WorldWideScience

Sample records for tooding airi vrnik

  1. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  2. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  3. Õnnitleme - Kristi Toode on doktorikraadiga õde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    10. aprillil 2015 kaitses Põhja-Eesti Regionaalhaigla onkoloogia- ja hematoloogiakliiniku õendusjuht Kirsti Toode Tampere Ülikoolis terviseteaduste osakonnas doktoritööd Nurses' work motivation: essence and associations = Õdede töömotivatsioon: olemus ja seosed

  4. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  5. The generalized Airy diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Cholewinski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of a generalized Airy diffusion equation and an associated nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained. Trigonometric type functions are derived for a third order generalized radial Euler type operator. An associated complex variable theory and generalized Cauchy-Euler equations are obtained. Further, it is shown that the Airy expansions can be mapped onto the Bessel Calculus of Bochner, Cholewinski and Haimo.

  6. Vortex Airy beams directly generated via liquid crystal q-Airy-plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing-Yan; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Peng; Qi, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yan-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Lin

    2018-03-01

    Liquid crystal q-Airy-plates with director distributions integrated by q-plates and polarization Airy masks are proposed and demonstrated via the photoalignment technique. Single/dual vortex Airy beams of opposite topological charges and orthogonal circular polarizations are directly generated with polarization-controllable characteristic. The singular phase of the vortex part is verified by both astigmatic transformation and digital holography. The trajectory of vortex Airy beams is investigated, manifesting separate propagation dynamics of optical vortices and Airy beams. Meanwhile, Airy beams still keep their intrinsic transverse acceleration, self-healing, and nondiffraction features. This work provides a versatile candidate for generating high-quality vortex Airy beams.

  7. Two kinds of Airy-related beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yiqing; Zhou, Guoquan; Zhang, Lijun; Ru, Guoyun

    2015-01-01

    Two kinds of Airy-related beams are introduced in this manuscript. The normalized intensity distribution in the x-direction of the two kinds of Airy-related beams is close to that of the Gaussian beam. The normalized intensity distribution in the y-direction of the two kinds of Airy-related beams is close to that of the second-order and the third-order elegant Hermite–Gaussian beams, respectively. Analytical expressions of the two kinds of Airy-related beams passing through an ABCD paraxial optical system are derived. The beam propagation factors for the two kinds of Airy-related beams are 1.933 and 2.125, respectively. Analytical expressions of the beam half widths and the kurtosis parameters of the two kinds of Airy-related beams passing through an ABCD paraxial optical system are also presented. As a numerical example, the propagation properties of the two kinds of Airy-related beams are demonstrated in free space. Moreover, the comparison between the two kinds of Airy-related beams and their corresponding elegant Hermite–Gaussian beams along the two transverse directions are performed in detail. Upon propagation, the former kind of Airy-related beam will evolve from the central bright beam into the dark hollow beam. Contrarily, the latter kind of Airy-related beam will evolve from the dark hollow beam into the central bright beam. These two kinds of Airy-related beams can be used to describe specially distributed beams. (paper)

  8. Tunable twin Airy beams induced by binary phase patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongtao; Wei, Jingsong; Ma, Jianyong; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yiqun

    2013-04-15

    In this work, we theoretically and experimentally study the physical process of Airy beams induced by binary phase patterns combined with a slope factor. Theoretical simulations show that the binary phase patterns generate a pair of symmetrically inverted twin Airy beams. The slope factor can regulate the spacing between the two Airy beam peaks, decrease the error induced by the binarization process, and adjust the position of the focus formed by the twin Airy beams. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical ones.

  9. Autobiography of Sir George Biddell Airy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airy, George Biddell; Airy, Wilfred

    2010-06-01

    Preface; 1. Personal sketch of George Biddell Airy; 2. From his birth to his taking his B.A. degree; 3. At Trinity College, Cambridge; 4. At Cambridge Observatory; 5. At Greenwich Observatory, 1836-1846; 6. At Greenwich Observatory, 1846-1856; 7. At Greenwich Observatory, 1856-1866; 8. At Greenwich Observatory, 1866-1876; 9. At Greenwich Observatory to his resignation in 1881; 10. At the White House, Greewich, to his death; Appendix: List of printed papers; Index.

  10. Underwater inspection robot - AIRIS 21''trademark''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji, K.

    1999-01-01

    Highly reliable, cost-effective and extended examination coverage are three big demands for newly developed ISI equipment. AIRIS 21 (advanced inspection system for reactor pressure vessel and internals) which is a state-of-the-art next generation device, has been developed to reply to these demands. The device can reduce the inspection cost and increase the reliability and inspection coverage. The AIRIS 21 swims in the water toward an area to be inspected and sticks to the vessel wall using two propellers. After it sticks on the wall, the spinning speed of propellers is controlled to keep the device on the wall with constant vacuum force. Then it travels on the wall freely by two driving wheels and one trip measuring wheel. This manner of new examination system is quite different from the other conventional BWR-ID systems. This new inspection system is dramatically reduced its size [W550 x L600 x H55 (mm)] and weight [13.6 (kg)] compared with conventional system, and also saves ISI from being a critical path work because it needs no special tools, such as a large crane for handling. With AIRIS 21, it is possible to perform ID inspection of RPV welds in parallel with fuel shuffling and other core activities. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic Control of Collapse in a Vortex Airy Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chew, Khian-Hooi; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    Here we study systematically the self-focusing dynamics and collapse of vortex Airy optical beams in a Kerr medium. The collapse is suppressed compared to a non-vortex Airy beam in a Kerr medium due to the existence of vortex fields. The locations of collapse depend sensitively on the initial power, vortex order, and modulation parameters. The collapse may occur in a position where the initial field is nearly zero, while no collapse appears in the region where the initial field is mainly distributed. Compared with a non-vortex Airy beam, the collapse of a vortex Airy beam can occur at a position away from the area of the initial field distribution. Our study shows the possibility of controlling and manipulating the collapse, especially the precise position of collapse, by purposely choosing appropriate initial power, vortex order or modulation parameters of a vortex Airy beam. PMID:23518858

  12. Rainbows: Mie computations and the Airy approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R T; van de Hulst, H C

    1991-01-01

    Efficient and accurate computation of the scattered intensity pattern by the Mie formulas is now feasible for size parameters up to x = 50,000 at least, which in visual light means spherical drops with diameters up to 6 mm. We present a method for evaluating the Mie coefficients from the ratios between Riccati-Bessel and Neumann functions of successive order. We probe the applicability of the Airy approximation, which we generalize to rainbows of arbitrary p (number of internal reflections = p - 1), by comparing the Mie and Airy intensity patterns. Millimeter size water drops show a match in all details, including the position and intensity of the supernumerary maxima and the polarization. A fairly good match is still seen for drops of 0.1 mm. A small spread in sizes helps to smooth out irrelevant detail. The dark band between the rainbows is used to test more subtle features. We conclude that this band contains not only externally reflected light (p = 0) but also a sizable contribution f rom the p = 6 and p = 7 rainbows, which shift rapidly with wavelength. The higher the refractive index, the closer both theories agree on the first primary rainbow (p = 2) peak for drop diameters as small as 0.02 mm. This may be useful in supporting experimental work.

  13. Quantum anharmonic oscillator: The airy function approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, PO Box 9004, Abha 61413, Asseer (Saudi Arabia); University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); AlFaify, S. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, PO Box 9004, Abha 61413, Asseer (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-15

    New and simple numerical method is being reported to solve anharmonic oscillator problems. The method is setup to approach the real potential V(x) of the anharmonic oscillator system as a piecewise linear potential u(x) and to solve the Schrödinger equation of the system using the Airy function. Then, solutions continuity conditions lead to the energy quantification condition, and consequently, the energy eigenvalues. For testing purpose, the method was applied on the sextic and octic oscillators systems. The proposed method is found to be realistic, computationally simple, and having high degrees of accuracy. In addition, it can be applied to any form of potential. The results obtained by the proposed method were seen closely agreeing with results reached by other complicated methods.

  14. Exchange energy in the local Airy gas approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model of the edge electron gas is used to construct an exchange-energy functional that is an alternative to those obtained in the local-density and generalized-gradient approximations. Test calculations for rare-gas atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces show that the Airy gas...... functional performs better than the local-density approximation in all cases and better than the generalized-gradient approximation for solids and surfaces....

  15. Airi Liimets: "Teistmoodi mõeldes võiks taas otsast alata" / Airi Liimets ; intervjueerinud Ia Remmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liimets, Airi, 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia koolimuusika instituudi ning filosoofilise ja pedagoogilise antropoloogia keskuse juhataja, kasvatusfilosoofia ja kasvatusteaduse professori Airi Liimetsaga tema koostatud ja toimetatud, TLÜ kirjastuse poolt välja antud raamatust "Muusikalise kontegelikkuse ühendused identiteedi ja diferentsiga"

  16. The AGFA and AIRIS separators at ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS facility is being augmented with two new separators in order to take full advantage of recent and future anticipated beam intensity upgrades to the accelerator. A novel concept is used for the Argonne Gas-Filled Analyzer (AGFA), which employs only two magnetic elements; a quadrupole singlet for vertical focusing and a multipole magnet that provides a dipole field for the separation and a quadrupole field for horizontal focusing of the reaction products. The design allows for placing Gammasphere or GRETINA at the target position. This arrangement enables studies of prompt gamma-ray emission from weakly populated trans-fermium nuclei and those near the doubly-magic N=Z=50 shell closures measured in coincidence with the recoils registered in the AGFA focal plane. The Argonne In-flight Radioactive Ion Separator (AIRIS) is a magnetic chicane that will be installed immediately downstream of the last ATLAS cryostat. It will be used to separate radioactive ion beams generated in flight by the primary beam at an upstream high-intensity production target. These beams will be further purified by a downstream RF sweeper and transported to a number of target stations including HELIOS, the Enge spectrograph, the FMA and Gammasphere.

  17. Propagation of an Airy beam through the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoling; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Ji, Guangming; Jia, Xinhong

    2013-01-28

    In this paper, the effect of thermal blooming of an Airy beam propagating through the atmosphere is examined, and the effect of atmospheric turbulence is not considered. The changes of the intensity distribution, the centroid position and the mean-squared beam width of an Airy beam propagating through the atmosphere are studied by using the four-dimensional (4D) computer code of the time-dependent propagation of Airy beams through the atmosphere. It is shown that an Airy beam can't retain its shape and the structure when the Airy beam propagates through the atmosphere due to thermal blooming except for the short propagation distance, or the short time, or the low beam power. The thermal blooming results in a central dip of the center lobe, and causes the center lobe to spread and decrease. In contrast with the center lobe, the side lobes are less affected by thermal blooming, such that the intensity maximum of the side lobe may be larger than that of the center lobe. However, the cross wind can reduce the effect of thermal blooming. When there exists the cross wind velocity vx in x direction, the dependence of centroid position in x direction on vx is not monotonic, and there exists a minimum, but the centroid position in y direction is nearly independent of vx.

  18. Airy Wave Packets Accelerating in Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.

    2018-04-01

    Although diffractive spreading is an unavoidable feature of all wave phenomena, certain waveforms can attain propagation invariance. A lesser-explored strategy for achieving optical self-similar propagation exploits the modification of the spatiotemporal field structure when observed in reference frames moving at relativistic speeds. For such an observer, it is predicted that the associated Lorentz boost can bring to a halt the axial dynamics of a wave packet of an arbitrary profile. This phenomenon is particularly striking in the case of a self-accelerating beam—such as an Airy beam—whose peak normally undergoes a transverse displacement upon free propagation. Here we synthesize an acceleration-free Airy wave packet that travels in a straight line by deforming its spatiotemporal spectrum to reproduce the impact of a Lorentz boost. The roles of the axial spatial coordinate and time are swapped, leading to "time diffraction" manifested in self-acceleration observed in the propagating Airy wave-packet frame.

  19. Optical trapping and manipulation of Mie particles with Airy beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Ziyu; Zang, Weiping; Tian, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the radiation forces and moving trajectories of Mie particles induced by 1D Airy beams using the plane wave spectrum method and arbitrary beam theory. Numerical results show that both the transverse and the longitudinal radiation forces are deeply dependent on the relative refractive index, radii and positions of the scattering particles illuminated by the Airy beam. Due to the radiation forces, Mie particles with different radii and initial positions can be dragged into the nearest main intensity lobes, and move along parabolic trajectories in the direction of the Poynting vector. At the ends of these trajectories, in the presence of Brownian force, the trapped scattering particles show irregular Brownian movement near their equilibrium positions. This characteristic property of Airy beams enables optical sorting to be used more easily in the colloidal and biological sciences. (paper)

  20. Analysis of moire figures using interferometric lattices with Airy perfils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabal, H.J.; Garavaglia, M.

    1979-01-01

    Using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a spectrograph, iluminated with white light, ondulatory spectra are obtained. The componentes are not equidistance among them and the intensity distribution obeys the Airy's law. It is been made preliminar experiments to determinate if the moire figures, generated by the ondulatory spectra interaction, allows to measure displacements, rotations, etc [es

  1. Role of third-order dispersion in chirped Airy pulse propagation in single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wangyang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Shuangchun

    2018-04-01

    The dynamic propagation of the initial chirped Airy pulse in single-mode fibers is studied numerically, special attention being paid to the role of the third-order dispersion (TOD). It is shown that for the positive TOD, the Airy pulse experiences inversion irrespective of the sign of initial chirp. The role of TOD in the dynamic propagation of the initial chirped Airy pulse depends on the combined sign of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and the initial chirp. If the GVD and chirp have the opposite signs, the chirped Airy pulse compresses first and passes through a breakdown area, then reconstructs a new Airy pattern with opposite acceleration, with the breakdown area becoming small and the main peak of the new Airy pattern becoming asymmetric with an oscillatory structure due to the positive TOD. If the GVD and chirp have the same signs, the finite-energy Airy pulse compresses to a focal point and then inverses its acceleration, in the case of positive TOD, the distance to the focal point becoming smaller. At zero-dispersion point, the finite-energy Airy pulse inverses to the opposite acceleration at a focal point, with the tight-focusing effect being reduced by initial chirp. Under the effect of negative TOD, the initial chirped Airy pulse disperses and the lobes split. In addition, in the anomalous dispersion region, for strong nonlinearity, the initial chirped Airy pulse splits and enters a soliton shedding regime.

  2. Integrated management model. Methodology and software-enabled tood designed to assist a utility in developing a station-wide optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovet, R.; Ibanez, R.; Woodcock, J.

    2005-01-01

    A key concern for utilities today is optimizing station aging and realibility management activities in a manner that maximizes the value of those activities withing an affordable budget. The Westinghouse Proactive Asset Management Model is a methodology and software-enabled tood designed to assist a utility in developing a station-wide optimization of those activities. The process and tool support the development of an optimized, station-wide plan for inspection, testing, maintenance, repaor and replacement of aging components. The optimization identifies the benefit and optimal timing of those activities based on minimizing unplanned outage costs (avoided costs) and maximizing station Net Present Value. (Author)

  3. Local kinetic-energy density of the Airy gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model is used to derive an expression for the local kinetic energy in the linear potential approximation. The expression contains an explicit Laplacian term 2/5((h) over bar(2)/2m)del(mu)(2)(r) that, according to jellium surface calculations, must be a universal feature of any accurate...... local description. Applied to the noble gases the expression reduces the errors by a factor of 50 over previous results obtained by the linear potential approximation....

  4. Autofocusing Airy beam STED microscopy with long focal distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Liang, Yao; Chen, Yin; Chen, Zan Hui; Huang, Xu Guang

    2017-12-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) is a very important technique in super-resolution microscopy. Until now, while autofocusing Airy beam (AAB) has been an attractive theme for both theoretical and applied researches, there are almost no report on AABs being used in STED microscopy. In this paper, we propose a novel STED microscopy based on AABs. A radially symmetric 3/2 phase plate is involved to simultaneously generate autofocusing excitation- and depletion-Airy beams. Remarkably, the AAB can auto-focus to a wavelength-scale spot with a long focal depth (several millimeters): on the contrary, the working distance of a conventional high numerical aperture (NA) objective is usually very short (about 200 μm). Our calculations indicate that the AAB based STED microscopy can achieve a super-resolution spot with FWHM of 58 nm while the focal length is 4.638 mm. Moreover, with properties of non-diffracting and self-healing, the Airy beam could enable a reduction of the scattering distortion induced by the specimens and has a great potential in imaging thick specimens.

  5. Thermoacoustic focusing lens by symmetric Airy beams with phase manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Xia, Jian-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Yuan, Shou-Qi

    2017-12-01

    We report the realization of broadband acoustic focusing lenses based on two symmetric thermoacoustic phased arrays of Airy beams, in which the units of thermoacoustic phase control are designed by employing air with different temperatures surrounded by rigid insulated boundaries and thermal insulation films. The phase delays of the transmitted and reflected units could cover a whole 2π interval, which arises from the change of the sound velocity of air induced by the variation of the temperature. Based on the units of phase control, we design the transmitted and reflected acoustic focusing lenses with two symmetric Airy beams, and verify the high self-healing focusing characteristic and the feasibility of the thermal insulation films. Besides, the influences of the bending angle of the Airy beam on the focusing performance are discussed in detail. The proposed acoustic lens has advantages of broad bandwidth (about 4.8 kHz), high focusing performance, self-healing feature, and simple structure, which enable it to provide more schemes for acoustic focusing. It has excellent potential applications in acoustic devices.

  6. The robustness of truncated Airy beam in PT Gaussian potentials media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianni; Fu, Xiquan; Huang, Xianwei; Yang, Yijun; Bai, Yanfeng

    2018-03-01

    The robustness of truncated Airy beam in parity-time (PT) symmetric Gaussian potentials media is numerically investigated. A high-peak power beam sheds from the Airy beam due to the media modulation while the Airy wavefront still retain its self-bending and non-diffraction characteristics under the influence of modulation parameters. Increasing the modulation factor results in the smaller value of maximum power of the center beam, and the opposite trend occurs with the increment of the modulation depth. However, the parabolic trajectory of the Airy wavefront does not be influenced. By utilizing the unique features, the Airy beam can be used as a long distance transmission source under the PT symmetric Gaussian potentials medium.

  7. Generation and investigation of terahertz Airy beam realized using parallel-plate waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengru; Lang, Tingting; Shi, Guohua; Han, Zhanghua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the launching of Airy beam in the terahertz region using waveguiding structures was proposed, designed and numerically characterized. By properly designing the waveguide slit width and the packing number in different sections of parallel-plate waveguides (PPWGs) array, arbitrary phase delay and lateral position-dependent amplitude transmission through the structure, required to realize the target Airy beam profile, can be easily fulfilled. Airy beams working at the frequency of 0.3 THz with good non-diffracting, self-bending, and self-healing features are demonstrated. This study represents a new alternative to scattering-based metasurface structures, and can be utilized in many modern applications.

  8. Estonian Airi Boeing sattus kaks korda hädaolukorda / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi Boeing ES-ABL sattus 2011. aasta algus kahel korral ohtlikku olukorda. Lennuamet tegi Estonian Airile ettekirjutuse, kuid seda pole ameti kodulehel avaldatud. Lennufirma kapteni ja lennuohutuse inspektori Andreas Kari, lennuameti selgitusi

  9. Tables of generalized Airy functions for the asymptotic solution of the differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Nosova, L N

    1965-01-01

    Tables of Generalized Airy Functions for the Asymptotic Solution of the Differential Equations contains tables of the special functions, namely, the generalized Airy functions, and their first derivatives, for real and pure imaginary values. The tables are useful for calculations on toroidal shells, laminae, rode, and for the solution of certain other problems of mathematical physics. The values of the functions were computed on the ""Strela"" highspeed electronic computer.This book will be of great value to mathematicians, researchers, and students.

  10. Obstacle evasion in free-space optical communications utilizing Airy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoxuan; Wen, Yuanhui; Wu, Xiong; Chen, Yujie; Liu, Jie; Yu, Siyuan

    2018-03-01

    A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimising their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams.

  11. Angular scattering of an Airy beam light sheet by a concentric sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie

    2017-11-01

    Angular distribution of scattered light by a particle reveals information of its topology and refractive index, which has been proved to be an effective method to identify and characterize the particle. In this paper, numerical study on angular scattering of a polarized one-dimensional Airy beam light sheet by concentric spheres is presented. Plane-wave spectrum method is adopted to simplify the problem into classic Mie scattering problem, which significantly improves computational efficiency. The effects of size parameters, refractive index and position of concentric spheres and Airy beam radius on the angular distribution of scattered light are investigated. This paper provides theoretical results for light scattering measurement where Airy beam light sheet is employed for reducing effects of multiple scattering.

  12. Airy polynomials, three-variable Hermite polynomials and the paraxial wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, A

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of an investigation of the potential of functions, which directly or indirectly relate to the Airy functions, to yield solutions of the 2D paraxial wave equation, we consider here the Airy polynomials. We see that appropriate Gaussian-modulated versions of such polynomials, which could in a sense parallel the Hermite–Gaussian wavefunctions of both elegant and standard type, yield, when assumed as initial functions, solutions of the 2D PWE shaping in the form of a complex Gaussian modulation of three-variable Hermite polynomials. A basic characterization of these wavefunctions is provided, having as a touchstone the Hermite–Gaussian wavefunctions. (paper)

  13. Optimal Conformal Polynomial Projections for Croatia According to the Airy/Jordan Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Tutić

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes optimal conformal polynomial projections for Croatia according to the Airy/Jordan criterion. A brief introduction of history and theory of conformal mapping is followed by descriptions of conformal polynomial projections and their current application. The paper considers polynomials of degrees 1 to 10. Since there are conditions in which the 1st degree polynomial becomes the famous Mercator projection, it was not considered specifically for Croatian territory. The area of Croatia was defined as a union of national territory and the continental shelf. Area definition data were taken from the Euro Global Map 1:1 000 000 for Croatia, as well as from two maritime delimitation treaties. Such an irregular area was approximated with a regular grid consisting of 11 934 ellipsoidal trapezoids 2' large. The Airy/Jordan criterion for the optimal projection is defined as minimum of weighted mean of Airy/Jordan measure of distortion in points. The value of the Airy/Jordan criterion is calculated from all 11 934 centres of ellipsoidal trapezoids, while the weights are equal to areas of corresponding ellipsoidal trapezoids. The minimum is obtained by Nelder and Mead’s method, as implemented in the fminsearch function of the MATLAB package. Maps of Croatia representing the distribution of distortions are given for polynomial degrees 2 to 6 and 10. Increasing the polynomial degree results in better projections considering the criterion, and the 6th degree polynomial provides a good ratio of formula complexity and criterion value.

  14. AIZ, BIZ: two Fortran 77 routines for the computation of complex Airy functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTwo Fortran 77 routines for the evaluation of Airy functions of complex arguments $Ai(z)$, $Bi(z)$ and their first derivatives are presented. The routines are based on the use of Gaussian quadrature, Maclaurin series and asymptotic expansions. Comparison with a previous code by D.E. Amos

  15. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  16. Asymptotic expansions for Riesz fractional derivatives of Airy functions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Temme (Nico); V. Varlamov

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRiesz fractional derivatives of a function, $D_{x}^{\\alpha}f(x)$ (also called Riesz potentials), are defined as fractional powers of the Laplacian. Asymptotic expansions for large $x$ are computed for the Riesz fractional derivatives of the Airy function of the first kind, $Ai(x)$, and

  17. "Translocal Express" tembutab jälle / Rael Artel, Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Korraldajad 22. ja 23. II Okupatsioonide Muuseumis toimuvast rahvusvahelisest seminarist "Translocal Express. Jubilee Edition", kus vaatluse all on kaasaegse kunsti ja natsionalismi suhted. Seminari kava. Eesti kunstnikest esineb Flo Kasearu, esitletakse Rael Arteli ja Airi Triisbergi raamatut "Public Preparation - Biennale of Young Artists"

  18. SAS võib omapoolse panusena kustutada osa Estonian Airi laenust / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2011-01-01

    Lennufirma SAS investorsuhete asepresidendi Sture Stoleni sõnul ei ole tõenäoline, et nende firma maksaks mingit raha Estonian Airi kapitali, küll aga ei saa välistada võimalust, et võidakse kustutada osa antud laenust

  19. Anomalous change of Airy disk with changing size of spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Linchao; Zhang, Fugen; Meng, Rui; Xu, Jie; Zuo, Chenze; Ge, Baozhen

    2016-02-01

    Use of laser diffraction is considered as a method of reliable principle and mature technique in measurements of particle size distributions. It is generally accepted that for a certain relative refractive index, the size of the scattering pattern (also called Airy disk) of spherical particles monotonically decreases with increasing particle size. This fine structure forms the foundation of the laser diffraction method. Here we show that the Airy disk size of non-absorbing spherical particles becomes larger with increasing particle size in certain size ranges. To learn more about this anomalous change of Airy disk (ACAD), we present images of Airy disk and curves of Airy disk size versus particle size for spherical particles of different relative refractive indices by using Mie theory. These figures reveal that ACAD occurs periodically for non-absorbing particles and will disappear when the absorbing efficiency is higher than certain value. Then by using geometrical optics (GO) approximation, we derive the analytical formulae for the bounds of the size ranges where ACAD occurs. From the formulae, we obtain laws of ACAD as follows: (1) for non-absorbing particles, ACAD occurs periodically, and when the particle size tends to infinity, the period tends to a certain value. As the relative refractive index increases, (2) the particle size ranges where ACAD occurs shift to smaller values, (3) the period of ACAD becomes smaller, and (4) the width of the size ranges where ACAD occurs becomes narrower. In addition, we can predict from the formulae that ACAD also exists for particles whose relative refractive index is smaller than 1.

  20. A compact Airy beam light sheet microscope with a tilted cylindrical lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengyi; Prokopas, Martynas; Nylk, Jonathan; Coll-Lladó, Clara; Gunn-Moore, Frank J; Ferrier, David E K; Vettenburg, Tom; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-10-01

    Light-sheet imaging is rapidly gaining importance for imaging intact biological specimens. Many of the latest innovations rely on the propagation-invariant Bessel or Airy beams to form an extended light sheet to provide high resolution across a large field of view. Shaping light to realize propagation-invariant beams often relies on complex programming of spatial light modulators or specialized, custom made, optical elements. Here we present a straightforward and low-cost modification to the traditional light-sheet setup, based on the open-access light-sheet microscope OpenSPIM, to achieve Airy light-sheet illumination. This brings wide field single-photon light-sheet imaging to a broader range of endusers. Fluorescent microspheres embedded in agarose and a zebrafish larva were imaged to demonstrate how such a microscope can have a minimal footprint and cost without compromising on imaging quality.

  1. Propagation and interaction of finite-energy Airy-Hermite-Gaussian beams in photorefractive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qichang; Su, Yanli; Nie, Hexian; Ma, Ziwei; Li, Yonghong

    2018-03-01

    We investigate numerically the propagation and interaction characteristics of finite-energy Airy-Hermite-Gaussian beams in biased photorefractive media. For the case of first-order Hermite polynomial, two main lobes of the initial input beam can form breathing solitons with two components. The interval between two soliton components in the y{-direction} increases gradually with the propagation distance, while the central position of two soliton components in the x{-direction} is almost unchanged during propagation. Moreover, in interaction situations, four main lobes of the two Airy-Hermite-Gaussian beams can also form breathing solitons with four components under the in-phase and out-of-phase conditions, respectively.

  2. Creation of diffraction-limited non-Airy multifocal arrays using a spatially shifted vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Gu, Min

    2013-02-01

    Diffraction-limited non-Airy multifocal arrays are created by focusing a phase-modulated vortex beam through a high numerical-aperture objective. The modulated phase at the back aperture of the objective resulting from the superposition of two concentric phase-modulated vortex beams allows for the generation of a multifocal array of cylindrically polarized non-Airy patterns. Furthermore, we shift the spatial positions of the phase vortices to manipulate the intensity distribution at each focal spot, leading to the creation of a multifocal array of split-ring patterns. Our method is experimentally validated by generating the predicted phase modulation through a spatial light modulator. Consequently, the spatially shifted circularly polarized vortex beam adopted in a dynamic laser direct writing system facilitates the fabrication of a split-ring microstructure array in a polymer material by a single exposure of a femtosecond laser beam.

  3. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ren, Yu-Xuan, E-mail: yxren@ustc.edu.cn [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Vaveliuk, Pablo [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC), Cno. Centenario y 506, P.O. Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De, E-mail: lrd@ustc.edu.cn [Physics Experiment Teaching Center, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-11-28

    Needle-like electromagnetic field has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device. Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We further produced an elongated focal line by concentrating the SAB via lenses with different NAs and achieved an ultralong longitudinal needle focus. The produced long needle focus will be applied in optical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  4. Dealing with Dependent Uncertainty in Modelling: A Comparative Study Case through the Airy Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Cortés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The consideration of uncertainty in differential equations leads to the emergent area of random differential equations. Under this approach, inputs become random variables and/or stochastic processes. Often one assumes that inputs are independent, a hypothesis that simplifies the mathematical treatment although it could not be met in applications. In this paper, we analyse, through the Airy equation, the influence of statistical dependence of inputs on the output, computing its expectation and standard deviation by Fröbenius and Polynomial Chaos methods. The results are compared with Monte Carlo sampling. The analysis is conducted by the Airy equation since, as in the deterministic scenario its solutions are highly oscillatory, it is expected that differences will be better highlighted. To illustrate our study, and motivated by the ubiquity of Gaussian random variables in numerous practical problems, we assume that inputs follow a multivariate Gaussian distribution throughout the paper. The application of Fröbenius method to solve Airy equation is based on an extension of the method to the case where inputs are dependent. The numerical results show that the existence of statistical dependence among the inputs and its magnitude entails changes on the variability of the output.

  5. Phase singularities and energy fluxes of a noncanonical vortex dipole Airy beam in the far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; You, Yunqi; Zhong, Xianqiong

    2015-10-01

    Based on the vector angular spectrum representation and stationary phase method, analytical far-field vectorial expressions of a noncanonical vortex dipole Airy beam, namely, a pair of noncanonical vortices with opposite charges embedded in an Airy beam are derived and used to investigate the phase singularities and energy flux distributions of the corresponding beam in the far-field regime, where the noncanonical characteristic of vortex is stressed. It is shown that the noncanonical strength, off-axis distance, and aperture coefficient affect the position and number of phase singularities, and the motion, creation, and annihilation of phase singularities are found by adjusting these parameters. For a low aperture coefficient, the energy flux distributions exhibit different numbers and orientations of lobes by varying the noncanonical strength. With increasing aperture coefficient, the symmetries of lobes are broken, and the energy flux distributions gradually become ellipses and the directions of their major axes vary with different noncanonical strengths. Finally, the energy flux distributions of an Airy beam carrying a single noncanonical vortex are discussed and compared.

  6. Bourdieu on püüdnud näidata oma teooriate universaalsust... : Bourdieu / Anders Härm, Airi-Alina Allaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Küsimusele milliste probleemidega tegelemisel Eestis võiks abi olla Pierre Bourdieu' teooriatest vastavad teiste hulgas Airi-Alina Allaste ja Anders Härm. Airi-Alina Allaste toob näiteks kunstisotsioloogia. Anders Härm P. Bourdieu teooriate kasutamisvõimalustest kunstiteaduses. B. Bourdieu teooriate rakendamise näiteks toob ta Johannes Saare ja Epp Lankotsa

  7. Ühe minuti loengute abil jõuavad väärt teadmised kiiresti ja mugavalt huvilisteni / Airi Ilisson-Cruz ; intervjueerinud Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli loengute sarjast, mille idee autor ja konsultant on Balti Filmi- ja Meediakooli õppejõud Indrek Treufeldt, kaasa löövad Tallinna Ülikooli turundus- ja kommunikatsiooniosakond, produtsent Airi Ilisson-Cruz ja e-õppekeskus, operaatorid-monteerijad Kristjan Madalvee ja Tarmo Lehari. Intervjuu loengusarja produtsendi Airi Ilisson-Cruziga

  8. Enhancement of image quality and imaging depth with Airy light-sheet microscopy in cleared and non-cleared neural tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylk, Jonathan; McCluskey, Kaley; Aggarwal, Sanya; Tello, Javier A; Dholakia, Kishan

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of Airy illumination on the image quality and depth penetration of digitally scanned light-sheet microscopy in turbid neural tissue. We used Fourier analysis of images acquired using Gaussian and Airy light-sheets to assess their respective image quality versus penetration into the tissue. We observed a three-fold average improvement in image quality at 50 μm depth with the Airy light-sheet. We also used optical clearing to tune the scattering properties of the tissue and found that the improvement when using an Airy light-sheet is greater in the presence of stronger sample-induced aberrations. Finally, we used homogeneous resolution probes in these tissues to quantify absolute depth penetration in cleared samples with each beam type. The Airy light-sheet method extended depth penetration by 30% compared to a Gaussian light-sheet.

  9. Evolution of finite energy Airy pulses and soliton generation in optical fibers with cubic-quintic nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianqiong; Du, Xiantong; Cheng, Ke

    2015-11-16

    We numerically simulate the propagation of finite energy Airy pulses in optical fibers with cubic-quintic nonlinearity and analyze the effects of quintic nonlinear parameters and soliton order number on their evolution properties. The soliton pulses are observed, whose peak amplitudes and corresponding temporal positions will vary with the propagation distance. Depending on different quintic nonlinearity parameters and soliton order number, the soliton pulse temporal positions exhibit weak decayed oscillations and then nearly linearly shift to leading or trailing edge of the Airy wavepacket, or tend to fixed positions, and the peak amplitudes also exhibit decayed oscillations but with different oscillation amplitude and central values. For large soliton order number, the soliton pulses are considerably compressed. Other weak dispersive wave pulses will appear near the main soliton pulses and gradually depart from the main soliton pulses. In the case of small soliton order, despite their considerable energy attenuation, the main lobes and even minority of the neighboring side lobes of the Airy pulses can still recover from the energy transfer to the soliton pulses and the dispersive wave pulses and maintain their unique properties of self-healing and self-acceleration in time for a very long distance. In the case of large soliton order, however, the Airy wavepacket only remains its very weak background and even disappears quickly.

  10. Computation of the modified Bessel function of the third kind of imaginary orders: uniform Airy-type asymptotic expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe use of a uniform Airy-type asymptotic expansion for the computation of the modified Bessel functions of the third kind of imaginary orders ($K_{ia}(x)$) near the transition point $x=a$, is discussed. In [2], an algorithm for the evaluation of $K_{ia}(x)$ was presented, which made use

  11. Propagation properties of the chirped Airy beams through the gradient-index medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liyan; Zhang, Jianbin; Pang, Zihao; Wang, Linyi; Zhong, Tianfen; Yang, Xiangbo; Deng, Dongmei

    2017-11-01

    Through analytical derivation and numerical analysis, the propagation properties of the chirped Airy(CAi) beams in the gradient-index medium are investigated. The intensity and the phase distributions, the propagation trajectory and the Poynting vector of the CAi beams are demonstrated to investigate the propagation properties. Owing to the special and symmetrical refractive index profile of the gradient-index medium, the CAi beams propagate periodically. The effects of the distribution factor and the chirped parameter on the propagation of the CAi beams are analyzed. As the increasing of the distribution factor, the intensity distribution of the CAi beams is more scattering. However, with the chirped parameter increasing, the focusing property of the CAi beams strengthens. The variation of the chirped parameter can change the position of the peak intensity maximum, but it cannot alter the period of the peak intensity. The variations of the initial phase and the energy of the beams in the transverse plane expedite accordingly.

  12. Reversible wavefront shaping between Gaussian and Airy beams by mimicking gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyang; Liu, Hui; Sheng, Chong; Zhu, Shining

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate reversible wavefront shaping through mimicking gravitational field. A gradient-index micro-structured optical waveguide with special refractive index profile was constructed whose effective index satisfying a gravitational field profile. Inside the waveguide, an incident broad Gaussian beam is firstly transformed into an accelerating beam, and the generated accelerating beam is gradually changed back to a Gaussian beam afterwards. To validate our experiment, we performed full-wave continuum simulations that agree with the experimental results. Furthermore, a theoretical model was established to describe the evolution of the laser beam based on Landau’s method, showing that the accelerating beam behaves like the Airy beam in the small range in which the linear potential approaches zero. To our knowledge, such a reversible wavefront shaping technique has not been reported before.

  13. Predicting the past: ancient eclipses and Airy, Newcomb, and Huxley on the authority of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2012-06-01

    Greek historical accounts of ancient eclipses were an important, if peculiar, focus of scientific attention in the nineteenth century. Victorian-era astronomers tried to correct the classical histories using scientific methods, then used those histories as data with which to calibrate their lunar theories, then rejected the histories as having any relevance at all. The specific dating of these eclipses--apparently a simple exercise in celestial mechanics--became bound up with tensions between scientific and humanistic approaches to the past as well as with wider social debates over the power and authority of science in general. The major figures discussed here, including G. B. Airy, Simon Newcomb, and T. H. Huxley, argued that the critical question was whether science could speak authoritatively about the past. To them, the ability of science to talk about the past indicated its power to talk about the future; it was also the fulcrum of fierce boundary disputes among science, history, and religion.

  14. Broadband acoustic focusing by Airy-like beams based on acoustic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di-Chao; Zhu, Xing-Feng; Wei, Qi; Wu, Da-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2018-01-01

    An acoustic metasurface (AM) composed of space-coiling subunits is proposed to generate acoustic Airy-like beams (ALBs) by manipulating the transmitted acoustic phase. The self-accelerating, self-healing, and non-diffracting features of ALBs are demonstrated using finite element simulations. We further employ two symmetrical AMs to realize two symmetrical ALBs, resulting in highly efficient acoustic focusing. At the working frequency, the focal intensity can reach roughly 20 times that of the incident wave. It is found that the highly efficient acoustic focusing can circumvent obstacles in the propagating path and can be maintained in a broad frequency bandwidth. In addition, simply changing the separation between the two AMs can modulate the focal length of the proposed AM lens. ALBs generated by AMs and the corresponding AM lens may benefit applications in medical ultrasound imaging, biomedical therapy, and particle trapping and manipulation.

  15. Effects of a modulated vortex structure on the diffraction dynamics of ring Airy Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianwei; Shi, Xiaohui; Deng, Zhixiang; Bai, Yanfeng; Fu, Xiquan

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of the ring Airy Gaussian beams with a modulated vortex in free space is numerically investigated. Compared with the unmodulated vortex, the unique property is that the beam spots first break up, and then gather. The evolution of the beams is influenced by the parameters of the vortex modulation, and the splitting phenomenon gets enhanced with multiple rings becoming light spots if the modulation depth increases. The symmetric branch pattern of the beam spots gets changed when the number of phase folds increases, and the initial modulation phase only impacts the angle of the beam spots. Moreover, a large distribution factor correlates to a hollow Gaussian vortex shape and weakens the splitting and gathering trend. By changing the initial parameters of the vortex modulation and the distribution factor, the peak intensity is greatly affected. In addition, the energy flow and the angular momentum are elucidated with the beam evolution features being confirmed.

  16. Finite element simulation of the compression behaviour of airy breakfast cereals

    KAUST Repository

    Mamlouk, Hedi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we are concerned by the fragmentation study of five breakfast cereals from the market exhibiting differences in shape, formulation and texture. The experimental part of the study encompasses compression testing and fragment size evaluation using 2D image analysis. Structural information about the airy structure is then determined using X-ray tomography and related 3D image analysis. The numerical part has the ambition of assessing the fragmentation process using a damage-based mechanical model that simulates solid material rupture events as onset and growth of damage up to brittle failure. The model is based on a finite element scheme in which direct information of the 3D airy structure is encoded in the solid meshing. The force-displacement signature well shows competition between bending and compression driven failure depending on cereal shape. Our results show also large dispersion in the porous structure that affects significantly the result of the fragmentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the result of fragmentation at the cost of identifying two mechanical parameters, namely Young\\'s modulus and critical stress. These two quantities are proved to be product dependent and display a large range of variation. Industrial relevance The design of new food product becomes more and more based on functionality criteria. In a typical chewing process the need to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to fragmentation helps in understanding the role of the structure and, in turn, the processing conditions for building new transformed products. There is an increasing industrial demand in that sense especially knowing that some of the cereal products can be designed to meet these criteria for specific populations (old people with dental problems, infant feeding). Our work is, within this context, an attempt to set a numerical and experimental framework for studying the fragmentation of five selected breakfast cereals from the market.

  17. Angle-resolved conical emission spectra from filamentation in a solid with an Airy pattern and a Gaussian laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Li, ZiXi; Hua, LinQiang; Quan, Wei; Liu, XiaoJun

    2016-09-15

    Filamentation dynamics in fused silica are investigated using an Airy pattern and a Gaussian laser beam. The angle-resolved conical emission spectra are measured and compared with the predictions of several models. Our experimental observations are consistent with the X-waves model in both cases. This indicates that both laser beams spontaneously evolve into nonlinear X-waves and suggests a universal evolution of filaments in fused silica, regardless of the initial laser beam profile.

  18. Plume Aerosol Size Distribution Modeling and Comparisons to PrAIRie2005 Field Study Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S.; Liggio, J.; Makar, P.; Li, S.; Racinthe, J.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the analysis phase of the PrAIRie2005 field study, the effects of different Edmonton-area emission sources on local air-quality are being examined. Four large coal-fired power-plants are located to the West of the city. Here, the effects of these power-plants on urban and regional air-quality will be examined, using both plume and regional air-quality models. During the last few decades, coal-fired power plants have been found to be as a major source of pollution, affecting public-health. According to NACEC (North American Commission for Environmental Corporation, 2001)'s report, 46 of the top 50 air polluters in North America were power plants. The importance of such sources has resulted in several attempts to improve understanding of the basic formation mechanisms of plume particulate matter. Sulphur dioxide contributes to acidifying emissions and to the production of secondary acidic aerosols that have been linked to a number of serious human health problems, acid rain and visibility (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998; Hidy, 1984; Wilson and McMurray, 1981). Primary particulate matter originating directly from coal-fired power plants may also increase secondary particulate mass by providing a surface for sulphuric acid absorption . Environment Canada's PrAIRie2005 field study between August 12th and September 7th, 2005 included overflights and downwind measurements near the Edmonton powerplants (Wabamun, Sundance, Keephills and Genesee). The data collected consisted of particle size distributions, ozone, NOX, total mass and the chemical composition of fine particles. In order to investigate and improve our understanding of the formation mechanisms and physical properties of power-plant-generated aerosols in the Edmonton area, the Plume Aerosol Microphysical (PAM) model has been employed. This model accounts for gas-phase chemistry, aerosol microphysical processes (i.e. homogeneous/heterogeneous nucleation, condensation/evaporation and coagulation) and

  19. Paraxial propagation of the first-order chirped Airy vortex beams in a chiral medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jintao; Zhang, Jianbin; Ye, Junran; Liu, Haowei; Liang, Zhuoying; Long, Shangjie; Zhou, Kangzhu; Deng, Dongmei

    2018-03-05

    We introduce the propagation of the first-order chirped Airy vortex beams (FCAiV) in a chiral medium analytically. Results show that the FCAiV beams split into the left circularly polarized vortex (LCPV) beams and the right circularly polarized vortex (RCPV) beams, which have totally different propagation trajectories in the chiral medium. In this paper, we investigate the effects of the first-order chirped parameter β, the chiral parameter γ and the optical vortex on the propagation process of the FCAiV beams. It is shown that the propagation trajectory of the FCAiV beams declines with the chirped parameter increasing. Besides, the increase of the chiral parameter acting on the LCPV beams makes the relative position between the main lobe and the optical vortex further while the effect on the RCPV beams is the opposite. Furthermore, the relative position between the main lobe and the optical vortex contributes to the position of the intensity focusing. Meanwhile, with the chiral parameter increasing, the maximum gradient and scattering forces of the LCPV beams decrease but those of the RCPV beams will increase during the propagation. It is significant that we can control the propagation trajectory, the intensity focusing position and the radiation forces of the FCAiV beams by varying the chirped parameter and the chiral parameter.

  20. Maximum of an Airy process plus Brownian motion and memory in Kardar-Parisi-Zhang growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doussal, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    We obtain several exact results for universal distributions involving the maximum of the Airy2 process minus a parabola and plus a Brownian motion, with applications to the one-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) stochastic growth universality class. This allows one to obtain (i) the universal limit, for large time separation, of the two-time height correlation for droplet initial conditions, e.g., C∞=limt2/t1→+∞h(t1) h (t2)¯c/h(t1)2¯c, with C∞≈0.623 , as well as conditional moments, which quantify ergodicity breaking in the time evolution; (ii) in the same limit, the distribution of the midpoint position x (t1) of a directed polymer of length t2; and (iii) the height distribution in stationary KPZ with a step. These results are derived from the replica Bethe ansatz for the KPZ continuum equation, with a "decoupling assumption" in the large time limit. They agree and confirm, whenever they can be compared, with (i) our recent tail results for two-time KPZ with the work by de Nardis and Le Doussal [J. Stat. Mech. (2017) 053212, 10.1088/1742-5468/aa6bce], checked in experiments with the work by Takeuchi and co-workers [De Nardis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 125701 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.125701] and (ii) a recent result of Maes and Thiery [J. Stat. Phys. 168, 937 (2017), 10.1007/s10955-017-1839-2] on midpoint position.

  1. Airy function approach and Numerov method to study the anharmonic oscillator potentials V(x = Ax2α + Bx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al Sdran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equation of different one-dimensional potentials forms are sometime achieved by the asymptotic iteration method. Its importance appears, for example, on its efficiency to describe vibrational system in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the Airy function approach and the Numerov method have been used and presented to study the oscillator anharmonic potential V(x = Ax2α + Bx2, (A>0, B<0, with (α = 2 for quadratic, (α =3 for sextic and (α =4 for octic anharmonic oscillators. The Airy function approach is based on the replacement of the real potential V(x by a piecewise-linear potential v(x, while, the Numerov method is based on the discretization of the wave function on the x-axis. The first energies levels have been calculated and the wave functions for the sextic system have been evaluated. These specific values are unlimited by the magnitude of A, B and α. It’s found that the obtained results are in good agreement with the previous results obtained by the asymptotic iteration method for α =3.

