28.92 mg·L−1 of the total amount of loaded 5-FU, while the final cumulative percentage of the 5-FU released after 32 days was about 45.6% (57.31 mg·L−1 of the total amount of loaded 5-FU. The application of different mathematical models indicated that 5-FU was released by diffusion controlled mechanism and suggested that its release rate was dependent on glass particles dissolution, changes of surface area as well as diameter of glass particles, and concentration of loaded drug.

  12. Gad1 mRNA as a reliable indicator of altered GABA release from orexigenic neurons in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Matthew S; Hughes, Alexander R; Hentges, Shane T

    2015-11-01

    The strength of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory synaptic input is a principle determinant of neuronal activity. However, because of differences in the number of GABA afferent inputs and the sites of synapses, it is difficult to directly assay for altered GABA transmission between specific cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of mRNA for the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can provide a reliable proxy for GABA release. This was tested in a mouse hypothalamic circuit important in the regulation of energy balance. Fluorescent in situ hybridization results show that the expression of Gad1 mRNA (encoding the GAD67 enzyme) was increased in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons after an overnight fast, consistent with the ability of GABA from these neurons to stimulate food intake. Optogenetic studies confirmed that the observed increase in Gad1 mRNA correlated with an increase in the probability of GABA release from NPY/AgRP neurons onto downstream proopiomelanocortin neurons. Likewise, there was an increase in the readily releasable pool of GABA in NPY/AgRP neurons. Selective inhibition of GAD activity in NPY/AgRP neurons decreased GABA release, indicating that GAD67 activity, which is largely dictated by expression level, is a key determinant of GABA release. Altogether, it appears that Gad expression may be a reliable proxy of altered GABAergic transmission. Examining changes in Gad mRNA as a proxy for GABA release may be particularly helpful when the downstream targets are not known or when limited tools exist for detecting GABA release at a particular synapse. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Analyte-Triggered DNA-Probe Release from a Triplex Molecular Beacon for Nanopore Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingyuan; Sheng, Yingying; Zhou, Ke; Liu, Quansheng; Liu, Lei; Wu, Hai-Chen

    2018-03-26

    A new nanopore sensing strategy based on triplex molecular beacon was developed for the detection of specific DNA or multivalent proteins. The sensor is composed of a triplex-forming molecular beacon and a stem-forming DNA component that is modified with a host-guest complex. Upon target DNA hybridizing with the molecular beacon loop or multivalent proteins binding to the recognition elements on the stem, the DNA probe is released and produces highly characteristic current signals when translocated through α-hemolysin. The frequency of current signatures can be used to quantify the concentrations of the target molecules. This sensing approach provides a simple, quick, and modular tool for the detection of specific macromolecules with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. It may find useful applications in point-of-care diagnostics with a portable nanopore kit in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Released radioactivity reducing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeaki.

    1992-01-01

    Upon occurrence of a reactor accident, penetration portions of a reactor container, as a main leakage source from a reactor container, are surrounded by a plurality of gas-tight chambers, the outside of which is surrounded by highly gas-tightly buildings. Branched pipelines of an emergency gas processing system are introduced to each of the gas-tight chambers and they are joined and in communication with an emergency gas processing device. With such a constitution, radioactive materials are prevented from leaking directly from the buildings. Further, pipeline openings of the emergency gas processing facility are disposed in the plurality highly gas-tight penetration chambers. If the radioactive materials are leaked from the reactor to elevate the pressure in the penetration chambers, the radioactive materials are introduced to a filter device in the emergency gas processing facility by way of the branched pipelines, filtered and then released to the atmosphere. Accordingly, the reliability and safety of the system can be improved. (T.M.)

  15. Containment and release management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing the risk from potentially severe accidents by appropriate accident management strategies is receiving increased attention from the international reactor safety community. Considerable uncertainty still surrounds some of the physical phenomena likely to occur during a severe accident. The USNRC, in developing its research plan for accident management, wants to ensure that both the developers and implementers of accident management strategies are aware of the uncertainty associated with the plant operators' ability to correctly diagnose an accident, as well as the uncertainties associated with various preventive and mitigative strategies. The use of a particular accident management strategy can have both positive and negative effects on the status of a plant and these effects must be carefully weighed before a particular course of action is chosen and implemented. By using examples of severe accident scenarios, initial insights are presented here regarding the indications plant operators may have to alert them to particular accident states. Insights are also offered on the various management actions operators and plant technical staff might pursue for particular accident situations and the pros and cons associated with such actions. The examples given are taken for the most part from the containment and release phase of accident management, since this is the current focus of the effort in the accident management area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 refs

  16. Released radioactivity reducing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yumi.

    1995-01-01

    A water scrubber is disposed in a scrubber tank and a stainless steel fiber filter is disposed above the water scrubber. The upper end of the scrubber tank is connected by way of a second bent tube to a capturing vessel incorporating a moisture removing layer and an activated carbon filter. The exit of the capturing vessel is connected to a stack. Upon occurrence of an accident of a BWR-type power plant, gases containing radioactive materials released from a reactor container are discharged into the water scrubber from a first bent tube through a venturi tube nozzle, and water soluble and aerosol-like radioactive materials are captured in the water. Aerosol and splashes of water droplets which can not be captured thoroughly by the water scrubber are captured by the stainless steel fiber filter. Gases passing through the scrubber tank are introduced to a capturing vessel through a second bent tube, and organic iodine is captured by the activated carbon filter. (I.N.)

