WorldWideScience

Sample records for tool edge geometry

  1. Defining the effect of sweep tillage tool cutting edge geometry on tillage forces using 3D discrete element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ucgul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy required for tillage processes accounts for a significant proportion of total energy used in crop production. In many tillage processes decreasing the draft and upward vertical forces is often desired for reduced fuel use and improved penetration, respectively. Recent studies have proved that the discrete element modelling (DEM can effectively be used to model the soil–tool interaction. In his study, Fielke (1994 [1] examined the effect of the various tool cutting edge geometries, namely; cutting edge height, length of underside rub, angle of underside clearance, on draft and vertical forces. In this paper the experimental parameters of Fielke (1994 [1] were simulated using 3D discrete element modelling techniques. In the simulations a hysteretic spring contact model integrated with a linear cohesion model that considers the plastic deformation behaviour of the soil hence provides better vertical force prediction was employed. DEM parameters were determined by comparing the experimental and simulation results of angle of repose and penetration tests. The results of the study showed that the simulation results of the soil-various tool cutting edge geometries agreed well with the experimental results of Fielke (1994 [1]. The modelling was then used to simulate a further range of cutting edge geometries to better define the effect of sweep tool cutting edge geometry parameters on tillage forces. The extra simulations were able to show that by using a sharper cutting edge with zero vertical cutting edge height the draft and upward vertical force were further reduced indicating there is benefit from having a really sharp cutting edge. The extra simulations also confirmed that the interpolated trends for angle of underside clearance as suggested by Fielke (1994 [1] where correct with a linear reduction in draft and upward vertical force for angle of underside clearance between the ranges of −25 and −5°, and between −5 and 0°. The

  2. Investigation of the Effect of Tool Edge Geometry upon Cutting Variables, Tool Wear and Burr Formation Using Finite Element Simulation — A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen, Yung-Chang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-06-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM. In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  3. Investigation of the effect of tool edge geometry upon cutting variables, tool wear and burr formation using finite element simulation - A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen Yungchang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM.In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively

  4. IMPACT OF DEPTH OF CUT ON CHIP FORMATION IN AZ91HP MAGNESIUM ALLOY MILLING WITH TOOLS OF VARYING CUTTING EDGE GEOMETRY

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    Olga Gziut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety of Mg milling processes can be expressed by means of the form and the number of fractions of chips formed during milling. This paper presents the state of the art of magnesium alloys milling technology in the aspect of chip fragmentation. Furthermore, the impact of the depth of cut ap and the rake angle γ on the number of chip fractions was analysed in the study. These were conducted on AZ91HP magnesium cast alloy and milling was performed with carbide tools of varying rake angle values (γ = 5º and γ = 30º. It was observed that less intense chip fragmentation occurs with decreasing depth of cut ap. The number of chip fractions was lower at the tool rake angle of γ = 30º. The test results were formulated as technological recommendations according to the number of generated chip fractions.

  5. Symmetric airfoil geometry effects on leading edge noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James; Zhang, X; Joseph, P

    2013-10-01

    Computational aeroacoustic methods are applied to the modeling of noise due to interactions between gusts and the leading edge of real symmetric airfoils. Single frequency harmonic gusts are interacted with various airfoil geometries at zero angle of attack. The effects of airfoil thickness and leading edge radius on noise are investigated systematically and independently for the first time, at higher frequencies than previously used in computational methods. Increases in both leading edge radius and thickness are found to reduce the predicted noise. This noise reduction effect becomes greater with increasing frequency and Mach number. The dominant noise reduction mechanism for airfoils with real geometry is found to be related to the leading edge stagnation region. It is shown that accurate leading edge noise predictions can be made when assuming an inviscid meanflow, but that it is not valid to assume a uniform meanflow. Analytic flat plate predictions are found to over-predict the noise due to a NACA 0002 airfoil by up to 3 dB at high frequencies. The accuracy of analytic flat plate solutions can be expected to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness, leading edge radius, gust frequency, and Mach number.

  6. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. M.; Sims, N. D.; Turner, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  7. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C M; Sims, N D; Turner, S

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  8. Image edge detection based tool condition monitoring with morphological component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Lin, Xin; Dai, Yiquan; Zhu, Kunpeng

    2017-07-01

    The measurement and monitoring of tool condition are keys to the product precision in the automated manufacturing. To meet the need, this study proposes a novel tool wear monitoring approach based on the monitored image edge detection. Image edge detection has been a fundamental tool to obtain features of images. This approach extracts the tool edge with morphological component analysis. Through the decomposition of original tool wear image, the approach reduces the influence of texture and noise for edge measurement. Based on the target image sparse representation and edge detection, the approach could accurately extract the tool wear edge with continuous and complete contour, and is convenient in charactering tool conditions. Compared to the celebrated algorithms developed in the literature, this approach improves the integrity and connectivity of edges, and the results have shown that it achieves better geometry accuracy and lower error rate in the estimation of tool conditions. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Robotic edge machining using elastic abrasive tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, A. V.; Semyonov, E. N.; Belomestnykh, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes a robotic center designed for automation of finishing operations, and analyzes technological aspects of an elastic abrasive tool applied for edge machining. Based on the experimental studies, practical recommendations on the application of the robotic center for finishing operations were developed.

  10. Effect of cutting edge preparation on tool performance in hard-turning of DF-3 tool steel with ceramic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudinejad, A.; Noordin, M. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation on turning hardened DF-3 tool steel (∼ 58HRC) with PVD-TiN coated mixed ceramic. We focused on the effect of chamfer and honed edge geometry on tool wear, tool life, cutting forces and surface finish of the machined work piece. The effects of the process parameters on performance characteristics were investigated using ANOVA. It was found that longer tool life was recorded with chamfered edge geometry at various cutting conditions. The typical damage observed as flank and crater wear for ceramic tools and abrasive wear was found as the main mechanism.The optimal cutting speed was 155 m/min, with which a tolerable tool life and volume of material removal was obtained for both edges geometry. Finer machined surface was left by chamfered tool with feeds and speeds in the range of 0.125-0.05 mm/rev and 155-210 m/min, respectively; also, cutting forces decrease with increased cutting speed. The obtained consequence of cutting forces shows that tool wear has a considerable effect on cutting forces and greater forces values recorded with honed tools.

  11. Effect of cutting edge preparation on tool performance in hard-turning of DF-3 tool steel with ceramic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudinejad, A.; Noordin, M. Y. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2014-11-15

    This study presents an experimental investigation on turning hardened DF-3 tool steel (∼ 58HRC) with PVD-TiN coated mixed ceramic. We focused on the effect of chamfer and honed edge geometry on tool wear, tool life, cutting forces and surface finish of the machined work piece. The effects of the process parameters on performance characteristics were investigated using ANOVA. It was found that longer tool life was recorded with chamfered edge geometry at various cutting conditions. The typical damage observed as flank and crater wear for ceramic tools and abrasive wear was found as the main mechanism.The optimal cutting speed was 155 m/min, with which a tolerable tool life and volume of material removal was obtained for both edges geometry. Finer machined surface was left by chamfered tool with feeds and speeds in the range of 0.125-0.05 mm/rev and 155-210 m/min, respectively; also, cutting forces decrease with increased cutting speed. The obtained consequence of cutting forces shows that tool wear has a considerable effect on cutting forces and greater forces values recorded with honed tools.

  12. Magnetism of Nanographene-Based Microporous Carbon and Its Applications: Interplay of Edge Geometry and Chemistry Details in the Edge State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. Nanographenes have important edge geometry dependence in their electronic structures. In armchair edges, electron wave interference works to contribute to energetic stability. Meanwhile, zigzag edges possess an edge-localized and spin-polarized nonbonding edge state, which causes electronic, magnetic, and chemical activities. In addition to the geometry dependence, the electronic structures are seriously affected by edge chemistry details. The edge chemistry dependence together with edge geometries on the electronic structures are discussed with samples of randomly networked nanographenes (microporous activated carbon fibers) in pristine state and under high-temperature annealing. In the pristine sample with the edges oxidized in ambient atmospheric conditions, the edge state, which is otherwise unstable, can be stabilized because of the charge transfer from nanographene to terminating oxygen. Nanographene, whose edges consist of a combination of magnetic zigzag edges and nonmagnetic armchair edges, is found to be ferrimagnetic with a nonzero net magnetic moment created under the interplay between a strong intrazigzag-edge ferromagnetic interaction and intermediate-strength interzigzag-edge antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic interaction. At heat-treatment temperatures just below the fusion start (approximately 1500 K), the edge-terminating structure is changed from oxygen-containing groups to hydrogen in the nanographene network. Additionally, hydrogen-terminated zigzag edges, which are present as the majority and chemically unstable, play a triggering role in fusion above 1500 K. The fusion start brings about an insulator-to-metal transition at TI -M˜1500 K . Local fusions taking place percolatively between nanographenes work to expand the π -bond network, eventually resulting in the development of antiferromagnetic short-range order toward spin glass in the

  13. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  14. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance when Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  15. Are quantum spin Hall edge modes more resilient to disorder, sample geometry and inelastic scattering than quantum Hall edge modes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-04-13

    On the surface of 2D topological insulators, 1D quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge modes occur with Dirac-like dispersion. Unlike quantum Hall (QH) edge modes, which occur at high magnetic fields in 2D electron gases, the occurrence of QSH edge modes is due to spin-orbit scattering in the bulk of the material. These QSH edge modes are spin-dependent, and chiral-opposite spins move in opposing directions. Electronic spin has a larger decoherence and relaxation time than charge. In view of this, it is expected that QSH edge modes will be more robust to disorder and inelastic scattering than QH edge modes, which are charge-dependent and spin-unpolarized. However, we notice no such advantage accrues in QSH edge modes when subjected to the same degree of contact disorder and/or inelastic scattering in similar setups as QH edge modes. In fact we observe that QSH edge modes are more susceptible to inelastic scattering and contact disorder than QH edge modes. Furthermore, while a single disordered contact has no effect on QH edge modes, it leads to a finite charge Hall current in the case of QSH edge modes, and thus a vanishing of the pure QSH effect. For more than a single disordered contact while QH states continue to remain immune to disorder, QSH edge modes become more susceptible--the Hall resistance for the QSH effect changes sign with increasing disorder. In the case of many disordered contacts with inelastic scattering included, while quantization of Hall edge modes holds, for QSH edge modes a finite charge Hall current still flows. For QSH edge modes in the inelastic scattering regime we distinguish between two cases: with spin-flip and without spin-flip scattering. Finally, while asymmetry in sample geometry can have a deleterious effect in the QSH case, it has no impact in the QH case.

  16. Are quantum spin Hall edge modes more resilient to disorder, sample geometry and inelastic scattering than quantum Hall edge modes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-01-01

    On the surface of 2D topological insulators, 1D quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge modes occur with Dirac-like dispersion. Unlike quantum Hall (QH) edge modes, which occur at high magnetic fields in 2D electron gases, the occurrence of QSH edge modes is due to spin–orbit scattering in the bulk of the material. These QSH edge modes are spin-dependent, and chiral-opposite spins move in opposing directions. Electronic spin has a larger decoherence and relaxation time than charge. In view of this, it is expected that QSH edge modes will be more robust to disorder and inelastic scattering than QH edge modes, which are charge-dependent and spin-unpolarized. However, we notice no such advantage accrues in QSH edge modes when subjected to the same degree of contact disorder and/or inelastic scattering in similar setups as QH edge modes. In fact we observe that QSH edge modes are more susceptible to inelastic scattering and contact disorder than QH edge modes. Furthermore, while a single disordered contact has no effect on QH edge modes, it leads to a finite charge Hall current in the case of QSH edge modes, and thus a vanishing of the pure QSH effect. For more than a single disordered contact while QH states continue to remain immune to disorder, QSH edge modes become more susceptible—the Hall resistance for the QSH effect changes sign with increasing disorder. In the case of many disordered contacts with inelastic scattering included, while quantization of Hall edge modes holds, for QSH edge modes a finite charge Hall current still flows. For QSH edge modes in the inelastic scattering regime we distinguish between two cases: with spin-flip and without spin-flip scattering. Finally, while asymmetry in sample geometry can have a deleterious effect in the QSH case, it has no impact in the QH case. (paper)

  17. Influence of Wafer Edge Geometry on Removal Rate Profile in Chemical Mechanical Polishing: Wafer Edge Roll-Off and Notch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Akira; Fukuda, Tetsuo; Fukunaga, Akira; Tsujimura, Manabu

    2012-05-01

    In the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, uniform polishing up to near the wafer edge is essential to reduce edge exclusion and improve yield. In this study, we examine the influences of inherent wafer edge geometries, i.e., wafer edge roll-off and notch, on the CMP removal rate profile. We clarify the areas in which the removal rate profile is affected by the wafer edge roll-off and the notch, as well as the intensity of their effects on the removal rate profile. In addition, we propose the use of a small notch to reduce the influence of the wafer notch and present the results of an examination by finite element method (FEM) analysis.

  18. Edge geometry effects on resonance response of electroplated cylindrical Ni/PZT/Ni magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, Vladislav; Xu, Lirong; Volinsky, Alex A.; Qiao, Lijie; Pan, De'an

    2017-08-01

    Trilayer Ni/PZT/Ni cylindrical magnetoelectric (ME) composites were prepared by electrodeposition, a process, which creates sub-millimeter raised edges due to current concentration near sharp points. The ME response in both axial and vertical modes was measured with the edges, with only outer edges removed, and with both outer and inner edges removed. The ME voltage coefficient improved at resonance by 40% and 147% without the edges in the vertical and axial modes, respectively. The observed improvements in three different samples were only present at the ME resonance and no changes were detected outside of the ME resonance. Mechanical quality factor at resonance also improved with no effect on the resonant frequency. Experimentally demonstrated minor geometry changes resulted in substantial ME improvement at resonant frequency. This study demonstrates device performance optimization. The observed effects have been attributed to improved vibrations in terms of decreased damping coefficient and enhanced vibration amplitude at resonance.

  19. Edge geometry effects on resonance response of electroplated cylindrical Ni/PZT/Ni magnetoelectric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Yakubov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trilayer Ni/PZT/Ni cylindrical magnetoelectric (ME composites were prepared by electrodeposition, a process, which creates sub-millimeter raised edges due to current concentration near sharp points. The ME response in both axial and vertical modes was measured with the edges, with only outer edges removed, and with both outer and inner edges removed. The ME voltage coefficient improved at resonance by 40% and 147% without the edges in the vertical and axial modes, respectively. The observed improvements in three different samples were only present at the ME resonance and no changes were detected outside of the ME resonance. Mechanical quality factor at resonance also improved with no effect on the resonant frequency. Experimentally demonstrated minor geometry changes resulted in substantial ME improvement at resonant frequency. This study demonstrates device performance optimization. The observed effects have been attributed to improved vibrations in terms of decreased damping coefficient and enhanced vibration amplitude at resonance.

  20. Edge effect modeling of small tool polishing in planetary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi-xin; Ma, Zhen; Jiang, Bo; Yao, Yong-sheng

    2018-03-01

    As one of the most challenging problems in Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS), the edge effect greatly affects the polishing accuracy and efficiency. CCOS rely on stable tool influence function (TIF), however, at the edge of the mirror surface,with the grinding head out of the mirror ,the contact area and pressure distribution changes, which resulting in a non-linear change of TIF, and leads to tilting or sagging at the edge of the mirror. In order reduce the adverse effects and improve the polishing accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we used the finite element simulation to analyze the pressure distribution at the mirror edge and combined with the improved traditional method to establish a new model. The new method fully considered the non-uniformity of pressure distribution. After modeling the TIFs in different locations, the description and prediction of the edge effects are realized, which has a positive significance on the control and suppression of edge effects

  1. Effect of feed rate, workpiece hardness and cutting edge on subsurface residual stress in the hard turning of bearing steel using chamfer + hone cutting edge geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jiang; Shivpuri, Rajiv; Cheng Xiaomin; Bedekar, Vikram; Matsumoto, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Fukuo; Watkins, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress on the machined surface and the subsurface is known to influence the service quality of a component, such as fatigue life, tribological properties, and distortion. Therefore, it is essential to predict and control it for enhanced performance. In this paper, a newly proposed hardness based flow stress model is incorporated into an elastic-viscoplastic finite element model of hard turning to analyze process variables that affect the residual stress profile of the machined surface. The effects of cutting edge geometry and workpiece hardness as well as cutting conditions, such as feed rate and cutting speed, are investigated. Numerical analysis shows that hone edge plus chamfer cutting edge and aggressive feed rate help to increase both compressive residual stress and penetration depth. These predictions are validated by face turning experiments which were conducted using a chamfer with hone cutting edge for different material hardness and cutting parameters. The residual stresses under the machined surface are measured by X-ray diffraction/electropolishing method. A maximum circumferential residual stress of about 1700 MPa at a depth of 40 μm is reached for hardness of 62 HRc and feed rate of 0.56 mm/rev. This represents a significant increase from previously reported results in literatures. It is found from this analysis that using medium hone radius (0.02-0.05 mm) plus chamfer is good for keeping tool temperature and cutting force low, while obtaining desired residual stress profile

  2. An ultra-precision tool nanoindentation instrument for replication of single point diamond tool cutting edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yindi; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Xu, Malu; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Precision replication of the diamond tool cutting edge is required for non-destructive tool metrology. This paper presents an ultra-precision tool nanoindentation instrument designed and constructed for replication of the cutting edge of a single point diamond tool onto a selected soft metal workpiece by precisely indenting the tool cutting edge into the workpiece surface. The instrument has the ability to control the indentation depth with a nanometric resolution, enabling the replication of tool cutting edges with high precision. The motion of the diamond tool along the indentation direction is controlled by the piezoelectric actuator of a fast tool servo (FTS). An integrated capacitive sensor of the FTS is employed to detect the displacement of the diamond tool. The soft metal workpiece is attached to an aluminum cantilever whose deflection is monitored by another capacitive sensor, referred to as an outside capacitive sensor. The indentation force and depth can be accurately evaluated from the diamond tool displacement, the cantilever deflection and the cantilever spring constant. Experiments were carried out by replicating the cutting edge of a single point diamond tool with a nose radius of 2.0 mm on a copper workpiece surface. The profile of the replicated tool cutting edge was measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The effectiveness of the instrument in precision replication of diamond tool cutting edges is well-verified by the experimental results.

  3. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  4. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2013-01-14

    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement.

  5. The influence of coordination geometry and valency on the K-edge absorption near edge spectra of selected chromium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelouris, A.; Modrow, H.; Pantelouris, M.; Hormes, J.; Reinen, D.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the chromium K-edge are reported for a number of selected chromium compounds of known chemical structure. The spectra were obtained with use of synchrotron radiation available at the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The compounds studied include the tetrahedrally coordinated compounds Ca 2 Ge 0.8 Cr 0.2 O 4 , Ba 2 Ge 0.1 Cr 0.9 O 4 , Sr 2 CrO 4 , Ca 2 (PO 4 ) x (CrO 4 ) 1-x Cl (x=0.25,0.5), Ca 5 (CrO 4 ) 3 Cl, CrO 3 , the octahedrally coordinated compounds Cr(II)-acetate, CrCl 3 , CrF 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , KCr(SO 4 ) 2 · 12H 2 O, CrO 2 and cubic coordinated metallic chromium. In these compounds chromium exhibits a wide range of formal oxidation states (0 to VI). The absorption features in the near edge region are shown to be characteristic of the spatial environment of the absorbing atom. The occurrence of a single pre-edge line easily allows one to distinguish between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the energy position of the absorption edge is found to be very sensitive to the valency of the excited chromium atom. Calculations of the ionisation potential of Cr in different oxidation states using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method (Froese-Fischer) confirm that the ionisation limit shifts to higher energy with increasing Cr valency. More detailed information on the electronic structure of the different compounds is gained by real-space full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code

  6. The influence of coordination geometry and valency on the K-edge absorption near edge spectra of selected chromium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelouris, A.; Modrow, H.; Pantelouris, M.; Hormes, J.; Reinen, D

    2004-05-10

    X-ray absorption spectra at the chromium K-edge are reported for a number of selected chromium compounds of known chemical structure. The spectra were obtained with use of synchrotron radiation available at the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The compounds studied include the tetrahedrally coordinated compounds Ca{sub 2}Ge{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 4}, Ba{sub 2}Ge{sub 0.1}Cr{sub 0.9}O{sub 4}, Sr{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub x}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl (x=0.25,0.5), Ca{sub 5}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl, CrO{sub 3}, the octahedrally coordinated compounds Cr(II)-acetate, CrCl{sub 3}, CrF{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, KCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 12H{sub 2}O, CrO{sub 2} and cubic coordinated metallic chromium. In these compounds chromium exhibits a wide range of formal oxidation states (0 to VI). The absorption features in the near edge region are shown to be characteristic of the spatial environment of the absorbing atom. The occurrence of a single pre-edge line easily allows one to distinguish between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the energy position of the absorption edge is found to be very sensitive to the valency of the excited chromium atom. Calculations of the ionisation potential of Cr in different oxidation states using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method (Froese-Fischer) confirm that the ionisation limit shifts to higher energy with increasing Cr valency. More detailed information on the electronic structure of the different compounds is gained by real-space full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code.

  7. The influence of coordination geometry and valency on the K-edge absorption near edge spectra of selected chromium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelouris, A.; Modrow, H.; Pantelouris, M.; Hormes, J.; Reinen, D.

    2004-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the chromium K-edge are reported for a number of selected chromium compounds of known chemical structure. The spectra were obtained with use of synchrotron radiation available at the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The compounds studied include the tetrahedrally coordinated compounds Ca 2Ge 0.8Cr 0.2O 4, Ba 2Ge 0.1Cr 0.9O 4, Sr 2CrO 4, Ca 2(PO 4) x(CrO 4) 1- xCl ( x=0.25,0.5), Ca 5(CrO 4) 3Cl, CrO 3, the octahedrally coordinated compounds Cr(II)-acetate, CrCl 3, CrF 3, Cr 2O 3, KCr(SO 4) 2 · 12H 2O, CrO 2 and cubic coordinated metallic chromium. In these compounds chromium exhibits a wide range of formal oxidation states (0 to VI). The absorption features in the near edge region are shown to be characteristic of the spatial environment of the absorbing atom. The occurrence of a single pre-edge line easily allows one to distinguish between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the energy position of the absorption edge is found to be very sensitive to the valency of the excited chromium atom. Calculations of the ionisation potential of Cr in different oxidation states using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method (Froese-Fischer) confirm that the ionisation limit shifts to higher energy with increasing Cr valency. More detailed information on the electronic structure of the different compounds is gained by real-space full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code.

  8. Effect of leading-edge geometry on boundary-layer receptivity to freestream sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nay; Reed, Helen L.; Saric, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    The receptivity to freestream sound of the laminar boundary layer over a semi-infinite flat plate with an elliptic leading edge is simulated numerically. The incompressible flow past the flat plate is computed by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. A finite-difference method which is second-order accurate in space and time is used. Spatial and temporal developments of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave in the boundary layer, due to small-amplitude time-harmonic oscillations of the freestream velocity that closely simulate a sound wave travelling parallel to the plate, are observed. The effect of leading-edge curvature is studied by varying the aspect ratio of the ellipse. The boundary layer over the flat plate with a sharper leading edge is found to be less receptive. The relative contribution of the discontinuity in curvature at the ellipse-flat-plate juncture to receptivity is investigated by smoothing the juncture with a polynomial. Continuous curvature leads to less receptivity. A new geometry of the leading edge, a modified super ellipse, which provides continuous curvature at the juncture with the flat plate, is used to study the effect of continuous curvature and inherent pressure gradient on receptivity.

  9. New edge magnetoplasmon for a two-dimensional electron gas in a ring geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proetto, C.R.

    1992-09-01

    The dynamical response of a classical two-dimensional electron gas confined in a ring geometry under a perpendicular magnetic field is analysed. Within the hydrodynamical approach and in the strong magnetic field limit, a new set of antidot edge magnetoplasmons is obtained, corresponding to density oscillations circulating along the inner boundary of the ring and whose frequency increases with magnetic field. The associated self-induced distribution of densities and currents are presented, together with an analysis of the size dependence of these perimeter waves. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  10. Interoperable mesh and geometry tools for advanced petascale simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diachin, L; Bauer, A; Fix, B; Kraftcheck, J; Jansen, K; Luo, X; Miller, M; Ollivier-Gooch, C; Shephard, M S; Tautges, T; Trease, H

    2007-01-01

    SciDAC applications have a demonstrated need for advanced software tools to manage the complexities associated with sophisticated geometry, mesh, and field manipulation tasks, particularly as computer architectures move toward the petascale. The Center for Interoperable Technologies for Advanced Petascale Simulations (ITAPS) will deliver interoperable and interchangeable mesh, geometry, and field manipulation services that are of direct use to SciDAC applications. The premise of our technology development goal is to provide such services as libraries that can be used with minimal intrusion into application codes. To develop these technologies, we focus on defining a common data model and data-structure neutral interfaces that unify a number of different services such as mesh generation and improvement, front tracking, adaptive mesh refinement, shape optimization, and solution transfer operations. We highlight the use of several ITAPS services in SciDAC applications

  11. Analysis and Prediction of Micromilling Stability with Variable Tool Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Cao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Micromilling can fabricate miniaturized components using micro-end mill at high rotational speeds. The analysis of machining stability in micromilling plays an important role in characterizing the cutting process, estimating the tool life, and optimizing the process. A numerical analysis and experimental method are presented to investigate the chatter stability in micro-end milling process with variable milling tool geometry. The schematic model of micromilling process is constructed and the calculation formula to predict cutting force and displacements is derived. This is followed by a detailed numerical analysis on micromilling forces between helical ball and square end mills through time domain and frequency domain method and the results are compared. Furthermore, a detailed time domain simulation for micro end milling with straight teeth and helical teeth end mill is conducted based on the machine-tool system frequency response function obtained through modal experiment. The forces and displacements are predicted and the simulation result between variable cutter geometry is deeply compared. The simulation results have important significance for the actual milling process.

  12. Analysis of the influence of the cutting edge geometry on parameters of the perforation process for conveyor and transmission belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtkowiak Dominik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perforated belts, which are used in vacuum conveyor belts, can have significantly different mechanical properties like strength and elasticity due to a variety of used materials and can have different thickness from very thin (0,7 mm to thick belts (6 mm. In order to design a complex machine for mechanical perforation, which can perforate whole range of belts, it is necessary to research the influence of the cutting edge geometry on the parameters of the perforation process. Three most important parameters, which describe the perforation process are the cutting force, the velocity and the temperature of the piercing punch. The results presented in this paper consider two different types of punching (a piercing punch with the punching die or with the reducer plate and different cutting edge directions, angles, diameters and material properties. Test were made for different groups of composites belts – with polyurethane and polyester fabric, polyamide core or aramid-fibre reinforced polymers. The main goal of this research is to specify effective tools and parameters of the perforation process for each group of composites belts.

  13. Intermittent transport in edge plasma with a 3-D magnetic geometry in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Masuzaki, S.; Ohno, N.; Morisaki, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Blobby plasma transport is a universally observed phenomenon in magnetic confinement devices, and it is considered to be closely related to edge plasma physics. We have investigated such an intermittent event observed inside the divertor region of the Large Helical Device by using a fast-scanning Langmuir probe with two electrodes. Ion saturation current fluctuations showed negative spikes in the divertor leg and positive spikes in the private region. Further, the time delay between the two fluctuations followed a unique trajectory in the positive-skewness region. We found common as well as different fluctuation characteristics between the LHD and tokamaks. We discuss the analysis results in relation to the blob-generation and propagation behaviors in the three-dimensional magnetic geometry around the divertor leg. In addition, we quantitatively estimated the blob propagation velocity and size based on a theoretical assumption

  14. Slab2 - Updated Subduction Zone Geometries and Modeling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G.; Hayes, G. P.; Portner, D. E.; Furtney, M.; Flamme, H. E.; Hearne, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey database of global subduction zone geometries (Slab1.0), is a highly utilized dataset that has been applied to a wide range of geophysical problems. In 2017, these models have been improved and expanded upon as part of the Slab2 modeling effort. With a new data driven approach that can be applied to a broader range of tectonic settings and geophysical data sets, we have generated a model set that will serve as a more comprehensive, reliable, and reproducible resource for three-dimensional slab geometries at all of the world's convergent margins. The newly developed framework of Slab2 is guided by: (1) a large integrated dataset, consisting of a variety of geophysical sources (e.g., earthquake hypocenters, moment tensors, active-source seismic survey images of the shallow slab, tomography models, receiver functions, bathymetry, trench ages, and sediment thickness information); (2) a dynamic filtering scheme aimed at constraining incorporated seismicity to only slab related events; (3) a 3-D data interpolation approach which captures both high resolution shallow geometries and instances of slab rollback and overlap at depth; and (4) an algorithm which incorporates uncertainties of contributing datasets to identify the most probable surface depth over the extent of each subduction zone. Further layers will also be added to the base geometry dataset, such as historic moment release, earthquake tectonic providence, and interface coupling. Along with access to several queryable data formats, all components have been wrapped into an open source library in Python, such that suites of updated models can be released as further data becomes available. This presentation will discuss the extent of Slab2 development, as well as the current availability of the model and modeling tools.

  15. Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Sossinsky, A B

    2012-01-01

    The book is an innovative modern exposition of geometry, or rather, of geometries; it is the first textbook in which Felix Klein's Erlangen Program (the action of transformation groups) is systematically used as the basis for defining various geometries. The course of study presented is dedicated to the proposition that all geometries are created equal--although some, of course, remain more equal than others. The author concentrates on several of the more distinguished and beautiful ones, which include what he terms "toy geometries", the geometries of Platonic bodies, discrete geometries, and classical continuous geometries. The text is based on first-year semester course lectures delivered at the Independent University of Moscow in 2003 and 2006. It is by no means a formal algebraic or analytic treatment of geometric topics, but rather, a highly visual exposition containing upwards of 200 illustrations. The reader is expected to possess a familiarity with elementary Euclidean geometry, albeit those lacking t...

  16. Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In the previous article we looked at the origins of synthetic and analytic geometry. More practical minded people, the builders and navigators, were studying two other aspects of geometry- trigonometry and integral calculus. These are actually ...

  17. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on the strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOMCILO STEVANOVIC; MILAN GORDIC; DANIELA SEKULIC; ISIDOR DJORDJEVIC

    2006-01-01

    The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry: cross-ply, quasi-isotropic and angle-ply laminates with additional 0º and 90º ply was studied. Coupons with two widths of laminates with an inverse stacking sequence were tested in static tensile tests. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength was studied, by comparing the values of the tensile strength of laminate coupons of the same width with an inverse stacking sequen...

  18. Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Prasolov, V V

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a systematic introduction to various geometries, including Euclidean, affine, projective, spherical, and hyperbolic geometries. Also included is a chapter on infinite-dimensional generalizations of Euclidean and affine geometries. A uniform approach to different geometries, based on Klein's Erlangen Program is suggested, and similarities of various phenomena in all geometries are traced. An important notion of duality of geometric objects is highlighted throughout the book. The authors also include a detailed presentation of the theory of conics and quadrics, including the theory of conics for non-Euclidean geometries. The book contains many beautiful geometric facts and has plenty of problems, most of them with solutions, which nicely supplement the main text. With more than 150 figures illustrating the arguments, the book can be recommended as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in geometry.

  19. Separately contacted edge states: A new spectroscopic tool for the investigation of the quantum Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wuertz, A.; Wildfeuer, R.; Lorke, A.; Deviatov, E. V.; Dolgopolov, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Using an innovative combination of a quasi-Corbino sample geometry and the cross-gate technique, we have developed a method that enables us to separately contact single edge channels in the quantum Hall regime and investigate equilibration among them. Performing 4-point resistance measurements, we directly obtain information on the energetic and geometric structure of the edge region and the equilibration-length for current transport across the Landau- as well as the spin-gap. Based on an alm...

  20. Grazing exit versus grazing incidence geometry for x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the presented study the grazing exit x-ray fluorescence was tested for its applicability to x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic in droplet samples. The experimental results have been compared to the findings of former analyses of the same samples using a grazing incidence (GI) setup to compare the performance of both geometries. Furthermore, the investigations were accomplished to gain a better understanding of the so called self-absorption effect, which was observed and investigated in previous studies using a GI geometry. It was suggested that a normal incidence-grazing-exit geometry would not suffer from self-absorption effects in x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis due to the minimized path length of the incident beam through the sample. The results proved this assumption and in turn confirmed the occurrence of the self-absorption effect for GI geometry. Due to its lower sensitivity it is difficult to apply the GE geometry to XAFS analysis of trace amounts (few nanograms) of samples but the technique is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of concentrated samples

  1. Geometric calculus: a new computational tool for Riemannian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussiaux, A.; Tombal, P.

    1988-01-01

    We compare geometric calculus applied to Riemannian geometry with Cartan's exterior calculus method. The correspondence between the two methods is clearly established. The results obtained by a package written in an algebraic language and doing general manipulations on multivectors are compared. We see that the geometric calculus is as powerful as exterior calculus

  2. Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pedoe, Dan

    1988-01-01

    ""A lucid and masterly survey."" - Mathematics Gazette Professor Pedoe is widely known as a fine teacher and a fine geometer. His abilities in both areas are clearly evident in this self-contained, well-written, and lucid introduction to the scope and methods of elementary geometry. It covers the geometry usually included in undergraduate courses in mathematics, except for the theory of convex sets. Based on a course given by the author for several years at the University of Minnesota, the main purpose of the book is to increase geometrical, and therefore mathematical, understanding and to he

  3. Wear of Cutting Tool with Excel Geometry in Turning Process of Hardened Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžiová Michaela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with hard turning using a cutting tool with Xcel geometry. This is one of the new geometries, and there is not any information about Xcel wear in comparison to the conventional geometry. It is already known from cutting tools producers that using the Xcel geometry leads to higher quality of machined surface, perticularly surface roughness. It is possible to achieve more than 4 times lower Ra and Rz values after turning than after using conventional geometry with radius. The workpiece material was 100Cr6 hardened steel with hardness of 60 ± 1 HRC. The machine used for the experiment was a lathe with counter spindle DMG CTX alpha 500, which is located in the Centre of Excellence of 5–axis Machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The cutting tools made by CBN were obtained from Sandvik COROMANT Company.

  4. Mathematical support for automated geometry analysis of lathe machining of oblique peakless round-nose tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu; Podgornyh, O. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Filippova, E. O.

    2017-01-01

    Automatization of engineering processes requires developing relevant mathematical support and a computer software. Analysis of metal cutting kinematics and tool geometry is a necessary key task at the preproduction stage. This paper is focused on developing a procedure for determining the geometry of oblique peakless round-nose tool lathe machining with the use of vector/matrix transformations. Such an approach allows integration into modern mathematical software packages in distinction to the traditional analytic description. Such an advantage is very promising for developing automated control of the preproduction process. A kinematic criterion for the applicable tool geometry has been developed from the results of this study. The effect of tool blade inclination and curvature on the geometry-dependent process parameters was evaluated.

  5. Effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot welding of polypropylene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Bilici

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tool geometry and properties on friction stir spot welding properties of polypropylene sheets were studied. Four different tool pin geometries, with varying pin angles, pin lengths, shoulder diameters and shoulder angles were used for friction stir spot welding. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Lap-shear tensile tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments the effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot weld formation and weld strength were determined. The optimum tool geometry for 4 mm thick polypropylene sheets were determined. The tapered cylindrical pin gave the biggest and the straight cylindrical pin gave the lowest lap-shear fracture load.

  6. Modeling of edge effect in subaperture tool influence functions of computer controlled optical surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Songlin; Zhang, Xiangchao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2016-12-20

    Computer controlled optical surfacing requires an accurate tool influence function (TIF) for reliable path planning and deterministic fabrication. Near the edge of the workpieces, the TIF has a nonlinear removal behavior, which will cause a severe edge-roll phenomenon. In the present paper, a new edge pressure model is developed based on the finite element analysis results. The model is represented as the product of a basic pressure function and a correcting function. The basic pressure distribution is calculated according to the surface shape of the polishing pad, and the correcting function is used to compensate the errors caused by the edge effect. Practical experimental results demonstrate that the new model can accurately predict the edge TIFs with different overhang ratios. The relative error of the new edge model can be reduced to 15%.

  7. Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)

  8. Wear of Cutting Tool with Excel Geometry in Turning Process of Hardened Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžiová, Michaela

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with hard turning using a cutting tool with Xcel geometry. This is one of the new geometries, and there is not any information about Xcel wear in comparison to the conventional geometry. It is already known from cutting tools producers that using the Xcel geometry leads to higher quality of machined surface, perticularly surface roughness. It is possible to achieve more than 4 times lower Ra and Rz values after turning than after using conventional geometry with radius. The workpiece material was 100Cr6 hardened steel with hardness of 60 ± 1 HRC. The machine used for the experiment was a lathe with counter spindle DMG CTX alpha 500, which is located in the Centre of Excellence of 5-axis Machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The cutting tools made by CBN were obtained from Sandvik COROMANT Company. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cutting tool wear in hard turning process by the Xcel cutting tool geometry.