  2. Engineering deceleration and acceleration of soliton emitted from Airy pulse with quadratic phase modulation in optical fibers without high-order effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifu; Liu, Kun; Zhong, Haizhe; Zhang, Jinggui; Deng, Jianqin; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-07-15

    Soliton propagation direction can be engineered in optical fibers in the presence of high-order effects (HOEs). It is well known that Raman effects can decelerate the soliton. Here we investigate the manipulation of the deceleration or acceleration of soliton emitted from Airy pulse whose spectrum is imposed an initial quadratic phase modulation (QPM) in optical fibers in the absence of HOEs. We show that, under the action of the anomalous second-order dispersion (SOD) and Kerr nonlinearity, Airy pulse with QPM is able to emit soliton with acceleration or deceleration depending on whether the QPM is negative or positive, and at a rate that is determined by the magnitude of QPM. The reason is that the acceleration behaviors of incident Airy pulse is altered depending on whether SOD and QPM have the same or opposite signs. Our study shows the possibility of controlling and manipulating the soliton propagation and interaction in optical fibers without HOEs, by purposely choosing appropriate QPM parameter of an Airy pulse.

  3. Acoustics of finite asymmetric exotic beams: Examples of Airy and fractional Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the properties of finite asymmetric exotic scalar (acoustic) beams with unusual properties using the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. Such beams possess intrinsic uncommon characteristics that make them attractive from the standpoint of particle manipulation, handling and rotation, and possibly other applications in particle clearing and separation. Assuming a specific apodization function at the acoustic source, the angular spectrum function is calculated and used to synthesize the radiated pressure field (i.e., excluding evanescent waves that decay away from the source) in the forward direction of wave motion (i.e., away from the source). Moreover, a generalized hybrid method combining the angular spectrum approach with the multipole expansion formalism in spherical coordinates is developed, which is applicable to any finite beam of arbitrary wavefront. The improved approach allows adequate computation of the resonance scattering, radiation force, and spin torque components on an object of arbitrary shape, located on or off the axis of the incident beam in space. Considering the illustrative example of a viscous fluid sphere submerged in a non-viscous liquid and illuminated by finite asymmetric beams such as the Airy and the Bessel vortex beam with fractional order, numerical computations for the scattering, radiation force, and torque components are performed with an emphasis on the distance from the source, the arbitrary location of the particle ,and the asymmetric nature of the incident field. Moreover, beamforming calculations are presented with supplementary animations for the pressure field distribution in space, with an emphasis on the intrinsic properties of the selected beams. The numerical predictions illustrate the scattering, radiation force, and spin torque properties depending on the beam parameters and the distance separating the sphere from the source. This study provides a generalized

  4. Airy function approach and Numerov method to study the anharmonic oscillator potentials V(x) = Ax{sup 2α} + Bx{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sdran, N. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department P.O. Box 9004 Abha (Saudi Arabia); Najran University, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department P.O. Box 9004 Abha (Saudi Arabia); Thermal Process Laboratory Research and Technologies Centre of Energy, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-lif (Tunisia)

    2016-06-15

    The numerical solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equation of different one-dimensional potentials forms are sometime achieved by the asymptotic iteration method. Its importance appears, for example, on its efficiency to describe vibrational system in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the Airy function approach and the Numerov method have been used and presented to study the oscillator anharmonic potential V(x) = Ax{sup 2α} + Bx{sup 2}, (A>0, B<0), with (α = 2) for quadratic, (α =3) for sextic and (α =4) for octic anharmonic oscillators. The Airy function approach is based on the replacement of the real potential V(x) by a piecewise-linear potential v(x), while, the Numerov method is based on the discretization of the wave function on the x-axis. The first energies levels have been calculated and the wave functions for the sextic system have been evaluated. These specific values are unlimited by the magnitude of A, B and α. It’s found that the obtained results are in good agreement with the previous results obtained by the asymptotic iteration method for α =3.

  5. Propagation properties of right-hand circularly polarized Airy-Gaussian beams through slabs of right-handed materials and left-handed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiayao; Liang, Zijie; Deng, Fu; Yu, Weihao; Zhao, Ruihuang; Chen, Bo; Yang, Xiangbo; Deng, Dongmei

    2015-11-01

    The propagation of right-hand circularly polarized Airy-Gaussian beams (RHCPAiGBs) through slabs of right-handed materials (RHMs) and left-handed materials (LHMs) is investigated analytically and numerically with the transfer matrix method. An approximate analytical expression for the RHCPAiGBs passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived on the basis of the Huygens diffraction integral formula. The intensity and the phase distributions of the RHCPAiGBs through RHMs and LHMs are demonstrated. The influence of the parameter χ0 on the propagation of RHCPAiGBs through RHM and LHM slabs is investigated. The RHCPAiGBs possess transverse-momentum currents, which shows that the physics underlying this intriguing accelerating effect is that of the combined contributions of the transverse spin and transverse orbital currents. Additionally, we go a step further to explore the radiation force including the gradient force and scattering force of the RHCPAiGBs.

  6. Can Hooke's Law and the Airy Disk First Zero Radius Formulation Predict That Education and Work Environment Visual Task Excesses Lead to Vision Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Douglas M.; McLeod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    DMM found that a distant, single church steeple, which appeared "twin-like" after extended studying episodes, could then be brought into correct visual register by a conscious effort. Similar anecdotal events are repeatable by attentive students or workers in the early stages of educationally or work environmentally induced repetitive vision impairment. RDM proposes that his model for vision and its repair utilizes sequentially applied vision improvement stages that are the equivalent of DMM's experience. Such visual events involve feedback signals generated during the crystalline lens's minor dioptric oscillations that are generated by the blinking reflex, empowered by the Airy radius proportional to wavelength times focal length divided by pupil aperture. This implies some conscious control of feedback mechanisms, which can self-regulate vision protecting processes. Continued visual effort under duress invokes Hooke's "stress proportional to strain." Exceeding extrinsic eye muscles' elastic limits overrides spontaneous feedback repair mechanisms.

  7. Probability density of orbital angular momentum mode of autofocusing Airy beam carrying power-exponent-phase vortex through weak anisotropic atmosphere turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian; Li, Jiangting; Huang, Qingqing; Sun, Ridong

    2017-06-26

    The probability densities of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of the autofocusing Airy beam (AAB) carrying power-exponent-phase vortex (PEPV) after passing through the weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere are theoretically formulated. It is found that the AAB carrying PEPV is the result of the weighted superposition of multiple OAM modes at differing positions within the beam cross-section, and the mutual crosstalk among different OAM modes will compensate the distortion of each OAM mode and be helpful for boosting the anti-jamming performance of the communication link. Based on numerical calculations, the role of the wavelength, waist width, topological charge and power order of PEPV in the probability density distribution variations of OAM modes of the AAB carrying PEPV is explored. Analysis shows that a relatively small beam waist and longer wavelength are good for separating the detection regions between signal OAM mode and crosstalk OAM modes. The probability density distribution of the signal OAM mode does not change obviously with the topological charge variation; but it will be greatly enhanced with the increase of power order. Furthermore, it is found that the detection region center position of crosstalk OAM mode is an emergent property resulting from power order and topological charge. Therefore, the power order can be introduced as an extra steering parameter to modulate the probability density distributions of OAM modes. These results provide guidelines for the design of an optimal detector, which has potential application in optical vortex communication systems.

  8. Poliitilise liidri stiil muutuvas maailmas / Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Ülle, 1969-

    2016-01-01

    Poliitiku edukuse hindamisel on sotsiaalvõrgustike ja n-ö otse-eetri ajastul aina olulisemaks saanud liidri kommunikatsioon. Liidri edukuse hindamise kriteeriumidest. Juhi käitumisstiilidest, mis kajastuvad ka retoorikas ja kommunikatsioonistiilis

  9. Kummardus Carl Linnéle / Andres Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Suur botaanik ja loodusteadlane Carl Linné soovitas oma sõjalise funktsiooni kaotanud kindlustesse või nende varemetesse ürdiaedu rajada. Narva linnus jätkab seda traditsiooni: linnuse Läänehoovi rajati Carl Linné aed. Konkursist võtsid osa ka Eesti Maaülikooli üliõpilased

  10. "Ossenni bal" igrajet na tshuvstvahh... / Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Ülle, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) sai Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammi Orizzonti peaauhinna. Ka lühiintervjuu filmi režissööriga kohapeal

  11. Paavsti tapmiskatsel Moskva vari / Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Ülle, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    25 aastat pärast Rooma paavsti Johannes Paulus II atentaadikatset avaldas Itaalia parlamendi erikomisjon Paolo Guzzanti juhtimisel raporti, mille kohaselt oli atentaadi korraldanud NSVL-i sõjaväeluure GRU Nõukogude Liidu poliitbüroo ja kompartei peasekretäri Leonid Brezhnevi käsul. Lisa: Vabamüürlased ja CIA vaikimine

  12. Hea toode ja lisateenused viivad sihile / Rivo Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Automüüjate TOP-i 3. koht. AS-i Esma Auto juhataja Urmas Brück'i hinnangul tagab edu automargi Mazda populaarsus, hea disain ja lisateenused. Diagramm: ASi Esma Auto käive ligi veerand miljardit. Lisa: ASi Esma Auto CV

  13. Kodu kalmistuvahi majas / Airi Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Airi, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Halliste surnuaia veeres Kulla külas asuvast kondiiter Urmas Jalaka kodust, mida täidavad kordatehtud vanamööbel ja fantaasiarikas omalooming. Aiakujundusest. Kalmistuvahi maja vanem osa on ehitatud 1898. a., U. Jalakas on elanud seal üheksa aastat. Ill.: 2 välis- ja 11 sisevaadet

  14. Emancipation(s) / Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Triisberg, Airi, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Tallinna Kunstihoones 20. jaan.-1.märtsini 2009 olnud Mika Hannula ja Minna Henrikssoni kureeritud näitusest "Happy Together" Mika Hannula näitusele eelnenud loengu valguses. Näitusel osalesid kunstnikud Kagu-Euroopast, Balti- ja Põhjamaadest. Petra Baueri (Rootsi) performance-loengust "Deleted Swedish Stories", Igor Grubici (Horvaatia) videost "East Side Story" (2009), Kristina Normani tööst "Community" (2009), Soome rühmituse YKON mängust "Ykon Game v.0.3"

  15. Tallinna Sadama kallis kingitus / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Riho Rasmann ja Jaan Toots sõlmisid Tallinna Sadama juhtidega lepingu, mis võimaldab transiidiärimehel Sandu Hubanil ja Vene transiidigigandil Severstalil küsida ettevõttelt üle 30 miljoni krooni. Vt. samas: Sandu Huban ja Severstal said pihta tulusale lepingule; Sandaal ja Lipinski teevad ühisäri juba kümmekond aastat; Riigikontroll taunib maa tasuta äraandmist; Sandu Hubani kuldne tehing. Kommenteerib Jaan Toots

  16. Rohkem utoopiaid! / Rael Artel, Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskus korraldab 2007. a. oktoobris Tallinnas noorte kunstnike biennaali, mida kureerivad Rael Artel ja Anneli Porri. Biennaali ettevalmistavast "Public Preparation'i" ürituste sarjast, selle raames toimunud seminarist "Translocal Express", mais Vilniuse Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses toimuvast workshop'ist

  17. Feminism on kõikidele / Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Triisberg, Airi, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Iisraeli naiskunstnike näitus "Naised muudavad maailma" Tallinna Kunstihoones 13. detsembrini 2009. Kuraatorid Reet Varblane ja Shula Keshet. Pikemalt Shula Kesheti fotoseeriast "Naised muudavad maailma", Ester Almo fotoseeriast "Nimetu", Vered Nissimi fotodest "Venuse pilk. Autoportree" ja "Venuse pilk. Ema"

  18. Ühe jalaga Hollywoodis / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    USAs elava filmirežissööri Jaanus Silla initsiatiivil Eestist ja Eesti filmitegijatest huvitunud Hollywoodi produtsendi Anne Marie Gillen'i ettepanekud Eesti filmirahastajatele. Lisatud andmed Jaanus Silla ja Anne Marie Gilleni kohta ning Ilmar Raagi, Tiina Loki ja Peeter Rebase kommentaarid

  19. Chromatic Dimensions Earthy, Watery, Airy, and Fiery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In our study, for a small number of antonyms, we investigate whether they are cross-modally or ideaesthetically related to the space of colors. We analyze the affinities of seven antonyms (cold-hot, dull-radiant, dead-vivid, soft-hard, transparent-chalky, dry-wet, and acid-treacly) and their

  20. Itaalias vangistati peaprokuröri tappa tahtnud mafioosod / Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Ülle, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Sitsiilias vahistati ligi poolsada maffiaorganisatsiooni Cosa Nostra väidetavat liiget. Politseini oli jõudnud info, et mafioosod kavatsevad lähiajal tappa Palermo peaprokuröri Pietro Grasso, tabamata on Cosa Nostra juht. Lisa: Kohtunik üksi sõjas maffia vastu

  1. Näljastreiki pidanud Mussolini ei suutnud oma parteid päästa / Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Ülle, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Benito Mussolini lapselaps Alessandra Mussolini korraldas Roomas kohtuhoone ees näljastreigi, lootes, et kohus lubab tal osaleda Lazio maakonna kohalikel valimistel. Itaalia valimiskomisjoni teatel on Lazios Mussolini partei toetuseks kogutud rohkem kui 4000 allkirjast vähemalt 870 võltsitud

  2. Apertura económica- seguridad alimentaria y economía campesina Free market, tood security and peasant economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Rojas Gilberto

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Las importaciones agrícolas sin restricciones que vinieron con la apertura económica, especialmente las de maíz y fríjol que se hicieron durante el segundo semestre de 1995, afectaron fuerte y negativamente a los productores colombianos, sobretodo a los campesinos. En estudios de caso realizados en la provincia Guanentina de Santander, se comprobó que los campesinos sufrieron fuertes pérdidas en la cosecha de fríjol del segundo semestre del año anterior. Los precios al productor se derrumbaron a casi el 60% de los precios históricos, por culpa de las importaciones indiscriminadas de fríjoles provenientes de Canadá, Ctrína, USA, Ecuador y Perú (sin contar el contrabando que llegó por las fronteras de Ecuador y Venezuela. Los productores colombianos están muy lejos de poder competir con los precios internacionales que oscilaron entre US$ 0,40 y US$ 0,60 el kilogramo, mientras los costos de producción estaban por encima de los US$ 0,80 el kilo. Esa cosecha arruinó a miles de campesinos en Santander, algunos de los cuales emigraron hacia las ciudades de la costa atlántica. Las importaciones de maíz, el año pasado, casi se duplicaron y los precios que recibieron los productores nacionales cayeron en casi un tercio. En 1996, los precios reaccionaron por factores coyunturales de
    corto y mediano plazo en USA y en la China. La tendencia en los mercados mundiales es que los grandes productores quebrarán la producción de países como el nuestro que
    dependerán, cada vez más, de las importaciones. Colombia está muy lejos de poder competir con los rendimientos, costos de producción y precios de Canadá, USA y Argentina.
    El dilema es que ambos cultivos son parte crucial de la seguridad alimentaria del campesinado y del país.
    Agricultural importation whithout restriction which come with international free market,especially com and kidney beans, durig the second semester of 1995, affecting strongly and negatively the colombian growres, especially the peasants. Some studies made in Guanentine Santander's province, show that the small farmers lot significant in kidney beans harvest during the second semester, last year. Grower's prices decreased around 60% of the historie prices, because of kidney beans importation from Canada, China, USA,
    Ecuador and Perú (without considering ilegal importation from Ecuador and Venezuela. Colombian growers are too far the compete with international prices which were around US$ 0,40 - 0,60 per Kg. While the production cost was US$ 0,80 per Kg, These harvet impovered thousands of santandereans
    peasantraies, some of them migrated to the Atlantic coast cities. Corn importations last year were duplicated and the prices which National growers received, dropped down around one trird. In 1996 corn prices rose up in response of coyuntural factors of short and medium time in the United States and China. Trend of international market granes is that biggest growers will break the producction of countries like ours, which will depend more time on importations. Colombia is too far from competing with corn productivity, production cost's and prices with Canada, USA, and Argentina. Dileme is both crops are crucial part of peasantry food security and country it self.

  3. Apertura económica- seguridad alimentaria y economía campesina Free market, tood security and peasant economy

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Rojas Gilberto

    1996-01-01

    Las importaciones agrícolas sin restricciones que vinieron con la apertura económica, especialmente las de maíz y fríjol que se hicieron durante el segundo semestre de 1995, afectaron fuerte y negativamente a los productores colombianos, sobretodo a los campesinos. En estudios de caso realizados en la provincia Guanentina de Santander, se comprobó que los campesinos sufrieron fuertes pérdidas en la cosecha de fríjol del segundo semestre del año anterior. Los precios al productor se derrumbaro...

  4. Romano Prodi : "Minu ülesanne Itaalias on anda noortele energiat" / Romano Prodi ; interv. Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prodi, Romano, 1939-

    2006-01-01

    Itaalia vasakpoolse opositsiooni peaministrikandidaadi sõnul loodi uus valimissüsteem ekstra tema vastu. Valimisvõitlus Silvio Berlusconiga pole olnud võrdne - 47% Itaalia telekanalitest kuulub S. Berlusconile. Valimised võites tahab R. Prodi alustada Itaalias taas Euroopa-meelset poliitikat, leida USA-ga ühine keel, tuua Itaalia väed Iraagist ära. Lisa: Prodi vasaktsentristid võidukad

  5. Eesti film "Sügisball" tuli, nägi ja võitis! / Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Ülle, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) sai Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammi Orizzonti peaauhinna. Ka lühiintervjuu filmi režissööriga kohapeal

  6. Prodi tahab USA-stiilis eelvalimised Itaaliasse importida ja need võita / Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toode, Ülle, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni kohalt lahkuv Romano Prodi soovitab Itaalias kasutusele võtta USA-stiilis eelvalimised, et nii valimisteks välja selgitada vasaktsentristide peaministrikandidaat ning alustab oma valimiskampaaniat kohe pärast Brüsselist naasmist. Poliitikavaatlejate arvamusi Itaalia valimissüsteemi muutmisest. Lisa: Pooldajad näevad kasu demokraatiale

  7. AIRIS Wide Area Detector for Integrated Early Warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marinelli, William J; Finson, Michael L; Hagge, John; Gittins, Christopher M; Ustun, Teoman E; Chang, Shing; Rossi, David C; Jensen, James O

    2004-01-01

    ...), toxic industrial chemicals (TIC), and biological warfare agent aerosols. This sensor is capable of detecting CWA vapors at levels required of the non-imaging JSLSCAD sensor, as well as many TICs, at their toxicity threshold...

  8. Distsiplinaarsest, aporeetilisest ning mittedistsiplinaarsest mõtlemisest / Airi Liimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liimets, Airi, 1959-

    2009-01-01

    Lähtudes Michel Foucault’ mõtetest diskursuse, kõnelevate häälte, filosoofia ja selle alguse kohta, küsib autor, missugusel viisil oleks võimalik mõelda muusikast ja muusikapedagoogikast, ja toob esile kolm mõtlemisviisi ning vaatleb neid teaduse vaatepunktist rõhuasetusega muusikapedagoogikal ja muusikal

  9. MBO rahastamisel on Eestis probleemiks pangalaenud / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2002-01-01

    Tehingust, mille käigus Baltikumi juhtiv tööstusmasinate müüja ja vahendaja Thomesto Machine Agencies tippjuhtkond ostis koostöös Baltcapiga 73% TMA aktsiatest. Skeem ja tabel: TMA MBO struktuur; mõned Thom Tehnika näitajad. Lisad: Pangad on MBO rahastamisel ettevaatlikud; TMA Eestis; TMA käive on ligi 20 miljonit eurot

  10. Lapsesuu või PR-guru? / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Justiitsminister Rein Lang on autori hinnangul tuntud oma ootamatute arvamustega. CV. Vt. samas: Skandaal: Kuidas Lang politseid ja allilma seostades tormi tekitas. Kommenteerivad: Hans H. Luik, Hannes Astok, Laine Jänes, Rein Kilk ja Ulvi Kuusk

  11. Lääne-slaavi aiad ja maastikud / Airi Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Airi, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Dendroloogide reis Tšehhi ja Slovakkiasse. Tšehhi Teaduste Akadeemia arboreetumist, Praha haljastusest, Konopishtshe jahilossist, Brno haljastusest ja botaanikaaiast, Mlynany arboreetumist, Maria ja Janusz Szewczyki aiast ja puukoolist, Krakowi botaanikaaiast jm.

  12. Terved mullad - terveks eluks / kokkuvõtte tegi Airi Vetemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    ÜRO on kuulutanud 2015. aasta rahvusvaheliseks mulla-aastaks. Meie mullad on kogu inimeksistentsi aluseks - see sisuliselt taastumatu loodusvara annab 95% meie toidust. Eesti aasta muld 2015 on paepealne muld

  13. Kas Bombardier lennutab Estonian Airi üles? / Henrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Air on saanud oma käsutusse kaks kolmest ostetud lennukist Bombardier CRJ900, millega saavutatakse Boeing 737-ga võrreldes oluline kütuse kokkuhoid. 20 aastaga on müüdud CRJ-seeria lennukeid juba üle 1700

  14. Trigon Capital sukeldub Ukraina piimaärisse / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Investeerimisfirma Trigon Capital valis uueks investeeringute sihiks Ukraina piimatööstuse muutunud poliitilise kliima ja piimatöökvootide puudumise tõttu. Lisa: Kinnisvara. Horvaatia kinnisvaraäri

  15. Välistudengite eksport üliraske / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli, Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli (TTÜ) ja Estonian Business Schooli (EBS) rektorid saatsid haridusministrile kirja, milles soovivad ühtset välistudengite toomise poliitikat. Juhtumist EBS-i õppima tulnud 38 indialasega. Vt. samas: Üliõpilastest peagi puudus; Ausad inimesed on oodatud; Lühiintervjuu TTÜ magistrandi Kota Ramesh Rabuga; Diagramm: Välisüliõpilased Eestis

  16. Jäätmekeskus õgib riigi miljoneid / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Riik ehitas AS-ile Epler & Lorenz 23,2 miljoni kroonise ohtlike jäätmete kogumiskeskuse hoone, makstes järgnevatel aastatel veel miljoneid kroone lisaks. Vt. samas: Riik kuldab Epler & Lorenzit ka tulevikus; Ettevõtte CV. Kommenteerivad Rein Randver ja Heiki Kranich

  17. Kalle Norberg õpetab eestlasi kasutama Luksemburgi pangasaladuste kaitset / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Firma Luxembourg Financial Service filiaal Eestis hakkab pakkuma privaatpanganduse teenust. Vt. samas intervjuud Kalle Norbergiga. Kommenteerib Tiit Vähi. Lisad: Luxembourg Financial Services; Luksemburgi ärikeskkond; Info lekib

  18. Gruusia magnet tõmbab eestlasi / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti ärimeeste ja poliitikute huvid ja tegevus Gruusias. Vt. samas: Bathumi sadam otsib Eestist operaatoreid; Vomm toob Eestisse õige Kindzmarauli; Helenius investeerib Gruusia kinnisvarasse; Eestlased ostsid Gruusias veinitehase

  19. Linnar Viik kaotas lahingu IKEA omanikule / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Linnar Viik valiti 50 kõige mõjukama eurooplase hulka ning kandideeris Euroopa aasta ärijuhi tiitlile, tiitli pälvis IKEA asutaja Ingvar Kamprad. Kõige edukama eurooplase tiitli sai Türgi peaminister Recep Tayyip Erdogan

  20. Intellektuaalne luksus-spaa Van Abbemuseumis / Rael Artel, Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Eindhovenis Van Abbemuseumis 2007. a. lõpul toimunud kolmenädalasest rahvusvahelisest kohtumisest "Be[com]ing Dutch Caucus". Projekt keskendus rahvusliku identiteedi problemaatikale kaasaegses globaalses ühiskonnas. Esinejatest, ettekannetest

  1. D'Monte : rünnaku ajend oli koostöö Ameerikaga / Darryl D'Monte ; interv, Ülle Toode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    D'Monte, Darryl

    2008-01-01

    India ajakirjanik vastab küsimustele, mis oli Mumbai terrorirünnaku poliitiline taust, kes olukorrast kasu lõikab, miks peaminister Manmohan Singh teatas esmalt, et rünnak tuli väljastpoolt ja mida peaks India valitsus probleemi lahendamiseks ette võtma

  2. Lillikate suvi on Nava Lava päralt / Airi Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Airi, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Lõuna-Eestis Lilli külas asuva Nava talu Nava Lava suvistest üritustest. Olulisim ettevõtmine oli talu peremehe Jaak Kõdari talu ajaloost kirjutatud näitemängu "Jukra" lavale toomine. Tänavu oli talu aidas avatud ka Lembit Sootsi maalinäitus

  3. Eesti Ehitus jättis Sedini hätta / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 28. veebr. lk. 9. Eesti Ehitus loobus osalemast Lutheri elamukvartali väljaehitamisel. Vt. samas: Peeter Raidla. Kinnistu jäi Sedinile raskuste kiuste; Gert D. Hankewitz, Gea Velthut-Sokka. Korteriostja ja konkurendid ehituse katkemises ohu märki ei näe; Kalleim korter maksab ligi 7 miljonit; Grove Invest. Küsimustele vastab Pjotr Sedin

  4. Pilk maestro Neeme Järvi muusikalisse loometöösse / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2006-01-01

    kohtumisest New Jersey Symphony Orchestra mängijate ja dirigendiga 13. jaanuaril 2006 Newarkis, kus tutvustati sümfooniaorkestri 2006 - 2007. aasta programmi ning räägiti tööst Beethoveni 9. sümfoonia ettevalmistamisel kontserdiks. Tunti muret noorte muusikakasvatuse ühekülgse arengu pärast

  5. Lauluarmastaja, võitleja, unustamatu sõber Oscar Uusima saadeti igaviku teedele / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2007-01-01

    järelehüüe EELK Bergen County koguduse nõukogu liikmele, koguduse revisjoni komisjoni esimehele, New Yorgi Eesti Meeskoori lauljale ja juhatuse esimehele, korporatsiooni Estica USA koondise esimehele ja abiesimehele Oscar Uusimale 24. 09. 1917 - 17. 07. 2007

  6. Graafik Ilse Leetaru Tallinna ja Tartu kunstimuuseumidele kingitud kunstiteosed näitusel Tartus / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2004-01-01

    valiknäitus "Ilse Leetaru. Kingitused" Eesti parimate kunstnike teostest I. Leetaru väärtuslikust kunstikollektsioonist koos tema enda loominguga on avatud 8. juulist 8. augustini 2004 Tartu Kunstimuuseumis

  7. Projekt OK-NET-ARABLE : mahetootmiseks vajalik teave tuleb tuua praktikuteni / Airi Vetemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetemaa, Airi

    2015-01-01

    OK-NET-ARABLE, mida võiks tõlkida kui põllukultuuride kasvatuse alast maheteabe võrgustikku, on ELi teadusrahastu Horisont 2020 projekt, mille eesmärk on vahendada innovaatilist ja traditsioonilist teavet mahetootjate, nõustajate ja teadlaste vahel, suurendamaks mahepõllukultuuride produktiivsust ja kvaliteeti üle Euroopa

  8. Eesti firmade külm suplus välismaal / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Elo Reiljani doktoritööst, milles on uuritud ettevõtete taandumist välisturgudelt. Viiest suuremast analüüsitud suurettevõttest. Lisad: Kuidas ettevõtted piiri tagant taandusid? Ettevõtete tollased esindajad liikumiste põhjustest. Diagrammid: Klementi; Sangar; Tarkon; Tarmeko; Ösel Foods

  9. Starch-based aerogels: airy materials from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerogels are a class of interesting low density porous materials prepared by replacing the water phase contained within a hydrogel with a gas phase while maintaining the three dimensional network structure of the gel. The investigation of starch and hydrocolloid-based aerogels has received attentio...

  10. Rõõmus jõulukoosviibimine New Yorgi Eesti Majas / Airi Vaga ; fotod: Peeter Teedla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2006-01-01

    New Yorgi Eesti Haridusseltsi korraldusel, tervitused ütles seltsi esimees Peeter Teedla, järgnes palvus, sõnavõtt ja New Yorgi Eesti Naiskoori esinemine, õhtu solist oli sopran Mariliina Vilimaa.

  11. Briti ekspert : euroliidus kaob Eestist tööpuudus / Michael Richardson ; interv. Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Richardson, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Eestis Suurbritannia tööreformi tutvustava töö- ja sotsiaalnõuniku sõnul on Suurbritannias peaaegu kadunud pikaajaline töötus noorte hulgas, vanematest inimestest on vaid üksikud tööta kauem kui aasta. Vt. samas: Kes on Michael Richardson?

  12. Internet - kas vaimse tervise edendamise suurepärane tööriist? / Airi Mitendorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mitendorf, Airi, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    Üleeuroopalise terviseprogrammi projekti SUPREME (Suicide Prevention by Internet and Media Based Mental Health Promotion) raames kaardistati veebileheküljed, mis avanesid märksõnadele suitsiid ja enesetapp

  13. Palga tõusuks jääb raha puudu / Airi Amtmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amtmann, Airi

    2008-01-01

    Paljud Raplamaa omavalitsused on probleemi ees, kuidas kindlustada pedagoogidele 22%-list palgatõusu. Arvamust avaldavad Vigala vallavanem Priit Kärsna, Käru vallavanem Elari Hiis, Rapla abivallavanem Imbi Kalberg, Kohila vallavanem Hillar Kalmet, Juuru vallavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuurispetsialist Aili Normak ja haridusministeeriumi nõunik Riho Raave

  14. Alternatiivne noorsookultuur - võitjate või kaotajate kultuur? / Airi-Alina Allaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allaste, Airi-Alina, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    Lühiülevaade reivikultuuri tekkimisest ja arenemisest Eestis ning nn. klubikultuurist - tavanormidest erinevast seksuaalkäitumisest ning tolerantsest suhtumisest uimastite tarbimisse. Artikkel põhineb kvalitatiivsel uurimusel, aastatel 1998-1999 läbi viidud avatud intervjuudel ja osaleval observatsioonil

  15. Eesti esimene välismaalasest advokaat tegi partneriks naisadvokaadi / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Advokaadibüroost Sorainen Law Offices. Lisad: kui palju maksab advokaadi tund? ; riik ostis õigusabi 1,1 miljoni krooni eest ; fakte advokaadibüroo Sorainen Law Offices kohta ; miljonid kroonid dividendideks

  16. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    University of Pennsylvania ajakirjas "The Pennsylvania Gazette" ilmunud artiklist "From Estonian Exile to Executive Office", autor Susan Frith - järjekordsest võimalusest tutvustada Eestit ja eestlasi USA ülikoolide kaudu

  17. Sub-Airy disk angular resolution with high dynamic range in the near-infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richichi A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lunar occultations (LO are a simple and effective high angular resolution method, with minimum requirements in instrumentation and telescope time. They rely on the analysis of the diffraction fringes created by the lunar limb. The diffraction phenomen occurs in space, and as a result LO are highly insensitive to most of the degrading effects that limit the performance of traditional single telescope and long-baseline interferometric techniques used for direct detection of faint, close companions to bright stars. We present very recent results obtained with the technique of lunar occultations in the near-IR, showing the detection of companions with very high dynamic range as close as few milliarcseconds to the primary star. We discuss the potential improvements that could be made, to increase further the current performance. Of course, LO are fixed-time events applicable only to sources which happen to lie on the Moon’s apparent orbit. However, with the continuously increasing numbers of potential exoplanets and brown dwarfs beign discovered, the frequency of such events is not negligible. I will list some of the most favorable potential LO in the near future, to be observed from major observatories.

  18. Keeglist, joogiautomaatidest ja sotsiaalsest kapitalist / Robert Putnam ; interv. Airi-Alina Allaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Putnam, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Tänapäeva üks mõjukam sotsiaaltedlane Robert Putnam, kes hiljuti esines Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumil "Sotsiaalne kapital muutuvas maailmas", sotsiaalse kapitali mõistest, siduva ja ühendava sotsiaalse kapitali omavahelistest suhtest. Lisa: Robert Putnam

  19. No Time for the "Airy Fairy": Teacher Perspectives on Creative Writing in High Stakes Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a research project undertaken to examine teachers' perceptions of creative writing in the senior English curriculum. It was a case study undertaken in a state high school in Melbourne under the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE). The project investigated the challenges facing English teachers as they prepare students to…

  20. Austraalia peaminister jagas eelarve ülejäägid rahvale / Airi Ilisson-Cruz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Austraalia peaminister Kevin Rudd'i majanduskriisiga võitlemise plaanist, mis nägi ette 2008. aasta detsembris ühiskonna vaesemate kihtide, pensionäride, noorte ja lastega perede rahalist toetamist riigi eelarveülejäägist, ka 2009. aastal jätkub toetuste jagamine. Graafik: Töötus Austraalias viimastel aastatel

  1. Ühe minuti loeng: videoformaat, mis tuli ja võitis / Airi Ilisson-Cruz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli "Ühe Minuti Loengu" videoklippide sarjast, mis võitis Suhtekorralduse Auhind 2013 hariduse eripreemia. Igas klipis arutleb teadlane lihtsas ja loogilises sõnastuses ühe konkreetse, sageli üllatusmomendiga fakti üle. Videoklippide sari kui sisuturunduse näide

  2. Let's Refuse to Be What We Are (Supposed to Be)! / Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Triisberg, Airi, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Räägime rahvuslusest! Ideoloogia ja identiteedi vahel" ("Let's Talk About Nationalism! Between Ideology and Identity") Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 5.02.-25.04.2010. Kuraator Rael Artel. Katarina Zdjelari (Rotterdam), Tanja Muravskaja (Eesti), Jens Haaningu (Kopenhaagen), Artur Żmijewski (Varssavi), Joanna Rajkowska (Varssavi) ja John Phillip Mäkineni (Helsingi) töödest näitusel

  3. SAS paneb Estonian Airi kiirmüüki / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2009-01-01

    Majandusraskustes lennufirma SAS kavatseb loobuda osalustest kõigis lennufirmades, mis ei sobi kokku nende uue tegevuskavaga. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts arvab, et riik peaks leidma Estonian Airile kodumaised partnerid

  4. Ameerika suursaadik Aldona Sofia Wos : toon kättpidi USA suurfirmad Eestisse / Aldona Zofia Wos ; interv. Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wos, Aldona Zofia

    2005-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud Londonis USA riigidepartemangu korraldatud konverentsiga, kus Balti riikide juhid rääkisid USA ettevõtete esindajatele, miks tuleks investeerida Balti riikidesse. USA tehtud investeeringutest Eestisse, Eesti ettevõtjate võimalustest USA-s. Lisa: Tõhus rahapüüdja

  5. Isolation and characterization of aristolactam alkaloids from the stem bark of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw and their biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Iqbal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation on a crude methanolic bark extract of Goniothalamus velutinus resulted in the isolation of four compounds, aristolactam I (1, aristolactam BII (2, aristolactam AII (3 and velutinam (4. Compounds (1 and (2 have previously been isolated from the bark of G. velutinus but this is the first report on isolation of compounds (3 and (4 from this specie. Antibacterial activities of these compounds were tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus spizizenii and Staphylococcus aureus but none of them showed any antibacterial activity under the tested concentrations. These compounds were also tested for anti-biofilm activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, S. aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Proteus mirabilis and among the four compounds only velutinam (4 (70 µg/mL inhibited biofilm formation of both S. mutans and P. mirabilis up to 41.3 and 78.9%, respectively. Whereas, the compounds aristolactam BII (2 (90 µg/mL and aristolactam AII (3 (140 µg/mL were active against S. mutans and inhibited their biofilm formation to 72.8% and 89.9%, correspondingly. In addition aristolactam I (1 did not show any inhibition of biofilm against the microorganism used in this study. The anticancer activity of velutinam (4 was evaluated against various cell lines including Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549, human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293 and epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells (CaSki. The MTT antiproliferative assay resulted in IC50 values of 21.57 µg/mL, 13.28 µg/mL and 10.97 µg/mL for A549, HEK 293 and CaSki, respectively. Although anticancer activity of velutinam (4 has been reported on HeLa and L1210 cell lines, it has never been reported for the cell lines under this study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on anticancer activity of velutinam (4 on these cell lines.

  6. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  7. Peakonsul Jaanus Kirikmäe andis teenetemärgi praost Thomas Vagale / Airi Vaga ; foto: Harold Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves annetas iseseisvuspäeva puhul USA I praostkonna praostile Thomas Vagale Valgetähe IV klassi teenetemärgi. Teenetemärgi andis Thomas Vagale üle Eesti Vabariigi peakonsul Jaanus Kirikmäe

  8. Kanada rahastaja tõi Estonian Airi ostu lähemale / Rivo Sarapik ; kommenteerinud Andrus Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air ja Bombardier sõlmisid lennukite hanke lepingu, tingimused ja hind jäid samaks, muutus vaid lennukite tarneaeg. Ostu rahastab Kanada finantseerimisasutus. Uued lennukid saabuvad Eestisse 2011. a. jaanuaris

  9. Eesti 15-16 aastaste koolinoorte uimastitarbimine : 1995., 1999. ja 2003. aasta uurimuste võrdlus / Airi-Alina Allaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allaste, Airi-Alina, 1967-

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvaheliste uurimuste ESPAD käigus koguti andmeid uimastite tarvitamisega seotud käitumise kohta koolinoorte hulgas; Joon.: uimastite tarvitamine soo ja õppekeele järgi, tubakaga katsetajad ja regulaarsed suitsetajad, kanepisuitsetajad

  10. Yoga OÜ - kas suur mull või paljulubav väikefirma? / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Iseõppiva intelligentse hoonesüsteemi arendamise ja väljatöötamisega tegeleva firma Yoga OÜ arengut ja kavatsusi maailmaturul tutvustavad ettevõtjad Priit Vimberg ja Raivo Raestik. Vt. samas: Investorite otsinguil; Revolutsiooniline toode

  11. 14. X avati graafikatriennaali noortenäituse [tingimisi olemas][tingimisi olematu] neljas ehk viimane alanäitus Viljandis Kilpkonna galeriis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Kuraator Rael Artel. Väljas on Laura Kallasvee "I love labels", Maiu Kurvitsa kontseptuaalne projekt "Odav jutt", Peeter Lauritsa "Paabeli torn" (1991), tundmatu kunstniku tekstiilist käsitöötoode.

  12. "Kus oleme olnud, kuhu läheme" : USA-sse emigreerunud rahvusgruppide dokumenteerimise seminar ja konverents IHRC-keskuses 12. - 14. mail / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2005-01-01

    Immigration History and Research Center´i (IHRC) ja Minnesota ülikooli poolt korraldatud loengutest, seminaridest ja vastuvõttudest. Eesti Arhiiv Ühendriikides saatis 2003. aastal suure osa oma kogudest IHRC-sse

  13. (3+1)-dimensional localized self-accelerating Airy elegant Ince–Gaussian wave packets and their radiation forces in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Peng, Xi; Peng, Yulian; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Xingyu; Zhuang, Jingli; Zhao, Fang; Yang, Xiangbo; Deng, Dongmei

    2017-12-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108, 11374107, and 11775083), the Funds from CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, and the Innovation Project of Graduate School of South China Normal University (Grant No. 2016lkxm64).

  14. Üldtuntud kaubamärkide õiguskaitse : [bakalaureusetöö] / Airi Hämmalov ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Anne Kalvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hämmalov, Airi

    1998-01-01

    Üldtuntud kaubamärgi olemus, rahvusvahelised kokkulepped (Pariisi konventsioon, TRIPS, WIPO, EL õigusaktid), Ameerika regionaalsed kokkulepped; kaubamärgi üldtuntust määratlevad kriteeriumid. Õiguskaitse ulatus - kaitse erinevate kaupade või teenuste suhtes, registreerimata üldtuntud kaubamärgi kaitse, omaniku ainuõiguse kaitse

  15. Laste seksuaalne väärkohtlemine - selle ennetamise võimalikkusest : [bakalaureusetöö] / Janika Soo ; Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Airi Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soo, Janika

    2002-01-01

    Laste seksuaalse väärkohtlemise olemus, liigid, soodustavad asjaolud, viitavad märgid ja nende äratundmine, laste õigusi kaitsvad organisatsioonid, kehtiv õiguslik regulatsioon, juhtumi analüüs

  16. One «Both» Sex«es»: Observations, suppositions, and airy speculations on fetal sex anatomy in British scientific literature, 1794-1871.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The hegemony of the two-sex paradigm in the European scientific imagination and wider culture did not automatically equate to the hegemony of two discrete genders. In fact, two sexes facilitated a variety of gender choices: two singular and a number of double or otherwise intersexed (most commonly referred to as "hermaphrodite" or "bisexual" in its anatomical sense). This article explores some key British medical and allied scientific texts, with reference to associated Continental literature, as a means of illustrating the complexity of the two-sex paradigm and the unexpected transformation of gender possibilities that it helped produce through the early and middle decades of the nineteenth century. Discourses surrounding the first direct observations of the earliest development of fetal urinogenital anatomy were pivotal. The prevailing view that the incipient embryo was sexually undifferentiated (a paragon of the one-sex paradigm) was challenged by the Edinburgh anatomist Robert Knox, initially as he sought to bolster his professional reputation at the height of the Burke and Hare "body-snatching" scandal. Knox suggested that every embryo began life in an essentially dual-sexed state, an individual's sex anatomy depending on the greater or lesser development of component female and male structures. Greater clarification on the contested status of the homology-hermaphrodite distinction was achieved with the discovery of the early co-existence of the excretory duct of the Wolffian body (mesonephric duct) and the Müllerian duct (paramesonephric duct), an observation that made anatomical bisexuality difficult to ignore. The nineteenth-century's greatest champion of primordial hermaphroditism was Charles Darwin who was pivotal in phylogenizing the principle and establishing the premise that (in his own words) "Every man & woman is hermaphrodite," a foundation stone of late-nineteenth-century sexology. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Co-Ni/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Sunan Candlenut Oil (Reutealis Trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) for Production of Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Muttaqii, Muhammad Al; Marlinda, Lenny; Roesyadi, Achmad; Prajitno, Danawati Hari

    2017-01-01

    The production of biofuel by hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil as renewable energy can substitute fossil energy. The purpose of this work is to produce biofuel by hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil with Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst. The catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The characterization of catalyst was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The functional groups of the hydrocarbon was determined by Fourier Transform ...

  18. 28. septembril avati Rüütelkonna hoones noorte kunstnike biennaal / Airi Tiisberg, Rael Artel ; interv. R[eet] V[arblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiisberg, Airi, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Noorte kunstnike biennaalile "Public Preparation'i" nime all eelnenud üritustest ("Translocal Express", Vilniuse Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses workshop "iMagine", Pärnus suvelaager "Exercises on Adhocracy"). Näituseruumi on kavandatud "Public Preparation Social Club". "Public Preparation'i" jätkumisest iseseisva projektina

  19. IV rahvusvaheline turismikonverents "Ma armastan Eestimaad!"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    25. septembril Meriton Conference&Spa Hotellis toimunud turismikonverentsist Lühiülevaade Juhan Partsi, Maria Alajõe, Paul Flattersi, Gerald Broddelezi, Raul Rebase, Raivo Vare, Birgit Prikki, Mikko Fritze, Andres Toode, Merle Adamsi ja Helen Mahmastoli ettekannetest, konverentsi moderaator oli Eesti Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja peadirektor Siim Raie

  20. Filmiinimesed sõjaretkel, Aadu Krevald ja metsikud räpparid : Valitud palu dokumentaalfilmide sarjast "Eesti lood" II / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    ETVs näidatud dokumentaalfilmidest sarjas "Eesti lood II" - Mart Arjukese film Ilmar Raagi osalemisest Erna retkel "Sõjamäng" (esilinastus kinos Sõprus 9. XI 2008), Igor Kurve film sporditeadlasest Aadu Krevaldist "Teaduspõhine toode" (eetris 14. I 2009), Mihkel Ulgi film räpparitest "MC Battle - sõnasõjad" (eetris 8. X 2008)

  1. Seitse maailma parimat valitud / Nina Due ; interv. Urve Eslas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Due, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Londoni disainimuuseumi korraldatud maailma parima disainiobjekti võistlusest. Eestit esindas Fahle maja (KOKO Arhitektid). Loetletud võitjad seitsmes kategoorias: arhitektuur, graafika, transport, toode, mood, mööbel, interaktiivne. Näitus 2007. aasta sajast paremast disainiobjektist Londoni disainimuuseumis. 13 ill

  2. Ee-ees-ti rek-laam-film!!! / Maria Mang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mang, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi näituse "Raha paneb rattad käima. Eesti Reklaamfilm 40" kuraator räägib ERF-ist ehk 1967. aastal käima lükatud asutusest Eesti Reklaamfilm. Lisaks "Reklaamiklubi", "Läänelik vorm, sostsialistlik sisu" ja "Reklaam - toode, mida tarbiti"

  3. Sensible branding / Martin Lindström ; interv. Alina Lisina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Autori juhitud ühe tähtsaima tootearendusalase uurimuse järelduseks on, et tootearenduses on oluline kasutada kõiki viit meelt. See tähendab, et hea toode eristub teistest nii lõhna, heli, välimuse, maitse kui ka kombatavuse poolest

  4. EEC direktiividest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1994-01-01

    Lühidalt EL ajaloost. Euroopa Ühenduse Nõukogu ja Komisjoni dokumendid. CE märk - tootjate poolt kasutatav ühtne vastavusmärk, mis näitab, et antud toode vastab EÜ direktiividega kehtestatud nõuetele

  5. IT-firmad pääsevad pooleks aastaks Silicon Valleysse / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Tehnopol ja EAS toetavad nn. start-up-firmade saatmist pooleks aastaks USA-sse Silicon Valleysse kogemusi omandama, programm on mõeldud eelkõige neile ettevõtetele, kel on oma toode või teenus valmis ja kes soovivad sellega maailmaturule minna

  6. Eamesi elevant Vitralt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vitra on Charles Eamesi 100. sünniaastapäevaks (17. juuni) välja lasknud PLYWOOD ELEPHANT'i. Toode disainiti aastal 1945 ja jäi mudeliks keeruka tootmisprotsessi tõttu. Nüüd toodetakse 2000 elevanti, millest 2 jõuab Eestisse galeriisse SooSoo

  7. Ettevaatusprintsiip keskkonnaõiguses ja selle vabakaubandust piirav iseloom Euroopa Liidu ja Maailma Kaubandusorganisatsiooni kontekstis : [bakalaureusetöö] / Airi Andresson ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Andresson, Airi, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Ettevaatusprintsiibi areng ja mõistmine kui rahvusvahelise õiguse printsiip, keskkonnaõiguse printsiip, vabakaubandus ja keskkond, WTO vabakaubandusrežiim, ettevaatusprintsiip kui vabakaubanduse piiraja

  8. Kollektiivne töö, rohujuuredemokraatia ja opositsioonikultuuri visuaalsed vormid tänapäeva Eestis = Collective work, grassroots democracy and visual forms of opposition culture in contemporary Estonia / Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Triisberg, Airi, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Kokkupuutepunktidest sotsiaalsete liikumiste ja kaasaegse kunsti vahel tänapäeva Eestis, keskendudes kollektiivse ja sekkuva iseloomuga praktikatele avalikus ruumis. Prussakovi nimelise jalgrattaühingu Vabaduse väljaku aktsioonist Tallinnas, Linnalabori katuseaia jt. projektidest, "vabaduse plakati" aktsioonist, Johnson&Johnson "Paldiski projektist" jm.