  17. On transform coding tools under development for VP10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah; Chen, Yue; Han, Jingning; Liu, Zoe; Mukherjee, Debargha; Su, Hui; Wang, Yongzhe; Bankoski, Jim; Li, Shunyao

    2016-09-01

    Google started the WebM Project in 2010 to develop open source, royaltyfree video codecs designed specifically for media on the Web. The second generation codec released by the WebM project, VP9, is currently served by YouTube, and enjoys billions of views per day. Realizing the need for even greater compression efficiency to cope with the growing demand for video on the web, the WebM team embarked on an ambitious project to develop a next edition codec, VP10, that achieves at least a generational improvement in coding efficiency over VP9. Starting from VP9, a set of new experimental coding tools have already been added to VP10 to achieve decent coding gains. Subsequently, Google joined a consortium of major tech companies called the Alliance for Open Media to jointly develop a new codec AV1. As a result, the VP10 effort is largely expected to merge with AV1. In this paper, we focus primarily on new tools in VP10 that improve coding of the prediction residue using transform coding techniques. Specifically, we describe tools that increase the flexibility of available transforms, allowing the codec to handle a more diverse range or residue structures. Results are presented on a standard test set.

  18. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  19. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  20. Tools for Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.

    2008-01-01

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work

  1. Tools for Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2008-07-09

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  2. Tools for Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, H. C.

    2007-05-01

    Full realization of socio-economic benefits of from public investments in climate services remains incomplete because decision makers have difficulty: 1) interpreting individual products, 2) appropriately judging information credibility, and 3) linking different types of information, both conceptually and practically. Addressing these barriers is as important as improving the science leading to improved information. The challenge is creating flexible climate information products and tools that can accommodate unique user needs; the goal is a systemic change in the nature of information delivery and use. The underlying assumption is not that climate information is good and useful, and simply needs to be communicated effectively. Rather, a number of conditions must be met before decision makers can make informed choices about whether to use particular information in a specific situation. Several case studies, of varying success, illustrate user-centric strategies for developing decision support tools: a forecast evaluation tool, a climate information management system, and a hydrologic alert system. However, tools alone will not bridge the barriers in climate services, with training and other capacity- building activities remaining important activities.

  3. Fission gas release from fuels at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, Yves; Pointud, M.L.; Vignesoult, Nicole; Atabek, Rosemarie; Baron, Daniel.

    1982-04-01

    Determinations of residual gas concentrations by heating and by X microanalysis were respectively carried out on particles (TANGO program) and on sections of fuel rods, perfectly characterized as to fabrication and irradiation history. A threshold release temperature of 1250 0 C+-100 0 C was determined irrespective of the type of oxide and the irradiation history in the 18,000-45,000 MWdt -1 (U) specific burnup field. The overall analyses of gas released from the fuel rods show that, in the PWR operating conditions, the fraction released remains less than 1% up to a mean specific burnup of 35000 MWdt -1 (U). The release of gases should not be a limiting factor in the increase of specific burnups [fr

  4. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  5. Patient-specific surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Technological innovations of the twentieth century have provided medicine and surgery with new tools for education and therapy definition. Thus, by combining Medical Imaging and Virtual Reality, patient-specific applications providing preoperative surgical simulation have become possible.

  6. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  7. Design of the ITER Tokamak Assembly Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunki; Her, Namil; Kim, Byungchul; Im, Kihak; Jung, Kijung; Lee, Jaehyuk; Im, Kisuk

    2006-01-01

    ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Procurement allocation among the seven Parties, EU, JA, CN, IN , KO, RF and US had been decided in Dec. 2005. ITER Tokamak assembly tools is one of the nine components allocated to Korea for the construction of the ITER. Assembly tools except measurement and common tools are supplied to assemble the ITER Tokamak and classified into 9 groups according to components to be assembled. Among the 9 groups of assembly tools, large-sized Sector Sub-assembly Tools and Sector Assembly Tools are used at the first stage of ITER Tokamak construction and need to be designed faster than seven other assembly tools. ITER IT (International Team) proposed Korea to accomplish ITA (ITER Transitional Arrangements) Task on detailed design, manufacturing feasibility and contract specification of specific, large sized tools such as Upending Tool, Lifting Tool, Sector Sub-assembly Tool and Sector Assembly Tool in Oct. 2004. Based on the concept design by ITER IT, Korea carried out ITA Task on detailed design of large-sized and specific Sector Sub-assembly and Sector Assembly Tools until Mar. 2006. The Sector Sub-assembly Tools mainly consist of the Upending, Lifting, Vacuum Vessel Support and Bracing, and Sector Sub-assembly Tool, among which the design of three tools are herein. The Sector Assembly Tools mainly consist of the Toroidal Field (TF) Gravity Support Assembly, Sector In-pit Assembly, TF Coil Assembly, Vacuum Vessel (VV) Welding and Vacuum Vessel Thermal Shield (TS) Assembly Tool, among which the design of Sector In-pit Assembly Tool is described herein

  8. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Capabilities for Homeland Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J; Baskett, R; Simpson, M

    2010-03-08

    The Department of Energy's National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provides critical information during hazardous airborne releases as part of an integrated national preparedness and response strategy. Located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC provides 24/7 tools and expert services to map the spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC graphical products show affected areas and populations, potential casualties, and health effect or protective action guideline levels. LLNL experts produce quality-assured analyses based on field data to assist decision makers and responders. NARAC staff and collaborators conduct research and development into new science, tools, capabilities, and technologies in strategically important areas related to airborne transport and fate modeling and emergency response. This paper provides a brief overview of some of NARAC's activities, capabilities, and research and development.