  9. The application of springback compensation to the CAD geometries of forming tools: Milestone 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingbeek, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    For car body parts, generally a surface modeling CAD system is used. The geometry of the tools that are used for forming the parts is based directly on this description. To compensate for springback after forming, the tools have to be modified. This turns out to be a complicated and time consuming

  10. Suppression of excess noise in Transition-Edge Sensors using magnetic field and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Doriese, W.B.; Hilton, G.C.; Beall, J.A.; Deiker, S.; Irwin, K.D.; Reintsema, C.D.; Vale, L.R.; Xu, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We report recent progress at NIST on Mo/Cu Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs). While the signal-band noise of our sensors agrees with theory, we observe excess high-frequency noise. We describe this noise and demonstrate that it can be strongly suppressed by a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the sensor. Both the excess noise and α=(T/R)(dR/dT) depend strongly on field so our results show that accurate comparisons between devices are only possible when the field is well known or constant. We also present results showing the noise performance of TES designs incorporating parallel and perpendicular normal metal bars, an array of normal metal islands, and in wedge-shaped devices. We demonstrate significant reduction of high-frequency noise with the perpendicular bar devices at the cost of reduced α. Both the bars and the magnetic field are useful noise reduction techniques for bolometers

  11. Kinect, a Novel Cutting Edge Tool in Pavement Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, A.; Firoozi Yeganeh, S.; Golroo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  12. KINECT, A NOVEL CUTTING EDGE TOOL IN PAVEMENT DATA COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoudzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  13. Effect of jet nozzle geometry on flow and heat transfer performance of vortex cooling for gas turbine blade leading edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Changhe; Li, Liang; Wu, Xin; Feng, Zhenping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We establish a suitable vortex chamber model for gas turbine blade leading edge. • Mechanism of vortex cooling is further discussed and presented. • Influences of jet nozzle geometry on vortex cooling characteristics are researched. • This paper focuses on assessment of flow field and thermal performance for different jet nozzle aspect ratio and area. - Abstract: In this paper, 3D viscous steady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations are utilized to investigate the influence of jet nozzle geometry on flow and thermal behavior of vortex cooling for gas turbine blades. Comparison between calculation with different turbulence models and the experimental data is conducted, and results show that the standard k-ω model provides the best accuracy. The grid independence analysis is performed to obtain the proper mesh number. First, the mechanism of vortex cooling is further discussed, and the pronounced impact of kinetic turbulence intensity, thin thermal boundary layer, violent radial convection and complex vortices on enhanced heat transfer performance is confirmed. Then, seven jet nozzle aspect ratios and seven jet nozzle to chamber cross section area ratios are selected to research the flow field and thermal characteristics of vortex cooling focusing on the streamline, static pressure ratio, total pressure loss ratio and Nusselt number. It is presented that the jet nozzle aspect ratio and jet nozzle to chamber cross section area ratio both impose a significant effect on the flow and thermal parameters. The averaged Nusselt number decreases at first and then increases with the increasing jet nozzle aspect ratio, reaching highest when aspect ratio equals to 1. The effect of area ratio on averaged Nusselt number is complex. Finally, the heat transfer results in this study are compared with other previous works. Results indicate that good agreement with previous data is achieved, and the enhanced thermal behavior may be acquired by

  14. The Influence of Tool Geometry towards Cutting Performance in Machining Aluminium 7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafik Jumali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace industries often use Computer Numerical Control (CNC machining in manufacturing aerospace parts. Aluminium 7075 is the most common material used as aircraft components. This research aims to produce end mill with optimum geometry in terms of the helix angle, primary radial relief angle and secondary relief angle. End mills with different geometry parameters are tested on Aluminium 7075 and data on surface roughness and tool wear were collected. The results were then analysed to determine which parameters brought the optimum result with regards to surface roughness and tool wear.

  15. Effect of finite edge radius on ductile fracture ahead of the cutting tool edge in micro-cutting of Al2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbiah, Sathyan; Melkote, Shreyes N.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of ductile fracture leading to material separation has been reported recently in ductile metal cutting [S. Subbiah, S.N. Melkote, ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 28(3) (2006)]. This paper investigates the effect of finite edge radius on such ductile fracture. The basic question of whether such ductile fracture occurs in the presence of a finite edge radius is explored by performing a series of experiments with inserts of different edge radii at various uncut chip thickness values ranging from 15 to 105 μm. Chip-roots are obtained in these experiments using a quick-stop device and examined in a scanning electron microscope. Clear evidence of material separation is seen at the interface zone between the chip and machined surface even when the edge radius is large compared to the uncut chip thickness. Failure is seen to occur at the upper, middle, and/or the lower edges of the interface zone. Based on these observations, a hypothesis is presented for the events leading to the occurrence of this failure when cutting with an edge radius tool. Finite element simulations are performed to study the nature of stress state ahead of the tool edge with and without edge radius. Hydrostatic stress is seen to be tensile in front of the tool and hence favors the occurrence of ductile fracture leading to material separation. The stress components are, however lower than those seen with a sharp tool

  16. Simple Design Tool for Development of Well Insulated Window Frames and Optimization of the Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    in order to approach an optimal solution. The program was also used to conduct an optimization process of the frame geometry. A large number of various window frame designs were created and evaluated, based on their insulation properties. The paper presents the investigation process and some of the best......This paper describes a design tool created with the purpose of designing highly insulated window frames. The design tool is based on a parametric model of the frame geometry, where various parameters describing the frame can be easily changed by the user. Based on this input, geometry of the frame...... is generated by the program and is used by the finite element simulator to calculate the thermal performance of the frame (the U value). After the initial design is evaluated, the user can quickly modify chosen parameters and generate a new design. This process can then be repeated in multiple iterations...

  17. KENO3D Visualization Tool for KENO V.a and KENO-VI Geometry Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwedel, J.E.; Bowman, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Criticality safety analyses often require detailed modeling of complex geometries. Effective visualization tools can enhance checking the accuracy of these models. This report describes the KENO3D visualization tool developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide visualization of KENO V.a and KENO-VI criticality safety models. The development of KENO3D is part of the current efforts to enhance the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations) computer software system

  18. Computational study of the Risoe-B1-18 airfoil with a hinged flap providing variable trailing edge geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troldborg, N.

    2005-03-01

    A comprehensive computational study, in both steady and unsteady flow conditions, has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the Risoe-B1-18 airfoil equipped with variable trailing edge geometry as produced by a hinged flap. The function of such flaps should be to decrease fatigue-inducing oscillations on the blades. The computations were conducted using a 2D incompressible RANS solver with a k-w turbulence model under the assumption of a fully developed turbulent flow. The investigations were conducted at a Reynolds number of Re = 1.6 - 10{sup 6}. Calculations conducted on the baseline airfoil showed excellent agreement with measurements on the same airfoil with the same specified conditions. Furthermore, a more widespread comparison with an advanced potential theory code is presented. The influence of various key parameters, such as flap shape, flap size and oscillating frequencies, was investigated so that an optimum design can be suggested for application with wind turbine blades. It is concluded that a moderately curved flap with flap chord to airfoil curve ratio between 0.05 and 0.10 would be an optimum choice. (author)

  19. Spacetime edge geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, C.T.J.

    1977-02-01

    This is the second part of a monograph intended to be a mathematically rigorous account of the current position of the bundle-completion of spacetime in general relativity; some new material is included

  20. Mammographic x-ray unit kilovoltage test tool based on k-edge absorption effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Mary E; Trueblood, Jon H; Hertel, Nolan E; David, George

    2002-09-01

    A simple tool to determine the peak kilovoltage (kVp) of a mammographic x-ray unit has been designed. Tool design is based on comparing the effect of k-edge discontinuity of the attenuation coefficient for a series of element filters. Compatibility with the mammography accreditation phantom (MAP) to obtain a single quality control film is a second design objective. When the attenuation of a series of sequential elements is studied simultaneously, differences in the absorption characteristics due to the k-edge discontinuities are more evident. Specifically, when the incident photon energy is higher than the k-edge energy of a number of the elements and lower than the remainder, an inflection may be seen in the resulting attenuation data. The maximum energy of the incident photon spectra may be determined based on this inflection point for a series of element filters. Monte Carlo photon transport analysis was used to estimate the photon transmission probabilities for each of the sequential k-edge filter elements. The photon transmission corresponds directly to optical density recorded on mammographic x-ray film. To observe the inflection, the element filters chosen must have k-edge energies that span a range greater than the expected range of the end point energies to be determined. For the design, incident x-ray spectra ranging from 25 to 40 kVp were assumed to be from a molybdenum target. Over this range, the k-edge energy changes by approximately 1.5 keV between sequential elements. For this design 21 elements spanning an energy range from 20 to 50 keV were chosen. Optimum filter element thicknesses were calculated to maximize attenuation differences at the k-edge while maintaining optical densities between 0.10 and 3.00. Calculated relative transmission data show that the kVp could be determined to within +/-1 kV. To obtain experimental data, a phantom was constructed containing 21 different elements placed in an acrylic holder. MAP images were used to determine

  1. Mammographic x-ray unit kilovoltage test tool based on k-edge absorption effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, Mary E.; Trueblood, Jon H.; Hertel, Nolan E.; David, George

    2002-01-01

    A simple tool to determine the peak kilovoltage (kVp) of a mammographic x-ray unit has been designed. Tool design is based on comparing the effect of k-edge discontinuity of the attenuation coefficient for a series of element filters. Compatibility with the mammography accreditation phantom (MAP) to obtain a single quality control film is a second design objective. When the attenuation of a series of sequential elements is studied simultaneously, differences in the absorption characteristics due to the k-edge discontinuities are more evident. Specifically, when the incident photon energy is higher than the k-edge energy of a number of the elements and lower than the remainder, an inflection may be seen in the resulting attenuation data. The maximum energy of the incident photon spectra may be determined based on this inflection point for a series of element filters. Monte Carlo photon transport analysis was used to estimate the photon transmission probabilities for each of the sequential k-edge filter elements. The photon transmission corresponds directly to optical density recorded on mammographic x-ray film. To observe the inflection, the element filters chosen must have k-edge energies that span a range greater than the expected range of the end point energies to be determined. For the design, incident x-ray spectra ranging from 25 to 40 kVp were assumed to be from a molybdenum target. Over this range, the k-edge energy changes by approximately 1.5 keV between sequential elements. For this design 21 elements spanning an energy range from 20 to 50 keV were chosen. Optimum filter element thicknesses were calculated to maximize attenuation differences at the k-edge while maintaining optical densities between 0.10 and 3.00. Calculated relative transmission data show that the kVp could be determined to within ±1 kV. To obtain experimental data, a phantom was constructed containing 21 different elements placed in an acrylic holder. MAP images were used to determine

  2. KENO3D, Visualisation Tool for KENO V.A and KENO-VI Geometry Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The KENO3D Visualization Tool for KENO Geometry Models is a powerful state-of-the-art visualization tool that enables KENO V.a users and KENO-VI to interactively display their three-dimensional geometry models. The KENO3D interactive options include: - Shaded or wire-frame images ; - Standard views such as top view, side view, front view, and isometric(3-D) view; - Rotating the model ; - Zooming in on selected locations ; - Selecting parts of the model to display ; - Editing colors and displaying legends ; - Displaying properties of any unit in the model ; - Creating cut-away views ; - Removing units from the model; - Printing image or saving image to a common graphics formats. KENO3D was developed for use by criticality safety specialists that use the KENO three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code. KENO V.a and KENO-VI are part of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations) computer software system developed at Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. 2 - Methods: KENO3D reads CSAS, KENO V.a, or KENO-VI input files. It attempts to verify that the KENO geometry input is 'legal', i.e., it conforms to the code input guidelines. KENO3D prints a warning message for illegal geometry input, and if possible, it displays the illegal KENO geometry to facilitate debugging of the input. Problems with more than 300,000 KENO V.a bodies have been successfully tested and displayed. KENO3D has the look and feel of a typical PC Windows application. Toolbar buttons are included for all major menu options. There is a setup dialog that allows the user to specify toolbars that should be displayed

  3. Analyzing the effect of tool edge radius on cutting temperature in micro-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y. C.; Yang, K.; Zheng, K. N.; Bai, Q. S.; Chen, W. Q.; Sun, G. Y.

    2010-10-01

    Cutting heat is one of the important physical subjects in the cutting process. Cutting heat together with cutting temperature produced by the cutting process will directly have effects on the tool wear and the life as well as on the workpiece processing precision and surface quality. The feature size of the workpiece is usually several microns. Thus, the tiny changes of cutting temperature will affect the workpiece on the surface quality and accuracy. Therefore, cutting heat and temperature generated in micro-milling will have significantly different effect than the one in the traditional tools cutting. In this paper, a two-dimensional coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model is adopted to determine thermal fields and cutting temperature during the Micro-milling process, by using software Deform-2D. The effect of tool edge radius on effective stress, effective strain, velocity field and cutting temperature distribution in micro-milling of aluminum alloy Al2024-T6 were investigated and analyzed. Also, the transient cutting temperature distribution was simulated dynamically. The simulation results show that the cutting temperature in Micro-milling is lower than those occurring in conventional milling processes due to the small loads and low cutting velocity. With increase of tool edge radius, the maximum temperature region gradually occurs on the contact region between finished surfaced and flank face of micro-cutter, instead of the rake face or the corner of micro-cutter. And this phenomenon shows an obvious size effect.

  4. CasimirSim - A Tool to Compute Casimir Polder Forces for Nontrivial 3D Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedmik, Rene; Tajmar, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The so-called Casimir effect is one of the most interesting macro-quantum effects. Being negligible on the macro-scale it becomes a governing factor below structure sizes of 1 μm where it accounts for typically 100 kN m-2. The force does not depend on gravity, or electric charge but solely on the materials properties, and geometrical shape. This makes the effect a strong candidate for micro(nano)-mechanical devices M(N)EMS. Despite a long history of research the theory lacks a uniform description valid for arbitrary geometries which retards technical application. We present an advanced state-of-the-art numerical tool overcoming all the usual geometrical restrictions, capable of calculating arbitrary 3D geometries by utilizing the Casimir Polder approximation for the Casimir force

  5. Available Tools and Challenges Classifying Cutting-Edge and Historical Astronomical Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerstrom, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The STScI Library assists the Science Policies Division in evaluating and choosing scientific keywords and categories for proposals for the Hubble Space Telescope mission and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mission. In addition we are often faced with the question “what is the shape of the astronomical literature?” However, subject classification in astronomy in recent times has not been cultivated. This talk will address the available tools and challenges of classifying cutting-edge as well as historical astronomical documents. In at the process, we will give an overview of current and upcoming practices of subject classification in astronomy.

  6. Tool geometry and damage mechanisms influencing CNC turning efficiency of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sangeeth; Hamid, Darulihsan Abdul; Yazid, M. Z. A.; Nasuha, Nurdiyanah; Ain, Siti Nurul

    2017-12-01

    Ti6Al4V or Grade 5 titanium alloy is widely used in the aerospace, medical, automotive and fabrication industries, due to its distinctive combination of mechanical and physical properties. Ti6Al4V has always been perverse during its machining, strangely due to the same mix of properties mentioned earlier. Ti6Al4V machining has resulted in shorter cutting tool life which has led to objectionable surface integrity and rapid failure of the parts machined. However, the proven functional relevance of this material has prompted extensive research in the optimization of machine parameters and cutting tool characteristics. Cutting tool geometry plays a vital role in ensuring dimensional and geometric accuracy in machined parts. In this study, an experimental investigation is actualized to optimize the nose radius and relief angles of the cutting tools and their interaction to different levels of machining parameters. Low elastic modulus and thermal conductivity of Ti6Al4V contribute to the rapid tool damage. The impact of these properties over the tool tips damage is studied. An experimental design approach is utilized in the CNC turning process of Ti6Al4V to statistically analyze and propose optimum levels of input parameters to lengthen the tool life and enhance surface characteristics of the machined parts. A greater tool nose radius with a straight flank, combined with low feed rates have resulted in a desirable surface integrity. The presence of relief angle has proven to aggravate tool damage and also dimensional instability in the CNC turning of Ti6Al4V.

  7. KENO3D visualization tool for KENO V.a geometry models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Horwedel, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluations (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. SCALE includes the well-known KENO V.a three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code. Criticality safety analysis often require detailed modeling of complex geometries. Checking the accuracy of these models can be enhanced by effective visualization tools. To address this need, ORNL has recently developed a powerful state-of-the-art visualization tool called KENO3D that enables KENO V.a users to interactively display their three-dimensional geometry models. The interactive options include the following: (1) having shaded or wireframe images; (2) showing standard views, such as top view, side view, front view, and isometric three-dimensional view; (3) rotating the model; (4) zooming in on selected locations; (5) selecting parts of the model to display; (6) editing colors and displaying legends; (7) displaying properties of any unit in the model; (8) creating cutaway views; (9) removing units from the model; and (10) printing image or saving image to common graphics formats

  8. Identification of the iron oxidation state and coordination geometry in iron oxide- and zeolite-based catalysts using pre-edge XAS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubnov, Alexey; Lichtenberg, Henning; Mangold, Stefan; Grunwaldt, Jan Dierk

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of the oxidation state and coordination geometry using pre-edge analysis is attractive for heterogeneous catalysis and materials science, especially for in situ and time-resolved studies or highly diluted systems. In the present study, focus is laid on iron-based catalysts. First a systematic investigation of the pre-edge region of the Fe K-edge using staurolite, FePO4, FeO and α-Fe2O3 as reference compounds for tetrahedral Fe(2+), tetrahedral Fe(3+), octahedral Fe(2+) and octahedral Fe(3+), respectively, is reported. In particular, high-resolution and conventional X-ray absorption spectra are compared, considering that in heterogeneous catalysis and material science a compromise between high-quality spectroscopic data acquisition and simultaneous analysis of functional properties is required. Results, which were obtained from reference spectra acquired with different resolution and quality, demonstrate that this analysis is also applicable to conventionally recorded pre-edge data. For this purpose, subtraction of the edge onset is preferentially carried out using an arctangent and a first-degree polynomial, independent of the resolution and quality of the data. For both standard and high-resolution data, multiplet analysis of pre-edge features has limitations due to weak transitions that cannot be identified. On the other hand, an arbitrary empirical peak fitting assists the analysis in that non-local transitions can be isolated. The analysis of the oxidation state and coordination geometry of the Fe sites using a variogram-based method is shown to be effective for standard-resolution data and leads to the same results as for high-resolution spectra. This method, validated by analysing spectra of reference compounds and their well defined mixtures, is finally applied to track structural changes in a 1% Fe/Al2O3 and a 0.5% Fe/BEA zeolite catalyst during reduction in 5% H2/He. The results, hardly accessible by other techniques, show that Fe(3+) is

  9. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  10. Influence of the worn tool affected by built-up edge (BUE) on micro end-milling process performance: A 3D finite element modeling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido; Annoni, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    on the process performance is investigated by comparing the predicted 3d chip flow shape, burr formation and cutting forces with experiments conducted on an ultra-high precision micro milling center. Simulations indicate that BUE has significant impact on the chip shape and chip load for different teeth......Micro milling process has been utilized for several decades due to the flexibility of the process in producing complex components. The small size of the process makes the comprehension of cutting phenomenon details more difficult. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach...... for the micro end-milling process of Aluminum material (Al6082-T6). 3D FEM simulations are carried out in full slot micro end-milling and contour up milling. The model first implements the actual tool geometry and then the effect of typical built-up edge (BUE) on the milling tool. The influence of BUE...

  11. Tools for spectral data analysis of arbitrary emitters in edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, Y.; Genesio, P.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R.; Felts, B.; Capes, H.; Guirlet, R.; Lotte, P.; Lowry, C.

    2003-01-01

    A line shape code including Stark, Zeeman and Doppler effects has been upgraded to include atomic fine structure effects and the motional Stark effect (MST). Genetic algorithms provide an efficient and robust tool for automated analysis of edge plasma line shapes. Such an algorithm has been used to fit Doppler-broadened Zeeman D α /H α spectra observed in Tore-Supra. Spectra were analyzed from 2 different machine configurations, corresponding to: 1) recycling from the ergodic divertor (ED), with lines of sight tangential to the magnetic field; 2) recycling at the toroidal pump limiter (TPL) with vertical lines of sight perpendicular to the magnetic field. Preliminary results indicate that the plasma above the TPL contains a larger fraction of warm particles than the ED plasma. (A.C.)

  12. Damage of target edges in brush-like geometry in the course of ELM-like plasma pulses in QSPA Kh-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlaj, V. A.; Garkusha, I. E.; Aksenov, N. N.; Bazylev, B.; Byrka, O. V.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Landman, I.; Herashchenko, S. S.; Staltsov, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    Castellated edges of macro-brush armour elements of ITER divertor can be a source of molten/solid dust particles which are injected into the plasma. The targets that combined in brush-like geometry have been irradiated under different inclination angles in QSPA Kh-50. The cubic brushes element has typical size of 1 cm. The titanium was used to investigate dynamics of mountains' formation. The onset of dust particles ejection from the exposed castellated targets has been studied. Formation of resolidified bridges through the gaps of brush-like targets due to the melt motion is studied in dynamics. With following plasma impacts such resolidified bridges became additional source of dust.

  13. Damage of target edges in brush-like geometry in the course of ELM-like plasma pulses in QSPA Kh-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.; Garkusha, I.E.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bazylev, B.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Landman, I.; Herashchenko, S.S.; Staltsov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Castellated edges of macro-brush armour elements of ITER divertor can be a source of molten/solid dust particles which are injected into the plasma. The targets that combined in brush-like geometry have been irradiated under different inclination angles in QSPA Kh-50. The cubic brushes element has typical size of 1 cm. The titanium was used to investigate dynamics of mountains’ formation. The onset of dust particles ejection from the exposed castellated targets has been studied. Formation of resolidified bridges through the gaps of brush-like targets due to the melt motion is studied in dynamics. With following plasma impacts such resolidified bridges became additional source of dust

  14. Computational study of the Risø-B1-18 airfoil with a hinged flap providing variable trailing edge geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive computational study, in both steady and unsteady flow conditions, has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the Risø-B1.18 airfoil equipped with variable trailing edge geometry as produced by a hinged flap. The function of such flaps should...... on the baseline airfoil showed excellent agreement with measurements on the same airfoil with the same specified conditions. Furthermore, a more widespread comparison with an advanced potential theory code is presented. The influence of various key parameters, such as flap shape, flap size and oscillating...... frequencies, was investigated so that an optimum design can be suggested for application with wind turbine blades. It is concluded that a moderately curved flap with flap chord to airfoil curve ratio between 0.05 and 0.10 would be an optimum choice....

  15. Damage of target edges in brush-like geometry in the course of ELM-like plasma pulses in QSPA Kh-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlaj, V.A., E-mail: makhlay@ipp.kharkov.ua [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Garkusha, I.E.; Aksenov, N.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Bazylev, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IHM, 76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IHM, 76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Herashchenko, S.S.; Staltsov, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-08-15

    Castellated edges of macro-brush armour elements of ITER divertor can be a source of molten/solid dust particles which are injected into the plasma. The targets that combined in brush-like geometry have been irradiated under different inclination angles in QSPA Kh-50. The cubic brushes element has typical size of 1 cm. The titanium was used to investigate dynamics of mountains’ formation. The onset of dust particles ejection from the exposed castellated targets has been studied. Formation of resolidified bridges through the gaps of brush-like targets due to the melt motion is studied in dynamics. With following plasma impacts such resolidified bridges became additional source of dust.

  16. Influence of process parameters on edge replication quality of lab-on-a-chip micro fluidic systems geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    the replication quality of molded micro-features on cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) a tool insert collecting critical channel cross sections was manufactured. The master was made by UV lithography and subsequent nickel electroplating. Effect of packing phase parameters (packing time, packing pressure) and mold...

  17. Laser cutting of graphite anodes for automotive lithium-ion secondary batteries: investigations in the edge geometry and heat-affected zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Benjamin

    2012-03-01

    To serve the high need of lithium-ion secondary batteries of the automobile industry in the next ten years it is necessary to establish highly reliable, fast and non abrasive machining processes. In previous works [1] it was shown that high cutting speeds with several meters per second are achievable. For this, mainly high power single mode fibre lasers with up to several kilo watts were used. Since lithium-ion batteries are very fragile electro chemical systems, the cutting speed is not the only thing important. To guarantee a high cycling stability and a long calendrical life time the edge quality and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are equally important. Therefore, this paper tries to establish an analytical model for the geometry of the cutting edge based on the ablation thresholds of the different materials. It also deals with the composition of the HAZ in dependence of the pulse length, generated by laser remote cutting with pulsed fibre laser. The characterisation of the HAZ was done by optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and Raman microscopy.

  18. Direct measurement of the static and transient magneto-optical permittivity of cobalt across the entire M -edge in reflection geometry by use of polarization scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusin, Dmitriy; Tengdin, Phoebe M.; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gentry, Christian; Blonsky, Adam; Gerrity, Michael; Legut, Dominik; Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Silva, T. J.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2018-01-01

    The microscopic state of a magnetic material is characterized by its resonant magneto-optical response through the off-diagonal dielectric tensor component ɛx y. However, the measurement of the full complex ɛx y in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region covering the M absorption edges of 3 d ferromagnets is challenging due to the need for either a careful polarization analysis, which is complicated by a lack of efficient polarization analyzers, or scanning the angle of incidence in fine steps. Here, we propose and demonstrate a technique to extract the complex resonant permittivity ɛx y simply by scanning the polarization angle of linearly polarized high harmonics to measure the magneto-optical asymmetry in reflection geometry. Because this technique is more practical and faster to experimentally implement than previous approaches, we can directly measure the full time evolution of ɛx y(t ) during laser-induced demagnetization across the entire M2 ,3 absorption edge of cobalt with femtosecond time resolution. We find that for polycrystalline Co films on an insulating substrate, the changes in ɛx y are uniform throughout the spectrum, to within our experimental precision. This result suggests that, in the regime of strong demagnetization, the ultrafast demagnetization response is primarily dominated by magnon generation. We estimate the contribution of exchange-splitting reduction to the ultrafast demagnetization process to be no more than 25%.

  19. 3D printing technology as innovative tool for math and geometry teaching applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huleihil, M.

    2017-01-01

    The industrial revolution and automation of production processes have changed the face of the world. Three dimensional (3D) printing has the potential to revolutionize manufacturing and further change methods of production toward allowing in increasing number of people to produce products at home. According to a recent OECD (see Backer [1]) publication, “…tapping into the next industrial revolution requires actions on many levels and in many different areas. In particular, unlocking the potential of emerging and enabling technologies requires policy development along a number of fronts, from commercialization to regulation and the supply of skills through education.” In this paper we discuss the role of schools and their responsibility to act as quickly as possible to design a plan of action that will prepare the future citizens to deal with this new reality. This requires planning of action in different directions and on different planes, such as labs, teachers, and curricula. 3D printing requires higher levels of thinking, innovation and creativity. It has the power to develop human imagination and give students the opportunity to visualize numbers, two- dimensional shapes, and three-dimensional objects. The combination of thinking, design, and production has immense power to increase motivation and satisfaction, with a highly probable increase in a student’s math and geometry achievements. The CAD system includes a measure tool which enables and alternative way for calculating properties of the objects under consideration and allows development of reflection and critical thinking. The research method was based on comparison between a reference group and a test group; it was found that intervention significantly improved the reflection abilities of 6th grade students in mathematics.

  20. Influence of tool geometry and process parameters on macrostructure and static strength in friction stir spot welded polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Mustafa Kemal; Yuekler, Ahmet Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → All velding parameters and different tool geometries have demonstrated a different effects on weld strength. → Friction stir spot welding of polyethylene mechanical scission is very important. → Metric screw the tool has a great influence on the weld strength of FSSW. -- Abstract: The effect of important welding parameters and tool properties that are effective on static strength in friction stir spot welds of polyethylene sheets were studied. Six different tool pin profiles (straight cylindrical, tapered cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, triangular, square and hexagonal) with different shoulder geometries, different pin length, pin angle and concavity angle were used to fabricate the joints. The tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth and dwell time were determined welding parameters. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Welding force and welding zone material temperature measurements were also done. Lap-shear tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments, the effect of pin profile, pin length, pin angle, dwell time and tool rotational speed on friction stir spot welding formation and weld strength was determined.

  1. Sierpinski triangles as a tool to introduce fractal geometry to children and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    There are currently two somehow contradictory trends in the public debates involving scientific issues. On the one hand there is a need to address topics of increasing complexity, while on the other hand simple(istic) solutions are suggested by numerous people (including high level ones). Meanwhile there seems to be growing defiance towards science findings. Such problems are faced in numerous fields including geosciences where famous examples are the debates dealing with climate change, or water / air contamination. Such unfortunate trends means that the input of scientists in the society and public debates is strongly required. Although it not actually their job, scientists should get involved as a citizens. They should try to explain the complexity of the issues at stake, and take the necessary time to achieve this; not all problems can be explained with the help of a 140 characters tweet! Rather than hiding the uncertainties, they should try to explain this notion often not well understood, and admit the current limitations of knowledge. In the meantime it would be positive if this dialogue could help children and their parents to get familiarized with science and scientists, show that science is not obscure and actually present in everyday life. Scientists obviously also have the hope of fostering a desire for understanding, enhancing scientific culture and even promoting careers in this field. Fractals and fractal geometry are actually a rather good tool to achieve this. Indeed through numerous iterations of a simple process, one can easily obtain a rather complex shape, exhibiting some of the features observed in the nature. Fractal shapes are scale invariant, i.e. the more you zoom in, the more details you see; a portion of the shape is similar to the full one. This paper aims at presenting a series of activities presenting fractals to young people developed primarily around the famous Sierpinski triangles. Two types of activities were carefully designed

  2. Evaluation on machined surface of hardened stainless steel generated by hard turning using coated carbide tools with wiper geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, M.Y.; Kurniawan, D.; Sharif, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hard turning has been explored to be the finish machining operation for parts made of hardened steel. Its feasibility is determined partially by the quality of the resulting machined surface. This study evaluates the surface integrity of martensitic stainless steel (48 HRC) resulting from hard turning using coated carbide tool with wiper geometry at various cutting speed and feed and compares to that obtained using coated carbide tool with conventional geometry. The wiper coated carbide tool is able to produce machined surface which is of finer finish (Ra is finer than 0.4 μm at most cutting parameters) and yet is similarly inducing only minor microstructural alteration compared to its conventional counterpart. From the view of the chip morphology where continuous type of chip is desired rather than sawtooth chip type, the wiper tool generates continuous chip at almost similar range of cutting parameters compared to the case when using conventional tool. Additionally, the use of wiper tool also induces the preferred compressive residual stress at the machined surface. (author)

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE FUNCTIONAL GEOMETRY OF THE TOOL AT THE LATHING WITH A TRANSVERSE ADVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DOBROTĂ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of processing by machining is to generate surfaces that have to meet the requirements imposed by the designer through the execution drawing of the piece. The study aims to analyze how the functional geometry of the tool evolves when lathing with a transverse advance. The technological process of lathing with transverse advance is realized with a variable machining speed, and this also causes a variation of the functional geomtry of the tool. Thus, in the paper was established the optimal construction geometry of a lathe knife that can be used for lathing a piece of a certain diameter. Under these conditions, a correlation was established between the values of the geometrical constructive parameters of the knife used for the transverse lathing and the diameter of the workpiece which can be processed in optimal conditions

  4. Application of Interactive Multimedia Tools in Teaching Mathematics--Examples of Lessons from Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Marina; Obradovic, Jasmina; Milajic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the benefits and importance of using multimedia in the math classes by the selected examples of multimedia lessons from geometry (isometric transformations and regular polyhedra). The research included two groups of 50 first year students of the Faculty of the Architecture and the Faculty of Civil Construction Management.…

  5. Proof and Proving in the Classroom: Dynamic Geometry Systems as Tools of Semiotic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the didactic potential offered by the use of a Dynamic Geometry System (DGS) in introducing students to theoretical thinking and specifically to the practice of proof. Starting from a discussion about what constitutes the general objective in developing students' sense of proof, the notion of Theorem is…

  6. Influence of Lubricant Pocket Geometry upon Lubrication Mechanisms on Tool-Workpiece Interfaces in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, I; Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2004-01-01

    mechanisms, during upsetting and strip drawing, by means of a rigid viscoplastic finite element formulation. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of pocket geometry on the build up of hydrostatic pressure, which is responsible for the onset of micro lubrication mechanisms. A good agreement is found...... between the numerically predicted and the experimentally measured distributions of hydrostatic stress....

  7. Calculation of the apparent neutron parameters in a borehole geometry for neutron porosity tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.; Drabina, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the next step of a development of the theoretical solutions, which gives a possibility to calculate the apparent neutron slowing down and migration lengths in the three region cylindrical system which represents the borehole, the intermediate zone (e.g. mud cake at the borehole walls), and the geological formation. A solution of the neutron diffusion equation in energy two-group approach for spatial moments of the neutron flux is given for the three-region cylindrical coaxial geometry. The influence of the intermediate zone is presented. The numerical code MOM3 has been written to calculate the apparent slowing down and migration lengths for the three-region cylindrical system as mentioned above. Additionally the MCNP calculation for the three-region borehole geometry is presented in the paper

  8. PENTrack-a simulation tool for ultracold neutrons, protons, and electrons in complex electromagnetic fields and geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, W.; Kikawa, T.; Losekamm, M. J.; Paul, S.; Picker, R.

    2017-06-01

    Modern precision experiments trapping low-energy particles require detailed simulations of particle trajectories and spin precession to determine systematic measurement limitations and apparatus deficiencies. We developed PENTrack, a tool that allows to simulate trajectories of ultracold neutrons and their decay products-protons and electrons-and the precession of their spins in complex geometries and electromagnetic fields. The interaction of ultracold neutrons with matter is implemented with the Fermi-potential formalism and diffuse scattering using Lambert and microroughness models. The results of several benchmark simulations agree with STARucn v1.2, uncovered several flaws in Geant4 v10.2.2, and agree with experimental data. Experiment geometry and electromagnetic fields can be imported from commercial computer-aided-design and finite-element software. All simulation parameters are defined in simple text files allowing quick changes. The simulation code is written in C++ and is freely available at github.com/wschreyer/PENTrack.git.

  9. PENTrack—a simulation tool for ultracold neutrons, protons, and electrons in complex electromagnetic fields and geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, W., E-mail: w.schreyer@tum.de [Technical University of Munich, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kikawa, T. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver (Canada); Losekamm, M.J.; Paul, S. [Technical University of Munich, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Picker, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver (Canada); Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby (Canada)

    2017-06-21

    Modern precision experiments trapping low-energy particles require detailed simulations of particle trajectories and spin precession to determine systematic measurement limitations and apparatus deficiencies. We developed PENTrack, a tool that allows to simulate trajectories of ultracold neutrons and their decay products—protons and electrons—and the precession of their spins in complex geometries and electromagnetic fields. The interaction of ultracold neutrons with matter is implemented with the Fermi-potential formalism and diffuse scattering using Lambert and microroughness models. The results of several benchmark simulations agree with STARucn v1.2, uncovered several flaws in Geant4 v10.2.2, and agree with experimental data. Experiment geometry and electromagnetic fields can be imported from commercial computer-aided-design and finite-element software. All simulation parameters are defined in simple text files allowing quick changes. The simulation code is written in C++ and is freely available at (github.com/wschreyer/PENTrack.git).