  9. Looduslikult kestliku ja inimlähedase elu otsingud / Martin Mölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mölder, Martin, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Ökokogukonnad retoorikas ja praktikas : elustiilide uurimused / toimetanud Airi-Alina Allaste. Tallinn : Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2011. (Acta Universitatis Tallinnensis. Socialia)

  10. Mängult ja päriselt : teater postmodernistlikus ja postdramaatilises paradigmas : kokkuvõte 2006. aasta "Baltoscandalist" / Anneli Saro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saro, Anneli, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Vaadeldakse lavastusi - "Pablo Plusi supermarketis" (lav. René Pollesch), "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi" (lav. Kristian Smeds), "Otsides kadunud töötajat" (lav. Rabih Mroué), Rui Horta tantsulavastus "Set Up", Mark Ravenhilli "Toode" (esines ka näitlejana), "Hiljutised kogemused" (lav.Amir Reza Koohestan), "Miss Mobiil" (lav. Emil Hrvatin), tantsuline monolavastus "Me oleme lasknud selle reaalsuse silmist" (lav. Hooman Sharif)

  11. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS). Volume I. Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    vance eeoietPorm 12, KEY WORDS (Continue on1 roet aide it nec..ey and Identify by block number) Digital Avioie csII InfoitWi2IiIIII i ilha illl 121t-Ila1...nonrMaintenani-e 5l pport personnel (ind their ipporf tacilit ies (stich (is barracks, heat . ir l( tood). ilthoi Ih thev ( (n e p 1it ts ,o singje term. t). All

  12. Integrated single- and two-photon light sheet microscopy using accelerating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piksarv, Peeter; Marti, Dominik; Le, Tuan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the first light sheet microscope using propagation invariant, accelerating Airy beams that operates both in single- and two-photon modes. The use of the Airy beam permits us to develop an ultra compact, high resolution light sheet system without beam scanning. In two-photon mode, a...

  13. Trigonometric series adapted for the study of Neumann boundary-value problems of Lame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakeur Merouani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the solutions to Neumann boundary-value problems of Lame system in a sectorial domains. We study directly this problem, by using trigonometric series, without going through the Airy functions. Results using the Airy function are given in [11].

  14. Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field induced tunneling is studied in three different types of quantum wells by solving time-independent effective mass equation in analytic methods based on three different Airy function approaches. Comparison of different Airy function methods indicates that they are identical and connected to each other by the ...

  15. Eriline lennuaasta / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2010-01-01

    Eesti riik sai Estonian Airi 90-protsendilise osaluse. EMT ja Elioni 2010. aasta võrguriketest. Aprillis alustas Eestis tegevust elektribörs Nord Pool. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi, Maanteeameti ja Nordecon Infra AS-i teehangete skandaalist

  16. A compact two photon light sheet microscope for applications in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piksarv, Peeter; Marti, Dominik; Le, Tuan

    2016-01-01

    We present a compact setup for two photon light sheet microscopy. By using pulsed Airy beam illumination we demonstrate eight-fold increase of the FOV compared to Gaussian light sheet with the same axial resolution....

  17. Special functions & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, N N

    1972-01-01

    Famous Russian work discusses the application of cylinder functions and spherical harmonics; gamma function; probability integral and related functions; Airy functions; hyper-geometric functions; more. Translated by Richard Silverman.

  18. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest "30 Seconds To Mars", E-Rotic "Sexual Healing", Mandarava & Buchert "Feng Shui", Vanessa Mae "The Best Of", Leann Rimes "Twisted Angel" Xzibit "Man vs Mashine", India. Airie "Voyage To India", Tori Amos "Scarlet Walk"

  19. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  20. Spirallike structure in the conoscopic figures of optically active crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikul', O. Yu.; Rudoi, K. A.; Livashvili, A. I.; Doronin, V. I.; Stroganov, V. I.

    2005-02-01

    This paper discusses a spirallike structure in the conoscopic figures of optically active crystals, differing from the Airy figure. The cause of the appearance of the spirallike structure is circularly polarized radiation.

  1. Aqua AIRS L2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  2. Maailmaparandamine vajab veel harjutamist / Maarin Ektermann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ektermann, Maarin, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Sügisel 2007 Tallinnas toimuva Noorte Kunstnike Biennaali ettevalmistusprogrammist "Public Preparation. Exercises on Adhocracy". Juulis Pärnus toimunud suvelaager keskendus omaalgatuslikule initsiatiivile tänapäevases kunstis. Korraldajad Airi Triisberg ja Rael Artel

  3. Ettevalmistus noortebiennaaliks Pärnus / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Ideest korraldada 2007. aasta sügisel Tallinnas esimene noorte kunstnike biennaal, mille toimkonda juhivad Rael Artel ning Airi Triisberg. Pärnus toimunud üritusest "Public preparation. Exercises on Adhocracy"

  4. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  5. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  6. Lennufirma nimetab juhivahetust hoolikalt plaanitud salasammuks / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu vabastas presidendi ja juhatuse esimehe Borge Thorbechi ja nimetas juhatuse esimehe kohusetäitjaks Andrus Aljase. Majandusminister Juhan Parts ja kantsler Marika Priske nimetasid juhi vahetust vajalikuks

  7. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. It is newest products produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  8. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. It is newest products produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  9. Globaalsus + lennundus = Star Alliance? / Ain Hinsberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinsberg, Ain

    2002-01-01

    Erinevad koostöövormid lennufirmade vahel, alliansside teke ja areng maailmas. Maailma juhtivad lennundusalliansid ja nende poolt kaetud riigid ja sihtkohad. Kommenteerib Estonian Airi president Erki Urva

  10. Tõeliselt edukas on üksnes see juht, kes eraäri proovinud / Leela Lilleorg ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Leela

    2007-01-01

    Kümme aastat Estonian Airi arengus osalenud ning asepresidendiks jõudnud ja 2005. aastast lennufirmadele esindusteenust pakkuva firma Airline Management asutaja Leela Lilleorg oma töökogemustest. Vt. samas: Leela Lilleorg

  11. Nafta hinna kõikumine solgutab Euroopa lennufirmade aktsiaid / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Nafta hinnatõus langetab lennufirmade aktsiate hindasid. Kommenteerib Estonian Air'i asepresident Leela Lilleorg. Graafikud: Euroopa suuremate lennufirmade aktsiad nafta tõmbetuules; Nafta hind rahvusvahelisel naftabörsil Londonis

  12. Tegijate lemmik : kompaktne moodulmaja Laavu / Agneta Land

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Land, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Eriprojekti järgi ehitatud eramutest ja valmismajadest, mille osad tehakse tehases ning transporditakse krundile püstitamiseks. Soome ehitusfirma Kannustalo moodulmajast Laavu, mis pälvis 2007. a. Habitare messil professionaalide auhinna kui messi parim ja aasta innovatiivseim toode. Maja projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Heikkinen-Komonen (arhitektid Mikko Heikkinen, Markku Komonen). Küsimustele vastab Kannustalo tegevdirektor Mika Uusimäki. Mikko Heikkineni ja Markku Komoneni projekteeritud valmismaja "Puudutus" eksponeeritakse New Yorgi Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumi (MoMa) näitusel "Kodu koju kätte: moodsa elamu tootmine"

  13. Computer program for Bessel and Hankel functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Kevin L.; Saule, Arthur V.; Rice, Edward J.; Clark, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    A set of FORTRAN subroutines for calculating Bessel and Hankel functions is presented. The routines calculate Bessel and Hankel functions of the first and second kinds, as well as their derivatives, for wide ranges of integer order and real or complex argument in single or double precision. Depending on the order and argument, one of three evaluation methods is used: the power series definition, an Airy function expansion, or an asymptotic expansion. Routines to calculate Airy functions and their derivatives are also included.

  14. Porters, watchmen, and the crime of William Sayers: the non-scientific staff of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in Victorian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Allan

    2003-06-01

    A careful study of the detailed archives of the Victorian Royal Observatory makes it possible to build up a picture of the employment and working conditions not only of the astronomical staff who worked at Greenwich, but also of the labourers, watchmen, and gate porters. Indeed, the archives open up a window on to how the Observatory was run on a daily basis: how its non-scientific staff were recruited and paid, and what were their terms of employment. They also say a great deal about how Sir George Biddell Airy directed and controlled every aspect of the Observatory's life. Yet while Airy was a strict employer, he emerges as a man who was undoubtedly fair-minded and sometimes even generous to his non-scientific work-force. A study of the Observatory staff files also reveals the relationship between the Observatory labouring staff and the Airy family's domestic servants. And of especial interest is the robbery committed by William Sayers, the Airy family footman in 1868, bringing to light as it does Sir George and Lady Richarda Airy's views on crime and its social causes and consequences, the prison rehabilitation service in 1868, and their opinions on the reform of offenders. Though this paper is not about astronomy as such, it illuminates a fascinating interface where the world of astronomical science met and worked alongside the world of ordinary Victorian people within the walls of one of the nineteenth century's most illustrious astronomical institutions.

  15. Image system analysis of human eye wave-front aberration on the basis of HSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ancheng

    2017-07-01

    Hartmann-Shack sensor (HSS) has been used in objective measurement of human eye wave-front aberration, but the research on the effects of sampling point size on the accuracy of the result has not been reported. In this paper, point spread function (PSF) of the whole system mathematical model was obtained via measuring the optical imaging system structure of human eye wave-front aberration measurement. The impact of Airy spot size on the accuracy of system was analyzed. Statistics study show that the geometry of Airy spot size of the ideal light source sent from eye retina formed on the surface of HSS is far smaller than the size of the HSS sample point image used in the experiment. Therefore, the effect of Airy spot on the precision of the system can be ignored. This study theoretically and experimentally justifies the reliability and accuracy of human eye wave-front aberration measurement based on HSS.

  16. Comparison of Electron Transmittance and Tunneling Current through a Trapezoidal Potential Barrier with Spin Polarization Consideration by using Analytical and Numerical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabila, Ezra; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we report an analytical calculation of electron transmittance and polarized tunneling current in a single barrier heterostructure of a metal-GaSb-metal by considering the Dresselhaus spin orbit effect. Exponential function, WKB method and Airy function were used in calculating the electron transmittance and tunneling current. A Transfer Matrix Method, as a numerical method, was utilized as the benchmark to evaluate the analytical calculation. It was found that the transmittances calculated under exponential function and Airy function is the same as that calculated under TMM method at low electron energy. However, at high electron energy only the transmittance calculated under Airy function approach is the same as that calculated under TMM method. It was also shown that the transmittances both of spin-up and spin-down conditions increase as the electron energy increases for low energies. Furthermore, the tunneling current decreases with increasing the barrier width.

  17. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Fahrenheitia zeylanica (Thw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fahrenheitia zeylanica (Thw.) Airy is a lofty evergreen tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of solvent extracts of leaves of F. zeylanica. The powdered leaf material was sequentially extracted using ethyl acetate, chloroform and ...

  18. Butterfly Optics Exceed the Theoretical Limits of Conventional Apposition Eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Nilsson, D.-E.

    1987-01-01

    Optical experiments on butterfly compound eyes show that they have angular sensitivities narrower than expected from conventional apposition eyes. This superior performance is explained by a theoretical model where the cone stalk is considered as a modecoupling device. In this model the Airy

  19. Universal correlators and distributions as experimental signatures of (2+1)-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halpin-Healy, Timothy; Palasantzas, Georgios

    We examine height-height correlations in the transient growth regime of the 2 + 1 Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class, with a particular focus on the spatial covariance of the underlying two-point statistics, higher-dimensional analog of the 1 + 1 KPZ Class Airy(1) process. Making

  20. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Fault plane solutions of the January 26th, 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence. 413. Air-sea coupling. Some salient features of the atmosphere observed over the north Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX 131. Airy stress function. 2-D Deformation analysis of a half-space due to a long dip-slip fault at finite depth. 587. Analytic signal.

  1. The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya -RE-SONANCE--IJa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was as if the Himalayas were hollow inside. Explanation of the Hollowness. Pratt and Airy emphasised that the suggested hollowness of the. Himalaya was only notional Both envisioned that the mountainous segments of the earth's outer layers are regions of relatively lower densities. Pratt suggested that the outer part of.

  2. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A quadratic model is suggested to describe the fringe shift occurred due to the phase variations of uncladded glass fiber introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer. The fringe shift of the phase object is represented in the harmonic term which appears in the denominator of the Airy ...

  3. Random skew plane partitions and the Pearcey process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reshetikhin, Nicolai; Okounkov, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    We study random skew 3D partitions weighted by q vol and, specifically, the q → 1 asymptotics of local correlations near various points of the limit shape. We obtain sine-kernel asymptotics for correlations in the bulk of the disordered region, Airy kernel asymptotics near a general point...

  4. Venus - Ishtar gravity anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Mottinger, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    The gravity anomaly associated with Ishtar Terra on Venus is characterized, comparing line-of-sight acceleration profiles derived by differentiating Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler residual profiles with an Airy-compensated topographic model. The results are presented in graphs and maps, confirming the preliminary findings of Phillips et al. (1979). The isostatic compensation depth is found to be 150 + or - 30 km.

  5. Deformation of two welded elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. ∗e-mail: ... Airy stress function for a tensile line source in two welded half-spaces are first obtained. These expressions ... computing the displacement and stress fields around a long inclined tensile fault near an internal boundary. 1.

  6. Semi-analytical solution to plane strain loading of elastic layered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The plane strain loading of a linear elastic layered coating halfspace is solved semi-analytically through a combination of Airy stress function and Fourier transforms and highly simplified and compact expressions for displacement and stresses in layer and substrate are presented in terms of pressure distribution in ...

  7. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model is suggested to describe the fringe shift which occurs due to the phase variations of cladded glass fibre introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer illuminated with a He–Ne laser. The fringe shift of the phase object which appears in the denominator of the Airy distribution formula of the ...

  8. Special function solutions of the free particle Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, P

    2012-01-01

    The Dirac equation is one of the fundamental equations in physics. Here we present and discuss two novel solutions of the free particle Dirac equation. These solutions have an exact analytical form in terms of Airy or Mathieu functions and exhibit unexpected properties including an enhanced Doppler effect, accelerating wavefronts and solutions with a degree of localization. (paper)

  9. Avalikud ettevalmistused... iseseisvaks eluks? / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    2007. a. Tallinnas ilmunud artiklikogumikust "Public preparation" (koostanud Rael Artel ja Airi Triisberg, kujundanud Jaan Evart). Tallinnas Okupatsioonide Muuseumis 21.-23. II toimunud rahvusvahelisest seminarist "Translocal express. Jubilee edition" (korraldajad R. Artel ja A. Triisberg). Loetletud 12 esinejat, Eestist Flo Kasearu, Maria-Kristiina Soomre. Charles Esche, Sezgin Boyniki ja Minna Henrikssoni ettekannetest

  10. Kuidas lugeda "Meeste domineerimist"? / Patrick Champagne ; tlk. Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Champagne, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Bourdieu, Pierre. Meeste domineerimine. Tallinn, 2005. Kommenteerivad (lk. 12-14) Liina Lukas, Rein Ruutsoo (TLÜ õppejõud), Marina Grišakova, Aare Pilv, Airi-Alina Allaste, Raivo Vetik (TLÜ Õppejõud), Andres Härm, Voldemar Tomusk

  11. Avant-Garde Ultrafast Laser Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazansky P. G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials reveals new phenomena. Reviewed, are recent demonstrations of 5D optical memory, vortex polarization and Airy beam converters employing self-assembled nanostructuring, ultrafast laser calligraphy and polarization writing control using pulses with tilted front.

  12. Pärnus taas kuldne svingiajastu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    19. ja 26. dets. esinevad Pärnus Café Grandis Pärnu linnaorkestri muusikutest koosnev bigbänd Swingkompanii G7 ja Airi Allvee, kõlavad Glenn Milleri, Duke Ellingtoni, RAimond Valgre jt lood (arranzheeringud on Olev Söödilt)

  13. Enesetapp helesinisel ekraanil / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Telemängudest, televisiooni võimalikust mõjust inimeste vaimsele tervisele, emotsionaalsele heaolule. Telemängust "Tõehetk", mis ka Eestis on vaadatavuse edetabelites esikohal (Kanal 2). Oma arvamuse ütlevad artiklis "Mis sa oskad kosta?" kirjanik Jan Kaus, ajakirjanik Tiina Kaalep ja sotsioloog Airi-Alina Allaste

  14. On the zeros of the Scorer functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAsymptotic approximations are developed for zeros of the solutions$Gi(z)$ and $Hi(z)$ ofthe inhomogeneous Airy differential equation $w''-zw=pmfrac1pi$.The solutions are also called Scorer functions.Tables are given with numerical values of the zeros

  15. Joakim Helenius: Estonian Air võtku eeskuju airBalticust / Siim Sultson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sultson, Siim

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi ühe võimaliku nõukogu esimehe Jaokim Heleniuse hinnangul on väikeste lennufirmade, nagu Estonian Air ja airBaltic jaoks päris palju tegutsemisruumi. Estonian Airil tuleb leida oma nišš ja kindel, kuid omanäoline strateegia

  16. Meremaa võluriga päeva kallastele / Helle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Helle

    1999-01-01

    29. apr. esietendub Ugalas "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", lavalugu Ursula K. Le Guini Meremaa-lugude alusel, lavastaja Andres Noormets, kunstnikud Silver Vahtre ja Airi Eras, peaosades Margus Vaher, Martin Algus, Aarne Soro, Leila Säälik, Gert Raudsepp, Silvia Sarrap

  17. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A quadratic model is suggested to describe the fringe shift occurred due to the phase variations of uncladded glass fiber introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer. The fringe shift of the phase object is represented in the harmonic term which appears in the denominator of the Airy distribution ...

  18. Instanton Screening in the Nonperturbative Gluodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Agasian, N. O.

    1999-01-01

    The gluon fields screening in the stochastic vacuum of gluodynamics is studied. The effective action is derived for the instanton interacting with nonperturbative fields. Quantum nonperturbative effects are shown to affect greatly the shape of instanton. The power asymptotics x^2 of the classical "instanton's profile function" at large distances is replaced due to these effects by Airy function asymptotics.

  19. Eduka ettevõtte aluseks saab olla vaid looming / Ave Schmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schmidt, Ave

    2010-01-01

    Tänapäeva ettevõttele tagavad konkurentsieelise inspiratsioon ja originaalsed ideed. Arvamust avaldavad Tallinna kohviku Nop asutaja Margit Aasmäe, Estonian Airi arendusdirektor Gunnar Mägi, Tallinna Kaubamaja müügi- ja turundusdirektor Enn Parel ja Balteco disainijuht Aivar Habakukk

  20. Kas on õige aeg palka juurde küsida? / Melika Kiilmaa, Henri Lehtsaar, Katrin Talvak... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad EMT juriidilise osakonna juhataja Melika Kiilmaa, Sõbralt Sõbrale kaupluseketi arendaja ja Eesti kristliku juhtimiskonverentsi peakorraldaja Herni Lehtsaar, Estonian Airi turundusjuht Katrin Talvak, Swedbank Investeerimisfondide töötaja ja Taco Expressi omanik Jarno Edur, Arista HRS vanemkonsultant Roland Luik

  1. Hüvasti, Eesti! ehk Lahkujad seljatavad tulijad / Juhan Haravee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haravee, Juhan, 1957-

    2013-01-01

    Eestist väljarände ja välismaal töötamise teemal avaldavad arvamust Tartu Ülikooli rahvastikuteadur Mare Ainsaar, Tallinna Ülikooli sisekommuni­katsiooni spetsialist Airi Ilisson-Cruzi ja EURES Eesti teenusejuht Marta Traks

  2. Reduction of Placolobium Mig. to Ormosia Jackson (Leg.-Pap.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap-van Meeuwen, M.S.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1963-01-01

    At the request of Mr Airy Shaw the type specimen of Placolobium sumatranum Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 1 (1855) 1082 has been examined from the Herbarium at Utrecht by kind permission of Prof. Lanjouw. It is very scrappy and consists of a loose rachis and leaflets and unfortunately the fruit valves

  3. Comparison of various isostatic marine gravity disturbances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    static model, a constant compensation density is assumed, while a depth of compensation is variable. (Airy 1855; Heiskanen and Vening Meinesz 1958). Whereas the AH model can reproduce relatively realistically, the isostasy especially under signifi- cant orogens (where the isostatic mass balance is mainly controlled by ...

  4. Between the city and the rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    Usually, Danish suburban history is told as a journey towards light, airy, green spaces. However, suburban housing areas can be seen in the context of processes of urbanization, where the boundary between urban and rural is dissolving. What does this mean for residential identities? This article...

  5. Tallinna vanalinna kaitseala 45 ja Helmi Üprus 100 / Jaan Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Jaan, 1948-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna raekojas 6. sept.-l toimunud konverentsist "Tallinna vanalinna kaitseala 45 ja Helmi Üprus 100", lühidalt ettekannetest. Konverentsi vaheajal näidatud Airi Kasera filmist "Õed Üprused" (ETV, 1988). Mustlas 7. sept. toimunud seminarist "Miljööväärtuslikud alad väikelinnades"

  6. New Explicit Solutions of (1 + 1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Broer-Kaup System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhilian; Zhou Jianping

    2010-01-01

    By using the compatibility method, many explicit solutions of the (1 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer-Kaup system are constructed, which include new solutions expressed by error function, Bessel function, exponential function, and Airy function. Some figures of the solutions are given by the symbolic computation system Maple. (general)

  7. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1986-01-01

    AIRY SHAW, see H.K.A. SHAW. ALLEN, Betty Eleanor Gosset Molesworth (1913, Opotiki, New Zealand — x) Fl. Mal. I, 5 (1958) cclii, portr.; Fl. Mai. I, 8 (1974) ix; E. FERNANDEZ GALIANO, Acta Bot. Malacitana 8 (1983) 5—10. (Spanish) Bibliogr.

  8. Inventory Preparation Guide for Commercial or Industrial-Type Activities and Contract Support Services,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    For example, suppose the Air Force awarded a con- tract to the ABC Company to provide base maintenance services at several bases, as follows: 1. Base...RTPTNME 7. AUTOR) A.I/RI AW MDAERs) )’ Joseph R ’Wilkj𔃻. MA67--3 g. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAMa ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK

  9. Ugala juurutab fantasy't / Andreas W ; interv. Margus Kasterpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Andreas W, pseud., 1969-

    1999-01-01

    "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", näidend Ursula K Le Guini "Meremaa võluri" teemadel,kirjutanud Andreas W ja lavastanud Andres Noormets, kunstnik Silver Vahtre, valguskunstnik Airi Eras, helikujundaja ja videograafik Andreas W. Esietendus Ugalas 29. apr.

  10. Eesti teatri aastaauhindade nominendid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Parima kunstniku auhinna nominendid: Pille Jänes & Airi Eras, Ene-Liis Semper, Liina Unt. Aleksader Kurtna nim. auhinnale (teatriteksti tõlkimise eest) kandideerivad Tõnu Oja, Peeter Sauter ning Tõnu Oja ja Villu Kangur kahasse tehtud tõlgete eest

  11. Tõde kui kujutlusvõime küsimus. Immanentne teater / Enn Siimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siimer, Enn

    1999-01-01

    "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", näidend Ursula K Le Guini "Meremaa võluri" teemadel kirjutanud Andreas W alias Andrus Laansalu ja lavastanud Andres Noormets, kunstnik Silver Vahtre, valguskunstnik Airi Eras, helikujundaja ja videograafik Andreas W. Esietendus Ugalas 29. apr.

  12. Maailma süda on tühi. Vägi nõrgeneb / Jaanika Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Jaanika

    1999-01-01

    "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", näidend Ursula K Le Guini "Meremaa võluri" teemadel kirjutanud Andreas W alias Andrus Laansalu ja lavastanud Andres Noormets, kunstnik Silver Vahtre, valguskunstnik Airi Eras, helikujundaja ja videograafik Andreas W. Esietendus Ugalas 29. apr.

  13. Suvi kui seisund ja pidupäev / Terje Metsavas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metsavas, Terje

    2007-01-01

    Eesti ainus suveteater on Emajõe Suveteater. Teatrit tutvustab selle juht ja looja Andres Dvinjaninov. Küsimusele "Mille poolest erineb suvelavastuste valguskujundus teatrisaali omast?" vastab valguskunstnik Airi Eras ja küsimusele "Mille poolest erineb suvelavastuste helikujundus teatrisaali omast?" vastab muusik Toomas Lunge

  14. Tõde sõltub inimese kujutlusvõimest / Margus Kasterpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasterpalu, Margus, 1961-

    1999-01-01

    "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", näidend Ursula K Le Guini "Meremaa võluri" teemadel,kirjutanud Andreas W ja lavastanud Andres Noormets, kunstnik Silver Vahtre, valguskunstnik Airi Eras, helikujundaja ja videograafik Andreas W. Esietendus Ugalas 29. apr.

  15. Andres Noormets : filmilik fantaasiateater lohe ja armastusega / Dea Martinjonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martinjonis, Dea

    1999-01-01

    "Meremaa võlur. Päeva kaldad", näidend Ursula K Le Guini "Meremaa võluri" teemadel, kirjutanud Andreas W ja lavastanud Andres Noormets, kunstnik Silver Vahtre, valguskunstnik Airi Eras, helikujundaja ja videograafik Andreas W. Esietendus Ugalas 29. aprillil

  16. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second pl...

  17. The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya -RE-SONANCE--IJa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    they conform with the current plate tectonics paradigm of earth sciences. Independent evidence has been obtained that the crust in the Indian region is the thickest under the Himalaya and thinnest under the neighbouring seas. Thus the Airy model and its derivatives may have an edge over other competing models in.

  18. Estonian Air võitis reisijaid juurde. Samas turuosa vähenes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi turuosa vähenes Tallinna lennujaamas regulaarliinidel 2010. aastal võrreldes 2009. aastaga 3,9% võrra, lende toimus 1,8% rohkem kui 2009. a. Lendude toimumise protsent oli 98,1, väljumise täpsus oli 86,7%. Andmeid ka 2010. aasta detsembrikuu kohta

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of Nardostachys jatamansi DC, an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UM Singh

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... and Himachal Pradesh) and critically endangered. (Uttarakhand) plant (Mulliken and Crofton, 2008; Airi et al., 2000). N. jatamansi was assessed to be vulnerable at a CAMP workshop in Nepal in 2001 (Anon, 2001). Due to the high level of threat, Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species ...

  20. Почём охота к перемене мест? / Вера Копти

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Копти, Вера

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi reisijate arvu kasvust, odavlennufirmast Ryanair ning teguritest, mis võimaldavad firmal piletihindu madalana hoida. Rahvusvaheline bussifirma AS Lux Express Estonia pakub teenust kahe kaubamärgi all: Lux Express lisateenuseid ja mugavust hindavatele sõitjatele, Simple Express kiiret ja soodsat bussiühendust hindavatele sõitjatele

  1. Kas kooliraamatukogus on hea raamatuvalik? / Inga Paaskivi, Anna Elise Rohtmets, Piia Selge ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid: Muhu põhikooli raamatukoguhoidja Inga Paaskivi, Mustamäe gümnaasiumi abiturient Anna Elise Rohtmets, Tallinna Arte gümnaasiumi raamatukoguhoidja Piia Selge, Saue gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Piret Uulma, Mõisaküla kooli raamatukoguhoidja Airi Allikivi, Loksa gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Urve Toompuu, lapsevanem Heli Kilter

  2. Two-dimensional analysis of shallow sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skvortsov, V; Bozhevolnaya, Elena

    2001-01-01

    condition is ensured via an introduction of the Airy's function and two potentials including a potential of the vortex-type. The technique of the numerical solution is based on a combination of the solutions by Navier and Levy. Numerical analysis is carried out for the panel that is simply supported along...

  3. A New Way to Demonstrate the Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov; Nikolov, Stefan Nikolaev

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow is a beautiful optical phenomenon that has fascinated humankind since antiquity. It is caused by a huge number of water droplets in the atmosphere illuminated by the Sun. Many noted physicists have contributed to the explanation of the rainbow. The wave theory of the rainbow was developed by George Airy, and modern descriptions are…

  4. Rael Artel Gallery Tartus ja Varssavis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Rael Artel Gallery : Non-Profit Project Space'i tegevusest Tartus. 27.04-27.05. 2006 Varssavis Warszawski Aktyw Artystov'i ruumides näitus "Estonian Video Art. The blood project", osalesid Flo Kasearu, Gert Hatsukov, Külli K. Kaats, Allan Tõnissoo, Marko Nautras, Tanja Muravskaja ja Airi Triisberg

  5. Structure and isostatic compensation of the Comorin Ridge, north central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Krishna, K.S.; Bansal, A.R.

    analysis an Airy model or local compensation with an elastic plate thickness (T sub(e)) of about 3 km and crust thickness (t) of 15-20 km are suggested for the southern part of the Comorin Ridge (south of 5 degrees N), whereas for the northern part a...

  6. 2-D Deformation analysis of a half-space due to a long dip-slip fault at

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Closed form analytical expressions of stresses and displacements at any field point due to a very long dip-slip fault of finite width buried in a homogeneous, isotropic elastic half-space, are presented. Airy stress function is used to derive the expressions of stresses and displacements which depend on the dip angle and ...

  7. 2-D Deformation analysis of a half-space due to a long dip-slip fault ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Closed form analytical expressions of stresses and displacements at any field point due to a very long dip-slip fault of finite width buried in a homogeneous, isotropic elastic half-space, are presented. Airy stress function is used to derive the expressions of stresses and displacements which depend on the dip angle and ...

  8. Mechanism of nuclear rainbow scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, S. [Department of Applied Science and Environment, Kochi Women University, Kochi 780-8515 (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Full text: Nuclear rainbow phenomenon has been widely observed in light heavy ion scattering such as {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0, {sup 16} 0 + {sup 12} C and {sup 12} C + {sup 12} C and great progress has been made experimentally and theoretically especially in the nineties. The nuclear rainbow has been understood quite often in analogy to meteorological rainbow caused by scattering of light from water droplets, because they are both considered to be a refractive phenomenon. Traditionally nuclear rain- bow has been explained by the far side component of the scattering amplitudes in the presence of a strong attractive force: The observed Airy structure in the angular distributions has been understood by the interference between it's two sub amplitudes in analogy to the interference of two refractive waves in meteorological rainbow, although it was not easy to theoretically extract its components separately. By studying the {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0 scattering measured at Strasbourg, we have theoretically succeeded in extracting the sub amplitudes of the far side scattering in a rigorous but easy way: the sub amplitudes are obtained by decomposing the calculated scattering amplitude into its internal wave and barrier wave components. It is found that the Airy structure observed in the angular distributions in the E L = 75-145 MeV is caused by the interference between the far side internal-wave and far side barrier-wave. The minima in the 90-excitation function, which has been interpreted to be the passage of the Airy elephants, can also be explained as the interference between the far side internal- wave and barrier-wave. It is noted that although the internal wave is a refracted wave the barrier wave is a reflected wave, which does not feel the attractive potential in the very internal region. This means that the nuclear Airy structure is caused by the interference between the refractive wave and reflective wave. This finding is very different from the traditional

  9. Study of the structure of the Hoyle state by refractive α-scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov S.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available α + 12C elastic and inelastic to the Hoyle state (0+2, 7.65 MeV differential cross-sections were measured at the energies 60 and 65 MeV with the aim of testing the microscopic wave function [1] widely used in modern structure calculations of 12C. Deep rainbow (Airy minima were observed in all four curves. The minima in the inelastic angular distributions are shifted to the larger angles relatively those in the elastic ones, which testify the radius enhancement of the Hoyle state. In general, the DWBA calculations failed to reproduce the details of the cross sections in the region of therainbow minima in the inelastic scattering data. However, by using the phenomenological density with rms radius equal 2.9 fm, we can reproduce the Airy minimum positions.

  10. Excitation of multipolar surface plasmon resonance in plasmonic nanoparticles by complex accelerating beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Jiafang; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Yue-Gang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, through a vector-spherical harmonics approach, we investigate the optical spectra of plasmonic Au nanoparticles excited by two special accelerating beams: a non-paraxial Airy beam and a Bessel beam. We systematically analyze the impacts of the beam profile, phase, and helical wave front of the electromagnetic fields on the optical spectrum and the excitation of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We find that the high-order phase in the Airy beam would result in strong plasmonic oscillations in the optical spectra, while the cone angle and orbital angular momentum carried by the Bessel beam could be employed to engineer the plasmon modes excited in Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the optical spectrum excited by a combined Airy–Bessel–Gauss beam is discussed. The study could help to deeply explore new ways to manipulate SPR in metal nanoparticles via the wave front engineering of optical beams for enhancing light–matter interaction and optical sensing performance. (paper)

  11. Supersonic Combustion of Hydrogen Jets System in Hypersonic Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapbasbaev, U.K.; Makashev, E.P.

    2003-01-01

    The data of calculated theoretical investigations of diffusive combustion of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic stream received with Navier-Stokes parabola equations closed by one-para metrical (k-l) model of turbulence and multiply staged mechanism of hydrogen oxidation are given. Combustion mechanisms depending on the operating parameters are discussing. The influences of air stream composition and ways off fuel feed to the length of ignition delay and level quantity of hydrogen bum-out have been defined. The calculated theoretical results of investigations permit to make the next conclusions: 1. The diffusive combustion of the system of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic flow happens in the cellular structures with alternation zones of intensive running of chemical reactions with their inhibition zones. 2. Gas dynamic and heat Mach waves cause a large - scale viscous formation intensifying mixing of fuel with oxidizer. 3. The system ignition of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic airy co-flow happens with the formation of normal flame front of hydrogen airy mixture with transition to the diffusive combustion. 4. The presence of active particles in the flow composition initiates the ignition of hydrogen - airy mixture, provides the intensive running of chemical reactions and shortens the length of ignition delay. 5. The supersonic combustion of hydrogel-airy mixture is characterized by two zones: the intensive chemical reactions with an active energy heat release is occurring in the first zone and in the second - a slow hydrogen combustion limited by the mixing of fuel with oxidizer. (author)

  12. Diffraction limit of refractive compound lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A compound X-ray and neutron lenses is an array of lenses with a common axis. The resolution limited by aberration and by diffraction. Diffraction limit comes from theory based on absorption aperture of the compound refractive lenses. Beam passing through transparent lenses form Airy pattern. Results of calculation of diffraction resolution limit for non-transparent X-ray and neutron lenses are discussed. (authors)

  13. Iterative method for solving a problem with mixed boundary conditions for biharmonic equation arising in fracture mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Quang A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a mixed boundary value problem for biharmonic equation of the Airy stress function which models a crack problem of a solid elastic plate. An iterative method for reducing the problem to a sequence of mixed problems for Poisson equations is proposed and investigated. The convergence of the method is established theoretically and illustrated on many numerical experiments.

  14. Coastal landforms and processes at the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts—A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Graham S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Adams, Mark

    2015-12-17

    Anyone who spends more than a few days on Cape Cod (the Cape) quickly becomes a coastal geologist, quickly learning the rhythms of daily tides and the seasonal cycles of beaches growing and being swept away by storms; swimmers and surfers track how the breakers appear, and dog-walkers notice the hard-packed sand blanketed overnight by an airy layer that leaves deep labored tracks.

  15. Effects of Screening of the Instantons in Nonperturbative QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Agasian, N. O.

    1998-01-01

    The gluon fields screening in the stochastic vacuum of gluodynamics is studied. The effective action is derived for the instanton interacting with nonperturbative fields. Quantum nonperturbative effects are shown to affect greatly the shape of instanton. The power asymptotics x^{-2} of the classical "instanton's profile function" at large distances is replaced due to yhese effects by Airy function asymptotics x^{-1/4} exp(-const\\cdot x^{3/2}).

  16. Unveiling the orbital angular momentum and acceleration of electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, Roy; Tsur, Yuval; Remez, Roei; Lereah, Yossi; Malomed, Boris A; Shvedov, Vladlen; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Arie, Ady

    2015-03-06

    New forms of electron beams have been intensively investigated recently, including vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum, as well as Airy beams propagating along a parabolic trajectory. Their traits may be harnessed for applications in materials science, electron microscopy, and interferometry, and so it is important to measure their properties with ease. Here, we show how one may immediately quantify these beams' parameters without need for additional fabrication or nonstandard microscopic tools. Our experimental results are backed by numerical simulations and analytic derivation.

  17. Edmund Valtmani nimeline Viljandi VI karikatuurivõistlus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tutvustatakse võistluse paremaid töid. Peapreemiad: I - Ott Antu, II - Hugo Hiibus, III - Heiki Raudla, Urmas Nemvalts, eripreemiad - Aimar Juuse, Ott Kirotar, äramärgitud töö, Maalehe eripreemia - Reet Mängel-Juuse, äramärgitud töö, Sakala eripreemia - H. Raudla, äramärgitud tööd - H. Hiibus (3), O. Kirotar, H. Raudla, Tarmo Vaarmets, Airi Ojamets, R. Mängel-Juuse

  18. Väikesed linnasündmused - valgusfestival / Siiri Vallner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallner, Siiri, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    2008. a. Tallinna valgusfestivalist (kuraatorid Indrek Leht, Veronika Valk, Teemu Nurmelin). Portugali rühmituse Moov valgusjutustusest Pikas ja Lühikeses jalas, Catherine Garreti "Kuugümnastikast" Taani Kuninga aias, Airi Erase ja Madis Reiviku valgusinstallatsioonidest Rotermanni kvartalis, Cecile Babiole valgus- ja helimaastikust "Shining Field" Kultuurikatlas, Katrin Koovi ja EKA üliõpilaste valgusmatkast. Hittüritusteks on muutunud kuuskede põletamine ja tuleskulptuurid

  19. Isgur–Wise function in a quantum chromodynamics- inspired ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We note that in the variational method, we are interested only in the 'r' dependence of the Hamiltonian, and so 'c' in Hb has no role to play in the calculation [15]. The unperturbed wave functions with linear parent with appropriate boundary condi- tions are the Airy functions given by [10] ψn0 (r) = Nn. 2. √ πr. Ai. (. (2μb )1/3r ...

  20. Test of Newton's inverse-square law in the Greenland ice cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ander, M.E.; Zumberge, M.A.; Lautzenhiser, T.

    1989-01-01

    An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted in a 2-km-deep hole in the Greenland ice cap at depths between 213 and 1673 m to test for possible violations of Newton's inverse-square law. An anomalous gravity gradient was observed. We cannot unambiguously attribute it to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity because we have shown that it might be due to unexpected geological features in the rock below the ice

  1. Art form as an object of cognitive modeling (towards development of Vygotsky`s semiotic model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, V. [Oklahoma State Univ. (United States); Perlovsky, L.I.

    1996-12-31

    We suggest a further development of Vygotsky`s esthetic-semiotic model. First, we discuss Vygotsky`s model originally developed for the analysis of Ivan Bunin`s story {open_quotes}Light Breath{close_quotes}. Vygotsky analyzes formal methods used by Bunin to achieve a specific esthetic effect of {open_quote}lightness{close_quotes} while describing {open_quotes}dirty{close_quotes} events of everyday life. According to Vygotsky, this effect is achieved by ordering of events in a non-linear fashion. Vygotsky creams an airy pattern of smooth lines connecting events of story that he first orders linearly in time. And, he insists that this airy pattern creates an impression of airy lightness. In the language of semiotics, the esthetic effect is created by a specific structural organization of signs. Second, we present our critique of Vygotsky`s model. Although, we do not agree with Vygotsky`s sometimes moralistic judgements, and we consider the dynamics between inner personal values and received moral values to be more complicated than implied in his judgements, our critique in this paper is limited to the structure of his semiotic model. We emphasize that Vygotsky`s model does not explicitly account for a hierarchy of multiple levels of semiotic analysis. His analysis regularly slips from one level to another: (1) a lever of cognitive perception by a regular reader is confused with a level of creative genius of a writer; (2) {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} time of real world is mixed up with {open_quote}closed{close_quote} time of the story; (3) events are not organized by the hierarchy of their importance, nor in real world, nor in the inner model of the personages, nor in the story.

  2. Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseum taas avatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    2. VI avati rekonstrueeritud muuseumihoone. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti autorid: Arhitektuuriagentuuri arhitekt Inga Raukas, sisearhitekt Monika Löve. Ehitustööd: Rihti Projekt. Avatud nahakunstinäitus "Järjehoidja" (kuraator Airi Ligi, kujundaja Siiri Nõva, näha saab ka nahakunsti üliõpilaste töid; filmiprogramm: Maya Yonesho "Üks uks", "Ecce libri" Pille Kivihallist, Tiina Piisangust ja Maarja Unduskist) ja rahvusvaheline köitekunstinäitus "Scripta manent III. Maailma parim asi", kujundaja Lennart Mänd

  3. Kas Eesti avastamine algab Põhja-Eestist? : Põhja-Eesti V turismikonverents

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    17. novembril Jõhvi Kontserdimajas toimunud Põhja-Eesti V turismikonverentsist “Kas Eesti avastamine algab Põhja- Eestist?", mille avas Ida-Virumaa maavalitsuse Arengu- ja planeeringuosakonna juhataja Urmas Majaääs. Ülevaade SA Ida-Virumaa Ettevõtluskeskuse turismikoordinaatori Sigrid Karoni, Estonian Airi asepresidendi kommertsalal Rauno Parrase, EASi koordinaatori turismiuuringute alal Piret Kallase, kommunikatsioonikonsultandi Raul Rebase, SA Põhja-Eesti Turism projektijuhi Erika Pääbuse ja nõukogu liikme Moonika Sooneste, CityBike OÜ tegevjuhi Toomas Lelovi, Narva-Jõesuu linnapea Andres Noormägi, Loodusturismi arendaja ja koolitaja Rein Kuresoo ettekannetest

  4. Distribution of 14C photoassimilated in function of nightly temperature and of the gibberellic acid application during the antese, in two tomatoes' cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilatti, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the nightly temperature of the airy part, as well as the gibberelic acid application in the leave and in the plant inflorescence, in the distribution of the 14 C photo assimilated in two tomato cultivars are studied: one of them with determined habit (Marmande) and the other one with indeterminated habit (Platense), five days after the 'antese' of the first flowers of the first racime's flower. The radicular temperature was stable day and night in 18 0 C. (L.M.J.) [pt

  5. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  6. Characteristic Polynomials of Sample Covariance Matrices: The Non-Square Case

    OpenAIRE

    Kösters, Holger

    2009-01-01

    We consider the sample covariance matrices of large data matrices which have i.i.d. complex matrix entries and which are non-square in the sense that the difference between the number of rows and the number of columns tends to infinity. We show that the second-order correlation function of the characteristic polynomial of the sample covariance matrix is asymptotically given by the sine kernel in the bulk of the spectrum and by the Airy kernel at the edge of the spectrum. Similar results are g...

  7. Diffraction coherence in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Françon, M; Green, L L

    2013-01-01

    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  8. Phase Memory Preserving Harmonics from Abruptly Autofocusing Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouklidis, Anastasios D.; Papazoglou, Dimitris G.; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the harmonics from abruptly autofocusing ring-Airy beams present a surprising property: They preserve the phase distribution of the fundamental beam. Consequently, this "phase memory" imparts to the harmonics the abrupt autofocusing behavior, while, under certain conditions, their foci coincide in space with the one of the fundamental. Experiments agree well with our theoretical estimates and detailed numerical calculations. Our findings open the way for the use of such beams and their harmonics in strong field science.