  9. Impact of Industrial Releases on Inshas Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.M.; Aly, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two Egyptian research reactors are located within the nuclear research center at Inshas area, 30 km north east of Cairo. This area are crowded by different industrial plants. The releases from them has a hazardous and economical effects on the research center workers and the surrounding inhabitancy. In the present work we study these effects. A meteorological regional specific data is considered all over the year, including a wind rose characterization. The study considered both normal operating conditions and an accidental releases. The results shows that there are a considerable risk due to normal releases in some areas downwind direction of the major releases, and a highly risk in areas subjected to major exposure. Regional maps of emission distribution, economical damage , pollutant concentration are obtained. The study helps to identify solutions to problems of atmospheric protection. It can be used as a decision support for the environmental, economic, and innovation planning at the national levels taking into consideration the national pollution standards and variety of existing emission sources

  10. Influence of the 3D-conformation, glycan component and microheterogeneity on the epitope structure of Ole e 1, the major olive allergen - Use of recombinant isoforms and specific monoclonal antibodies as immunological tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González, Eva M.; Villalba, Mayte; Lombardero, Manuel; Aalbers, Marja; van Ree, Ronald; Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2002-01-01

    Ole e 1 is the main allergen of olive pollen, which is a major cause of pollinosis in countries of the Mediterranean area. Nine Ole e 1-specific murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as well as two Ole e 1-isoforms and two Ole e 1-like allergens from lilac and privet, all of them obtained in Pichia

  11. Conditions affecting the release of phosphorus from surface lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophoridis, Christophoros; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of pH and redox conditions, as well as the effect of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, on the release of ortho-phosphates in lake sediments taken from Lakes Koronia and Volvi (Northern Greece). Results were evaluated in combination with experiments to determine P fractionation in the sediment. The study revealed the major effect of redox potential and pH on the release of P from lake sediments. Both lakes showed increased release rates under reductive conditions and high pH values. The fractionation experiments revealed increased mobility of the reductive P fraction as well as of the NaOH-P fraction, indicating participation of both fractions in the overall release of sediment-bound P, depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. The results were assessed in combination with the release patterns of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, enabling the identification of more specific processes of P release for each lake. The basic release patterns included the redox induced reductive dissolution of P-bearing metal oxides and the competitive exchange of phosphate anions with OH- at high pH values. The formation of an oxidized surface microlayer under oxic conditions acted as a protective film, preventing further P release from the sediments of Lake Volvi, while sediments from Lake Koronia exhibited a continuous and increased tendency to release P under various physicochemical conditions, acting as a constant source of internal P loading.

  12. Journaling: An Underutilized School Counseling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyromski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of journaling as a therapeutic and teaching tool is well documented. However, specific examples of school counselors utilizing journaling as a therapeutic tool are sparse. Existing school counseling literature was reviewed and journaling as an educational and therapeutic tool was explored and related to the school counseling…

  13. Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Herder, E., Kärger, P. (2009) Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation. The document contains the technical specification of the competence matching tool. The tool can be found at http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp7/CompetenceMatcher/ and the location

  14. Release of /sup 3/H-. cap alpha. -methyl-m-tyramine from rat striatum in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorris, R L [Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Tex. (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology

    1976-01-01

    Release of /sup 3/H-d-..cap alpha..-methyl-m-tyramine (/sup 3/H-MMTA), a false dopaminergic transmitter from rat striatum was studied in vitro. After its initial uptake, /sup 3/H-MMTA was released by high K/sup +/ and by amphetamine. The release requirements were essentially the same as those known to exist for release of dopamine in vitro. These studies indicate that /sup 3/H-MMTA might serve as a useful tool with which to study dopamine release mechanisms in vitro.

  15. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC): NASA to FAA Research Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelland, Shawn; Davis, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows which may be subject to constraints that create localized demand-capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and Frontline Managers (FLMs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves use of a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release time is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that improves tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions and

  16. A compilation of Web-based research tools for miRNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vaibhav; Varghese, Vinay Koshy; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Mallya, Sandeep; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2017-09-01

    Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs that regulate the gene expression posttranscriptionally in sequence-specific manner, there has been a release of number of tools useful for both basic and advanced applications. This is because of the significance of miRNAs in many pathophysiological conditions including cancer. Numerous bioinformatics tools that have been developed for miRNA analysis have their utility for detection, expression, function, target prediction and many other related features. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of web-based tools for the miRNA analysis that does not require prior knowledge of any computing languages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Development and evaluation of accelerated drug release testing methods for a matrix-type intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externbrink, Anna; Eggenreich, Karin; Eder, Simone; Mohr, Stefan; Nickisch, Klaus; Klein, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated drug release testing is a valuable quality control tool for long-acting non-oral extended release formulations. Currently, several intravaginal ring candidates designed for the long-term delivery of steroids or anti-infective drugs are being in the developing pipeline. The present article addresses the demand for accelerated drug release methods for these formulations. We describe the development and evaluation of accelerated release methods for a steroid releasing matrix-type intravaginal ring. The drug release properties of the formulation were evaluated under real-time and accelerated test conditions. Under real-time test conditions drug release from the intravaginal ring was strongly affected by the steroid solubility in the release medium. Under sufficient sink conditions that were provided in release media containing surfactants drug release was Fickian diffusion driven. Both temperature and hydro-organic dissolution media were successfully employed to accelerate drug release from the formulation. Drug release could be further increased by combining the temperature effect with the application of a hydro-organic release medium. The formulation continued to exhibit a diffusion controlled release kinetic under the investigated accelerated conditions. Moreover, the accelerated methods were able to differentiate between different prototypes of the intravaginal ring that exhibited different release profiles under real-time test conditions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that both temperature and hydro-organic release media are valid parameters for accelerating drug release from the intravaginal ring. Variation of either a single or both parameters yielded release profiles that correlated well with real-time release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustained release of radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.