  10. Functional and Biomechanical Effects of the Edge-to-Edge Repair in the Setting of Mitral Regurgitation: Consolidated Knowledge and Novel Tools to Gain Insight into Its Percutaneous Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Francesco; Redaelli, Alberto; Puppini, Giovanni; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Votta, Emiliano

    2015-06-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western population. When severe, it requires surgical treatment, repair being the preferred option. The edge-to-edge repair technique treats mitral regurgitation by suturing the leaflets together and creating a double-orifice valve. Due to its relative simplicity and versatility, it has become progressively more widespread. Recently, its percutaneous version has become feasible, and has raised interest thanks to the positive results of the Mitraclip(®) device. Edge-to-edge features and evolution have stimulated debate and multidisciplinary research by both clinicians and engineers. After providing an overview of representative studies in the field, here we propose a novel computational approach to the most recent percutaneous evolution of the edge-to-edge technique. Image-based structural finite element models of three mitral valves affected by posterior prolapse were derived from cine-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The models accounted for the patient-specific 3D geometry of the valve, including leaflet compound curvature pattern, patient-specific motion of annulus and papillary muscles, and hyperelastic and anisotropic mechanical properties of tissues. The biomechanics of the three valves throughout the entire cardiac cycle was simulated before and after Mitraclip(®) implantation, assessing the biomechanical impact of the procedure. For all three simulated MVs, Mitraclip(®) implantation significantly improved systolic leaflets coaptation, without inducing major alterations in systolic peak stresses. Diastolic orifice area was decreased, by up to 58.9%, and leaflets diastolic stresses became comparable, although lower, to systolic ones. Despite established knowledge on the edge-to-edge surgical repair, latest technological advances make its percutanoues implementation a challenging field of research. The modeling approach herein proposed may be expanded to analyze clinical scenarios that

  11. Tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds effects on the properties of dissimilar magnesium/aluminum friction stir welded lap joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, J.; Behnamian, Y.; Mostafaei, A.; Gerlich, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds show great effect on the microstructure stability of FSW joint. • Increasing rotation and travel speeds resulted in increasing the tensile strength and ductility of the joints. • Better intermixing between Al/Mg alloys was obtained by tapered threaded pin. • A mechanical interlocking mechanism proposed for higher ductility and superior tensile properties in FSW joints. - Abstract: Lap joint friction stir welding (FSW) between dissimilar AZ31B and Al 6061 alloys sheets was conducted using various welding parameters including tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds. Tapered threaded pin and tapered pin tools were applied to fabricate FSW joints, using different rotation and travel speeds. Metallurgical investigations including X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), optical microscopy images (OM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to characterize joints microstructures made with different welding parameters. Intermetallic phases were detected in the weld zone (WZ). Various microstructures were observed in the stir zone which can be attributed to using different travel and rotation speeds. Mechanical evaluation including lap shear fracture load test and microhardness measurements indicated that by simultaneously increasing the tool rotation and travel speeds, the joint tensile strength and ductility reached a maximum value. Microhardness studies and extracted results from stress–strain curves indicated that mechanical properties were affected by FSW process. Furthermore, phase analyses by XRD indicated the presence of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone. Finally, in the Al/Mg dissimilar weld, fractography studies showed that intermetallic compounds formation in the weld zone had an influence on the failure mode

  12. Wing Leading Edge RCC Rapid Response Damage Prediction Tool (IMPACT2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Cottter, Paul; Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This rapid response computer program predicts Orbiter Wing Leading Edge (WLE) damage caused by ice or foam impact during a Space Shuttle launch (Program "IMPACT2"). The program was developed after the Columbia accident in order to assess quickly WLE damage due to ice, foam, or metal impact (if any) during a Shuttle launch. IMPACT2 simulates an impact event in a few minutes for foam impactors, and in seconds for ice and metal impactors. The damage criterion is derived from results obtained from one sophisticated commercial program, which requires hours to carry out simulations of the same impact events. The program was designed to run much faster than the commercial program with prediction of projectile threshold velocities within 10 to 15% of commercial-program values. The mathematical model involves coupling of Orbiter wing normal modes of vibration to nonlinear or linear springmass models. IMPACT2 solves nonlinear or linear impact problems using classical normal modes of vibration of a target, and nonlinear/ linear time-domain equations for the projectile. Impact loads and stresses developed in the target are computed as functions of time. This model is novel because of its speed of execution. A typical model of foam, or other projectile characterized by material nonlinearities, impacting an RCC panel is executed in minutes instead of hours needed by the commercial programs. Target damage due to impact can be assessed quickly, provided that target vibration modes and allowable stress are known.

  13. Olive Actual "on Year" Yield Forecast Tool Based on the Tree Canopy Geometry Using UAS Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Guirado, Rafael R; Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J; Jiménez-Jiménez, Francisco; Blanco-Roldan, Gregorio L; Castro-Garcia, Sergio; Gil-Ribes, Jesus A

    2017-07-30

    Olive has a notable importance in countries of Mediterranean basin and its profitability depends on several factors such as actual yield, production cost or product price. Actual "on year" Yield (AY) is production (kg tree -1 ) in "on years", and this research attempts to relate it with geometrical parameters of the tree canopy. Regression equation to forecast AY based on manual canopy volume was determined based on data acquired from different orchard categories and cultivars during different harvesting seasons in southern Spain. Orthoimages were acquired with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) imagery calculating individual crown for relating to canopy volume and AY. Yield levels did not vary between orchard categories; however, it did between irrigated orchards (7000-17,000 kg ha -1 ) and rainfed ones (4000-7000 kg ha -1 ). After that, manual canopy volume was related with the individual crown area of trees that were calculated by orthoimages acquired with UAS imagery. Finally, AY was forecasted using both manual canopy volume and individual tree crown area as main factors for olive productivity. AY forecast only by using individual crown area made it possible to get a simple and cheap forecast tool for a wide range of olive orchards. Finally, the acquired information was introduced in a thematic map describing spatial AY variability obtained from orthoimage analysis that may be a powerful tool for farmers, insurance systems, market forecasts or to detect agronomical problems.

  14. CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY TOOL (CMT): A GIS-BASED AUTOMATED EXTRACTION MODEL FOR CHANNEL GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas. The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.

  15. ICT (Information Communication Technologies) in mathematics education: Exploring students' learning experiences when using a Dynamic geometry Software (DGS) tool in geometry class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehdiyev, R.; Vos, P.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional approaches in teaching geometry are pedagogically authoritative in nature and thus, students are not encouraged to question the validity or construction of geometrical entities. The use of technological resources with a variety of learning activities is usually limited. This book,

  16. MGDS: Free, on-line, cutting-edge tools to enable the democratisation of geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Ryan, W. B.; O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Coplan, J.; Chan, S.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Bonczkowski, J.; Morton, J. J.; Weissel, R.; Leung, A.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of user-friendly, effective cyber-information resources for accessing and manipulating geoscience data has grown rapidly in recent years. Based at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory the MGDS group has developed a number of free tools that have wide application across the geosciences for both educators and researchers. A simple web page (http://www.marine-geo.org/) allows users to search for and download many types of data by key word, geographical region, or published citation. The popular Create Maps and Grids function and the downloadable Google Earth-compatible KML files appeal to a wide user base. MGDS MediaBank galleries (http://media.marine-geo.org/) enable users to view and download compelling images that are purposefully selected for their educational value from NSF-funded field programs. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free map-based interactive tool that works on any machine, is increasingly being adopted across a broad suite of users from middle school students to university researchers. GeoMapApp allows users to plot, manipulate and present data in an intuitive geographical reference frame. GeoMapApp offers a convenient way to explore the wide range of built-in data sets, to quickly generate maps and images that aid visualisation and, when importing their own gridded and tabular data sets, to access the same rich built-in functionality. A user guide, short multi-media tutorials, and webinar are available on-line. The regularly-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis is used as the default GeoMapApp base map and is an increasingly popular means to rapidly create location maps. Additionally, the layer manager offers a fast way to overlay and compare multiple data sets and is augmented by the ability to alter layer transparency so that underlying layers become visible. Examples of GeoMapApp built-in data sets include high-resolution land topography and ocean floor bathymetry derived from satellite and multi

  17. A sampler of useful computational tools for applied geometry, computer graphics, and image processing foundations for computer graphics, vision, and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Or, Daniel; Ju, Tao; Mitra, Niloy J; Shamir, Ariel; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Zhang, Hao (Richard)

    2015-01-01

    A Sampler of Useful Computational Tools for Applied Geometry, Computer Graphics, and Image Processing shows how to use a collection of mathematical techniques to solve important problems in applied mathematics and computer science areas. The book discusses fundamental tools in analytical geometry and linear algebra. It covers a wide range of topics, from matrix decomposition to curvature analysis and principal component analysis to dimensionality reduction.Written by a team of highly respected professors, the book can be used in a one-semester, intermediate-level course in computer science. It

  18. Evolutionary algorithm based optimization of hydraulic machines utilizing a state-of-the-art block coupled CFD solver and parametric geometry and mesh generation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Kyriacou; E, Kontoleontos; S, Weissenberger; L, Mangani; E, Casartelli; I, Skouteropoulou; M, Gattringer; A, Gehrer; M, Buchmayr

    2014-03-01

    An efficient hydraulic optimization procedure, suitable for industrial use, requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software), a fast solver (block coupled CFD) and a flexible geometry generation tool. EASY optimization software is a PCA-driven metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA (PCA)) that can be used in both single- (SOO) and multiobjective optimization (MOO) problems. In MAEAs, low cost surrogate evaluation models are used to screen out non-promising individuals during the evolution and exclude them from the expensive, problem specific evaluation, here the solution of Navier-Stokes equations. For additional reduction of the optimization CPU cost, the PCA technique is used to identify dependences among the design variables and to exploit them in order to efficiently drive the application of the evolution operators. To further enhance the hydraulic optimization procedure, a very robust and fast Navier-Stokes solver has been developed. This incompressible CFD solver employs a pressure-based block-coupled approach, solving the governing equations simultaneously. This method, apart from being robust and fast, also provides a big gain in terms of computational cost. In order to optimize the geometry of hydraulic machines, an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool is necessary. The geometry generation tool used in this work is entirely based on b-spline curves and surfaces. In what follows, the components of the tool chain are outlined in some detail and the optimization results of hydraulic machine components are shown in order to demonstrate the performance of the presented optimization procedure.

  19. Evolutionary algorithm based optimization of hydraulic machines utilizing a state-of-the-art block coupled CFD solver and parametric geometry and mesh generation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriacou S; Kontoleontos E; Weissenberger S; Mangani L; Casartelli E; Skouteropoulou I; Gattringer M; Gehrer A; Buchmayr M

    2014-01-01

    An efficient hydraulic optimization procedure, suitable for industrial use, requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software), a fast solver (block coupled CFD) and a flexible geometry generation tool. EASY optimization software is a PCA-driven metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA (PCA)) that can be used in both single- (SOO) and multiobjective optimization (MOO) problems. In MAEAs, low cost surrogate evaluation models are used to screen out non-promising individuals during the evolution and exclude them from the expensive, problem specific evaluation, here the solution of Navier-Stokes equations. For additional reduction of the optimization CPU cost, the PCA technique is used to identify dependences among the design variables and to exploit them in order to efficiently drive the application of the evolution operators. To further enhance the hydraulic optimization procedure, a very robust and fast Navier-Stokes solver has been developed. This incompressible CFD solver employs a pressure-based block-coupled approach, solving the governing equations simultaneously. This method, apart from being robust and fast, also provides a big gain in terms of computational cost. In order to optimize the geometry of hydraulic machines, an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool is necessary. The geometry generation tool used in this work is entirely based on b-spline curves and surfaces. In what follows, the components of the tool chain are outlined in some detail and the optimization results of hydraulic machine components are shown in order to demonstrate the performance of the presented optimization procedure

  20. Geometry Revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,

  1. Effect of cutting edge radius on surface roughness in diamond tool turning of transparent MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaobin; Xu, Min; Du, Wenhao; Chu, Chong

    2017-09-01

    Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) ceramic is one of an important optical materials. However, due to its pronounced hardness and brittleness, the optical machining of this material is very difficult. Diamond turning has advantages over the grinding process in flexibility and material removal rate. However, there is a lack of research that could support the use of diamond turning technology in the machining of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. Using brittle-ductile transition theory of brittle material machining, this work provides critical information that may help to realize ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. A characterization method of determination the cutting edge radius is introduced here. Suitable diamond tools were measured for sharpness and then chosen from a large number of candidate tools. The influence of rounded cutting edges on surface roughness of the MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic is also investigated. These results indicate that surface quality of MgAl2O4 spinel is relate to the radius of diamond tool's cutting edge, cutting speed, and feed rate. Sharp diamond tools (small radius of cutting edge) facilitated ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel and shows great potential to reduce surface roughness and produce smoother final surface.

  2. Power spectrum weighted edge analysis for straight edge detection in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvir, Hrishikesh V.; Skipper, Julie A.

    2007-04-01

    Most man-made objects provide characteristic straight line edges and, therefore, edge extraction is a commonly used target detection tool. However, noisy images often yield broken edges that lead to missed detections, and extraneous edges that may contribute to false target detections. We present a sliding-block approach for target detection using weighted power spectral analysis. In general, straight line edges appearing at a given frequency are represented as a peak in the Fourier domain at a radius corresponding to that frequency, and a direction corresponding to the orientation of the edges in the spatial domain. Knowing the edge width and spacing between the edges, a band-pass filter is designed to extract the Fourier peaks corresponding to the target edges and suppress image noise. These peaks are then detected by amplitude thresholding. The frequency band width and the subsequent spatial filter mask size are variable parameters to facilitate detection of target objects of different sizes under known imaging geometries. Many military objects, such as trucks, tanks and missile launchers, produce definite signatures with parallel lines and the algorithm proves to be ideal for detecting such objects. Moreover, shadow-casting objects generally provide sharp edges and are readily detected. The block operation procedure offers advantages of significant reduction in noise influence, improved edge detection, faster processing speed and versatility to detect diverse objects of different sizes in the image. With Scud missile launcher replicas as target objects, the method has been successfully tested on terrain board test images under different backgrounds, illumination and imaging geometries with cameras of differing spatial resolution and bit-depth.

  3. Influence of tool geometry and rotational speed on mechanical properties and defect formation in friction stir lap welded 5456 aluminum alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salari, Emad; Jahazi, Mohammad; Khodabandeh, Alireza; Ghasemi-Nanesa, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Successful lap joint friction stir welding of AA5456 with two different tempers. • New stepped conical threaded pin for FSW of lap joints is introduced. • Investigated interactions between tool geometry and mechanical properties. • Microstructure and fracture surface analysis of dissimilar lap welds. - Abstract: Friction stir welding of AA5456 aluminum alloy in lap joint configuration is with two different tempers, T321 and O, and different thicknesses, 5 mm and 2.5 mm was investigated. The influences of tool geometry and various rotational speeds on macrostructure, microstructure and joint strength are presented. Specifically, four different tool pin profiles (a conical thread pin, a cylindrical–conical thread pin, a stepped conical thread pin and Flared Triflute pin tool) and two rotational speeds, 600 and 800 rpm, were used. The results indicated that, tool geometry influences significantly material flow in the nugget zone and accordingly control the weld mechanical properties. Of particular interest is the stepped conical threaded pin, which is introduced for the first time in the present investigation. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of the fracture location of samples was carried out and the findings correlated with tool geometry features and their influences on material flow and tension test results. The optimum microstructure and mechanical properties were obtained for the joints produced with the stepped conical thread pin profile and rotational speed of 600 rpm. The characteristics of the nugget zone microstructure, hooking height, and fracture location of the weld joints were used as criteria to quantify the influence of processing conditions on joint performance and integrity. The results are interpreted in the framework of physical metallurgy properties and compared with published literature

  4. The structure and properties of ZrN-Ni-Co-coatings on the edges steel knives of wood-cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaevskij, V.V.; Grishkevich, A.A.; Zhilinskij, V.V.; Kuleshov, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Modes were selected and formed electroplated Ni-Co-coatings, ion-plasma Zr N-coatings as well as combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coating on the edges steel (type R6M5) knives of wood-cutting milling tools. Formed electroplated Ni-Co-layers are not mixed with the steel substrate and the Zr N-coating. Microhardness of combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings is to 1,2-1,5 times more than microhardness of steel base and bare steel. When cutting laminated chipboard by steel knives of milling tool with a Ni-Co- and Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings under laboratory conditions, abrasive surface wear type of edges knives is observed. Calculating bulk wear of edges knives with Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings showed reduction of more than 3 times value in comparison with knives with Ni-Co-coatings. Pilot testing of tool modified with combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings at OJSC 'Minskdrev' when cutting pine confirmed relevance of the tests carried out, as well as showed an increase in durability period of cutters to 30% compared with bare tool. (authors)

  5. Design study of the geometry of the blanking tool to predict the burr formation of Zircaloy-4 sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jisun, E-mail: nskim@sogang.ac.kr; Lee, Hyungyil, E-mail: nskim@sogang.ac.kr; Kim, Dongchul, E-mail: nskim@sogang.ac.kr; Kim, Naksoo, E-mail: nskim@sogang.ac.kr [Sogang University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-16

    In this work, we investigated factors that influence burr formation for zircaloy-4 sheet used for spacer grids of nuclear fuel roads. Factors we considered are geometric factors of punch. We changed clearance and velocity in order to consider the failure parameters, and we changed shearing angle and corner radius of L-shaped punch in order to consider geometric factors of punch. First, we carried out blanking test with failure parameter of GTN model using L-shaped punch. The tendency of failure parameters and geometric factors that affect burr formation by analyzing sheared edges is investigated. Consequently, geometric factor's influencing on the burr formation is also high as failure parameters. Then, the sheared edges and burr formation with failure parameters and geometric factors is investigated using FE analysis model. As a result of analyzing sheared edges with the variables, we checked geometric factors more affect burr formation than failure parameters. To check the reliability of the FE model, the blanking force and the sheared edges obtained from experiments are compared with the computations considering heat transfer.

  6. Optimization and Analysis of Cutting Tool Geometrical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Bassett et al.,(2012);. Kountanya et al., (2016) studied the effect of tool edge geometry and cutting conditions on the chip morphology in orthogonal hard turning of 100Cr6 steel. Their study shows that the edge radius does not influence the geometrical parameters of the chip. Moreover cutting forces decreases as the cutting.

  7. Arithmetic noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Marcolli, Matilde

    2005-01-01

    Arithmetic noncommutative geometry denotes the use of ideas and tools from the field of noncommutative geometry, to address questions and reinterpret in a new perspective results and constructions from number theory and arithmetic algebraic geometry. This general philosophy is applied to the geometry and arithmetic of modular curves and to the fibers at archimedean places of arithmetic surfaces and varieties. The main reason why noncommutative geometry can be expected to say something about topics of arithmetic interest lies in the fact that it provides the right framework in which the tools of geometry continue to make sense on spaces that are very singular and apparently very far from the world of algebraic varieties. This provides a way of refining the boundary structure of certain classes of spaces that arise in the context of arithmetic geometry, such as moduli spaces (of which modular curves are the simplest case) or arithmetic varieties (completed by suitable "fibers at infinity"), by adding boundaries...

  8. geomIO: A tool for geodynamicists to turn 2D cross-sections into 3D geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Tobias; Bauville, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    In numerical deformation models, material properties are usually defined on elements (e.g., in body-fitted finite elements), or on a set of Lagrangian markers (Eulerian, ALE or mesh-free methods). In any case, geometrical constraints are needed to assign different material properties to the model domain. Whereas simple geometries such as spheres, layers or cuboids can easily be programmed, it quickly gets complex and time-consuming to create more complicated geometries for numerical model setups, especially in three dimensions. geomIO (geometry I/O, http://geomio.bitbucket.org/) is a MATLAB-based library that has two main functionalities. First, it can be used to create 3D volumes based on series of 2D vector drawings similar to a CAD program; and second, it uses these 3D volumes to assign material properties to the numerical model domain. The drawings can conveniently be created using the open-source vector graphics software Inkscape. Adobe Illustrator is also partially supported. The drawings represent a series of cross-sections in the 3D model domain, for example, cross-sectional interpretations of seismic tomography. geomIO is then used to read the drawings and to create 3D volumes by interpolating between the cross-sections. In the second part, the volumes are used to assign material phases to markers inside the volumes. Multiple volumes can be created at the same time and, depending on the order of assignment, unions or intersections can be built to assign additional material phases. geomIO also offers the possibility to create 3D temperature structures for geodynamic models based on depth dependent parameterisations, for example the half space cooling model. In particular, this can be applied to geometries of subducting slabs of arbitrary shape. Yet, geomIO is held very general, and can be used for a variety of applications. We present examples of setup generation from pictures of micro-scale tectonics and lithospheric scale setups of 3D present-day model

  9. An edge pedestal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacev, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A new model for calculation of the gradient scale lengths in the edge pedestal region and of the edge transport barrier width in H-mode tokamak plasmas will be described. Model problem calculations which demonstrate the promise of this model for predicting experimental pedestal properties will be discussed. The density and Prague gradient scale lengths (L) in the edge are calculated from the particle and ion and electron energy radial transport equations, making use of (presumed) known particle and energy fluxes flowing across the edge transport barrier from the core into the SOL and of edge transport coefficients. The average values of the particle and heat fluxes in the edge transport barrier are calculated in terms of the fluxes crossing into the SOL and the atomic physics reaction rates (ionisation, charge-exchange, elastic scattering, impurity radiation) in the edge by integrating the respective transport equations from the pedestal to the separatrix. An important implication of this model is that the pedestal gradient scale lengths depend not just on local pedestal platers properties but also on particle and energy fluxes from the core plasma and on recycling neutral fluxes that penetrate into the plasma edge, both of which in turn depend on the pedestal properties. The MHD edge pressure gradient constraint α≤ α C is used to determine the pressure width of the edge transport barrier, Δ TB = Δ TB (α c ). Three different models for the MHD edge pressure gradient constraint have been investigated: (1) nominal ideal ballooning mode theory, (2) ballooning mode theory taking into account the edge geometry and shear to access He second stability region; and pedestal β-limit theory when the ballooning modes are stabilised by diamagnetic effects. A series of calculations have been made for a DIII-D model problem. The calculated gradient scale lengths and edge transport barrier widths are of the magnitude of values observed experimentally, and certain trends

  10. Influence of tool geometry and processing parameters on welding defects and mechanical properties for friction stir welding of 6061 Aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneji, A.; Ali, M.; Pervaiz, S.

    2018-04-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a form of solid state welding process for joining metals, alloys, and selective composites. Over the years, FSW development has provided an improved way of producing welding joints, and consequently got accepted in numerous industries such as aerospace, automotive, rail and marine etc. In FSW, the base metal properties control the material’s plastic flow under the influence of a rotating tool whereas, the process and tool parameters play a vital role in the quality of weld. In the current investigation, an array of square butt joints of 6061 Aluminum alloy was to be welded under varying FSW process and tool geometry related parameters, after which the resulting weld was evaluated for the corresponding mechanical properties and welding defects. The study incorporates FSW process and tool parameters such as welding speed, pin height and pin thread pitch as input parameters. However, the weld quality related defects and mechanical properties were treated as output parameters. The experimentation paves way to investigate the correlation between the inputs and the outputs. The correlation between inputs and outputs were used as tool to predict the optimized FSW process and tool parameters for a desired weld output of the base metals under investigation. The study also provides reflection on the effect of said parameters on a welding defect such as wormhole.

  11. PAF: A software tool to estimate free-geometry extended bodies of anomalous pressure from surface deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, A. G.; Fernández, J.; Cannavò, F.

    2018-02-01

    We present a software package to carry out inversions of surface deformation data (any combination of InSAR, GPS, and terrestrial data, e.g., EDM, levelling) as produced by 3D free-geometry extended bodies with anomalous pressure changes. The anomalous structures are described as an aggregation of elementary cells (whose effects are estimated as coming from point sources) in an elastic half space. The linear inverse problem (considering some simple regularization conditions) is solved by means of an exploratory approach. This software represents the open implementation of a previously published methodology (Camacho et al., 2011). It can be freely used with large data sets (e.g. InSAR data sets) or with data coming from small control networks (e.g. GPS monitoring data), mainly in volcanic areas, to estimate the expected pressure bodies representing magmatic intrusions. Here, the software is applied to some real test cases.

  12. Comparison of the Effects of Tool Geometry for Friction Stir Welding Thin Sheet Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Josh; Takeshita, Jennifer; Tweedy, Bryan; Burford, Dwight

    2006-01-01

    In this presentation, the results of a recent study on the effect of pin tool design for friction stir welding thin sheets (0.040") of aluminum alloys 2024 and 7075 are provided. The objective of this study was to investigate and document the effect of tool shoulder and pin diameter, as well as the presence of pin flutes, on the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature. Specifically, the comparison between three tools will include: FSW process load analysis (tool forces required to fabricate the welds), Static Mechanical Properties (ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation), and Process window documenting the range of parameters that can be used with the three pin tools investigated. All samples were naturally aged for a period greater than 10 days. Prior research has shown 7075 may require post weld heat treatment. Therefore, an additional pair of room temperature and cryogenic temperature samples was post-weld aged to the 7075-T7 condition prior to mechanical testing.

  13. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  14. Non-commutative tools for topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews several analytic tools for the field of topological insulators, developed with the aid of non-commutative calculus and geometry. The set of tools includes bulk topological invariants defined directly in the thermodynamic limit and in the presence of disorder, whose robustness is shown to have nontrivial physical consequences for the bulk states. The set of tools also includes a general relation between the current of an observable and its edge index, a relation that can be used to investigate the robustness of the edge states against disorder. The paper focuses on the motivations behind creating such tools and on how to use them.

  15. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  16. Study of the Tool Geometry Influence in Indentation for the Analysis and Validation of the New Modular Upper Bound Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bermudo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on incremental bulk metal forming processes, the indentation process is gaining interest as a fundamental part of these kinds of processes. This paper presents the analysis of the pressure obtained in indentation under the influence of different punch geometries. To this end, an innovative Upper Bound Theorem (UBT based solution is introduced. This new solution can be easily applied to estimate the necessary force that guarantees plastic deformation by an indentation process. In this work, we propose an accurate analytical approach to analyse indentation under different punches. The new Modular Upper Bound (MUB method presents a simpler and faster application. Additionally, its complexity is not considerably increased by the addition of more Triangular Rigid Zones. In addition, a two-dimensional indentation model is designed and implemented using the Finite Element Method (FEM. The comparison of the two methods applied to the indentation process analysed—the new Modular Upper Bound technique and the Finite Element Method—reveal close similarities, the new Modular Upper Bound being more computationally efficient.

  17. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded butt joint of steel/aluminium alloys: effect of tool geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiq, W. M.; Afendi, M.; Daud, R.; Mazlee, M. N.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Lee, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper described the mechanical properties from hardness testing and tensile testing of Friction Stir Welded (FSW) materials. In this project, two materials of aluminium and steel are welded using conventional milling machine and tool designed with different profile and shoulder size. During welding the temperature along the weld line is collected using thermocouples. Threaded pins was found to produce stronger joints than cylindrical pins. 20 mm diameter shoulder tool welded a slightly stronger joint than 18 mm diameter one, as well as softer nugget zone due to higher heat input. Threaded pins also contributed to higher weld temperature than cylindrical pins due to increase in pin contact surface. Generally, higher temperatures were recorded in aluminium side due to pin offset away from steel.

  18. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  19. The Geometry Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.

  20. Hyperbolic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Iversen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    Although it arose from purely theoretical considerations of the underlying axioms of geometry, the work of Einstein and Dirac has demonstrated that hyperbolic geometry is a fundamental aspect of modern physics

  1. Tool life of the edges coated with the c-BN+h-BN coatings with different structures during hard machinable steel machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupczyk, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper the experimental results concerning the functional quality (durability during steel machining of thin, superhard coatings produced on the cutting edges are described. Differences among mentioned properties of coatings mainly result from a coating structure. But the structure of coatings results from deposition parameters Superhard boron nitride coatings were deposited on insert cutting edges made of cemented carbides by the pulse-plasma method applying different values of the discharge voltage. The comparative investigations of mentioned coatings have been concerned of tool life of edges during hard machinable material machining (nitriding steel hardened in oil. In these investigations for the purpose of additional increase of coatings adhesion to substrates an interfacial layers were applied.

    En este trabajo se describen los resultados experimentales referentes a la calidad funcional (durabilidad durante el mecanizado del acero de recubrimientos delgados, de elevada dureza del filo de corte. Las diferencias en las propiedades de los recubrimientos se deben, principalmente, a la estructura del recubrimiento. No obstante, la estructura del recubrimiento está relacionada con los parámetros de la deposición. Recubrimientos de nitruro de boro de elevada dureza se depositaron sobre filos de corte insertados, fabricados con carburos cementados mediante el método de pulsos de plasma aplicando diferentes valores de voltaje de descarga. Las investigaciones comparativas de los mencionados recubrimientos han relacionado la vida del filo de la herramienta durante el mecanizado del material (acero nitrurado endurecido en aceite. En estas investigaciones se aplicaron capas interfaciales para aumentar la adherencia del recubrimiento.

  2. VISUALIZATION IN THE PACKAGE AUTODESK INVENTOR SKETCH GEOMETRY WHEN USING TOOLS IN THE THEORY OF R-FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Іvanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibility of automation and control of the computational process when using the tools in the theory of R-functions possessing the properties of logic algebra, while not going beyond the elementary functions, make it possible to build the equations of geometric objects with an almost arbitrary shape. And the use of computer graphics makes it posible to represent the equation of the boundar surface and the conical region of the curved tooth coupling and the whole disk in on analytical form with possible visualization in the Autodesk Inventor package.

  3. Twistor geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of the relation between the geometry of twistor space and the geometry of Minkowski space. The paper has a didactical purpose; no use has been made of differential geometry and cohomology.

  4. Olive Actual “on Year” Yield Forecast Tool Based on the Tree Canopy Geometry Using UAS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael R. Sola-Guirado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Olive has a notable importance in countries of Mediterranean basin and its profitability depends on several factors such as actual yield, production cost or product price. Actual “on year” Yield (AY is production (kg tree−1 in “on years”, and this research attempts to relate it with geometrical parameters of the tree canopy. Regression equation to forecast AY based on manual canopy volume was determined based on data acquired from different orchard categories and cultivars during different harvesting seasons in southern Spain. Orthoimages were acquired with unmanned aerial systems (UAS imagery calculating individual crown for relating to canopy volume and AY. Yield levels did not vary between orchard categories; however, it did between irrigated orchards (7000–17,000 kg ha−1 and rainfed ones (4000–7000 kg ha−1. After that, manual canopy volume was related with the individual crown area of trees that were calculated by orthoimages acquired with UAS imagery. Finally, AY was forecasted using both manual canopy volume and individual tree crown area as main factors for olive productivity. AY forecast only by using individual crown area made it possible to get a simple and cheap forecast tool for a wide range of olive orchards. Finally, the acquired information was introduced in a thematic map describing spatial AY variability obtained from orthoimage analysis that may be a powerful tool for farmers, insurance systems, market forecasts or to detect agronomical problems.

  5. Olive Actual “on Year” Yield Forecast Tool Based on the Tree Canopy Geometry Using UAS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Guirado, Rafael R.; Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, Francisco; Blanco-Roldan, Gregorio L.; Gil-Ribes, Jesus A.

    2017-01-01

    Olive has a notable importance in countries of Mediterranean basin and its profitability depends on several factors such as actual yield, production cost or product price. Actual “on year” Yield (AY) is production (kg tree−1) in “on years”, and this research attempts to relate it with geometrical parameters of the tree canopy. Regression equation to forecast AY based on manual canopy volume was determined based on data acquired from different orchard categories and cultivars during different harvesting seasons in southern Spain. Orthoimages were acquired with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) imagery calculating individual crown for relating to canopy volume and AY. Yield levels did not vary between orchard categories; however, it did between irrigated orchards (7000–17,000 kg ha−1) and rainfed ones (4000–7000 kg ha−1). After that, manual canopy volume was related with the individual crown area of trees that were calculated by orthoimages acquired with UAS imagery. Finally, AY was forecasted using both manual canopy volume and individual tree crown area as main factors for olive productivity. AY forecast only by using individual crown area made it possible to get a simple and cheap forecast tool for a wide range of olive orchards. Finally, the acquired information was introduced in a thematic map describing spatial AY variability obtained from orthoimage analysis that may be a powerful tool for farmers, insurance systems, market forecasts or to detect agronomical problems. PMID:28758945

  6. Mongolian “Neolithic” and Early Bronze Age ground stone tools from the northern edge of the Gobi Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan S. Schneider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition from the Mongolian Neolithic to the Bronze Age is not well understood. Within Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, over a period of five years, we identified a number of sites with dense surface artefact scatters and features that seem to represent this transition period. Evident in those concentrations are characteristic microblade cores, microblades, “thumbnail" flake scrapers, projectile points, ground stone tools, and stone features of unknown function. Between 2012 and 2014 we collected ground stone artefacts from four sites and sediment samples from three sites. With permission of Mongolian authorities, the artefacts from one site and sediment samples from three sites were sent for botanical analyses to the University of Texas, Austin, Environmental Archaeology Laboratory. Preliminary results indicate that plant remains are present on the ground stone artefacts: dendritic long-cells from a deep pore of one artefact and starch grains from the pores of six of the seven artefacts. These data present the first opportunity to understand what resources “Neolithic” people were processing with ground stone tools in this area and further our opportunity to better understand the little-known “Neolithic”-Early Bronze Age transition period in Central Asia. This paper describes the ground stone artefacts and further explores the results of data retrieved from some of these artefacts.

  7. Influence of tools geometry and processing conditions on behavior of a difficult-to-work Al-Mg alloy during equal channel angular pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comǎneci, Radu Ioachim; Nedelcu, Dumitru; Bujoreanu, Leandru Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well-established method for grain refinement in metallic materials by large shear plastic deformation, being the most promising and effective severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique. ECAP is a discontinuous process, so the billet removal implies a new development of the procedure: the new sample pushes out the previous sample. In resuming the process the head and the tail ends of the work piece which becomes strongly distorted and receiving different amount of strain have to be removed. Due to the path difference in material flow between upper and lower region of the outlet channel, a non-uniform strain and stress distribution across the width of the workpiece leaving the plastic deformation zone (PDZ) is achieved. A successful ECAP requires surpassing two obstacles: the necessary load level which directly affects tools and a favorable stress distribution so the material withstanding the accumulated strain of repeated deformation. Under back pressure (BP), materials have shown to be able to withstand more passes. As soon as the billet passes the PDZ along the bisector plane of the two channels, the compressive mean stress changes to tensile (leading to crack initiation), while in the presence of BP, a negative (compressive) stress is applied during the process. In this paper a comparative tridimensional finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to evaluate the behavior of a difficult-to-work Al-Mg alloy depending on tools geometry and process parameters. The results in terms of load level and strain distribution show the influence of the punch geometry and BP on the material behavior.

  8. 3D modeling and visualization software for complex geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guse, Guenter; Klotzbuecher, Michael; Mohr, Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    The reactor safety depends on reliable nondestructive testing of reactor components. For 100% detection probability of flaws and the determination of their size using ultrasonic methods the ultrasonic waves have to hit the flaws within a specific incidence and squint angle. For complex test geometries like testing of nozzle welds from the outside of the component these angular ranges can only be determined using elaborate mathematical calculations. The authors developed a 3D modeling and visualization software tool that allows to integrate and present ultrasonic measuring data into the 3D geometry. The software package was verified using 1:1 test samples (example: testing of the nozzle edge of the feedwater nozzle of a steam generator from the outside; testing of the reactor pressure vessel nozzle edge from the inside).

  9. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Iwema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1 to make their research immediately and freely available and (2 to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  10. Discrete and computational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Devadoss, Satyan L

    2011-01-01

    Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also fe...

  11. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  12. Geometry VI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    meet in edges (linear segments) that are E in number. The edges terminate in ... V - E = 0 (Exercise). Euler's proof is entirely analogous and quite elementary. .... linear algebra and lies at the basis of all geometrical research. The reader is ...

  13. Optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Trautman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The geometry of classical physics is Lorentzian; but weaker geometries are often more appropriate: null geodesics and electromagnetic fields, for example, are well known to be objects of conformal geometry. To deal with a single null congruence, or with the radiative electromagnetic fields associated with it, even less is needed: flag geometry for the first, optical geometry, with which this paper is chiefly concerned, for the second. The authors establish a natural one-to-one correspondence between optical geometries, considered locally, and three-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures. A number of Lorentzian geometries are shown to be equivalent from the optical point of view. For example the Goedel universe, the Taub-NUT metric and Hauser's twisting null solution have an optical geometry isomorphic to the one underlying the Robinson congruence in Minkowski space. The authors present general results on the problem of lifting a CR structure to a Lorentz manifold and, in particular, to Minkowski space; and exhibit the relevance of the deviation form to this problem

  14. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  15. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  16. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  17. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  18. Analytische Geometrie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitz, Arnfried

    Der Grundgedanke der Analytischen Geometrie besteht darin, dass geometrische Untersuchungen mit rechnerischen Mitteln geführt werden. Geometrische Objekte werden dabei durch Gleichungen beschrieben und mit algebraischen Methoden untersucht.

  19. Algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  20. Information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...

  1. Physics-based edge evaluation for improved color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.; van de Weijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Edge-based color constancy makes use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images such as shadow, geometry, material and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant

  2. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2013-01-01

    of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...... and outside the contemporary urban house? And what is the interplay between them? The research argues for re-thinking the edge zone between inside and outside the urban house. Therefore, although, residential buildings in the city are the objects of study, the focal point here is the edge zone along...... the building. The research explores and develops the architectural characteristics of correlations between the resident, the singular unit, the building and the given location at the edge zone. It approaches the edge zone of the urban house as a platform for dynamic interactions between these behaviours...