  9. ERKÜ valimiste tulemused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    8. aprilli koosolekul kinnitas valimiste peakomitee XIX Esinduskogu liikmed: Mati Kõiva, Ylo Anson, Juhan Simonson, Airi Vaga, Gilda M. Karu, Taavo Virkhaus, Marju Rink-Abel, Markus Vaga, Eric Suuberg, Endel Reinpõld, Jaak Juhansoo, Ülle Ederma, Lya Karm, Heino Jõgis, Kersti Linask, Jaak Rakfeldt, Erik Puskar, Jüri Linask, Viiu Vanderer, Andres Kurrik, Mati Valdek Laan, Ilmar Vanderer, Henno Uus, Jüri Tults, Urmas Wompa, Astrid Jaanson, Jüri Virkus, Lilian G. G. Bein, Tiina Harris, Tõnu Vanderer

  10. Conditional short-crested waves in shallow water and with superimposed current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2002-01-01

    wave, given the value of the wave crest at a specific point in time or space. In the present paper a derivation of the expected linear short-crested wave riding on a uniform current is given. The analysis is based on the conventional shallow water Airy wave theory and the direction of the main wind...... direction can make any direction with the current. A consistent derivation of the wave spectrum taking into account current and finite water depth is used. The numerical results show a significant effect of the water depth, the directional spreading and the current on the conditional mean wave profile...

  11. Laser focal profiler based on forward scattering of a nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Taisuke

    2018-03-01

    A laser focal intensity profiling method based on the forward scattering from a nanoparticle is demonstrated for in situ measurements using a laser focusing system with six microscope objective lenses with different numerical apertures ranging from 0.15 to 1.4. The measured profiles showed Airy disc patterns although their rings showed some imperfections due to aberrations and misalignment of the test system. The dipole radiation model revealed that the artefact of this method was much smaller than the influence of the deterioration in the experimental system; a condition where no artefact appears was predicted based on proper selection of measurement angles.

  12. Rejoice in the hubris: useful things biologists could do for physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert H

    2014-10-08

    Political correctness urges us to state how wonderful it is to work with biologists and how, just as the lion will someday lie down with the lamb, so will interdisciplinary work, where biologists and physicists are mixed together in light, airy buildings designed to force socialization, give rise to wonderful new science. But it has been said that the only drive in human nature stronger than the sex drive is the drive to censor and suppress, and so I claim that it is OK for physicists and biologists to maintain a wary distance from each other, so that neither one censors or suppresses the wild ideas of the other.

  13. Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morandotti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.

  14. Passive solar commercial buildings: design assistance and demonstration program. Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-26

    The final design of the Mount Airy Public Library is given. Incremental passive design costs are discussed. Performance and economic analyses are made and the results reported. The design process is thoroughly documented. Considerations discussed are: (1) building energy needs; (2) site energy potentials, (3) matching energy needs with site energy potentials, (4) design indicators for best strategies and concepts, (5) schematic design alternatives, (6) performance testing of the alternatives, (7) design selection, and (8) design development. Weather data and Duke Power electric rates are included. (LEW)

  15. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...... and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy...... comfort needs, architects could pursue unrestricted designs without making comfort part of the architectural design....

  16. The ABCD of topological recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jorgen Ellegaard; Borot, Gaëtan; Chekhov, Leonid O.

    an interesting problem which we study here. We provide some elementary, Lie-algebraic tools to address this problem, and give some elements of classification for dim V = 2. We also describe four more interesting classes of quantum Airy structures, coming from respectively Frobenius algebras (here we retrieve...... the 2d TQFT partition function as a special case), non-commutative Frobenius algebras, loop spaces of Frobenius algebras and a Z2-invariant version of the latter. This Z2-invariant version in the case of a semi-simple Frobenius algebra corresponds to the topological recursion of math-ph/0702045....

  17. From Estonian Exile to Executive Office / Susan Frith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Frith, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese elukäigust, haridusteest, poliitilistest vaadetest. T. H. Ilves lõpetas Pennsylvania ülikooli psühholoogia alal magistrikraadiga 1978. a. Artiklis on kasutatud telefoniintervjuud presidendiga. T. H. Ilvese kohta avaldavad arvamust ülikoolikaaslane Brian Wandell ja Eesti Rahvuskomitee Ühendriikides endine president Juhan Simonson. Ülevaade artiklist ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna, 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 7, 10: Vaga, Airi. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas

  18. Discrete Approximations of Determinantal Point Processes on Continuous Spaces: Tree Representations and Tail Triviality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Hirofumi; Osada, Shota

    2018-01-01

    We prove tail triviality of determinantal point processes μ on continuous spaces. Tail triviality has been proved for such processes only on discrete spaces, and hence we have generalized the result to continuous spaces. To do this, we construct tree representations, that is, discrete approximations of determinantal point processes enjoying a determinantal structure. There are many interesting examples of determinantal point processes on continuous spaces such as zero points of the hyperbolic Gaussian analytic function with Bergman kernel, and the thermodynamic limit of eigenvalues of Gaussian random matrices for Sine_2 , Airy_2 , Bessel_2 , and Ginibre point processes. Our main theorem proves all these point processes are tail trivial.

  19. Phase Memory Preserving Harmonics from Abruptly Autofocusing Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouklidis, Anastasios D; Papazoglou, Dimitris G; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the harmonics from abruptly autofocusing ring-Airy beams present a surprising property: They preserve the phase distribution of the fundamental beam. Consequently, this "phase memory" imparts to the harmonics the abrupt autofocusing behavior, while, under certain conditions, their foci coincide in space with the one of the fundamental. Experiments agree well with our theoretical estimates and detailed numerical calculations. Our findings open the way for the use of such beams and their harmonics in strong field science.

  20. The use of appropriate colors in the design of children's rooms: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ajilian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available color has the ability to inspire, excite, soothe, heal and even agitate. This is particularly true for children, who can be extra sensitive to color's impact. So the importance of picking out just the right color for a young child's room shouldn't be underestimated. When choosing colors to use for your rooms home it's important to think about the mood you want to create and whether you want it to feel light and airy or cozy and intimate. Knowing the difference between warm and cool colors is the first step.

  1. Kolmene ülikool esitles professoreid ja kirjanduspreemia laureaate

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikool esitles 3. aastapäeva aktusel aasta jooksul professoreiks valituid: Lorenzo Cañás Bottos, Jyrki Käkönen, Aaro Toomela, Airi Värnik, Marika Mägi, Priit Reiska, Eve Kikas ja Karsten Brüggemann. Selgusid ka tänavused Tallinna Ülikooli kirjanduspreemia laureaadid. Algupärase ilukirjanduse vallas pälvis auhinna romanist, luuletaja ja tõlkija, doktorant Maarja Kangro, tõlkepreemia sai kirjanik ja tõlkija Arvo Valton

  2. Umbral Vade Mecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Curtright

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the umbral calculus has emerged from the shadows to provide an elegant correspondence framework that automatically gives systematic solutions of ubiquitous difference equations --- discretized versions of the differential cornerstones appearing in most areas of physics and engineering --- as maps of well-known continuous functions. This correspondence deftly sidesteps the use of more traditional methods to solve these difference equations. The umbral framework is discussed and illustrated here, with special attention given to umbral counterparts of the Airy, Kummer, and Whittaker equations, and to umbral maps of solitons for the Sine-Gordon, Korteweg--de Vries, and Toda systems.

  3. An Invariance Principle to Ferrari-Spohn Diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, Dmitry; Shlosman, Senya; Velenik, Yvan

    2015-06-01

    We prove an invariance principle for a class of tilted 1 + 1-dimensional SOS models or, equivalently, for a class of tilted random walk bridges in . The limiting objects are stationary reversible ergodic diffusions with drifts given by the logarithmic derivatives of the ground states of associated singular Sturm-Liouville operators. In the case of a linear area tilt, we recover the Ferrari-Spohn diffusion with log-Airy drift, which was derived in Ferrari and Spohn (Ann Probab 33(4):1302—1325, 2005) in the context of Brownian motions conditioned to stay above circular and parabolic barriers.

  4. Elastostatic bending of a bimaterial plate with a circular interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, Nkem

    2015-08-01

    The elastostatic bending of an arbitrarily loaded bimaterial plate with a circular interface is analysed. It is shown that the deflections in the composite solid are directly related to the deflection in the corresponding homogeneous material by integral and differential operators. It is further shown that, by a simple transformation of elastic constants, the Airy stress function induced in the composite by a stretching singularity can be deduced from the deflection induced by a bending singularity. This result is significant for reduction of mathematical labour and for systematic construction of solutions for more complex structures with circular geometry.

  5. Adaptive Generation and Diagnostics of Linear Few-Cycle Light Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently we introduced the class of highly localized wavepackets (HLWs as a generalization of optical Bessel-like needle beams. Here we report on the progress in this field. In contrast to pulsed Bessel beams and Airy beams, ultrashort-pulsed HLWs propagate with high stability in both spatial and temporal domain, are nearly paraxial (supercollimated, have fringe-less spatial profiles and thus represent the best possible approximation to linear “light bullets”. Like Bessel beams and Airy beams, HLWs show self-reconstructing behavior. Adaptive HLWs can be shaped by ultraflat three-dimensional phase profiles (generalized axicons which are programmed via calibrated grayscale maps of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs. Light bullets of even higher complexity can either be freely formed from quasi-continuous phase maps or discretely composed from addressable arrays of identical nondiffracting beams. The characterization of few-cycle light bullets requires spatially resolved measuring techniques. In our experiments, wavefront, pulse and phase were detected with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, 2D-autocorrelation and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER. The combination of the unique propagation properties of light bullets with the flexibility of adaptive optics opens new prospects for applications of structured light like optical tweezers, microscopy, data transfer and storage, laser fusion, plasmon control or nonlinear spectroscopy.

  6. Kasvatusteaduslike tööde konkursi tulemused / Ulve Kala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kala, Ulve, 1947-

    2002-01-01

    Eesti keeles publitseeritud teadustöö preemia anti Aleksander Elangole, Inger Kraavile ja Kristi Kõivule, diplom Ühiskondlikule Pedagoogika Uurimise Instituudile, Viivi Ekstale, Inger Kraavile, Inge Undile, Viivi Maansole. Võõrkeeles publitseeritud teadustöö preemia monograafiale "Integration als Problem in der Erziehungswissenschaft" (koostaja Airi Liimets, autorid Airi Liimets, Saila Anttonen, Gunnar Bergendal, Gerd-Bodo Reinert von Carlsburg, Helmut Wehr, Tiiu Kuurme, Pauli Siljander, Jüri Kruusvall, Sirje Priimägi, Ene-Silvia Sarv, Kristi Kõiv, Meri-Liis Laherand, Jaan Mikk, Hannele Niemi, Marika Veisson, Irina Würscher, Susanne Jena, Tiina Aunin, Reet Liimets, Heli Mattisen, Aivo Saar, Maie Vikat), diplom Aino Saarele ja Katrin Niglasele. Didaktilis-rakenduslike tööde preemia Eda Heinlale, Estelle Laanele ja Kalle Laanele, Tiiu Kadajasele. Populaarteadusliku töö preemia Maie Tuulikule, diplom Kristi Kõivule. H. Liimetsa nim magistritööde preemia Rain Mikserile, Margus Pedastele, Ülle Rannutile, Inger Kraavile, Tago Sarapuule, Martin Ehalale

  7. Experimental demonstration of 3D accelerating beam arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianghua; Li, Runze; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Gao, Peng; Han, Guoxia; Lei, Ming

    2016-04-10

    Accelerating beams have attracted much attention in the frontiers of optical physics and technology owing to their unique propagation dynamics of nondiffracting, self-healing, and freely accelerating along curved trajectories. Such behaviors essentially arise from the particular phase factor occurring in their spatial frequency spectrum, e.g., the cubic phase associated to the spectrum of Airy beam. In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a sort of accelerating beam arrays, which are composed of spatially separated accelerating beams. By superimposing kinoforms of multifocal patterns into the spatial frequency spectrum of accelerating beams, different types of beam arrays, e.g., Airy beam arrays and two-main-lobe accelerating beam arrays, are generated and measured by scanning a reflection mirror near the focal region along the optical axis. The 3D intensity patterns reconstructed from the experimental data present good agreement with the theoretical counterparts. The combination of accelerating beams with optical beam arrays proposed here may find potential applications in various fields such as optical microscopes, optical micromachining, optical trapping, and so on.

  8. The ciliary corona: physical model and simulation of the fine needles radiating from point light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Thomas J T P; Hagenouw, Michiel P J; Coppens, Joris E

    2005-07-01

    Most people see, around bright lights against dark backgrounds, a radiating pattern of numerous fine, slightly colored needles of light-the so called ciliary corona. The purpose of this study was to try to explain this phenomenon. Recently, it has been shown that light-scattering in the eye, measured psychophysically and on human donor lenses, can be explained assuming the presence of specific distributions of small particles in the eye. Light entering the eye is diffracted by these particles. Each such particle causes a circular diffraction pattern on the retina of tens of degrees, much like the well-known Airy pattern. The optics of combining many such diffraction patterns was modeled and the resultant pattern simulated graphically. The simulations were compared with observations on the ciliary corona, as seen by the natural eye. The diffraction discs originating from all the particles coherently superimposed on the retina. Because of phase differences this resulted in breaking the Airy-like discs into a fine spotted pattern when monochromatic light was used. For white (polychromatic) light, the spots line up to form the very fine-line pattern seen in the ciliary corona. Details such as the width and color of the needles follow from the theoretical treatment and were demonstrated by simulations. The details of the ciliary corona can be understood on the basis of polychromatic light-scattering by the particles predicted to be present in human eye lenses on the basis of light-scattering studies of donor lenses.

  9. Exploring the Potential of Airyscan Microscopy for Live Cell Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya Korobchevskaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological research increasingly demands the use of non-invasive and ultra-sensitive imaging techniques. The Airyscan technology was recently developed to bridge the gap between conventional confocal and super-resolution microscopy. This technique combines confocal imaging with a 0.2 Airy Unit pinhole, deconvolution and the pixel-reassignment principle in order to enhance both the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise-ratio without increasing the excitation power and acquisition time. Here, we present a detailed study evaluating the performance of Airyscan as compared to confocal microscopy by imaging a variety of reference samples and biological specimens with different acquisition and processing parameters. We found that the processed Airyscan images at default deconvolution settings have a spatial resolution similar to that of conventional confocal imaging with a pinhole setting of 0.2 Airy Units, but with a significantly improved signal-to-noise-ratio. Further gains in the spatial resolution could be achieved by the use of enhanced deconvolution filter settings, but at a steady loss in the signal-to-noise ratio, which at more extreme settings resulted in significant data loss and image distortion.

  10. The Glacial BuzzSaw, Isostasy, and Global Crustal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Oncken, O.; Niu, F.

    2015-12-01

    The glacial buzzsaw hypothesis predicts that maximum elevations in orogens at high latitudes are depressed relative to temperate latitudes, as maximum elevation and hypsography of glaciated orogens are functions of the glacial equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and the modern and last glacial maximum (LGM) snowlines. As a consequence crustal thickness, density, or both must change with increasing latitude to maintain isostatic balance. For Airy compensation crustal thickness should decrease toward polar latitudes, whereas for Pratt compensation crustal densities should increase. For similar convergence rates, higher latitude orogens should have higher grade, and presumably higher density rocks in the crustal column due to more efficient glacial erosion. We have examined a number of global and regional crustal models to see if these predictions appear in the models. Crustal thickness is straightforward to examine, crustal density less so. The different crustal models generally agree with one another, but do show some major differences. We used a standard tectonic classification scheme of the crust for data selection. The globally averaged orogens show crustal thicknesses that decrease toward high latitudes, almost reflecting topography, in both the individual crustal models and the models averaged together. The most convincing is the western hemisphere cordillera, where elevations and crustal thicknesses decrease toward the poles, and also toward lower latitudes (the equatorial minimum is at ~12oN). The elevation differences and Airy prediction of crustal thickness changes are in reasonable agreement in the North American Cordillera, but in South America the observed crustal thickness change is larger than the Airy prediction. The Alpine-Himalayan chain shows similar trends, however the strike of the chain makes interpretation ambiguous. We also examined cratons with ice sheets during the last glacial period to see if continental glaciation also thins the crust toward

  11. Analysis of the seismic wavefield in the Moesian Platform (Bucharest area) for hazard assessment purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Elena Florinela; Michel, Clotaire; Hobiger, Manuel; Fäh, Donat; Cioflan, Carmen Ortanza; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-09-01

    During large earthquakes generated at intermediate depth in the Vrancea seismic zone, the ground motion recorded in Bucharest (Romania) is characterized by predominant long periods with strong amplification. Time-frequency analysis highlights the generation of low frequency surface waves (edges of this large sedimentary basin or multipath interference waves (Airy phases of Love and Rayleigh waves), on ground motion. The data from a 35 km diameter array (URS experiment) were used. The array was installed by the National Institute for Earth Physics in cooperation with the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology and operated during 10 months in 2003 and 2004 in the urban area of Bucharest and adjacent zones. The earthquake wavefield recorded by the URS array was analysed using the MUSIQUE technique. This technique analyses the three-component signals of all sensors of a seismic array together. The analysis includes 19 earthquakes with epicentral distances from 100 to 1560 km and with various backazimuths with enough energy at low frequencies (0.1-1 Hz), within the resolution range of the array. For all events, the largest portion of energy is arriving from the source direction and the wavefield is dominated by Love waves. The results of the array analyses clearly indicate a significant scattering corresponding to 2-D or 3-D effects of the Moesian Platform. The azimuthal distribution shows that the scattering comes primarily from the southern and northern edges of the basin. The Airy phase of Love waves was clearly identified as the main contributor in the range of the fundamental frequency of resonance of the basin (0.15-0.25 Hz), with directionality along the backazimuth and its opposite direction. Moreover, two further distinct frequency bands around 0.4 and 0.7 Hz with higher amplitudes were identified. Their complex nature is a combination of the higher modes of Rayleigh waves, Airy phases of Love waves and SH waves. Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were

  12. Caustics of atmospheric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A.

    2015-04-01

    Much like light and sound, acoustic-gravity waves in inhomogeneous atmosphere often have a caustic or caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Increase of the wave magnitude in the vicinity of a caustic makes such vicinities of primary interest in a number of problems, where a signal needs to be separated from a background noise. The value of wave focusing near caustics should be carefully quantified in order to evaluate possible nonlinearities promoted by the focusing. Physical understanding of the wave field in the vicinity of a caustic is also important for understanding of the wave reflection from and transmission (tunneling) through the caustic. To our knowledge, in contrast to caustics of acoustic, electromagnetic, and seismic waves as well as gravity waves in incompressible fluids, asymptotics of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of a caustic have never been studied systematically. In this paper, we fill this gap. Atmospheric waves are considered as linear acoustic-gravity waves in a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Air temperature and wind velocity are assumed to be gradually varying functions of height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. The scale height of the atmosphere can be large or small compared to the vertical wavelength. It is found that the uniform asymptotics of the wave field in the presence of a simple caustic can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. As for the acoustic waves, the argument of the Airy function is expressed in terms of the eikonal calculated in the ray, or WKB, approximation. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the uniform asymptotics, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by cosine

  13. A Novel Shape-Free Plane Quadratic Polygonal Hybrid Stress-Function Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plane quadratic shape-free hybrid stress-function (HS-F polygonal element is developed by employing the principle of minimum complementary energy and the fundamental analytical solutions of the Airy stress function. Without construction of displacement interpolation function, the formulations of the new model are much simpler than those of the displacement-based polygonal elements and can be degenerated into triangular or quadrilateral elements directly. In particular, it is quite insensitive to various mesh distortions and even can keep precision when element shape is concave. Furthermore, the element does not show any spurious zero energy modes. Numerical examples show the excellent performance of the new element, denoted by HSF-AP-19β, in both displacement and stress solutions.

  14. Rapidly accelerating Mathieu and Weber surface plasmon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster-Hershko, Ana; Epstein, Itai; Arie, Ady

    2014-09-19

    We report the generation of two types of self-accelerating surface plasmon beams which are solutions of the nonparaxial Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. These beams preserve their shape while propagating along either elliptic (Mathieu beam) or parabolic (Weber beam) trajectories. We show that owing to the nonparaxial nature of the Weber beam, it maintains its shape over a much larger distance along the parabolic trajectory, with respect to the corresponding solution of the paraxial equation-the Airy beam. Dynamic control of the trajectory is realized by translating the position of the illuminating free-space beam. Finally, the ability of these beams to self-heal after blocking obstacles is demonstrated as well.

  15. A regular semiclassical approximation for the propagation of wave packets with complex trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisio, Fernando; Aguiar, M A M de

    2005-01-01

    The semiclassical propagation of Gaussian wave packets by complex classical trajectories involves multiple contributing and noncontributing solutions interspersed by phase space caustics. Although the phase space caustics do not generally lie exactly on the relevant trajectories, they might strongly affect the semiclassical evolution depending on their proximity to them. In this paper, we derive a third-order regular semiclassical approximation which correctly accounts for the caustics and which is finite everywhere. We test the regular formula for the potential V(x) = 1/x 2 , where the complex classical trajectories and phase space caustics can be computed analytically. We make a detailed analysis of the structure of the complex functions involved in the saddle point approximations and show how the changes in the steepest descent integration contour control both the contributing and noncontributing trajectories and the type of Airy function that appears in the regular approximation

  16. Self-similar solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations: KdV, mKdV and Burgers equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. El-Wakil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A method for solving three types of nonlinear evolution equations namely KdV, modified KdV and Burgers equations, with self-similar solutions is presented. The method employs ideas from symmetry reduction to space and time variables and similarity reductions for nonlinear evolution equations are performed. The obtained self-similar solutions of KdV and mKdV equations are related to Bessel and Airy functions whereas those of Burgers equation are related to the error and Hermite functions. These solutions appear as new types of solitary, shock and periodic waves. Also, the method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  17. Gaussian vs. Bessel light-sheets: performance analysis in live large sample imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidt, Sascha L.; Correia, Ricardo B. C.; Donnachie, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis J.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2017-08-01

    Lightsheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) has rapidly progressed in the past decade from an emerging technology into an established methodology. This progress has largely been driven by its suitability to developmental biology, where it is able to give excellent spatial-temporal resolution over relatively large fields of view with good contrast and low phototoxicity. In many respects it is superseding confocal microscopy. However, it is no magic bullet and still struggles to image deeply in more highly scattering samples. Many solutions to this challenge have been presented, including, Airy and Bessel illumination, 2-photon operation and deconvolution techniques. In this work, we show a comparison between a simple but effective Gaussian beam illumination and Bessel illumination for imaging in chicken embryos. Whilst Bessel illumination is shown to be of benefit when a greater depth of field is required, it is not possible to see any benefits for imaging into the highly scattering tissue of the chick embryo.

  18. The attitude of American Lithuanians towards other immigrants of the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Navickaitė, Marija

    2016-01-01

    XIX a. pabaigoje į JA V emigravę lietuviai tampa daugiatautės visuomenės dalimi. Lietuviai kuriasi šalia lenkų, italų, slovakų, žydų bei ukrainiečių (rusinų), atvykusieji jau randa šaknis įleidusias ir senųjų imigrantų – britų, airių, vokiečių, olandų – bendruomenes. Su visomis šiomis skirtingomis etninėmis grupėmis mezgasi kontaktai, kurie geriausiai atsispindi to laikotarpio Amerikos lietuvių periodinėje spaudoje. Šiame straipsnyje bandoma atskleisti JA V lietuvių santykius bei požiūrį į ki...

  19. Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectral analysis based on Wiener filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jingcheng; Wu, Tao; Yang, Chuanyin; Yu, Huan; He, Xingdao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrometer is developed to measure the gaseous spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (SRBS) profiles over the pressure range 1 to 6 atm for a wavelength of 532nm at the constant room temperature of 296K and 900 scattering angle. The measured Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra are deconvolved using Wiener filtering to remove the effect of the Airy transmission function of the Fabry-Pérot scanning interferometer and get high resolution Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra. The root-mean-square error is less than 2% and χ 2 is less than 15 over the pressure range 1 to 6 atm. The comparison between theoretical spectra (Tenti S6 model) and deconvolved Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra is made. Some factors that effected the deconvolution of accuracy are analyzed and discussed.

  20. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, J; Weigand, B

    2007-04-10

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.

  1. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, J.; Weigand, B.

    2007-01-01

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model

  2. Intrapixel response test system for multispectral characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Thomas A.; Reich, Robert K.; McGonagle, William H.; Kosicki, Bernard B.

    1999-04-01

    We report on the design of a system used to measure the multispectral intrapixel response of imaging sensor arrays. An Airy disk spot size of approximately 4 micrometers has been achieved for wavelength bands that extend from the visible blue to near IR. The automated system does rapid intrapixel row and/or column spatial mapping of individual pixels as well as rastered 2D spatial scans over multi-pixel girds. Commercially available equipment including a photometric eyepiece, a reflective objects, programmable pushers, and light-emitting diodes are utilized in the system. Scanned results using the system are presented for both front- and back-illuminating charge-coupled device imagers. The intrapixel response of a front-illuminated device shows good correlation with the physical cross section of the devices tested.

  3. Spectral properties of the massless relativistic quartic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durugo, Samuel O.; Lőrinczi, József

    2018-03-01

    An explicit solution of the spectral problem of the non-local Schrödinger operator obtained as the sum of the square root of the Laplacian and a quartic potential in one dimension is presented. The eigenvalues are obtained as zeroes of special functions related to the fourth order Airy function, and closed formulae for the Fourier transform of the eigenfunctions are derived. These representations allow to derive further spectral properties such as estimates of spectral gaps, heat trace and the asymptotic distribution of eigenvalues, as well as a detailed analysis of the eigenfunctions. A subtle spectral effect is observed which manifests in an exponentially tight approximation of the spectrum by the zeroes of the dominating term in the Fourier representation of the eigenfunctions and its derivative.

  4. Quantum and classical aspects of deformed c = 1 strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, T.; Tsujimaru, S.; Takasaki, K.

    1995-01-01

    The quantum and classical aspects of a deformed c=1 matrix model proposed by Jevicki and Yoneya are studied. String equations are formulated in the framework of the Toda lattice hierarchy. The Whittaker functions now play the role of generalized Airy functions in c<1 strings. This matrix model has two distinct parameters. Identification of the string coupling constant is thereby not unique, and leads to several different perturbative interpretations of this model as a string theory. Two such possible interpretations are examined. In both cases, the classical limit of the string equations, which turns out to give a formal solution of Polchinski's scattering equations, shows that the classical scattering amplitudes of massless tachyons are insensitive to deformations of the parameters in the matrix model. (author)

  5. Raamatututvustus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    2007.a. kirjastuselt Varrak ilmunud Juhan Maiste "Eesti kunsti lugu" (toimetaja Mirjam Peil, kujundaja Mari Kaljuste), Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuselt ilmunud "Eesti kunstnikud 3" (toimetanud Andreas Trossek, kujundanud Andres Tali, koordineerinud Johannes Saar), näitusekataloog "Metafoor ja müüt : kirjanduslikud ja ajaloolised motiivid 19. ja 20. sajandi vahetuse poola kunstis" (eestikeelse teksti toimetaja Tiina Abel), Eesti Kunstiakadeemialt ilmunud Richard Hollise "Graafiline disain : ülevaatlik ajalugu" (tõlkinud Katrin Kivimaa, kujundanud Indrek Sirkel ja Koit Randmäe) ja Nikolaus Pevsneri "Kaasaegse disaini pioneerid William Morrisest Walter Gropiuseni" (tõlkinud Bruno Tomberg, kujundanud I. Sirkel ja K. Randmäe), Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumilt ilmunud Dmitri Brunsi "Tallinna peaarhitekti mälestusi ja artikleid" (toimetaja Karin Hallas-Murula, kujundaja Irina Tammis), kogumik "Public preparation" (toimetanud Rael Artel ja Airi Triisberg, kujundanud Jaan Evart)

  6. Electromagnetic scattering of a plane wave by a radially inhomogeneous sphere in the short wavelength limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James A.

    2017-11-01

    The formulas of ray theory and Airy theory for scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a radially inhomogeneous sphere are obtained from the generalization of exact Lorenz-Mie wave scattering theory using the WKB approximation to determine the radial portion of the partial wave scalar radiation potential, carrying out a Debye series expansion of it, approximating the sum over partial waves by an integral over an associated impact parameter, and approximately evaluating the integral using either the method of stationary phase or mapping it into one of the phase integrals that describe optical caustics. Various features of the results are commented on, and the procedure is extended to the merging of two rainbows in a given Debye series channel in the context of the longitudinal cusp caustic.

  7. Amplitude image processing by diffractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J; Canales, V F

    2016-02-22

    In contrast to the standard digital image processing, which operates over the detected image intensity, we propose to perform amplitude image processing. Amplitude processing, like low pass or high pass filtering, is carried out using diffractive optics elements (DOE) since it allows to operate over the field complex amplitude before it has been detected. We show the procedure for designing the DOE that corresponds to each operation. Furthermore, we accomplish an analysis of amplitude image processing performances. In particular, a DOE Laplacian filter is applied to simulated astronomical images for detecting two stars one Airy ring apart. We also check by numerical simulations that the use of a Laplacian amplitude filter produces less noisy images than the standard digital image processing.

  8. Extreme fluctuations in stochastic network coordination with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, D.; Molnár, F.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    2015-12-01

    We study the effects of uniform time delays on the extreme fluctuations in stochastic synchronization and coordination problems with linear couplings in complex networks. We obtain the average size of the fluctuations at the nodes from the behavior of the underlying modes of the network. We then obtain the scaling behavior of the extreme fluctuations with system size, as well as the distribution of the extremes on complex networks, and compare them to those on regular one-dimensional lattices. For large complex networks, when the delay is not too close to the critical one, fluctuations at the nodes effectively decouple, and the limit distributions converge to the Fisher-Tippett-Gumbel density. In contrast, fluctuations in low-dimensional spatial graphs are strongly correlated, and the limit distribution of the extremes is the Airy density. Finally, we also explore the effects of nonlinear couplings on the stability and on the extremes of the synchronization landscapes.

  9. THE IDENTITY OF HORNERA Jungh. (Thymeleaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Airy Shaw (Van Steenis, Fl. Males. Ser. I, 6(1: 48. 1960, referredHornera Jungh. (Tijdschr. natuurl. Geschied. & Physiol. 7: 314. 1840 ten-tatively to Lauraceae.Hornera was described in an article with the misleading title: Novagenera et species plantarum Javanicum, as the species numbered 22 to 27are from Japan. Under no. 22 there is a remark: "siccatam e regius japonicoaccepi".Flora Malesiana gives no clue where this Japanese collection came from;no collecting localities and no collectors are mentioned by Junghuhn.According to Maximowicz (in Bentham & Hooker f., Gen. PI. 3: 188—189. 1880 the genus should not be Japanese; this wrong statement isapparently due to the fact, that Maximowicz could not attribute the genusin its circumscription to any Japanese plant.

  10. Dimensional Reduction and Crossover to Mean-Field Behavior for Branched Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrie, John Z.

    2003-12-01

    This article will review recent results on dimensional reduction for branched polymers, and discuss implications for critical phenomena. Parisi and Sourlas argued in 1981 that branched polymers fall into the universality class of the Yang-Lee edge in two fewer dimensions. Brydges and I have proven in [math-ph/0107005] that the generating function for self-avoiding branched polymers in D+2 continuum dimensions is proportional to the pressure of the hard-core continuum gas at negative activity in D dimensions (which is in the Yang-Lee or $i \\phi^3$ class). I will describe how this equivalence arises from an underlying supersymmetry of the branched polymer model. - I will also use dimensional reduction to analyze the crossover of two-dimensional branched polymers to their mean-field limit, and to show that the scaling is given by an Airy function (the same as in [cond-mat/0107223]).

  11. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  12. Rays, waves, and scattering topics in classical mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, John A

    2017-01-01

    This one-of-a-kind book presents many of the mathematical concepts, structures, and techniques used in the study of rays, waves, and scattering. Panoramic in scope, it includes discussions of how ocean waves are refracted around islands and underwater ridges, how seismic waves are refracted in the earth's interior, how atmospheric waves are scattered by mountains and ridges, how the scattering of light waves produces the blue sky, and meteorological phenomena such as rainbows and coronas. Rays, Waves, and Scattering is a valuable resource for practitioners, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates in applied mathematics, theoretical physics, and engineering. Bridging the gap between advanced treatments of the subject written for specialists and less mathematical books aimed at beginners, this unique mathematical compendium features problems and exercises throughout that are geared to various levels of sophistication, covering everything from Ptolemy's theorem to Airy integrals (as well as more technica...

  13. Laser line shape and spectral density of frequency noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.M.; Blin, S.; Besnard, P.; Tam, T.T.; Tetu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Published experimental results show that single-mode laser light is characterized in the microwave range by a frequency noise which essentially includes a white part and a 1/f (flicker) part. We theoretically show that the spectral density (the line shape) which is compatible with these results is a Voigt profile whose Lorentzian part or homogeneous component is linked to the white noise and the Gaussian part to the 1/f noise. We measure semiconductor laser line profiles and verify that they can be fit with Voigt functions. It is also verified that the width of the Lorentzian part varies like 1/P where P is the laser power while the width of the Gaussian part is more of a constant. Finally, we theoretically show from first principles that laser line shapes are also described by Voigt functions where the Lorentzian part is the laser Airy function and the Gaussian part originates from population noise

  14. Analysis on the uniformly loaded rectangular cross-section cantilever by a modified load-deflection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Hsi; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Kan, Heng-Chuan

    2009-02-01

    The load-deflection relationship of the uniformly loaded rectangular cross-section cantilever is analysed by a modified mechanical model, which exhibits its conformity to the physical situation by considering both the tangential and normal surface stresses. The analytical solution of the modelling equation is solved and presented in terms of the first and the second kinds of the Airy functions in association with Scorer's function. The resultant deflection profile contains an inflection point due to the restoring bending moment contributed by the critical surface loadings. The relationships of the tip deflection and the loading scenario are investigated, which reveal the fact that various loading scenarios can result in different deflection profiles, albeit with the same tip deflection. A numerical algorithm is given in the appendix to solve the loading scenario, by which the surface loadings can formally be determined for the designated applications for the devices utilizing the cantilever structure.

  15. Possible evidence for non-Newtonian gravity in the Greenland ice gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ander, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted down a 2 km deep hole in the Greenland ice cap in order to test for possible violations of Newton's inverse square law by making gravity measurements over a range of 213 m to 1460 m. A significant departure from Newtonian gravity was observed. This result can be explained by the existence of an attractive non-Newtonian component of gravity with a strength of about 3.4% that of Newtonian gravity at a scale of 1460 m. Unfortunately, we cannot completely, unambiguously attribute it to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity because we have shown that lateral density variations in the bedrock beneath the ice can cause such apparent departures. If such variations existed, they would have to be rather unusual but certainly no impossible. 8 refs

  16. Instanton effects in ABJM theory from Fermi gas approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst.; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-19

    We study the instanton effects of the ABJM partition function using the Fermi gas formalism. We compute the exact values of the partition function at the Chern-Simons levels k=1, 2, 3, 4, 6 up to N=44, 20, 18, 16, 14 respectively, and extract non-perturbative corrections from these exact results. Fitting the resulting non-perturbative corrections by their expected forms from the Fermi gas, we determine unknown parameters in them. After separating the oscillating behavior of the grand potential, which originates in the periodicity of the grand partition function, and the worldsheet instanton contribution, which is computed from the topological string theory, we succeed in proposing an analytical expression for the leading D2-instanton correction. Just as the perturbative result, the instanton corrections to the partition function are expressed in terms of the Airy function.

  17. A Generalized Technique in Numerical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safouhi, Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Integration by parts is one of the most popular techniques in the analysis of integrals and is one of the simplest methods to generate asymptotic expansions of integral representations. The product of the technique is usually a divergent series formed from evaluating boundary terms; however, sometimes the remaining integral is also evaluated. Due to the successive differentiation and anti-differentiation required to form the series or the remaining integral, the technique is difficult to apply to problems more complicated than the simplest. In this contribution, we explore a generalized and formalized integration by parts to create equivalent representations to some challenging integrals. As a demonstrative archetype, we examine Bessel integrals, Fresnel integrals and Airy functions.

  18. Controlling the spin-torque efficiency with ferroelectric barriers

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, A.

    2015-02-11

    Nonequilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier is theoretically investigated. The exact solutions of the free electron Schrödinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by combining Bessel and Airy functions. We demonstrate that the spin transfer torque efficiency, and more generally the bias dependence of tunneling magneto- and electroresistance, can be controlled by switching the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In particular, the critical voltage at which the in-plane torque changes sign can be strongly enhanced or reduced depending on the direction of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect provides a supplementary way to electrically control the current-driven dynamic states of the magnetization and related magnetic noise in spin transfer devices.

  19. Design of self-supporting surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vouga, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    Self-supporting masonry is one of the most ancient and elegant techniques for building curved shapes. Because of the very geometric nature of their failure, analyzing and modeling such strutures is more a geometry processing problem than one of classical continuum mechanics. This paper uses the thrust network method of analysis and presents an iterative nonlinear optimization algorithm for efficiently approximating freeform shapes by self-supporting ones. The rich geometry of thrust networks leads us to close connections between diverse topics in discrete differential geometry, such as a finite-element discretization of the Airy stress potential, perfect graph Laplacians, and computing admissible loads via curvatures of polyhedral surfaces. This geometric viewpoint allows us, in particular, to remesh self-supporting shapes by self-supporting quad meshes with planar faces, and leads to another application of the theory: steel/glass constructions with low moments in nodes. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08-ART87.

  20. On the elastostatic significance of four boundary integrals involving biharmonic functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren

    1998-01-01

    For a biharmonic function U, depending upon two space variables, it is known that four curve integrals, which involve U and some derivatives of U evaluated at a closed boundary, must be equal to zero. When U plays the role of an Airy stress function, we investigate the elastostatic significance...... of the four integrals and we find that it is related to the displacements of the elastic material: Single valued displacements are obtained provided that three of the integrals are zero. (The fourth integral does not provide further information.) It is already known from the classical literature that two...... of the integrals are related to single valued displacements, but the elastostatical significance of the third integral seems to be a new result. The method of investigation is unconventional: For "all possible" biharmonic functions, in polar coordinates, we determine stresses, strains, displacements etc. together...

  1. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  2. Pressure exerted by a vesicle on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, A L; Prellberg, T

    2014-01-01

    Several recent works have considered the pressure exerted on a wall by a model polymer. We extend this consideration to vesicles attached to a wall, and hence include osmotic pressure. We do this by considering a two-dimensional directed model, namely that of area-weighted Dyck paths. Not surprisingly, the pressure exerted by the vesicle on the wall depends on the osmotic pressure inside, especially its sign. Here, we discuss the scaling of this pressure in the different regimes, paying particular attention to the crossover between positive and negative osmotic pressure. In our directed model, there exists an underlying Airy function scaling form, from which we extract the dependence of the bulk pressure on small osmotic pressures. (paper)

  3. Transfer and scattering of wave packets by a nonlinear trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2011-11-01

    In the framework of a one-dimensional model with a tightly localized self-attractive nonlinearity, we study the formation and transfer (dragging) of a trapped mode by "nonlinear tweezers," as well as the scattering of coherent linear wave packets on the stationary localized nonlinearity. The use of a nonlinear trap for dragging allows one to pick up and transfer the relevant structures without grabbing surrounding "radiation." A stability border for the dragged modes is identified by means of analytical estimates and systematic simulations. In the framework of the scattering problem, the shares of trapped, reflected, and transmitted wave fields are found. Quasi-Airy stationary modes with a divergent norm, which may be dragged by a nonlinear trap moving at a constant acceleration, are briefly considered too.

  4. Rainbow scattering in the gravitational field of a compact object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Sam R.; Stratton, Tom

    2017-06-01

    We study the elastic scattering of a planar wave in the curved spacetime of a compact object such as a neutron star, via a heuristic model: a scalar field impinging upon a spherically symmetric uniform density star of radius R and mass M . For R rc, there instead arises a stationary point in the deflection function which creates a caustic and rainbow scattering. As in nuclear rainbow scattering, there is an Airy-type oscillation on a Rutherford-like cross section, followed by a shadow zone. We show that, for R ˜3.5 G M /c2, the rainbow angle lies close to 180°, and thus there arises enhanced backscattering and glory. We explore possible implications for gravitational wave astronomy and dark matter models.

  5. Engineering light-matter interaction for emerging optical manipulation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Palima, Darwin; Novitsky, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    of the optics of tractor beams and backward-directed energy fluxes will be presented. Recently the socalled effect of negative propagation of the beams (existence of the backward energy fluxes) has been confirmed for Xwaves and Airy beams. In the review, we will also discuss the negative pulling force...... with tightly focused beams. Novel synthesized beams, exploiting the linear and angular momentum of light, open new possibilities in optical trapping and micromanipulation. Similarly, novel structures are promising to enable new optical micromanipulation modalities. Moreover, an overview of the amazing features...... of structured beams and negative energy fluxes in the vicinity of fibers. The effect is achieved due to the interaction of multipoles or, in another interpretation, the momentum conservation. Both backward-directed Poynting vector and backward optical forces are counter-intuitive and give an insight into new...

  6. Study of a coronagraphic mask using evanescent waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisset, Christophe; Rabbia, Yves; Lepine, Thierry; Alagao, Mary-Angelie; Ducrot, Elsa; Poshyachinda, Saran; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2017-04-03

    The evanescent wave coronagraph (EvWaCo) is a specific kind of band-limited coronagraph using the frustrated total internal reflection phenomenon to produce the coronagraphic effect (removing starlight from the image plane in order to make the stellar environment detectable). In this paper, we present a theoretical and experimental study of the EvWaCo coronagraphic mask. First, we calculate the theoretical transmission and we show that this mask is partially achromatic. Then, we present the experimental results obtained in unpolarized light at the wavelength λ≈900 nm and relative spectral bandwidth Δλ/λ≈6%. In particular, we show that the coronagraph provides a contrast down to a few 10-6 at an angular distance of about ten Airy radii.

  7. Subpixel resolution in maximum-likelihood image restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchello, Jose-Angel; McNally, James G.

    1997-04-01

    A number of algorithms have been developed for three- dimensional (3D) deconvolution of fluorescence microscopical images. These algorithms use a mathematical-physics model for the process of image formation and try to estimate the specimen function, i.e. the distribution of fluorescent dye in the specimen. To keep the algorithms tractable and computational load practical, the algorithms rely on simplifying assumptions, and the extent to which these assumptions approximate the actual process of image formation and recording has a strong effect on the capabilities of the algorithms. The process of image formation is a continuous-space process, but the algorithms must be implemented using a discrete-space approximation to this process and render a sampled specimen function. A commonly-used assumption is that there is one pixel in the specimen for each pixel in the recorded image and that the pixel size in the recorded image is small compared to the size of the diffraction limited spot or Airy disk, a condition necessary to satisfy Nyquist sampling criterion. Modern CCD cameras, however, have large wells that integrate into a single pixel an area of the image that is significantly larger than the Airy disk. We derived a maximum-likelihood-based algorithm to accommodate for these large CCD pixel sizes. In this algorithm we assume that each pixel in the recorded image integrates several pixels that satisfy Nyquist criterion. The algorithm then attempts to estimate the specimen function at a resolution better than that allowed by the CCD camera. Preliminary results of this sub-pixel resolution algorithm are encouraging.

  8. Isostatic Implications of Different Seismic and Gravity Derived Moho Depths for Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Pappa, F.; Ebbing, J.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies with different methods have been performed to investigate the lithospheric structure of Antarctica, in particular the Moho as the crust-mantle boundary. Yet, seismological surveys are regionally limited or suffer from sparse station coverage due to the remoteness and size of the continent. On the other hand, gravity studies are inherently ambiguous and therefore not able to determine both the geometry and the density contrast of the Moho. Existing Moho depth models for Antarctica show large discrepancies, even among different seismological methods, but all the more between seismological and gravity models. As a first step towards a possible reconcilement, we perform non-linear gravity inversions with simultaneous consideration of seismological data. Depending on the seismological input data, different depths and density contrasts yield the best fit. The results, however, are not in line with the pure seismological models. Subsequently, we compute simple Airy-isostatic Moho depth models and evaluate these together with multiple Moho models from previous studies in terms of their gravitational signal, applying different values for the density contrast. The models' responses are checked against observational data: vertical gravity at 50 km altitude from the spherical harmonics expansion model GOCO05s, and the gravity gradient tensor at 225 km altitude from the GOCE gravity gradient grids. While the gravity responses from the seismological models show strong disagreements with the data, the Airy-isostatic models fit better. Yet, differences of up to 10 km in depth exist between the isostatic and the gravity-inverted Moho models. From these differences in vertical gravity, in the gravity gradients and in Moho depth, we identify regions where a simple density contrast is not sufficient to explain the observed gravitational field. We conclude that lateral and vertical density variations must be considered, which might originate from high-density lower

  9. Nondispersive Wave Packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaarawi, Amr Mohamed

    In this work, nondispersive wavepacket solutions to linear partial differential equations are investigated. These solutions are characterized by infinite energy content; otherwise they are continuous, nonsingular and propagate in free space without spreading out. Examples of such solutions are Berry and Balazs' Airy packet, MacKinnon's wave packet and Brittingham's Focus Wave Mode (FWM). It is demonstrated in this thesis that the infinite energy content is not a basic problem per se and that it can be dealt with in two distinct ways. First these wave packets can be used as bases to construct highly localized, slowly decaying, time-limited pulsed solutions. In the case of the FWMs, this path leads to the formulation of the bidirectional representation, a technique that provides the most natural basis for synthesizing Brittingham-like solutions. This representation is used to derive new exact solutions to the 3-D scalar wave equation. It is also applied to problems involving boundaries, in particular to the propagation of a localized pulse in a infinite acoustic waveguide and to the launchability of such a pulse from the opening of a semi-infinite waveguide. The second approach in dealing with the infinite energy content utilizes the bump-like structure of nondispersive solutions. With an appropriate choice of parameters, these bump fields have very large amplitudes around the centers, in comparison to their tails. In particular, the FWM solutions are used to model massless particles and are capable of providing an interesting interpretation to the results of Young's two slit experiment and to the wave-particle duality of light. The bidirectional representation provides, also, a systematic way of deriving packet solutions to the Klein-Gordon, the Schrodinger and the Dirac equations. Nondispersive solutions of the former two equations are compared to previously derived ones, e.g., the Airy packet and MacKinnon's wave packet.