    1980-11-01

    New pharmaceutical formulations for the sustained release into the G.I. tract of radioprotective agents have been developed by the authors. The experimental method initially consisted in the production of methylcellulose microcapsules. This method failed apparently because of the premature ''explosion'' of the microcapsules and the consequent premature release of massive amounts of the drug. A new method has been developed which consists in drying and pulverising cysteamine and cysteine preparations, mixing them in various proportions with stearic acid and ethylcellulose as carriers. The mixture is then compressed into cylindrical tablets at several pressure values and the leaching rate of the radioprotective agents is then measured by spectrophotometry. The relation between the concentration of the active drug and its rate of release, and the effect on the release rate of the pressure applied to the tablet during its formation were also investigated. Results indicating that the release rate was linearly related to the square root of ''t'' seem to be in agreement with what is predictable, according to Higuchi's equation, save for the very initial and terminal phases. A clear correlation was also established between the stearic acid/ethylcellulose ratios and the release of 20% cysteine, namely a marked decrease in the rate of cysteine release was observed with increasing concentrations of stearic acid. Finally, it was observed that a higher formation pressure results in quicker release of the drug

  19. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  20. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  1. Case and Administrative Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case and Administrative Support Tools (CAST) is the secure portion of the Office of General Counsel (OGC) Dashboard business process automation tool used to help reduce office administrative labor costs while increasing employee effectiveness. CAST supports business functions which rely on and store Privacy Act sensitive data (PII). Specific business processes included in CAST (and respective PII) are: -Civil Rights Cast Tracking (name, partial medical history, summary of case, and case correspondance). -Employment Law Case Tracking (name, summary of case). -Federal Tort Claims Act Incident Tracking (name, summary of incidents). -Ethics Program Support Tools and Tracking (name, partial financial history). -Summer Honors Application Tracking (name, home address, telephone number, employment history). -Workforce Flexibility Initiative Support Tools (name, alternative workplace phone number). -Resource and Personnel Management Support Tools (name, partial employment and financial history).

  2. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  3. Verification of Simulation Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Before qualifying a simulation tool, the requirements shall first be clearly identified, i.e.: - What type of study needs to be carried out? - What phenomena need to be modeled? This phase involves writing a precise technical specification. Once the requirements are defined, the most adapted product shall be selected from the various software options available on the market. Before using a particular version of a simulation tool to support the demonstration of nuclear safety studies, the following requirements shall be met. - An auditable quality assurance process complying with development international standards shall be developed and maintained, - A process of verification and validation (V and V) shall be implemented. This approach requires: writing a report and/or executive summary of the V and V activities, defining a validated domain (domain in which the difference between the results of the tools and those of another qualified reference is considered satisfactory for its intended use). - Sufficient documentation shall be available, - A detailed and formal description of the product (software version number, user configuration, other settings and parameters) in the targeted computing environment shall be available. - Source codes corresponding to the software shall be archived appropriately. When these requirements are fulfilled, the version of the simulation tool shall be considered qualified for a defined domain of validity, in a given computing environment. The functional verification shall ensure that: - the computer architecture of the tool does not include errors, - the numerical solver correctly represents the physical mathematical model, - equations are solved correctly. The functional verification can be demonstrated through certification or report of Quality Assurance. The functional validation shall allow the user to ensure that the equations correctly represent the physical phenomena in the perimeter of intended use. The functional validation can

  4. Balancing the tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the potential of a new combination of functions in lexicographic tools for tourists. So far lexicography has focused on the communicative information needs of tourists, i.e. helping tourists decide what to say in a number of specific tourist situations, ...... tourist situations, wherever and whenever needed. It is demonstrated how this type of objective knowledge, which is conventionally represented in tourist guides and on tourist web sites, could benefit from being arranged in a lexicographic design....

  5. Predictive property models for use in design of controlled release of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suné, Nuria Muro; Gani, Rafiqul; Bell, G.

    2005-01-01

    A model capable of predicting the release of an Active Ingredient (AI) from a specific device would be very useful in the field of pesticide controlled release technology for design purposes. For the release of an AI from a microcapsule a mathematical model is briefly presented here, as an introd...

  6. Impacts of uranium-utilization improvements on light-water-reactor radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    This report discusses potential changes to radionuclide releases as a result of uranium-saving plant modifications and altered operating practices. Only releases to the environment from routine operation are considered; releases resulting from abnormal conditions outside the technical specifications covering plant operation are not considered

  7. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  8. Costing Tool for International Cancer Registries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-21

    A health economist at CDC talks about a new tool for estimating how much it costs to run cancer registries in developing countries.  Created: 11/21/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/21/2016.

  9. Application of point-process statistical tools to stable isotopes in xylem water for the study of inter- and intra-specific interactions in water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Carles; del Castillo, Jorge; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The stable isotope composition of xylem water reflects has been used to assess inter-specific differences in uptake patterns, revealing synergistic and competition processes in the use of water resources (see e.g. Dawson et al. 1993). However, there is a lack of detailed studies on spatial and temporal variability of inter- and intra-specific competition within forest stands. In this context, the aim of this work was to compare the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O , δ2H) in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill, in order to understand their water uptake patterns throughout the growing season. In addition, we analyze the spatial variability of xylem water, to get insight into inter-specific strategies employed to cope with drought and the interaction between the individuals. Our first hypothesis was that both species used different strategies to cope with drought by uptaking water at different depths; and our second hypothesis was that individual trees would behave in different manner according to the distance to their neighbours as well as to whether the neighbour is from one species or the other. The study was performed in a mixed stand where both species are nearly co-dominant, adding up to a total of 33 oaks and 77 pines (plot area= 893 m2). We sampled sun-exposed branches of each tree six times over the growing season, and extracted the xylem water with a cryogenic trap. The isotopic composition of the water was determined using a Picarro Water Analizer L2130-i. Tree mapping for spatial analysis was done using a high resolution GPS technology (Trimble GeoExplorer 6000). For the spatial analysis, we used the pair-correlation function to study intra-specific tree configuration and the bivariate pair correlation function to analyse the inter-specific spatial configurations (Stoyan et al 1995). Moreover, the isotopic composition of xylem water was assumed to be a mark associated to each tree and analysed as a

  10. New and revised fire effects tools for fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Greg Dillon; Stacy Drury; Robin Innes; Penny Morgan; Duncan Lutes; Susan J. Prichard; Jane Smith; Eva Strand

    2014-01-01

    Announcing the release of new software packages for application in wildland fire science and management, two fields that are already fully saturated with computer technology, may seem a bit too much to many managers. However, there have been some recent releases of new computer programs and revisions of existing software and information tools that deserve mention...