  3. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  4. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  5. Material Behavior At The Extreme Cutting Edge In Bandsawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, Mohammed; Haider, Julfikar; Persson, Martin; Hellbergh, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, bandsawing has been widely accepted as a favourite option for metal cutting off operations where the accuracy of cut, good surface finish, low kerf loss, long tool life and high material removal rate are required. Material removal by multipoint cutting tools such as bandsaw is a complex mechanism owing to the geometry of the bandsaw tooth (e.g., limited gullet size, tooth setting etc.) and the layer of material removed or undeformed chip thickness or depth of cut (5 μm-50 μm) being smaller than or equal to the cutting edge radius (5 μm-15 μm). This situation can lead to inefficient material removal in bandsawing. Most of the research work are concentrated on the mechanics of material removal by single point cutting tool such as lathe tool. However, such efforts are very limited in multipoint cutting tools such as in bandsaw. This paper presents the fundamental understanding of the material behaviour at the extreme cutting edge of bandsaw tooth, which would help in designing and manufacturing of blades with higher cutting performance and life. ''High Speed Photography'' has been carried out to analyse the material removal process at the extreme cutting edge of bandsaw tooth. Geometric model of chip formation mechanisms based on the evidences found during ''High Speed Photography'' and ''Quick Stop'' process is presented. Wear modes and mechanism in bimetal and carbide tipped bandsaw teeth are also presented.

  6. Geometry and bonding in the ground and lowest triplet state of D{sub 6h} symmetric crenellated edged C{sub 6[3m(m-1)+1]}H{sub 6(2m-1)} (m = 2,..., 6) graphene hydrocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, Michael R., E-mail: philpott@imr.edu [Center for Computational Materials Science, Institute of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki [Center for Computational Materials Science, Institute of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan)

    2009-03-30

    Ab initio plane wave all valence electron based DFT calculations were used to explore the dichotomy of perimeter vs. interior in the electronic and geometric structure of the D{sub 6h} singlet ground state and D{sub 2h} lowest triplet state of planar graphene hydrocarbon molecules with crenellated (arm chair) edges and the general formula C{sub 6[3m(m-1)+1]} H{sub 6(2m-1)} where m = 2,...,6. The largest molecule C{sub 546}H{sub 66} was 4.78 nm across and contained 2250 valence electrons. These molecules are nominally 'fully benzenoid hydrocarbons'. However with increasing size, the core of central atoms abandoned any fully benzenoid geometry they had in small systems and organized into single layer graphite (graphene) structure. The perimeter atoms of the crenellation adopted a conjugated geometry with unequal bonds and between core and perimeter there were some C{sub 6} rings retaining remnants of aromatic sextet-type properties. Compared to a zigzag edge the crenellated edge conferred stability in all the systems studied as measured by the singlet homo-lumo level gap BG{sub 0} and the singlet-lowest triplet energy gap {Delta}E{sub ST}. For the largest crenellated system (m = 6) BG{sub 0} and {Delta}E{sub ST} were approximately 0.7 eV, larger in value than for similarly sized hexagonal graphenes with zigzag edges. Triplet states were identified for all the molecules in the series and in the case of the m = 2 molecule hexabenzocoronene C{sub 42}H{sub 18}, two conformations with D{sub 2h} symmetry were identified and compared to features on the triplet state potential energy surface of benzene.

  7. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  8. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  9. Noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain

    1994-01-01

    This English version of the path-breaking French book on this subject gives the definitive treatment of the revolutionary approach to measure theory, geometry, and mathematical physics developed by Alain Connes. Profusely illustrated and invitingly written, this book is ideal for anyone who wants to know what noncommutative geometry is, what it can do, or how it can be used in various areas of mathematics, quantization, and elementary particles and fields.Key Features* First full treatment of the subject and its applications* Written by the pioneer of this field* Broad applications in mathemat

  10. CMS geometry through 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, I; Brownson, E; Eulisse, G; Jones, C D; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Lange, D J

    2014-01-01

    CMS faces real challenges with upgrade of the CMS detector through 2020 and beyond. One of the challenges, from the software point of view, is managing upgrade simulations with the same software release as the 2013 scenario. We present the CMS geometry description software model, its integration with the CMS event setup and core software. The CMS geometry configuration and selection is implemented in Python. The tools collect the Python configuration fragments into a script used in CMS workflow. This flexible and automated geometry configuration allows choosing either transient or persistent version of the same scenario and specific version of the same scenario. We describe how the geometries are integrated and validated, and how we define and handle different geometry scenarios in simulation and reconstruction. We discuss how to transparently manage multiple incompatible geometries in the same software release. Several examples are shown based on current implementation assuring consistent choice of scenario conditions. The consequences and implications for multiple/different code algorithms are discussed.

  11. Projective Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematicians are trained to use very precise language, and so find it hard to simplify and state .... thing. If you take a plane on which there are two such triangles which enjoy the above ... within this geometry to simplify things if needed.

  12. Geometry -----------~--------------RESONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parallel: A pair of lines in a plane is said to be parallel if they do not meet. Mathematicians were at war ... Subsequently, Poincare, Klein, Beltrami and others refined non-. Euclidean geometry. ... plane divides the plane into two half planes and.

  13. Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intended for a one year course, this text serves as a single source, introducing readers to the important techniques and theorems, while also containing enough background on advanced topics to appeal to those students wishing to specialize in Riemannian geometry. This is one of the few Works to combine both the geometric parts of Riemannian geometry and the analytic aspects of the theory. The book will appeal to a readership that have a basic knowledge of standard manifold theory, including tensors, forms, and Lie groups. Important revisions to the third edition include: a substantial addition of unique and enriching exercises scattered throughout the text; inclusion of an increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature; addition of general formulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions; integration of variational calculus into the text allowing for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a proof by Berger; incorporation of several recent results about manifolds with posit...

  14. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  15. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2008-08-15

    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  16. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  17. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...

  18. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  19. Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…

  20. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    2007-01-01

    This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and

  1. Energetics of edge oxidization of graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuma, Airi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    On the basis of the density functional theory, we studied the geometries and energetics of O atoms adsorbed on graphene edges for simulating the initial stage of the edge oxidization of graphene. Our calculations showed that oxygen atoms are preferentially adsorbed onto the graphene edges with the zigzag portion, resulting in a large adsorption energy of about 5 eV. On the other hand, the edges with armchair shape are rarely oxidized, or the oxidization causes substantial structural reconstructions, because of the stable covalent bond at the armchair edge with the triple bond nature. Furthermore, the energetics sensitively depends on the edge angles owing to the inhomogeneity of the charge density at the edge atomic sites.

  2. Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  3. Parametric Geometry, Structured Grid Generation, and Initial Design Study for REST-Class Hypersonic Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemann, Paul G.; Gollan, Rowan J.

    2010-01-01

    Computational design and analysis of three-dimensional hypersonic inlets with shape transition has been a significant challenge due to the complex geometry and grid required for three-dimensional viscous flow calculations. Currently, the design process utilizes an inviscid design tool to produce initial inlet shapes by streamline tracing through an axisymmetric compression field. However, the shape is defined by a large number of points rather than a continuous surface and lacks important features such as blunt leading edges. Therefore, a design system has been developed to parametrically construct true CAD geometry and link the topology of a structured grid to the geometry. The Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) constitutes the underlying framework that is used to build the geometry and grid topology. Parameterization of the CAD geometry allows the inlet shapes produced by the inviscid design tool to be generated, but also allows a great deal of flexibility to modify the shape to account for three-dimensional viscous effects. By linking the grid topology to the parametric geometry, the GridPro grid generation software can be used efficiently to produce a smooth hexahedral multiblock grid. To demonstrate the new capability, a matrix of inlets were designed by varying four geometry parameters in the inviscid design tool. The goals of the initial design study were to explore inviscid design tool geometry variations with a three-dimensional analysis approach, demonstrate a solution rate which would enable the use of high-fidelity viscous three-dimensional CFD in future design efforts, process the results for important performance parameters, and perform a sample optimization.

  4. Geometry from Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents

  5. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    was originally introduced to enhance indoor qualities including light and view. Throughout the paper, it is argued that these ecological motives have grown to architectural and urban dimensions. The paper analyzes the characteristics and potentials of these dimensions and their interconnections. The paper...... on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...... contribution to the street atmosphere and its effect on urban life. Bay balcony has been a common architectural element in Copenhagen’s residential buildings, since the end of the twenties. It is a domestic border with an architectural thickness combining window, door, windowsill and balcony. The bay balcony...

  6. Topology and geometry for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Charles

    1983-01-01

    Differential geometry and topology are essential tools for many theoretical physicists, particularly in the study of condensed matter physics, gravity, and particle physics. Written by physicists for physics students, this text introduces geometrical and topological methods in theoretical physics and applied mathematics. It assumes no detailed background in topology or geometry, and it emphasizes physical motivations, enabling students to apply the techniques to their physics formulas and research. ""Thoroughly recommended"" by The Physics Bulletin, this volume's physics applications range fr

  7. Controllable edge feature sharpening for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ran; Jin, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  8. Controllable Edge Feature Sharpening for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  9. Effect of welding parameters (plunge depths of shoulder, pin geometry, and tool rotational speed) on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of friction stir spot welded aluminum 2024-T3 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Lali; Taheri, Morteza; Khodabandeh, Alireza [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 joined by friction stir spot welding. The welding parameters in this work are tool rotational speed, plunge depths of shoulder, and pin geometry. In accordance with the methods of previous investigations, the rotational speeds were set to 630 rpm to 2000 rpm. Two pin geometries with concave shoulder were used: triangular and cylindrical. The plunge depths of the shoulder were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm. The shoulder diameter and pin height for both geometries were 14 and 2.4 mm, respectively. The diameter of the cylindrical and triangular pins was 5 mm. Results show that the parameters mentioned earlier influence fracture mode under tension shear loading. Two different fracture modes were observed during the examinations. Low-penetration depths and low-rotational speeds lead to shear fracture, whereas high values of these factors cause the tension-shear fracture mode. Fracture of the lower sheet sometimes occurs at high rotational speeds.

  10. Geometry and topology of wild translation surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2016-01-01

    A translation surface is a two-dimensional manifold, equipped with a translation structure. It can be obtained by considering Euclidean polygons and identifying their edges via translations. The vertices of the polygons form singularities if the translation structure can not be extended to them. We study translation surfaces with wild singularities, regarding the topology (genus and space of ends), the geometry (behavior of the singularities), and how the topology and the geometry are related.

  11. Development of the geometry database for the CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishina, E. P.; Alexandrov, E. I.; Alexandrov, I. N.; Filozova, I. A.; Friese, V.; Ivanov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper describes the current state of the Geometry Database (Geometry DB) for the CBM experiment. The main purpose of this database is to provide convenient tools for: (1) managing the geometry modules; (2) assembling various versions of the CBM setup as a combination of geometry modules and additional files. The CBM users of the Geometry DB may use both GUI (Graphical User Interface) and API (Application Programming Interface) tools for working with it.

  12. Advanced 3D tools used in reverse engineering and ray tracing simulation of phased array inspection of turbine components with complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daks, W.; Kovacshazy, C.; Mair, D.; Ciorau, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the practical aspects of reverse engineering and the integration of multiple pieces of software (Drafting, CNC Machining, Ray Tracing, Inspection Simulation Scenario and Phased Array UT Analysis), in order to inspect turbine components comprised of complex geometry. The CNC software, Mastercam, and design software, CADKEY/FastSURF, were used to validate the phased-array automated and manual inspection of blade root, rotor steeples and disk-blade rim attachment. The integration of a 3D part in the software engine, Imagine 3D and SimScan, as well as Tomoview analysis (specimen feature) is based on CADKEY Developer Kit - IGES/SAT file format. A generic Ray Tracing simulation for multi-probe beam was integrated into Imagine 3D. Representative examples of reference blocks and mock-ups, UT simulation and phased-array data comparison are presented. (author)

  13. Integral geometry and valuations

    CERN Document Server

    Solanes, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Valuations are finitely additive functionals on the space of convex bodies. Their study has become a central subject in convexity theory, with fundamental applications to integral geometry. In the last years there has been significant progress in the theory of valuations, which in turn has led to important achievements in integral geometry. This book originated from two courses delivered by the authors at the CRM and provides a self-contained introduction to these topics, covering most of the recent advances. The first part, by Semyon Alesker, is devoted to the theory of convex valuations, with emphasis on the latest developments. A special focus is put on the new fundamental structures of the space of valuations discovered after Alesker's irreducibility theorem. Moreover, the author describes the newly developed theory of valuations on manifolds. In the second part, Joseph H. G. Fu gives a modern introduction to integral geometry in the sense of Blaschke and Santaló, based on the notions and tools presented...

  14. Calculation of the Capture Edge in the OGMS Superconducting Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, S.

    1998-01-01

    Many ferromagnetic particles, that should be deflected, are captured on the wall of an OGMS (Open Gradient Magnetic Separation) separator. This ferromagnetic material influences magnetic and hydrodynamic conditions in the separator working area. The problem how to calculate the capture edge can be defined as the search for the geometry of a nonlinear system at known boundary conditions. The boundary conditions on the capture edge are the function of the capture edge geometry. The experimental results of the separation recovery are given. The capture edge calculation has been performed by FLUX 2D and the results are presented. (author)

  15. Challenges in edge modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.

    2007-01-01

    Fluid models like B2, UEDGE or EDGE2D are the working horses for scrape-off layer physics, both for design and experimental support. The concept of a numerical tokamak, aiming at a predictive code for ITER, triggers the need to re-assess the available tools and their necessary extensions. These additional physics issues will be summarized from a personal point-of-view. Depending on the specific problem, several complexity levels of scrape-off layer models will be needed. Therefore, a hierarchy of tools is necessary, which will be discussed. Furthermore, the experience existing in other scientific fields with multi-scale problems and modeling should be used. Here, the coupling of different length and time scales are in particular of interest for fusion problems. (author)

  16. Canonical differential geometry of string backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2006-01-01

    String backgrounds and D-branes do not possess the structure of Lorentzian manifolds, but that of manifolds with area metric. Area metric geometry is a true generalization of metric geometry, which in particular may accommodate a B-field. While an area metric does not determine a connection, we identify the appropriate differential geometric structure which is of relevance for the minimal surface equation in such a generalized geometry. In particular the notion of a derivative action of areas on areas emerges naturally. Area metric geometry provides new tools in differential geometry, which promise to play a role in the description of gravitational dynamics on D-branes

  17. Complex analysis and CR geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zampieri, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cauchy-Riemann (CR) geometry is the study of manifolds equipped with a system of CR-type equations. Compared to the early days when the purpose of CR geometry was to supply tools for the analysis of the existence and regularity of solutions to the \\bar\\partial-Neumann problem, it has rapidly acquired a life of its own and has became an important topic in differential geometry and the study of non-linear partial differential equations. A full understanding of modern CR geometry requires knowledge of various topics such as real/complex differential and symplectic geometry, foliation theory, the geometric theory of PDE's, and microlocal analysis. Nowadays, the subject of CR geometry is very rich in results, and the amount of material required to reach competence is daunting to graduate students who wish to learn it. However, the present book does not aim at introducing all the topics of current interest in CR geometry. Instead, an attempt is made to be friendly to the novice by moving, in a fairly relaxed way, f...

  18. SABRINA, Geometry Plot Program for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEIDL, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SABRINA is an interactive, three-dimensional, geometry-modeling code system, primarily for use with CCC-200/MCNP. SABRINA's capabilities include creation, visualization, and verification of three-dimensional geometries specified by either surface- or body-base combinatorial geometry; display of particle tracks are calculated by MCNP; and volume fraction generation. 2 - Method of solution: Rendering is performed by ray tracing or an edge and intersection algorithm. Volume fraction calculations are made by ray tracing. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A graphics display with X Window capability is required

  19. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  20. Non-Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler

    2005-01-01

    This concise text by a prominent mathematician deals chiefly with manifolds dominated by the geometry of paths. Topics include asymmetric and symmetric connections, the projective geometry of paths, and the geometry of sub-spaces. 1927 edition.

  1. Geometry of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.Eh.; Gliner, Eh.B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of investigating the Universe space-time geometry are described on a popular level. Immediate space-time geometries, corresponding to three cosmologic models are considered. Space-time geometry of a closed model is the spherical Riemann geonetry, of an open model - is the Lobachevskij geometry; and of a plane model - is the Euclidean geometry. The Universe real geometry in the contemporary epoch of development is based on the data testifying to the fact that the Universe is infinitely expanding

  2. DG-AMMOS: a new tool to generate 3d conformation of small molecules using distance geometry and automated molecular mechanics optimization for in silico screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorce, David; Pencheva, Tania; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Miteva, Maria A

    2009-11-13

    Discovery of new bioactive molecules that could enter drug discovery programs or that could serve as chemical probes is a very complex and costly endeavor. Structure-based and ligand-based in silico screening approaches are nowadays extensively used to complement experimental screening approaches in order to increase the effectiveness of the process and facilitating the screening of thousands or millions of small molecules against a biomolecular target. Both in silico screening methods require as input a suitable chemical compound collection and most often the 3D structure of the small molecules has to be generated since compounds are usually delivered in 1D SMILES, CANSMILES or in 2D SDF formats. Here, we describe the new open source program DG-AMMOS which allows the generation of the 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and their energy minimization via Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization. The program is validated on the Astex dataset, the ChemBridge Diversity database and on a number of small molecules with known crystal structures extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database. A comparison with the free program Balloon and the well-known commercial program Omega generating the 3D of small molecules is carried out. The results show that the new free program DG-AMMOS is a very efficient 3D structure generator engine. DG-AMMOS provides fast, automated and reliable access to the generation of 3D conformation of small molecules and facilitates the preparation of a compound collection prior to high-throughput virtual screening computations. The validation of DG-AMMOS on several different datasets proves that generated structures are generally of equal quality or sometimes better than structures obtained by other tested methods.

  3. DG-AMMOS: A New tool to generate 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villoutreix Bruno O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of new bioactive molecules that could enter drug discovery programs or that could serve as chemical probes is a very complex and costly endeavor. Structure-based and ligand-based in silico screening approaches are nowadays extensively used to complement experimental screening approaches in order to increase the effectiveness of the process and facilitating the screening of thousands or millions of small molecules against a biomolecular target. Both in silico screening methods require as input a suitable chemical compound collection and most often the 3D structure of the small molecules has to be generated since compounds are usually delivered in 1D SMILES, CANSMILES or in 2D SDF formats. Results Here, we describe the new open source program DG-AMMOS which allows the generation of the 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and their energy minimization via Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization. The program is validated on the Astex dataset, the ChemBridge Diversity database and on a number of small molecules with known crystal structures extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database. A comparison with the free program Balloon and the well-known commercial program Omega generating the 3D of small molecules is carried out. The results show that the new free program DG-AMMOS is a very efficient 3D structure generator engine. Conclusion DG-AMMOS provides fast, automated and reliable access to the generation of 3D conformation of small molecules and facilitates the preparation of a compound collection prior to high-throughput virtual screening computations. The validation of DG-AMMOS on several different datasets proves that generated structures are generally of equal quality or sometimes better than structures obtained by other tested methods.

  4. Special metrics and group actions in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fino, Anna; Musso, Emilio; Podestà, Fabio; Vezzoni, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The volume is a follow-up to the INdAM meeting “Special metrics and quaternionic geometry” held in Rome in November 2015. It offers a panoramic view of a selection of cutting-edge topics in differential geometry, including 4-manifolds, quaternionic and octonionic geometry, twistor spaces, harmonic maps, spinors, complex and conformal geometry, homogeneous spaces and nilmanifolds, special geometries in dimensions 5–8, gauge theory, symplectic and toric manifolds, exceptional holonomy and integrable systems. The workshop was held in honor of Simon Salamon, a leading international scholar at the forefront of academic research who has made significant contributions to all these subjects. The articles published here represent a compelling testimony to Salamon’s profound and longstanding impact on the mathematical community. Target readership includes graduate students and researchers working in Riemannian and complex geometry, Lie theory and mathematical physics.

  5. Connecting Functions in Geometry and Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steketee, Scott; Scher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One goal of a mathematics education is that students make significant connections among different branches of mathematics. Connections--such as those between arithmetic and algebra, between two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry, between compass-and-straight-edge constructions and transformations, and between calculus and analytic…

  6. Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…

  7. Identifying Key Features, Cutting Edge Cloud Resources, and Artificial Intelligence Tools to Achieve User-Friendly Water Science in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Decision making for groundwater systems is becoming increasingly important, as shifting water demands increasingly impact aquifers. As buffer systems, aquifers provide room for resilient responses and augment the actual timeframe for hydrological response. Yet the pace impacts, climate shifts, and degradation of water resources is accelerating. To meet these new drivers, groundwater science is transitioning toward the emerging field of Integrated Water Resources Management, or IWRM. IWRM incorporates a broad array of dimensions, methods, and tools to address problems that tend to be complex. Computational tools and accessible cyberinfrastructure (CI) are needed to cross the chasm between science and society. Fortunately cloud computing environments, such as the new Jetstream system, are evolving rapidly. While still targeting scientific user groups systems such as, Jetstream, offer configurable cyberinfrastructure to enable interactive computing and data analysis resources on demand. The web-based interfaces allow researchers to rapidly customize virtual machines, modify computing architecture and increase the usability and access for broader audiences to advanced compute environments. The result enables dexterous configurations and opening up opportunities for IWRM modelers to expand the reach of analyses, number of case studies, and quality of engagement with stakeholders and decision makers. The acute need to identify improved IWRM solutions paired with advanced computational resources refocuses the attention of IWRM researchers on applications, workflows, and intelligent systems that are capable of accelerating progress. IWRM must address key drivers of community concern, implement transdisciplinary methodologies, adapt and apply decision support tools in order to effectively support decisions about groundwater resource management. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced computing services in the cloud using integrated groundwater management case

  8. Modelling of Tool Wear and Residual Stress during Machining of AISI H13 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outeiro, José C.; Umbrello, Domenico; Pina, José C.; Rizzuti, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    Residual stresses can enhance or impair the ability of a component to withstand loading conditions in service (fatigue, creep, stress corrosion cracking, etc.), depending on their nature: compressive or tensile, respectively. This poses enormous problems in structural assembly as this affects the structural integrity of the whole part. In addition, tool wear issues are of critical importance in manufacturing since these affect component quality, tool life and machining cost. Therefore, prediction and control of both tool wear and the residual stresses in machining are absolutely necessary. In this work, a two-dimensional Finite Element model using an implicit Lagrangian formulation with an automatic remeshing was applied to simulate the orthogonal cutting process of AISI H13 tool steel. To validate such model the predicted and experimentally measured chip geometry, cutting forces, temperatures, tool wear and residual stresses on the machined affected layers were compared. The proposed FE model allowed us to investigate the influence of tool geometry, cutting regime parameters and tool wear on residual stress distribution in the machined surface and subsurface of AISI H13 tool steel. The obtained results permit to conclude that in order to reduce the magnitude of surface residual stresses, the cutting speed should be increased, the uncut chip thickness (or feed) should be reduced and machining with honed tools having large cutting edge radii produce better results than chamfered tools. Moreover, increasing tool wear increases the magnitude of surface residual stresses.

  9. Antichiral Edge States in a Modified Haldane Nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomés, E.; Franz, M.

    2018-02-01

    Topological phases of fermions in two dimensions are often characterized by chiral edge states. By definition, these propagate in opposite directions at the two parallel edges when the sample geometry is that of a rectangular strip. We introduce here a model which exhibits what we call "antichiral" edge modes. These propagate in the same direction at both parallel edges of the strip and are compensated by counterpropagating modes that reside in the bulk. General arguments and numerical simulations show that backscattering is suppressed even when strong disorder is present in the system. We propose a feasible experimental realization of a system showing such antichiral edge modes in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers.

  10. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  11. Preset pivotal tool holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  12. Graphical debugging of combinational geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, T.J.; Smith, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A graphical debugger for combinatorial geometry being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described. The prototype debugger consists of two parts: a FORTRAN-based ''view'' generator and a Microsoft Windows application for displaying the geometry. Options and features of both modules are discussed. Examples illustrating the various options available are presented. The potential for utilizing the images produced using the debugger as a visualization tool for the output of the radiation transport codes is discussed as is the future direction of the development

  13. Postcards from the edge: Trash-2-Cash communication tools used to support inter-disciplinary work towards a design driven material innovation (DDMI) methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, R.; Hornbuckle, R.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper postcards from the EU funded Horizon 2020 Trash-2-Cash (2015-2018) project - completed by workshop participants - are presented in three tables with a focus on how they contributed to the building of communication channels, shared understanding and methods in this inter-disciplinary consortium work. The Trash-2-Cash project aims to support better waste utilisation, improve material efficiency, contribute to reduction of landfill area needs, whilst also producing high-value commercial products. Novel materials will drive the generation of new textile fibres that will utilize paper and textile fibre waste, originating from continuously increasing textile consumption. The inter-disciplanarity of the participants is key to achieving the project aims - but communication between sectors is challenging due to diverse expertise and levels of experience; language and cultural differences can also be barriers to collaboration as well. Designing easy and accessible, even fun, communication tools are one of the ways to help build relationships. The cards reviewed were used in Prato (November 2015), Helsinki (February 2016) and London (November 2016). This paper concludes with insights for the ongoing development of the project communications work towards the Design Driven Material Innovation (DDMI) methodology, due to be presented at the end of the project in 2018.

  14. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  15. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose; Ferraro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  16. Geometry of Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, D W

    2008-01-01

    applications of the geometric approach. The first four chapters contain the standard mathematics required to understand the rest of the material presented: specific areas in colour theory, set theory, probability theory, differential geometry and projective geometry are all covered with an eye to the material that follows. Chapter 5 starts the first real discussion of quantum theory in GQS and serves as an elegant, succinct introduction to the geometry which underlies quantum theory. This may be the most worthwhile chapter for the casual reader who wants to understand the key ideas in this field. Chapter 6 builds on the discussion in Chapter 5, introducing a group theoretic approach to understand coherent states and Chapter 7 describes a geometric tool in the form of an approach to complex projective geometry called 'the stellar representation'. Chapter 8 returns to a more purely quantum mechanical discussion as the authors turn to study the space of density matrices. This chapter completes the discussion which started in Chapter 5. Chapter 9 begins the part of the book concerned with applications of the geometric approach. From this point on the book aims, specifically, to prepare the reader for the material in Chapter 15 beginning with a discussion on the purification of mixed quantum states. In the succeeding chapters a definite choice has been made to present a geometric approach to certain quantum information problems. For example, Chapter 10 contains an extremely well formulated discussion of measurement and positive operator-valued measures with several well illustrated examples and Chapter 11 reopens the discussion of density matrices. Entropy and majorization are again revisited in Chapter 12 in much greater detail than in previous chapters. Chapters 13 and 14 concern themselves with a discussion of various metrics and their relation to the problem of distinguishing between probability distributions and their suitability as probability measures. (book review)

  17. A Computational Framework for Experimentation with Edge Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramsey, Marc S; Levitt, Raymond E

    2005-01-01

    .... Traditional project modeling tools cannot adequately represent the critical impact of information and knowledge flows, nor the importance of developing trust between workers in Edge organizations...

  18. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  19. Stability of edge states and edge magnetism in graphene nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Kunstmann, Jens; Özdoğan, Cem; Quandt, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We critically discuss the stability of edge states and edge magnetism in zigzag edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). We point out that magnetic edge states might not exist in real systems, and show that there are at least three very natural mechanisms - edge reconstruction, edge passivation, and edge closure - which dramatically reduce the effect of edge states in ZGNRs or even totally eliminate them. Even if systems with magnetic edge states could be made, the intrinsic magnetism would not be ...

  20. Geometry of surfaces a practical guide for mechanical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Radzevich, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Presents an in-depth analysis of geometry of part surfaces and provides the tools for solving complex engineering problems Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers is a comprehensive guide to applied geometry of surfaces with focus on practical applications in various areas of mechanical engineering. The book is divided into three parts on Part Surfaces, Geometry of Contact of Part Surfaces and Mapping of the Contacting Part Surfaces. Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers combines differential geometry and gearing theory and presents new developments in the elementary theory of enveloping surfaces. Written by a leading expert of the field, this book also provides the reader with the tools for solving complex engineering problems in the field of mechanical engineering. Presents an in-depth analysis of geometry of part surfaces Provides tools for solving complex engineering problems in the field of mechanical engineering Combines differential geometry an...

  1. Geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Walter J

    2006-01-01

    Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...

  2. Algebraic geometry in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algebraic geometry but also in related fields like number theory. ... every vector bundle on the affine space is trivial. (equivalently ... les on a compact Riemann surface to unitary rep- ... tial geometry and topology and was generalised in.

  3. Spinorial Geometry and Branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloane, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)

  4. Spinorial Geometry and Branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, Peter [Department of Mathematics, King' s College, University of London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)

  5. Nanoindentation near the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Jakes; C.R. Frihart; J.F. Beecher; R.J. Moon; P.J. Resto; Z.H. Melgarejo; O.M. Saurez; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa; D.S. Stone

    2009-01-01

    Whenever a nanoindent is placed near an edge, such as the free edge of the specimen or heterophase interface intersecting the surface, the elastic discontinuity associated with the edge produces artifacts in the load-depth data. Unless properly handled in the data analysis, the artifacts can produce spurious results that obscure any real trends in properties as...

  6. Quasi-crystalline geometry for architectural structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture; Weinzieri, Barbara

    The quasi-crystal (QC) type of material was discovered in 1983 by Dan Schechtman from Technion, Haifa. This new crystalline structure of material broke totally with the traditional conception of crystals and geometry introducing non-periodic close packing of cells with fivefold symmetry in 3D space....... The quasi-crystal geometry can be constructed from two different cubic cells with identical rhombic facets, where the relation between the diagonals is the golden section. All cells have identical rhombic faces, identical edges and identical icosahedral/dodecahedral nodes....

  7. Analysis of crack opening stresses for center- and edge-crack tension specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Di-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate determination of crack opening stress is of central importance to fatigue crack growth analysis and life prediction based on the crack-closure model. This paper studies the crack opening behavior for center- and edge-crack tension specimens. It is found that the crack opening stress is affected by the crack tip element. By taking the crack tip element into account, a modified crack opening stress equation is given for the center-crack tension specimen. Crack surface displacement equations for an edge crack in a semi-infinite plate under remote uniform tension and partially distributed pressure are derived by using the weight function method. Based on these displacements, a crack opening stress equation for an edge crack in a semi-infinite plate under uniform tension has been developed. The study shows that the crack opening stress is geometry-dependent, and the weight function method provides an effective and reliable tool to deal with such geometry dependence.

  8. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  9. Physics- and engineering knowledge-based geometry repair system for robust parametric CAD geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dong

    2012-01-01

    In modern multi-objective design optimisation, an effective geometry engine is becoming an essential tool and its performance has a significant impact on the entire process. Building a parametric geometry requires difficult compromises between the conflicting goals of robustness and flexibility. The work presents a solution for improving the robustness of parametric geometry models by capturing and modelling relative engineering knowledge into a surrogate model, and deploying it automatically...

  10. Performance revaluation of a N-type coaxial HPGe detector with front edges crystal using MCNPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azli, Tarek; Chaoui, Zine-El-Abidine

    2015-03-01

    The MCNPX code was used to determine the efficiency of a N-type HPGe detector after two decades of operation. Accounting for the roundedness of the crystal`s front edges and an inhomogeneous description of the detector's dead layers were shown to achieve better agreement between measurements and simulation efficiency determination. The calculations were experimentally verified using point sources in the energy range from 50keV to 1400keV, and an overall uncertainty less than 2% was achieved. In order to use the detector for different matrices and geometries in radioactivity, the suggested model was validated by changing the counting geometry and by using multi-gamma disc sources. The introduced simulation approach permitted the revaluation of the performance of an HPGe detector in comparison of its initial condition, which is a useful tool for precise determination of the thickness of the inhomogeneous dead layer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  12. Geometry essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque

  13. Transition from Connected to Fragmented Vegetation across an Environmental Gradient: Scaling Laws in Ecotone Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastner, Michael T; Oborny, Beata; Zimmermann, D K; Pruessner, Gunnar

    2009-07-01

    A change in the environmental conditions across space-for example, altitude or latitude-can cause significant changes in the density of a vegetation type and, consequently, in spatial connectivity. We use spatially explicit simulations to study the transition from connected to fragmented vegetation. A static (gradient percolation) model is compared to dynamic (gradient contact process) models. Connectivity is characterized from the perspective of various species that use this vegetation type for habitat and differ in dispersal or migration range, that is, "step length" across the landscape. The boundary of connected vegetation delineated by a particular step length is termed the " hull edge." We found that for every step length and for every gradient, the hull edge is a fractal with dimension 7/4. The result is the same for different spatial models, suggesting that there are universal laws in ecotone geometry. To demonstrate that the model is applicable to real data, a hull edge of fractal dimension 7/4 is shown on a satellite image of a piñon-juniper woodland on a hillside. We propose to use the hull edge to define the boundary of a vegetation type unambiguously. This offers a new tool for detecting a shift of the boundary due to a climate change.

  14. Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This established reference work continues to provide its readers with a gateway to some of the most interesting developments in contemporary geometry. It offers insight into a wide range of topics, including fundamental concepts of Riemannian geometry, such as geodesics, connections and curvature; the basic models and tools of geometric analysis, such as harmonic functions, forms, mappings, eigenvalues, the Dirac operator and the heat flow method; as well as the most important variational principles of theoretical physics, such as Yang-Mills, Ginzburg-Landau or the nonlinear sigma model of quantum field theory. The present volume connects all these topics in a systematic geometric framework. At the same time, it equips the reader with the working tools of the field and enables her or him to delve into geometric research.  The 7th edition has been systematically reorganized and updated. Almost no page has been left unchanged. It also includes new material, for instance on symplectic geometry, as well as the B...

  15. Edge and coupled core/edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal E x B drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB , the model predicts transitions to supersonic flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of E x B flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  16. Edge and coupled core-edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal ExB drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB, the model predicts transitions to supersonic SOL flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of ExB flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  17. Quasi-crystalline geometry for architectural structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weizierl, Barbara; Wester, Ture

    2001-01-01

    Artikel på CD-Rom 8 sider. The quasi-crystal (QC) type of material was discovered in 1983 by Dan Schechtman from Technion, Haifa. This new crystalline structure of material broke totally with the traditional conception of crystals and geometry introducing non-periodic close packing of cells...... with fivefold symmetry in 3D space. The quasi-crystal geometry can be constructed from two different cubic cells with identical rhombic facets, where the relation between the diagonals is the golden section. All cells have identical rhombic faces, identical edges and identical icosahedral/dedecahedral nodes....... The purpose of the paper is to investigate some possibilities for the application of Quasi-Crystal geometry for structures in architecture. The basis for the investigations is A: to use the Golden Cubes (the two different hexahedra consisting of rhombic facets where the length of the diagonals has the Golden...

  18. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  19. Revolutions of Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull

  20. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  1. Developments in special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-01-01

    We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  2. Magnetotransport Properties of Graphene Nanoribbons with Zigzag Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Liu, Bing; Shen, Cheng; Li, Si; Huang, Xiaochun; Lu, Xiaobo; Chen, Peng; Wang, Guole; Wang, Duoming; Liao, Mengzhou; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Shuopei; Yang, Wei; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yao, Yugui; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Guangyu

    2018-05-01

    The determination of the electronic structure by edge geometry is unique to graphene. In theory, an evanescent nonchiral edge state is predicted at the zigzag edges of graphene. Up to now, the approach used to study zigzag-edged graphene has mostly been limited to scanning tunneling microscopy. The transport properties have not been revealed. Recent advances in hydrogen plasma-assisted "top-down" fabrication of zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (Z-GNRs) have allowed us to investigate edge-related transport properties. In this Letter, we report the magnetotransport properties of Z-GNRs down to ˜70 nm wide on an h -BN substrate. In the quantum Hall effect regime, a prominent conductance peak is observed at Landau ν =0 , which is absent in GNRs with nonzigzag edges. The conductance peak persists under perpendicular magnetic fields and low temperatures. At a zero magnetic field, a nonlocal voltage signal, evidenced by edge conduction, is detected. These prominent transport features are closely related to the observable density of states at the hydrogen-etched zigzag edge of graphene probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, which qualitatively matches the theoretically predicted electronic structure for zigzag-edged graphene. Our study gives important insights for the design of new edge-related electronic devices.

  3. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  4. Code subspaces for LLM geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, David; Miller, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    We consider effective field theory around classical background geometries with a gauge theory dual, specifically those in the class of LLM geometries. These are dual to half-BPS states of N= 4 SYM. We find that the language of code subspaces is natural for discussing the set of nearby states, which are built by acting with effective fields on these backgrounds. This work extends our previous work by going beyond the strict infinite N limit. We further discuss how one can extract the topology of the state beyond N→∞ and find that, as before, uncertainty and entanglement entropy calculations provide a useful tool to do so. Finally, we discuss obstructions to writing down a globally defined metric operator. We find that the answer depends on the choice of reference state that one starts with. Therefore, within this setup, there is ambiguity in trying to write an operator that describes the metric globally.

  5. ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS, AND GEOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gonzalo Reyes Garcia

    2004-01-01

    ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS, AND GEOMETRY Equations in partial derivatives appeared in the 18th century as essential tools for the analytic study of physical models and, later, they proved to be fundamental for the progress of mathematics. For example, fundamental results of modern differential geometry are based on deep theorems on differential equations. Reciprocally, it is possible to study differential equations through geometrical means just like it was done by o...