  10. Tectonics and Non-isostatic Topography of the Mariana Trench and Adjacent Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyu, L.; Lin, J.; Zhou, Z.; Zhang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-types of geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry, sediment thickness, gravity anomaly, and crustal magnetic age were analyzed to investigate tectonic processes of the Mariana Trench and the surrounding plates. We calculated non-Airy-isostatic topography by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, thermal subsidence, and Airy local isostatically-compensated topography. The Mariana Trench was found to be associated with a clearly defined zone of negative non-isostatic topography, which was caused by flexural bending of the subducting Pacific plate and with the maximum depth anomaly and flexural bending near the Challenger Deep. In contrast, the Caroline Ridge and Caroline Islands Chain have much more subdued non-isostatic topography, indicating their higher topography is largely compensated by thicker crust. Along the Mariana Trough, the northern and central segments appear to be associated with relatively low magma supply as indicated by the relatively low topography and thin crust. In contrast, the southern Mariana Trough is associated with relatively high magma supply as indicated by the relatively high and smoother topography, an axial high spreading center, and relatively thick crust. The southern end of the Mariana Trough was also found to be associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomaly, which might be caused by the complex tectonic deformation of the overriding Mariana and Philippine Sea plates and their interaction with the subducting Pacific plate. Analysis further revealed that the southern Mariana Arc, located between the Mariana Trench and Mariana Trough, is associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomalies, which may be explained by the late stage magmatic loading on the older and thus stronger lithospheric plate of the Mariana volcanic arc.

  11. SHADES OF BLACK IN BAKI’S DIVAN BÂKÎ DİVANI'NDA SİYAH RENKLİ UNSURLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜFTA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of divan poetry (classical Ottoman poetry is language. The divan poet chose words carefully, gave importance to words of color, and expressed his emotions, dreams and thoughts in a bright and colorful way by imbuing colors with a symbolical meaning. In the aesthetics of divan poetry one of the most commonly used colors by the divan poet is black. The divan poet made large use of the black color and its associations in his descriptions of nature and humanity. This study handles Baki’s Divan in terms of the use of the black color and aims to explore its major characteristics. Divan şiirinin asıl malzemesi dildir. Divan şairi, kelimeleri seçerken titiz davranmış, renk bildiren kelimelere önem vermiş; renklere semboller de yükleyerek duygu, düşünce ve hayallerini renkli ve parlak ifadelerle dile getirmiştir. Divan şairinin divan şiiri estetik anlayışı çerçevesinde en çok zikrettiği renklerden biri de siyahtır. Divan şairi, insana ve tabiata dair tasvirlerinde siyah renkten ve bu rengin çağrışımlarından geniş bir şekilde faydalanmıştır. Bâkî Divanı'nı esas alan bu araştırma, divandaki siyah renkli unsurları tespit etmeyi ve bu unsurların hangi özellikleriyle ve nasıl kullanıldıklarını belirlemeyi amaçlamaktadır.

  12. On the MAF solution of the uniformly lengthening pendulum via change of independent variable in the Bessel’s equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Deniz

    Full Text Available Common recipe for the Lengthening Pendulum (LP involves some change of variables to give a relationship with the Bessel’s equation. In this work, semiclassical MAF (Modified Airy Function solution of the LP is being obtained by first transforming the related Bessel’s equation into the normal form via the suggested change of independent variable just as one of our recent work regarding the JWKB solution of the LP in (Deniz, 2017. MAF approximation of the first order Bessel Functions (ν = 1 of both type along with their zeros are being obtained analytically with a very good accuracy as a result of the appropriately chosen associated initial values and they are extended to the neighbouring orders (ν = 0 and 2 by the recursion relations. Although common numerical methods given in the literature require adiabatic LP systems where the lengthening rate is small, MAF solution presented here can safely be used for higher lengthening rates and a criterion for its validity is determined via the use of MAF applicability criterion given in the literature. As a result, the semiclassical MAF method which is normally used for the quantum mechanical and optical waveguide systems is applied to the classical LP system successfully just as our previous work regarding the JWKB solution of the LP. Interestingly, we have very accurate results in the entire domain except for x≈0. PACS: 02.30.Hq, 02.30.Mv, 03.65.Sq, 03.65.-w, 45.05.+x, 45.10.-b, Keywords: Method of Modified Airy Function (MAF, Semiclassical approximation, Linear differential equations, Initial value problems, The lengthening pendulum

  13. Rainbows, supernumerary rainbows and interference effects in the angular scattering of chemical reactions: an investigation using Heisenberg's S matrix programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiao; Xiahou, Chengkui; Connor, J N L

    2018-01-03

    In earlier research, we have demonstrated that broad "hidden" rainbows can occur in the product differential cross sections (DCSs) of state-to-state chemical reactions. Here we ask the question: can pronounced and localized rainbows, rather than broad hidden ones, occur in reactive DCSs? Further motivation comes from recent measurements by H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2016, 120, 6712, of a "bulge" in a reactive DCS, which they conjecture is a rainbow. Our theoretical approach uses a "weak" version of Heisenberg's scattering matrix program (wHSMP) introduced by X. Shan and J. N. L. Connor, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 8392. This wHSMP uses four general physical principles for chemical reactions to suggest simple parameterized forms for the S matrix; it does not employ a potential energy surface. We use a parameterization in which the modulus of the S matrix is a smooth-step function of the total angular momentum quantum number, J, and (importantly) its phase is a cubic polynomial in J. We demonstrate for a Legendre partial wave series (PWS) the existence of pronounced rainbows, supernumerary rainbows, and other interference effects, in reactive DCSs. We find that reactive rainbows can be more complicated in their structure than the familiar rainbows of elastic scattering. We also analyse the angular scattering using Nearside-Farside (NF) PWS theory and NF PWS Local Angular Momentum (LAM) theory, including resummations of the PWS. In addition, we apply full and NF asymptotic (semiclassical) rainbow theories to the PWS - in particular, the uniform Airy and transitional Airy approximations for the farside scattering. This lets us prove that structure in the DCSs are indeed rainbows, supernumerary rainbows as well as other interference effects.

  14. Analysis of the seismic wavefield in the Moesian Platform (Bucharest area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Florinela Manea, Elena; Hobiger, Manuel-Thomas; Michel, Clotaire; Fäh, Donat; -Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Bucharest is located in the center of the Moesian platform, in a large and deep sedimentary basin (450 km long, 300 km wide and in some places up to 20 km depth). During large earthquakes generated by the Vrancea seismic zone, located approximately 140 km to the North, the ground motion recorded in Bucharest area is characterized by predominant long periods and large amplification. This phenomenon has been explained by the influence of both source mechanism (azimuth and type of incident waves) and mechanical properties of the local structure (geological layering and geometry). The main goal of our study is to better characterize and understand the seismic wave field produced by earthquakes in the area of Bucharest. We want to identify the contribution of different seismic surface waves, such as the ones produced at the edges of the large sedimentary basin or multipath interference waves (Airy phases of Love and Rayleigh waves) to the ground motion. The data from a 35 km diameter array (URS experiment) installed by the National Institute for Earth Physics during 10 months in 2003 and 2004 in the urban area of Bucharest and adjacent zones was used. In order to perform the wave field characterization of the URS array, the MUSIQUE technique was used. This technique consists in a combination of the classical MUSIC and the quaternion-MUSIC algorithms and analyzes the three-component signals of all sensors of a seismic array together in order to analyze the Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves as well as the Rayleigh wave ellipticity curve. The analysis includes 20 regional earthquakes with Mw >3 and 5 teleseismic events with Mw> 7 that have enough energy at low frequency (0.1 - 1 Hz), i.e. in the resolution range of the array. For all events, the greatest energy is coming from the backazimuth of the source and the wave field is dominated by Love waves. The results of the array analyses clearly indicate a significant scattering corresponding to 2D or 3D effects in the

  15. Ionosonde tracking of infrasound wavefronts in the thermosphere launched by seismic waves after the 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Yusupov, Kamil; Akchurin, Adel

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that atmospheric waves excited by intense earthquakes induce ionospheric disturbances. At remote distances greater than ~500 km, Rayleigh waves are the major source of infrasounds that propagate upward in the atmosphere. Acoustic waves interact with the ionospheric plasma through collision between neutral particles and ions. Ionospheric disturbances caused by Rayleigh waves near the low frequency part of the Airy phase (a period of several minutes) are detected as a change in the total electron content since the wavelength of induced acoustic waves in the thermosphere is comparable to the ionospheric slab thickness. On the other hand, Rayleigh waves near the high frequency part of the Airy phase (a period of several tens of seconds) cause distortion of ionogram traces characterized by a multiple cusp signature (MCS). The vertical separation of the ledge corresponding to each cusp is the wavelength of the infrasound in the thermosphere. Thus, the MCS ionogram is considered to be a snapshot of the wave that propagates upward. We conducted rapid run operation of ionosonde with a frame rate of 1 min at Kazan, Russia. After the 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquake (epicentral distance was 15,162 km), ionospheric disturbances showing MCSs on ionograms were observed for several tens of minutes. The sound speed calculated by a model was 500~700 m/s at the height of the bottomside ionosphere and wavefronts should propagate 30~42 km upward during the intervals of ionograms, which is smaller than the bottomside depth of the ionosphere. The seismogram obtained at Obninsk near Moscow, Russia (epicentral distance was 14,369 km) recorded Rayleigh waves with a period of ~17 s responsible for the ionospheric disturbances showing MCS, when the plot was shifted by the time corresponding to the difference of epicentral distances between the two locations by assuming a Rayleigh wave speed of 3 km/s. The vertical wavelength of the acoustic waves launched by the Rayleigh waves was

  16. Imaging with LINC-NIRVANA, the Fizeau interferometer of the Large Binocular Telescope: state of the art and open problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; La Camera, A.; Olivieri, C.; Carbillet, M.

    2011-11-01

    LINC-NIRVANA (LN) is the Fizeau interferometer of the Large Binocular Telescope which consists of two 8.4 m mirrors with a center-to-center distance of 14.4 m, hence providing a maximum path of 22.8 m in the direction of the baseline joining the two centers. LN is a true imager since interference occurs in the focal plane and not in the aperture plane as with essentially all the existing interferometers. However, an LN image is characterized by an anisotropic resolution: that of a 22.8 m mirror in the direction of the baseline and that of a 8.4 m mirror in the orthogonal direction. In order to obtain a unique image with a high and isotropic resolution, several images must be detected with different orientations of the baseline and suitably processed. Therefore, the instrument will routinely require the use of image reconstruction methods for providing astronomical images with unprecedented resolution, in principle ten times the resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope. This review concerns the image reconstruction problem for LN and is based essentially on our work. After a description of the main features of the telescope and of the interferometer, it contains a discussion of the problem and of the approximations introduced in its formulation. In short, it is reduced to multiple-image deconvolution with Poisson data. Similarity with the image reconstruction problem in emission tomography is stressed and utilized for introducing suitable iterative reconstruction methods. These methods are extended to regularized versions of the problem. Efficiency is another important issue because the size of LN images is of the order of 4.2 megapixels; therefore, acceleration methods are also discussed. All methods are tested on synthetic images because, even if the instrument is in an advanced stage of realization, it will be presumably operative in 2014. The algorithms of the proposed image reconstruction methods are implemented in the Software Package AIRY (astronomical image

  17. Reliability Study of Energy Harvesting from Sea Waves by Piezoelectric Patches Consideraing Random JONSWAP Wave Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ettefagh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods for powering low-power electronic devices employed in the sea, is using of mechanical energies of sea waves. In this method, piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy of sea waves into electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on not implementing the battery charging system. Although, many studies have been done about energy harvesting from sea waves, energy harvesting with considering random JONWSAP wave theory is not fully studied up to now. The random JONSWAP wave model is a more realistic approximation of sea waves in comparison of Airy wave model. Therefore, in this paper a vertical beam with the piezoelectric patches, which is fixed to the seabed, is considered as energy harvester system. The energy harvesting system is simulated by MATLAB software, and then the vibration response of the beam and consequently the generated power is obtained considering the JONWSAP wave theory. In addition, the reliability of the system and the effect of piezoelectric patches uncertainties on the generated power are studied by statistical method. Furthermore, the failure possibility of harvester based on violation criteria is investigated.  

  18. Analytic expressions for mode conversion in a plasma with a parabolic density profile: Generalized results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel-Lipsker, D.E.; Fried, B.D.; Morales, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides an analytic solution to the general problem of mode conversion in an unmagnetized plasma. Specifically, an electromagnetic wave of frequency ω propagating through a plasma with a parabolic density profile of scale length L p is examined. The mode conversion points are located a distance Δ 0 from the peak of the profile, where the electron plasma frequency ω p (z) matches the wave frequency ω. The corresponding reflection, transmission, and mode conversion coefficients are expressed analytically in terms of parabolic cylinder functions for all values of Δ 0 . The method of solution is based on a source approximation technique that is valid when the electromagnetic and electrostatic scale lengths are well separated. For large Δ 0 , i.e., (cL p /ω) 1/2 much-lt Δ 0 p , the appropriately scaled result [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 559 (1992)] for a linear density profile is recovered as the parabolic cylinder functions asymptotically become Airy functions. When Δ 0 →0, the special case of conversion at the peak of the profile [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 1772 (1992)] is obtained

  19. Analytical extraction of leaky modes in circular slab waveguides with arbitrary refractive index profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafi, P; Zareian, N; Mehrany, K

    2007-12-20

    Circular slab waveguides are conformally transformed into straight inhomogeneous waveguides, whereupon electromagnetic fields in the core are expanded in terms of Legendre polynomial basis functions. Thereafter, different analytical expression of electromagnetic fields in the cladding region, viz. Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin solution, modified Airy function expansion, and the exact field solution for circular waveguides, i.e., Hankel function of complex order, are each matched to the polynomial expansion of the transverse electric field within the guide. This field matching process renders different boundary conditions to be satisfied by the set of orthogonal Legendre polynomial basis functions. In this fashion, the governing wave equation is converted into an algebraic and easy to solve eigenvalue problem, which is associated with a matrix whose elements are analytically given. Various numerical examples are presented and the accuracy of each of the abovementioned different boundary conditions is assessed. Furthermore, the computational efficiency and the convergence rate of the proposed method with increasing number of basis functions are briefly discussed.

  20. A photoemission moments model using density functional and transfer matrix methods applied to coating layers on surfaces: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Finkenstadt, Daniel; Shabaev, Andrew; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Moody, Nathan A.; Petillo, John J.; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Liu, Fangze

    2018-01-01

    Recent experimental measurements of a bulk material covered with a small number of graphene layers reported by Yamaguchi et al. [NPJ 2D Mater. Appl. 1, 12 (2017)] (on bialkali) and Liu et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 041607 (2017)] (on copper) and the needs of emission models in beam optics codes have lead to substantial changes in a Moments model of photoemission. The changes account for (i) a barrier profile and density of states factor based on density functional theory (DFT) evaluations, (ii) a Drude-Lorentz model of the optical constants and laser penetration depth, and (iii) a transmission probability evaluated by an Airy Transfer Matrix Approach. Importantly, the DFT results lead to a surface barrier profile of a shape similar to both resonant barriers and reflectionless wells: the associated quantum mechanical transmission probabilities are shown to be comparable to those recently required to enable the Moments (and Three Step) model to match experimental data but for reasons very different than the assumption by conventional wisdom that a barrier is responsible. The substantial modifications of the Moments model components, motivated by computational materials methods, are developed. The results prepare the Moments model for use in treating heterostructures and discrete energy level systems (e.g., quantum dots) proposed for decoupling the opposing metrics of performance that undermine the performance of advanced light sources like the x-ray Free Electron Laser. The consequences of the modified components on quantum yield, emittance, and emission models needed by beam optics codes are discussed.

  1. Design of an adaptable Stokes polarimeter for exploring chromospheric magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Bayanna, A. Raja; Socas Navarro, Héctor

    2017-10-01

    The chromosphere is a highly complex and dynamic layer of the Sun, that serves as a conduit for mass and energy supply between two, very distinct regions of the solar atmosphere, namely, the photosphere and corona. Inferring magnetic fields in the chromosphere, has thus become an important topic, that can be addressed with large-aperture solar telescopes to carry out highly sensitive polarimetric measurements. In this article, we present a design of a polarimeter for investigating the chromospheric magnetic field. The instrument consists of a number of lenses, two ferro-electric liquid crystals, a Wollaston prism, and a CCD camera. The optical design is similar to that of a commercial zoom lens which allows a variable f# while maintaining focus and aberrations well within the Airy disc. The optical design of the Adaptable ChRomOspheric POLarimeter (ACROPOL) makes use of off-the-shelf components and is described for the 70 cm Vacuum Tower Telescope and the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Our design shows that the optical train can be separated into two units where the first unit, consisting of a single lens, has to be changed while going from the VTT to the GREGOR configuration. We also discuss the tolerances within which, diffraction limited performance can be achieved with our design.

  2. Impacto de ondas sobre taludes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamile Valencia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las playas sufren cambios topobatimétricos por la acción del viento, corrientes, hidrodinámica del oleaje e inestabilidad de taludes. En este artículo se estudia un modelo, en donde es posible analizar la solución teórica tipo Airy del movimiento ondulatorio, para tipificar una onda que se produce por medio de un generador de oleaje, diseñado para operar en un canal metálico de determinadas dimensiones. En un extremo del canal fue construido un talud con y sin protecciones, de geometría inicial dada y con diversos materiales (arena gruesa, media, fina y limo-arenoso, el cual fue sometido a la acción de diferentes ondas y a un seguimiento en el tiempo, hasta llegar al perfil de equilibrio. Además, se estudió el proceso erosivo cuya principal característica es la socavación de la parte superior del talud y la depositación en la pata, así como la formación de un punto neutro o de “Cornaglia”.

  3. Modified correlation method to autofocus particles in digital in-line holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Suárez, Daniel H.; Restrepo-Martínez, Alejandro; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro; López-Giraldo, Francisco E.

    2017-11-01

    A method is proposed to automatically evaluate the focal planes of spherical particles. This method compares the correlation coefficients of multiple reconstructed planes relative to a reference plane. The particles are located where a minimum correlation is found, and reconstructions are made using an angular spectrum propagator. The Hough transform is employed to segment the hologram, thereby enabling the detection of circular shapes, such as Airy patterns, and the edges of the particles themselves. The autofocus is improved by creating a correlation matrix using an iterative process, which reduces the computational cost of the particle display processes in their respective focal planes. A theoretical model was studied to estimate the longitudinal and transverse magnifications of the focused particles caused by the influence of aberrations in the reconstruction of digital holograms due to the spherical reference wave used. Experimentally, laser light was used to illuminate 5-μm latex particles, which was recorded by a CCD camera with a 9.9-μm pixel size. The reconstructions measured an average particle radius of 71.3±16.3 μm in the average focal plane, which was estimated to be 60.65±0.22 mm from the hologram where the magnifications were considered.

  4. Emplacement and Subsidence of Indian Ocean Plateaus and Submarine Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    Ocean Drilling Program, Deep Sea Drilling Project, and industrial borehole results from Indian Ocean plateaus and submarine ridges help to constrain their subsidence histories. I use a simple Airy isostatic model to calculate basement depths at ODP sites in the absence of sediment, and then backtrack these sites using previously determined age-depth relationships for oceanic lithosphere to determine the original depth or elevation of the sites. Resulting subsidence curves for each site were then checked by examining sedimentologic and biostratigraphic evidence for when each site subsided below shelf depths. The analysis suggests that thermal subsidence has been the dominant tectonic process affecting Indian Ocean plateaus and submarine ridges following emplacement. I conclude that large portions of these features were emplaced and began subsiding well above sea level, similar to large igneous provinces (LIPs) worldwide today. This resulted in significant subaerial erosion and redeposition of volcanic material mixed with biogenic sediment, and a gradual development of facies from terrestrial through terrigenous to shallow water and pelagic, resulting in a sedimentary record with both continental and oceanic characteristics.

  5. Simulated electron affinity tuning in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Kissan; Yavuz, Mustafa; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2017-05-01

    Metal-insulator-metal diodes for rectification applications must exhibit high asymmetry, nonlinearity, and responsivity. Traditional methods of improving these figures of merit have consisted of increasing insulator thickness, adding multiple insulator layers, and utilizing a variety of metal contact combinations. However, these methods have come with the price of increasing the diode resistance and ultimately limiting the operating frequency to well below the terahertz regime. In this work, an Airy Function Transfer Matrix simulation method was used to observe the effect of tuning the electron affinity of the insulator as a technique to decrease the diode resistance. It was shown that a small increase in electron affinity can result in a resistance decrease in upwards of five orders of magnitude, corresponding to an increase in operating frequency on the same order. Electron affinity tuning has a minimal effect on the diode figures of merit, where asymmetry improves or remains unaffected and slight decreases in nonlinearity and responsivity are likely to be greatly outweighed by the improved operating frequency of the diode.

  6. Exact result in strong wave turbulence of thin elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düring, Gustavo; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    An exact result concerning the energy transfers between nonlinear waves of a thin elastic plate is derived. Following Kolmogorov's original ideas in hydrodynamical turbulence, but applied to the Föppl-von Kármán equation for thin plates, the corresponding Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation and an equivalent of the 4/5 -Kolmogorov's law is derived. A third-order structure function involving increments of the amplitude, velocity, and the Airy stress function of a plate, is proven to be equal to -ɛ ℓ , where ℓ is a length scale in the inertial range at which the increments are evaluated and ɛ the energy dissipation rate. Numerical data confirm this law. In addition, a useful definition of the energy fluxes in Fourier space is introduced and proven numerically to be flat in the inertial range. The exact results derived in this Rapid Communication are valid for both weak and strong wave turbulence. They could be used as a theoretical benchmark of new wave-turbulence theories and to develop further analogies with hydrodynamical turbulence.

  7. Exact solutions for scalar field cosmology in f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, S. D.; Goswami, R.; Chervon, S. V.; Nikolaev, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We study scalar field FLRW cosmology in the content of f(R) gravity. Our consideration is restricted to the spatially flat Friedmann universe. We derived the general evolution equations of the model, and showed that the scalar field equation is automatically satisfied for any form of the f(R) function. We also derived representations for kinetic and potential energies, as well as for the acceleration in terms of the Hubble parameter and the form of the f(R) function. Next we found the exact cosmological solutions in modified gravity without specifying the f(R) function. With negligible acceleration of the scalar curvature, we found that the de Sitter inflationary solution is always attained. Also we obtained new solutions with special restrictions on the integration constants. These solutions contain oscillating, accelerating, decelerating and even contracting universes. For further investigation, we selected special cases which can be applied with early or late inflation. We also found exact solutions for the general case for the model with negligible acceleration of the scalar curvature in terms of special Airy functions. Using initial conditions which represent the universe at the present epoch, we determined the constants of integration. This allows for the comparison of the scale factor in the new solutions with that for current stage of the universe evolution in the ΛCDM model.

  8. Statistical mechanics framework for static granular matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Silke; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2009-06-01

    The physical properties of granular materials have been extensively studied in recent years. So far, however, there exists no theoretical framework which can explain the observations in a unified manner beyond the phenomenological jamming diagram. This work focuses on the case of static granular matter, where we have constructed a statistical ensemble which mirrors equilibrium statistical mechanics. This ensemble, which is based on the conservation properties of the stress tensor, is distinct from the original Edwards ensemble and applies to packings of deformable grains. We combine it with a field theoretical analysis of the packings, where the field is the Airy stress function derived from the force and torque balance conditions. In this framework, Point J characterized by a diverging stiffness of the pressure fluctuations. Separately, we present a phenomenological mean-field theory of the jamming transition, which incorporates the mean contact number as a variable. We link both approaches in the context of the marginal rigidity picture proposed by Wyart and others.

  9. A statistical mechanics framework for static granular matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Silke

    2009-03-01

    It is still an open question if the formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics can be extended to athermal granular media. A number of authors have used a maximum entropy approach with a flat measure in configuration space to derive the equivalent of the canonical ensemble for the total volume or for the boundary forces as conserved quantities. We have generalized the force-based ensemble to the full force-moment tensor, and allow for the effects of a measure that is not flat. At the isostatic point, this formalism allows us to compute the force distribution exactly, and we obtain an exponential if we choose a flat measure. We use this result as a baseline to investigate the effects of the measure, and we also study the link to a recently proposed ensemble which incorporates an additional stress-based conserved quantity. At a coarse-grained level, the jamming transition can be studied within this framework by postulating a field-theoretical model for the density of states. We construct a minimal model based on symmetry arguments and a positivity constraint for the pressure, which incorporates force and torque balance through the Airy stress function. Unlike in continuum elasticity, the material constants crucially depend on the imposed boundary stresses. The model predicts that the jamming transition is characterized by a vanishing phase space available to the system as the pressure goes to zero. We are able to calculate correlation functions for the components of the stress tensor and compare them to simulation results.

  10. Quantum-classical correspondence for the inverted oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamache, Mustapha; Ryeol Choi, Jeong

    2017-11-01

    While quantum-classical correspondence for a system is a very fundamental problem in modern physics, the understanding of its mechanism is often elusive, so the methods used and the results of detailed theoretical analysis have been accompanied by active debate. In this study, the differences and similarities between quantum and classical behavior for an inverted oscillator have been analyzed based on the description of a complete generalized Airy function-type quantum wave solution. The inverted oscillator model plays an important role in several branches of cosmology and particle physics. The quantum wave packet of the system is composed of many sub-packets that are localized at different positions with regular intervals between them. It is shown from illustrations of the probability density that, although the quantum trajectory of the wave propagation is somewhat different from the corresponding classical one, the difference becomes relatively small when the classical excitation is sufficiently high. We have confirmed that a quantum wave packet moving along a positive or negative direction accelerates over time like a classical wave. From these main interpretations and others in the text, we conclude that our theory exquisitely illustrates quantum and classical correspondence for the system, which is a crucial concept in quantum mechanics. Supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1A09919503)

  11. Linear Acceleration Emission. II. Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, D. B.; Luo, Q.

    2009-06-01

    The theory of linear acceleration emission (LAE) is developed for a large amplitude electrostatic wave in which all particles become highly relativistic in much less than a wave period. An Airy-integral approximation is shown to apply near the phases where the electric field passes through zero and the Lorentz factors of all particles have their maxima. The emissivity is derived for an individual particle and is integrated over frequency and solid angle to find the power radiated per particle. The result is different from that implied by the generalized Larmor formula which, we argue, is not valid in this case. We also discuss a mathematical inconsistency that arises when one evaluates the power spectrum by integrating the emissivity over solid angle. The correct power spectrum increases as the 4/3rd power of the frequency at low frequencies, and falls off exponentially above a characteristic frequency. We discuss application of LAE to the emission of high-frequency photons in an oscillating model for pulsars. We conclude that it cannot account for gamma-ray emission, but can play a role in secondary pair creation.

  12. LINEAR ACCELERATION EMISSION. II. POWER SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D. B.; Luo, Q.

    2009-01-01

    The theory of linear acceleration emission (LAE) is developed for a large amplitude electrostatic wave in which all particles become highly relativistic in much less than a wave period. An Airy-integral approximation is shown to apply near the phases where the electric field passes through zero and the Lorentz factors of all particles have their maxima. The emissivity is derived for an individual particle and is integrated over frequency and solid angle to find the power radiated per particle. The result is different from that implied by the generalized Larmor formula which, we argue, is not valid in this case. We also discuss a mathematical inconsistency that arises when one evaluates the power spectrum by integrating the emissivity over solid angle. The correct power spectrum increases as the 4/3rd power of the frequency at low frequencies, and falls off exponentially above a characteristic frequency. We discuss application of LAE to the emission of high-frequency photons in an oscillating model for pulsars. We conclude that it cannot account for gamma-ray emission, but can play a role in secondary pair creation.

  13. Crustal structure under the central High Atlas Mountains (Morocco) from geological and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Alvarez-Lobato, F.; Teixell, A.; Arboleya, M. L.; Tesón, E.; Julivert, M.; Charroud, M.

    2005-05-01

    Seismic wide angle and receiver function results together with geological data have been used as constraints to build a gravity-based crustal model of the central High Atlas of Morocco. Integration of a newly acquired set of gravity values with public data allowed us to undertake 2-2.5D gravity modelling along two profiles that cross the entire mountain chain. Modelling suggests moderate crustal thickening, and a general state of Airy isostatic undercompensation. Localized thickening appears restricted to the vicinity of a north-dipping crustal-scale thrust fault, that offsets the Moho discontinuity and defines a small crustal root which accounts for the minimum Bouguer gravity anomaly values. Gravity modelling indicates that this root has a northeasterly strike, slightly oblique to the ENE general orientation of the High Atlas belt. A consequence of the obliquity between the High Atlas borders and its internal and deep structure is the lack of correlation between Bouguer gravity anomaly values and topography. Active buckling affecting the crust, a highly elevated asthenosphere, or a combination of both are addressed as side mechanisms that help to maintain the high elevations of the Atlas mountains.

  14. Functional Integral Approaches to the Bosonization of Effective Multi-Quark Interactions with U_A(1 Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Hiller

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Low energy hadron phenomenology involving the (u,d,s quarks is often approached through effective multi-quark Lagrangians with the symmetries of QCD. A very successful approach consists in taking the four-quark Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Lagrangianwith the chiral $U_L(3imes U_R(3$ symmetry in the massless limit, combined with the $U_A(1$ breaking six-quark flavourdeterminant interaction of 't Hooft. We review the present status and some very recent developments related to the functionalintegration over the cubic term in auxiliary mesonic variables that one introduces to bosonize the system. Various approaches forhandling this functional, which cannot be integrated exactly, are discussed: the stationary phase approximation, the perturbative expansion, the loop expansion, their interrelation and importance for the evaluation of the effective action. The intricate group structure rules out the method of Airy's integral. The problem ofthe instability of the vacuum is stated and a solution given by including eight-quark interactions.

  15. Eclipse telescope design factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Tony; Trauger, John T.; Macenka, Steven A.; Moody, Dwight; Olarte, Guillermo; Sepulveda, Cesar; Tsuha, Walter; Cohen, David

    2003-02-01

    Very high contrast imagery, required for exoplanet image acquisition, imposes significantly different criteria upon telescope architecture than do the requirements imposed upon most spaceborne telescopes. For the Eclipse Mission, the fundamental figure-of-merit is a stellar contrast, or brightness reduction ratio, reaching a factor of 10-9 or better at star-planet distances as close as the 4th Airy ring. Factors necessary to achieve such contrast ratios are both irrelevant and largely ignored in contemporary telescope design. Although contemporary telescoeps now meet Hubble Space Telescope performance at substantially lower mass and cost than HST, control of mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, crucial to coronagraphy, has not been emphasized. Accordingly, roughness at MSF has advanced little since HST. Fortunately, HST primary mirror smoothness would nearly satisfy Eclipse requirements, although other aspects of HST are undesirable for stellar coronagraphy. Conversely, the narrow field required for Eclipse eases other drivers of traditional telescope design. A systematic approach to telescope definition, with primary and sub-tier figures-of-merit, will be discussed in the context of the Eclipse Mission.

  16. On Using a Space Telescope to Detect Weak-lensing Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nathan; Wright, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Ignoring redshift dependence, the statistical performance of a weak-lensing survey is set by two numbers: the effective shape noise of the sources, which includes the intrinsic ellipticity dispersion and the measurement noise, and the density of sources that are useful for weak-lensing measurements. In this paper, we provide some general guidance for weak-lensing shear measurements from a “generic” space telescope by looking for the optimum wavelength bands to maximize the galaxy flux signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and minimize ellipticity measurement error. We also calculate an effective galaxy number per square degree across different wavelength bands, taking into account the density of sources that are useful for weak-lensing measurements and the effective shape noise of sources. Galaxy data collected from the ultra-deep UltraVISTA Ks-selected and R-selected photometric catalogs (Muzzin et al. 2013) are fitted to radially symmetric Sérsic galaxy light profiles. The Sérsic galaxy profiles are then stretched to impose an artificial weak-lensing shear, and then convolved with a pure Airy Disk PSF to simulate imaging of weak gravitationally lensed galaxies from a hypothetical diffraction-limited space telescope. For our model calculations and sets of galaxies, our results show that the peak in the average galaxy flux S/N, the minimum average ellipticity measurement error, and the highest effective galaxy number counts all lie around the K-band near 2.2 μm.

  17. Distinct crustal isostasy trends east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front

    KAUST Repository

    Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-12-14

    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Seismic structure beneath the contiguous U.S. was imaged with multimode receiver function stacking and inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion and ellipticity measurements. Crust thickness and elevation are weakly correlated across the contiguous U.S., but the correlation is ∼3-4 times greater for separate areas east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF). Greater lower crustal shear velocities east of the RMF, particularly in low-elevation areas with thick crust, are consistent with deep crustal density as the primary cause of the contrasting crust thickness versus elevation trends. Separate eastern and western trends are best fit by Airy isostasy models that assume lower crust to uppermost mantle density increases of 0.18 g/cm3 and 0.40 g/cm3, respectively. The former value is near the minimum that is plausible for felsic lower crust. Location of the transition at the RMF suggests that Laramide to post-Laramide processes reduced western U.S. lower crustal density.

  18. How is the artist role affected when artists are participating in projects in work life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, during the last decade, the artist has come to function as a creative resource in workplaces. There are two organisations, Skiss (Contemporary Artist in the Contemporary Society) and Airis (Artist in Residence), that organise projects for artists and coworkers. These projects are intended to have a positive effect on the well-being of organisations and their employees through artistic means, and the artist often focuses on the social interaction between the employees in their work. The artists' work involves frequent interaction with coworkers. The aim of this article was to describe how visual artists' roles as artists are affected by their engagement in artistic and social projects at workplaces in Sweden. The focus in the article is on the social interaction between artists and employees. The study is a qualitative narrative interview study with fine artists participating in different projects in work life. Since the artist's intervention is usually directed towards social relations in the workplaces, a social perspective on well-being is from a micro-sociological point of view. The categories in the interviews were how the artists worked with the projects, how the social interaction between artists and coworkers worked out, and how the artists evaluated the projects in relation to their ambitions. The results show that, many times, the artistic projects promote well-being in organisations and to some extent benefit the artist, but that the ability of the artists to actually function as artists can be problematic.

  19. Three-dimensional wave-induced current model equations and radiation stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hua-yong

    2017-08-01

    After the approach by Mellor (2003, 2008), the present paper reports on a repeated effort to derive the equations for three-dimensional wave-induced current. Via the vertical momentum equation and a proper coordinate transformation, the phase-averaged wave dynamic pressure is well treated, and a continuous and depth-dependent radiation stress tensor, rather than the controversial delta Dirac function at the surface shown in Mellor (2008), is provided. Besides, a phase-averaged vertical momentum flux over a sloping bottom is introduced. All the inconsistencies in Mellor (2003, 2008), pointed out by Ardhuin et al. (2008) and Bennis and Ardhuin (2011), are overcome in the presently revised equations. In a test case with a sloping sea bed, as shown in Ardhuin et al. (2008), the wave-driving forces derived in the present equations are in good balance, and no spurious vertical circulation occurs outside the surf zone, indicating that Airy's wave theory and the approach of Mellor (2003, 2008) are applicable for the derivation of the wave-induced current model.

  20. Interpretation of deformed ionograms induced by vertical ground motion of seismic Rayleigh waves and infrasound in the thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vertical ground motion of seismic surface waves launches acoustic waves into the atmosphere and induces ionospheric disturbances. Disturbances due to Rayleigh waves near the short-period Airy phase appear as wavy fluctuations in the virtual height of an ionogram and have a multiple-cusp signature (MCS when the fluctuation amplitude is increased. An extremely developed MCS was observed at Kazan, Russia, after the 2010 M 8.8 Chile earthquake. The ionogram exhibited steep satellite traces for which the virtual heights increased rapidly with frequency starting near the top of cusps and continuing for 0.1–0.2 MHz. This complicated ionogram was analyzed by applying a ray tracing technique to the radio wave propagation in the ionosphere that was perturbed by acoustic waves. Acoustic wavefronts were inclined by the effects of finite Rayleigh wave velocity and sound speed in the thermosphere. The satellite echo traces were reproduced by oblique returns from the inclined wavefronts, in addition to the nearly vertical returns that are responsible for the main trace.

  1. Prospects for versatile phase manipulation in the TEM: Beyond aberration correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzinati, Giulio; Clark, Laura; Béché, Armand; Juchtmans, Roeland; Van Boxem, Ruben; Mazilu, Michael; Verbeeck, Jo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the desirability of a transmission electron microscope in which the phase of the electron wave can be freely controlled. We discuss different existing methods to manipulate the phase of the electron wave and their limitations. We show how with the help of current techniques the electron wave can already be crafted into specific classes of waves each having their own peculiar properties. Assuming a versatile phase modulation device is feasible, we explore possible benefits and methods that could come into existence borrowing from light optics where the so-called spatial light modulators provide programmable phase plates for quite some time now. We demonstrate that a fully controllable phase plate building on Harald Rose's legacy in aberration correction and electron optics in general would open an exciting field of research and applications. - Highlights: • We offer a review of available phase manipulation techniques. • We demonstrate a method for producing Airy waves through aberration manipulation. • We outline hypothetical applications of arbitrary phase manipulation methods

  2. Mercury's Global Topography from Radar Ranging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Asmar, S. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Slade, M. A., III; Standish, E. M., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    When Mercury's radius is expanded in Legendre functions to the second degree and order, the systematic error in radar ranging data is reduced substantially. Previously, data spanning an observing interval from 1966 to 1990 were used to infer an equatorial ellipticity (a - b)/a = (540 +/- 54) X 10(exp -6) and a center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset of (640 +/- 78) m. The magnitude of this equatorial center of figure offset implies an excess crustal thickness of 12 km or less, comparable to the Moon's excess. By comparing the equatorial ellipticity with the Mariner 10 gravity field, and assuming Airy isostatic compensation, bounds on crustal thickness can be derived. Mercury's crustal thickness is in the range from 100 to 300 km. The Mercury radar ranging observing interval has been extended from 1966 to the present. In addition, improvements in data reduction techniques have resulted in a set of Mercury ranging data less affected by systematic error, in particular the biases introduced by local topographic variations. We use this new set of reduced ranging data to improve Mercury's global topography and center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset. New results on crustal thickness are derived, and prospects for further improvement with Mercury Orbiter data are discussed.

  3. Shape and Orientation of Mercury from Radar Ranging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    If Mercury's radius is expanded in Legendre functions to the second degree and order, the systematic error in radar ranging can be reduced significantly. We interpret the expansion coefficients in terms of a best-fit ellipsoid displaced with respect to the center of mass in the equatorial plane. The ellipsoid's principal axes are rotated in the equatorial plane such that the long axis is aligned with cartographic longitude 15.3 deg +/- 2.9 deg (west). The pole location is consistent with the IAU pole, normal to Mercury's orbital plane. There is a significant equatorial ellipticity (a - b)/a = (540 +/- 54) x 10(exp -6). The center of figure is offset from the center of mass (C.F.-C.M.) by 640 +/- 78 m in the equatorial plane in the direction of cartographic longitude 319.5 deg +/- 6.9 deg. The magnitude of the equatorial center of figure offset implies an excess crustal thickness of 12 km or less, comparable to the Moon's excess. By comparing the equatorial ellipticity with the Mariner 10 gravity coefficient C(sub 22) and assuming Airy isostatic compensation, we conclude that Mercury's crustal thickness is in the range from 100 to 300 km.

  4. Genes Integral to the Reproductive Function of Male Reproductive Tissues Drive Heterogeneity in Evolutionary Rates in Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finseth, Findley R.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Early comparative genomics studies originally uncovered a nonintuitive pattern; genes involved in reproduction appeared to evolve more rapidly than other classes of genes. Currently, the emerging consensus is that genes encoding reproductive proteins evolve under variable selective pressures, producing more heterogeneous divergence patterns than previously appreciated. Here, we investigate a facet of that heterogeneity and explore the factors that drive male reproductive tissue-based heterogeneity in evolutionary rates. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), genes with enriched expression in the testes evolve much more rapidly than those enriched in the foam gland (FG), a novel gland that secretes an airy foam that males transfer to females during mating. We compared molecular evolutionary patterns among (1) genes with induced expression in breeding vs. wintering conditions for both tissues and (2) genes that encode foam proteins (FPs) vs. those with varying degrees of expression specificity in the FG. We report two major findings. First, genes upregulated in breeding condition testes evolve exceptionally rapidly, while those induced in breeding condition FGs evolve slowly. These differences hold even after correcting for hormonally-dependent gene expression and chromosomal location. Second, genes encoding FPs are extremely conserved in terms of gene identity and sequence. Together, these finding suggest that genes involved in the reproductive function of each tissue drive the marked rate of heterogeneity. PMID:29158338

  5. [Tuberculosis and the modern ideal of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, T C

    2003-08-20

    Sunlight and fresh air belong to the everyday life's myths. It has influenced our times and personal lives as much as industrialization. Today we are hardly aware of the multiple and omnipresent consequences of this myth. The modern movement with all its facets including modern architecture is barely conceivable without it. What is the link between this triad with all its effects and tuberculosis, the oldest and most important infectious disease which still claims more than 3 million deaths per year worldwide? Tuberculosis was treated by sunlight and fresh air at all times. This treatment was at its zenith during the second half of the 19th century after Hermann Brehmer had initiated this treatment within sanatoria in 1862. The sanatorium vogue lasted until the middle of the last century when streptomycin was isolated by Selman Waksman 1943. A new type of hospital was necessary for treating the patients with sunlight and fresh air: the sanatorium with its wide windows, sheltered open balconies, terraces and "Liegehallen". In return, this airy type of building was the forrunner of a new architectural style, called "Neues Bauen". The latter has profoundly influenced our modern ideal of living since Le Corbusiier built the Villa Savoye, one of the architectural highlights of the 20th century.

  6. A UGO/EUTD Solution for the Scattering and Diffraction from Cubic Polynomial Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinides, Evagoras D.; Marhefka, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    A uniform geometrical optics (UGO) and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (EUTD) solution is developed for the scattering and diffraction from perfectly conducting cubic polynomial strips. The new solution overcomes the difficulties of the classic GO/UTD solution near caustics and composite shadow boundaries. The approach for constructing the UGO/EUTD solution is based on a spatial domain physical optics (PO) radiation integral representation for the scattered field which is then reduced using a uniform asymptotic procedure. New uniform reflection, zero-curvature diffraction, and edge diffraction coefficients are derived and involve the ordinary and incomplete Airy integrals as canonical functions. Higher order effects such as double edge diffraction, edge-excited creeping waves, and whispering gallery modes are not examined in this work. The UGO/EUTD solution is very efficient and provides useful physical insight into the various scattering and diffraction processes. It is also universal in nature and can be used to effectively describe the scattered fields from flat, strictly concave or convex, and concave-convex boundaries containing edges. Its accuracy is confirmed via comparison with some reference moment method (MM) results.

  7. An extended UTD analysis for the scattering and diffraction from cubic polynomial strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Spline and polynomial type surfaces are commonly used in high frequency modeling of complex structures such as aircraft, ships, reflectors, etc. It is therefore of interest to develop an efficient and accurate solution to describe the scattered fields from such surfaces. An extended Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) solution for the scattering and diffraction from perfectly conducting cubic polynomial strips is derived and involves the incomplete Airy integrals as canonical functions. This new solution is universal in nature and can be used to effectively describe the scattered fields from flat, strictly concave or convex, and concave convex boundaries containing edges. The classic UTD solution fails to describe the more complicated field behavior associated with higher order phase catastrophes and therefore a new set of uniform reflection and first-order edge diffraction coefficients is derived. Also, an additional diffraction coefficient associated with a zero-curvature (inflection) point is presented. Higher order effects such as double edge diffraction, creeping waves, and whispering gallery modes are not examined. The extended UTD solution is independent of the scatterer size and also provides useful physical insight into the various scattering and diffraction processes. Its accuracy is confirmed via comparison with some reference moment method results.

  8. Enhancing Biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan Oil Manufacturing using Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi, Slamet; Purwanto; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Hermawan

    2018-02-01

    Kemiri Sunan (Reutalis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) is a potential plant to be developed as biodiesel feedstock. The advantage of Kemiri Sunan seeds when compared to other biodiesel raw materials is their high oil content. This plant is also very good for land conservation. Due the increasingly demand for biodiesel, research and new methods to increase its biodiesel production continue to be undertaken. The weakness of conventional biodiesel manufacturing process is in the mixing process in which mechanical stirring and heating in the trans-esterification process require more energy and a longer time. A higher and stronger mixing process is required to increase the contact area between the two phases of the mixed substance to produce the emulsion. Ultrasonic is a tool that can be useful for a liquid mixing process that tends to be separated. Ultrasonic waves can cause mixing intensity at the micro level and increase mass transfer, so the reaction can be performed at a much faster rate. This study is to figure out the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the transesterification process of biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan Oil.