  11. Cocktail : a tool for deriving correct programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.G.J.; Swart, de H.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Cocktail is a tool for deriving correct programs from their specifications. The present version is powerful enough for educational purposes. The tool yields support for many sorted first order predicate logic, formulated in a pure type system with parametric constants (CPTS), as the specification

  12. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  13. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  14. Effects of adenosine on renin release from isolated rat glomeruli and kidney slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Baumbach, L

    1985-01-01

    was used. The specificity of the renin release process was validated by measuring adenylate kinase as a marker for cytoplasmatic leak. Adenosine (10 micrograms/ml) halved basal renin release from incubated KS as compared to controls (P less than 0.001, n = 8, 8). Renin release from LAG stimulated...... by calcium depletion was also inhibited (P less than 0.05, n = 8, 9) whereas basal release was not affected (n = 6, 12). No effect was detected neither on basal nor on calcium stimulated renin release from SAG. We conclude that adenosine inhibits renin release in vitro by a mechanism independent...

  15. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  16. Tool path in torus tool CNC machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.

  17. Specific components of face perception in the human fusiform gyrus studied by tomographic estimates of magnetoencephalographic signals: a tool for the evaluation of non-verbal communication in psychosomatic paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannides Andreas A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to determine the specific spatiotemporal activation patterns of face perception in the fusiform gyrus (FG. The FG is a key area in the specialized brain system that makes possible the recognition of face with ease and speed in our daily life. Characterization of FG response provides a quantitative method for evaluating the fundamental functions that contribute to non-verbal communication in various psychosomatic paradigms. Methods The MEG signal was recorded during passive visual stimulus presentation with three stimulus types – Faces, Hands and Shoes. The stimuli were presented separately to the central and peripheral visual fields. We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM analysis of tomographic estimates of activity to compare activity between a pre- and post-stimulus period in the same object (baseline test, and activity between objects (active test. The time course of regional activation curves was analyzed for each stimulus condition. Results The SPM baseline test revealed a response to each stimulus type, which was very compact at the initial segment of main MFG170. For hands and shoes the area of significant change remains compact. For faces the area expanded widely within a few milliseconds and its boundaries engulfed the other object areas. The active test demonstrated that activity for faces was significantly larger than the activity for hands. The same face specific compact area as in the baseline test was identified, and then again expanded widely. For each stimulus type and presentation in each one of the visual fields locations, the analysis of the time course of FG activity identified three components in the FG: MFG100, MFG170, and MFG200 – all showed preference for faces. Conclusion Early compact face-specific activity in the FG expands widely along the occipito-ventral brain within a few milliseconds. The significant difference between faces and the other object stimuli in MFG

  18. Calculations in support of a potential definition of large release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Davis, R.E.; Mubayi, V.

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated a hierarchy of safety goals with the qualitative safety goals as Level I of the hierarchy, backed up by the quantitative health objectives as Level II and the large release guideline as Level III. The large release guideline has been stated in qualitative terms as a magnitude of release of the core inventory whose frequency should not exceed 10 -6 per reactor year. However, the Commission did not provide a quantitative specification of a large release. This report describes various specifications of a large release and focuses, in particular, on an examination of releases which have a potential to lead to one prompt fatality in the mean. The basic information required to set up the calculations was derived from the simplified source terms which were obtained from approximations of the NUREG-1150 source terms. Since the calculation of consequences is affected by a large number of assumptions, a generic site with a (conservatively determined) population density and meteorology was specified. At this site, various emergency responses (including no response) were assumed based on information derived from earlier studies. For each of the emergency response assumptions, a set of calculations were performed with the simplified source terms; these included adjustments to the source terms, such as the timing of the release, the core inventory, and the release fractions of different radionuclides, to arrive at a result of one mean prompt fatality in each case. Each of the source terms, so defined, has the potential to be a candidate for a large release. The calculations show that there are many possible candidate source terms for a large release depending on the characteristics which are felt to be important

  19. Tritium and helium retention and release from irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Oates, M.A.; Pawelko, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental effort to anneal irradiated beryllium specimens and characterize them for steam-chemical reactivity experiments. Fully-dense, consolidated powder metallurgy Be cylinders, irradiated in the EBR-II to a fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) fluence of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, were annealed at temperatures from 450degC to 1200degC. The releases of tritium and helium were measured during the heat-up phase and during the high-temperature anneals. These experiments revealed that, at 600degC and below, there was insignificant gas release. Tritium release at 700degC exhibited a delayed increase in the release rate, while the specimen was at 700degC. For anneal temperatures of 800degC and higher, tritium and helium release was concurrent and the release behavior was characterized by gas-burst peaks. Essentially all of the tritium and helium was released at temperatures of 1000degC and higher, whereas about 1/10 of the tritium was released during the anneals at 700degC and 800degC. Measurements were made to determine the bulk density, porosity and specific surface area for each specimen before and after annealing. These measurements indicated that annealing caused the irradiated Be to swell, by as much as 14% at 700degC and 56% at 1200degC. Kr gas adsorption measurements for samples annealed at 1000degC and 1200degC determined specific surface areas between 0.04 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1 m{sup 2}/g for these annealed specimens. The tritium and helium gas release measurements and the specific surface area measurements indicated that annealing of irradiated Be caused a porosity network to evolve and become surface-connected to relieve internal gas pressure. (author)