  6. Introduction into integral geometry and stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus

    Statistics and Random Fields and is a self-containing introduction into integral geometry and its applications in stereology. The most important integral geometric tools for stereological applications are kinematic formulas and results of Blaschke-Petkantschin type. Therefore, Crofton's formula......This text is the extended version of two talks held at the Summer Academy Stochastic Geometry, Spatial Statistics and Random Fields in the Soellerhaus, Germany, in September 2009. It forms (with slight modifications) a chapter of the Springer lecture notes Lectures on Stochastic Geometry, Spatial...

  7. Geometry of multihadron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.

  8. Designs and finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  9. Geometry of multihadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions

  10. The Beauty of Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…

  11. A Lorentzian quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotz, Andreas

    2011-10-07

    In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.

  12. Methods of information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2000-01-01

    Information geometry provides the mathematical sciences with a new framework of analysis. It has emerged from the investigation of the natural differential geometric structure on manifolds of probability distributions, which consists of a Riemannian metric defined by the Fisher information and a one-parameter family of affine connections called the \\alpha-connections. The duality between the \\alpha-connection and the (-\\alpha)-connection together with the metric play an essential role in this geometry. This kind of duality, having emerged from manifolds of probability distributions, is ubiquitous, appearing in a variety of problems which might have no explicit relation to probability theory. Through the duality, it is possible to analyze various fundamental problems in a unified perspective. The first half of this book is devoted to a comprehensive introduction to the mathematical foundation of information geometry, including preliminaries from differential geometry, the geometry of manifolds or probability d...

  13. A Lorentzian quantum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.

  14. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants/lubricants, ......The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants....../lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain...... geometrical details, as for instance the cutting edge radius, are determined by characteristics of the manufacturing process, tool material, coating etc. While for conventional size end mills the basic tool manufacturing process is well established, the reduction of the size of the tools required...

  15. Geometry on the space of geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T.; Zanelli, J.

    1988-06-01

    We discuss the geometric structure of the configuration space of pure gravity. This is an infinite dimensional manifold, M, where each point represents one spatial geometry g ij (x). The metric on M is dictated by geometrodynamics, and from it, the Christoffel symbols and Riemann tensor can be found. A ''free geometry'' tracing a geodesic on the manifold describes the time evolution of space in the strong gravity limit. In a regularization previously introduced by the authors, it is found that M does not have the same dimensionality, D, everywhere, and that D is not a scalar, although it is covariantly constant. In this regularization, it is seen that the path integral measure can be absorbed in a renormalization of the cosmological constant. (author). 19 refs

  16. Stochastic geometry for image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Descombes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This book develops the stochastic geometry framework for image analysis purpose. Two main frameworks are  described: marked point process and random closed sets models. We derive the main issues for defining an appropriate model. The algorithms for sampling and optimizing the models as well as for estimating parameters are reviewed.  Numerous applications, covering remote sensing images, biological and medical imaging, are detailed.  This book provides all the necessary tools for developing an image analysis application based on modern stochastic modeling.

  17. Tropical geometry of statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lior; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2004-11-16

    This article presents a unified mathematical framework for inference in graphical models, building on the observation that graphical models are algebraic varieties. From this geometric viewpoint, observations generated from a model are coordinates of a point in the variety, and the sum-product algorithm is an efficient tool for evaluating specific coordinates. Here, we address the question of how the solutions to various inference problems depend on the model parameters. The proposed answer is expressed in terms of tropical algebraic geometry. The Newton polytope of a statistical model plays a key role. Our results are applied to the hidden Markov model and the general Markov model on a binary tree.

  18. Edge effects in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, A.N.; Kokhanenko, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article we survey papers on edge effects investigated by the rigorous approach. We interpret edge effects as stressed states created in a composite as a result of zones in which the stresses exhibit a rapidly changing behavior in comparison with the slow variation of the stresses outside such zones. Here the range of the edge effect is defined as the distance from the point of its inception to the boundary of the edge zone in a given direction. The transition of the stresses to the slowly varying state is determined within prescribed error limits. The size and configuration of the edge zone depends on the tolerated error. Clearly, the main difficulty associated with the rigorous approach is finding solutions of the elasticity problems. The finite-difference approach is suggested for the approximate solution of these problems. In light of the comparative time consumption of the finite-difference approach, it is best directed at certain classes of problems rather than at particular individual problems. Not too many papers on the investigation of edge effects by the rigorous approach have been published to date. Below, following in their footsteps, we formulate edge effect problems in composites, determine classes of problems, and investigate edge effects in composite materials and structural elements using them in Cartesian (planar and three-dimensional problems) and cylindrical (axisymmetric problems) coordinate frames. We note that the division of approaches to the study of edge effects into qualitative (nonrigorous) and quantitative (rigorous) reflects the authors own point of view. Of course, other schemes of classification of the approaches to the investigation of the regions of rapidly varying states in composites are possible

  19. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  20. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  1. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kulczycki, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff

  2. Lectures on coarse geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, John

    2003-01-01

    Coarse geometry is the study of spaces (particularly metric spaces) from a 'large scale' point of view, so that two spaces that look the same from a great distance are actually equivalent. This point of view is effective because it is often true that the relevant geometric properties of metric spaces are determined by their coarse geometry. Two examples of important uses of coarse geometry are Gromov's beautiful notion of a hyperbolic group and Mostow's proof of his famous rigidity theorem. The first few chapters of the book provide a general perspective on coarse structures. Even when only metric coarse structures are in view, the abstract framework brings the same simplification as does the passage from epsilons and deltas to open sets when speaking of continuity. The middle section reviews notions of negative curvature and rigidity. Modern interest in large scale geometry derives in large part from Mostow's rigidity theorem and from Gromov's subsequent 'large scale' rendition of the crucial properties of n...

  3. Lectures on Symplectic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Ana Cannas

    2001-01-01

    The goal of these notes is to provide a fast introduction to symplectic geometry for graduate students with some knowledge of differential geometry, de Rham theory and classical Lie groups. This text addresses symplectomorphisms, local forms, contact manifolds, compatible almost complex structures, Kaehler manifolds, hamiltonian mechanics, moment maps, symplectic reduction and symplectic toric manifolds. It contains guided problems, called homework, designed to complement the exposition or extend the reader's understanding. There are by now excellent references on symplectic geometry, a subset of which is in the bibliography of this book. However, the most efficient introduction to a subject is often a short elementary treatment, and these notes attempt to serve that purpose. This text provides a taste of areas of current research and will prepare the reader to explore recent papers and extensive books on symplectic geometry where the pace is much faster. For this reprint numerous corrections and cl...

  4. Complex algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, János

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.

  5. Geometry and Combinatorics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D.-thesis is somewhere in between continuous and discrete geometry. Chapter 2 treats the geometry of finite point sets in semi-Riemannian hyperquadrics,using a matrix whose entries are a trigonometric function of relative distances in a given point set. The distance...... to the geometry of a simplex in a semi-Riemannian hyperquadric. In chapter 3 we study which finite metric spaces that are realizable in a hyperbolic space in the limit where curvature goes to -∞. We show that such spaces are the so called leaf spaces, the set of degree 1 vertices of weighted trees. We also...... establish results on the limiting geometry of such an isometrically realized leaf space simplex in hyperbolic space, when curvature goes to -∞. Chapter 4 discusses negative type of metric spaces. We give a measure theoretic treatment of this concept and related invariants. The theory developed...

  6. The geometry of geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to qualitative problems in intrinsic differential geometry, this text examines Desarguesian spaces, perpendiculars and parallels, covering spaces, the influence of the sign of the curvature on geodesics, more. 1955 edition. Includes 66 figures.

  7. Geometry and billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Tabachnikov, Serge

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical billiards describe the motion of a mass point in a domain with elastic reflections off the boundary or, equivalently, the behavior of rays of light in a domain with ideally reflecting boundary. From the point of view of differential geometry, the billiard flow is the geodesic flow on a manifold with boundary. This book is devoted to billiards in their relation with differential geometry, classical mechanics, and geometrical optics. The topics covered include variational principles of billiard motion, symplectic geometry of rays of light and integral geometry, existence and nonexistence of caustics, optical properties of conics and quadrics and completely integrable billiards, periodic billiard trajectories, polygonal billiards, mechanisms of chaos in billiard dynamics, and the lesser-known subject of dual (or outer) billiards. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate topics course (but contains more material than can be realistically taught in one semester). Although the minimum prerequisit...

  8. Rudiments of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Jenner, WE

    2017-01-01

    Aimed at advanced undergraduate students of mathematics, this concise text covers the basics of algebraic geometry. Topics include affine spaces, projective spaces, rational curves, algebraic sets with group structure, more. 1963 edition.

  9. Pavement edge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Four projects were built over two construction seasons using special devices attached to the paving machine that produces a 30 slope on the outside pavement edge instead of the near vertical drop-off common with conventional paving equipment. This ...

  10. Implosions and hypertoric geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dancer, A.; Kirwan, F.; Swann, A.

    2013-01-01

    The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion.......The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion....

  11. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  12. d-geometries revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ceresole, Anna; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Marrani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    We analyze some properties of the four dimensional supergravity theories which originate from five dimensions upon reduction. They generalize to N>2 extended supersymmetries the d-geometries with cubic prepotentials, familiar from N=2 special K\\"ahler geometry. We emphasize the role of a suitable parametrization of the scalar fields and the corresponding triangular symplectic basis. We also consider applications to the first order flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes.

  13. Edge Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Angus, Justin [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The goal of the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) multi-institutional project is to advance scientific understanding of the edge plasma region of magnetic fusion devices via a coordinated effort utilizing modern computing resources, advanced algorithms, and ongoing theoretical development. The UCSD team was involved in the development of the COGENT code for kinetic studies across a magnetic separatrix. This work included a kinetic treatment of electrons and multiple ion species (impurities) and accurate collision operators.

  14. Software Geometry in Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alion, Tyler; Viren, Brett; Junk, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) involves many detectors. The experiment's near detector (ND) facility, may ultimately involve several detectors. The far detector (FD) will be significantly larger than any other Liquid Argon (LAr) detector yet constructed; many prototype detectors are being constructed and studied to motivate a plethora of proposed FD designs. Whether it be a constructed prototype or a proposed ND/FD design, every design must be simulated and analyzed. This presents a considerable challenge to LBNE software experts; each detector geometry must be described to the simulation software in an efficient way which allows for multiple authors to easily collaborate. Furthermore, different geometry versions must be tracked throughout their use. We present a framework called General Geometry Description (GGD), written and developed by LBNE software collaborators for managing software to generate geometries. Though GGD is flexible enough to be used by any experiment working with detectors, we present it's first use in generating Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) files to interface with LArSoft, a framework of detector simulations, event reconstruction, and data analyses written for all LAr technology users at Fermilab. Brett is the other of the framework discussed here, the General Geometry Description (GGD).

  15. Introduction to combinatorial geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    The combinatorial geometry package as used in many three-dimensional multimedia Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, such as HETC, MORSE, and EGS, is becoming the preferred way to describe simple and complicated systems. Just about any system can be modeled using the package with relatively few input statements. This can be contrasted against the older style geometry packages in which the required input statements could be large even for relatively simple systems. However, with advancements come some difficulties. The users of combinatorial geometry must be able to visualize more, and, in some instances, all of the system at a time. Errors can be introduced into the modeling which, though slight, and at times hard to detect, can have devastating effects on the calculated results. As with all modeling packages, the best way to learn the combinatorial geometry is to use it, first on a simple system then on more complicated systems. The basic technique for the description of the geometry consists of defining the location and shape of the various zones in terms of the intersections and unions of geometric bodies. The geometric bodies which are generally included in most combinatorial geometry packages are: (1) box, (2) right parallelepiped, (3) sphere, (4) right circular cylinder, (5) right elliptic cylinder, (6) ellipsoid, (7) truncated right cone, (8) right angle wedge, and (9) arbitrary polyhedron. The data necessary to describe each of these bodies are given. As can be easily noted, there are some subsets included for simplicity

  16. VIII International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, José; Palomo, Francisco; GeLoMa 2016; Lorentzian geometry and related topics

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of research papers and useful surveys by experts in the field which provide a representative picture of the current status of this fascinating area. Based on contributions from the VIII International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry, held at the University of Málaga, Spain, this volume covers topics such as distinguished (maximal, trapped, null, spacelike, constant mean curvature, umbilical...) submanifolds, causal completion of spacetimes, stationary regions and horizons in spacetimes, solitons in semi-Riemannian manifolds, relation between Lorentzian and Finslerian geometries and the oscillator spacetime. In the last decades Lorentzian geometry has experienced a significant impulse, which has transformed it from just a mathematical tool for general relativity to a consolidated branch of differential geometry, interesting in and of itself. Nowadays, this field provides a framework where many different mathematical techniques arise with applications to multiple parts of mathem...

  17. Homological mirror symmetry and tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Kontsevich, Maxim; Pantev, Tony; Soibelman, Yan; Zharkov, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Tropical Geometry and Mirror Symmetry goes back to the work of Kontsevich and Y. Soibelman (2000), who applied methods of non-archimedean geometry (in particular, tropical curves) to Homological Mirror Symmetry. In combination with the subsequent work of Mikhalkin on the “tropical” approach to Gromov-Witten theory, and the work of Gross and Siebert, Tropical Geometry has now become a powerful tool. Homological Mirror Symmetry is the area of mathematics concentrated around several categorical equivalences connecting symplectic and holomorphic (or algebraic) geometry. The central ideas first appeared in the work of Maxim Kontsevich (1993). Roughly speaking, the subject can be approached in two ways: either one uses Lagrangian torus fibrations of Calabi-Yau manifolds (the so-called Strominger-Yau-Zaslow picture, further developed by Kontsevich and Soibelman) or one uses Lefschetz fibrations of symplectic manifolds (suggested by Kontsevich and further developed by Seidel). Tropical Ge...

  18. Performance revaluation of a N-type coaxial HPGe detector with front edges crystal using MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azli, Tarek; Chaoui, Zine-El-Abidine

    2015-01-01

    The MCNPX code was used to determine the efficiency of a N-type HPGe detector after two decades of operation. Accounting for the roundedness of the crystal's front edges and an inhomogeneous description of the detector's dead layers were shown to achieve better agreement between measurements and simulation efficiency determination. The calculations were experimentally verified using point sources in the energy range from 50 keV to 1400 keV, and an overall uncertainty less than 2% was achieved. In order to use the detector for different matrices and geometries in radioactivity, the suggested model was validated by changing the counting geometry and by using multi-gamma disc sources. The introduced simulation approach permitted the revaluation of the performance of an HPGe detector in comparison of its initial condition, which is a useful tool for precise determination of the thickness of the inhomogeneous dead layer. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo (MCNPX) simulation of an HPGe detector performance after more than two decades in use. • Investigating influence of detector rounded front edges of crystal. • Achieving good matching between Monte Carlo simulation and experiments by inhomogeneous description of detector dead layers

  19. Commercial Technology at the Tactical Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Software defined Networking ( SDN ), Autonomic Networking , and Cognitive Radios for Spectrum Sharing. Software defined ...www.opennetworking.org/. 41 Pan, P., “ Software Defined Network ( SDN ) Problem Statement and Use Cases for Data Center Applications,” IETF, 2011, http://tools.ietf.org/id...routinely at the tactical edge in the near future. These include software defined networking , autonomous networks , cognitive

  20. Global aspects of complex geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Huckleberry, Alan T

    2006-01-01

    Present an overview of developments in Complex Geometry. This book covers topics that range from curve and surface theory through special varieties in higher dimensions, moduli theory, Kahler geometry, and group actions to Hodge theory and characteristic p-geometry.

  1. Understanding the edge effect in wetting: a thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guoping; Amirfazli, A

    2012-06-26

    Edge effect is known to hinder spreading of a sessile drop. However, the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for the edge effect still is not well-understood. In this study, a free energy model has been developed to investigate the energetic state of drops on a single pillar (from upright frustum to inverted frustum geometries). An analysis of drop free energy levels before and after crossing the edge allows us to understand the thermodynamic origin of the edge effect. In particular, four wetting cases for a drop on a single pillar with different edge angles have been determined by understanding the characteristics of FE plots. A wetting map describing the four wetting cases is given in terms of edge angle and intrinsic contact angle. The results show that the free energy barrier observed near the edge plays an important role in determining the drop states, i.e., (1) stable or metastable drop states at the pillar's edge, and (2) drop collapse by liquid spilling over the edge completely or staying at an intermediate sidewall position of the pillar. This thermodynamic model presents an energetic framework to describe the functioning of the so-called "re-entrant" structures. Results show good consistency with the literature and expand the current understanding of Gibbs' inequality condition.

  2. Learning Geometry by Designing Persian Mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssenberg, Goossen

    2014-01-01

    To encourage students to do geometry, the art of Islamic geometric ornamentation was chosen as the central theme of a lesson strand which was developed using the newly presented didactical tool called "Learning by Acting". The Dutch students who took these lessons in 2010 to 2013 were challenged to act as if they themselves were Persian…

  3. Prediction of protein loop geometries in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, Chaya S.; Strauss, Temima; Nederveen, Aart; Fuentes, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    The ability to determine the structure of a protein in solution is a critical tool for structural biology, as proteins in their native state are found in aqueous environments. Using a physical chemistry based prediction protocol, we demonstrate the ability to reproduce protein loop geometries in

  4. Properties on the edge: graphene edge energies, edge stresses, edge warping, and the Wulff shape of graphene flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicio, Paulo S; Jhon, Mark H; Gan, Chee Kwan; Srolovitz, David J

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the broken bonds of an unreconstructed graphene edge generate compressive edge stresses leading to edge warping. Here, we investigate edge energies and edge stresses of graphene nanoribbons with arbitrary orientations from armchair to zigzag, considering both flat and warped edge shapes in the presence and absence of hydrogen. We use the second generation reactive empirical bond order potential to calculate the edge energies and stresses for clean and hydrogenated edges. Using these energies, we perform a Wulff construction to determine the equilibrium shapes of flat graphene flakes as a function of hydrogen chemical potential. While edge stresses for clean, flat edges are compressive, they become tensile if allowed to warp. Conversely, we find that edge energies change little (∼1%) with edge warping. Hydrogenation of the edges virtually eliminates both the edge energy and edge stresses. For warped edges an approximately linear relationship is found between amplitudes and wavelengths. The equilibrium shape of a graphene flake is determined by the value of the hydrogen chemical potential. For very small (and large) values of it the flakes have a nearly hexagonal (dodecagon) shape with zigzag oriented edges, while for intermediate values graphene flakes are found with complex shapes

  5. Sources of hyperbolic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stillwell, John

    1996-01-01

    This book presents, for the first time in English, the papers of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincaré that brought hyperbolic geometry into the mainstream of mathematics. A recognition of Beltrami comparable to that given the pioneering works of Bolyai and Lobachevsky seems long overdue-not only because Beltrami rescued hyperbolic geometry from oblivion by proving it to be logically consistent, but because he gave it a concrete meaning (a model) that made hyperbolic geometry part of ordinary mathematics. The models subsequently discovered by Klein and Poincaré brought hyperbolic geometry even further down to earth and paved the way for the current explosion of activity in low-dimensional geometry and topology. By placing the works of these three mathematicians side by side and providing commentaries, this book gives the student, historian, or professional geometer a bird's-eye view of one of the great episodes in mathematics. The unified setting and historical context reveal the insights of Beltrami, Klein, and Po...

  6. Generalizing optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23-30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity

  7. Development and application of CATIA-GDML geometry builder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, S; Chernogorov, A; Ovcharenko, E; Schetinin, V; Berchun, Yu; Malzacher, P

    2014-01-01

    Due to conceptual difference between geometry descriptions in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems and particle transport Monte Carlo (MC) codes direct conversion of detector geometry in either direction is not feasible. The paper presents an update on functionality and application practice of the CATIA-GDML geometry builder first introduced at CHEP2010. This set of CATIAv5 tools has been developed for building a MC optimized GEANT4/ROOT compatible geometry based on the existing CAD model. The model can be exported via Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML). The builder allows also import and visualization of GEANT4/ROOT geometries in CATIA. The structure of a GDML file, including replicated volumes, volume assemblies and variables, is mapped into a part specification tree. A dedicated file template, a wide range of primitives, tools for measurement and implicit calculation of parameters, different types of multiple volume instantiation, mirroring, positioning and quality check have been implemented. Several use cases are discussed.

  8. Edge diagnostics for tandem mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    The edge plasma in a tandem mirror machine shields the plasma core from cold neutral gas and impurities. A variety of diagnostics are used to measure the fueling, shielding, and confinement of the edge plasma in both the end plug and central cell regions. Fast ion gauges and residual gas analyzers measure the gas pressure and composition outside of the plasma. An array of Langmuir probes is used to measure the electron density and temperature. Extreme ultraviolet (euv) and visible spectroscopy are used to measure both the impurity and deuterium densities and to estimate the shielding factor for the core plasma. The linear geometry of a tandem mirror also allows direct measurements of the edge plasma by sampling the ions and electrons lost but the ends of the machine. Representative data obtained by these diagnostics during operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) and Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) experiments are presented. Diagnostics that are currently being developed to diagnose the edge plasma are also discussed

  9. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  10. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  11. Lectures on discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  12. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  13. THE COMMON EVOLUTION OF GEOMETRY AND ARCHITECTURE FROM A GEODETIC POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bellone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the link between geometry and architecture has been strong and while architects have used mathematics to construct their buildings, geometry has always been the essential tool allowing them to choose spatial shapes which are aesthetically appropriate. Sometimes it is geometry which drives architectural choices, but at other times it is architectural innovation which facilitates the emergence of new ideas in geometry. Among the best known types of geometry (Euclidean, projective, analytical, Topology, descriptive, fractal,… those most frequently employed in architectural design are: – Euclidean Geometry – Projective Geometry – The non-Euclidean geometries. Entire architectural periods are linked to specific types of geometry. Euclidean geometry, for example, was the basis for architectural styles from Antiquity through to the Romanesque period. Perspective and Projective geometry, for their part, were important from the Gothic period through the Renaissance and into the Baroque and Neo-classical eras, while non-Euclidean geometries characterize modern architecture.

  14. The Common Evolution of Geometry and Architecture from a Geodetic Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, T.; Fiermonte, F.; Mussio, L.

    2017-05-01

    Throughout history the link between geometry and architecture has been strong and while architects have used mathematics to construct their buildings, geometry has always been the essential tool allowing them to choose spatial shapes which are aesthetically appropriate. Sometimes it is geometry which drives architectural choices, but at other times it is architectural innovation which facilitates the emergence of new ideas in geometry. Among the best known types of geometry (Euclidean, projective, analytical, Topology, descriptive, fractal,…) those most frequently employed in architectural design are: - Euclidean Geometry - Projective Geometry - The non-Euclidean geometries. Entire architectural periods are linked to specific types of geometry. Euclidean geometry, for example, was the basis for architectural styles from Antiquity through to the Romanesque period. Perspective and Projective geometry, for their part, were important from the Gothic period through the Renaissance and into the Baroque and Neo-classical eras, while non-Euclidean geometries characterize modern architecture.

  15. Geometry and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi

  16. Core Geometry in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Moira R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research on animals, infants, children, and adults provides evidence that distinct cognitive systems underlie navigation and object recognition. Here we examine whether and how these systems interact when children interpret 2D edge-based perspectival line drawings of scenes and objects. Such drawings serve as symbols early in development, and they…

  17. High Speed Edge Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  18. A graph signal filtering-based approach for detection of different edge types on airborne lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Eda; Vural, Elif; Alatan, Aydin

    2017-10-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning is a well-known remote sensing technology, which provides a dense and highly accurate, yet unorganized point cloud of earth surface. During the last decade, extracting information from the data generated by airborne LiDAR systems has been addressed by many studies in geo-spatial analysis and urban monitoring applications. However, the processing of LiDAR point clouds is challenging due to their irregular structure and 3D geometry. In this study, we propose a novel framework for the detection of the boundaries of an object or scene captured by LiDAR. Our approach is motivated by edge detection techniques in vision research and it is established on graph signal filtering which is an exciting and promising field of signal processing for irregular data types. Due to the convenient applicability of graph signal processing tools on unstructured point clouds, we achieve the detection of the edge points directly on 3D data by using a graph representation that is constructed exclusively to answer the requirements of the application. Moreover, considering the elevation data as the (graph) signal, we leverage aerial characteristic of the airborne LiDAR data. The proposed method can be employed both for discovering the jump edges on a segmentation problem and for exploring the crease edges on a LiDAR object on a reconstruction/modeling problem, by only adjusting the filter characteristics.

  19. Modeling of the radiative field in complex geometries using computerized graphical tools. Application to comfort characterization in environments equipped with important radiative sources; Modelisation du champ radiatif dans des geometries complexes a l`aide d`outils infographiques. Application a la caracterisation du confort dans les ambiances munies de sources radiatives importantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolescu, M; Sperandio, M; Allard, F [La Rochelle Universite, 17 - La Rochelle, LEPTAB (France)

    1997-12-31

    Bibliographic studies in the domain of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries demonstrate the impossibility of resolving such problems using classical analytical methods. The numerical analysis can theoretically be performed successfully but requires enormous computer means. The contribution of this study consists in using computerized graphical techniques to treat general problems of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries. This paper presents the model used, the calculation technique and the optimizations that allow to greatly reduce the computer memory required and the calculation time. The code developed uses evocative images for the synthetic presentation of results which facilitate the searcher`s and conceiver`s choices. Finally, an application to the characterization of thermal comfort in residential environments is developed to illustrate the potentialities of this method. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  20. Modeling of the radiative field in complex geometries using computerized graphical tools. Application to comfort characterization in environments equipped with important radiative sources; Modelisation du champ radiatif dans des geometries complexes a l`aide d`outils infographiques. Application a la caracterisation du confort dans les ambiances munies de sources radiatives importantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolescu, M.; Sperandio, M.; Allard, F. [La Rochelle Universite, 17 - La Rochelle, LEPTAB (France)

    1996-12-31

    Bibliographic studies in the domain of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries demonstrate the impossibility of resolving such problems using classical analytical methods. The numerical analysis can theoretically be performed successfully but requires enormous computer means. The contribution of this study consists in using computerized graphical techniques to treat general problems of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries. This paper presents the model used, the calculation technique and the optimizations that allow to greatly reduce the computer memory required and the calculation time. The code developed uses evocative images for the synthetic presentation of results which facilitate the searcher`s and conceiver`s choices. Finally, an application to the characterization of thermal comfort in residential environments is developed to illustrate the potentialities of this method. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  1. RGG: Reactor geometry (and mesh) generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.; Tautges, T.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor geometry (and mesh) generator RGG takes advantage of information about repeated structures in both assembly and core lattices to simplify the creation of geometry and mesh. It is released as open source software as a part of the MeshKit mesh generation library. The methodology operates in three stages. First, assembly geometry models of various types are generated by a tool called AssyGen. Next, the assembly model or models are meshed by using MeshKit tools or the CUBIT mesh generation tool-kit, optionally based on a journal file output by AssyGen. After one or more assembly model meshes have been constructed, a tool called CoreGen uses a copy/move/merge process to arrange the model meshes into a core model. In this paper, we present the current state of tools and new features in RGG. We also discuss the parallel-enabled CoreGen, which in several cases achieves super-linear speedups since the problems fit in available RAM at higher processor counts. Several RGG applications - 1/6 VHTR model, 1/4 PWR reactor core, and a full-core model for Monju - are reported. (authors)

  2. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  3. Multiplicity in difference geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We prove a first principle of preservation of multiplicity in difference geometry, paving the way for the development of a more general intersection theory. In particular, the fibres of a \\sigma-finite morphism between difference curves are all of the same size, when counted with correct multiplicities.

  4. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  5. Physics and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The basic ideas of description methods of physical fields and elementary particle interactions are discussed. One of such ideas is the conception of space-time geometry. In this connection experimental measurement methods are analyzed. It is shown that measure procedures are the origin of geometrical axioms. The connection between space symmetry properties and the conservation laws is considered

  6. Origami, Geometry and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…

  7. Gravity is Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  8. Towards a Nano Geometry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies I.M. Gelfand's distinction between adequate and non-adequate use of mathematical language in different contexts to the newly opened window of model-based measurements of intracellular dynamics. The specifics of geometry and dynamics on the mesoscale of cell physiology are elabo...

  9. Diophantine geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hindry, Marc

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.

  10. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  11. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  12. Non-euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Coxeter, HSM

    1965-01-01

    This textbook introduces non-Euclidean geometry, and the third edition adds a new chapter, including a description of the two families of 'mid-lines' between two given lines and an elementary derivation of the basic formulae of spherical trigonometry and hyperbolic trigonometry, and other new material.

  13. Topics in Riemannian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezin, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The lectures given at the ''5th Symposium of Mathematics in Abidjan: Differential Geometry and Mechanics'' are presented. They are divided into four chapters: Riemannian metric on a differential manifold, curvature tensor fields on a Riemannian manifold, some classical functionals on Riemannian manifolds and questions. 11 refs

  14. Geometry Euclid and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hartshorne, Robin

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, I have been teaching a junior-senior-level course on the classi­ cal geometries. This book has grown out of that teaching experience. I assume only high-school geometry and some abstract algebra. The course begins in Chapter 1 with a critical examination of Euclid's Elements. Students are expected to read concurrently Books I-IV of Euclid's text, which must be obtained sepa­ rately. The remainder of the book is an exploration of questions that arise natu­ rally from this reading, together with their modern answers. To shore up the foundations we use Hilbert's axioms. The Cartesian plane over a field provides an analytic model of the theory, and conversely, we see that one can introduce coordinates into an abstract geometry. The theory of area is analyzed by cutting figures into triangles. The algebra of field extensions provides a method for deciding which geometrical constructions are possible. The investigation of the parallel postulate leads to the various non-Euclidean geometries. And ...

  15. Numerical studies of edge localized instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Snyder, P.B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Miller, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    A new computational tool, edge localized instabilities in tokamaks equilibria (ELITE), has been developed to help our understanding of short wavelength instabilities close to the edge of tokamak plasmas. Such instabilities may be responsible for the edge localized modes observed in high confinement H-mode regimes, which are a serious concern for next step tokamaks because of the high transient power loads which they can impose on divertor target plates. ELITE uses physical insight gained from analytic studies of peeling and ballooning modes to provide an efficient way of calculating the edge ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability properties of tokamaks. This paper describes the theoretical formalism which forms the basis for the code

  16. Noncommutative Geometry, Quantum Fields and Motives

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The unifying theme of this book is the interplay among noncommutative geometry, physics, and number theory. The two main objects of investigation are spaces where both the noncommutative and the motivic aspects come to play a role: space-time, where the guiding principle is the problem of developing a quantum theory of gravity, and the space of primes, where one can regard the Riemann Hypothesis as a long-standing problem motivating the development of new geometric tools. The book stresses the relevance of noncommutative geometry in dealing with these two spaces. The first part of the book dea

  17. The Inner Urban Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferebee, Ann; Carpenter, Edward K.

    1974-01-01

    In this article, renewal of the inner urban edge is discussed. Norfolk (Virginia) is attempting to blur the difference between old and new neighbor hoods through zoning and architectural controls. Cincinnati (Ohio) is developing an environmentally sound hillside design. Reading (Pennsylvania) is utilizing old railyards for greenbelts of hiking and…

  18. Swords with Blunt Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, W. James

    2004-01-01

    Many U.S. educators now wonder whether they're teachers or targets. This mentality stems from the specter of their school being sanctioned for failing the state accountability tests mandated under No Child Left Behind (NCLB). According to this author, most of those tests are like blunt-edged swords: They function badly in two directions. While…

  19. Statistical geometry and space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauert, H.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper I try to construct a mathematical tool by which the full structure of Lorentz geometry to space time can be given, but beyond that the background - to speak pictorially - the subsoil for electromagnetic and matter waves, too. The tool could be useful to describe the connections between various particles, electromagnetism and gravity and to compute observables which were not theoretically related, up to now. Moreover, the tool is simpler than the Riemann tensor: it consists just of a set S of line segments in space time, briefly speaking. (orig.) [de

  20. Edge detection based on computational ghost imaging with structured illuminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Xiang, Dong; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Xin; Bing, Pibin

    2018-03-01

    Edge detection is one of the most important tools to recognize the features of an object. In this paper, we propose an optical edge detection method based on computational ghost imaging (CGI) with structured illuminations which are generated by an interference system. The structured intensity patterns are designed to make the edge of an object be directly imaged from detected data in CGI. This edge detection method can extract the boundaries for both binary and grayscale objects in any direction at one time. We also numerically test the influence of distance deviations in the interference system on edge extraction, i.e., the tolerance of the optical edge detection system to distance deviation. Hopefully, it may provide a guideline for scholars to build an experimental system.

  1. Geometry of wave electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E. C.G.

    1980-10-27

    A challenge to the commonly held view of light as a wave phenomenon is presented. An exact realization of light as generalized pencils or rays is constructed, with stress placed on using pencils of rays rather than single rays. Exact equations of motion are presented for the rays in the pencil, and these rays tend to travel in straight lines in empty space (not too near the edge of the beam). (GHT)

  2. Geometry of curves and surfaces with Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Rovenski, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    This concise text on geometry with computer modeling presents some elementary methods for analytical modeling and visualization of curves and surfaces. The author systematically examines such powerful tools as 2-D and 3-D animation of geometric images, transformations, shadows, and colors, and then further studies more complex problems in differential geometry. Well-illustrated with more than 350 figures---reproducible using Maple programs in the book---the work is devoted to three main areas: curves, surfaces, and polyhedra. Pedagogical benefits can be found in the large number of Maple programs, some of which are analogous to C++ programs, including those for splines and fractals. To avoid tedious typing, readers will be able to download many of the programs from the Birkhauser web site. Aimed at a broad audience of students, instructors of mathematics, computer scientists, and engineers who have knowledge of analytical geometry, i.e., method of coordinates, this text will be an excellent classroom resource...

  3. Multivariate calculus and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dineen, Seán

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate calculus can be understood best by combining geometric insight, intuitive arguments, detailed explanations and mathematical reasoning. This textbook has successfully followed this programme. It additionally provides a solid description of the basic concepts, via familiar examples, which are then tested in technically demanding situations. In this new edition the introductory chapter and two of the chapters on the geometry of surfaces have been revised. Some exercises have been replaced and others provided with expanded solutions. Familiarity with partial derivatives and a course in linear algebra are essential prerequisites for readers of this book. Multivariate Calculus and Geometry is aimed primarily at higher level undergraduates in the mathematical sciences. The inclusion of many practical examples involving problems of several variables will appeal to mathematics, science and engineering students.

  4. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  5. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2000-02-01

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol.

  6. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Fast, Patton L. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)

    2000-02-15

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Geometry and Destiny

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, Lawrence M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition that the cosmological constant may be non-zero forces us to re-evaluate standard notions about the connection between geometry and the fate of our Universe. An open Universe can recollapse, and a closed Universe can expand forever. As a corollary, we point out that there is no set of cosmological observations we can perform that will unambiguously allow us to determine what the ultimate destiny of the Universe will be.

  8. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  9. Electroweak vacuum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepora, N.; Kibble, T.

    1999-01-01

    We analyse symmetry breaking in the Weinberg-Salam model paying particular attention to the underlying geometry of the theory. In this context we find two natural metrics upon the vacuum manifold: an isotropic metric associated with the scalar sector, and a squashed metric associated with the gauge sector. Physically, the interplay between these metrics gives rise to many of the non-perturbative features of Weinberg-Salam theory. (author)

  10. W-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The geometric structure of theories with gauge fields of spins two and higher should involve a higher spin generalisation of Riemannian geometry. Such geometries are discussed and the case of W ∝ -gravity is analysed in detail. While the gauge group for gravity in d dimensions is the diffeomorphism group of the space-time, the gauge group for a certain W-gravity theory (which is W ∝ -gravity in the case d=2) is the group of symplectic diffeomorphisms of the cotangent bundle of the space-time. Gauge transformations for W-gravity gauge fields are given by requiring the invariance of a generalised line element. Densities exist and can be constructed from the line element (generalising √detg μν ) only if d=1 or d=2, so that only for d=1,2 can actions be constructed. These two cases and the corresponding W-gravity actions are considered in detail. In d=2, the gauge group is effectively only a subgroup of the symplectic diffeomorphisms group. Some of the constraints that arise for d=2 are similar to equations arising in the study of self-dual four-dimensional geometries and can be analysed using twistor methods, allowing contact to be made with other formulations of W-gravity. While the twistor transform for self-dual spaces with one Killing vector reduces to a Legendre transform, that for two Killing vectors gives a generalisation of the Legendre transform. (orig.)