  9. Restoration of the Cretaceous uplift of the Harz Mountains, North Germany: Evidence for thick-skinned thrusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David C.; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Fault prediction and kinematic restoration are useful tools to firstly determine the likely geometry of a fault at depth and secondly restore the pre-deformation state to discover, for instance, paleogeometry. The inclined-shear method with constant slip uses the known geometry of the surface position and dip of the fault and the geometries of the hanging and footwall beds to predict the probable shape of the fault at depth, down to a detachment level. We use this method to determine the geometry of the Northern Harz Boundary Fault in northern Germany that was responsible for the uplift of the Harz Mountains during Late Cretaceous inversion. A shear angle of 30° was most likely in this case, as indicated by geological and geophysical data. This suggests that the detachment level is at a depth of ca. 25 km. Kinematic restoration of the Harz Mountains using this fault geometry does not produce a flat horizon, rather it results in a 3.5 km depression. Restoration also causes a rotation of fabrics within the Harz Mountains of approximately 11° clockwise. Airy-Heiskanen isostatic equilibrium adjustment reduces the depression to ca. 1 km depth, as well as raising the Moho from 41 to 36 km depth. We show that this model geometry is also a very good fit to the interpreted DEKORP BASIN 9601 deep seismic profile.

  10. Restoration of the Cretaceous uplift of the Harz Mountains, North Germany: evidence for the geometry of a thick-skinned thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David C.; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Reverse movement on the Harz Northern Boundary Fault was responsible for the Late Cretaceous uplift of the Harz Mountains in northern Germany. Using the known geometry of the surface position and dip of the fault, and a published cross section of the Base Permian horizon, we show that it is possible to predict the probable shape of the fault at depth, down to a detachment level. We use the `inclined-shear' method with constant heave and argue that a shear angle of 30° was most likely. In this case, the detachment level is at a depth of ca. 25 km. Kinematic restoration of the Harz Mountains using this fault geometry does not produce a flat horizon, rather it results in a ca. 4 km depression. Airy-Heiskanen isostatic equilibrium adjustment of the Harz Mountains restores the Base Permian horizon to the horizontal, as well as raising the Moho to a depth of 32 km, a typical value for northern Germany. Restoration also causes a rotation of tectonic fabrics within the Harz Mountains of about 11° clockwise. We show that this model geometry is very good fit to the interpreted DEKORP BASIN 9601 deep seismic profile.

  11. Image preprocessing improves Fourier-based texture analysis of nuclear chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Randall L; Leite, Neucimar J; Metze, Konradin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate whether preprocessing of digitized images can improve the image analysis of chromatin of cytologic preparations using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). In a preprocessing step the nuclear borders of the segmented nuclei were smoothed, thus avoiding the Airy ring artifact. We tested this method, comparing the inertia values of digitalized cardiomyocyte nuclei of rats of different ages. Furthermore, we created in silicio nuclear images with chromatin alterations at or nearby the nuclear edge in order to investigate the robustness of our method. After preprocessing, the FFT-derived variable inertia discriminated significantly better the chromatin structure of the nuclei at different ages in every frequency range. The investigation on simulated nuclei revealed that within the frequency ranges from 1.8 microm to 0.72 microm smoothing of the borders does not interfere with the detection of chromatin changes at the nuclear border. Smoothing of borders in segmented images can improve the analysis of Fourier-derived variables of the chromatin texture.

  12. Observations on the summability of confluent hypergeometric functions and on semiclassical quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstone, H.J.; Nakai, S.; Harris, J.G.

    1985-09-01

    Asymptotic expansions for Airy functions and more generally confluent hypergeometric functions, which are of fundamental importance in semiclassical quantum mechanics, are summable. The Stokes lines of the expansions are cuts of the Borel sums of the power series occurring in the expansions. At a Stokes line on which the function is continuous, the asymptotic expansions change discontinuously, but their composite sums do not: a fact that greatly clarifies the role of the Stokes line. On a Stokes line itself, it is still possible to evaluate the asymptotic expansion by Borel summation via analytic continuation, and as a consequence complex expansions may have real sums, and vice versa. This observation has important implications for the significance and use of asymptotic expansions recently derived for the resonances of the LoSurdo-Stark effect and for the energy eigenvalues of H/sub 2/ /sup +/. For both of these problems the physical values of the expansion parameters, the electric field strength and the reciprocal of the internuclear distance, lie on Stokes lines.

  13. Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-07-01

    Light beams with extraordinary spatial structures, such as the Airy beam (AB), the Bessel-Gaussian beam (BGB) and the Laguerre-Gaussian beam (LGB), are widely studied and applied in many optical scenarios. We report on preparation of light beams with controllable spatial structures through sum frequency generation (SFG) using two Gaussian pump beams in a quasi-phase matching (QPM) crystal. The spatial structures, including multi-ring-like BGB, donut-like LGB, and super-Gaussian-like beams, can be controlled periodically via crystal phase mismatching by tuning the pump frequency or crystal temperature. This phenomenon has not been reported or discussed previously. Additionally, we present numerical simulations of the phenomenon, which agree very well with the experimental observations. Our findings give further insight into the SFG process in QPM crystals, provide a new way to generate light with unusual spatial structures, and may find applications in the fields of laser optics, all-optical switching, and optical manipulation and trapping.

  14. Stress analysis of fuel claddings with axial fins including creep effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1977-01-01

    For LMFBR fuel claddings with axial fins the stress and strain fields are calculated which may be caused by internal pressure, differential thermal expansion and irradiation induced differential swelling. To provide an appropriate description of the cladding material it is assumed that the total strain is the sum of a linear elastic and a creep term, where the latter one includes the thermal as well as the irradiation induced creep. First the linear elastic problem is treated by a semi-analytical method leading to a bipotential equation for Airys' stress function. Solving this equation analytically means that the field equations valid within the cladding are satisfied exactly. By applying a combined point matching- least square-method the boundary conditions could be satisfied approximately such that in most cases the remaining error is within the uncertainty range of the loading conditions. Then the nonlinear problem which includes creep is approximated by a sequence of linear elastic solutions with time as parameter. The accumulated creep strain is treated here as an imposed strain field. To study the influence of different effects such as fin shape, temperature region, irradiation induced creep and swelling or internal pressure, a total of eleven cases with various parameter variations are investigated. The results are presented graphically in the following forms: stress and strain distributions over the cladding cross section for end of life conditions and boundary stresses and strains versus time. (Auth.)

  15. Repressed memories. When are they real? How are they false?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, E F; Polage, D C

    1999-03-01

    The precise mechanisms by which such false memories are constructed awaits further research. Much is left to learn about the degree of confidence and the characteristics of false memories created in these ways. We have more to learn about the types of individuals who are particularly susceptible to these forms of suggestion, and conversely, who is resistant. As we are learning more, it is probably important to heed the cautionary tale in the data already obtained; mental health professionals, interviewers, and others need to know how much they can potentially influence participants in research, clinical, and forensic contexts and take care to avoid that influence when it might be harmful. Periodic re-reading of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, with a small substitution (change "poet" to "therapist" or to "biased interviewer"), might help keep these important ideas in mind, reminding us how hard it can sometimes be to distinguish a bush from an imagined bear: The poet's eye, in fine fanciful rolling, Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven; And as imagination bodies forth The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen Turns them to shapes and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name. Such tricks hath strong imagination, that if it would but apprehend some joy, it comprehends some bringer of that joy; Or in the night, imagining some fear, How easy is a bush supposed a bear!

  16. The effect of gradational velocities and anisotropy on fault-zone trapped waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, A. K.; Eccles, J. D.; Kaipio, J. P.; Malin, P. E.

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic fault-zone trapped wave (FZTW) dispersion curves and amplitude responses for FL (Love) and FR (Rayleigh) type phases are analysed in transversely isotropic 1-D elastic models. We explore the effects of velocity gradients, anisotropy, source location and mechanism. These experiments suggest: (i) A smooth exponentially decaying velocity model produces a significantly different dispersion curve to that of a three-layer model, with the main difference being that Airy phases are not produced. (ii) The FZTW dispersion and amplitude information of a waveguide with transverse-isotropy depends mostly on the Shear wave velocities in the direction parallel with the fault, particularly if the fault zone to country-rock velocity contrast is small. In this low velocity contrast situation, fully isotropic approximations to a transversely isotropic velocity model can be made. (iii) Fault-aligned fractures and/or bedding in the fault zone that cause transverse-isotropy enhance the amplitude and wave-train length of the FR type FZTW. (iv) Moving the source and/or receiver away from the fault zone removes the higher frequencies first, similar to attenuation. (v) In most physically realistic cases, the radial component of the FR type FZTW is significantly smaller in amplitude than the transverse.

  17. Fresnel equations and transmission line analogues for diffraction gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, S.

    1995-08-01

    A simple and intuitive formalism is presented to describe diffraction in multi-layered periodic structures. We use the well known results from scalar analysis (wave propagation in homogeneous layered media) and show that they can be generalized rather readily to vector problems such as diffraction analysis. Specifically, we derive: (1) generalized Fresnel equations appropriate for reflection and transmission from an infinitely thick grating, (2) a generalized Airy formula for thin-film to describe reflection and transmission of light through a lamellar grating and (3) a matrix propagation method akin to that used for multi-layer thin film analysis. The results developed here complement the recent work on R-matrix and S-matrix propagation algorithms that have been used in connection with modal and differential grating theories. These algorithms have proven to be numerically stable for calculating diffraction efficiencies from deep groove gratings. The formalism developed here expands upon the earlier literature by providing important details that are hitherto unavailable.

  18. Radon and aldehyde concentrations in the indoor environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschandreas, D.J.; Rector, H.E.

    1981-04-01

    Findings regarding indoor air contaminants in the energy-efficient residence (EER) in Mt. Airy, Maryland are reported. The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze relevant air quality samples (specifically radon and aldehydes), characterize the indoor air quality with respect to radon and aldehydes, and develop relationships between air infiltration rates and contaminant levels. One-fifth of the measured formaldehyde concentrations were in the range that may cause health concerns. Although indoor temperature and relative humidity affect indoor HCHO concentration, the elevated formaldehyde concentrations were measured under very low air infiltration rates. The data show that ventilation of the indoor air space is somewhat effective in reducing high HCHO concentrations. The operation of the heat exchanger led to an increase of the air infiltration rate which in turn resulted in substantial reduction of formaldehyde concentrations. A considerable number of the collected samples of indoor air displayed radon concentrations at levels higher than 1.0 to 4.0 nCim -3 (assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5, these radon levels would correspond to working levels above the health guidelines suggested by the US EPA for homes in Florida built on land reclaimed from phosphate mining). As in the case of indoor formaldehyde concentrations, elevated indoor concentrations are substantially reduced when the infiltration rate is increased. The data base shows that the use of the air to air heat exchanger leads to reduction of indoor radon concentration by increasing the residential ventilation rate

  19. The fast Fresnel diffraction algorithm: from the ray matrix approach to experimental virtual propagation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey A.; Cottrell, Don M.; Berg, Cassidy A.; Freeman, Christopher Li; Carmona, Adriana; Debenham, William; Moreno, Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the fast Fresnel diffraction algorithm is reviewed and applied to some novel applications. The algorithm (also named the convolution or angular spectrum method) is a very powerful numerical technique that has been employed in the calculation of diffraction patterns. It utilizes two Fourier transform operations, thus becoming computationally much faster than the conventional approach. We analyze the practical implementation with spatial light modulators (SLM). First, the ray matrix approach is applied to derive and reexamine this computational technique. This approach easily allows us to find explicit expressions for the maximum and minimum distances over which the algorithm is accurate. Then, we describe the practical implementation of this algorithm to encode Fresnel propagated masks onto a SLM. We discuss the limitations caused by the Nyquist limit. Finally, we apply the technique to create an experimental virtual optical beam propagator system. This system uses one SLM and allows the experimental study of the beam propagation without physically moving any element. This laboratory propagator system can be extremely useful to build compact optical architectures or to emulate beam propagation without misalignments caused by moving elements in the experimental system. As examples, we design holograms capable of producing different patterns at different distances, and we can change the effective plane of observation by changing the encoded propagation. The technique can find applications in many different contexts, including the analysis of propagation dynamics of nondiffracting beams, and Airy beams.

  20. A thin, dense crust for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sori, Michael M.

    2018-05-01

    Crustal thickness is a crucial geophysical parameter in understanding the geology and geochemistry of terrestrial planets. Recent development of mathematical techniques suggests that previous studies based on assumptions of isostasy overestimated crustal thickness on some of the solid bodies of the solar system, leading to a need to revisit those analyses. Here, I apply these techniques to Mercury. Using MESSENGER-derived elemental abundances, I calculate a map of grain density (average 2974 ± 89 kg/m3) which shows that Pratt isostasy is unlikely to be a major compensation mechanism of Mercury's topography. Assuming Airy isostasy, I find the best fit value for Mercury's mean crustal thickness is 26 ± 11 km, 25% lower than the most recently reported and previously thinnest number. Several geological implications follow from this relatively low value for crustal thickness, including showing that the largest impacts very likely excavated mantle material onto Mercury's surface. The new results also show that Mercury and the Moon have a similar proportion of their rocky silicates composing their crusts, and thus Mercury is not uniquely efficient at crustal production amongst terrestrial bodies. Higher resolution topography and gravity data, especially for the southern hemisphere, will be necessary to refine Mercury's crustal parameters further.

  1. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  2. Gazelleri Işığında Bâkî’de Tefâhür Self-Praise in Consideration of His Odes in Baki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARADENİZ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fahriye, which is an Arabic word originally, is, in the traditional sense, a part of eulogies in which poet sing praises of himself and his poetry intensely. Ottoman poet generally priortised praise dignitaries in eulogy. In this chapter called Meddhiyye poets beg for pecuniary or non-pecuniary assistance. In the following chapter called fahriye, Ottoman poets who mentioned their virtues in their poems, imply their superiority to other Ottoman poets by mentioning their own expertise in poetry. It was an opportunity for Ottoman poets to self-praise as fahriyes followed medhiyye chapters in their poems. Besides this general acceptance, poets also give place to couplets containing headlamp in masnavis and lyrics though not in a section like eulogies. The couplets where the Ottoman poets about to praise themselves, are generally pseudonym couplets. Pseudonym couplet particularly gave an opportunity to Ottoman poets to initiate Fahriye besides to introduce the poet. When studied Divan of Baki, who was a renown Ottoman poet in the 16th century, brilliant and gorgeous fahriye couplets can be seen in his pseudonym couplets in his lyrics. Axis of this study, outside of fahriyes of eulogies, will be formed on occasion of lyric poets in which poets finds an opportunity to praise themselves and their poetry. In light of this informations, self-praise and fahriye concepts will be addressed through the pseudonym couplets of Baki’s lyrics. In the introduction, it will be given information about the concept of meaning of words and terms of fahriye and it will be focused on its content and place in tradition of Eulogies. In the final section of our study, it will be focused on manifestations of fahriye tradition as well as the various pseudonyms of Baki's lyrics. Köken itibariyle Arapça bir sözcük olan fahriye, şairin kendisini ve şairliğini övmek maksadıyla yoğunlukla ve geleneksel olarak kasideler içinde yer verdiği bir bölümdür. Divan şairi

  3. Numerical method to calculate the quantum transmission, resonance and eigenvalue energies: application to a biased multibarrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, PO Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    A novel method to calculate the quantum transmission, resonance and eigenvalue energies forming the sub-bands structure of non-symmetrical, non-periodical semiconducting heterostructure potential has been proposed in this paper. The method can be applied on a multilayer system with varying thickness of the layer and effective mass of electrons and holes. Assuming an approximated effective mass and using Bastard's boundary conditions, Schrödinger equation at each media is solved and then using a confirmed recurrence method, the transmission and reflection coefficients and the energy quantification condition are expressed. They are simple combination of coupled equations. Schrödinger's equation solutions are Airy functions or plane waves, depending on the electrical potential energy slope. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, the N barriers – (N−1) wells structure for N=3, 5, 8, 9, 17 and 35 are studied. All results show very good agreements with previously published results obtained from applying different methods on similar systems.

  4. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau crustal thickness derived from EGM2008 and CRSUT2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most complex region for crustal thickness inversion, while high-resolution earth gravity model (EGM makes it possible to obtain high precision gravity anomaly, which is a key parameter to depict the Earth’s inner structure in geodesy domain. On the basis of this principle, we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with EGM2008 and SRTM6. 0 by efficient high-degree spherical harmonic synthesis algorithm. In order to obtain the gravity anomaly caused by Moho density mutant, the noises caused by the topography was removed by wavelet details. Then, the crustal thickness was corrected on the basis of CRUST 2. 0 with the deep-large-scale single density interface formula. The inversion result indicates that the crustal thickness in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is between 50 km and 75 km, which is in correspondence with the recent science research result. Compared with the 2 degree CRUST 2. 0 model, the spatial resolution of crustal thickness in our research can reach 40 arc minutes. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the inversed crustal thickness and topography, which can prove the effectiveness of Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model in gravity reduction.

  5. A Nulling Coronagraph for TPF-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, Bruce Martin; Wallace, James Kent; Orton, Glenn S.; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Lane, Benjamin F.; Seager, Sara; Tolls, Volker; Lyon, Richard G.; Samuele, Rocco; hide

    2006-01-01

    The nulling coronagraph is one of 5 instrument concepts selected by NASA for study for potential use in the TPF-C mission. This concept for extreme starlight suppression has two major components, a nulling interferometer to suppress the starlight to 10(sup -10) per airy spot within 2 (lamda)/D of the star, and a calibration interferometer to measure the residual scattered starlight. The ability to work at 2 (lamda)/D dramatically improves the science throughput of a space based coronagraph like TPF-C. The calibration interferometer is an equally important part of the starlight suppression system. It measures the measures the wavefront of the scattered starlight with very high SNR, to 0.05nm in less than 5 minutes on a 5mag star. In addition, the post coronagraph wavefront sensor will be used to measure the residual scattered light after the coronagraph and subtract it in post processing to 12x10(sup -11) to enable detection of an Earthlike planet with a SNR of 510.

  6. Design of optical system for binocular fundus camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Lou, Shiliang; Xiao, Zhitao; Geng, Lei; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Wen; Liu, Mengjia

    2017-12-01

    A non-mydriasis optical system for binocular fundus camera has been designed in this paper. It can capture two images of the same fundus retinal region from different angles at the same time, and can be used to achieve three-dimensional reconstruction of fundus. It is composed of imaging system and illumination system. In imaging system, Gullstrand Le Grand eye model is used to simulate normal human eye, and Schematic eye model is used to test the influence of ametropia in human eye on imaging quality. Annular aperture and black dot board are added into illumination system, so that the illumination system can eliminate stray light produced by corneal-reflected light and omentoscopic lens. Simulation results show that MTF of each visual field at the cut-off frequency of 90lp/mm is greater than 0.2, system distortion value is -2.7%, field curvature is less than 0.1 mm, radius of Airy disc is 3.25um. This system has a strong ability of chromatic aberration correction and focusing, and can image clearly for human fundus in which the range of diopters is from -10 D to +6 D(1 D = 1 m -1 ).

  7. STUDY OF BIREFRINGENCE INFLUENCE ON IMAGE QUALITY OF PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY SYSTEMS IN VIEW OF PARTIALLY-COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Nikulina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study. A vector model for conversion of electromagnetic radiation in optical systems is considered, taking into account the influence of birefringence, as well as partially coherent illumination. Model. The proposed model is based on the representation of the complex amplitude of the monochromatic field through thesuperposition of basic plane waves. Transmitted light image with partially coherent illumination is performed by the sourceintegration method. Main results. The results of simulation for the point spread function are demonstrating the level of the birefringence influence on the image quality. In the presence of the wave aberration about 0.098 of the wavelength, the wave energy loss in the center of the Airy disk with an average birefringence of 4 nm/cm was 8%, and at 16 nm/cm it reached 30%. The calculation of the point spread function for a real sample of fluorite is given. The central peak of the PSF without birefringence was 0.722, with regard to birefringence it was equal to 0.701. Practical significance. The findings can be used in the development of photolithographic lenses, as well as for the manufacturing of any other optical systems that require consideration of the polarization properties of the materials.

  8. PSF Rotation with Changing Defocus and Applications to 3D Imaging for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, S.; Kumar, R.

    2013-09-01

    For a clear, well corrected imaging aperture in space, the point-spread function (PSF) in its Gaussian image plane has the conventional, diffraction-limited, tightly focused Airy form. Away from that plane, the PSF broadens rapidly, however, resulting in a loss of sensitivity and transverse resolution that makes such a traditional best-optics approach untenable for rapid 3D image acquisition. One must scan in focus to maintain high sensitivity and resolution as one acquires image data, slice by slice, from a 3D volume with reduced efficiency. In this paper we describe a computational-imaging approach to overcome this limitation, one that uses pupil-phase engineering to fashion a PSF that, although not as tight as the Airy spot, maintains its shape and size while rotating uniformly with changing defocus over many waves of defocus phase at the pupil edge. As one of us has shown recently [1], the subdivision of a circular pupil aperture into M Fresnel zones, with the mth zone having an outer radius proportional to m and impressing a spiral phase profile of form m? on the light wave, where ? is the azimuthal angle coordinate measured from a fixed x axis (the dislocation line), yields a PSF that rotates with defocus while keeping its shape and size. Physically speaking, a nonzero defocus of a point source means a quadratic optical phase in the pupil that, because of the square-root dependence of the zone radius on the zone number, increases on average by the same amount from one zone to the next. This uniformly incrementing phase yields, in effect, a rotation of the dislocation line, and thus a rotated PSF. Since the zone-to-zone phase increment depends linearly on defocus to first order, the PSF rotates uniformly with changing defocus. For an M-zone pupil, a complete rotation of the PSF occurs when the defocus-induced phase at the pupil edge changes by M waves. Our recent simulations of reconstructions from image data for 3D image scenes comprised of point sources at

  9. InSight detection of a Lithospheric Low Seismic Velocity Zone in Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Nimmo, F.; Lay, T.

    2014-12-01

    Most seismological models for the interior of Mars lack an upper mantle low velocity zone. However, there is expected to be a large thermal gradient across the stagnant conductive lid (lithosphere) of Mars. This gradient should tend to decrease elastic wave velocities with increasing depth, with this effect dominating the opposing tendency caused by increasing pressure with depth because Mars has low gravity. An upper mantle lithosphere with a low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath a thin high velocity "seismic lid" is thus predicted. The upcoming NASA InSight mission includes a three-component seismometer, which should provide the first opportunity to directly detect any lithospheric LVZ in Mars. Seismic wavefields expected for Mars mantle velocity structures with or without a strong LVZ are very distinct and may be distinguished by observing a modest number of seismic sources at different epicentral ranges. The LVZ models predict shadow zones for high-frequency seismic body wave phases such as P, S, PP and SS, etc. The most diagnostic waves that can be used to evaluate presence of a lithospheric LVZ given a single seismometer are intermediate period surface waves, which travel along the great circle from a seismic source to the seismometer along both minor- and (if the source is large enough) major-arc directions. An LVZ produces distinctive dispersion, with a Rayleigh wave Airy phase around 100 s period and very different surface wave seismograms compared to a model with no LVZ. Even a single observation of long-period surface waves from a known range can be diagnostic of the lithospheric structure. Establishing the existence of an LVZ has major implications for thermal evolution, volatile content and internal dynamics of the planet.

  10. Seismological implications of a lithospheric low seismic velocity zone in Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingcai; Nimmo, Francis; Lay, Thorne

    2015-03-01

    Most seismological models for the interior of Mars lack an upper mantle low velocity zone. However, there is expected to be a large thermal gradient across the stagnant conductive lid (lithosphere) of Mars. This gradient should tend to decrease elastic wave velocities with increasing depth, with this effect dominating the opposing tendency caused by increasing pressure with depth because Mars has low gravity. An upper mantle lithosphere with a low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath a thin high velocity "seismic lid" is thus predicted. The upcoming NASA InSight mission includes a three-component seismometer, which should provide the first opportunity to directly detect any lithospheric LVZ in Mars. Seismic wavefields expected for Mars mantle velocity structures with or without a strong LVZ are very distinct. The LVZ models predict shadow zones for high-frequency seismic body wave phases such as P, S, PP and SS, etc. The most diagnostic waves that can be used to evaluate presence of a lithospheric LVZ given a single seismometer are intermediate-period global surface waves, which travel along the great circle from a seismic source to the seismometer. An LVZ produces distinctive dispersion, with a Rayleigh wave Airy phase around 100 s period and very different surface wave seismograms compared to a model with no LVZ. Even a single observation of long-period surface waves from a known range can be diagnostic of the lithospheric structure. Establishing the existence of an LVZ has major implications for thermal evolution, volatile content and internal dynamics of the planet.

  11. Van Gogh's Starry Nights, Lincoln's Moon, Shakespeare's Stars, and More: Tales of Astronomy in Art, History, and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    How do astronomical methods make it possible to calculate dates and times for Vincent van Gogh's night-sky paintings? Why is there a blood-red sky in Edvard Munch's The Scream? How can the 18.6-year cycle of the lunar nodes and the Moon's declination on the night of August 29-30, 1857, explain a long-standing mystery about Abraham Lincoln's honesty in the murder case known as the almanac trial? Why is a bright star described in Act 1, Scene 1, of Hamlet? There is a long tradition of astronomical methods employed to analyze works of art, to understand historical events, and to elucidate passages in literature. Both Edmond Halley and George Biddell Airy calculated lunar phases and tide tables in attempts to determine the landing beach where Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C. Henry Norris Russell computed configurations of Jupiter and Saturn to determine a date for a 14th-century celestial event mentioned in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. In this tradition, our Texas State group has published a series of articles in Sky & Telescope over the last two decades, applying astronomy to art, history, and literature. Don Osterbrock worked with us 3 years ago when my students and I calculated dates for moonrise photographs taken by Ansel Adams in Yosemite National Park. The peaks of the Sierra Nevada crest in Yosemite are more than 125 miles from Lick Observatory, but the mountains can become visible from Lick on clear winter days and were photographed from there on early infrared-sensitive plates during the 1920s and 1930s. As we tested our topographic software by identifying the peaks that appear in the Lick plates, it was a pleasure to come to know Don, a former director of Lick Observatory and the person in whose honor this talk is dedicated.

  12. Accommodation in human eye models: a comparison between the optical designs of Navarro, Arizona and Liou-Brennan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulinakis, Georgios; Esteve-Taboada, Jose Juan; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Madrid-Costa, David; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To simulate and compare accommodation in accommodative and non-accommodative human eye models. Ray tracing and optical design program was used. Three eye models were designed and studied: the Navarro, the Arizona and the Liou-Brennan. In order to make the Navarro and Liou-Brennan models to accommodate, specific geometric parameters of the models were altered with values that were chosen from the literature. For the Arizona model, its' mathematical functions for accommodation were used for the same accommodative demands. The simulation included four distances of accommodation for each model: at infinity, 3, 1 and 0.5 m.The results were diffraction images of a "letter F" for graphical comparison, spot diagrams on the retinal field and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) graphs. Zernike coefficients for the aberrations, Airy disk diameter, root mean square (RMS) error diameter and total axial length of the model were provided from the program. These were compared between them in all distances. The Navarro model had the smallest axial length change as a simple model. The Arizona did not change its axial length because it is designed to be accommodative. The Liou-Brennan model had different results concerning the aberrations because of the decentration of the pupil. The MTF graphs showed small differences between the models because of the differences in their designs. All the three models are able to simulate accommodation with the expected results. There is no model that can be assumed as the best choice. Accommodation can be simulated in non-accommodativemodels and in customized ones.

  13. Australian Northwest Shelf: a Late Neogene Reversible Tectonic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominz, M. A.; Gurnis, M.; Gallagher, S. J.; Expedition 356 Scientists, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia is characterized by several offshore basins with active rifting in Permian and Jurassic time. Thus, by the Late Neogene this continental margin should be a very slowly subsiding passive margin. However, thick, poorly dated sediments have been noted in this region leading to speculation that this part of Australia has undergone down-warping in this time period. The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 356 was designed, in part, to better constrain this even in both time and space. Post-cruise Airy-backstripping analyses of samples from four IODP 356 well sites, located as far south as the Perth Basin and as far North as the Carnarvon Basin, suggest that, in fact, this region has undergone a latest Miocene (≈ 8 to 6 Ma) subsidence event followed by a later (≈ 2 to 1 Ma) uplift event. Age constraints are from micropaleontology with some refinement using climate cycle-stratigraphy. Water depth constraints are from benthic foraminifera and from quantitative ratios of benthic foraminifera to planktonic foraminifera. These event cannot be explained as related to either the high-magnitude glacial eustatic changes nor can the uplift event be eliminated and ascribed to sediments filling the accommodation space generated in the earlier event. The magnitude and duration of the vertical movements are remarkably similar and suggests that the subsidence is reversible. Reversibility is a key aspect of a dynamic topography signal. However, it is difficult to produce a mantle anomaly that reproduces the subsidence and subsequent uplift with the requisite amplitude and rates as observed in the NWS of Australia. Additionally, the subduction of the Australian Plate into the Java Trench is too distant to affect this region of Australia. Modeling of a flexural warping due to in-plane stress related to collision of Timor with the Java trench is

  14. Pabellón de trasplantes en el hospital general de Edimburgo, Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womersley, P.

    1970-11-01

    Full Text Available The set of buildings includes a medical wing, an administrative wing, and a slightly elevated passage, which connects the Nuffield Foundation with the Hospital, through which patients and donants are taken from the Hospital to the Pavillion. The body of the building, which is tower shaped, has stairs, a lift, water tanks; and in the semi-basement there are mechanical, sanitary, and air conditioning installations. This pavillion has been specially designed to carry out human transplants, mainly kidneys, and meets present complex technical needs in this branch of surgery. From the aesthetic aspect, the total designs gives the visitor the impression of safety and airiness, and induces a sensation of confidence.El conjunto construido consta de: un ala médica; un ala administrativa; y un paso ligeramente elevado, que une Nuffield con el Hospital, utilizado para el traslado de pacientes y donantes desde el Hospital al Pabellón. El cuerpo de edificio, con aspecto de «torre», contiene: la escalera, el ascensor, el depósito de agua, etc.; el semisótano alberga: los equipos mecánicos y los servicios de las instalaciones sanitarias, aire acondicionado, etc. Ha sido especialmente diseñado para realizar operaciones de trasplante de órganos humanos, en particular de riñon, y satisface adecuadamente las complejas exigencias técnicas que reclamaban los recientes avances en esta rama de la cirugía. Desde el punto de vista estético, el conjunto construido produce en el espectador una sensación segura y etérea, que lo hace sumamente atractivo.

  15. Tunable coherent radiation at soft X-ray wavelengths: Generation and interferometric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosfjord, Kristine Marie

    2004-01-01

    The availability of high power, spectrally and spatially coherent soft x-rays (SXR) would facilitate a wide variety of experiments as this energy region covers the primary resonances of many magnetic and biological materials. Specifically, there are the carbon and oxygen K-edges that are critical for biological imaging in the water window and the L-edges of iron, nickel, and cobalt for which imaging and scattering studies can be performed. A new coherent soft X-ray branchline at the Advanced Light Source has begun operation (beamline 12.0.2). Using the third harmonic from an 8 cm period undulator, this branch delivers coherent soft x-rays with photon energies ranging from 200eV to 1keV. This branchline is composed of two sub-branches one at 14X demagnification and the other 8X demagnification. The former is optimized for use at 500eV and the latter at 800eV. Here the expected power from the third harmonic of this undulator and the beamline design and characterization is presented. The characterization includes measurements on available photon flux as well as a series of double pinhole experiments to determine the coherence factor with respect to transverse distance. The first high quality Airy patterns at SXR wavelengths are created with this new beamline. The operation of this new beamline allows for interferometry to be performed in the SXR region. Here an interferometric experiment designed to directly determine the index of refraction of a material under test is performed. Measurements are first made in the EUV region using an established beamline (beamline12.0.1) to measure silicon, ruthenium and tantalum silicon nitride. This work is then extended to the SXR region using beamline 12.0.2 to test chromium and vanadium

  16. Continental rifting in the Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea: A comparison of different estimates of extension at the rifting-spreading transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlow, J.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Woodlark Basin is one of few places where it is possible to investigate an active transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading. The Papuan Peninsula began N-S extension at 8.4 Ma, followed by seafloor spreading at 6 Ma. To date, seafloor spreading has propagated west 500 km. In the proximity of the modern rifting to spreading transition the northern margin has subsided 2-3 km with minor brittle faulting. The southern margin has subsided a similar amount but is characterized by large faults. Previous work shows that the observed continental extension is half the amount resolved by seafloor-spreading kinematics. It has been proposed that this discrepancy is due to mid-crustal decoupling, where the mantle lithosphere and lower crust are detached. The N-S profile across the current rifting to spreading transition is a natural laboratory for extensional environments. The work herein presented is a continuation of prior studies, but incorporates a new approach to extensional modeling, specifically the use of the Move software package. The profile presented includes ODP Leg 180 wells. Structural and stratigraphic interpretations originate from nearby seismic lines. Biostratigraphy and paleomagnetism data are the basis for age-depth relationships. Interpreted sedimentary packages permit backstripping and decompaction models that assume Airy Isostasy. Extension is estimated through the restoration of fault heaves and back rotation of fault blocks. From previous studies we know the width of the Papuan Peninsula to be 320 km in the vicinity of the profile presented. Furthermore, those studies estimate 220 km of extension across the margin based on Euler pole kinematics. This gives an original margin width of about 100 km, and Beta greater than 3. We present herein an extension estimate based on 2-D kinematic modeling, and contrast this with prior extension estimates of 111-115 km.

  17. MR guided percutaneous laser lumbar disk hernia ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takuo; Terao, Tohru; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Yuhki, Ichiro; Harada, Junta; Tashima, Michiko [Jikei Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kashiwa Hospital; Abe, Toshiaki

    1998-03-01

    An MRI unit for interventional procedure is very useful for minimally invasive surgery of the brain and spine. Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) utilizing X-ray fluoroscopy is a relatively new less invasive procedure for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. MR guided laser surgery is applied to patients with disc herniation at our department. Approaching the target of the disc protrusion was easily conducted and vaporizing the disc hernia directly using a laser was possible under MR fluoroscopy. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness of MR guided percutaneous laser disc hernia ablation (MR-guided PLDHA). As subjects, 36 patients with lumbar disc herniation, including 23 cases with L4/5 involvement and 13 cases with L5/S1 involvement were studied. Among these, 26 were males and 10 were females, age ranging from 24 to 62. We used an open type MR system (Hitachi, Airis 0.3T), a permanent, open configuration MR system. A YAG laser (LaserScope, USA) was used for PLDHA. An MR compatible 18G titanium needle 15 cm in length was used to puncture the herniated discs. The MR compatible needle was clearly visualized, and used to safely and accurately puncture the target herniated disc in each case with multidimensional guidance. Application of the laser was performed with MR guidance. The energy dose from the laser ranged from 800 to 2100 joules. In most cases, signs and symptoms improved in the patients immediately after disc vaporization. The overall success rate was 88.9%. The complication rate was 2.8%, including one case of discitis after PLDHA. MR fluoroscopy sequence permits near real time imaging and provides an easy approach to the therapeutic target of disc herniation. MR guided PLDHA is a minimally invasive procedure and is very useful for the treatment of lumbar disc protrusion. (author)

  18. MR guided percutaneous laser lumbar disk hernia ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takuo; Terao, Tohru; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Yuhki, Ichiro; Harada, Junta; Tashima, Michiko; Abe, Toshiaki.

    1998-01-01

    An MRI unit for interventional procedure is very useful for minimally invasive surgery of the brain and spine. Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) utilizing X-ray fluoroscopy is a relatively new less invasive procedure for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. MR guided laser surgery is applied to patients with disc herniation at our department. Approaching the target of the disc protrusion was easily conducted and vaporizing the disc hernia directly using a laser was possible under MR fluoroscopy. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness of MR guided percutaneous laser disc hernia ablation (MR-guided PLDHA). As subjects, 36 patients with lumbar disc herniation, including 23 cases with L4/5 involvement and 13 cases with L5/S1 involvement were studied. Among these, 26 were males and 10 were females, age ranging from 24 to 62. We used an open type MR system (Hitachi, Airis 0.3T), a permanent, open configuration MR system. A YAG laser (LaserScope, USA) was used for PLDHA. An MR compatible 18G titanium needle 15 cm in length was used to puncture the herniated discs. The MR compatible needle was clearly visualized, and used to safely and accurately puncture the target herniated disc in each case with multidimensional guidance. Application of the laser was performed with MR guidance. The energy dose from the laser ranged from 800 to 2100 joules. In most cases, signs and symptoms improved in the patients immediately after disc vaporization. The overall success rate was 88.9%. The complication rate was 2.8%, including one case of discitis after PLDHA. MR fluoroscopy sequence permits near real time imaging and provides an easy approach to the therapeutic target of disc herniation. MR guided PLDHA is a minimally invasive procedure and is very useful for the treatment of lumbar disc protrusion. (author)

  19. The Ceres gravity field, spin pole, rotation period and orbit from the Dawn radiometric tracking and optical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Vaughan, A. T.; Bills, B. G.; Asmar, S. W.; Ermakov, A. I.; Rambaux, N.; Raymond, C. A.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Russell, C. T.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    Ceres' gravity field and rotational parameters have been precisely measured using 1.5 years of radiometric Doppler and range data and optical landmark tracking from the Dawn spacecraft in orbit about the dwarf planet. As was the case with Dawn at Vesta, the gravity field, orientation parameters, landmark locations, and Ceres' orbit are jointly estimated in a global solution. Even though Dawn's radio science investigation at Ceres was complicated by additional thrusting for attitude control, the resulting spherical harmonic gravity field has a half-wavelength resolution of up to 82 km (degree 18) near the equator, which is similar harmonic resolution to that of Vesta. The gravity field is consistent with Airy isostatic compensation, and this model assumption limits Ceres' crustal density to be between 1200 and 1600 kg/m3 for two-layer and three-layer models with mean crustal thickness between 27 and 43 km. The compensation depth is determined using admittance between gravity and gravity from topography and is superior to admittance between gravity and topography. The gravitational mass of Ceres is determined to better than 0.002% (GMCeres = 62.62736 ± 0.00040 km3/s2), the spin pole location is improved by 10× over previous results with right ascension (α = 291.427°) and declination (δ = 66.760°) uncertainty less than 0.001°, and the rotation rate is improved by ∼100× over previous determinations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Ceres' heliocentric orbit has also been improved, with about 17 months of precision range measurements reducing ephemeris uncertainties to about 10 m during the Dawn timeframe.

  20. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  1. Dos obras de Pei & partners – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei & Partners, Arquitectos

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Everson museum at Syracuse. This museum is a fine plastic expression of an architectural-sculptural composition, whose outstanding feature is the airy staircase to the higher floor. The lower level has an auditorium, a resting hall, a library, a large engravings show gallery, a hall for the exhibition of small sculptures, educational facilities, and administrative offices. The higher level includes the hall where large sculptures are exhibited, four ample galleries, three smaller ones, a resting space, a lecture hall and a central space. Artistic centre at des Moines. This centre is made mainly of reinforced, unfaced, concrete. A special architectural feature of the design is the contrast between the massive concrete surfaces and the large glazed areas. The building comprises two large zones for the exhibition of sculpture, an auditorium with 240 seats, and a number of additional spaces, including the lake enclosure, and an ample terrace which is also used for open air exhibitions.Constituye este Museo una bella expresión plástica de composición arquitectónico-escultórica, cuya más relevante pieza es la airosa escalera de subida a la planta superior. El nivel inferior comprende: el auditorio, la sala de descanso, la biblioteca, gran galería de grabado, sala de exposición de pequeñas esculturas, instalaciones educativas, oficinas de la administración, etc. El nivel superior abarca: la sala para la exhibición de grandes esculturas, cuatro amplias galerías, tres más pequeñas, zona de descanso, sala de conferencias, y la zona de las plazas.

  2. Pretreatment of Nitric Acid with Hydrogen Peroxide Reduces Total Procedural Os Blank to Femtogram Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly; Hannah, Judith

    2015-07-21

    Determining and correcting for background contributions of Re and Os from chemical reagents is critical for accurate and precise Re-Os dating of materials with parts per billion to parts per trillion Re and Os concentrations. Here we investigate reducing Os content in nitric acid, as it is the main contributor to the Os blank. Pretreating high-purity nitric acid with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly reduces nitric acid's Os contribution to femtogram levels, greatly reducing Os blank corrections. The improvement in background Os allows analysis of samples with extremely low Os concentrations (into the low ppt level). We present experimental data identifying key factors in reducing Os blank, including nitric acid to hydrogen peroxide volume ratios, wet versus dry glassware, and dark versus lighted reaction environments. These variables affect the reaction time between the two reagents, which in turn correlates inversely with the final Os content. The volume ratio of H2O2/HNO3 is shown to be the fundamental control on reaction time and final Os content, yielding a well-defined exponential relationship; minor variations in reaction time result from wet/dry glassware and light/dark reaction environment. At a H2O2/HNO3 volume ratio of ∼0.24, the total procedural Os blank is reduced from 6.5 pg (no H2O2) to 0.043 pg. The (187)Os/(188)Os of the Os blank ranges from 0.18 to 0.36, consistent with the Os blank compositions obtained by the AIRIE Program and other Re-Os laboratories worldwide, and is uncorrelated with any experimental variables. In contrast to Os, pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide did not improve the Re blank of nitric acid; Re background reduction requires conventional methods such as sub-boiling distillation.

  3. Tailoring complex optical fields via anisotropic microstructures (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Wei; Cui, Guo-Xin

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, complex optical fields with spatially inhomogeneous phases, polarizations and optical singularities have drawn many research interests. Many novel effects have been predicted and demonstrated for light beams with these unconventional states in both linear and nonlinear optics regimes. Although local optical phase could be controlled directly or through hologram structures in isotropic materials such as glasses, optical anisotropy is still required for manipulating polarization states and wavelengths. The anisotropy could be either intrinsic such as in crystals/liquid crystals (LCs) or the induced birefringence from dielectric or metallic structures. In this talk, we will briefly review some of our attempts in tailoring complex optical fields via anisotropic microstructures. We developed a micro-photo-patterning system that could generate complex micro-images then further guides the arbitrary local LC directors. Due to the electro-optically (EO) tunable anisotropy of LC, various reconfigurable complex optical fields such as optical vortices (OVs), multiplexed OVs, OV array, Airy beams and vector beams are obtained. Different LC modes such as homogeneous alignment nematic, hybrid alignment nematic and even blue phase LCs are adopted to optimize the static and dynamic beam characteristics depending on application circumstances. We are also trying to extend our approaches to new wavelength bands, such as mid-infrared and even THz ranges. Some preliminary results are obtained. In addition, based on our recently developed local poling techniques for ferroelectric crystals, we will also discuss and demonstrate the nonlinear complex optical field conversion in Lithium Niobate wafers with patterned ferroelectric domain structures.

  4. Two-Dimensional Analysis of Cable Stayed Bridge under Wave Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Madhuri; Manohar, Y.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study finite element analysis is performed for a modified fan type cable-stayed bridge using ANSYS Mechanical. A cable stayed bridge with two towers and main deck is considered for the present study. Dynamic analysis is performed to evaluate natural frequencies. The obtained natural frequencies and mode shapes of cable stayed bridge are compared to the existing results. Further studies have been conducted for offshore area application by increasing the pylon/tower height depending upon the water depth. Natural frequencies and mode shapes are evaluated for the cable stayed bridge for offshore area application. The results indicate that the natural periods are higher than the existing results due to the effect of increase in mass of the structure and decrease in stiffness of the pylon/tower. The cable stayed bridge is analyzed under various environmental loads such as dead, live, vehicle, seismic and wave loading. Morison equation is considered to evaluate the wave force. The sum of inertia and drag force is taken as the wave force distribution along the fluid interacting height of the pylon. Airy's wave theory is used to assess water particle kinematics, for the wave periods ranging from 5 to 20 s and unit wave height. The maximum wave force among the different regular waves is considered in the wave load case. The support reactions, moments and deflections for offshore area application are highlighted. It is observed that the maximum support reactions and support moments are obtained due to wave and earthquake loading respectively. Hence, it is concluded that the wave and earthquake forces shall be given significance in the design of cable stayed bridge.

  5. First observations of nuclear rainbow scattering in the 16O+27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, D.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Chamon, L.C.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Carbone, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear rainbow structures have been unexpectedly predicted in the elastic channel of heavy nuclear systems like 16 O + 27 Al or 58 Ni by a new generation of coupled channel calculations, with inclusion of an imaginary potential for dissipative processes. Rainbow scattering phenomena are very sensitive to the nuclear potential in the surface interior and therefore very important to test different microscopic ion-ion potentials, as mentioned in, as well as the role of reaction couplings in the elastic channel far from the barrier region. The rainbow pattern has been experimentally well established for lighter systems like alpha-nucleus, 12 C + 12 C, 16 O + 12 C, and 16 O + 16 O - the heaviest heavy-ion system so far that has shown a prominent rainbow structure. By using the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer MAGNEX (LNS, Catania, Italy) in a high-sensitivity and high-precision experiment, we have confirmed some of the predictions cited above, for the 16 O + 27 Al system, at 100 MeV beam energy, up to about 80 degrees in the center of mass. An extremely good resolution (around 90 keV) was achieved, allowing for clear separation of the elastic channel from the first excited state of 27 Al (843.8 keV). Cross sections below 10 -4 mb were measured. Additional experiments are scheduled to April, 2011, in order to explore the backward-angle region. In this presentation, the comparison between the rainbow structures detected in this system and those in lighter systems and with weakly bound nuclei will be discussed, in connection with the predicted Airy minima. (author)

  6. The LBTI Fizeau imager - I. Fundamental gain in high-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patru, F.; Esposito, S.; Puglisi, A.; Riccardi, A.; Pinna, E.; Arcidiacono, C.; Antichi, J.; Mennesson, B.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Hill, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    We show by numerical simulations a fundamental gain in contrast when combining coherently monochromatic light from two adaptive optics (AO) telescopes instead of using a single stand-alone AO telescope, assuming efficient control and acquisition systems at high speed. A contrast gain map is defined as the normalized point spread functions (PSFs) ratio of a single Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) aperture over the dual Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) aperture in Fizeau mode. The global gain averaged across the AO-corrected field of view is improved by a factor of 2 in contrast in long exposures and by a factor of 10 in contrast in short exposures (i.e. in exposures, respectively, longer or shorter than the coherence time). The fringed speckle halo in short exposures contains not only high-angular resolution information, as stated by speckle imaging and speckle interferometry, but also high-contrast imaging information. A high-gain zone is further produced in the valleys of the PSF formed by the dark Airy rings and/or the dark fringes. Earth rotation allows us to exploit various areas in the contrast gain map. A huge-contrast gain in narrow zones can be achieved when both a dark fringe and a dark ring overlap on to an exoplanet. Compared to a single 8-m LBT aperture, the 23-m LBTI Fizeau imager can provide a gain in sensitivity (by a factor of 4), a gain in angular resolution (by a factor of 3) and, as well, a gain in raw contrast (by a factor of 2-1000 varying over the AO-corrected field of view).