  20. Should repository release criteria be based on collective dose, release limits, or individual doses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Neill, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using each of 3 alternative methods (collective dose, release limits, and individual dose) as release criteria for determining long-term high level or transuranic waste repository performance of naturally occurring releases or man-made intrusions are evaluated. Each of the alternative approaches have positive aspects and each has uncertainties that require some arbitrary assumptions. A comparison of the numerical results from evaluating the three alternatives at WIPP leads to the conclusion that a collective dose is preferable because it is more site specific and allows consideration of the full effects of human intrusion. The main objection to release limits is they do not use site specific criteria to determine the radiological effect on local and regional populations. Individual dose criteria used and recommended in the United States have ignored doses to drillers and the public from wastes brought to the surface by human intrusion because these doses can be greater than acceptable limits. Also, there is disagreement about defining the location and lifestyle of the individual

  1. Analysis of hazardous substances released during CFRP laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Michael; Walter, Juergen; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties, in particular their high specific strength parallel to the carbon fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have a high potential regarding resource-efficient lightweight construction. Consequently, these composite materials are increasingly finding application in important industrial branches such as aircraft, automotive and wind energy industry. However, the processing of these materials is highly demanding. On the one hand, mechanical processing methods such as milling or drilling are sometimes rather slow, and they are connected with notable tool wear. On the other hand, thermal processing methods are critical as the two components matrix and reinforcement have widely differing thermophysical properties, possibly leading to damages of the composite structure in terms of pores or delamination. An emerging innovative method for processing of CFRP materials is the laser technology. As principally thermal method, laser processing is connected with the release of potentially hazardous, gaseous and particulate substances. Detailed knowledge of these process emissions is the basis to ensure the protection of man and the environment, according to the existing legal regulations. This knowledge will help to realize adequate protective measures and thus strengthen the development of CFRP laser processing. In this work, selected measurement methods and results of the analysis of the exhaust air and the air at the workplace during different laser processes with CFRP materials are presented. The investigations have been performed in the course of different cooperative projects, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the course of the funding initiative "Photonic Processes and Tools for Resource-Efficient Lightweight Structures".

  2. Specifying Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  3. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  4. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  5. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  6. Reporting continuous releases of hazardous and extremely hazardous substances under CERCLA and EPCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This guidance is designed to provide basic instruction to US DOE and DOE operations contractor personnel on how to characterize CERCLA and EPCRA hazardous substance releases as continuous and how to prepare and deliver continuousreleasee reports to Federal, State, and local authorities. DOE staff should use this guidance as an overview of the continuous release requirements, a quick ready reference guide for specific topics concerning continuous releases and a step-by-step guide for the process of identifying and reporting continuous releases

  7. The release of silver nanoparticles from commercial toothbrushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag and Ag nanoparticle release was measured from two types of toothbrushes. • Maximum release for entire intended product use period was 10 ng Ag per toothbrush. • Released Ag nanoparticles had median sizes from 42 to 47 nm. • Up to 2.8% of total Ag released was detected in nanoparticulate form. - Abstract: The use of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial products has become increasingly common in the past decade, mostly due to their antimicrobial properties. Using Ag NP-containing articles may lead to particle release, which raises concern of human and environmental safety. The published literature addressing particle release is scarce, especially when it comes to quantifying exposure to NPs specifically. In this study, we have experimentally investigated the release of total Ag and Ag NP from commercially available toothbrushes i.e. biodegradable toothbrushes for adults and toothbrushes for children. Toothbrushes were immersed and abraded in tap water for 24 h corresponding to more than the whole intended usage time of a toothbrush. The total amount of released Ag was quantified by inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, and the Ag NPs were characterized by single particle ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The median size of the released Ag NPs ranged from 42 to 47 nm, and the maximum total Ag release was 10.2 ng per toothbrush. The adult toothbrushes were generally releasing more total Ag and NPs than children toothbrushes. In conclusion, our results indicate that the use of Ag NP-impregnated toothbrushes can cause consumer as well as environmental exposure to Ag NPs.

  8. The release of silver nanoparticles from commercial toothbrushes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackevica, Aiga, E-mail: aima@env.dtu.dk; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag and Ag nanoparticle release was measured from two types of toothbrushes. • Maximum release for entire intended product use period was 10 ng Ag per toothbrush. • Released Ag nanoparticles had median sizes from 42 to 47 nm. • Up to 2.8% of total Ag released was detected in nanoparticulate form. - Abstract: The use of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial products has become increasingly common in the past decade, mostly due to their antimicrobial properties. Using Ag NP-containing articles may lead to particle release, which raises concern of human and environmental safety. The published literature addressing particle release is scarce, especially when it comes to quantifying exposure to NPs specifically. In this study, we have experimentally investigated the release of total Ag and Ag NP from commercially available toothbrushes i.e. biodegradable toothbrushes for adults and toothbrushes for children. Toothbrushes were immersed and abraded in tap water for 24 h corresponding to more than the whole intended usage time of a toothbrush. The total amount of released Ag was quantified by inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, and the Ag NPs were characterized by single particle ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The median size of the released Ag NPs ranged from 42 to 47 nm, and the maximum total Ag release was 10.2 ng per toothbrush. The adult toothbrushes were generally releasing more total Ag and NPs than children toothbrushes. In conclusion, our results indicate that the use of Ag NP-impregnated toothbrushes can cause consumer as well as environmental exposure to Ag NPs.

  9. The release of silver nanoparticles from commercial toothbrushes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial products has become increasingly common in the past decade, mostly due to their antimicrobial properties. Using Ag NP-containing articles may lead to particle release, which raises concern of human and environmental safety. The published...... literature addressing particle release is scarce, especially when it comes to quantifying exposure to NPs specifically. In this study, we have experimentally investigated the release of total Ag and Ag NP from commercially available toothbrushes i.e. biodegradable toothbrushes for adults and toothbrushes...