  11. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  12. Freeform manufacturing of a microoptical lens array on a steep curved substrate by use of a voice coil fast tool servo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiding, Sebastian; Yi, Allen Y; Gebhardt, Andreas; Li, Lei; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-11-21

    We report what is to our knowledge the first approach to diamond turn microoptical lens array on a steep curved substrate by use of a voice coil fast tool servo. In recent years ultraprecision machining has been employed to manufacture accurate optical components with 3D structure for beam shaping, imaging and nonimaging applications. As a result, geometries that are difficult or impossible to manufacture using lithographic techniques might be fabricated using small diamond tools with well defined cutting edges. These 3D structures show no rotational symmetry, but rather high frequency asymmetric features thus can be treated as freeform geometries. To transfer the 3D surface data with the high frequency freeform features into a numerical control code for machining, the commonly piecewise differentiable surfaces are represented as a cloud of individual points. Based on this numeric data, the tool radius correction is calculated to account for the cutting-edge geometry. Discontinuities of the cutting tool locations due to abrupt slope changes on the substrate surface are bridged using cubic spline interpolation.When superimposed with the trajectory of the rotationally symmetric substrate the complete microoptical geometry in 3D space is established. Details of the fabrication process and performance evaluation are described. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. ICRF edge modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress for the DOE sponsored grant, ''ICRF Edge Modeling.'' An emphasis is placed on the progress since the Technical Progress Report (January 10, 1990) was submitted to the Department of Energy. The design of ICRF antennas for C-Mod and TFTR was investigated during this period. In addition, quasilinear models for electron heating were refined and applied to the design of ICRF antennas. The relevant professional activities sponsored by this grant are given. 4 refs., 11 figs

  14. Introducing geometry concept based on history of Islamic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarif, S.; Wahyudin; Raditya, A.; Perbowo, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    Geometry is one of the areas of mathematics interesting to discuss. Geometry also has a long history in mathematical developments. Therefore, it is important integrated historical development of geometry in the classroom to increase’ knowledge of how mathematicians earlier finding and constructing a geometric concept. Introduction geometrical concept can be started by introducing the Muslim mathematician who invented these concepts so that students can understand in detail how a concept of geometry can be found. However, the history of mathematics development, especially history of Islamic geometry today is less popular in the world of education in Indonesia. There are several concepts discovered by Muslim mathematicians that should be appreciated by the students in learning geometry. Great ideas of mathematicians Muslim can be used as study materials to supplement religious character values taught by Muslim mathematicians. Additionally, by integrating the history of geometry in teaching geometry are expected to improve motivation and geometrical understanding concept.

  15. ICRF edge modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehrman, I.S. (Grumman Corp. Research Center, Princeton, NJ (USA)); Colestock, P.L. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-04-01

    Theoretical models have been developed, and are currently being refined, to explain the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during ICRF heating. The periodic structure of a Faraday shielded antenna is found to result in strong ponderomotive force in the vicinity of the antenna. A fluid model, which incorporates the ponderomotive force, shows an increase in transport to the Faraday shield. A kinetic model shows that the strong antenna near fields act to increase the energy of deuterons which strike the shield, thereby increasing the sputtering of shield material. Estimates of edge impurity harmonic heating show no significant heating for either in or out-of-phase antenna operation. Additionally, a particle model for electrons near the shield shows that heating results from the parallel electric field associated with the fast wave. A quasilinear model for edge electron heating is presented and compared to the particle calculations. The models' predictions are shown to be consistent with measurements of enhanced transport. (orig.).

  16. The Persistification of the ATLAS Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00068562; The ATLAS collaboration; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria

    2016-01-01

    The complex geometry of the whole detector of the ATLAS experiment at LHC is currently stored only in custom online databases, from which it is built on-the- y on request. Accessing the online geometry guarantees accessing the latest version of the detector description, but requires the setup of the full ATLAS so ware framework “Athena”, which provides the online services and the tools to retrieve the data from the database. is operation is cumbersome and slows down the applications that need to access the geometry. Moreover, all applications that need to access the detector geom- etry need to be built and run on the same platform as the ATLAS framework, preventing the usage of the actual detector geometry in stand-alone applications. Here we propose a new mechanism to persistify and serve the geometry of HEP experiments. e new mechanism is composed by a new le format and a REST API. e new le format allows to store the whole detector description locally in a at le, and it is especially optimized to descri...

  17. Use of Monocrystalline Silicon as Tool Material for Highly Accurate Blanking of Thin Metal Foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildering, Sven; Engel, Ulf; Merklein, Marion

    2011-01-01

    The trend towards miniaturisation of metallic mass production components combined with increased component functionality is still unbroken. Manufacturing these components by forming and blanking offers economical and ecological advantages combined with the needed accuracy. The complexity of producing tools with geometries below 50 μm by conventional manufacturing methods becomes disproportional higher. Expensive serial finishing operations are required to achieve an adequate surface roughness combined with accurate geometry details. A novel approach for producing such tools is the use of advanced etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon that are well-established in the microsystems technology. High-precision vertical geometries with a width down to 5 μm are possible. The present study shows a novel concept using this potential for the blanking of thin copper foils with monocrystallline silicon as a tool material. A self-contained machine-tool with compact outer dimensions was designed to avoid tensile stresses in the brittle silicon punch by an accurate, careful alignment of the punch, die and metal foil. A microscopic analysis of the monocrystalline silicon punch shows appropriate properties regarding flank angle, edge geometry and surface quality for the blanking process. Using a monocrystalline silicon punch with a width of 70 μm blanking experiments on as-rolled copper foils with a thickness of 20 μm demonstrate the general applicability of this material for micro production processes.

  18. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  19. Two lectures on D-geometry and noncommutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This is a write-up of lectures given at the 1998 Spring School at the Abdus Salam ICTP. We give a conceptual introduction to D-geometry, the study of geometry as seen by D-branes in string theory, and to noncommutative geometry as it has appeared in D-brane and Matrix theory physics. (author)

  20. Edge Simulation Laboratory Progress and Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R

    2007-01-01

    The Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) is a project to develop a gyrokinetic code for MFE edge plasmas based on continuum (Eulerian) techniques. ESL is a base-program activity of OFES, with an allied algorithm research activity funded by the OASCR base math program. ESL OFES funds directly support about 0.8 FTE of career staff at LLNL, a postdoc and a small fraction of an FTE at GA, and a graduate student at UCSD. In addition the allied OASCR program funds about 1/2 FTE each in the computations directorates at LBNL and LLNL. OFES ESL funding for LLNL and UCSD began in fall 2005, while funding for GA and the math team began about a year ago. ESL's continuum approach is a complement to the PIC-based methods of the CPES Project, and was selected (1) because of concerns about noise issues associated with PIC in the high-density-contrast environment of the edge pedestal, (2) to be able to exploit advanced numerical methods developed for fluid codes, and (3) to build upon the successes of core continuum gyrokinetic codes such as GYRO, GS2 and GENE. The ESL project presently has three components: TEMPEST, a full-f, full-geometry (single-null divertor, or arbitrary-shape closed flux surfaces) code in E, μ (energy, magnetic-moment) coordinates; EGK, a simple-geometry rapid-prototype code, presently of; and the math component, which is developing and implementing algorithms for a next-generation code. Progress would be accelerated if we could find funding for a fourth, computer science, component, which would develop software infrastructure, provide user support, and address needs for data handing and analysis. We summarize the status and plans for the three funded activities

  1. Full-waveform data for building roof step edge localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słota, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Airborne laser scanning data perfectly represent flat or gently sloped areas; to date, however, accurate breakline detection is the main drawback of this technique. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of modeling buildings, where accuracy higher than the footprint size is often required. This article covers several issues related to full-waveform data registered on building step edges. First, the full-waveform data simulator was developed and presented in this paper. Second, this article provides a full description of the changes in echo amplitude, echo width and returned power caused by the presence of edges within the laser footprint. Additionally, two important properties of step edge echoes, peak shift and echo asymmetry, were noted and described. It was shown that these properties lead to incorrect echo positioning along the laser center line and can significantly reduce the edge points' accuracy. For these reasons and because all points are aligned with the center of the beam, regardless of the actual target position within the beam footprint, we can state that step edge points require geometric corrections. This article presents a novel algorithm for the refinement of step edge points. The main distinguishing advantage of the developed algorithm is the fact that none of the additional data, such as emitted signal parameters, beam divergence, approximate edge geometry or scanning settings, are required. The proposed algorithm works only on georeferenced profiles of reflected laser energy. Another major advantage is the simplicity of the calculation, allowing for very efficient data processing. Additionally, the developed method of point correction allows for the accurate determination of points lying on edges and edge point densification. For this reason, fully automatic localization of building roof step edges based on LiDAR full-waveform data with higher accuracy than the size of the lidar footprint is feasible.

  2. Crystallographic study of grain refinement in aluminum alloys using the edge-to-edge matching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.-X.; Kelly, P.M.; Easton, M.A.; Taylor, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The edge-to-edge matching model for describing the interfacial crystallographic characteristics between two phases that are related by reproducible orientation relationships has been applied to the typical grain refiners in aluminum alloys. Excellent atomic matching between Al 3 Ti nucleating substrates, known to be effective nucleation sites for primary Al, and the Al matrix in both close packed directions and close packed planes containing these directions have been identified. The crystallographic features of the grain refiner and the Al matrix are very consistent with the edge-to-edge matching model. For three other typical grain refiners for Al alloys, TiC (when a = 0.4328 nm), TiB 2 and AlB 2 , the matching only occurs between the close packed directions in both phases and between the second close packed plane of the Al matrix and the second close packed plane of the refiners. According to the model, it is predicted that Al 3 Ti is a more powerful nucleating substrate for Al alloy than TiC, TiB 2 and AlB 2 . This agrees with the previous experimental results. The present work shows that the edge-to-edge matching model has the potential to be a powerful tool in discovering new and more powerful grain refiners for Al alloys

  3. Turbulent transport modeling in the edge plasma of tokamaks: verification, validation, simulation and synthetic diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin-Bellot, Clothilde

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to produce power by using magnetically confined fusion is a scientific and technological challenge. The perspective of ITER conveys strong signals to intensify modeling effort on magnetized fusion plasmas. The success of the fusion operation is conditioned by the quality of plasma confinement in the core of the reactor and by the control of plasma exhaust on the wall. Both phenomena are related to turbulent cross-field transport that is at the heart of the notion of magnetic confinement studies, particle and heat losses. The study of edge phenomena is therefore complicated by a particularly complex magnetic geometry.This calls for an improvement of our capacity to develop numerical tools able to reproduce turbulent transport properties reliable to predict particle and energy fluxes on the plasma facing components. This thesis introduces the TOKAM3X fluid model to simulate edge plasma turbulence. A special focus is made on the code Verification and the Validation. It is a necessary step before using a code as a predictive tool. Then new insights on physical properties of the edge plasma turbulence are explored. In particular, the poloidal asymmetries induced by turbulence and observed experimentally in the Low-Field-Side of the devices are investigated in details. Great care is dedicated to the reproduction of the MISTRAL base case which consists in changing the magnetic configuration and observing the impact on parallel flows in the poloidal plane. The simulations recover experimental measurements and provide new insights on the effect of the plasma-wall contact position location on the turbulent features, which were not accessible in experiments. (author) [fr

  4. Functional integration over geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.

    1995-01-01

    The geometric construction of the functional integral over coset spaces M/G is reviewed. The inner product on the cotangent space of infinitesimal deformations of M defines an invariant distance and volume form, or functional integration measure on the full configuration space. Then, by a simple change of coordinates parameterizing the gauge fiber G, the functional measure on the coset space M/G is deduced. This change of integration variables leads to a Jacobian which is entirely equivalent to the Faddeev--Popov determinant of the more traditional gauge fixed approach in non-abelian gauge theory. If the general construction is applied to the case where G is the group of coordinate reparameterizations of spacetime, the continuum functional integral over geometries, i.e. metrics modulo coordinate reparameterizations may be defined. The invariant functional integration measure is used to derive the trace anomaly and effective action for the conformal part of the metric in two and four dimensional spacetime. In two dimensions this approach generates the Polyakov--Liouville action of closed bosonic non-critical string theory. In four dimensions the corresponding effective action leads to novel conclusions on the importance of quantum effects in gravity in the far infrared, and in particular, a dramatic modification of the classical Einstein theory at cosmological distance scales, signaled first by the quantum instability of classical de Sitter spacetime. Finite volume scaling relations for the functional integral of quantum gravity in two and four dimensions are derived, and comparison with the discretized dynamical triangulation approach to the integration over geometries are discussed. Outstanding unsolved problems in both the continuum definition and the simplicial approach to the functional integral over geometries are highlighted

  5. Kinematic geometry of gearing

    CERN Document Server

    Dooner, David B

    2012-01-01

    Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat

  6. From geometry to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, H Graham

    2001-01-01

    This excellent introduction to topology eases first-year math students and general readers into the subject by surveying its concepts in a descriptive and intuitive way, attempting to build a bridge from the familiar concepts of geometry to the formalized study of topology. The first three chapters focus on congruence classes defined by transformations in real Euclidean space. As the number of permitted transformations increases, these classes become larger, and their common topological properties become intuitively clear. Chapters 4-12 give a largely intuitive presentation of selected topics.

  7. Torsional heterotic geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Sethi, Savdeep

    2009-01-01

    We construct new examples of torsional heterotic backgrounds using duality with orientifold flux compactifications. We explain how duality provides a perturbative solution to the type I/heterotic string Bianchi identity. The choice of connection used in the Bianchi identity plays an important role in the construction. We propose the existence of a much larger landscape of compact torsional geometries using string duality. Finally, we present some quantum exact metrics that correspond to NS5-branes placed on an elliptic space. These metrics describe how torus isometries are broken by NS flux.

  8. Geometrie verstehen: statisch - kinematisch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Ekkehard

    Dem Allgemeinen steht begrifflich das Besondere gegenüber. In diesem Sinne sind allgemeine Überlegungen zum Verstehen von Mathematik zu ergänzen durch Untersuchungen hinsichtlich des Verstehens der einzelnen mathematischen Disziplinen, insbesondere der Geometrie. Hier haben viele Schülerinnen und Schüler Probleme. Diese rühren hauptsächlich daher, dass eine fertige geometrische Konstruktion in ihrer statischen Präsentation auf Papier nicht mehr die einzelnen Konstruktionsschritte erkennen lässt; zum Nachvollzug müssen sie daher ergänzend in einer Konstruktionsbeschreibung festgehalten werden.

  9. Elementary algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kendig, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th

  10. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  11. Geometry of conics

    CERN Document Server

    Akopyan, A V

    2007-01-01

    The book is devoted to the properties of conics (plane curves of second degree) that can be formulated and proved using only elementary geometry. Starting with the well-known optical properties of conics, the authors move to less trivial results, both classical and contemporary. In particular, the chapter on projective properties of conics contains a detailed analysis of the polar correspondence, pencils of conics, and the Poncelet theorem. In the chapter on metric properties of conics the authors discuss, in particular, inscribed conics, normals to conics, and the Poncelet theorem for confoca

  12. Geometry and trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This stimulating volume offers a broad collection of the principles of geometry and trigonometry and contains colorful diagrams to bring mathematical principles to life. Subjects are enriched by references to famous mathematicians and their ideas, and the stories are presented in a very comprehensible way. Readers investigate the relationships of points, lines, surfaces, and solids. They study construction methods for drawing figures, a wealth of facts about these figures, and above all, methods to prove the facts. They learn about triangle measure for circular motion, sine and cosine, tangent

  13. Geometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Geometry I includes methods of proof, points, lines, planes, angles, congruent angles and line segments, triangles, parallelism, quadrilaterals, geometric inequalities, and geometric

  14. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  15. Combinatorial algebraic geometry selected papers from the 2016 apprenticeship program

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This volume consolidates selected articles from the 2016 Apprenticeship Program at the Fields Institute, part of the larger program on Combinatorial Algebraic Geometry that ran from July through December of 2016. Written primarily by junior mathematicians, the articles cover a range of topics in combinatorial algebraic geometry including curves, surfaces, Grassmannians, convexity, abelian varieties, and moduli spaces. This book bridges the gap between graduate courses and cutting-edge research by connecting historical sources, computation, explicit examples, and new results.

  16. 3D edge energy transport in stellarator configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTaggart, N.; Zagorski, R.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, T.; Rognlien, T.; Umansky, M.

    2005-01-01

    The finite difference discretization method is used to solve the electron energy transport equation in complex 3D edge geometries using an unstructured grid. This grid is generated by field-line tracing to separate the radial and parallel fluxes and minimize the numerical diffusion connected with the strong anisotropy of the system. The influence of ergodicity on the edge plasma transport in the W7-X stellarator is investigated in this paper. Results show that the combined effect of ergodicity and the radial plasma diffusion leads to the efficient smoothing of the temperature profiles in the finite-β case

  17. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Dan Christian

    2007-01-01

    on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa [4], which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. [7]. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments...

  18. Dry Machining Aeronautical Aluminum Alloy AA2024-T351: Analysis of Cutting Forces, Chip Segmentation and Built-Up Edge Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badis Haddag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, machining aeronautical aluminum alloy AA2024-T351 in dry conditions was investigated. Cutting forces, chip segmentation, and built-up edge formation were analyzed. Machining tests revealed that the chip formation process depends on cutting conditions and tool geometry. So continuous and segmented chips are generated. Under some cutting conditions, built-up edge formation occurs. A predictive machining theory, based on a finite elements method (FEM, was applied to reproduce and explain these phenomena. Thermomechanical behaviors of the work material and the tool-work material interface were considered. Results of the proposed modelling were compared to experimental data for a wide range of cutting speed. It was shown that the feed force is well reproduced by the ALE-FE (arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian finite element formulation and highly underestimated by the lagrangian finite element (LAG-FE one. While, the periodic localized shear band, leading to a chip segmentation, is well reproduced with the Lagrangian FE formulation. It was found that the chip segmentation can be correlated to the cutting force evolution using the defined chip segmentation intensity parameter. For the built-up edge (BUE phenomenon, it was shown that it depends on the contact/friction at the tool-chip interface, and this is possible to simulate by making the friction coefficient time-dependent.

  19. Competing edge networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails.

  20. Degenerate band edge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysi, Mehdi; Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo

    2018-05-01

    We propose a class of lasers based on a fourth-order exceptional point of degeneracy (EPD) referred to as the degenerate band edge (DBE). EPDs have been found in parity-time-symmetric photonic structures that require loss and/or gain; here we show that the DBE is a different kind of EPD since it occurs in periodic structures that are lossless and gainless. Because of this property, a small level of gain is sufficient to induce single-frequency lasing based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate Floquet-Bloch eigenwaves. This lasing scheme constitutes a light-matter interaction mechanism that leads also to a unique scaling law of the laser threshold with the inverse of the fifth power of the laser-cavity length. The DBE laser has the lowest lasing threshold in comparison to a regular band edge laser and to a conventional laser in cavities with the same loaded quality (Q ) factor and length. In particular, even without mirror reflectors the DBE laser exhibits a lasing threshold which is an order of magnitude lower than that of a uniform cavity laser of the same length and with very high mirror reflectivity. Importantly, this novel DBE lasing regime enforces mode selectivity and coherent single-frequency operation even for pumping rates well beyond the lasing threshold, in contrast to the multifrequency nature of conventional uniform cavity lasers.

  1. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Real algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bochnak, Jacek; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1998-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of real algebraic geometry, a subject that has strong interrelation with other areas of mathematics: singularity theory, differential topology, quadratic forms, commutative algebra, model theory, complexity theory etc. The careful and clearly written account covers both basic concepts and up-to-date research topics. It may be used as text for a graduate course. The present edition is a substantially revised and expanded English version of the book "Géometrie algébrique réelle" originally published in French, in 1987, as Volume 12 of ERGEBNISSE. Since the publication of the French version the theory has made advances in several directions. Many of these are included in this English version. Thus the English book may be regarded as a completely new treatment of the subject.

  3. Critique of information geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skilling, John

    2014-01-01

    As applied to probability, information geometry fails because probability distributions do not form a metric space. Probability theory rests on a compelling foundation of elementary symmetries, which also support information (aka minus entropy, Kullback-Leibler) H(p;q) as the unique measure of divergence from source probability distribution q to destination p. Because the only compatible connective H is from≠to asymmetric, H(p;q)≠H(q;p), there can be no compatible geometrical distance (which would necessarily be from=to symmetric). Hence there is no distance relationship compatible with the structure of probability theory. Metrics g and densities sqrt(det(g)) interpreted as prior probabilities follow from the definition of distance, and must fail likewise. Various metrics and corresponding priors have been proposed, Fisher's being the most popular, but all must behave unacceptably. This is illustrated with simple counter-examples

  4. Emergent geometry of membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badyn, Mathias Hudoba de; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-11-13

    In work http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.086001, a surface embedded in flat ℝ{sup 3} is associated to any three hermitian matrices. We study this emergent surface when the matrices are large, by constructing coherent states corresponding to points in the emergent geometry. We find the original matrices determine not only shape of the emergent surface, but also a unique Poisson structure. We prove that commutators of matrix operators correspond to Poisson brackets. Through our construction, we can realize arbitrary noncommutative membranes: for example, we examine a round sphere with a non-spherically symmetric Poisson structure. We also give a natural construction for a noncommutative torus embedded in ℝ{sup 3}. Finally, we make remarks about area and find matrix equations for minimal area surfaces.

  5. Geometry through history Euclidean, hyperbolic, and projective geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Meighan I

    2018-01-01

    Presented as an engaging discourse, this textbook invites readers to delve into the historical origins and uses of geometry. The narrative traces the influence of Euclid’s system of geometry, as developed in his classic text The Elements, through the Arabic period, the modern era in the West, and up to twentieth century mathematics. Axioms and proof methods used by mathematicians from those periods are explored alongside the problems in Euclidean geometry that lead to their work. Students cultivate skills applicable to much of modern mathematics through sections that integrate concepts like projective and hyperbolic geometry with representative proof-based exercises. For its sophisticated account of ancient to modern geometries, this text assumes only a year of college mathematics as it builds towards its conclusion with algebraic curves and quaternions. Euclid’s work has affected geometry for thousands of years, so this text has something to offer to anyone who wants to broaden their appreciation for the...

  6. The geometry of on-shell diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Mariotti, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    The fundamental role of on-shell diagrams in quantum field theory has been recently recognized. On-shell diagrams, or equivalently bipartite graphs, provide a natural bridge connecting gauge theory to powerful mathematical structures such as the Grassmannian. We perform a detailed investigation of the combinatorial and geometric objects associated to these graphs. We mainly focus on their relation to polytopes and toric geometry, the Grassmannian and its stratification. Our work extends the current understanding of these connections along several important fronts, most notably eliminating restrictions imposed by planarity, positivity, reducibility and edge removability. We illustrate our ideas with several explicit examples and introduce concrete methods that considerably simplify computations. We consider it highly likely that the structures unveiled in this article will arise in the on-shell study of scattering amplitudes beyond the planar limit. Our results can be conversely regarded as an expansion in the understanding of the Grassmannian in terms of bipartite graphs.

  7. Knife-edge thin film field emission cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.; Demroff, H.P.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, T.S.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Cathodes made of thin-film field emission arrays (FEA) have the advantages of high current density, pulsed emission, and low bias voltage operation. The authors have developed a technology to fabricate knife-edge field emission cathodes on (110) silicon wafers. The emitter geometry is optimized for efficient modulation at high frequency. Cathode fabrication progress and preliminary analysis of their applications in RF power sources are presented

  8. Cheating on the edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Alan Dugatkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an individual agent-based model of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Our model examines antibiotic resistance when two strategies exist: "producers"--who secrete a substance that breaks down antibiotics--and nonproducers ("cheats" who do not secrete, or carry the machinery associated with secretion. The model allows for populations of up to 10,000, in which bacteria are affected by their nearest neighbors, and we assume cheaters die when there are no producers in their neighborhood. Each of 10,000 slots on our grid (a torus could be occupied by a producer or a nonproducer, or could (temporarily be unoccupied. The most surprising and dramatic result we uncovered is that when producers and nonproducers coexist at equilibrium, nonproducers are almost always found on the edges of clusters of producers.

  9. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  10. Playing on the edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak-Sassenrath, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    and specific ways. For instance, gambling for money, party and drinking games, professional play and show sports, art installations, violent and military propaganda computer games, pervasive/mobile gaming, live-action role playing, festivals, performances, and games such as Ghosting and Planking. It is argued......Everything gets more interesting, challenging, or intense the closer it gets to the edge, and so does play. How edgy can play become and still be play? Based on Huizinga’s notion of play, this chapter discusses how a wide range of playful activities pushes the boundaries of play in different...... that in concert with a number of characteristics that mark an activity as play, play is essentially a subjective perspective and individual decision of the player. Huizinga calls this attitude the play spirit, which informs a player’s actions and is in turn sustained by them. Edgy digital or mobile games do...

  11. Competing edge networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails. -- Highlights: ► A model for edgewise-competing evolving network pairs is introduced. ► Defined competition equations yield to a mean field analysis. ► Multiple equilibrium states and different bifurcation types can occur. ► The system is sensitive to sparse initial conditions and near unstable equilibriums.

  12. On organizing principles of discrete differential geometry. Geometry of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobenko, Alexander I; Suris, Yury B

    2007-01-01

    Discrete differential geometry aims to develop discrete equivalents of the geometric notions and methods of classical differential geometry. This survey contains a discussion of the following two fundamental discretization principles: the transformation group principle (smooth geometric objects and their discretizations are invariant with respect to the same transformation group) and the consistency principle (discretizations of smooth parametrized geometries can be extended to multidimensional consistent nets). The main concrete geometric problem treated here is discretization of curvature-line parametrized surfaces in Lie geometry. Systematic use of the discretization principles leads to a discretization of curvature-line parametrization which unifies circular and conical nets.

  13. Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Frederick S

    2005-01-01

    For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study

  14. Geometry of lattice field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honan, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Using some tools of algebraic topology, a general formalism for lattice field theory is presented. The lattice is taken to be a simplicial complex that is also a manifold and is referred to as a simplicial manifold. The fields on this lattice are cochains, that are called lattice forms to emphasize the connections with differential forms in the continuum. This connection provides a new bridge between lattice and continuum field theory. A metric can be put onto this simplicial manifold by assigning lengths to every link or I-simplex of the lattice. Regge calculus is a way of defining general relativity on this lattice. A geometric discussion of Regge calculus is presented. The Regge action, which is a discrete form of the Hilbert action, is derived from the Hilbert action using distribution valued forms. This is a new derivation that emphasizes the underlying geometry. Kramers-Wannier duality in statistical mechanics is discussed in this general setting. Nonlinear field theories, which include gauge theories and nonlinear sigma models are discussed in the continuum and then are put onto a lattice. The main new result here is the generalization to curved spacetime, which consists of making the theory compatible with Regge calculus

  15. Latent geometry of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2017-03-01

    Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its applicability to bipartite systems. Here, we fully analyze a simple latent-geometric model of bipartite networks and show that this model explains the peculiar structural properties of many real bipartite systems, including the distributions of common neighbors and bipartite clustering. We also analyze the geometric information loss in one-mode projections in this model and propose an efficient method to infer the latent pairwise distances between nodes. Uncovering the latent geometry underlying real bipartite networks can find applications in diverse domains, ranging from constructing efficient recommender systems to understanding cell metabolism.

  16. RF wave simulation for cold edge plasmas using the MFEM library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, S.; Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Kolev, T.; Stowell, M.

    2017-10-01

    A newly developed generic electro-magnetic (EM) simulation tool for modeling RF wave propagation in SOL plasmas is presented. The primary motivation of this development is to extend the domain partitioning approach for incorporating arbitrarily shaped SOL plasmas and antenna to the TORIC core ICRF solver, which was previously demonstrated in the 2D geometry [S. Shiraiwa, et. al., "HISTORIC: extending core ICRF wave simulation to include realistic SOL plasmas", Nucl. Fusion in press], to larger and more complicated simulations by including a 3D realistic antenna and integrating RF rectified sheath potential model. Such an extension requires a scalable high fidelity 3D edge plasma wave simulation. We used the MFEM [http://mfem.org], open source scalable C++ finite element method library, and developed a Python wrapper for MFEM (PyMFEM), and then a radio frequency (RF) wave physics module in Python. This approach allows for building a physics layer rapidly, while separating the physics implementation being apart from the numerical FEM implementation. An interactive modeling interface was built on pScope [S Shiraiwa, et. al. Fusion Eng. Des. 112, 835] to work with an RF simulation model in a complicated geometry.

  17. Using Figure and Concept Knowledge in Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Karpuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to investigate how students build interaction between concepts and figure in geometry. For this purpose we developed two type data collection tool. First one called shapely is formed eight open ended question which has concepts and figure. Second one called shapeless is formed eight open ended question which has only concepts. To prepare this data collection tools’ difficulty level we took two math teachers’ opinions. Developed data collection tools were applied 120 students at 9th grade and 11th grade in Trabzon Gazi Anatolian High School. First of all we applied shapeless questions. One month later we applied shapely questions. We investigated students’ answer and the data showed that students more succeed in shapely questions than shapeless questions. We concluded that the difficulty of solving shapeless question result from students didn’t manage to draw figure representing concept knowledge or draw wrong figure, figure drawn by students can’t fulfıl generalizability condition and students who have little knowledge of concept in geometry is under the influence of prototype figure.Key Words:    Figural concepts theory, geometrical reasoning, geometry teaching

  18. Cleaved-edge-overgrowth nanogap electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luber, Sebastian M; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc, E-mail: m.tornow@tu-bs.de [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    We present a method to fabricate multiple metal nanogap electrodes of tailored width and distance in parallel, on the cleaved plane of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The three-dimensional patterned structures are obtained by a combination of molecular-beam-epitaxial regrowth on a crystal facet, using the cleaved-edge-overgrowth (CEO) method, and subsequent wet selective etching and metallization steps. SEM and AFM studies reveal smooth and co-planar electrodes of width and distance of the order of 10 nm. Preliminary electrical characterization indicates electrical gap insulation in the 100 M{Omega} range with k{Omega} lead resistance. We propose our methodology to realize multiple electrode geometries that would allow investigation of the electrical conductivity of complex nanoscale objects such as branched organic molecules.

  19. Cleaved-edge-overgrowth nanogap electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Sebastian M; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2011-02-11

    We present a method to fabricate multiple metal nanogap electrodes of tailored width and distance in parallel, on the cleaved plane of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The three-dimensional patterned structures are obtained by a combination of molecular-beam-epitaxial regrowth on a crystal facet, using the cleaved-edge-overgrowth (CEO) method, and subsequent wet selective etching and metallization steps. SEM and AFM studies reveal smooth and co-planar electrodes of width and distance of the order of 10 nm. Preliminary electrical characterization indicates electrical gap insulation in the 100 MΩ range with kΩ lead resistance. We propose our methodology to realize multiple electrode geometries that would allow investigation of the electrical conductivity of complex nanoscale objects such as branched organic molecules.

  20. Casimir forces and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, R.

    2005-01-01

    Casimir interactions are interactions induced by quantum vacuum fluctuations and thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Using a path integral quantization for the gauge field, an effective Gaussian action will be derived which is the starting point to compute Casimir forces between macroscopic objects analytically and numerically. No assumptions about the independence of the material and shape dependent contributions to the interaction are made. We study the limit of flat surfaces in further detail and obtain a concise derivation of Lifshitz' theory of molecular forces. For the case of ideally conducting boundaries, the Gaussian action will be calculated explicitly. Both limiting cases are also discussed within the framework of a scalar field quantization approach, which is applicable for translationally invariant geometries. We develop a non-perturbative approach to calculate the Casimir interaction from the Gaussian action for periodically deformed and ideally conducting objects numerically. The obtained results reveal two different scaling regimes for the Casimir force as a function of the distance between the objects, their deformation wavelength and -amplitude. The results confirm that the interaction is non-additive, especially in the presence of strong geometric deformations. Furthermore, the numerical approach is extended to calculate lateral Casimir forces. The results are consistent with the results of the proximity-force approximation for large deformation wavelengths. A qualitatively different behaviour between the normal and lateral force is revealed. We also establish a relation between the boundary induced change of the of the density of states for the scalar Helmholtz equation and the Casimir interaction using the path integral method. For statically deformed boundaries, this relation can be expressed as a novel trace formula, which is formally similar to the so-called Krein-Friedel-Lloyd formula. While the latter formula describes the

  1. Initiation to global Finslerian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar-Zadeh, Hassan

    2006-01-01

    After a brief description of the evolution of thinking on Finslerian geometry starting from Riemann, Finsler, Berwald and Elie Cartan, the book gives a clear and precise treatment of this geometry. The first three chapters develop the basic notions and methods, introduced by the author, to reach the global problems in Finslerian Geometry. The next five chapters are independent of each other, and deal with among others the geometry of generalized Einstein manifolds, the classification of Finslerian manifolds of constant sectional curvatures. They also give a treatment of isometric, affine, p

  2. Fractal characteristic in the wearing of cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Anhua; Wang, Jinghui

    1995-11-01

    This paper studies the cutting tool wear with fractal geometry. The wearing image of the flank has been collected by machine vision which consists of CCD camera and personal computer. After being processed by means of preserving smoothing, binary making and edge extracting, the clear boundary enclosing the worn area has been obtained. The fractal dimension of the worn surface is calculated by the methods called `Slit Island' and `Profile'. The experiments and calciating give the conclusion that the worn surface is enclosed by a irregular boundary curve with some fractal dimension and characteristics of self-similarity. Furthermore, the relation between the cutting velocity and the fractal dimension of the worn region has been submitted. This paper presents a series of methods for processing and analyzing the fractal information in the blank wear, which can be applied to research the projective relation between the fractal structure and the wear state, and establish the fractal model of the cutting tool wear.

  3. Nonperturbative quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, T.; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Smolin, L.; California Univ., Santa Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Using the self-dual representation of quantum general relativity, based on Ashtekar's new phase space variables, we present an infinite dimensional family of quantum states of the gravitational field which are exactly annihilated by the hamiltonian constraint. These states are constructed from Wilson loops for Ashtekar's connection (which is the spatial part of the left handed spin connection). We propose a new regularization procedure which allows us to evaluate the action of the hamiltonian constraint on these states. Infinite linear combinations of these states which are formally annihilated by the diffeomorphism constraints as well are also described. These are explicit examples of physical states of the gravitational field - and for the compact case are exact zero eigenstates of the hamiltonian of quantum general relativity. Several different approaches to constructing diffeomorphism invariant states in the self dual representation are also described. The physical interpretation of the states described here is discussed. However, as we do not yet know the physical inner product, any interpretation is at this stage speculative. Nevertheless, this work suggests that quantum geometry at Planck scales might be much simpler when explored in terms of the parallel transport of left-handed spinors than when explored in terms of the three metric. (orig.)

  4. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  5. Study of the round edge disk hole's effects on the frequency and wakefield in disc structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lanfa; Hou Mi; Zhang Chuang

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the round edge beam hole on the frequency and wake field are studied using variational method, which allows for rounded iris disk hole without any approximation in shape treatment. The frequencies and wake fields of accelerating mode and dipole mode are studied for different edge radius cases, including the flat edge shape that is often used to approximately represent the actual structure geometry. The edge hole shape has weak effect on the frequency, but strong effect on the wakefield. The study shows that the amounts of wake fields are not precise enough with the assumption of the flat edge beam hole as of round edge. The shape assumption brings loss factor 15% err for the most dangerous EH 16 mode

  6. Plateau's problem an invitation to varifold geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Frederick J Almgren, Jr

    2001-01-01

    There have been many wonderful developments in the theory of minimal surfaces and geometric measure theory in the past 25 to 30 years. Many of the researchers who have produced these excellent results were inspired by this little book--or by Fred Almgren himself. The book is indeed a delightful invitation to the world of variational geometry. A central topic is Plateau's Problem, which is concerned with surfaces that model the behavior of soap films. When trying to resolve the problem, however, one soon finds that smooth surfaces are insufficient: Varifolds are needed. With varifolds, one can obtain geometrically meaningful solutions without having to know in advance all their possible singularities. This new tool makes possible much exciting new analysis and many new results. Plateau's problem and varifolds live in the world of geometric measure theory, where differential geometry and measure theory combine to solve problems which have variational aspects. The author's hope in writing this book was to encour...