  7. Wilson loops, instantons and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiereck, Marc

    2014-05-01

    In this thesis we examine two different problems. The first is the computation of vacuum expectation values of Wilson loop operators in ABJM theory, the other problem is finding the instanton series of the refined topological string on certain local Calabi-Yau geometries in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit. Based on the description of ABJM theory as a matrix model, it is possible to find a description of it in terms of an ideal Fermi gas with a non-trivial one-particle Hamiltonian. The vacuum-expectation-values of Wilson loop operators in ABJM theory correspond to averages of operators in the statistical-mechanical problem. Using the WKB expansion, it is possible to extract the full 1/N expansion of the vevs, up to exponentially small contributions, for arbitrary Chern-Simons coupling. We compute these vevs for the 1/6 and 1/2 BPS Wilson loops at any winding number. These can be written in terms of the Airy function. The expressions we found reproduce the low genus results previously obtained in the 't Hooft expansion. In another problem we use mirror symmetry, quantum geometry and modularity properties of elliptic curves to calculate the refined free energies, given in terms of an instanton sum, in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit on non-compact toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, based on del Pezzo surfaces. Quantum geometry here is to be understood as a quantum deformed version of rigid special geometry, which has its origin in the quantum mechanical behavior of branes in the topological string B-model. We argue that in the Seiberg-Witten picture only the Coulomb parameters lead to quantum corrections, while the mass parameters remain uncorrected. In certain cases we also compute the expansion of the free energies at the orbifold point and the conifold locus. We compute the quantum corrections order by order on ℎ by deriving second order differential operators, which act on the classical periods.

  8. Advantages of stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tumor using interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Report of 12 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Tohru; Hashimoto, Takuo; Koyama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koichi; Harada, Junta [Jikei Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kashiwa Hospital; Abe, Toshiaki

    1998-12-01

    Interventional MRI, an advanced neuroimaging system, was used to perform stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tissue (AIRIS, 0.3 Tesla, Hitachi) in 12 patients (9 males, 3 females) with intraparenchymal abnormal lesions. This system permits accurate and safe biopsy of brain tissue in real time. Patient ages ranged from 31 to 79 years (mean 61.5 years). We evaluated the abnormal lesion and dominant hemisphere of these patients preoperatively by using CT, MRI and cerebral angiography. Lesions were located in the left frontal lobe in 3 cases, the right frontal lobe in 1 case, the left temporal lobe in 1 case, the right temporal lobe in 1 case, the left parietal lobe in 2 cases, the right parietal lobe in 1 case, the left occipital lobe in 1 case, the bilateral basal ganglia in 1 case and the corpus callosum in 1 case. The sampling points were in the dominant hemisphere in 7 cases and in the non-dominant hemisphere in 5 cases. The diagnosis based on stereotaxic needle biopsy using this system were 4 gliomas, 1 brain abscess, 1 metastatic brain tumor, 1 granuloma, 2 cerebral infarctions, 2 malignant lymphomas and 1 normal brain tissue. Success rate of biopsy for our 12 cases using this system was 91.7%. Brain hemorrhage was a complication in 1 case but there was no case of meningitis or convulsion. This method is useful in patients with inoperable lesions, including deep lesion or lesions in the brainstem diencephalon or dominant hemisphere, in patients with serious complications, and in geriatric patients. In the future, this MRI system may be applied to minimally invasive therapies such as tumor ablation, cryosurgery, chemoablation, and ventrolateral thalamotomy for parkinsonism. (author)

  9. SISTEM KOMPUTERISASI PRESENSI KARYAWAN DENGAN FINGERPRINT DI STMIK AMIKOM PURWOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jahir

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available I'enelitian yang bcrjulul Sisten Kompulerisasi presensi Karyawan tlenganFingerprint ini be ujuan untuk membangun iptikasi presensi d"ngoi ^erggurrft on4:suo:r!.. Metode yang digunakan uautr pengembangan sistem menggunaka, modelI4/ater Fall yaitu : penentuan cJan Anarisi siesrfit0, dengan,perhirungan Beneft.Co,t. Rstios fi[iirrai[ekm on,o,otrrri;;;;;"r0nilai perbandingan yang didapatkan.1,5 schingga I L Dari p"rniir-ry*' "rii;ikclayakan dengan ke empai merode diatas makiiystem layuk ,itrt ,lifu7g,rn'io,dikembangkan. Dalam -penelitian iri .,airi*putioni"'U. n, STMIK AMKOMPurwokerto pertu dibuit rancang bangun 'sistem presensi Karyawan dengan .menggunakan Fingerprint sebaga,i arat seisor sicrik jari un!uk proses'ider,,7i"ri'i,l::t"'::,rry. 2. Sistem.yang dibangun.j.uga.mampu meryaiikan ir\\oi,iri i"r$,Iaporan rekap presensi karvawan yang dibutuhkan ileh: bignn fup"goroion,Lo[ionkeuangan dan bagian lain ang membutuhkan.

  10. Plastid phylogenomics and adaptive evolution of Gaultheria series Trichophyllae (Ericaceae), a clade from sky islands of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Ying; Fritsch, Peter W; Ma, Peng-Fei; Wang, Hong; Lu, Lu; Li, De-Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Gaultheria series Trichophyllae Airy Shaw is an angiosperm clade of high-alpine shrublets endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and characterized by recent species divergence and convergent character evolution that has until recently caused much confusion in species circumscription. Although multiple DNA sequence regions have been employed previously, phylogenetic relationships among species in the group have remained largely unresolved. Here we examined the effectiveness of the plastid genome for improving phylogenetic resolution within the G. series Trichophyllae clade. Plastid genomes of 31 samples representing all 19 recognized species of the series and three outgroup species were sequenced with Illumina Sequencing technology. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) phylogenetic analyses were performed with various datasets, i.e., that from the whole plastid genome, coding regions, noncoding regions, large single-copy region (LSC) and inverted-repeat region a (IRa). The partitioned whole plastid genome with inverted-repeat region b (IRb) excluded was also analyzed with ML and BI. Tree topologies based on the whole plastid genome, noncoding regions, and LSC region datasets across all analyses, and that based on the partitioned dataset with ML and BI analyses, are identical and generally strongly supported. Gaultheria series Trichophyllae form a clade with three species and one variety that is sister to a clade of the remaining 16 species; the latter comprises seven main subclades. Interspecific relationships within the series are strongly supported except for those based on the coding-region and IRa-region datasets. Eight divergence hotspot regions, each possessing >5% percent variable sites, were screened across the whole plastid genome of the 28 individuals sampled in the series. Results of morphological character evolution reconstruction diagnose several clades, and a hypothesis of adaptive evolution for plant habit is

  11. St. John le calviniste, ou l’émule de Gil-Martin Charlotte Brontë’s Calvinist St. John Emulating James Hogg’s Gil-Martin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Berton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how far Hogg’s archetypal character, Gil-Martin, influenced Charlotte Brontë’s enigmatic character, St. John, who appears in chapters XXVI to XXXV and is mentioned again in the conclusion of Jane Eyre. Some unexpected words, like “glen”, in a greater Yorkshire area, operate as keywords to a “deep context” study in a neo-contextualist approach. Even though St. John cannot be mistaken for a double of Gil-Martin, a fair number of details tend to prove that James Hogg’s Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner deeply influenced Charlotte Brontë—both pride-driven St. John and Gil-Martin stand for demonic despotism. Yet, if Gil-Martin is a straightforward Gothic illustration of Satan, St. John is a reincarnation of a marble-cold Apollo in a dogma-trapped Calvinist. Brontë’s intention was not so much to denounce noxious excesses in religious beliefs as to set her heroine’s wise independence against nefarious male domination: whereas victimised Robert Wringhim is driven to despair and suicide, self-reliant Jane Eyre escapes from St. John’s grip. In both narratives relationships between men and women are shown as tragically warped by religious behavioural extravagance, but only the female character is granted a positive outcome to serve an optimistic view on life: Robert Wringhim is violently wrung out of the society of men and women, St. John Rivers, from “Marsh End”, blindly drifts away to his death in India, and airy Jane, of “Moor House”, wafts away to anchor to Edward Rochester, the sender of the airwave-born call.

  12. Effect of couple-stress on the pure bending of a prismatic bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzung, F.; Kao, B.; Ho, F.; Tang, P.

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress theory to the stress analysis of graphite structures is performed by solving a pure bending problem. The differences between solutions from the couple-stress theory and from the classical theory of elasticity are compared. It is found that the differences are sufficient to account for the inconsistencies which have often been observed between the classical elasticity theory and actual behavior of graphite under bend and tensile loadings. An experimental procedure to measure the material constants in the couple-stress theory is also suggested. The linear couple-stress theory, the origins of which go back to the turn of the last century, adds linear relations between couple-stresses and rotation gradients to the classical stress-strain law. By adopting the classical assumption that the plane cross section remains plane after deformation, the pure-bending problem is reduced to a plane couple-stress problem with traction-free boundary conditions. A general solution for an isotropic elastic prismatic bar under pure bending is then obtained using the Airy stress function and another stress function wich accounts for the couple-stresss. For a cylindrical bar, it reduces to a simple series solution. The moment-curvature and stress-curvature relations derived for a cylindrical bar from the general solution are used to examine the effect of couple-stresses. Numerical compilation of relations indicates that the couple stress parameters can be practically determined by measuring the moment-curvature ratio of various diametered specimens under bending. Although there is not sufficient data for such evaluation at present, it appears that the theory is consistent with the limited bend and tensile strength data of cylindrical specimens for H-451 graphite

  13. THE APPLICATION OF STRUCTURALISM TO NEDIM’S LYRIC POEM “EY GÖNÜL” NEDİM’İN “EY GÖNÜL” REDİFLİ GAZELİNE YAPISALCI YÖNTEMİN UYGULANIŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin ERTEK MORKOÇ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Structuralism, which was one of the most popular literary theories of the 20th century, has captured attention by focusing on the work itself and by trying to expose the inner harmony within the frame of form-phoneme-word-meaning entirety.As known, divan poets are compelled to display their verbal skills around the certain limited number of patterns and rules of the classical Turkish tradition of poetry. To examine and evaluate divan poetry, it seems appropriate to apply the structuralist method which adopts the linguistic method itself. In the light of the structuralist method, one of the lyric poems of Nedim, who was a poet of the ‘Tulip Age’, was examined in this study. 20. yüzyılın etkin edebî kuramlarından biri olan yapısalcılık; eseri merkez alan ve eserdeki biçim-ses-söz-anlam bütünlüğü çerçevesinde iç uyumu ortaya koymaya çalışan yönüyle dikkat çekmiştir. Bilindiği gibi divan şairleri klasik Türk şiir geleneğinin belli sınırlı kalıpları ve kuralları etrafında söz hüneri göstermeye mecburdur. Divan şiirini inceleyip değerlendirmek için, dilbilim modelini örnek alan yapısalcılık uygun bir metot olarak görünmektedir. Bu yaklaşımdan yola çıkarak Lale Devri şairi Nedim’in bir gazeline yapısalcı yöntemi uygulamayı denedik.

  14. Tunable coherent radiation at soft X-ray wavelengths: Generation and interferometric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosfjord, Kristine Marie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The availability of high power, spectrally and spatially coherent soft x-rays (SXR) would facilitate a wide variety of experiments as this energy region covers the primary resonances of many magnetic and biological materials. Specifically, there are the carbon and oxygen K-edges that are critical for biological imaging in the water window and the L-edges of iron, nickel, and cobalt for which imaging and scattering studies can be performed. A new coherent soft X-ray branchline at the Advanced Light Source has begun operation (beamline 12.0.2). Using the third harmonic from an 8 cm period undulator, this branch delivers coherent soft x-rays with photon energies ranging from 200eV to 1keV. This branchline is composed of two sub-branches one at 14X demagnification and the other 8X demagnification. The former is optimized for use at 500eV and the latter at 800eV. Here the expected power from the third harmonic of this undulator and the beamline design and characterization is presented. The characterization includes measurements on available photon flux as well as a series of double pinhole experiments to determine the coherence factor with respect to transverse distance. The first high quality Airy patterns at SXR wavelengths are created with this new beamline. The operation of this new beamline allows for interferometry to be performed in the SXR region. Here an interferometric experiment designed to directly determine the index of refraction of a material under test is performed. Measurements are first made in the EUV region using an established beamline (beamline12.0.1) to measure silicon, ruthenium and tantalum silicon nitride. This work is then extended to the SXR region using beamline 12.0.2 to test chromium and vanadium.

  15. İki Şair: Hâfız–Fuzûli Karşılaştırması Two Poets: The Comparison Between Hafız and Fuzuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi BİRGÖREN

    2013-09-01

    is going to be seen thatmore comprehensive studies are needed. Klasik Türk edebiyatından bahseden kaynaklar, İran edebiyatının Türk edebiyatına etkisinden söz etmektedirler. Bu etkinin ne boyutlarda olduğunun anlaşılabilmesi için çok yönlü karşılaştırmalara ihtiyaç vardır. Ancak derinlemesine bir araştırma yapmadan Firdevsî, Feridüddin Attar, Nizamî-i Gencevî, Mevlânâ, Sadî, Ömer Hayyam, Hâfız-ı Şîrâzî, Molla Câmî gibi isimleri saymak bile bu etkiye ışık tutacak mahiyettedir. Bu isimlerden Firdevsî’nin Şehnâme, Attar’ın Tezkiretü’l-evliyâ ve Mantıku’t-tayr, Mevlânâ’nın Mesnevî, Sadî’nin Bostan ve Gülistan, Molla Câmî’nin Bahâristan ve Ömer Hayyam’ın rubaileriyle Türk şairleri üzerinde etkili olduğu bilinmekte diğer şairlerin hangi alanda ne kadar etki ettiği pek bilinmemektedir. Bu etkinin anlaşılmasına katkı sağlamak amacıyla biz de Hâfız ile Fuzûlî Divanlarını birkaç açıdan karşılaştırmak istiyoruz.İran edebiyatının büyük gazel şairi Hâfız-ı Şîrâzî ile Türk edebiyatının büyük şairi Fuzûlî arasındaki etkileşimi anlamak için öncelikle bu şairlerin içinde bulundukları sosyal ve siyasi şartlara bir göz atmak yerinde olur sanırız. Sonra bu şairlerin hayatlarına ve edebi şahsiyetlerine değinerek şiirdeki başarılarından söz etmek istiyoruz.Hâfız 14. yüzyılda yaşamış büyük bir İran şairi, Fuzûlî ise 16. yüzyıl Türk edebiyatının büyük şairlerinden biridir. Elbette iki ayrı edebiyatın iki büyük ismini bütün özellikleriyle bir makale çerçevesinde karşılaştırma imkânı olmadığının farkındayız. Bu sebeple genel bir değerlendirmede bulunabilmek için şiirlerinin bazı yönlerine değinecek ve örnek olmak üzere şairlerin birer gazelini ve nesre çevrilmiş biçimini vereceğiz.Yaşadıkları çağlar, kullandıkları diller ve işledikleri konular göz önüne alındığında daha kapsamlı

  16. MEHMET AKİF AS A POET OF COMPASSION BİR MERHAMET ŞAİRİ OLARAK MEHMET AKİF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma BAŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the interesting themes covered in Turkish poetry is compassion. Events experienced by poor, homeless, ill or desperate people in their daily lives, miseries felt or unfair situations encountered by people are covered within the scope of a sense of pity and compassion. The period in which this theme, which almost came to be a trend, was widely covered coincides with Servet-i Fünûn period. Mehmet Âkif Ersoy is one of the poets dealing with the theme of compassion, which maintained its attraction even after Constitutionalist period. These kinds of poems, which were collected by him particularly in the first book of Safahat, are the ones that made him famous and that are liked most. This study will evaluate the theme of compassion, which became one of the dominant elements of art of Mehmet Akif, in terms of factors leading poet to this theme and the manner in which this theme is covered in his poems Türk şiirinde ele alınan dikkat çekici konulardan biri merhamet temidir. Yoksul, kimsesiz, hasta, çaresiz insanların gündelik hayatında yaşadığı olaylar, halkın çektiği ıstıraplar ya da karşılaştığı haksız durumlar, acıma ve merhamet duygusu etrafında işlenir. Neredeyse bir moda halini alan bu temin konu edildiği tarih, Servet-i Fünûn dönemine rastlar. Meşrutiyet sonrasında da cazibesini sürdüren merhamet temini ele alanlardan biri de Mehmet Âkif Ersoy’dur. Özellikle Safahat’ın birinci kitabında toplanan bu tarz şiirler, şaire şöhret kazandıran ve aynı zamanda onun en beğenilen şiirleri arasında yer alır. Bu çalışmada Mehmet Akif’in sanatının hâkim unsurlarından biri haline gelen merhamet temi; şairi bu konuya yönelten etkenler ve bu temin onun şiirlerinde nasıl ele alındığı yönleriyle değerlendirilecektir.

  17. Structure and Evolution of the North American Upper Mantle: Insight from Integrative Modeling of Gravity, Topography and Seismic Tomography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kaban, M. K.; Tesauro, M.

    2014-12-01

    A limitation on the application of geophysical methods for the study of the upper mantle is the effect of lateral variations in the structure of the overlying crust that obscure the signal from the mantle. However, the North American upper mantle is particularly well-suited for geophysical study because crustal corrections can be made based on the results from numerous active- and passive-source seismic investigations that have determined lateral variations in crustal properties, including crustal thickness, P- and S-wave velocities, and crustal density estimated from empirical velocity-density relations. We exploit this knowledge of the crust of North America to construct an integrated 3D model of variations in density, temperature and composition within the upper mantle to a depth of 250 km. Our model is based on a joint analysis of topography, gravity, and seismic tomography data, coupled with mineral physics constraints. In the first step we remove the effect of the laterally-varying crust from the observed gravity field and topography (assuming Airy isostasy) using our crustal model NACr2014 (Tesauro et al., submitted). In the second step the residual mantle gravity field and residual topography (obtained in the first step) are inverted to obtain a 3D density model of the upper mantle. Thermal effects dominate this initial density model. To compensate for the thermal effects we invert for mantle temperatures based on the S-wave velocities determined by two seismic tomography models (S40RTS and NA2007). After removing the thermal effect from the mantle gravity anomalies we are left with the upper mantle density variations that are due to compositional variations. We recover two long-wavelength (5°-10°) features in the upper mantle compositional density model that are not evident in seismic tomography models: (1) a strong (+200 mgal) positive compositional anomaly beneath the Gulf of Mexico, perhaps due to eclogite in the uppermost mantle, and (2) a NE

  18. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  19. Modernisation of the Narod fluxgate electronics at Budkov Geomagnetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, Michal

    2013-04-01

    From the signal point of view, fluxgate unit is a low-frequency parametric up-convertor where the output signal is picked up in bands near second harmonic of the pump frequency fp (sometimes called idler for historic reasons) and purity of idler is augmented by orthogonal construction of the pump and pick-up coil. In our concept, the pump source uses Heegner quartz oscillator near 8 MHz, synchronous divider to 16 kHz (fp) and switched current booster. Rectangular pulse is used for feeding the original ferroresonant pump source with neutralizing transformer in the case of symmetric shielded cabling. Input transformer has split primary winding for using symmetrical shielded input cabling and secondary winding tuned by polystyrol capacitor and loaded by inverting integrator bridged by capacitor. This structure behaves like resistor cooled to low temperature. Next stage is bandpass filter (derivator) with a gain tuned to 2 fp with leaky FDNRs followed by current booster. Another part of the system is low-noise peak elimination and bias circuit. Heart of the system is a 120-V precision source which uses 3.3-V Zener diode chain - thermistor bridge in the feedback. Peak elimination circuit logics consists of the envelope detector, comparators, asynchronous counter in hardwired logics, set of weighted resistor chains and discrete MOS switches in current-mode. All HV components use airy montage to prevent the ground-leak. After 200 m long coaxial line, the signal is galvanically separated by transformer and fed into A/D converter, which is ordinary HD audio (96 kHz) soundcard. Real sample rate is constructed by a-posteriori data processing when statistic properties of the incoming sample are known. The sampled signal is band-pass filtered with a 200-Hz filter centered at 2 fp. The signal is then fed through a first-order allpass centered at 2 fp. The result approximates Hilbert transform sufficiently good for detecting the envelope via square sum-root rule. The signal is

  20. Minimally invasive neurosurgery with interventional magnetic resonance. Its present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takuo

    2000-01-01

    We have used X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and computed tomography in treatment. However, these methods do not provide precise image. Since magnetic resonance (MR) provides high-resolution images, it is more suitable in treatment. Recently open-type MR has been introduced for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Interventional MR provides a real-time images, high-resolutional images, and thermal distribution. Open MR can be used for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Interventional MR (I-MR) can be used in treatment and is extremely useful for minimally invasive surgery of the brain and spinal cord. We have used an open-type permanent MR scanner (Airis, Hitachi), for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Stereotactic brain tumor biopsy, aspiration of intracerebral hematoma, and percutaneous laser disc hernia ablation under MR guidance has been performed in our department. I-MR provided precise, and less-invasive treatment. Stereotactic biopsy was done in 12 patients with brain tumors. Precise, accurate biopsy is possible with MR fluoroscopic guidance. Hematomas were also aspirated safely and precisely by monitoring real-time image. Percutaneous laser disc hernia ablation (PLDA) was done in 201 patients with lumbar disc herniation (127 at L4/5 and 48 at L5/S1). Patients ranged in age from 17 to 72 years. A MR-compatible 18-gauge 15-cm-long titanium needle was clearly visualized and safety and accurately inserted into the disc herniation from multiple directions. Laser ablation was done (mean, 1,000 J). Signs and symptoms improved immediately after ablation. The overall success rate was 90.5% (MacNab's criteria). Two patients (1.0%) had discitis after PLDA. I-MR and fluoroscopy provide near-real-time images for treatment of brain tumors and hematoma. Precise treatment can be performed with the Patil MR-compatible stereotactic system. PLDA was performed safety and accurately with I-MR. The results were satisfactory. I-MR-PLDA is a safe, precise, and minimally invasive

  1. Minimally invasive neurosurgery with interventional magnetic resonance. Its present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takuo [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    We have used X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and computed tomography in treatment. However, these methods do not provide precise image. Since magnetic resonance (MR) provides high-resolution images, it is more suitable in treatment. Recently open-type MR has been introduced for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Interventional MR provides a real-time images, high-resolutional images, and thermal distribution. Open MR can be used for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Interventional MR (I-MR) can be used in treatment and is extremely useful for minimally invasive surgery of the brain and spinal cord. We have used an open-type permanent MR scanner (Airis, Hitachi), for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Stereotactic brain tumor biopsy, aspiration of intracerebral hematoma, and percutaneous laser disc hernia ablation under MR guidance has been performed in our department. I-MR provided precise, and less-invasive treatment. Stereotactic biopsy was done in 12 patients with brain tumors. Precise, accurate biopsy is possible with MR fluoroscopic guidance. Hematomas were also aspirated safely and precisely by monitoring real-time image. Percutaneous laser disc hernia ablation (PLDA) was done in 201 patients with lumbar disc herniation (127 at L4/5 and 48 at L5/S1). Patients ranged in age from 17 to 72 years. A MR-compatible 18-gauge 15-cm-long titanium needle was clearly visualized and safety and accurately inserted into the disc herniation from multiple directions. Laser ablation was done (mean, 1,000 J). Signs and symptoms improved immediately after ablation. The overall success rate was 90.5% (MacNab's criteria). Two patients (1.0%) had discitis after PLDA. I-MR and fluoroscopy provide near-real-time images for treatment of brain tumors and hematoma. Precise treatment can be performed with the Patil MR-compatible stereotactic system. PLDA was performed safety and accurately with I-MR. The results were satisfactory. I-MR-PLDA is a safe, precise, and minimally

  2. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff

  3. Numerical analysis of first-order acousto-optic Bragg diffraction of profiled optical beams using open-loop transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Almehmadi, Fares S.

    2014-03-01

    numerical simulation for both the Gaussian and third-order Hermite-Gaussian profiles, but not the zeroth-order Bessel or Airy profiles. These results provide both confirmation of some expected behavior for profiled beam scattering (including likely affirmation of the well known and unique diffractionless properties of certain Bessel beams), but also some insight into unexpected and anomalous photon-phonon interaction behavior.

  4. MRI diagnosis of intravertebral at fluid osteoporotic and metastatic vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Павлович Мягков

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Therefore, the aim of the work was to evaluate the value of intravertebral fluid with osteoporosis and metastatic vertebral compression fractures using magnetic resonance imaging. Objectives of the study were to investigate: MRI semiotics of osteoporotic compression fractures with their diagnostic value; intravertebral fluid in pathological fractures.Methods. 120 patients with pathologic compression fractures of the spine, which included 70 patients with acute osteoporotic and 50 - with metastatic, are examined. Among patients with osteoporotic fractures were 62 women (88.6 % men - 8 (11.4 % with an average age of 65.6 ± 11.1 years, and among patients with MCP fractures was 30 (60.0 % men and 20 (40.0 % women with a mean age 60.8 ± 12.5 years. All patients underwent an MRI on devices with a magnetic field strength of 0.2, 1.5 and 0.36 Tс (AIRIS Mate, ECHELON firm "Hitachi medical Corp.", Japan, "I-Open 0.36", China. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA held 59 (39.1 % patients. DXA was performed on the unit «Lunar PRODIGY Primo DHA"Results. The basic structural and morphological changes with osteoporotic compression fractures of the spine such as - bone marrow edema, annular seal paravertebral soft tissue, compression of the veins bazivertebrales, remains of yellow bone marrow, involvement arches and rear elements of the vertebra, curved (intact the back surface of the body, the fracture of the reflex plates, rear corner pieces with indicators of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. It was shown that the intravertebral fluid of the compressed vertebral bodies found in 72 (88.9 % patients. This feature may also be an indicator of the seam (or splice the data fractures.Conclusions. Intravertebral fluid in the compressed vertebral bodies was found in 88.9 % of patients with osteoporotic fractures, and this feature can be another tool in the diagnosis of this category of fractures with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. This feature

  5. An upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure from small ancient craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, E. S.; Williams, J.; Lucas, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2012-12-01

    Planetary atmospheres brake, ablate, and disrupt small asteroids and comets, filtering out small hypervelocity surface impacts and causing fireballs, airblasts, meteors, and meteorites. Hypervelocity craters Earth are typically caused by irons (because stones are more likely to break up), and the smallest hypervelocity craters near sea-level on Earth are ~20 m in diameter. 'Zap pits' as small as 30 microns are known from the airless moon, but the other airy worlds show the effects of progressively thicker atmospheres:- the modern Mars atmosphere is marginally capable of removing >90% of the kinetic energy of >240 kg iron impactors; Titan's paucity of small craters is consistent with a model predicting atmospheric filtering of craters smaller than 6-8km; and on Venus, craters below ~20 km diameter are substantially depleted. Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration are believed to be the single most important control on Mars climate evolution and habitability. Existing data requires an early epoch of massive atmospheric loss to space; suggests that the present-day rate of escape to space is small; and offers only limited evidence for carbonate formation. Existing evidence has not led to convergence of atmosphere-evolution models, which must balance poorly understood fluxes from volcanic degassing, surface weathering, and escape to space. More direct measurements are required in order to determine the history of CO2 concentrations. Wind erosion and tectonics exposes ancient surfaces on Mars, and the size-frequency distribution of impacts on these surfaces has been previously suggested as a proxy time series of Mars atmospheric thickness. We will present a new upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure using the size-frequency distribution of 20-100m diameter ancient craters in Aeolis Dorsa, validated using HiRISE DTMs, in combination with Monte Carlo simulations of the effect of paleo-atmospheres of varying thickness on the crater flux. These craters are

  6. THE TRACES OF AZERBAIJAN TURKISH ON FUZÛLÎ AZERBAYCAN TÜRKÇESİNİN FUZÛLÎ’DEKİ İZLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARATAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan Turkish has become different from Ottoman Turkish as a result of political, geographical reasons since XVI. century and it has reached up to now as a standardized written language. Some affixes in today’s Azerbayijan Turkish have no usage in Otoman Turkish that has been developed by “common dialect resource” of Old Turkiye Turkish; but these have been standardized in Azerbaijan Turkish that has also been developed by the same resource. Today, it has been confirmed that these affixes used in written language of Azerbaijan Turkish take place in “Türkçe Divan of Fuzûlî” who was the Turkish poet of Iraq geography in XVI. century. These affixes are evaluated as traces on Fuzûlî of today’s Azerbaijan Turkish. Azerbaycan Türkçesi, Osmanlı Türkçesinden XVI. yüzyıldan itibaren siyasî, coğrafî nedenlerle farklılaşmaya başlamış ve XVIII. yüzyıldan sonra ölçünlü bir yazı dili olarak günümüze kadar ulaşmıştır. Günümüz Azerbaycan Türkçesindeki bazı ekler, Eski Türkiye Türkçesi “ortak ağız havuzu”ndan beslenerek gelişen Osmanlı Türkçesinde zamanla kullanımdan düşmüştür; ancak bunlar XVI. yüzyıldan sonra yine aynı havuzdan beslenerek gelişen Azerbaycan Türkçesinde ölçünlüleşmiştir. Bugün Azerbaycan Türkçesi yazı dilinde kullanılan bu eklerin XVI. yüzyıl Irak coğrafyasının Türk şairi Fuzûlî’nin Türkçe Divanı’nda yer aldığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu şekiller, günümüz Azerbaycan Türkçesinin Fuzûlî’deki izleri olarak değerlendirilmiştir.

  7. Cyclic Emergence of Venice During The Brunhes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, D. V.; Rio, D.; Massari, F.; Kukla, G.; Lanci, L.

    Milankovitch cycle stratigraphy has become an important method of calibrating the geomagnetic polarity time scale in the Neogene. The resulting geochronological con- straints can be used to interpret the timing of sea level changes and the long-term rate of subsidence in the Venice area, which is located at the northern end of the Adri- atic Sea in a foreland setting between the eastern Southern Alps and the Apennines, the venue of the classic magnetostratigraphic work of Bill Lowrie, Walter Alvarez, and their colleagues. For the Venice region, the Pleistocene history of sea-level change was reconstructed using an integrated magnetobiocyclostratigraphy of lithofacies, includ- ing magnetic susceptibility variations, and a published palynofloral analysis of con- tinuously cored sediments in a 950 meter-deep drill core. A reference glacioeustatic curve was obtained by scaling the astronomically-calibrated ODP677/SPECMAP ben- thic oxygen isotope record from Shackleton (1995). A simple Airy compensation model was used to account for the effect of isostatic loading. Following slow sediment accumulation in a deeper-water starved basin during most of the Matuyama reverse polarity chron, the Venice area shoaled rapidly in the early and middle Brunhes normal polarity chron in response to a major phase of deltaic progradation. The initial transition to continental sediments occurred during a promi- nent glacioeustatic low-stand that is likely to be Marine Isotope Stage 12 (~0.43 Ma) but could be as young as MIS 8 (~0.25 Ma). The Venice area oscillated from below sea level during subsequent major glacioeustatic high-stands to becoming increasingly emergent during major low-stands as the basin continued to fill with marine and con- tinental sediments. Some parts of the Venice area are now emergent for the first time during a glacioeustatic high-stand (i.e., MIS 1 or the Holocene). The total long-term subsidence rate estimated from the Venice deep core record is less than 0.5 mm

  8. A gravity study along a profile across the Sichuan Basin, the Qinling Mountains and the Ordos Basin (central China): Density, isostasy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqian; Teng, Jiwen; Wang, Qianshen; Lü, Qingtian; Si, Xiang; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Yan, Jiayong; Hao, Zhaobing

    2017-10-01

    In order to investigate the structure of the crust beneath the Middle Qinling Mountains (MQL) and neighboring areas in the North China Block and South China Block, a north-south gravity profile from Yuquan in the Sichuan Basin to Yulin in the Ordos Basin was conducted in 2011. The Bouguer gravity anomaly is determined from a high-quality gravity dataset collected between 31°N and 36°N of latitude, and varies between -200 and -110 mGal in the study region. Using accredited velocity density relationships, an initial crust-mantle density model is constructed for MQL and adjacent areas, which is later refined interactively to simulate the observed gravity anomaly. The present study reveals the features of the density and Bouguer gravity with respect to the tectonic units sampled by the profile. The lithosphere density model shows typical density values that depict a layered structure and allow differentiate the blocks that extend along the reference profile. The gravity field calculated by forward modeling from the final density distribution model correlates well with the measured gravity field within a standard deviation of 1.26 mGal. The density in the crystalline crust increases with depth from 2.65 g/cm3 up to the highest value of 2.95 g/cm3 near the bottom of the crust. The Conrad interface is identified as a density jump of about 0.05 g/cm3. The average density of the crust in MQL is clearly lower than the density in the formations on both sides. Starting from a combined Airy-Pratt isostatic compensation model, a partly compensated crust is found below MQL, suggesting future growth of the crust, unlike the Ordos and Sichuan basins that will remain stable. On the basis of the density and isostatic state of the crust and additional seismological research, such as the P-wave velocity model and Poisson's ratio, it is concluded that the lower crust delamination is a reasonable interpretation for the geophysical characteristics below the Qinling Orogen.

  9. Residencia Sanitaria de la Seguridad Social La Paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcide Odriozola, M. J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available The full details of this project will be described in a later issue of this magazine. It includes the following: sanitary residence, maternity home, children's hospital, and outpatient's department. At present the first and last buildings are completed and in use. The sanitary residence is described below. This building incorporates the experience gained from other similar projects carried out by the State Health Insurance. This is perhaps a unique example in the western world of many health buildings, planned jointly, and built within a short space of time. The design has been inspired by three fundamental ideas, namely, airiness, flexibility and compactness in the space and volume distribution. The planform is a cross of unequal arms, where the central nucleus provides for the vertical circulation system. The organisation and distribution is most modern, and includes all recent advances that can be wished for in this type of building. The total built area, including galleries, boiler rooms, and tower, is 30.878 m2 The number of beds is 855, which gives 36.11 m2 per bed.El complejo total, de próxima inauguración, que será publicado en un futuro número de INFORMES, comprenderá los siguientes cuerpos: Residencia Sanitaria, Maternidad, Traumatología, Hospital infantil y Ambulatorio. En la actualidad se hallan completamente terminados y en uso el primero y el último. Describimos a continuación la Residencia Sanitaria: En este edificio se han resumido las experiencias del conjunto de edificaciones realizadas por el Seguro de Enfermedad. Son un ejemplo, quizás único en Occidente, de construcciones hospitalarias ejecutadas bajo un mismo plan, en un lapso corto de tiempo, y dedicado al mismo fin. En la redacción del proyecto han presidido tres ideas fundamentales: claridad, flexibilidad y concentración, no sólo de espacio, sino también de volúmenes. La planta básica es una cruz de brazos desiguales con un núcleo central de

  10. Focal Molography: Coherent Microscopic Detection of Biomolecular Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Fattinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and theoretically investigate here a novel analytical method that we have called focal molography, in which molecular interactions are made visible through scattering of coherent light by a coherent pattern of molecules. The scattered light quantifies the presence of molecules at molecular interaction sites. It is separated from noncoherent background scatter by a combination of local dark-field illumination, interference enhancement, and spatial filtering. The latter is achieved by holographic focusing of the wave field generated by the coherently assembled molecules onto an Airy disk and by subtraction of the noncoherent irradiance in the focal plane outside the disk from the irradiance in the disk. This new microscopic method allows distinct detection of low-refractive-index contrast in the nanoenvironment of biomolecules from which information on the interaction of the coherently assembled molecules with molecules in a liquid or gaseous sample may be deduced. The noncoherent surroundings of the coherently assembled molecules consist of freely diffusing solvent and solute molecules. The surroundings, as well as changes in temperature, do not contribute to the coherent signal in the diffraction focus. Interference lithography or high-resolution-imaging lithography can be used to synthesize the coherent pattern of molecules on a monolithic substrate. The coherent pattern of molecules constitutes a synthetic phase hologram that creates a diffraction-limited light wave. We suggest the term “mologram” for the coherent assembly of functional nanostructures and the term “focal molography” for label-free or labeled analysis of molecular interactions through the measurement of the properties of light in the focus of the mologram. We derive analytical formulas that express the detection signal and the sensitivity of focal molography on the surface of a high-refractive-index thin-film optical waveguide in terms of known parameters

  11. Bosnalı Sabit ve Ziya Paşa’nın Zafernâmelerindeki Şekil ve Zihniyet Mukayesesi Comparing to Shap and Mind of Bosniac Sabit and Ziya Pasha’s Zafername

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir ÇINAR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study,18 century Divan poet Bosniac Sabit’s and thefamous poet and writer of Tanzimat Literature’s period Ziya Pahsa’sZafernames were compared. First of all, informatıon about type ofZafername was given. Bosniac Sabit’s, the poet of Divan in 18thcentury, and Ziya Pahsa’s, the important poet and writer of TanzimatLiterature, Zafernames were examined seperately. The most successfuland the most popular of Sabit’s masnavis was the work namedZafername. Sabit parted from his contemporaries and classical storiesby his ideas of writing new and local. Sabit intentionally and willinglywanted to make innovation in the subject of his masnavis andconsiderably became successful in this work. Ziya Pahsa began to writehis Zafername in 1867 in Paris, completed in 1840 in Geneva. Workwas formed with three parts. Each one of this parts was shown as if ıtwas written by different people. Work contained humour and satireopposed to Ali Pahsa. Zafername of Ziya Pasha is the first Zafernamethat written in the manner of indirect satire. When both of poets wereevaluated. They could be seen as artist who forced their period’stradition. The innovation, that Ziya Pasha made in shape and contentand the innovation that Bosniac Sabit wanted to make in the subject ofzafernames were shown by choosing examples and explanation fromboth poets. In this study, Zafername's full text of both poets weren'tgiven but given some samples for comparing. Bosnalı Sabit's Zafernameis fitting in classic zafername's tradition on the other hand it is prominentthat he is on the way of searching new context. Ziya Pasha's Zafername isdifferent in both shape and context on the aspect of classical zafername'stradition. Bu çalışmada XVIII. yüzyıl Divan şairi Bosnalı Sabit ile Tanzimat Edebiyatı döneminin ünlü şair ve yazarı Ziya Paşa’nın zafernâmeleri mukayese edilmiştir. Öncelikle zafernâme türü hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. XVIII. yüzyıl divan şairi

  12. Initial-value problem for the Gardner equation applied to nonlinear internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2017-04-01

    The Gardner equation is a fundamental mathematical model for the description of weakly nonlinear weakly dispersive internal waves, when cubic nonlinearity cannot be neglected. Within this model coefficients of quadratic and cubic nonlinearity can both be positive as well as negative, depending on background conditions of the medium, where waves propagate (sea water density stratification, shear flow profile) [Rouvinskaya et al., 2014, Kurkina et al., 2011, 2015]. For the investigation of weakly dispersive behavior in the framework of nondimensional Gardner equation with fixed (positive) sign of quadratic nonlinearity and positive or negative cubic nonlinearity {eq1} partial η/partial t+6η( {1± η} )partial η/partial x+partial ^3η/partial x^3=0, } the series of numerical experiments of initial-value problem was carried out for evolution of a bell-shaped impulse of negative polarity (opposite to the sign of quadratic nonlinear coefficient): {eq2} η(x,t=0)=-asech2 ( {x/x0 } ), for which amplitude a and width x0 was varied. Similar initial-value problem was considered in the paper [Trillo et al., 2016] for the Korteweg - de Vries equation. For the Gardner equation with different signs of cubic nonlinearity the initial-value problem for piece-wise constant initial condition was considered in detail in [Grimshaw et al., 2002, 2010]. It is widely known, for example, [Pelinovsky et al., 2007], that the Gardner equation (1) with negative cubic nonlinearity has a family of classic solitary wave solutions with only positive polarity,and with limiting amplitude equal to 1. Therefore evolution of impulses (2) of negative polarity (whose amplitudes a were varied from 0.1 to 3, and widths at the level of a/2 were equal to triple width of solitons with the same amplitude for a 1) was going on a universal scenario with the generation of nonlinear Airy wave. For the Gardner equation (1) with the positive cubic nonlinearity coefficient there exist two one-parametric families of

  13. Bilinmeyen Bir Eser: Yümnî Divanı An Unknown Work: Yümnî’s Divan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan SEVİNDİK

    2012-09-01

    gazelden oluşan bu küçük hacimli Divan’ın sahibi olması muhtemel Yümnî’ler hakkında eserin kendisi ve kaynaklardan yola çıkarak birtakım yorumlarda bulunuldu. İncelemelerimiz neticesinde Divan’ın sahibi Yümnî’nin 1604-1644 yılları arasında kaside ve gazeller kaleme alan IV. Murad devri şairi olduğu tespit edildi. Ayrıca söz konusu şairin Şeyhülislâm Yahyâ’ya övgü niteliğinde kaleme aldığı kaside ve gazellerden Şeyhülislâm’ın hayranı olduğu anlaşıldı. İkinci kısımda ise esere ait tek yazma nüshanın tavsifi yapılarak, Divan’ın şekil ve muhteva özelliklerine dair genel bir inceleme hazırlandı. Bu incelemeye göre eserde geçen manzumelerde Şeyhülislâm Yahyâ’nın Yümnî üzerinde geniş bir tesirinin olduğu ortaya çıktı. Özellikle gazellerinde bir aşk şairi olduğunu hissettiren Yümnî’nin bu yönüyle de Şeyhülislam Yahyâ’yı örnek aldığı görüldü. Makale boyunca, eserin sahibi Yümnî ile Şeyhülislâm Yahyâ arasındaki hem kişisel hem de sanatsal bağa değinildi. Yümnî Divanı’nın klasik Türk şiiri açısından üzerinde durulması gereken vasfı, Türk edebiyatında Şeyhülislâm Yahyâ’ya duyulan bağlılığı dile getiren örneklerden biri olmasıdır. Ayrıca eser, Şeyhülislâm Yahyâ takipçiliğinin edebiyatımızda ayrı bir şiir/üslup çizgisi olarak incelenmesi gerektiğini de yeniden hatırlatmıştır.

  14. A History of Regression and Related Model-Fitting in the Earth Sciences (1636?-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    The (statistical) modeling of the behavior of a dependent variate as a function of one or more predictors provides examples of model-fitting which span the development of the earth sciences from the 17th Century to the present. The historical development of these methods and their subsequent application is reviewed. Bond's predictions (c. 1636 and 1668) of change in the magnetic declination at London may be the earliest attempt to fit such models to geophysical data. Following publication of Newton's theory of gravitation in 1726, analysis of data on the length of a 1 o meridian arc, and the length of a pendulum beating seconds, as a function of sin 2 (latitude), was used to determine the ellipticity of the oblate spheroid defining the Figure of the Earth. The pioneering computational methods of Mayer in 1750, Boscovich in 1755, and Lambert in 1765, and the subsequent independent discoveries of the principle of least squares by Gauss in 1799, Legendre in 1805, and Adrain in 1808, and its later substantiation on the basis of probability theory by Gauss in 1809 were all applied to the analysis of such geodetic and geophysical data. Notable later applications include: the geomagnetic survey of Ireland by Lloyd, Sabine, and Ross in 1836, Gauss's model of the terrestrial magnetic field in 1838, and Airy's 1845 analysis of the residuals from a fit to pendulum lengths, from which he recognized the anomalous character of measurements of gravitational force which had been made on islands. In the early 20th Century applications to geological topics proliferated, but the computational burden effectively held back applications of multivariate analysis. Following World War II, the arrival of digital computers in universities in the 1950s facilitated computation, and fitting linear or polynomial models as a function of geographic coordinates, trend surface analysis, became popular during the 1950-60s. The inception of geostatistics in France at this time by Matheron had its

  15. Mert Davies: Pioneer in the Use of Spacecraft to Map Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B.; Augenstein, B.

    2002-12-01

    -based television teams invented the world?s first digital television cameras using primitive slow-scan vidicon sensors in order to overcome the 200-fold greater distance to Mars. Spacecraft mapping and geodesy was initiated by the dual flybys Mariner 6 and 7 of 1969, each carrying a moderately high resolution optical system, but one plagued by the geometric limitations of a vidicon sensor necessarily using imprecise electro-optical imaging internally. He understood clearly that the number of resolution elements on the Mariner 6/7 cameras were too small for good photogrammetric solutions. Each picture contained only 70,000 resolution elements compared to a standard aerial photograph with about a third of a billion of comparable elements. Despite such limitations, Mert was able to exploit especially the far encounter imaging from Mariners 6/7 to create the first Mars surface control net based on topographic features, and to solve for the position of the rotational pole. Under his leadership, the Mariner 9 orbiter mission greatly expanded that coverage, providing the evolving basis of USGS Mars mapping practically until the present. Furthermore, Mert, in conjunction with Harold Masursky and Gerard de Vaucoleurs, established the topocentric reference point for the prime meridian on Mars as the small crater Airy-O, which thus occupies a role analogous to that of Greenwich, England for the Earth. He was to play that historic prime meridian role for nearly all the solid bodies in the Solar System over the ensuing decades as well as a continuing role on the IAU committee that named officially the surface features of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus.