  10. Substance P release from rat hypothalamus and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronheim, S.; Sheppard, M.C.; Pimstone, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for substance P has been developed to study the release of immunoreactive substance P from incubated rat hypothalamus and rat spinal cord in vitro. Release was significantly increased in the presence of two depolarizing stimuli (56 mM KCl and 75 μM veratrine) and was calcium-dependent. The released immunoreactive material diluted in parallel with synthetic substance P and showed close identity on Sephadex chromatography. A neuromodulator role for the peptide in the central nervous system is suggested

  11. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abida, R.

    2010-01-01

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  13. Useful design tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2005-01-01

    vague and contested concept of sustainability into concrete concepts and building projects. It describes a typology of tools: process tools, impact assessment tools, multi-criteria tools and tools for monitoring. It includes a Danish paradigmatic case study of stakeholder participation in the planning...... of a new sustainable settlement. The use of design tools is discussed in relation to innovation and stakeholder participation, and it is stressed that the usefulness of design tools is context dependent....

  14. CoC GIS Tools (GIS Tool)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool provides a no-cost downloadable software tool that allows users to interact with professional quality GIS maps. Users access pre-compiled projects through...

  15. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The SR dosage forms that release drugs pH independently in .... were determined; Post compression parameters such as weight variation test, hardness, ... Based on the ICH guidelines 12, the stability studies were carried out ...

  17. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  18. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  19. Porcupine: A visual pipeline tool for neuroimaging analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim van Mourik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of neuroimaging is rapidly adopting a more reproducible approach to data acquisition and analysis. Data structures and formats are being standardised and data analyses are getting more automated. However, as data analysis becomes more complicated, researchers often have to write longer analysis scripts, spanning different tools across multiple programming languages. This makes it more difficult to share or recreate code, reducing the reproducibility of the analysis. We present a tool, Porcupine, that constructs one's analysis visually and automatically produces analysis code. The graphical representation improves understanding of the performed analysis, while retaining the flexibility of modifying the produced code manually to custom needs. Not only does Porcupine produce the analysis code, it also creates a shareable environment for running the code in the form of a Docker image. Together, this forms a reproducible way of constructing, visualising and sharing one's analysis. Currently, Porcupine links to Nipype functionalities, which in turn accesses most standard neuroimaging analysis tools. Our goal is to release researchers from the constraints of specific implementation details, thereby freeing them to think about novel and creative ways to solve a given problem. Porcupine improves the overview researchers have of their processing pipelines, and facilitates both the development and communication of their work. This will reduce the threshold at which less expert users can generate reusable pipelines. With Porcupine, we bridge the gap between a conceptual and an implementational level of analysis and make it easier for researchers to create reproducible and shareable science. We provide a wide range of examples and documentation, as well as installer files for all platforms on our website: https://timvanmourik.github.io/Porcupine. Porcupine is free, open source, and released under the GNU General Public License v3.0.

  20. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping, although this is an event of extremely low probability. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21 mole percent oxygen with humidity. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabatic pressure rise which peaks in several seconds. This analytical tool has indicated reasonable agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen and water vapor concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  1. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-10-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21% oxygen. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabtic pressure pulse peaking in a matter of seconds. This analytical tool has indicated good agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  2. MUDMAP: Simulation model for releases from offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The present article deals with a Norwegian developed simulation model dubbed MUDMAP. MUDMAP is a numerical model that simulates releases of drill muds and cuttings, produced water and other substances from offshore platforms. The model is envisioned as an advanced tool to assist in the rapid design and placement of intakes and release pipes on platforms, as well as in evaluating potential long-term impacts in the water and on the sea floor. MUDMAP allows rapid visual/graphical analysis of potential alternative solutions under various realistic environmental conditions, and for planning and executing platform monitoring projects. 4 figs

  3. Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Gayatri, T; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Basu, Asitava; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element.

  4. Mass spectrometric imaging as a high-spatial resolution tool for functional genomics: Tissue-specific gene expression of TT7 inferred from heterogeneous distribution of metabolites in Arabidopsis flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-12-23

    Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was used to acquire chemical images of flavonoid metabolites on the surface of wild-type and mutant (tt7) Arabidopsis thaliana flowers. Flavonoids were localized to the petals and carpels of flowers, with tissue heterogeneity in the petals. Specifically, kaempferol and/or its glycosides were abundant in the distal region of petals and quercetin and its downstream flavonoids were highly enriched in the more proximal region of petals. As a result of a mutation in the TT7 gene which blocks the conversion of dihydrokaempferol to dihydroquercetin, the downstream metabolites, quercetin, isohamnetin, and their glycosides, were not observed in the mutant flowers. Instead, the metabolites in an alternative pathway, kaempferol and/or its glycosides, were as highly abundant on the proximal region of the petals as in the distal region. In addition, the combined flavonoid amounts on the proximal region of petals in the wild-type are almost equivalent to the amounts of kaempferol and/or its glycosides in the mutant. This strongly suggests that the expression of the TT7 gene is localized on the proximal part of the petal while the other genes in the upper stream pathway are evenly expressed throughout the petal. Most importantly, this work demonstrates MSI of metabolites can be utilized for the localization of gene expression.

  5. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  6. Ludic Educational Game Creation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidakis, Nikolaos; Syntychakis, Efthimios; Kalafatis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings and ongoing work of the game creation tool, a core component of the IOLAOS(IOLAOS in ancient Greece was a divine hero famed for helping with some of Heracles’s labors.) platform, a general open authorable framework for educational and training games. The game...... creation tool features a web editor, where the game narrative can be manipulated, according to specific needs. Moreover, this tool is applied for creating an educational game according to a reference scenario namely teaching schoolers road safety. A ludic approach is used both in game creation and play....... Helping children staying safe and preventing serious injury on the roads is crucial. In this context, this work presents an augmented version of the IOLAOS architecture including an enhanced game creation tool and a new multimodality module. In addition presents a case study for creating educational games...