  7. The use of direct geometry spectrometers in molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Stewart F; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; Albers, Peter W; Lennon, David

    2014-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the use of direct geometry spectrometers for molecular spectroscopy and catalysis studies are described. We show that both direct and indirect geometry INS spectrometers are important tools for the study of industrially relevant areas such as catalysis, proton conductors and gas separation. We propose a novel hybrid instrument, Cerberus, that would offer high sensitivity and high-to-reasonable resolution across the entire 'mid-infrared' spectral range that would effectively advance research in these areas

  8. Geometry of hyperbolic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1986-01-01

    The hyperbolic monopoles of Atiyah [M. F. Atiyah, Commun. Math. Phys. 93, 471 (1984); ''Magnetic monopoles in hyperbolic space,'' in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Vector Bundles (Tata Institute, Bombay, 1984)] and Chakrabarti [A. Chakrabarti, J. Math. Phys. 27, 340 (1986)] are introduced and their geometric properties and relations to instantons and ordinary monopoles clarified. A key tool is the use of the ball model of hyperbolic space to construct and examine solutions

  9. Methodology for wind turbine blade geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perfiliev, D.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the upwind three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine is the leading player on the market. It has been found to be the best industrial compromise in the range of different turbine constructions. The current wind industry innovation is conducted in the development of individual turbine components. The blade constitutes 20-25% of the overall turbine budget. Its optimal operation in particular local economic and wind conditions is worth investigating. The blade geometry, namely the chord, twist and airfoil type distributions along the span, responds to the output measures of the blade performance. Therefore, the optimal wind blade geometry can improve the overall turbine performance. The objectives of the dissertation are focused on the development of a methodology and specific tool for the investigation of possible existing wind blade geometry adjustments. The novelty of the methodology presented in the thesis is the multiobjective perspective on wind blade geometry optimization, particularly taking simultaneously into account the local wind conditions and the issue of aerodynamic noise emissions. The presented optimization objective approach has not been investigated previously for the implementation in wind blade design. The possibilities to use different theories for the analysis and search procedures are investigated and sufficient arguments derived for the usage of proposed theories. The tool is used for the test optimization of a particular wind turbine blade. The sensitivity analysis shows the dependence of the outputs on the provided inputs, as well as its relative and absolute divergences and instabilities. The pros and cons of the proposed technique are seen from the practical implementation, which is documented in the results, analysis and conclusion sections. (orig.)

  10. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  11. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Geometri Ruang dengan Model Proving Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Eko Susilo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif mahasiswa masih lemah. Hal ini ditemukan pada mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah Geometri Ruang yaitu dalam membuktikan soal-soal pembuktian (problem to proof. Mahasiswa masih menyelesaikan secara algoritmik atau prosedural sehingga diperlukan pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran Geometri Ruang berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan model Proving Theorem. Dalam penelitian ini perangkat perkuliahan yang dikembangkan yaitu Silabus, Satuan Acara Perkuliahan (SAP, Kontrak Perkuliahan, Media Pembelajaran, Bahan Ajar, Tes UTS dan UAS serta Angket Karakter Konservasi telah dilaksanakan dengan baik dengan kriteria (1 validasi perangkat pembelajaran mata kuliah Geometri ruang berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan model proving theorem berkategori baik dan layak digunakan dan (2 keterlaksanaan RPP pada pembelajaran yang dikembangkan secara keseluruhan berkategori baik.Critical and creative thinking abilities of students still weak. It is found in students who take Space Geometry subjects that is in solving problems to to prove. Students still finish in algorithmic or procedural so that the required the development of Space Geometry learning tools based on competency and conservation with Proving Theorem models. This is a research development which refers to the 4-D models that have been modified for the Space Geometry learning tools, second semester academic year 2014/2015. Instruments used include validation sheet, learning tools and character assessment questionnaire. In this research, the learning tools are developed, namely Syllabus, Lesson Plan, Lecture Contract, Learning Media, Teaching Material, Tests, and Character Conservation Questionnaire had been properly implemented with the criteria (1 validation of Space Geometry learning tools based on competency and conservation with Proving Theorem models categorized good and feasible to use, and (2 the implementation of Lesson Plan on learning categorized

  12. GPS: Geometry, Probability, and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Mike

    2012-01-01

    It might be said that for most occupations there is now less of a need for mathematics than there was say fifty years ago. But, the author argues, geometry, probability, and statistics constitute essential knowledge for everyone. Maybe not the geometry of Euclid, but certainly geometrical ways of thinking that might enable us to describe the world…

  13. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas; Holzwarth, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used.......A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used....

  14. Kaehler geometry and SUSY mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Nersessian, Armen

    2001-01-01

    We present two examples of SUSY mechanics related with Kaehler geometry. The first system is the N = 4 supersymmetric one-dimensional sigma-model proposed in hep-th/0101065. Another system is the N = 2 SUSY mechanics whose phase space is the external algebra of an arbitrary Kaehler manifold. The relation of these models with antisymplectic geometry is discussed

  15. A prediction for bubbling geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Takuya

    2007-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric circular Wilson loops in N=4 Yang-Mills theory. Their vacuum expectation values are computed in the parameter region that admits smooth bubbling geometry duals. The results are a prediction for the supergravity action evaluated on the bubbling geometries for Wilson loops.

  16. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...

  17. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  18. Principles of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive, self-contained treatment presenting general results of the theory. Establishes a geometric intuition and a working facility with specific geometric practices. Emphasizes applications through the study of interesting examples and the development of computational tools. Coverage ranges from analytic to geometric. Treats basic techniques and results of complex manifold theory, focusing on results applicable to projective varieties, and includes discussion of the theory of Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, algebraic surfaces and the quadric line complex as well as special top

  19. Photogrammetric computer vision statistics, geometry, orientation and reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Förstner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a statistical view on the geometry of multiple view analysis, required for camera calibration and orientation and for geometric scene reconstruction based on geometric image features. The authors have backgrounds in geodesy and also long experience with development and research in computer vision, and this is the first book to present a joint approach from the converging fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Part I of the book provides an introduction to estimation theory, covering aspects such as Bayesian estimation, variance components, and sequential estimation, with a focus on the statistically sound diagnostics of estimation results essential in vision metrology. Part II provides tools for 2D and 3D geometric reasoning using projective geometry. This includes oriented projective geometry and tools for statistically optimal estimation and test of geometric entities and transformations and their rela­tions, tools that are useful also in the context of uncertain reasoning in po...

  20. Basic algebraic geometry, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich

    1994-01-01

    Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...

  1. Optical geometry across the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (Jonsson and Westman 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to (a finite four-volume) of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework

  2. Diagnosing phenotypes of single-sample individuals by edge biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanwei; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Xiaoping; Chen, Luonan

    2015-06-01

    Network or edge biomarkers are a reliable form to characterize phenotypes or diseases. However, obtaining edges or correlations between molecules for an individual requires measurement of multiple samples of that individual, which are generally unavailable in clinical practice. Thus, it is strongly demanded to diagnose a disease by edge or network biomarkers in one-sample-for-one-individual context. Here, we developed a new computational framework, EdgeBiomarker, to integrate edge and node biomarkers to diagnose phenotype of each single test sample. By applying the method to datasets of lung and breast cancer, it reveals new marker genes/gene-pairs and related sub-networks for distinguishing earlier and advanced cancer stages. Our method shows advantages over traditional methods: (i) edge biomarkers extracted from non-differentially expressed genes achieve better cross-validation accuracy of diagnosis than molecule or node biomarkers from differentially expressed genes, suggesting that certain pathogenic information is only present at the level of network and under-estimated by traditional methods; (ii) edge biomarkers categorize patients into low/high survival rate in a more reliable manner; (iii) edge biomarkers are significantly enriched in relevant biological functions or pathways, implying that the association changes in a network, rather than expression changes in individual molecules, tend to be causally related to cancer development. The new framework of edge biomarkers paves the way for diagnosing diseases and analyzing their molecular mechanisms by edges or networks in one-sample-for-one-individual basis. This also provides a powerful tool for precision medicine or big-data medicine. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Information theoretic analysis of canny edge detection in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2011-06-01

    In general edge detection evaluation, the edge detectors are examined, analyzed, and compared either visually or with a metric for specific an application. This analysis is usually independent of the characteristics of the image-gathering, transmission and display processes that do impact the quality of the acquired image and thus, the resulting edge image. We propose a new information theoretic analysis of edge detection that unites the different components of the visual communication channel and assesses edge detection algorithms in an integrated manner based on Shannon's information theory. The edge detection algorithm here is considered to achieve high performance only if the information rate from the scene to the edge approaches the maximum possible. Thus, by setting initial conditions of the visual communication system as constant, different edge detection algorithms could be evaluated. This analysis is normally limited to linear shift-invariant filters so in order to examine the Canny edge operator in our proposed system, we need to estimate its "power spectral density" (PSD). Since the Canny operator is non-linear and shift variant, we perform the estimation for a set of different system environment conditions using simulations. In our paper we will first introduce the PSD of the Canny operator for a range of system parameters. Then, using the estimated PSD, we will assess the Canny operator using information theoretic analysis. The information-theoretic metric is also used to compare the performance of the Canny operator with other edge-detection operators. This also provides a simple tool for selecting appropriate edgedetection algorithms based on system parameters, and for adjusting their parameters to maximize information throughput.

  4. Near edge x-ray spectroscopy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    We propose to develop a quantitative theory of x-ray spectroscopies in the near edge region, within about 100 eV of threshold. These spectroscopies include XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), photoelectron diffraction (PD), and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS), all of which are important tools for structural studies using synchrotron radiation x-ray sources. Of primary importance in these studies are many-body effects, such as the photoelectron self-energy, and inelastic losses. A better understanding of these quantities is needed to obtain theories without adjustable parameters. We propose both analytical and numerical calculations, the latter based on our x-ray spectroscopy codes FEFF

  5. Quantum groups: Geometry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is a study of the geometry of quantum groups and quantum spaces, with the hope that they will be useful for the construction of quantum field theory with quantum group symmetry. The main tool used is the Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan description of quantum groups. A few content-rich examples of quantum complex spaces with quantum group symmetry are treated in details. In chapter 1, the author reviews some of the basic concepts and notions for Hopf algebras and other background materials. In chapter 2, he studies the vector fields of quantum groups. A compact realization of these vector fields as pseudodifferential operators acting on the linear quantum spaces is given. In chapter 3, he describes the quantum sphere as a complex quantum manifold by means of a quantum stereographic projection. A covariant calculus is introduced. An interesting property of this calculus is the existence of a one-form realization of the exterior differential operator. The concept of a braided comodule is introduced and a braided algebra of quantum spheres is constructed. In chapter 4, the author considers the more general higher dimensional quantum complex projective spaces and the quantum Grassman manifolds. Differential calculus, integration and braiding can be introduced as in the one dimensional case. Finally, in chapter 5, he studies the framework of quantum principal bundle and construct the q-deformed Dirac monopole as a quantum principal bundle with a quantum sphere as the base and a U(1) with non-commutative calculus as the fiber. The first Chern class can be introduced and integrated to give the monopole charge

  6. Edge effect modeling and experiments on active lap processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Wu, Fan; Zeng, Zhige; Fan, Bin; Wan, Yongjian

    2014-05-05

    Edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, especially for large polishing tools. Computer controlled active lap (CCAL) uses a large size pad (e.g., 1/3 to 1/5 workpiece diameters) to grind and polish the primary mirror. Edge effect also exists in the CCAL process in our previous fabrication. In this paper the material removal rules when edge effects happen (i.e. edge tool influence functions (TIFs)) are obtained through experiments, which are carried out on a Φ1090-mm circular flat mirror with a 375-mm-diameter lap. Two methods are proposed to model the edge TIFs for CCAL. One is adopting the pressure distribution which is calculated based on the finite element analysis method. The other is building up a parametric equivalent pressure model to fit the removed material curve directly. Experimental results show that these two methods both effectively model the edge TIF of CCAL.

  7. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Ferraro, Rafael; Guzmán, María José

    2014-01-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of theories of gravity. Fil: Bejarano, Cecilia Soledad. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Fí...

  8. Differential geometry bundles, connections, metrics and curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Taubes, Clifford Henry

    2011-01-01

    Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the

  9. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  10. An edge index for the quantum spin-Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Quantum spin-Hall systems are topological insulators displaying dissipationless spin currents flowing at the edges of the samples. In contradistinction to the quantum Hall systems where the charge conductance of the edge modes is quantized, the spin conductance is not and it remained an open problem to find the observable whose edge current is quantized. In this paper, we define a particular observable and the edge current corresponding to this observable. We show that this current is quantized and that the quantization is given by the index of a certain Fredholm operator. This provides a new topological invariant that is shown to take the generic values 0 and 2, in line with the Z 2 topological classification of time-reversal invariant systems. The result gives an effective tool for the investigation of the edge structure in quantum spin-Hall systems. Based on a reasonable assumption, we also show that the edge conducting channels are not destroyed by a random edge. (fast track communication)

  11. The geometry description markup language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytracek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors. A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier. A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment. However, no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files, source code (C/C++/FORTRAN), to XML and database solutions. The XML (Extensible Markup Language) has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries, with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing. Therefore, interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present. The author introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions. Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data. Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML

  12. The edge of space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.

    1993-01-01

    What happened at the beginning of the expansion of the universe. Did space time have an edge at the Big Bang. The answer is that, if the boundary conditions of the universe are that it has no boundary, time ceases to be well-defined in the very early universe as the direction ''north'' ceases to be well defined at the North Pole of the Earth. The quantity that we measure as time has a beginning but that does not mean spacetime has an edge, just as the surface of the Earth does not have an edge at the North Pole. 8 figs

  13. Automatic Deduction in Dynamic Geometry using Sage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Botana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a symbolic tool that provides robust algebraic methods to handle automatic deduction tasks for a dynamic geometry construction. The main prototype has been developed as two different worksheets for the open source computer algebra system Sage, corresponding to two different ways of coding a geometric construction. In one worksheet, diagrams constructed with the open source dynamic geometry system GeoGebra are accepted. In this worksheet, Groebner bases are used to either compute the equation of a geometric locus in the case of a locus construction or to determine the truth of a general geometric statement included in the GeoGebra construction as a boolean variable. In the second worksheet, locus constructions coded using the common file format for dynamic geometry developed by the Intergeo project are accepted for computation. The prototype and several examples are provided for testing. Moreover, a third Sage worksheet is presented in which a novel algorithm to eliminate extraneous parts in symbolically computed loci has been implemented. The algorithm, based on a recent work on the Groebner cover of parametric systems, identifies degenerate components and extraneous adherence points in loci, both natural byproducts of general polynomial algebraic methods. Detailed examples are discussed.

  14. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, T; Carolus, T; Erbslöh, S

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length

  15. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  16. A first course in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    This introductory text is designed to help undergraduate students develop a solid foundation in geometry. Early chapters progress slowly, cultivating the necessary understanding and self-confidence for the more rapid development that follows. The extensive treatment can be easily adapted to accommodate shorter courses. Starting with the language of mathematics as expressed in the algebra of logic and sets, the text covers geometric sets of points, separation and angles, triangles, parallel lines, similarity, polygons and area, circles, space geometry, and coordinate geometry. Each chapter incl

  17. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.

  18. Impeller inlet geometry effect on performance improvement for centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianwu; Zhang, Yao; Peng, Junqi; Xu, Hongyuan; Yu, Weiping

    2008-01-01

    This research treats the effect of impeller inlet geometry on performance improvement for a boiler feed pump, who is a centrifugal pump having specific speed of 183 m.m 3 min -1 .min -1 and close type impeller with exit diameter of 450 mm. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. In order to improve the pump, five impellers have been considered by extending the blade leading edge or applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet compared with the original impeller. The 3-D turbulent flow inside those pumps has been analyzed basing on RNG k-ε turbulence model and VOF cavitation model. It is noted that the numerical results are fairly good compared with the experiments. Based on the experimental test and numerical simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Impeller inlet geometry has important influence on performance improvement in the case of centrifugal pump. Favorite effects on performance improvement have been achieved by both extending the blade leading edge and applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet: (2) It is suspected that the extended leading edge have favorite effect for improving hydraulic performance, and the much larger blade angle at impeller inlet have favorite effect for improving cavitation performance for the test pump: (3) Uniform flow upstream of impeller inlet is helpful for improving cavitation performance of the pump

  19. Impeller inlet geometry effect on performance improvement for centrifugal pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xianwu; Zhang, Yao; Peng, Junqi; Xu, Hongyuan [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Yu, Weiping [Zhejiang Pump Works, Zhejiang (China)

    2008-10-15

    This research treats the effect of impeller inlet geometry on performance improvement for a boiler feed pump, who is a centrifugal pump having specific speed of 183 m.m{sup 3}min{sup -1}.min{sup -1} and close type impeller with exit diameter of 450 mm. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. In order to improve the pump, five impellers have been considered by extending the blade leading edge or applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet compared with the original impeller. The 3-D turbulent flow inside those pumps has been analyzed basing on RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model and VOF cavitation model. It is noted that the numerical results are fairly good compared with the experiments. Based on the experimental test and numerical simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Impeller inlet geometry has important influence on performance improvement in the case of centrifugal pump. Favorite effects on performance improvement have been achieved by both extending the blade leading edge and applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet: (2) It is suspected that the extended leading edge have favorite effect for improving hydraulic performance, and the much larger blade angle at impeller inlet have favorite effect for improving cavitation performance for the test pump: (3) Uniform flow upstream of impeller inlet is helpful for improving cavitation performance of the pump

  20. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 5. Diffraction at a Straight Edge: A Gem from Sommerfeld's Work in Classical Physics. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 20 Issue 5 May 2015 pp 389-400 ...

  1. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  2. Edge Fracture in Complex Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ewan J; Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2017-07-14

    We study theoretically the edge fracture instability in sheared complex fluids, by means of linear stability analysis and direct nonlinear simulations. We derive an exact analytical expression for the onset of edge fracture in terms of the shear-rate derivative of the fluid's second normal stress difference, the shear-rate derivative of the shear stress, the jump in shear stress across the interface between the fluid and the outside medium (usually air), the surface tension of that interface, and the rheometer gap size. We provide a full mechanistic understanding of the edge fracture instability, carefully validated against our simulations. These findings, which are robust with respect to choice of rheological constitutive model, also suggest a possible route to mitigating edge fracture, potentially allowing experimentalists to achieve and accurately measure flows stronger than hitherto possible.

  3. Advances in discrete differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

  4. Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Complex Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate new geometries of hyperbolic metamaterialssuch as highly corrugated structures, nanoparticle monolayer assemblies, super-structured or vertically arranged multilayersand nanopillars. All structures retain basic propertiesof hyperbolic metamaterials, but have functionality improved...

  5. An introduction to differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Willmore, T J

    2012-01-01

    This text employs vector methods to explore the classical theory of curves and surfaces. Topics include basic theory of tensor algebra, tensor calculus, calculus of differential forms, and elements of Riemannian geometry. 1959 edition.

  6. Symplectic geometry and Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wallach, Nolan R

    2018-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students in mathematics, this monograph covers differential and symplectic geometry, homogeneous symplectic manifolds, Fourier analysis, metaplectic representation, quantization, Kirillov theory. Includes Appendix on Quantum Mechanics by Robert Hermann. 1977 edition.

  7. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  8. MM99.81 Projection welding of complex geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars

    The objective of this work has been to establish a profound knowledge about design rules for projection welding geometries dependent of the actual material combination.Design rules and recommendations for geometries and projections in projection welding given in literature is summarised...... and these are catalogued into geometry-classes. A simulation software, SORPAS, based on the finite element method (FEM) is chosen as tool to investigate projection weld quality. SORPAS needs input of the material flow stress as function of strain, strain rate and temperature. Flow stress experiments are performed using...... been investigated.Two different welding geometries, disc with triangular ring projection welded to ring and hat welded to inside hole in ring, are both experimentally and numerically used to investigate the influence of different geometric parameters (thicknesses and angles) on weldability and weld...

  9. Computational modeling of geometry dependent phonon transport in silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Drew A.

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that thermal properties of semiconductor nanostructures depend on nanostructure boundary geometry. Phonons are quantized mechanical vibrations that are the dominant carrier of heat in semiconductor materials and their aggregate behavior determine a nanostructure's thermal performance. Phonon-geometry scattering processes as well as waveguiding effects which result from coherent phonon interference are responsible for the shape dependence of thermal transport in these systems. Nanoscale phonon-geometry interactions provide a mechanism by which nanostructure geometry may be used to create materials with targeted thermal properties. However, the ability to manipulate material thermal properties via controlling nanostructure geometry is contingent upon first obtaining increased theoretical understanding of fundamental geometry induced phonon scattering processes and having robust analytical and computational models capable of exploring the nanostructure design space, simulating the phonon scattering events, and linking the behavior of individual phonon modes to overall thermal behavior. The overall goal of this research is to predict and analyze the effect of nanostructure geometry on thermal transport. To this end, a harmonic lattice-dynamics based atomistic computational modeling tool was created to calculate phonon spectra and modal phonon transmission coefficients in geometrically irregular nanostructures. The computational tool is used to evaluate the accuracy and regimes of applicability of alternative computational techniques based upon continuum elastic wave theory. The model is also used to investigate phonon transmission and thermal conductance in diameter modulated silicon nanowires. Motivated by the complexity of the transmission results, a simplified model based upon long wavelength beam theory was derived and helps explain geometry induced phonon scattering of low frequency nanowire phonon modes.

  10. Formalization and Implementation of Algebraic Methods in Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Marić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe our ongoing project of formalization of algebraic methods for geometry theorem proving (Wu's method and the Groebner bases method, their implementation and integration in educational tools. The project includes formal verification of the algebraic methods within Isabelle/HOL proof assistant and development of a new, open-source Java implementation of the algebraic methods. The project should fill-in some gaps still existing in this area (e.g., the lack of formal links between algebraic methods and synthetic geometry and the lack of self-contained implementations of algebraic methods suitable for integration with dynamic geometry tools and should enable new applications of theorem proving in education.

  11. Interactions between Digital Geometry and Combinatorics on Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečko Brlek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We review some recent results in digital geometry obtained by using a combinatorics on words approach to discrete geometry. Motivated on the one hand by the well-known theory of Sturmian words which model conveniently discrete lines in the plane, and on the other hand by the development of digital geometry, this study reveals strong links between the two fields. Discrete figures are identified with polyominoes encoded by words. The combinatorial tools lead to elegant descriptions of geometrical features and efficient algorithms. Among these, radix-trees are useful for efficiently detecting path intersection, Lyndon and Christoffel words appear as the main tools for describing digital convexity; equations on words allow to better understand tilings by translations.

  12. Microfluidic step-emulsification in axisymmetric geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, I; Ricouvier, J; Yazhgur, P; Tabeling, P; Leshansky, A M

    2017-10-25

    Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step. Theoretical investigation of the corresponding hydrodynamics is complicated due to the complex geometry of the planar device, calling for numerical approaches. However, direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional surface-tension-dominated biphasic flows in confined geometries are computationally expensive. In the present paper we study a model problem of axisymmetric step-emulsification. This setup consists of a stable core-annular biphasic flow in a cylindrical capillary tube connected co-axially to a reservoir tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion mimicking the edge of the planar step-emulsifier. We demonstrate that the axisymmetric setup exhibits similar regimes of droplet generation to the planar device. A detailed parametric study of the underlying hydrodynamics is feasible via inexpensive (two dimensional) simulations owing to the axial symmetry. The phase diagram quantifying the different regimes of droplet generation in terms of governing dimensionless parameters is presented. We show that in qualitative agreement with experiments in planar devices, the size of the droplets generated in the step-emulsification regime is independent of the capillary number and almost insensitive to the viscosity ratio. These findings confirm that the step-emulsification regime is solely controlled by surface tension. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with in-house experiments with the axisymmetric

  13. Geometry of VY Canis Majoris derived from SiO maser lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Blerkom, D.; Auer, L.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation reveals transfer calculation reveals that the SiO maser lines observed in the spectrum of VY CMa are formed in a rotating equatorial disk seen nearly edge-on. Other geometries are considered and eliminated. It is suggested that the SiO lines of NML Cyg also show evidence that they are formed in a disk

  14. Geometry and physics of branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2003-01-01

    deformation theory of holomorphic structures on vector bundles, which is a direct analogue of Kodaira and Spencer's study of the deformation of the complex structure of the complex manifold itself. Then it is explained how the homological algebra of A ∞ or L ∞ algebras can be applied to the problem of moduli, and the theorem is sketched stating that the gauge equivalence class of solutions of the Maurer-Cartan equation is invariant with respect to the homotopy types of these algebras. This discussion is then applied to the homological mirror symmetry, introducing the universal Novikov ring and Floer homology. The last series of lectures is devoted to the so-called geometric conifold transition related to the Gopakumar-Vafa conjecture that the SU(N) Chern-Simons theory on S 3 is dual to IIA string theory (with fluxes) compactified on a certain Calabi-Yau manifold. The geometry of the conifold transition involved in this discussion is described in detail, including physical applications. Some background endcolumn on Chern-Simons theory is presented and spaces with G 2 holonomies are discussed. M-theory treatment of the above correspondence is also given. Useful mathematical definitions are collected in five appendices. The book is certainly very useful both as an introduction to the modern topics of superstring theory and as a rather deep exposition of some advanced mathematical tools involved in it. (book review. Edited by U Bruzzo, V Gorini and U Moschella ISBN: 0-750-30863-X )

  15. Using Dance to Deepen Student Understanding of Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Candice; Linder, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an example of a collaborative effort between a dance specialist and four third-grade classroom teachers at an arts magnet school. They developed a dance and geometry integration project including implementation strategies, assessment tools, and reflections completed by both the classroom teacher and the third-grade students.…

  16. External kink (peeling) modes in x-point geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G T A

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the separatrix on the stability of edge current driven external kink (peeling) modes has been studied. Two approaches have been compared: taking the limit towards the separatrix using linear ideal and resistive MHD stability codes and including the complete x-point geometry using a new resistive MHD code. A strong stabilizing effect has been observed for the ideal and the resistive peeling mode for instabilities driven by the edge current gradient. Both approaches are in good agreement. A new resistive instability remains unstable and is not significantly affected by the separatrix. This mode is a combination of a kink and a tearing type mode and could be called a peeling-tearing mode

  17. Information theoretic analysis of edge detection in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2010-08-01

    Generally, the designs of digital image processing algorithms and image gathering devices remain separate. Consequently, the performance of digital image processing algorithms is evaluated without taking into account the artifacts introduced into the process by the image gathering process. However, experiments show that the image gathering process profoundly impacts the performance of digital image processing and the quality of the resulting images. Huck et al. proposed one definitive theoretic analysis of visual communication channels, where the different parts, such as image gathering, processing, and display, are assessed in an integrated manner using Shannon's information theory. In this paper, we perform an end-to-end information theory based system analysis to assess edge detection methods. We evaluate the performance of the different algorithms as a function of the characteristics of the scene, and the parameters, such as sampling, additive noise etc., that define the image gathering system. The edge detection algorithm is regarded to have high performance only if the information rate from the scene to the edge approaches the maximum possible. This goal can be achieved only by jointly optimizing all processes. People generally use subjective judgment to compare different edge detection methods. There is not a common tool that can be used to evaluate the performance of the different algorithms, and to give people a guide for selecting the best algorithm for a given system or scene. Our information-theoretic assessment becomes this new tool to which allows us to compare the different edge detection operators in a common environment.

  18. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  19. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  20. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  1. A Dynamic Stall Model for Airfoils with Deformable Trailing Edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter Bjoern; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2007-01-01

    The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model will be compared to wind tunnel measurements from Velux described by Bak et al

  2. The End-to-end Demonstrator for improved decision making in the water sector in Europe (EDgE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Wanders, Niko; Pan, Ming; Sheffield, Justin; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohinni; Prudhomme, Christel; Houghton-Carr, Helen

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution simulations of water resources from hydrological models are vital to supporting important climate services. Apart from a high level of detail, both spatially and temporally, it is important to provide simulations that consistently cover a range of timescales, from historical reanalysis to seasonal forecast and future projections. In the new EDgE project commissioned by the ECMWF (C3S) we try to fulfill these requirements. EDgE is a proof-of-concept project which combines climate data and state-of-the-art hydrological modelling to demonstrate a water-oriented information system implemented through a web application. EDgE is working with key European stakeholders representative of private and public sectors to jointly develop and tailor approaches and techniques. With these tools, stakeholders are assisted in using improved climate information in decision-making, and supported in the development of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. Here, we present the first results of the EDgE modelling chain, which is divided into three main processes: 1) pre-processing and downscaling; 2) hydrological modelling; 3) post-processing. Consistent downscaling and bias corrections for historical simulations, seasonal forecasts and climate projections ensure that the results across scales are robust. The daily temporal resolution and 5km spatial resolution ensure locally relevant simulations. With the use of four hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, VIC, mHM, Noah-MP), uncertainty between models is properly addressed, while consistency is guaranteed by using identical input data for static land surface parameterizations. The forecast results are communicated to stakeholders via Sectoral Climate Impact Indicators (SCIIs) that have been created in collaboration with the end-user community of the EDgE project. The final product of this project is composed of 15 years of seasonal forecast and 10 climate change projections, all combined with four hydrological

  3. Variable geometry Darrieus wind machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlinski, J. T.; Serrano, D.

    1983-08-01

    A variable geometry Darrieus wind machine is proposed. The lower attachment of the blades to the rotor can move freely up and down the axle allowing the blades of change shape during rotation. Experimental data for a 17 m. diameter Darrieus rotor and a theoretical model for multiple streamtube performance prediction were used to develop a computer simulation program for studying parameters that affect the machine's performance. This new variable geometry concept is described and interrelated with multiple streamtube theory through aerodynamic parameters. The computer simulation study shows that governor behavior of a Darrieus turbine can not be attained by a standard turbine operating within normally occurring rotational velocity limits. A second generation variable geometry Darrieus wind turbine which uses a telescopic blade is proposed as a potential improvement on the studied concept.

  4. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T 6 /(Z 3 x Z 3 ) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry

  5. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Mariana [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-07

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T{sup 6} /(Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry.

  6. Euclidean geometry and its subgeometries

    CERN Document Server

    Specht, Edward John; Calkins, Keith G; Rhoads, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present a modern development of Euclidean geometry from independent axioms, using up-to-date language and providing detailed proofs. The axioms for incidence, betweenness, and plane separation are close to those of Hilbert. This is the only axiomatic treatment of Euclidean geometry that uses axioms not involving metric notions and that explores congruence and isometries by means of reflection mappings. The authors present thirteen axioms in sequence, proving as many theorems as possible at each stage and, in the process, building up subgeometries, most notably the Pasch and neutral geometries. Standard topics such as the congruence theorems for triangles, embedding the real numbers in a line, and coordinatization of the plane are included, as well as theorems of Pythagoras, Desargues, Pappas, Menelaus, and Ceva. The final chapter covers consistency and independence of axioms, as well as independence of definition properties. There are over 300 exercises; solutions to many of the...

  7. Guide to Computational Geometry Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François

    be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction...... to the theoretical and mathematical underpinnings of each technique, enabling the reader to not only implement a given method, but also to understand the ideas behind it, its limitations and its advantages. Topics and features: Presents an overview of the underlying mathematical theory, covering vector spaces......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...

  8. Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2017-02-01

    We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for specific spacetime geometries. At the foundational level, we discuss the possibility of generalizing the vacuum constitutive relations, by relaxing the fixed conditions of homogeneity and isotropy, and by assuming that the symmetry properties of the electro-vacuum follow the spacetime isometries. The implications of this extension are briefly discussed in the context of the intimate connection between electromagnetism and the geometry (and causal structure) of spacetime.

  9. Dayside merging and cusp geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooker, N.U.

    1979-01-01

    Geometrical considerations are presented to show that dayside magnetic merging when constrained to act only where the fields are antiparallel results in lines of merging that converge at the polar cusps. An important consequence of this geometry is that no accelerated flows are predicted across the dayside magnetopause. Acceleration owing to merging acts in opposition to the magnetosheath flow at the merging point and produces the variably directed, slower-than-magnetosheath flows observed in the entry layer. Another consequence of the merging geometry is that much of the time closed field lines constitute the subsolar region of the magnetopause. The manner in which the polar cap convection patterns predicted by the proposed geometry change as the interplanetary field is rotated through 360 0 provides a unifying description of how the observed single circular vortex and the crescent-shaped double vortex patterns mutually evolve under the influence of a single operating principle

  10. DOGBONE GEOMETRY FOR RECIRCULATING ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.; JOHNSTONE, C.; SUMMERS, D.

    2001-01-01

    Most scenarios for accelerating muons require recirculating acceleration. A racetrack shape for the accelerator requires particles with lower energy in early passes to traverse almost the same length of arc as particles with the highest energy. This extra arc length may lead to excess decays and excess cost. Changing the geometry to a dogbone shape, where there is a single linac and the beam turns completely around at the end of the linac, returning to the same end of the linac from which it exited, addresses this problem. In this design, the arc lengths can be proportional to the particle's momentum. This paper proposes an approximate cost model for a recirculating accelerator, attempts to make cost-optimized designs for both racetrack and dogbone geometries, and demonstrates that the dogbone geometry does appear to be more cost effective

  11. Does the black hole shadow probe the event horizon geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pedro V. P.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2018-04-01

    There is an exciting prospect of obtaining the shadow of astrophysical black holes (BHs) in the near future with the Event Horizon Telescope. As a matter of principle, this justifies asking how much one can learn about the BH horizon itself from such a measurement. Since the shadow is determined by a set of special photon orbits, rather than horizon properties, it is possible that different horizon geometries yield similar shadows. One may then ask how sensitive is the shadow to details of the horizon geometry? As a case study, we consider the double Schwarzschild BH and analyze the impact on the lensing and shadows of the conical singularity that holds the two BHs in equilibrium—herein taken to be a strut along the symmetry axis in between the two BHs. Whereas the conical singularity induces a discontinuity of the scattering angle of photons, clearly visible in the lensing patterns along the direction of the strut's location, it produces no observable effect on the shadows, whose edges remain everywhere smooth. The latter feature is illustrated by examples including both equal and unequal mass BHs. This smoothness contrasts with the intrinsic geometry of the (spatial sections of the) horizon of these BHs, which is not smooth, and provides a sharp example on how BH shadows are insensitive to some horizon geometry details. This observation, moreover, suggests that for the study of their shadows, this static double BH system may be an informative proxy for a dynamical binary.

  12. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner

    2016-01-01

    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a func......Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  13. Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Borovikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry

  14. Self-consistent computation of transport barrier formation by fluid drift turbulence in tokamak geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.; Jenko, F.; Peeters, A.G.; Teo, A.C.Y.

    1999-01-01

    (1) Computations of turbulence from the electromagnetic gyro fluid model are performed in a flux surface geometry representing the actual MHD equilibrium of the ASDEX Upgrade edge flux surfaces. The transition to ideal ballooning seen in simple geometries as the plasma beta rises is suppressed, leaving the transport at quantitatively realistic levels. Computations for core parameters at half-radius geometry show significant contribution due to the finite beta electron dynamics, possibly removing the standard ITG threshold. (2) Strong inward vorticity transport in edge turbulence, resulting from ion diamagnetic flows, may lead to a build up of mean ExB vorticity fast enough to cause an H-mode transition. (3) Friction of mean ion flows against neutrals involves both toroidal and poloidal flow components, leading to a finite radial current due to a given ExB profile even with zero poloidal rotation. (author)

  15. Self-consistent computation of transport barrier formation by fluid drift turbulence in tokamak geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.; Jenko, F.; Peeters, A.; Teo, A.C-Y.

    2001-01-01

    (1) Computations of turbulence from the electromagnetic gyrofluid model are performed in a flux surface geometry representing the actual MHD equilibrium of the ASDEX Upgrade edge flux surfaces. The transition to ideal ballooning seen in simple geometries as the plasma beta rises is suppressed, leaving the transport at quantitatively realistic levels. Computations for core parameters at half-radius geometry show significant contribution due to the finite beta electron dynamics, possibly removing the standard ITG threshold. (2) Strong inward vorticity transport in edge turbulence, resulting from ion diamagnetic flows, may lead to a build up of mean ExB vorticity fast enough to cause an H-mode transition. (3) Friction of mean ion flows against neutrals involves both toroidal and poloidal flow components, leading to a finite radial current due to a given ExB profile even with zero poloidal rotation. (author)

  16. Improving color constancy by photometric edge weighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.; van de Weijer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-based color constancy methods make use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images, such as material, shadow, and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant

  17. Quantum Entanglement and Projective Ring Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the basic geometrical properties of the observables characterizing two-qubit systems by employing a novel projective ring geometric approach. After introducing the basic facts about quantum complementarity and maximal quantum entanglement in such systems, we demonstrate that the 15 × 15 multiplication table of the associated four-dimensional matrices exhibits a so-far-unnoticed geometrical structure that can be regarded as three pencils of lines in the projective plane of order two. In one of the pencils, which we call the kernel, the observables on two lines share a base of Bell states. In the complement of the kernel, the eight vertices/observables are joined by twelve lines which form the edges of a cube. A substantial part of the paper is devoted to showing that the nature of this geometry has much to do with the structure of the projective lines defined over the rings that are the direct product of n copies of the Galois field GF(2, with n = 2, 3 and 4.

  18. Collisional drift waves in the H-mode edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the collisional drift wave in a sheared slab geometry is found to be severely restricted at the H-mode edge plasma due to the very steep density gradient. However, a radially varying transverse velocity field is found to play the key role in stability. Velocity profiles usually found in the H-mode plasma stabilize drift waves. On the other hand, velocity profiles corresponding to the L-mode render collisional drift waves unstable even though the magnetic shear continues to play its stabilizing role. (author). 24 refs

  19. KEMAJUAN BELAJAR SISWA PADA GEOMETRI TRANSFORMASI MENGGUNAKAN AKTIVITAS REFLEKSI GEOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkham Ulil Albab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kemajuan belajar siswa pada materi geometri transformasi yang didukung dengan serangkaian aktivitas belajar berdasarkan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia. Penelitian didesain melalui tiga tahap, yaitu tahapan perancangan desain awal, pengujian desain melalui pembelajaran awal dan pembelajaran eksperimental, dan tahap analisis retrospektif. Dalam penelitian ini, Hypothetical Learning Trajectory, HLT (HLT berperan penting sebagai desain pembelajaran sekaligus instrumen penelitian. HLT diujikan terhadap 26 siswa kelas VII. Data dikumpulkan dengan teknik wawancara, pengamatan, dan catatan lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa desain pembelajaran ini mampu menstimulasi siswa untuk memberikan karakteristik refleksi dan transformasi geometri lainnya secara informal, mengklasifikasikannya dalam transformasi isometri pada level kedua, dan menemukan garis bantuan refleksi pada level yang lebih formal. Selain itu, garis bantuan refleksi digunakan oleh siswa untuk menggambar bayangan refleksi dan pola pencerminan serta memahami bentuk rotasi dan translasi sebagai kombinasi refleksi adalah level tertinggi. Keyword: transformasi geometri, kombinasi refleksi, rotasi, translasi, design research, HLT STUDENTS’ LEARNING PROGRESS ON TRANSFORMATION GEOMETRY USING THE GEOMETRY REFLECTION ACTIVITIES Abstract: This study was aimed at describing the students’ learning progress on transformation geometry supported by a set of learning activities based on Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education. The study was designed into three stages, that is, the preliminary design stage, the design testing through initial instruction and experiment, and the restrospective analysis stage. In this study, Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT played an important role as an instructional design and a research instrument. HLT was tested to 26 seventh grade students. The data were collected through interviews

  20. Lectures on Algebraic Geometry I

    CERN Document Server

    Harder, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    This book and the following second volume is an introduction into modern algebraic geometry. In the first volume the methods of homological algebra, theory of sheaves, and sheaf cohomology are developed. These methods are indispensable for modern algebraic geometry, but they are also fundamental for other branches of mathematics and of great interest in their own. In the last chapter of volume I these concepts are applied to the theory of compact Riemann surfaces. In this chapter the author makes clear how influential the ideas of Abel, Riemann and Jacobi were and that many of the modern metho

  1. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  2. Modern differential geometry for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Isham, C J

    1989-01-01

    These notes are the content of an introductory course on modern, coordinate-free differential geometry which is taken by the first-year theoretical physics PhD students, or by students attending the one-year MSc course "Fundamental Fields and Forces" at Imperial College. The book is concerned entirely with mathematics proper, although the emphasis and detailed topics have been chosen with an eye to the way in which differential geometry is applied these days to modern theoretical physics. This includes not only the traditional area of general relativity but also the theory of Yang-Mills fields

  3. Comparison theorems in Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeger, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The central theme of this book is the interaction between the curvature of a complete Riemannian manifold and its topology and global geometry. The first five chapters are preparatory in nature. They begin with a very concise introduction to Riemannian geometry, followed by an exposition of Toponogov's theorem-the first such treatment in a book in English. Next comes a detailed presentation of homogeneous spaces in which the main goal is to find formulas for their curvature. A quick chapter of Morse theory is followed by one on the injectivity radius. Chapters 6-9 deal with many of the most re

  4. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, Uday [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.

  5. Spatial geometry and special relativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho

    2016-01-01

    In this work, it is shown the interplay of relative and absolute entities, which are present in both spatial geometry and special relativity. In order to strengthen the understanding of special relativity, we discuss firstly an instance of geometry and the existence of both frame......-dependent and frame-independent entities. We depart from a subject well known by students, which is the three-dimensional geometric space in order to compare, afterwards, with the treatment of four-dimensional space in the special relativity. The differences and similarities between these two subjects are also...

  6. Stochastic geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Sung Nok; Kendall, Wilfrid S; Mecke, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    An extensive update to a classic text Stochastic geometry and spatial statistics play a fundamental role in many modern branches of physics, materials sciences, engineering, biology and environmental sciences. They offer successful models for the description of random two- and three-dimensional micro and macro structures and statistical methods for their analysis. The previous edition of this book has served as the key reference in its field for over 18 years and is regarded as the best treatment of the subject of stochastic geometry, both as a subject with vital a

  7. Introduction to topology and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2014-01-01

    An easily accessible introduction to over three centuries of innovations in geometry Praise for the First Edition ". . . a welcome alternative to compartmentalized treatments bound to the old thinking. This clearly written, well-illustrated book supplies sufficient background to be self-contained." -CHOICE This fully revised new edition offers the most comprehensive coverage of modern geometry currently available at an introductory level. The book strikes a welcome balance between academic rigor and accessibility, providing a complete and cohesive picture of the science with an unparallele

  8. Algebraic geometry and theta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Coble, Arthur B

    1929-01-01

    This book is the result of extending and deepening all questions from algebraic geometry that are connected to the central problem of this book: the determination of the tritangent planes of a space curve of order six and genus four, which the author treated in his Colloquium Lecture in 1928 at Amherst. The first two chapters recall fundamental ideas of algebraic geometry and theta functions in such fashion as will be most helpful in later applications. In order to clearly present the state of the central problem, the author first presents the better-known cases of genus two (Chapter III) and

  9. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, Uday

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated

  10. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks......, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed...

  11. The knife-edge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, S.M.; Lee, B.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Popovic, M.; Smith, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design for a new technology for particle track detectors is described. Using standard IC fabrication techniques, a pattern of microscopic knife edges and field-shaping electrodes can be fabricated on a silicon substrate. The knife-edge chamber uniquely offers attractive performance for the track chambers required for SSC detectors, for which no present technology is yet satisfactory. Its features include: excellent radiation hardness (10 Mrad), excellent spatial resolution (∼20 μm), short drift time (20 ns), and large pulse height (1 mV)

  12. A Computational Approach to Diagnosing Misfits, Inducing Requirements, and Delineating Transformations for Edge Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    .... Our research stream employs methods and tools of Computational Organization Theory to investigate the design and efficacy of Edge organizations for current and future, military, mission-environmental contexts...

  13. Cellular automata in image processing and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...

  14. Improved core-edge tokamak transport simulations with the CORSICA 2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarditi, A.; Cohen, R.H.; Crotinger, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The CORSICA 2 code models the nonlinear transport between the core and the edge of a tokamak plasma. The code couples a 2D axisymmetric edge/SOL model (UEDGE) to a 1D model for the radial core transport in toroidal flux coordinates (the transport module from the CORSICA 1 code). The core density and temperature profiles are joined to the flux-surface average profiles from the 2D code sufficiently inside the magnetic separatrix, at a flux surface on which the edge profiles are approximately constant. In the present version of the code, the deuterium density and electron and ion temperatures are coupled. The electron density is determined by imposing quasi-neutrality, both in the core and in the edge. The model allows the core-edge coupling of multiple ion densities while retaining a single temperature (corresponding to the equilibration value) for the all ion species. Applications of CORSICA 2 to modeling the DIII-D tokamak are discussed. This work will focus on the simulation of the L-H transition, coupling a single ion species (deuterium) and the two (electron and ion) temperatures. These simulations will employ a new self-consistent model for the L-H transition that is being implemented in the UEDGE code. Applications to the modeling of ITER ignition scenarios are also discussed. This will involve coupling a second density species (the thermal alphas), bringing the total number of coupled variables up to four. Finally, the progress in evolving the magnetic geometry is discussed. Currently, this geometry is calculated by CORSICA's MHD equilibrium module (TEQ) at the beginning of the run and fixed thereafter. However, CORSICA 1 can evolve this geometry quasistatically, and this quasistatic treatment is being extended to include the edge/SOL geometry. Recent improvements for code speed-up are also presented

  15. Heat Transfer and Friction Studies in a Tilted and Rib-Roughened Trailing-Edge Cooling Cavity with and without the Trailing-Edge Cooling Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Taslim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and average heat transfer coefficients and friction factors were measured in a test section simulating the trailing-edge cooling cavity of a turbine airfoil. The test rig with a trapezoidal cross-sectional area was rib-roughened on two opposite sides of the trapezoid (airfoil pressure and suction sides with tapered ribs to conform to the cooling cavity shape and had a 22-degree tilt in the flow direction upstream of the ribs that affected the heat transfer coefficients on the two rib-roughened surfaces. The radial cooling flow traveled from the airfoil root to the tip while exiting through 22 cooling holes along the airfoil trailing-edge. Two rib geometries, with and without the presence of the trailing-edge cooling holes, were examined. The numerical model contained the entire trailing-edge channel, ribs, and trailing-edge cooling holes to simulate exactly the tested geometry. A pressure-correction based, multiblock, multigrid, unstructured/adaptive commercial software was used in this investigation. Realizable k-ε turbulence model in conjunction with enhanced wall treatment approach for the near wall regions was used for turbulence closure. The applied thermal boundary conditions to the CFD models matched the test boundary conditions. Comparisons are made between the experimental and numerical results.

  16. Edge Thomson scattering on RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfier, A.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2006-01-01

    Electron temperature and density profiles of the RFX-mod experiment are characterized by edge gradients typically steeper than the flatter central region. The main Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic which measures 84-point profiles along a diameter is mainly devoted to cover the core region. A second TS system has been developed to measure 12-point profiles in the external region 0.8< r/a<1, with a spatial resolution of 1 cm. It uses a single shot ruby laser. Input and collection optics share the same vacuum port and they are mounted on one optical bench, which allows offline aligning the system before connecting it to the vessel. The scattered signal is collected by a row of 12 fibers, while 4 fibers on the sides are used to check the alignment and measure the plasma light. The fibers, arranged in a 4x4 pattern, are fed into a four channel filter spectrometer and the spectrum is detected by a GaAs intensified charge-coupled device camera. The filters are arranged in a zigzag geometry, such that only one detector is needed

  17. The Idea of Order at Geometry Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Thomas

    The idea of order in geometry is explored using the experience of assignments given to undergraduates in a college geometry course "From Space to Geometry." Discussed are the definition of geometry, and earth measurement using architecture, art, and common experience. This discussion concludes with a consideration of the question of whether…

  18. Teaching Spatial Geometry in a Virtual World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2017-01-01

    Spatial geometry is one of the fundamental mathematical building blocks of any engineering education. However, it is overshadowed by planar geometry in the curriculum between playful early primary education and later analytical geometry, leaving a multi-year gap where spatial geometry is absent...

  19. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  20. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcut, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Poisson manifolds is highly nontrivial even locally. The first important result in this direction is Conn's linearization theorem around fixed points. One of the main results of this thesis (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric

  1. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models for ...... for river geometries are formulated and a coupling between hydraulic computational methods and numerical reliability methods is presented....

  2. Matter in toy dynamical geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopka, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of theories describing quantum dynamical geometry is to compute expectation values of geometrical observables. The results of such computations can be affected by whether or not matter is taken into account. It is thus important to understand to what extent and to what effect

  3. Let??s teach geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ca??adas, Mar??a C.; Molina, Marta; Gallardo, Sandra; Mart??nez-Santaolalla, Manuel J.; Pe??as, Mar??a

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present an activity for High School students in which various mathematical concepts of plane and spatial geometry are involved. The final objective of the proposed tasks is constructing a particular polyhedron, the cube, by using a modality of origami called modular origami.

  4. Granular flows in constrained geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Tejas; Viswanathan, Koushik

    Confined geometries are widespread in granular processing applications. The deformation and flow fields in such a geometry, with non-trivial boundary conditions, determine the resultant mechanical properties of the material (local porosity, density, residual stresses etc.). We present experimental studies of deformation and plastic flow of a prototypical granular medium in different nontrivial geometries- flat-punch compression, Couette-shear flow and a rigid body sliding past a granular half-space. These geometries represent simplified scaled-down versions of common industrial configurations such as compaction and dredging. The corresponding granular flows show a rich variety of flow features, representing the entire gamut of material types, from elastic solids (beam buckling) to fluids (vortex-formation, boundary layers) and even plastically deforming metals (dead material zone, pile-up). The effect of changing particle-level properties (e.g., shape, size, density) on the observed flows is also explicitly demonstrated. Non-smooth contact dynamics particle simulations are shown to reproduce some of the observed flow features quantitatively. These results showcase some central challenges facing continuum-scale constitutive theories for dynamic granular flows.

  5. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  6. Learners engaging with transformation geometry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    participants engaged in investigative semi-structured interviews with the resear- chers. ... Keywords: analysis; conversions; transformation geometry; transformations; treatments .... semiotic systems of representation is not only to designate mathematical objects or to com- municate but also to ... Research design. We believe ...

  7. Multivariable calculus and differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walschap, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This text is a modern in-depth study of the subject that includes all the material needed from linear algebra. It then goes on to investigate topics in differential geometry, such as manifolds in Euclidean space, curvature, and the generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus known as Stokes' theorem.

  8. College geometry a unified development

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, David C

    2011-01-01

    ""The book is a comprehensive textbook on basic geometry. … Key features of the book include numerous figures and many problems, more than half of which come with hints or even complete solutions. Frequent historical comments add to making the reading a pleasant one.""-Michael Joswig, Zentralblatt MATH 1273

  9. At the edge of intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the 'edge of intonation' in a twofold sense. It focuses on utterance-final F0 movements and crosses the traditional segment-prosody divide by investigating the interplay of F0 and voiceless fricatives in speech production. An experiment was performed for German with four...

  10. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  11. Study on measurement of leading and trailing edges of blades based on optical scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bi; Liu, Hongguang; Bao, Longxiang; Li, Di

    2017-10-01

    In the field of aeronautics, the geometry and dimensional accuracy of the blade edges has a large influence on the aerodynamic performance of aero engine. Therefore, a non-contact optical scanning system is established to realize the measurement of leading and trailing edges of blades in a rapid, precise and efficient manner in the paper. Based on the mechanical framework of a traditional CMM, the system is equipped with a specified sensing device as the scanning probe, which is made up by two new-style laser scanning sensors installed at a certain angle to each other by a holder. In the measuring procedure, the geometric dimensions of the measured blade edges on every contour plane are determined by the contour information on five transversals at the leading or trailing edges, which can be used to determine the machining allowance of the blades. In order to verify the effectiveness and practicality of the system set up, a precision forging blade after grinded is adopted as the measured object and its leading and trailing edges are measured by the system respectively. In the experiment, the thickness of blade edges on three contour planes is measured by the optical scanning system several times. As the experiment results show, the repeatability accuracy of the system can meet its design requirements and the inspecting demands of the blade edges. As a result, the optical scanning system could serve as a component of the intelligent manufacturing system of blades to improve the machining quality of the blade edges.

  12. Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Michael L.

    One of a series of experimental units for children at the preschool level, this booklet deals with geometric concepts. A unit on volume and a unit on linear measurement are covered; for each unit a discussion of mathematical objectives, a list of materials needed, and a sequence of learning activities are provided. Directions are specified for the…

  13. Geometri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg din egen boomerang, kast den, se den flyve, forstå hvorfor og hvordan den vender tilbage, og grib den. Det handler om opdriften på vingerne når du flyver, men det handler også og allermest om den mærkværdige gyroskop-effekt, du bruger til at holde balancen, når du kører på cykel. Vi vil bruge...

  14. Prediction of melt geometry in laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Giovanni; Tomesani, Luca; Campana, Giampaolo

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the melt film geometry in laser cutting of steels is developed. Using as basis, a previous model for kerf geometry estimation developed by the authors, with both reactive and non-reactive process gases, the film thickness and velocity were determined as a function of the kerf depth in the cutting plate. Two criteria were then adopted to predict the quality of the laser cutting operation: the first is based on a minimum acceptable value of the ejection speed of the melt from the bottom of the kerf, the second on the occlusion of the kerf itself due to an excess of molten material in the boundary layer at the kerf width. These criteria determined a feasibility region in the domain of the process and material variables, such as cutting speed, assistant gas pressure, laser beam power and material characteristics. These factors may be successfully used to build a process-planning tool for parameters optimisation and setting, in order to achieve a satisfactory process quality. The model response is in excellent agreement with the feasibility regions reported from experimental data by various authors and demonstrates a relationship between the occurrence of dross adhesion and the two different mechanisms predicted for such a phenomenon were: unsatisfactory ejection speed of the melt film from the bottom of the kerf and occlusion of the kerf.

  15. Geometry and self-righting of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domokos, Gábor; Várkonyi, Péter L

    2008-01-07

    Terrestrial animals with rigid shells face imminent danger when turned upside down. A rich variety of righting strategies of beetle and turtle species have been described, but the exact role of the shell's geometry in righting is so far unknown. These strategies are often based on active mechanisms, e.g. most beetles self-right via motion of their legs or wings; flat, aquatic turtles use their muscular neck to flip back. On the other hand, highly domed, terrestrial turtles with short limbs and necks have virtually no active control: here shape itself may serve as a fundamental tool. Based on field data gathered on a broad spectrum of aquatic and terrestrial turtle species we develop a geometric model of the shell. Inspired by recent mathematical results, we demonstrate that a simple mechanical classification of the model is closely linked to the animals' righting strategy. Specifically, we show that the exact geometry of highly domed terrestrial species is close to optimal for self-righting, and the shell's shape is the predominant factor of their ability to flip back. Our study illustrates how evolution solved a far-from-trivial geometrical problem and equipped some turtles with monostatic shells: beautiful forms, which rarely appear in nature otherwise.

  16. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  17. Discrete differential geometry. Consistency as integrability

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenko, Alexander I.; Suris, Yuri B.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of discrete differential geometry is presently emerging on the border between differential and discrete geometry. Whereas classical differential geometry investigates smooth geometric shapes (such as surfaces), and discrete geometry studies geometric shapes with finite number of elements (such as polyhedra), the discrete differential geometry aims at the development of discrete equivalents of notions and methods of smooth surface theory. Current interest in this field derives not ...

  18. Difference sets connecting algebra, combinatorics, and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Emily H

    2013-01-01

    Difference sets belong both to group theory and to combinatorics. Studying them requires tools from geometry, number theory, and representation theory. This book lays a foundation for these topics, including a primer on representations and characters of finite groups. It makes the research literature on difference sets accessible to students who have studied linear algebra and abstract algebra, and it prepares them to do their own research. This text is suitable for an undergraduate capstone course, since it illuminates the many links among topics that the students have already studied. To this end, almost every chapter ends with a coda highlighting the main ideas and emphasizing mathematical connections. This book can also be used for self-study by anyone interested in these connections and concrete examples. An abundance of exercises, varying from straightforward to challenging, invites the reader to solve puzzles, construct proofs, and investigate problems--by hand or on a computer. Hints and solutions are...

  19. What is a Game for Geometry Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Gjedde, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Game based Learning (GBL) has been promoted as a way to enhance science, technology, engineering and mathematics education, in several aspects. In this paper we aim at conceptualizing the creative, embodied and immersive potentials in the context of teaching geometry in primary school. We review...... two cases where the concept of “game” is related to the development of pupils’ creativity and innovation skills. One intervention is inviting pupils to become designers at a “game factory”, by using the digital mathematics tool GeoGebra. The second intervention uses mobile technology to have students...... participate in a collaborative game requiring them to take part in an embodied activity outside the classroom....

  20. The analysis and geometry of Hardy's inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Balinsky, Alexander A; Lewis, Roger T

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents advances that have been made over recent decades in areas of research featuring Hardy's inequality and related topics. The inequality and its extensions and refinements are not only of intrinsic interest but are indispensable tools in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Hardy inequalities on domains have a substantial role and this necessitates a detailed investigation of significant geometric properties of a domain and its boundary. Other topics covered in this volume are Hardy- Sobolev-Maz’ya inequalities; inequalities of Hardy-type involving magnetic fields; Hardy, Sobolev and Cwikel-Lieb-Rosenbljum inequalities for Pauli operators; the Rellich inequality.   The Analysis and Geometry of Hardy’s Inequality provides an up-to-date account of research in areas of contemporary interest and would be suitable for a graduate course in mathematics or physics. A good basic knowledge of real and complex analysis is a prerequisite.

  1. Introduction to differential geometry for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Doolin, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    This outstanding guide supplies important mathematical tools for diverse engineering applications, offering engineers the basic concepts and terminology of modern global differential geometry. Suitable for independent study as well as a supplementary text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses, this volume also constitutes a valuable reference for control, systems, aeronautical, electrical, and mechanical engineers.The treatment's ideas are applied mainly as an introduction to the Lie theory of differential equations and to examine the role of Grassmannians in control systems analysis. Additional topics include the fundamental notions of manifolds, tangent spaces, vector fields, exterior algebra, and Lie algebras. An appendix reviews concepts related to vector calculus, including open and closed sets, compactness, continuity, and derivative.

  2. Computational algebraic geometry of epidemic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-06-01

    Computational Algebraic Geometry is applied to the analysis of various epidemic models for Schistosomiasis and Dengue, both, for the case without control measures and for the case where control measures are applied. The models were analyzed using the mathematical software Maple. Explicitly the analysis is performed using Groebner basis, Hilbert dimension and Hilbert polynomials. These computational tools are included automatically in Maple. Each of these models is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations, and for each model the basic reproductive number (R0) is calculated. The effects of the control measures are observed by the changes in the algebraic structure of R0, the changes in Groebner basis, the changes in Hilbert dimension, and the changes in Hilbert polynomials. It is hoped that the results obtained in this paper become of importance for designing control measures against the epidemic diseases described. For future researches it is proposed the use of algebraic epidemiology to analyze models for airborne and waterborne diseases.

  3. Categorification in geometry, topology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorification is a powerful tool for relating various branches of mathematics and exploiting the commonalities between fields. It provides a language emphasizing essential features and allowing precise relationships between vastly different fields. This volume focuses on the role categorification plays in geometry, topology, and physics. These articles illustrate many important trends for the field including geometric representation theory, homotopical methods in link homology, interactions between higher representation theory and gauge theory, and double affine Hecke algebra approaches to link homology. The companion volume (Contemporary Mathematics, Volume 683) is devoted to categorification and higher representation theory.

  4. Numerically robust geometry engine for compound solid geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlachoudis, V.; Sinuela-Pastor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo programs heavily rely on a fast and numerically robust solid geometry engines. However the success of solid modeling, depends on facilities for specifying and editing parameterized models through a user-friendly graphical front-end. Such a user interface has to be fast enough in order to be interactive for 2D and/or 3D displays, but at the same time numerically robust in order to display possible modeling errors at real time that could be critical for the simulation. The graphical user interface Flair for FLUKA currently employs such an engine where special emphasis has been given on being fast and numerically robust. The numerically robustness is achieved by a novel method of estimating the floating precision of the operations, which dynamically adapts all the decision operations accordingly. Moreover a predictive caching mechanism is ensuring that logical errors in the geometry description are found online, without compromising the processing time by checking all regions. (authors)

  5. Geometry of sandy deposits at the distal edge of the Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, D.C.; Schwab, W.C.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1995-01-01

    Sidescan sonar provides a map of the seafloor that has greatly improved the understanding of depositional processes on modern deep-sea fans (e.g. Mutti and Normark 1991). Here, we present a sidescan-sonar mosaic from the eastern Gulf of Mexico that images the distal reaches of a channel on the Mississippi Fan and the deposits associated with it (Fig. 41.1). This area is one of several deep-sea fan systems that had not previously been imaged by high-resolution sidescan systems. The mosaic highlights the complexity of the spatial relationships of channels and deposits at ends of channels on this large, modern, passive-margin deep-sea fan (Figs 41.2 and 41.3).

  6. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  7. Edge-injective and edge-surjective vertex labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Regen, F.

    2010-01-01

    For a graph G = (V, E) we consider vertex-k-labellings f : V → {1,2, ,k} for which the induced edge weighting w : E → {2, 3,., 2k} with w(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is injective or surjective or both. We study the relation between these labellings and the number theoretic notions of an additive basis and ...

  8. L-mode radiative plasma edge studies for model validation in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho-Mantila, L., E-mail: leena.aho-mantila@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Bernert, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Coenen, J.W. [Energie- und Klimaforschung IEK-4, FZJ, EURATOM Association, TEC, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fischer, R. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lehnen, M. [Energie- und Klimaforschung IEK-4, FZJ, EURATOM Association, TEC, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Lowry, C. [EFDA JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinsitut Greifswald, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); McCormick, K.; Müller, H.W.; Sieglin, B. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Stamp, M.F. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Wischmeier, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bonnin, X. [LSPM, CNRS, Université Paris 13, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Coster, D.P. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Reiter, D.; Brezinsek, S. [Energie- und Klimaforschung IEK-4, FZJ, EURATOM Association, TEC, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The presently favoured option for reactor power handling combines metallic plasma-facing components and impurity seeding to achieve highly radiative scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas. It is uncertain whether tolerable divertor power loads will be obtained in this scenario, necessitating the development of predictive modelling tools. L-mode experiments with N{sub 2} seeding have been conducted at both ASDEX Upgrade and JET for benchmarking the critically important impurity radiation models in edge fluid codes. In both machines, particle and power loads are observed to first reduce at the inner target, and only then at the outer target. The outer divertor cools down with increasing N seeding rate, evolving from low-recycling conditions to a regime with peak temperature of 8–10 eV in both devices. First SOLPS5.0 simulations of N{sub 2} seeding in ASDEX Upgrade geometry show a similar in–out asymmetry in the effect of impurity radiation when drifts are activated in the simulations.

  9. Generalized Multi-Edge Analysis for K-Edge Densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In K-edge densitometry (KED), a continuous-energy x-ray beam is transmitted through a liquid sample. The actinide content of the sample can be measured through analysis of the transmitted portion of the x-ray beam. Traditional methods for KED analysis allow the simultaneous calculation of, at most, two actinide concentrations. A generalized multi-edge KED analytical method is presented, allowing up to six actinide concentrations to be calculated simultaneously. Applications of this method for hybrid KED/x-ray fluorescence (HKED) systems are discussed. Current HKED systems require the operator to know the approximate actinide content of each sample, and manually select the proper analysis mode. The new multi-edge KED technique allows rapid identification of the major actinide components in a sample, independent of actinide content. The proper HKED analysis mode can be selected automatically, without requiring sample content information from the user. Automatic HKED analysis would be especially useful in an analytical laboratory setting, where samples with truly unknown characteristics are encountered. Because this technique requires no hardware modifications, several facilities that use HKED may eventually benefit from this approach

  10. Structural and Dynamical Properties of 2:1 Phyllosilicates Edges and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, A. G.; Sposito, G.

    2012-12-01

    Classical mechanics simulations of bulk 2:1 phyllosilicate minerals provide atomic scale perspectives of the macroscopic sorption and diffusion phenomena in interlayer nanopores. An equivalent perspective of these interfacial phenomena in macropores bounded by the edges of stacked phyllosilicate particles is not possible due to the absence of a forcefield for the edges of phyllosilicate minerals. A valid forcefield to describe the phyllosilicate edge is essential to link the quantum and continuum mechanical models. The inherently disordered edge of 2:1 phyllosilicate minerals and rarity of well-crystallized samples further complicates the task of validating a forcefield for the phyllosilicate edge. Periodic bond chain theory identifies three tetrahedral-octahedral-tetrahedral (TOT) structures that parallel the edge faces of pseudohexagonal phyllosilicate particles. These TOT structures are the basis of atomistic models of the dominant edge interface and nanoparticles. The CLAYFF forcefield describes all pairwise atomic interactions with only minimal partial charge adjustments to maintain model neutrality, where necessary. Atomistic simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble at nanosecond timescales predict equilibrium edge structures and dynamical properties of the aqueous interface. The CLAYFF forcefield and the limited adjustments to parameters predict edge and particle structures that are consistent with the results of ab initio MD simulations, support macroscopic observations of phyllosilicate reactivity, and provide legitimacy for disordered models of 2:1 phyllosilicates. The heterogeneous edge structures can be explained by the chemistry of the octahedral cation and surface charge anisotropy. In the plane of the octahedral sheet, the cations of the octahedral layer can assume four-, five-, and six-coordinate polyhedral geometries at the edge interface. These disordered edge structures create alternate alignments in the tetrahedral sheet. The structural

  11. Edges in CNC polishing: from mirror-segments towards semiconductors, paper 1: edges on processing the global surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Li, Hongyu; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2012-08-27

    Segment-edges for extremely large telescopes are critical for observations requiring high contrast and SNR, e.g. detecting exo-planets. In parallel, industrial requirements for edge-control are emerging in several applications. This paper reports on a new approach, where edges are controlled throughout polishing of the entire surface of a part, which has been pre-machined to its final external dimensions. The method deploys compliant bonnets delivering influence functions of variable diameter, complemented by small pitch tools sized to accommodate aspheric mis-fit. We describe results on witness hexagons in preparation for full size prototype segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, and comment on wider applications of the technology.

  12. Multiple-view, Multiple-selection Visualization of Simulation Geometry in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerdick, L A T; Eulisse, G; Jones, C; McCauley, T; Osborne, I; Kovalskyi, D; Mrak Tadel, A; Tadel, M; Yagil, A

    2012-01-01

    Fireworks, the event-display program of CMS, was extended with an advanced geometry visualization package. ROOT's TGeo geometry is used as internal representation, shared among several geometry views. Each view is represented by a GUI list-tree widget, implemented as a flat vector to allow for fast searching, selection, and filtering by material type, node name, and shape type. Display of logical and physical volumes is supported. Color, transparency, and visibility flags can be modified for each node or for a selection of nodes. Further operations, like opening of a new view or changing of the root node, can be performed via a context menu. Node selection and graphical properties determined by the list-tree view can be visualized in any 3D graphics view of Fireworks. As each 3D view can display any number of geometry views, a user is free to combine different geometry-view selections within the same 3D view. Node-selection by proximity to a given point is possible. A visual clipping box can be set for each geometry view to limit geometry drawing into a specified region. Visualization of geometric overlaps, as detected by TGeo, is also supported. The geometry visualization package is used for detailed inspection and display of simulation geometry with or without the event data. It also serves as a tool for geometry debugging and inspection, facilitating development of geometries for CMS detector upgrades and for SLHC.

  13. High-resolution Al L2,3-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure spectra of Al-containing crystals and glasses: coordination number and bonding information from edge components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, C; Calas, G; Cormier, L; Galoisy, L; Henderson, G S

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution Al L 2,3 -edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra have been measured in selected materials containing aluminium in 4-, 5- and 6-coordination. A shift of 1.5 eV is observed between the onset of [4] Al and [6] Al L 2,3 -edge XANES, in agreement with the magnitude of the shift observed at the Al K-edge. The differences in the position and shape of low-energy components of Al L 2,3 -edge XANES spectra provide a unique fingerprint of the geometry of the Al site and of the nature of Al-O chemical bond. The high resolution allows the calculation of electronic parameters such as the spin-orbit coupling and exchange energy using intermediate coupling theory. The electron-hole exchange energy decreases in tetrahedral as compared to octahedral symmetry, in relation with the increased screening of the core hole in the former. Al L 2,3 -edge XANES spectra confirm a major structural difference between glassy and crystalline NaAlSi 2 O 6 , with Al in 4- and 6-coordination, respectively, Al coordination remaining unchanged in NaAl 1-x Fe x Si 2 O 6 glasses, as Fe is substituted for Al

  14. Development and Validation of a Hypersonic Vehicle Design Tool Based On Waverider Design Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasque, Nastassja

    Methodologies for a tool capable of assisting design initiatives for practical waverider based hypersonic vehicles were developed and validated. The design space for vehicle surfaces was formed using an algorithm that coupled directional derivatives with the conservation laws to determine a flow field defined by a set of post-shock streamlines. The design space is used to construct an ideal waverider with a sharp leading edge. A blunting method was developed to modify the ideal shapes to a more practical geometry for real-world application. Empirical and analytical relations were then systematically applied to the resulting geometries to determine local pressure, skin-friction and heat flux. For the ideal portion of the geometry, flat plate relations for compressible flow were applied. For the blunted portion of the geometry modified Newtonian theory, Fay-Riddell theory and Modified Reynolds analogy were applied. The design and analysis methods were validated using analytical solutions as well as empirical and numerical data. The streamline solution for the flow field generation technique was compared with a Taylor-Maccoll solution and showed very good agreement. The relationship between the local Stanton number and skin friction coefficient with local Reynolds number along the ideal portion of the body showed good agreement with experimental data. In addition, an automated grid generation routine was formulated to construct a structured mesh around resulting geometries in preparation for Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis. The overall analysis of the waverider body using the tool was then compared to CFD studies. The CFD flow field showed very good agreement with the design space. However, the distribution of the surface properties was near CFD results but did not have great agreement.

  15. Carbon K-edge spectra of carbonate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Jay A; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-09-01

    Carbon K-edge X-ray spectroscopy has been applied to the study of a wide range of organic samples, from polymers and coals to interstellar dust particles. Identification of carbonaceous materials within these samples is accomplished by the pattern of resonances in the 280-320 eV energy region. Carbonate minerals are often encountered in the study of natural samples, and have been identified by a distinctive resonance at 290.3 eV. Here C K-edge and Ca L-edge spectra from a range of carbonate minerals are presented. Although all carbonates exhibit a sharp 290 eV resonance, both the precise position of this resonance and the positions of other resonances vary among minerals. The relative strengths of the different carbonate resonances also vary with crystal orientation to the linearly polarized X-ray beam. Intriguingly, several carbonate minerals also exhibit a strong 288.6 eV resonance, consistent with the position of a carbonyl resonance rather than carbonate. Calcite and aragonite, although indistinguishable spectrally at the C K-edge, exhibited significantly different spectra at the Ca L-edge. The distinctive spectral fingerprints of carbonates provide an identification tool, allowing for the examination of such processes as carbon sequestration in minerals, Mn substitution in marine calcium carbonates (dolomitization) and serpentinization of basalts.

  16. Carbon K-edge Spectra of Carbonate Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, J.; Wirick, S; Jacobsen, C

    2010-01-01

    Carbon K-edge X-ray spectroscopy has been applied to the study of a wide range of organic samples, from polymers and coals to interstellar dust particles. Identification of carbonaceous materials within these samples is accomplished by the pattern of resonances in the 280-320 eV energy region. Carbonate minerals are often encountered in the study of natural samples, and have been identified by a distinctive resonance at 290.3 eV. Here C K-edge and Ca L-edge spectra from a range of carbonate minerals are presented. Although all carbonates exhibit a sharp 290 eV resonance, both the precise position of this resonance and the positions of other resonances vary among minerals. The relative strengths of the different carbonate resonances also vary with crystal orientation to the linearly polarized X-ray beam. Intriguingly, several carbonate minerals also exhibit a strong 288.6 eV resonance, consistent with the position of a carbonyl resonance rather than carbonate. Calcite and aragonite, although indistinguishable spectrally at the C K-edge, exhibited significantly different spectra at the Ca L-edge. The distinctive spectral fingerprints of carbonates provide an identification tool, allowing for the examination of such processes as carbon sequestration in minerals, Mn substitution in marine calcium carbonates (dolomitization) and serpentinization of basalts.

  17. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.

  18. Tensor analysis and elementary differential geometry for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2017-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents topics, such as Dirac notation, tensor analysis, elementary differential geometry of moving surfaces, and k-differential forms. Additionally, two new chapters of Cartan differential forms and Dirac and tensor notations in quantum mechanics are added to this second edition. The reader is provided with hands-on calculations and worked-out examples at which he will learn how to handle the bra-ket notation, tensors, differential geometry, and differential forms; and to apply them to the physical and engineering world. Many methods and applications are given in CFD, continuum mechanics, electrodynamics in special relativity, cosmology in the Minkowski four-dimensional spacetime, and relativistic and non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Tensors, differential geometry, differential forms, and Dirac notation are very useful advanced mathematical tools in many fields of modern physics and computational engineering. They are involved in special and general relativity physics, quantum m...

  19. Tensor analysis and elementary differential geometry for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Tensors and methods of differential geometry are very useful mathematical tools in many fields of modern physics and computational engineering including relativity physics, electrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), continuum mechanics, aero and vibroacoustics, and cybernetics. This book comprehensively presents topics, such as bra-ket notation, tensor analysis, and elementary differential geometry of a moving surface. Moreover, authors intentionally abstain from giving mathematically rigorous definitions and derivations that are however dealt with as precisely as possible. The reader is provided with hands-on calculations and worked-out examples at which he will learn how to handle the bra-ket notation, tensors and differential geometry and to use them in the physical and engineering world. The target audience primarily comprises graduate students in physics and engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers.

  20. Euclidean distance geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liberti, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook, the first of its kind, presents the fundamentals of distance geometry:  theory, useful methodologies for obtaining solutions, and real world applications. Concise proofs are given and step-by-step algorithms for solving fundamental problems efficiently and precisely are presented in Mathematica®, enabling the reader to experiment with concepts and methods as they are introduced. Descriptive graphics, examples, and problems, accompany the real gems of the text, namely the applications in visualization of graphs, localization of sensor networks, protein conformation from distance data, clock synchronization protocols, robotics, and control of unmanned underwater vehicles, to name several.  Aimed at intermediate undergraduates, beginning graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, the reader with a basic knowledge of linear algebra will gain an understanding of the basic theories of distance geometry and why they work in real life.