  16. Spatial Patterns of Long-Term Erosion Rates Beneath the Marine West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Insights into the Physics of Continental Scale Glacial Erosion from a Comparison with the Ice-Velocity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, I. M.; Tulaczyk, S.; Mac Gregor, K.; Joughin, I.

    2001-12-01

    As part of the effort to build quantitative models of glacial erosion and sedimentation, it is particularly important to construct scaled relations between erosion, transport, and sedimentation rates and appropriate glaciological variables (e.g., ice velocity). Recent acquisition of bed topography and ice velocity data for the marine West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)[Joughin et al., 1999; Lythe et al., in press] provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate continental-scale patterns of glacial erosion and their relationship to the ice velocity field. Utilizing this data, we construct a map of estimated long-term erosion rates beneath the WAIS. In order to calculate long-term erosion rates from the available data, we assume that: (1) the ice sheet has been present for ~5 mill. years, (2) the initial topography beneath the WAIS was that of a typical ( ~200 m.b.s.l.) continental shelf, and (3) the present topography is near local isostatic equilibrium (Airy type). The map of long-term erosion rates constructed in this fashion shows an intriguing pattern of relatively high rates (of the order of 0.1 mm/yr) concentrated beneath modern ice stream tributaries (ice velocity ~100 m/yr), but much lower erosion rates (of the order of 0.01 mm/yr) beneath both the modern fast-moving ice streams ( ~400 m/yr.) and the slow-moving parts of the ice sheet ( ~10 m/yr). This lack of clear correlation between the estimated erosion rates and ice velocity is somewhat unexpected given that both observational and theoretical studies have shown that bedrock erosion rates beneath mountain glaciers can often be calculated by multiplying the basal sliding velocity by a constant (typically of the order of ~10^-4)(Humphrey and Raymond, 1993 and Mac Gregor et al., 2000). We obtain an improved match between estimated erosion rates and bed topography by calculating erosion rates using horizontal gradients within the ice velocity field rather than the magnitude of ice velocity, as consistent

  17. The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Niven, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    27. On the viscosity or internal friction of air and other gases; 28. On the dynamical theory of gases; 29. On the theory of the maintenance of electric currents by mechanical work without the use of permanent magnets; 30. On the equilibrium of a spherical envelope; 31. On the best arrangement for producing a pure spectrum on a screen; 32. The construction of stereograms of surfaces; 33. On reciprocal diagrams in space and their relation to Airy's function of stress; 34. On governors; 35. Experiment in magneto-electric induction; 36. On a method of making a direct comparison of electrostatic with electromagnetic force; 37. On the cyclide; 38. On a bow seen on the surface of ice; 39. On reciprocal figures, frames, and diagrams of forces; 40. On the displacement in a case of fluid motion; 41. Address to the mathematical and physical sections of the British Association, 1870; 42. On colour-vision at different points of the retina; 43. On hills and dales; 44. Introductory lecture on experimental physics; 45. On the solution of electrical problems by the transformation of conjugate functions; 46. On the mathematical classification of physical quantities; 47. On colour vision; 48. On the geometrical mean distance of two figures on a plane; 49. On the induction of electric currents in an infinite plane sheet of uniform conductivity; 50. On the condition that, in the transformation of any figure by curvilinear co-ordinates in three dimensions, every angle in the new figure shall be equal to the corresponding angle in the original figure; 51. Reprint of Papers on electrostatics and magnetism. By Sir W. Thomson. (Review); 52. On the proof of the equations of motion of a connected system; 53. On a problem in the calculus of variations in which the solution is discontinuous; 54. On action at a distance; 55. Elements of natural philosophy. By Sir W. Thomson and P. G. Tait. (Review); 56. On the theory of a system of electrified conductors, and other physical theories involving

  18. The influence of organic substances type on the properties of mineral-organic fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef

    2010-05-01

    In presented research the lignite coal, peat, poultry droppings and their composts were suggested as a components of mineral-organic fertilizers. Fertility of soil is conditioned by an ability to supply plants with water and nutrients essential to their growth and development. The soil is described as tri-phase system consisting of solid, liquid and gas phase. In solid phase the soil minerals and organic matter can be distinguished. The content of micro-organisms contained in the soil i.e. microfauna and microflora is indispensable for high soil fertility. Nutrients should occur in the forms available for plants in order to obtain high yields of the high quality crops. Organic fertilizing has versatile activity. Increasing contents of humus, providing mineral nutrients included in organic substance and the improvement in physical properties of the soil belong to its main purposes. Due to applying organic fertilizers heavy soils is getting loosen and in consequence become more airy what probably influences stimulation of soil micro-organisms activity. An aqueous as well as sorption capacity of light soils is also increasing, buffer range and the stabilization of the proper level of pH value of the soil, plants are provided with basic macro and micronutrients. Conventional organic fertilizers applied in an arable farms are manure, dung, green manures and composts of different kind. Within compost group the following types can be distinguished: compost from farming, urban wastes, shredded straw, poultry droppings, industrial wastes, bark of coniferous tree etc. Properly developed fertilizer formulas should contain in their composition both mineral as well as organic elements. Such fertilizer should fit its composition to the soil and plant requirements. It should contain organic substance being characterized by a high aqueous and cations sorption capacity, substance undergoing the fast mineralization with the large calcium content. Inorganic substances e.g. bentonites

  19. Mathematics of tsunami: modelling and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivorotko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami (long waves in the deep water) motion caused by underwater earthquakes is described by shallow water equations ( { ηtt = div (gH (x,y)-gradη), (x,y) ∈ Ω, t ∈ (0,T ); η|t=0 = q(x,y), ηt|t=0 = 0, (x,y) ∈ Ω. ( (1) Bottom relief H(x,y) characteristics and the initial perturbation data (a tsunami source q(x,y)) are required for the direct simulation of tsunamis. The main difficulty problem of tsunami modelling is a very big size of the computational domain (Ω = 500 × 1000 kilometres in space and about one hour computational time T for one meter of initial perturbation amplitude max|q|). The calculation of the function η(x,y,t) of three variables in Ω × (0,T) requires large computing resources. We construct a new algorithm to solve numerically the problem of determining the moving tsunami wave height S(x,y) which is based on kinematic-type approach and analytical representation of fundamental solution. Proposed algorithm of determining the function of two variables S(x,y) reduces the number of operations in 1.5 times than solving problem (1). If all functions does not depend on the variable y (one dimensional case), then the moving tsunami wave height satisfies of the well-known Airy-Green formula: S(x) = S(0)° --- 4H (0)/H (x). The problem of identification parameters of a tsunami source using additional measurements of a passing wave is called inverse tsunami problem. We investigate two different inverse problems of determining a tsunami source q(x,y) using two different additional data: Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) measurements and satellite altimeters wave-form images. These problems are severely ill-posed. The main idea consists of combination of two measured data to reconstruct the source parameters. We apply regularization techniques to control the degree of ill-posedness such as Fourier expansion, truncated singular value decomposition, numerical regularization. The algorithm of selecting the truncated number of

  20. Two lithospheric profiles across southern California derived from gravity and seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, T.; Mooney, W.D.; Detweiler, S.

    2007-01-01

    with mostly basaltic composition. This contradicts the observed, lower Vp/Vs-ratio in the Mojave Desert associated with mostly felsic and low-density crust. Models with lower b coefficients (0.1-0.2) are characterized by an absence of local Airy compensation beneath the San Gabriel Mountains at the LARSE-1 profile. These, and other non-gravity arguments, suggest optimal solutions to the mantle ??-V relation of b ??? 0.2-0.4. This, in turn, means that both thermal and petrological effects occur inside the downwelling of the uppermost mantle high velocity body located beneath the Transverse Ranges. During the development of this mantle downwelling, the basaltic layer of the Mojave block was likely eroded and pulled down into the high velocity body. Those basaltic fragments may have been transformed into eclogites, and this metamorphic change implies a higher b-coefficient density-velocity relationship than would be expected for a purely thermal process.

  1. Utilização de serragem e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar para adsorção de cádmio Use of sawdust and pulp from cane as adsorbents of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Albertini

    2007-03-01

    concentrations of 25 and 50 mg.L-1. The triplicates of samples taken for analysis were dried in the air in an airy atmosphere, without any processes, and the experiments were done with 10 g of residue and 500 mL of solution of chloride of cadmium in PVC reactors with a capacity of 1300 mL, where the homogeinization was made manually during the contact of 16 hours25. As the capacity of adsorption of the metal for the residue was not drained at first, the possibility of a new contact reusing the remaining solution was studied, maintaining the proportion at 1:50(25. In a second stage they were tested at times of 12, 8 and 4 hours. The amount of cadmium was determined by the atomic absorption spectrofotometry (AAS in the contact solution, after separating the residue for filtration. According to the results, we can say that these residues can be used as adsorbents of heavy metals in effluent treatment.

  2. Production of alfalfa hay under different drying methods Produção de feno de alfafa sob diferentes métodos de desidratação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed at determining the dehydration curve at nine times (0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 46 hours after cuting of the plants; the leaf/stem ratio and number of leaves per stem in alfalfa submitted to four managements during the drying process. It was also evaluated the bromatologic composition and in vitro digestibility of the dry matter and cell wall of alfalfa hay before storage. The drying methods applied for alfalfa were the following: drying in the field until 50% DM and drying conclusion in an airy shed; drying in the field without turning; drying with only one turning and drying with two turnings. The experimental design was completely randomized with four drying methods and five replications. Leaf dehydration was faster when compared to the stems in all drying methods. Drying in the shed promoted the lesser re-hydration of the plants at night due to dew. It was also verified that alfalfa hays that remained under the sun and were turned showed the worst quality with reduction in crude protein contents and increase in NDF, ADF, NDIN and ADIN. However, in vitro dry matter digestibility and cell wall digestibility did not suffer any alteration because of the different dehydration methods (69.79 and 41.39%, respectively. There is a market fall of leaves and a reduction on the number of leaves per stem with the turnings.Os objetivos do trabalho foram estimar a curva de desidratação em nove tempos (0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 27, 30, 33 e 46 horas após o corte, a relação folha/haste, número de folhas por haste de alfafa submetida a quatro manejos no processo de secagem. Também foram avaliadas a composição bromatológica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e parede celular do feno antes do armazenamento. Os métodos de secagem da alfafa foram: secagem a campo até 50% de MS e término da secagem em galpão arejado, secagem a campo sem nenhuma viragem; secagem com apenas uma viragem; secagem com duas viragens. O delineamento

  3. Remoção de polifenóis da farinha de folhas de mandioca Removal of polyphenols of the flour cassava leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Duarte Corrêa

    2004-06-01

    were placed in paper trays and dried under shadow, on a wood bench, in a shut and airy place, at room temperature. After drying, the petioles were removed and the leaves were ground and sieved using 40-mesh sieve. The flour was submitted, before e after removal of polyphenols, to the analyses of moisture, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, total sugars, crude protein, vitamin total C, beta-carotene, cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, polyphenols and in vitro protein digestibility. After the removal of the polyphenols, there was a decrease in the levels of total sugars, vitamin total C, trypsin inhibitor and polyphenols and an increase in the levels of NDF, ADF, crude protein, beta-carotene and in vitro protein digestibility. Of the solvents employed in the removal the polyphenols, the ammonium hydroxide was the most effective, with index of removal of 94%, followed by the ethanol (83% and water (65%. The in vitro protein digestibility increased of 74%, when the solvent employed in the removal of the polyphenols was the ammonium hydroxide.

  4. PERSONAL DIMENSIONS OF THE CRITICISM IN CLASSICAL OTTOMAN POETRY KLÂSİK TÜRK ŞİİRİNDE ELEŞTİRİNİN KİŞİSEL BOYUTU

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    Zülküf KILIÇ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study which we tried to answer the question which feelings and the objectives drive the critic poet to criticize rather than what was criticized or why they were criticized. While we are trying to show the criticism in our Classical Ottoman Poetry as a part of the life, we are going to emphasize the personal reasons of the criticism.We need to know that the people whose being described as an “Intellectual” is not wrong cannot stay away from criticizing the defects. For this reason, everything could be the subject of the criticism.While beard, moustache or the hypocrisy of a person sometimes became the subject of criticism, sometimes an administrator’s deficiences and flaws became the subject of criticism. Sometimes, even the minor social degenerations which the masses of people could not realize when they were alive were expressed. That is why the criticism, as we think, was not a remote subject for the Classical Ottoman poets, on the contrary, the criticism was closely related to their lives. Nelerin, niçin eleştirildiğinden ziyâde, eleştirici şairi, hangi duyguları ve hangi amaçları eleştiriye sevk eder sorusuna cevap aranan bu çalışmada, Klâsik şiirde eleştirinin hayatın bir parçası olduğunu, göstermeye çalışırken daha çok eleştirinin kişisel nedenleri üzerinde durulacaktır. “Aydın” diye nitelendirilmelerinin yanlış olmayacağı Klâsik şairlerin, aksaklıklara gözlerini kapayamayacaklarının bilinmesi gerekir. Bu yüzden, her şey eleştirinin konusu olabilmiştir. Bazen bir kişinin sakalı, bıyığı, riyakârlığı eleştiriye konu olurken bazen bir idarecinin eksik ve kusurları yüzüne vurulmuş, bazen de yığınların, yaşarlarken dikkatlerinden kaçan ve fark edebilmeleri çok güç olan toplumsal en küçük bozukluklar dahi gözden kaçmayıp dillendirilmiştir. Bu yüzden eleştiri, Klâsik şairlerin, -öyle sanıldığı gibi- çok uzaklarında değil yanı ba

  5. Escuela para señoritas, Inglaterra

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    Stillman y Eastwlck-Field, Arquitectos

    1963-02-01

    Full Text Available The object was to design part of a new building which had been seriously damaged during the war, so that the old and new parts would blend into a pleasant whole, with a capacity for 600 girls. The new designs avoid the glass box style of school buildings, and glass walls have been adopted only on the ground floor, thus giving an impression of light and airiness to what used to be a partial basement. Classrooms have been designed in a simple manner, and give the impression of conventional rooms. Simple lines and materials have been chosen throughout. Strong contrasts in the external finish have been avoided, and colours provide a relaxing background to the intensive activities of the students. A constructional feature is the use of prefabricated concrete joists and supports. Outer walls consist of brick panels filling in the space between the visible concrete framework. Ceilings are of insulating boards, and the floors are covered with linoleum. Special attention has been devoted to the hall. In this case the roof is of white gypsum, and the only features are the grills covering the fluorescent lighting. The walls of this hall are of glass, and are covered with heavy velvet curtains. A balcony with hardwood posts adds a simple and friendly feature to the building. The furniture and drapery have been carefully chosen. Camden school has a rigid tradition of individualism and fine education, and the new building has succeeded in maintaining the exclusive quality of the older parts, as well as offering an overall impression of up to date construction.El problema consistía en proyectar un nuevo núcleo para un edificio que había sido seriamente bombardeado durante la guerra, de tal modo que las partes antiguas y nuevas formasen un conjunto agradable y con capacidad para más de 600 chicas. En la nueva construcción se ha evitado el carácter de «cajas de cristal» de las nuevas escuelas ordinarias y se han empleado muros de cristal solamente en la

  6. A Review of Geophysical Constraints on the Deep Structure of the Tibetan Plateau, the Himalaya and the Karakoram, and their Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P.

    1988-09-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, the Himalaya and the Karakoram are the most spectacular consequences of the collision of the Indian subcontinent with the rest of Eurasia in Cainozoic time. Accordingly, the deep structures beneath them provide constraints on both the tectonic history of the region and on the dynamic processes that have created these structures. The dispersion of seismic surface waves requires that the crust beneath Tibet be thick: nowhere less than 50 km, at least 65 km, in most areas, but less than 80 km in all areas that have been studied. Wide-angle reflections of P-waves from explosive sources in southern Tibet corroborate the existence of a thick crust but also imply the existence of marked lateral variations in that thickness, or in the velocity structure of the crust. Thus isostatic compensation occurs largely by an Airy-type mechanism, unlike that, for instance, of the Basin and Range Province of western North America where a hot upper mantle buoys up a thin crust. The P-wave and S-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle of most of Tibet are relatively high and typical of those of Precambrian shields and stable platforms: Vp = 8.1 km s-1 or higher, and Vs≈ 4.7 km s-1. Travel times and waveforms of S-waves passing through the uppermost mantle of much of Tibet, however, require a much lower average velocity in the uppermost mantle than that of the Indian, or other, shields. They indicate a thick low-velocity zone in the upper mantle beneath Tibet, reminiscent of tectonically active regions. These data rule out a shield structure beneath northern Tibet and suggest that if such a structure does underlie part of the plateau, it does so only beneath the southern part. Lateral variations in the upper-mantle structure of Tibet are apparent from differences in travel times of S-waves from earthquakes in different parts of Tibet, in the attenuation of short-period phases, Pn and Sn, that propagate through the uppermost mantle of Tibet, and in surface

  7. Güvahî'nin Bilinmeyen Eseri: Tazarru'-Nâme Unknown Work of Guvahi: Tazarru-name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan GÜLTEKİN

    2012-09-01

    Sinan Pasha, XV. century comes to mind the work of his famous poems and prose mixed. Guvahî, the work of Sinan Pasha Hz. Muhammed, the four major caliph, Hz. Hasan and Hz. Hussein was inspired in shape and is seen to give ground. The common point of the two works, world and the wealth of the world is temporary, should be actively engaged in worship in the world to be happy in the Hereafter, in addition, from persons of that regarded as sacred by request spiritual assistance and invoked Allah for forgiveness for sins. Güvahî, divan edebiyatında daha çok Pend-nâme şairi olarak tanınır. Ancak şairin Gurbet-nâme ve İbret-nâme adında iki küçük mesnevisinin daha olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu çalışmada ise, Güvahî’nin kaynaklarda adından söz edilmeyen bir başka eseri Tazarru’-nâme tanıtılmış ve transkripsiyonlu metni verilmiştir. Mesnevi nazım şekliyle kaleme alınmış olan eserin içerisinde farklı vezinlerle yazılmış farklı nazım şekilleri de bulunmaktadır. Harekeli olan ve 553 beyitten oluşan Tazarru’-nâme’deki birkaç beyit Pend-nâme’deki bazı beyitlerle benzerlik göstermektedir. Bu benzerlikler Tazarru’-nâme’nin, Pend-nâme şairi Güvahî tarafından kaleme alındığını göstermektedir. Tevhid, na’t ve münacat içerikli manzumelerle başlayan eser, dünyanın geçiciliğinden, ahiret için hazırlık yapılmasından bahsederek şairin günahlarının bağışlanmasını istediği manzumelerle devam etmekte, sebeb-i telif, eserin adı, dua ve eserin bitirildiği yılı belirten beyitlerle sona ermektedir. Güvahî’nin Tazarru’-nâme’sinde klasik bir mesnevide olması gereken bütün bölümler bulunmamakta ve en önemlisi herhangi bir hikâye anlatılmamaktadır. Bu nedenle eseri, mesnevi nazım şekliyle yazılmış uzunca bir manzume olarak tanımlamak yerinde olacaktır. Eserin giriş bölümü besmele ile başlamış, tevhid, münacat ve na’t ile devam etmiştir. Giriş b

  8. Karacaoğlan'ın Şiirlerinde Dağ Algısı Perception Of Mountains In The Poetry Of Karacaoğlan

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    Işıl ALTUN

    2013-01-01

    çinde oldukça geniş yer tutan gerçek, yaşamsal bir parçadır, dolgu bir mekân değildir. Bu çalışmada, halk şiirinin önemli bir temsilcisi olan, aşk ve tabiat şairi diye tanımlanan Karacaoğlan’ın beş yüz şiirinden yola çıkılmıştır. Onun söylediği şiirlerde Türkmenlerin sosyo-kültürel yapılarının yol açtığı zaman ve mekânla süslenmiş olan hayatları vardır. Karacaoğlan’ın yetiştiği ve gezdiği yerlerin adları (iller, köyler, dağlar, yaylalar, beller, ovalar, göller, pınarlar, kullandığı dil (tasvirler, benzetmeler, mahalli kullanımlar ve Türkmenlere ait gelenek görenek, giyim kuşam unsurları, konar göçer kültürü, sosyal ve tarihi olaylar, Karacaoğlan’ın hem tabiî hem de düzenlenmiş çevresine kısaca yaşam alanına ışık tutar niteliktedir. Karacaoğlan şiirinin genel tabiatı içinde “dağ” tabiatın oldukça önemli bir elemanı olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Karacaoğlan’ın şiirlerinde “dağ” hem kendi gerçekliğinde var olan tabiatın bir parçası “dağ” hem de Karacaoğlan’ın söylemek istediklerini söyleyebilmek için kurgulanmış bir “dağ”dır. Karacaoğlan genel anlamda tabiatı, özel ve dar anlamda “dağ”ı her zaman insanla olan ilişkisi bağlamında ele almıştır. Çalışmamızda “dağ” imgeli şiirlerin Karacaoğlan’ın iç dünyasını, içsel-düşünsel yaşam kavrayışını, karakterini, heyecanını bize nasıl anlattığı üzerinde durulmuş; Karacaoğlan’ın nesneleri sergileyişi, dağ algısı ile yoğunlaştırılmış duyguları dile getirişi ele alınmış, mekȃnsal bir olgu ve algı olan “dağ”ın insanla olan ilişkisi ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

  9. Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222Rn in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morrocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.; Hakam, O.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Radon gas ( 222 Rn) is found in the environment and is an occurring radioactive gas that is originated from the decay of uranium in rocks and soils. It is colorless, odorless, and tasteless and can only be measured using special equipment. Ionizing radiations are present at all time and at all places on the earth. Radon is one of the principal sources of natural radiation exposure. Most of this exposure occurs inside homes. Radon levels are governed by many factors, like local geology, atmospheric conditions, air exchange rate, wind velocity, and the orientation of the house. The inhalation of radon causes a high number of lung cancer cases, which are reported annually (UNSCEAR, 2000). Exposure to radon in dwellings and workplaces may arise from existing exposure situations or from practices. The results of various international surveys have demonstrated an increase in radon concentration levels in houses and, consequently, a continuously growing concern about its health effects to the population. Experimental The passive time integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II) was employed. Stations of Radon measurements Stations of measure were implanted in some regions of Morocco. However, measurements were only made in the places where voluntary correspondents were found having agreed to install detectors. These were in houses in the following cities: Rabat, Casablanca, Kenitra, El Jadida, Berchid, Khouribga, Youssoufia, Ouarzazate and Oujda. Results The volumic activities of radon vary in Houses, between 31and 136 Bq/m3 with an average value of 80 Bq/m3. This value is comparable to those found in the other regions of the world. In enclosed work area, the volumic activities of radon vary between 60 Bq/m3 in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 at not airy underground level of 12 m. The effective dose per unit exposure to radon and radon progeny was obtained using the so-called dose conversion convention as defined by ICRP (1993; 1994

  10. Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi’ndeki 1211 Numaralı Na’t ve Mi’râciyye Mecmûası Mecmua Of Na’t And Mi’raciyye Numbered 1211 In Suleymaniye Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TANYILDIZ

    2013-03-01

    önüyle farklı disiplinler ve bakış açılarıyla da incelenmeyi gerektirmekle birlikte klâsik Türk edebiyatı sahası araştırmaları için oldukça önem arz etmektedir. Söz konusu amaç çerçevesinde bu çalışmada, sınırlı sayıdaki na’t ve mi’râciyye mecmûalarından Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Hamîdiye Bölümü 1211 numarada yer alanı ele alınmıştır. Na’t ve Mi’râciyye mecmûaları; Hz. Muhammed’in kişiliği, mucizeleri, şefaati, ailesi, yakın çevresi, sahabeleri ve doğumundan ölümüne kadarki dönemde yaşanan gelişmeler gibi konuları içeren na’tların ve O’nun en büyük mucizelerinden biri olarak kabul edilen Mi’râc hadisesinin anlatıldığı mi’râciyyelerin derlendiği eserlerdir. İncelemeye çalıştığımız bu mecmûada 16 şairin na’t ve mi’râciyye türündeki 45 şiiri bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle mecmûanın fiziksel özellikleri değerlendirilmiş ve eserdeki şiirler nazım türü, nazım şekli, şairi ve bend/beyit sayısı açısından tasnif edilmiştir. Daha sonra tablolar hâlinde şiirlerin türü, şekli, birimi, vezni, başlığı, matla’ bend/beyitleri ve makta’ bend/beyitleri belirtilmiştir. Her tablonun alt kısmındaki not bölümünde şiirlerle ilgili varsa özel bilgilere yer verilmiştir. Şiirlerin ait olduğu dîvân ve mesnevî gibi eserler yeni yazı ile yayınlanmışsa o eserlere de ulaşılmaya çalışılmış ve tespit edilebilen şiirlerin sayfa numaraları yine not bölümünde belirtilmiştir.

  11. SOCIAL LIFE IN 14th CENTURY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF AHMEDİ’S CEMŞİD Ü HURŞİD AND ŞEYHOĞLU MUSTAFA’S HURŞİDNÂME AHMEDÎNİN CEMŞİD Ü HURŞİD VE ŞEYHOĞLU MUSTAFA’NIN HURŞİDNÂME ADLI ESERLERİNİN PERSPEKTİFİNDEN XIV. YÜZYILDA SOSYAL HAYAT

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    Melike GÖKCAN TÜRKDOĞAN

    2011-06-01

    beyliklerin özerk yapılar halinde kendilerine zemin ve imkân oluşturmaya çalıştıkları bu dönemde, çeşitli siyasi ve kültürel oluşumların Anadolu’nun rengini ve dokusunu değiştirdiğini yeni bir medeniyetin doğumuna zemin hazırlandığını görmek mümkündür. Söz konusu dönem, Türkçe’nin Anadolu sahasındaki gelişimi açısından da bir dönüm noktasıdır. Selçuklu dönemi edebîyatının Farsça üzerinden geliştiği bilinmektedir. Oysa Anadolu beylerinin tercihi eserlerin Türkçe ile kaleme alınmasından yanadır. Beylerin isteği doğrultusunda Türkçe telif ve tercüme eserlerin verilmeye başlanmasıyla Batı Türkçesinin işleklik kazanarak, edebî dil haline gelişi Türk edebîyatının geleceği açısından son derece önemli bir süreç olmuştur.Geçiş dönemi diyebileceğimiz bu yüzyılda verilen edebî eserlerin en önemlileri mesnevilerdir. Mesneviler, hikâye kurgusu içinde, ait olduğu dönemin sosyo-kültürel yapısını, toplumsal ve siyasal oluşumları, inanç sistemini, değerler bütününü barındıran zengin dokulu eserlerdir.Bu çalışmada, Germiyan’da yetişen ve Osmanlı’nın kuruluş ve yükselişine şahitlik eden güçlü mesnevi şairi Ahmedî’nin “İskendernâme” ve “Cemşîd ü Hurşîd” adlı eserlerinin perspektifinden dönemin tarihî, sosyal ve kültürel özelliklerini görmeyi hedefledik.

  12. Bir Ritüel Pratiği Üretme Denemesi: Şeyh Gâlib İçin Düzenlenen İlk İhtifal An Attempt To Produce A Ritual Practice: The First Memorial Ceremony Held For Sheik Ghâlib

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    Ayşe DEĞERLİ

    2013-07-01

    . Osmanlı Devleti’yle ve Mevlevilikle iyi ilişkiler içinde bulunan bir ailede dünyaya gelmiştir. İlköğrenimini babasından görmüş; değişik hocalardan Arapça ve Farsça dersler almıştır. Şeyh Gâlib’in yetişmesinde o dönemin edebiyat, musikî ve tasavvuf mektebi mahiyetinde olan mevlevîhanenin rolü büyüktür. Divan şiirinin son büyük şairi olarak kabul edilen Şeyh Gâlib, Mevlevi kişiliği ve güçlü şairliği ile kendisinden sonra gelen nesilde büyük bir etki bırakmıştır. Buna rağmen Osmanlı Devleti zamanında Şeyh Gâlib’i anmak adına düzenlenen ilk tören, onun ölümünden 113 yıl sonrasına tarihlenmektedir.Din ve toplumsal tarih araştırmalarında merkezî bir konumda olan törenler, kültürel dinamiklerin analizinde önemli odak noktalarından biridir. Ritüeller devamlılık gösterip tekrarlanırsa, uygulama törensel bir nitelik kazanır. Bu nedenle Şeyh Gâlib adına dönemin önde gelen kimselerinin öncülüğünde ve belirli bir program dâhilinde hazırlanıp icra edilen; padişahın da desteğini alan ilk anma töreni “ritüeli törenselleĢtirme”ye yönelik bir girişim olarak kabul edilebilir. Toplumların ve özellikle yönetimlerin, insanlara verdikleri önemle ölçülür hale geldikleri düşünülecek olursa, Şeyh Gâlib’i anmak için düzenlenen ilk ihtifal dikkate değer bir girişimdir. Bu çalışmada dönemin kaynakları temel alınarak, ilk anma töreni ayrıntısı ile incelenecektir.

  13. Ahmet Haşim’de Ev-Yuva ve Doğa İmgesi Home-Nest and Nature Images in Ahmet Haşim

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    Refika ALTIKULAÇ DEMİRDAĞ

    2012-12-01

    ünyadan hayali dünyaya kaçtığı konusu üzerinde pek durulmamıştır. Çünkü Haşim’in şiirlerinde yarattığı hayali dünya, gerçek dünyadan daha zengindir. Bunun yanı sıra Haşim’in eve ve doğanın içinde bir yuvaya ya da sığınağa duyduğu ihtiyaç da dikkat çekici bir konudur. Haşim, evin içinde, daha dar bir mekânda daha huzurludur. Bu durumu şairin “Evim” adlı şiirinde görebiliriz. Ayrıca Haşim, daha geniş bir sığınağı “O Belde” adlı şiirinde betimlenmektedir. O belde, doğanın bir parçası ve doğadaki bir kuytuluktur. Dolayısıyla tıpkı bir kuş yuvası gibi şairin hisleriyle, yüreğiyle yapılmıştır. Geçek olup olmaması şair için önemli değildir. Çünkü aslında şair, bu betimlediği yerin zihninin sığınağı olduğunu bilir. Gerçek dünyadan kaçmak isteyen onun zihni ve hayalidir. Zihni, gerçek dünyadan kaçmak ister. Çünkü gerçek dünya karamsar ve güvenli olmayan bir yerdir. Bol “hareket” ve bol ışık vardır. Bu hareket ve ışık bolluğu şairi ürkütmektedir. Daha az aydınlık, daha sessiz, daha doğayla iç içe ve daha samimi bir dünyayı ancak zihninin “el değmemiş” bölgelerinde bulur. Bulduğu bu yer ev-yuva, “o belde”dir.

  14. Tevfik Fikret’in Özgürlük Yolundaki “İzler”i “İzler” of Tevfik Fikret in the Wake of Freedom

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    Mutlu DEVECİ

    2012-09-01

    çıkar. İzleksel açıdan toplumsal olanı dışladığı şiirlerinde kendini onlardan ayrı hisseden şair, yalnızlık ve tekbaşınalığın getirdiği özgürlük sayesinde yaşama tutunur. “İzler” şiiri de bu izlek etrafında kurgulanmış bir varoluş şiiridir. Öznenin özgürlük yolunda, yalnız ve tekbaşına olduğunu dile getirdiği bu şiirde, kendi kendisiyle yüzleşen insanın ruh durumu anlatılır. Ontolojik bir sorun olan yalnızlık, yabancılaşma bağlamında bireysel ve toplumsal kaynaklı iletişimsizlik yaratır. Dönemin siyasi, sosyal ve ekonomik şartlarının şekillendirdiği şair, karakter ve yetişme tarzının da etkisi ile kendisini iletişimsizlikler içerisinde yalnız ve tekbaşına olarak hisseder. “İzler”de, olumsuz bir yalnızlığın koyu karanlığında yitip gitmeyerek kendine dönen şair, dünyadaki varlığı ile yüzleşir ve tekbaşınalığını bir güç olarak algılar. Şiirde, Varoluşçu felsefecilerin özgürlük anlayışına benzer bir anlayışla kendine, dünyaya ve çevresine bakan Tevfik Fikret, dış dünyayla ilişkiye girememenin bunaltısını yaşarken anlam arayışına yönelik eylemleri ile diğerlerinden farklı olduğunu hisseder. Servet-i Fünun kuşağının dünya ile en çok çatışma yaşayan şairi olan Tevfik Fikret, bu şiiri ile varoluşsal problemlerinden kurtulmak için içsel bir yolculuğa çıkarak kendisiyle yüzleşen ve bırakılmışlık bunaltısının sağaltım sürecini başlatan öznenin ruh halini yansıtır.

  15. Notre-Dame du Raincy (Seine-Saint-Denis, chef-d’œuvre des chapelles de la banlieue ?

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    Antoine Le Bas

    2012-04-01

    , aujourd’hui achevées.The Paris suburb of Le Raincy became an independent commune in 1869 and, in accordance with the Concordat of 1801, was expected to build a church to accommodate its growing numbers of parishioners. After the First World War, the parish priest, Victor Nègre, received a donation destined to honour the victims of the Battle of the Marne, and the church he had to conceive was consequently both a parish church and a war memorial. After various other projects, the architects Auguste and Gustave Perret put forward a design for a vast, airy building which could be erected at a relatively low cost. Their building was of basilical inspiration with a fairly traditional tower-porch. But the church was nonetheless a highly innovative building in terms of its construction techniques: the thin concrete walls for the nave and side aisles; the use of reinforced concrete, then almost unheard of in religious architecture; the building techniques used, based on considerable standardisation in the production and assembly of modular elements. The church took thirteen months to build and resulted in an edifice with all the facilities necessary for parish life, but which was also a sanctuary in harmony with the liturgical reforms undertaken at the beginning of the 20th century. The decoration of the church was particularly rich, resulting from the close collaboration between the priest, the architects and the painter Maurice Denis. The themes dealt with, turning around the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary, and with patriotic overtones, announced in their synthesis the inter-war renewal of sacred art. Despite initial reticence in the face of the church’s modernity, it was soon recognised, first abroad and then in France, as a possible prototype for modern, economic religious buildings. The Perret brothers pursued this type of church building, with numerous examples, up to the end of their career. The recognition of the church’s heritage values - it was given

  16. "SELF" AND "OTHER" IMAGES IN KAZAKH POET MAĞCAN CUMABAYEV'S POEMS KAZAK ŞAİRİ MAĞCAN CUMABAYOĞLU’NUN ŞİİRLERİNDE “KENDİ” VE “ÖTEKİ” İMAJI

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    Cemile KINACI

    2011-09-01

    öhret kazanmış bir Kazak şairidir. Şiirlerinde Rusya idaresindeki Türklerin dertlerini ve isteklerini dile getirir. Hatta bunların bazılarında bütün dünya Türklüğünü söz konusu eder. 1920 yılında yazdığı Alıstağı Bavrıma (Uzaktaki Kardeşime isimli şiirle Türkiye Türklerine seslenir ve İstiklal Harbi yapmakta olan Türkiye Türklerinin dertlerine ortak olur. 1938 yılında Stalin katliamlarında kurşuna dizilerek öldürülür. Bu çalışmada, Kazak şairi Mağcan Cumabayoğlu‟nun şiirlerinde “kendi” ve “öteki” ile ilgili imajlar ortaya koyulmaya çalışılacaktır. Milliyetçi bir Kazak şairinin şiirlerine “öteki” ve “kendi”nin nasıl yansıdığı üzerinde durulacaktır.

  17. AN UNKNOWN MESNEVI ABOUT ISTANBUL: ISTANBULNÂME İSTANBUL HAKKINDA BİLİNMEYEN BİR MESNEVİ: İSTANBULNÂME*

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    Orhan AYDOĞDU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There are totally 11 sheets about writing paper of İstanbulnâme which is registered at the handwriting department of Çorum Hasan Paşa public library with the number of 2208/1. There are 17 lines in every each of sheets of piece. It is clear that it was written in hijri 1132 (christian era 1719-1720,we can understand it by the date of the end of piece. The piece belongs a poet who uses Rûhî pseudonym. There are not enough information about the poet who has a relation or not with the known poets who use Rûhî pseudonym.The piece, which has 350 verses, shows us mesnevi characteristics according to type of poetry. İstanbulnâme was written at the beginning of Lale era which contains 1718-1730 years. That is why, we sould comment it different way from that era. In the piece it is told that about effect of İstanbul on poet’s soul, sea and Bosphorus, historical places on the Anatolia and Rumelia side, mansions and residential places. It has sahilnâme characteristic because of this speciality. In the other parts, it is told about the mosques in İstanbul. It has dâriyye characteristic because of this speciality. There are also verses which is told entertainments in it. In the declaration, it will be given short informations about either İstanbulnâme, or residential places and historical places in piece. Çorum Hasan Paşa İl Halk Kütüphanesinin El Yazmaları Bölümünde 2208/1 numarasıyla kayıtlı olan İstanbulnâme’nin yazma nüshası, toplam 11 varaktan oluşmaktadır. Eserin her bir varağında 17 satır bulunmaktadır. Gerek eserin sonuna yazılan tarihten, gerekse eserdeki tarih beytinden anlaşıldığına göre eser, Hicrî 1132 (M.1719-1720 tarihinde yazılmıştır. Eser, Rûhî mahlasını kullanan bir şaire aittir. Bilinen Rûhî mahlaslı şairlerle ilişkisi tespit edilemeyen şairi hakkında elimizde henüz yeterli bilgi mevcut değildir.350 beyitten oluşan eser, nazım şekli bakımından mesnevi özelliklerini g

  18. Şeyhülislam Bostanzade Mehmed Efendi Ve Nazmen Verilmiş Fetvâları Shaykh Al-Islam Bostanzadah Mehmed Effendi And His In Verse Fatwas

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    Muhittin ELİAÇIK

    2012-12-01

    manzum hâlde verilenlerine de rastlanmıştır. Böyle fetvâlar mensur hâlde verilen fetvâlara göre çok az sayıda olmuş ve Divan şairleri arasında özel ve imtiyazlı bir yerde bulunan şeyhülislâmların kalemlerinden çıkmıştır. Bu şeyhülislâmlardan birisi de Bostanzâde Mehmed Efendi’dir. Şeyhülislâm Bostanzâde Mehmed Efendi, Osmanlı’da birçok olayın ilk örneğinin kendi zamanında yaşandığı ilgi çekici bir şeyhülislâmdır. Onun kahve hakkında verdiği 52 beyitlik manzum fetvâ da bu ilgi çekici olaylardan olup, bu fetvâsıyla mühim bir tartışmaya son noktayı koymuştur. Aynı zamanda güçlü bir divan şairi olan Bostanzâde Mehmed Efendi, hatırı sayılır sayıda manzum fetvâ yazmıştır. Bu fetvâların soru ve cevaplarının beyit sayılarının hayli uzun olması da dikkat çekici bir durumdur. Bu makalede onun manzum fetvâlarından tespit edilebilen dört örnek dikkatlere sunulmaktadır.

  19. Behçet Necatigil’in Poetikası Üzerine On Poetic Of Behçet Necatigil

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    Gökhan REYHANOĞULLARI

    2013-03-01

    ından Poetika adlı eserinde kullanıldığı bilinmektedir. Önceleri genel manada sanatın karşılığı olarak kullanılmış olmasına rağmen, modern dönemlerde şiir sanatına dair görüşleri kapsayacak şekilde kabul görmüştür. Türk edebiyatında müstakil olarak az sayıda derli toplu poetika olsa da, şiir ve şiir sanatı üzerine söylenen sayısız görüş vardır. Bu durum Klasik edebiyatımız açısından kısır olmasına rağmen, yenileşme döneminde poetik görüşler oldukça fazladır. Özellikle Cumhuriyet döneminde bu durum en üst seviyeye çıkar. Şairler kendi şiir anlayışlarını dile getirirken daha çok kendilerine yönelik eleştirilere cevap verme amacını taşırlar. Ancak bütün poetikaları bu mahiyette kabul etmek doğru değildir. Henüz yaşarken kendi poetikasını yayınlayanlar arasında Behçet Necatigil de vardır. Necatigil’in poetikası temelde herhangi bir tutuma veya eleştiriye cevap niteliğinde değildir. Necatigil, kendi şiir anlayışını dile getirirken, kendinden önceki tutumlara tamamen zıt bir tavır takınmaz. Onun amacı, dünyayı, yaşadığı çağı, toplumu kendi süzgecinden geçirerek şiirlerinde yansıtmaktır. İnsana ait ne varsa, evi, aileyi, çevreyi, tanık olduğu her şeyi konu edinir. Şiir meydana getiren kişiyi, yani şairi önemser. Şiirlerin şekil yönünden sağlam olmasını ister. Dil’i şiirin en önemli öğesi olarak görür. Şiirin esas amacının toplumu ve yaşanılan çağı yansıtmak olduğuna inanır. Bütün bu meseleler karşısında şiir okuyucusunun, şiiri anlayabilmesi için çaba harcaması gerektiğini vurgular. Böylelikle şiir bütün yönleriyle gerektiği gibi algılanmış olur. Bu sebeple Necatigil’in Poetika’sı, yakın dönem şiir sanatımız açısından kayda değer fikirler ve önermeler taşımaktadır.

  20. Râhatü’l-İnsân (Pend-Nâme-i Enûşîrvân’ın Türkçe Bir Tercümesi A Turkish Translation of Râhatü’l-İnsân (Pend-Nâme-i Enûşîrvân

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    Müjgân ÇAKIR

    2012-09-01

    ı kaynaklarda Râhatü’l-insân veya Pend-nâme-i Enûşîrvân diye adlandırılmış olanıdır. Rıza Kulı Han Hidayet’in Bedâyi‛-i Belhî’ye ait olduğunu belirttiği metnin şairi meselesi ihtilaflıdır. Charles Schefer’in Chrestomathie Persane adlı eserinde neşrettiği metnin mukaddimesinde adı geçen “Şerîf-i Şair”in Ebû Şerîf Muhalledi-yi Gurgânî olduğu da iddia edilmektedir. Râhatü’l-insân Türkiye Kütüphanelerinde nüshaları olan bir eserdir. Bu makalede metin ve onun Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Fatih Bölümü, No. 5385’te “Pend-i Nûşîrevân-ı Âdil” adıyla kayıtlı bulunan Türkçe mensur bir tercümesi üzerinde durulacaktır. Bu tercümede Nûşîrevân’ın tacının onyedi diliminde (küngüre yazılı olan nasihatlar sıralanmakta ve bu âdil hükümdarın nasihatlarını askerlerinin okuyabilmesi için yılda bir kez tacını uygun bir yere astırdığından bahsedilmektedir. Nûşîrevân’ın nasihatlarında amacının insanlarını ahlâkî bakımdan eğitmek, insanlar arası ilişkileri düzenlemek kadar tebaa ile hükümdar arası münasebete yön vermek olduğu da görülmektedir. “İhtiyar ve zayıflara hürmet edin, ana baba hakkını gözetin, işlerinizi âlimlere danışarak yapın, dilinize hakim olun, emanete hıyanet etmeyin, düşündükten sonra konuşun” vb. Nûşîrevân’ın tacında kayıtlı olan nasihatlardan bazılarıdır. Makalede eserin Farsça nüshalarıyla Türkçe tercümesi arasındaki farklılıklara da temas edilmeye çalışılacak ve Türkçe tercümenin transkripsiyonlu şekline yer verilecektir.

  1. Bâkî’de Gözyaşı Tear at Bâkî

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    Nazmi ÖZEROL

    2012-09-01

    özyaşlarıdır. Sevgiliye duyulan aşkın ve ondaki güzellik unsurlarının dile getirilmesinde, âşığın akla gelebilecek bütün ruh hâllerini, toplum içindeki konumunu, inançla ilgili telakkilerini yansıtmada gözyaşı, bütün çağrışım zenginliğiyle metinsel düzlemde boy gösterir. Âşığın en büyük sermayesi ve varlığı olan gözyaşı, âşıklığın da en büyük alametidir. Gözyaşı, sevgili için akıtılan bir gönül suyudur, onun güzellik bahçesine hayat verir. Aşkın şiddetinin ve büyüklüğünün göstergesi olan gözyaşı, damla iken yağmur olur, sele dönüşür; nehirler, denizler ve okyanuslar meydana getirir. Pişmanlığı yansıtan aynı zamanda günahlardan arınma vesilesi olan gözyaşı, âşığın rahatlamasını ve ruhunun sükûnet bulmasını sağlar. Bazen aşkın sırlarını ifşa ettiği için gözyaşına sitem edilir bazen de sevgiliye kavuşan âşık, sevinç gözyaşları döker. XVI. yüzyıl şairi Bâkî’nin şiirlerinde gözyaşı göstergesinin ele alındığı bu çalışma, giriş ve dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Giriş bölümünde şiir dilinde gözyaşının ifade ettiği anlamlar ve edebiyatımızda bazı şairlerin gözyaşıyla ilgili duygu ve düşünceleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Birinci bölümde Bâkî’nin şiirlerinde gözyaşı ve ağlamakla ilgili beyitler tespit edilmiş, benzetme ve mecazlardan yararlanılarak birçok kavramla ilişkilendirilen gözyaşının, yalnızca gözden dökülen tuzlu bir su olmadığı, derin anlam ve çağrışımlar ifade eden bir gösterge olarak kullanıldığı görülmüştür. Bâkî’nin şiirlerinde gözyaşı göstergesinin ilettiği mesajlar; ikinci bölümde psikolojik, üçüncü bölümde sosyal ve dördüncü bölümde dinî yönden ele alınmıştır.