  7. Performative Tools and Collaborative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    of performative tools used in transdisciplinary events for collaborative learning. The results of this single case study add to extant knowledge- and learning literature by providing the reader with a rich description of characteristics and learning functions of performative tools in transdisciplinary events......The use of performative tools can support collaborative learning across knowledge domains (i.e. science and practice), because they create new spaces for dialog. However, so far innovation literature provides little answers to the important discussion of how to describe the effects and requirements...... and a description of how they interrelate with the specific setting of such an event. Furthermore, they complement previous findings by relating performative tools to collaborative learning for knowledge intensive ideas....

  8. Determination of accident related release data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Nolte, O.; Lange, F.; Martens, R.

    2004-01-01

    the aerodynamic size distribution. These results form a valuable data base to limit the number of key large scale experiments aiming at extrapolation to full size realistic packages. They also justify the use of a surrogate material in these tests so that the release fractions determined for this specific material are representative for a wide class of brittle radioactive materials

  9. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can...... elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity...... and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps...

  10. Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations. SWMM, first released in 1971, models hydrology and hydrauli...

  11. The power tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAYFIELD, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    POWER Tool--Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating and Resourcing tool, a hand-held field estimating unit and relational database software tool for optimizing disassembly and final waste form of contaminated systems and equipment

  12. The neutron porosity tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains a review of available information on neutron porosity tools with the emphasis on dual thermal-neutron-detector porosity tools and epithermal-neutron-detector porosity tools. The general principle of such tools is discussed and theoretical models are very briefly reviewed. Available data on tool designs are summarized with special regard to the source-detector distance. Tool operational data, porosity determination and correction of measurements are briefly discussed. (author) 15 refs

  13. Preset pivotal tool holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  14. GEWEX SRB Shortwave Release 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The new Release 4 uses the newly processed ISCCP HXS product as its primary input for cloud and radiance data. The ninefold increase in pixel number compared to the previous ISCCP DX allows finer gradations in cloud fraction in each grid box. It will also allow higher spatial resolutions (0.5 degree) in future releases. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made since Release 3. These include recalculated atmospheric transmissivities and reflectivities yielding a less transmissive atmosphere. The calculations also include variable aerosol composition, allowing for the use of a detailed aerosol history from the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC). Ocean albedo and snow/ice albedo are also improved from Release 3. Total solar irradiance is now variable, averaging 1361 Wm-2. Water vapor is taken from ISCCP's nnHIRS product. Results from GSW Release 4 are presented and analyzed. Early comparison to surface measurements show improved agreement.

  15. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  16. Manufacturing and sustainability of bonding systems for grinding tools

    OpenAIRE

    Linke, B

    2016-01-01

    © 2016, German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP). Grinding and honing processes are quality-defining operations in the production of many modern products. Process performance and product quality are contingent on selecting the correct abrasive tool for a specific application. Thus, tools with different bonding systems are used, namely resin bonded tools, vitrified bonded tools, and metallic bonded tools. Tool manufacturers have great knowledge in the choice and intricate prod...

  17. Derived release limits for airborne effluents at TRIGA - INR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Hirica, O.; Mihai, S.; Oprea, I.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning from fulfilling the purposes of dose limitation system recommended by ICRP, and now accepted in radiation protection, this paper presents an environmental transfer model to calculate derived release limits for airborne and gaseous radioactive effluents at TRIGA-INR, 14 MW Steady State Reactor, in function on INR-Pitesti site. The methodology consists in determination of the principal exposure pathways for different groups of population and dose calculations for each radionuclide. The characterization of radionuclides transfer to environment was made using the compartmental model. The parameter transfer concept was used to describe the distribution of radionuclides between the different compartments. Atmospheric dispersion was very carefully treated, because it is the primary mechanism of the transfer of radionuclides in the environment and it determines all exposure pathways. Calculation of the atmospheric dispersion was made using ORION-II computer code based on the Gaussian plume model which takes account of site's specific climate and relief conditions. Default values recommended by literature were used to calculate some of the parameters when specific site values were not available. After identification of all transfer parameters which characterize the most important exposure pathways, the release rate corresponding to the individual dose rate limit was calculated. This maximum release rate is the derived release limit for each radionuclide and source. In the paper, the derived release limits are calculated for noble gases, radioiodine and other airborne particulate radionuclides, which can be released on the TRIGA-INR reactor stack, and are important to radiation protection. (authors)

  18. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.

  19. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory release criteria for decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolenc, M.R.; Case, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria have been developed for release of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities and land areas following decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). Decommissioning release criteria in the form of dose guidelines were proposed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as early as 1980. These criteria were used on an interim basis for INEL D and D projects. However, dose guidelines alone do not adequately cover the criteria necessary to release sites for unrestricted use. In actual practice, other parameters such as pathways analyses, sampling and instrumentation techniques, and implementation procedures are required to develop the basis for unrestricted release of a site. Thus, a rigorous approach for evaluating these other parameters is needed to develop acceptable D and D release criteria. Because of the complex and sensitive nature of the dose and pathways analyses work, a thorough review by experts in those respective fields was desired. Input and support in preparing or reviewing each part of the criteria development task was solicited from several DOE field offices. Experts were identified and contracted to assist in preparing portions of the release criteria, or to serve on a peer-review committee. Thus, the entire release criteria development task was thoroughly reviewed by recognized experts from each DOE field office, to validate technical content of the INEL site-specific document

  20. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes