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Sample records for ton kalker ingemar

  1. A 3D model for rubber tyres contact, based on Kalker's methods through the STRIPES model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    A project on the pavement-rutting evolution under the effect of a tram on tyre, led the author to make a link between road and railway approaches to the problem of rolling contact. A simplified model is proposed with a fine description of the contact patch between a tyre and the road, and a more realistic pressure and shear stresses distribution than that available from basic models previously available. Experimental measurements are used to identify some characteristics of the force description, while the geometric shape of the tyre-road section are used, like in the traditional rail-wheel contact models, to build the 3D model. The last part validates a plausible contact pressure shape from self-aligning torque measurements and from Kalker's contact stresses gradient applied to the real tyre used in the project. The final result is a brush model extended from the wheel-rail STRIPES one, applicable to dynamics or contact studies of real tyres, with a physical coupling between longitudinal, lateral and spin effects, and a relatively fine description of the contact stresses along each strip of each tyre of the vehicle on an uneven road.

  2. Kalker's algorithm Fastsim solves tangential contact problems with slip-dependent friction and friction anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents two extensions of Kalker's algorithm Fastsim of the simplified theory of rolling contact. The first extension is for solving tangential contact problems with the coefficient of friction depending on slip velocity. Two friction laws have been considered: with and without recuperation of the static friction. According to the tribological hypothesis for metallic bodies shear failure, the friction law without recuperation of static friction is more suitable for wheel and rail than the other one. Sample results present local quantities inside the contact area (division to slip and adhesion, traction) as well as global ones (creep forces as functions of creepages and rolling velocity). For the coefficient of friction diminishing with slip, the creep forces decay after reaching the maximum and they depend on the rolling velocity. The second extension is for solving tangential contact problems with friction anisotropy characterised by a convex set of the permissible tangential tractions. The effect of the anisotropy has been shown on examples of rolling without spin and in the presence of pure spin for the elliptical set. The friction anisotropy influences tangential tractions and creep forces. Sample results present local and global quantities. Both extensions have been described with the same language of formulation and they may be merged into one, joint algorithm.

  3. Multi-Ton Argon and Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo; Balascuta, Septimiu; Alton, Drew; Aprile, Elena; Giboni, Karl-Ludwig; Haruyama, Tom; Lang, Rafael; Melgarejo, Antonio Jesus; Ni, Kaixuan; Plante, Guillaume; Choi, Bin [et al.

    2009-01-01

    There is a wide range of astronomical evidence that the visible stars and gas in all galaxies, including our own, are immersed in a much larger cloud of non-luminous matter, typically an order of magnitude greater in total mass. The existence of this ''dark matter'' is consistent with evidence from large-scale galaxy surveys and microwave background measurements, indicating that the majority of matter in the universe is non-baryonic. The nature of this non-baryonic component is still totally unknown, and the resolution of the ''dark matter puzzle'' is of fundamental importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and elementary particle physics. A leading explanation, motivated by supersymmetry theory, is the existence of as yet undiscovered Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), formed in the early universe and subsequently clustered in association with normal matter. WIMPs could, in principle, be detected in terrestrial experiments by their collisions with ordinary nuclei, giving observable low energy (< 100 keV) nuclear recoils. The predicted low collision rates require ultra-low background detectors with large (0.1-10 ton) target masses, located in deep underground sites to eliminate neutron background from cosmic ray muons. The establishment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory for large-scale experiments of this type would strengthen the current leadership of US researchers in this and other particle astrophysics areas. We propose to detect nuclear recoils by scintillation and ionization in ton-scale liquid noble gas targets, using techniques already proven in experiments at the 0.01-0.1 ton level. The experimental challenge is to identify these events in the presence of background events from gammas, neutrons, and alphas.

  4. ICARUS 600 ton: A status report

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, C; Badertscher, A; Barbieri, E; Benetti, P; Borio di Tigliole, A; Brunetti, R; Bueno, A; Calligarich, E; Campanelli, Mario; Carli, F; Carpanese, C; Cavalli, D; Cavanna, F; Cennini, P; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Chen, C; Chen, Y; Cinquini, C; Cline, D; De Mitri, I; Dolfini, R; Favaretto, D; Ferrari, A; Gigli Berzolari, A; Goudsmit, P; He, K; Huang, X; Li, Z; Lu, F; Ma, J; Mannocchi, G; Mauri, F; Mazza, D; Mazzone, L; Montanari, C; Nurzia, G P; Otwinowski, S; Palamara, O; Pascoli, D; Pepato, A; Periale, L; Petrera, S; Piano Mortari, Giovanni; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rancati, T; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rebuzzi, D; Revol, J P; Rico, J; Rossella, M; Rossi, C; Rubbia, C; Rubbia, A; Sala, P; Scannicchio, D; Sergiampietri, F; Suzuki, S; Terrani, M; Ventura, S; Verdecchia, M; Wang, H; Woo, J; Xu, G; Xu, Z; Zhang, C; Zhang, Q; Zheng, S

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the ICARUS Project is the installation of a multi-kiloton LAr TPC in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. The programme foresees the realization of the detector in a modular way. The first step is the construction of a 600 ton module which is now at an advanced phase. It will be mounted and tested in Pavia in one year and then it will be moved to Gran Sasso for the final operation. The major cryogenic and purification systems and the mechanical components of the detector have been constructed and tested in a 10 m3 prototype. The results of these tests are here summarized.

  5. Improvements in BTS estimation of ton-miles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Ton-miles (one ton of freight shipped one mile) is the primary physical measure of freight transportation output. This paper describes improved measurements of ton-miles for air, truck, rail, water, and pipeline modes. Each modal measure contains a d...

  6. Reheating experiment in the 35-ton pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherot, J.; Girard, Y.

    1957-01-01

    When the 35-ton pile was started up it was necessary for us, in order to study certain effects (xenon for example), to know the anti reactivity value of the rods as a function of their dimensions. We have made use of the possibility, in the reheating experiment, of raising the temperature of the graphite-uranium block by simple heating, in order to determine the anti reactivity curves of the rods, and from that the overall temperature coefficient. For the latter we have considered two solutions: first, one in which the average temperature of the pile is defined as our arithmetical mean of the different values given by the 28 thermocouples distributed throughout the pile; a second in which the temperature in likened to a poisoning and is balanced by the square of the flux. The way in which the measurements have been made is indicated, and the different instruments used are described. The method of reheating does not permit the separation of the temperature coefficients of uranium and of graphite. The precision obtained is only moderate, and suffers from the changes of various parameters necessary to other manipulations carried out simultaneously (life time modulators for example), and finally it is a function of the comparatively restricted time allowed. It is evident of course that more careful stabilisation at the different plateaux chosen would have necessitated long periods of reheating. (author) [fr

  7. Death of the TonB Shuttle Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresock, Michael G; Savenkova, Marina I; Larsen, Ray A; Ollis, Anne A; Postle, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    A complex of ExbB, ExbD, and TonB couples cytoplasmic membrane (CM) proton motive force (pmf) to the active transport of large, scarce, or important nutrients across the outer membrane (OM). TonB interacts with OM transporters to enable ligand transport. Several mechanical models and a shuttle model explain how TonB might work. In the mechanical models, TonB remains attached to the CM during energy transduction, while in the shuttle model the TonB N terminus leaves the CM to deliver conformationally stored potential energy to OM transporters. Previous studies suggested that TonB did not shuttle based on the activity of a GFP-TonB fusion that was anchored in the CM by the GFP moiety. When we recreated the GFP-TonB fusion to extend those studies, in our hands it was proteolytically unstable, giving rise to potentially shuttleable degradation products. Recently, we discovered that a fusion of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR cytoplasmic domain to the N terminus of TonB was proteolytically stable. ToxR-TonB was able to be completely converted into a proteinase K-resistant conformation in response to loss of pmf in spheroplasts and exhibited an ability to form a pmf-dependent formaldehyde crosslink to ExbD, both indicators of its location in the CM. Most importantly, ToxR-TonB had the same relative specific activity as wild-type TonB. Taken together, these results provide conclusive evidence that TonB does not shuttle during energy transduction. We had previously concluded that TonB shuttles based on the use of an Oregon Green(®) 488 maleimide probe to assess periplasmic accessibility of N-terminal TonB. Here we show that the probe was permeant to the CM, thus permitting the labeling of the TonB N-terminus. These former results are reinterpreted in the context that TonB does not shuttle, and suggest the existence of a signal transduction pathway from OM to cytoplasm.

  8. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  9. Death of the TonB shuttle hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael George Gresock

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A complex of ExbB, ExbD, and TonB transduces cytoplasmic membrane (CM proton motive force (pmf to outer membrane (OM transporters so that large, scarce, and important nutrients can be released into the periplasmic space for subsequent transport across the CM. TonB is the component that interacts with the OM transporters and enables ligand transport, and several mechanical models and a shuttle model explain how TonB might work. In the mechanical models, TonB remains attached to the CM during energy transduction, while in the shuttle model the TonB N terminus leaves the CM to deliver conformationally stored potential energy to OM transporters. Previous efforts to test the shuttle model by anchoring TonB to the CM by fusion to a large globular cytoplasmic protein have been hampered by the proteolytic susceptibility of the fusion constructs. Here we confirm that GFP-TonB, tested in a previous study by another laboratory, again gave rise to full-length TonB and slightly larger potentially shuttleable fragments that prevented unambiguous interpretation of the data. Recently, we discovered that a fusion of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR cytoplasmic domain to the N terminus of TonB was proteolytically stable. ToxR-TonB was able to be completely converted into a proteinase K-resistant conformation in response to loss of pmf in spheroplasts and exhibited an ability to form a pmf-dependent formaldehyde crosslink to ExbD, both indicators of its location in the CM. Most importantly, ToxR-TonB had the same relative specific activity as wild-type TonB. Taken together, these results provide the first conclusive evidence that TonB does not shuttle during energy transduction. The interpretations of our previous study, which concluded that TonB shuttled in vivo, were complicated by the fact that the probe used in those studies, Oregon Green® 488 maleimide, was permeant to the CM and could label proteins, including a TonB ∆TMD derivative, confined exclusively to the

  10. Response Surface Model (RSM)-based Benefit Per Ton Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tables below are updated versions of the tables appearing in The influence of location, source, and emission type in estimates of the human health benefits of reducing a ton of air pollution (Fann, Fulcher and Hubbell 2009).

  11. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  12. 305 Building 2 ton bridge crane and monorail assembly analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axup, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The analyses in the appendix of this document evaluate the integrity of the existing bridge crane structure, as depicted on drawing H-3-34292, for a bridge crane and monorail assembly with a load rating of 2 tons. This bridge crane and monorail assembly is a modification of a 1 1/2 ton rated manipulator bridge crane which originally existed in the 305 building

  13. Factory Acceptance Test Procedure Westinghouse 100 ton Hydraulic Trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    This Factory Acceptance Test Procedure (FAT) is for the Westinghouse 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer. The trailer will be used for the removal of the 101-SY pump. This procedure includes: safety check and safety procedures; pre-operation check out; startup; leveling trailer; functional/proofload test; proofload testing; and rolling load test

  14. Responsible for 45 000 tons CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedrelid, Ola N.

    2006-01-01

    Waste combustion has much better tax conditions in Sweden compared to Norway. Today waste is being transported from Norway to Sweden, resulting in a 45 000 ton emission of CO 2 every year, when the waste could have remained in Norway, utilized as regained energy in district heating. The tax regime, however, does not provide the conditions for a profitable use of the waste in Norway. The district heating association is disappointed with the new government's proposed fiscal budget, which only worsens the competitive situation for Norway handling its own waste (ml)

  15. Acceptance test report for the Westinghouse 100 ton hydraulic trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The SY-101 Equipment Removal System 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer was designed and built by KAMP Systems, Inc. Performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure at KAMP's facility in Ontario, California (termed Phase 1 in this report) was interrupted by discrepancies noted with the main hydraulic cylinder. The main cylinder was removed and sent to REMCO for repair while the trailer was sent to Lampson's facility in Pasco, Washington. The Acceptance Test Procedure was modified and performance resumed at Lampson (termed Phase 2 in this report) after receipt of the repaired cylinder. At the successful conclusion of Phase 2 testing the trailer was accepted as meeting all the performance criteria specified

  16. Dilution Refrigeration of Multi-Ton Cold Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Dilution refrigeration is the only means to provide continuous cooling at temperatures below 250 mK. Future experiments featuring multi-ton cold masses require a new generation of dilution refrigeration systems, capable of providing a heat sink below 10 mK at cooling powers which exceed the performance of present systems considerably. This thesis presents some advances towards dilution refrigeration of multi-ton masses in this temperature range. A new method using numerical simulation to predict the cooling power of a dilution refrigerator of a given design has been developed in the framework of this thesis project. This method does not only allow to take into account the differences between an actual and an ideal continuous heat exchanger, but also to quantify the impact of an additional heat load on an intermediate section of the dilute stream. In addition, transient behavior can be simulated. The numerical model has been experimentally verified with a dilution refrigeration system which has been designed, ...

  17. Increase of alcohol yield per ton of pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, B N

    1957-01-01

    Digestion processes of cellulose were studied under production conditions. When the digestion was carried out with acid having 5.2% total SO/sub 2/ and 0.92% CaO, the concentration of total sugars in the spent liquor was 1.8 to 2.5%. When the acidity was reduced to 4.8% total SO/sub 2/ and 0.82% CaO, all other conditions being the same, the sugar concentration in the spent liquor increased to 3.0 to 3.7%. The importance of the acid strength and CaO content of the cooking liquor was further demonstrated at the end of 1955. At that time the total SO/sub 2/ in the acid rose to 8% while the amount of CaO remained practically the same-0.85 to 0.90%. These conditions permitted an increase in the amount of ships by 25 to 30%, which further changed the ratio CaO: wood and created conditions favorable for an improved yield of sugar. The increase in the activity of the acid was reflected favorably in the degree of hydrolysis of the hemicelluloses and in the degree to which the oligosaccharides or polysaccharides were hydrolyzed to simple sugars. At that time the yield of alcohol reached 53 1/ton of unbleached pulp. The process was further improved in 1956 by the use of successive washings; at the end of the digestion period the concentrated spent liquor was piped to the alcohol unit. The yield of alcohol reached 59.4 1/ton of pulp. Sugar recovery from the tank was 92.5% of that theoretically possible. Further improvements resulted by saturating the wood chips with acid under variable pressures. As a result, the base of the cooking acid was reduced to 0.7 to 0.72% and, at the end of the process the liquor contained 0.03 to 0.06% CaO instead of 0.2 to 0.18%. The alcohol yield/ton of pulp then rose to 66.8 l.

  18. Matrix model and time-like linear dila ton matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    We consider a matrix model description of the 2d string theory whose matter part is given by a time-like linear dilaton CFT. This is equivalent to the c=1 matrix model with a deformed, but very simple Fermi surface. Indeed, after a Lorentz transformation, the corresponding 2d spacetime is a conventional linear dila ton background with a time-dependent tachyon field. We show that the tree level scattering amplitudes in the matrix model perfectly agree with those computed in the world-sheet theory. The classical trajectories of fermions correspond to the decaying D-boranes in the time-like linear dilaton CFT. We also discuss the ground ring structure. Furthermore, we study the properties of the time-like Liouville theory by applying this matrix model description. We find that its ground ring structure is very similar to that of the minimal string. (author)

  19. Acceptance test report for the Westinghouse 100 ton hydraulic trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, R.A.

    1995-03-06

    The SY-101 Equipment Removal System 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer was designed and built by KAMP Systems, Inc. Performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure at KAMP`s facility in Ontario, California (termed Phase 1 in this report) was interrupted by discrepancies noted with the main hydraulic cylinder. The main cylinder was removed and sent to REMCO for repair while the trailer was sent to Lampson`s facility in Pasco, Washington. The Acceptance Test Procedure was modified and performance resumed at Lampson (termed Phase 2 in this report) after receipt of the repaired cylinder. At the successful conclusion of Phase 2 testing the trailer was accepted as meeting all the performance criteria specified.

  20. Ants at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary, Songkhla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate diversity of ant at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary, Hat Yai, Songkhla. Three line transects (100 m each were randomly set up in 2 types of forest area, disturbed and undisturbed. Hand collecting (HC and leaf litter sampling (LL were applied for ant collection within a time limit of 30 minutes for each method. This study was carried out every month during Febuary 2002- Febuary 2003. The results showed that 206 species were placed under 8 subfamilies: Aenictinae, Cerapachyinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Leptanillinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. Study sites and collection methods could divide ant species into 2 groups, whereas seasonal change could not distinguish the groups by DCA of multivariate analysis.

  1. Dark matter sensitivity of multi-ton liquid xenon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Marc; Bütikofer, Lukas; Baudis, Laura; Kish, Alexander; Selvi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of multi ton-scale time projection chambers using a liquid xenon target, e.g., the proposed DARWIN instrument, to spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon scattering interactions. Taking into account realistic backgrounds from the detector itself as well as from neutrinos, we examine the impact of exposure, energy threshold, background rejection efficiency and energy resolution on the dark matter sensitivity. With an exposure of 200 t × y and assuming detector parameters which have been already demonstrated experimentally, spin-independent cross sections as low as 2.5 × 10 −49 cm 2 can be probed for WIMP masses around 40 GeV/c 2 . Additional improvements in terms of background rejection and exposure will further increase the sensitivity, while the ultimate WIMP science reach will be limited by neutrinos scattering coherently off the xenon nuclei

  2. Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankerl, M.W.; Schmid, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper

  3. The Role of TonB Gene in Edwardsiella ictaluri Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abdelhamed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish (ESC. Stress factors including poor water quality, poor diet, rough handling, overcrowding, and water temperature fluctuations increase fish susceptibility to ESC. The TonB energy transducing system (TonB-ExbB-ExbD and TonB-dependent transporters of Gram-negative bacteria support active transport of scarce resources including iron, an essential micronutrient for bacterial virulence. Deletion of the tonB gene attenuates virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, the role of TonB (NT01EI_RS07425 in iron acquisition and E. ictaluri virulence were investigated. To accomplish this, the E. ictaluri tonB gene was in-frame deleted. Growth kinetics, iron utilization, and virulence of the EiΔtonB mutant were determined. Loss of TonB caused a significant reduction in bacterial growth in iron-depleted medium (p > 0.05. The EiΔtonB mutant grew similarly to wild-type E. ictaluri when ferric iron was added to the iron-depleted medium. The EiΔtonB mutant was significantly attenuated in catfish compared with the parent strain (21.69 vs. 46.91% mortality. Catfish surviving infection with EiΔtonB had significant protection against ESC compared with naïve fish (100 vs. 40.47% survival. These findings indicate that TonB participates in pathogenesis of ESC and is an important E. ictaluri virulence factor.

  4. Criticality safety review of 2 1/2-, 10-, and 14-ton UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1991-10-01

    Currently, UF 6 cylinders designed to contain 2 1/2 tons of UF 6 are classified as Fissile Class 2 packages with a transport index (TI) of 5 for the purpose of transportation. The 10-ton UF 6 cylinders are classified as Fissile Class 1 with no TI assigned for transportation. The 14-ton cylinders, although not certified for transport with enrichments greater than 1 wt % because they have no approved overpack, can be used in on-site operations for enrichments greater than 1 wt %. The maximum 235 U enrichments for these cylinders are 5.0 wt % for the 2 1/2-ton cylinder and 4.5 wt % for the 10- and 14-ton cylinders. This work reviews the suitability for reclassification of the 2 1/2-ton UF 6 packages as Fissile Class 1 with a maximum 235 U enrichment of 5 wt %. Additionally, the 10- and 14-ton cylinders are reviewed to address a change in maximum 235 U enrichment from 4.5 to 5 wt %. Based on this evaluation, the 2 1/2-ton UF 6 cylinders meet the 10 CFR.71 criteria for Fissile Class 1 packages, and no TI is needed for criticality safety purposes; however, a TI may be required based on radiation from the packages. Similarly, the 10- and 14-ton UF 6 packages appear acceptable for a maximum enrichment rating change to 5 wt % 235 U. 11 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  5. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult. PMID:26673669

  6. Twitching motility and biofilm formation are associated with tonB1 in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino, Luciana; Li, Yaxin; Zaini, Paulo A; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    A mutation in the Xylella fastidiosa tonB1 gene resulted in loss of twitching motility and in significantly less biofilm formation as compared with a wild type. The altered motility and biofilm phenotypes were restored by complementation with a functional copy of the gene. The mutation affected virulence as measured by Pierce's disease symptoms on grapevines. The role of TonB1 in twitching and biofilm formation appears to be independent of the characteristic iron-uptake function of this protein. This is the first report demonstrating a functional role for a tonB homolog in X. fastidiosa.

  7. Re-Presenting Self: Reading Some Van Kalker Studio Photographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The photographic implement, from the earliest days of its invention in Europe, in 1839, has been used to document events considered as real. However, notions of 'reality' could be ambiguous as objects or sceneries intended to be photographed are sometimes constructed to represent an imagined stereotypical reality.

  8. Semiportable load-cell-based weighing system prototype of 18.14-metric-ton (20-ton) capacity for UF6 cylinder weight verifications: description and testing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The 18.14-metric-ton-capacity (20-ton) Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS) prototype tested at the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Gaseous Diffusion Plant March 20-30, 1984, is semiportable and has the potential for being highly accurate. Designed by Brookhaven National Laboratory, it can be moved to cylinders for weighing as opposed to the widely used operating philosophy of most enrichment facilities of moving cylinders to stationary accountability scales. Composed mainly of commercially available, off-the-shelf hardware, the system's principal elements are two load cells that sense the weight (i.e., force) of a uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder suspended from the LCBWS while the cylinder is in the process of being weighed. Portability is achieved by its attachment to a double-hook, overhead-bridge crane. The LCBWS prototype is designed to weigh 9.07- and 12.70-metric ton (10- and 14-ton) UF 6 cylinders. A detailed description of the LCBWS is given, design information and criteria are supplied, a testing procedure is outlined, and initial test results are reported. A major objective of the testing is to determine the reliability and accuracy of the system. Other testing objectives include the identification of (1) potential areas for system improvements and (2) procedural modifications that will reflect an improved and more efficient system. The testing procedure described includes, but is not limited to, methods that account for temperature sensitivity of the instrumentation, the local variation in the acceleration due to gravity, and buoyance effects. Operational and safety considerations are noted. A preliminary evaluation of the March test data indicates that the LCBWS prototype has the potential to have an accuracy in the vicinity of 1 kg

  9. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  10. Operation and maintenance techniques of 1 ton bucket elevator in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-04-01

    IMEF pool is used as a pathway between pool and hot cell in order to transfer (incoming and outgoing) irradiated materials. Transfer is performed by 1 ton bucket elevator which is moved inside the rectangular tube installed between pool and M1 hot cell. Allowable load capacity is 1 ton of the bucket elevator and its size is 25 X 25 X 150 cm. Bucket is driven by chain system which is moved up and down through the guide rail. Guide rail is installed in rectangular tube that is tilted about 63 degree. Chain which is moved by using the roller sliding method is driven by sprocket wheel being rotated by the shaft and the shaft is driven by gear reducing motor. In this report operation and maintenance techniques of 1 ton bucket elevator in IMEF are described in detail. (Author). 8 refs., 14 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Operation and maintenance techniques of 1 ton bucket elevator in IMEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-04-01

    IMEF pool is used as a pathway between pool and hot cell in order to transfer (incoming and outgoing) irradiated materials. Transfer is performed by 1 ton bucket elevator which is moved inside the rectangular tube installed between pool and M1 hot cell. Allowable load capacity is 1 ton of the bucket elevator and its size is 25 X 25 X 150 cm. Bucket is driven by chain system which is moved up and down through the guide rail. Guide rail is installed in rectangular tube that is tilted about 63 degree. Chain which is moved by using the roller sliding method is driven by sprocket wheel being rotated by the shaft and the shaft is driven by gear reducing motor. In this report operation and maintenance techniques of 1 ton bucket elevator in IMEF are described in detail. (Author). 8 refs., 14 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Twitching motility and biofilm formation are associated with tonB1 in Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Cursino, Luciana; Li, Yaxin; Zaini, Paulo A.; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    A mutation in the Xylella fastidiosa tonB1 gene resulted in loss of twitching motility and in significantly less biofilm formation as compared with a wild type. The altered motility and biofilm phenotypes were restored by complementation with a functional copy of the gene. The mutation affected virulence as measured by Pierce's disease symptoms on grapevines. The role of TonB1 in twitching and biofilm formation appears to be independent of the characteristic iron-uptake function of this prote...

  13. Safety analysis report on the ''Paducah Tiger'' protective overpack for 10-ton cylinders of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stitt, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    The ''Paducah Tiger'' is a protective overpack used in shipment of 10-ton cylinders of enriched UF 6 . The calculations and tests are described which made and which indicate that the overpack is in compliance with the type B packaging requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 0529 and Title 10 Code Federal Regulations Part 71. (U.S.)

  14. A method to press powder at 6000 ton using small amount of explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Ahmad Humaizi; Azmi, Nor Azmaliana; Ismail, Ariffin

    2017-12-01

    Large die hydraulic press forces are one of the key instruments in making jumbo planes. The machine can produce aircraft components such as wing spars, landing gear supports and armor plates. Superpower nations such as USA, Russia, Germany, Japan, Korea and China have large die hydraulic press which can press 50,000 tons. In Malaysia, heavy-duty press is available from companies such as Proton that builds chassis for cars. However, that heavy-duty press is not able to produce better bulkhead for engines, fuselage, and wings of an aircraft. This paper presents the design of an apparatus that uses 50 grams of commercial grade explosives to produce 6000 tons of compaction. This is a first step towards producing larger scale apparatus that can produce 50,000-ton press. The design was done using AUTODYN blast simulation software. According to the results, the maximum load the apparatus can withstand was 6000 tons which was contributed by 50 grams of commercial explosive(Emulex). Explosive size larger than 50 grams will lead to catastrophic failure. Fabrication of the apparatus was completed. However, testing of the apparatus is not presented in this article.

  15. 10'000 ton ALICE gets her UK-built "Brain"

    CERN Multimedia

    Maddock, Julia

    2007-01-01

    For one of the four LEP experiments, called ALICE, the process got a step closer last week when a crucial part of the 10'000-ton detector, the British-built Central Trigger Processor (CTP), was installed in the ALICE cavern, some 150 feet underground. (plus background information about ALICE) (2,5 pages)

  16. Structure-activity correlations for TON, FER and MOR in the hydroisomerization of n-butane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    n-Butane hydroconversion was studied over (Pt-loaded) molecular sieves with TON, FER, and MOR morphology. The conversion occurs via a complex interplay of mono- and bimolecular bifunctional acid mechanism and monofunctional platinum-catalyzed hydrogenolysis. Hydroisomerization occurs bimolecularly

  17. Applied molecular simulations over FER-, TON- and AEL-type zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domokos, L.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Interaction and transport of representative (un)saturated hydrocarbon molecules involved in the proposed reaction network of n-butene isomerization in zeolites FER, TON, and AEL have been studied by classic molecular modeling calculations. Docking of the guest molecules into the zeolite frameworks

  18. Optical flare observed in the flaring gamma-ray blazar Ton 599

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursimo, Tapio; Sagues, Ana; Telting, John; Ojha, Roopesh

    2017-11-01

    We report optical photometry of the flat spectrum radio quasar Ton 599, obtained with the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma, to look for any enhanced optical activity associated with a recent flare in the daily averaged gamma-ray flux (ATel#10931, ATel#10937).

  19. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  20. Confined Mobility of TonB and FepA in Escherichia coli Membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriko Lill

    Full Text Available The important process of nutrient uptake in Escherichia coli, in many cases, involves transit of the nutrient through a class of beta-barrel proteins in the outer membrane known as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs and requires interaction with the inner membrane protein TonB. Here we have imaged the mobility of the ferric enterobactin transporter FepA and TonB by tracking them in the membranes of live E. coli with single-molecule resolution at time-scales ranging from milliseconds to seconds. We employed simple simulations to model/analyze the lateral diffusion in the membranes of E.coli, to take into account both the highly curved geometry of the cell and artifactual effects expected due to finite exposure time imaging. We find that both molecules perform confined lateral diffusion in their respective membranes in the absence of ligand with FepA confined to a region [Formula: see text] μm in radius in the outer membrane and TonB confined to a region [Formula: see text] μm in radius in the inner membrane. The diffusion coefficient of these molecules on millisecond time-scales was estimated to be [Formula: see text] μm2/s and [Formula: see text] μm2/s for FepA and TonB, respectively, implying that each molecule is free to diffuse within its domain. Disruption of the inner membrane potential, deletion of ExbB/D from the inner membrane, presence of ligand or antibody to FepA and disruption of the MreB cytoskeleton was all found to further restrict the mobility of both molecules. Results are analyzed in terms of changes in confinement size and interactions between the two proteins.

  1. A ton is not always a ton: A road-test of landfill, manure, and afforestation/reforestation offset protocols in the U.S. carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Carrie M.; Lazarus, Michael; Smith, Gordon R.; Todd, Kimberly; Weitz, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Protocols are the foundation of an offset program. • Using sample projects, we “road test” landfill, manure and afforestation protocols from 5 programs. • For a given project, we find large variation in the volume of offsets generated. • Harmonization of protocols can increase the likelihood that “a ton is a ton”. • Harmonization can enhance prospects for linking emission trading systems. -- Abstract: The outcome of recent international climate negotiations suggests we are headed toward a more fragmented carbon market, with multiple emission trading and offset programs operating in parallel. To effectively harmonize and link across programs, it will be important to ensure that across offset programs and protocols that a “ton is a ton”. In this article, we consider how sample offsets projects in the U.S. carbon market are treated across protocols from five programs: the Clean Development Mechanism, Climate Action Reserve, Chicago Climate Exchange, Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, and the U.S. EPA's former program, Climate Leaders. We find that differences among protocols for landfill methane, manure management, and afforestation/reforestation project types in accounting boundary definitions, baseline setting methods, measurement rules, emission factors, and discounts lead to differences in offsets credited that are often significant (e.g. greater than 50%). We suggest opportunities for modification and harmonization of protocols that can improve offset quality and credibility and enhance prospects for future linking of trading units and systems

  2. Implications of\tenhanced\teffectiveness\tof\tvincristine\tsulfate/ε-viniferin combination\tcompared\tto\tvincristine\tsulfate\tonly\ton\tHepG2\tcells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz\tÖzdemir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This\tstudy\twas\tdesigned\tto\tinvestigate\tthe\teffects\tof\tε-viniferin\t(ε-VNF\ton\tthe\tmitochondrial\tpathway\tof\tapoptosis and\ton\tlate\tapoptosis\tin\tHepG2\tcell\tlines.\tTo\tobserve\tthese\teffects,\tε-VNF\tand\tvincristine\tsulfate\t(VNC,\tanti-cancer\tdrugs\tused for\ttreatment\ton\tHepG2\tcells,\twere\tadministered\teither\talone\tor\tin\tcombination\tat\tdifferent\ttime\tintervals. Methods:\tMitochondrial\tmembrane\tpotential\tchanges\tin\tthe\tcells\t(ΔΨm\twere\tevaluated\tusing\tcationic\tdye\tJC-1,\twhile\tBax,\tBcl- 2\texpression\tlevels\twith\tRT-PCR\tand\tcaspase-3\tactivity\twere\tanalyzed\tusing\ta\tkit.\tFor\tdetection\tof\tapoptotic\tactivity,\tan\tin\tsitu TUNEL\tassay\twas\tperformed. Results: When 98.3µM ε-VNF, 52.5µM VNC and the 11.25+15.8µM VNC+ε-VNF combination were compared with the control group,\tΔΨm\tchanges\tat\tthe\t6th\thour\twere\tfound\tto\tbe\t19.5%,\t5.5%,\t24.6%,\tand\t3.5%\t,\trespectively.\tThese\tfinding\tshow\tthat\tthe combination\tgroup\t(24.6%\tresulted\tin\tearly\tapoptosis\tof\tthe\tcell\tat\tthe\t6th\thour.\tBax\tmRNA\texpression\tincreased\tat\tthe\t24th hour in the VNC+ε-VNF group compared to control group (160%, and caspase-3 activation increased in the 1.25+15.8 µM[VNC+ε-VNF]\tgroup\tcompared\tto\tthe\tcontrol\tgroup\tat\tthe\t48th\thour.\tThe\tdetection\tof\tDNA\tfragments\tin\tHepG2\tcells\twithin 24\thours\tsuggests\tdirect\tapoptosis. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the doses administered to the VNC+ε-VNF combination group\twere\tlower than those\tadministered\tto\tgroups\tusing\tone\tagent\talone\t(e.g.\tVNC,\tthe\tresults\tof\twhich\treduce\tthe\tpossibility\tof\tadministering\ttoxic doses.

  3. In vivo evidence of TonB shuttling between the cytoplasmic and outer membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ray A; Letain, Tracy E; Postle, Kathleen

    2003-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are able to convert potential energy inherent in the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane into active nutrient transport across the outer membrane. The transduction of energy is mediated by TonB protein. Previous studies suggest a model in which TonB makes sequential and cyclic contact with proteins in each membrane, a process called shuttling. A key feature of shuttling is that the amino-terminal signal anchor must quit its association with the cytoplasmic membrane, and TonB becomes associated solely with the outer membrane. However, the initial studies did not exclude the possibility that TonB was artifactually pulled from the cytoplasmic membrane by the fractionation process. To resolve this ambiguity, we devised a method to test whether the extreme TonB amino-terminus, located in the cytoplasm, ever became accessible to the cys-specific, cytoplasmic membrane-impermeant molecule, Oregon Green(R) 488 maleimide (OGM) in vivo. A full-length TonB and a truncated TonB were modified to carry a sole cysteine at position 3. Both full-length TonB and truncated TonB (consisting of the amino-terminal two-thirds) achieved identical conformations in the cytoplasmic membrane, as determined by their abilities to cross-link to the cytoplasmic membrane protein ExbB and their abilities to respond conformationally to the presence or absence of proton motive force. Full-length TonB could be amino-terminally labelled in vivo, suggesting that it was periplasmically exposed. In contrast, truncated TonB, which did not associate with the outer membrane, was not specifically labelled in vivo. The truncated TonB also acted as a control for leakage of OGM across the cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the extent of labelling for full-length TonB correlated roughly with the proportion of TonB found at the outer membrane. These findings suggest that TonB does indeed disengage from the cytoplasmic membrane during energy transduction and shuttle to the outer membrane.

  4. Diabetes\tand\tdepression:\tA\treview\twith\tspecial\tfocus\ton\tIndia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha\tThakur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes,\ta\tpsychologically\tchallenging\tcondition for the\tpatients\tand their care givers, has been found to be a significant risk factor for depression. Depression\tmay\tbe\ta\tcritical\tbarrier\tto\teffective\tdiabetes\tmanagement.\tThe accompanying\tfatigue\tremarkably\tlowers\tthe\tmotivation\tfor\tself-care,\toften leading to lowered physical and emotion well-being, poor markers of diabetes control, poor adherence to medication, and increased mortality among individuals with diabetes. A very small proportion of the diabetes patients\twith\tdepression\tget\tdiagnosed,\tand\tfurthermore,\tonly\ta\thandful\tof the ones diagnosed get treated for depression. Despite the fact that 80 percent\tof\tthe\tpeople\twith\ttype\t2\tdiabetes\treside\tin\tlow\tand\tmiddle\tincome\tcountries,\tmost\tof\tthe\tevidence\ton diabetes\tand\tdepression\tcomes\tfrom\thigh\tincome\tcountries.\tThis\treview\toffers\ta\tsummary\tof\texisting\tevidence and\tthe\tpotential\tgaps\tthat\tneed\tto\tbe\taddressed.

  5. Design and analysis of a 1-ton prototype of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zongyi; Wang, Yuanqing; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin; Du, Xinxi; Zhang, Tianxiong; Guo, Ziyi; Yuan, Huanxin

    2017-01-01

    The Jinping Neutrino Experiment will perform an in-depth research on solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. Two structural options (i.e., cylindrical and spherical schemes) are proposed for the Jinping detector based on other successful underground neutrino detectors. Several key factors in the design are also discussed in detail. A 1-ton prototype of the Jinping experiment is proposed based on physics requirements. Subsequently, the structural design, installation procedure, and mechanical analysis of the neutrino detector prototype are discussed. The results show that the maximum Mises stresses on the acrylic vessel, stainless steel truss, and the tank are all lower than the design values of the strengths. The stability requirement of the stainless steel truss in the detector prototype is satisfied. Consequently, the structural scheme for the 1-ton prototype is safe and reliable.

  6. Design and analysis of a 1-ton prototype of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zongyi, E-mail: wangzongyi1990@outlook.com [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, Yuanqing [Key Laboratory of Civil Engineering Safety and Durability of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Du, Xinxi [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Tianxiong [School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Ziyi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan, Huanxin [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-05-21

    The Jinping Neutrino Experiment will perform an in-depth research on solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. Two structural options (i.e., cylindrical and spherical schemes) are proposed for the Jinping detector based on other successful underground neutrino detectors. Several key factors in the design are also discussed in detail. A 1-ton prototype of the Jinping experiment is proposed based on physics requirements. Subsequently, the structural design, installation procedure, and mechanical analysis of the neutrino detector prototype are discussed. The results show that the maximum Mises stresses on the acrylic vessel, stainless steel truss, and the tank are all lower than the design values of the strengths. The stability requirement of the stainless steel truss in the detector prototype is satisfied. Consequently, the structural scheme for the 1-ton prototype is safe and reliable.

  7. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  8. Comportement d'un béton à hautes performances à base de laitier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation de béton à hautes performances (BHP) intégrant des ajouts cimentaires comme les cendres volantes, les fumées de silice ou le laitier hydraulique ... armatures qui sont, à leur tour attaquées. Il est possible de modifier la ... refroidissement brutal par l'eau sous pression, c'est un sable de granulométrie 0/5 mm.

  9. The design of steel string crane with lifting capacity 10 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja

    2007-01-01

    The steel string (sling) used for lift Crane of type of Overhead Travelling Crane, with capacities lifting 10 ton are designed. If compared to other string type, string of steel have some excellence. At this design, election of type of string become primary and the factor of safety become prima facie matter with pursuant to up to date standard. From made of design, is hence got by specification and age of steel string. (author)

  10. Mine design for producing 100,000 tons per day of uranium-bearing Chattanooga Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Chattanooga Shale, underlying some 40,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, is considered to be a potentially large, low-grade source of uranium. The area in and near Dekalb County, Tennessee, appears to be the most likely site for commercial development. This paper deals with the mine design, mining procedures, equipment requirements, and operating maintenance costs for an underground mining complex capable of producing 100,000 tons of Chattanooga Shale per day for delivery to a beneficiation process

  11. Overall view of the AA hall dominated by the 50 ton crane (Donges).

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A 50 ton, 32 metre span overhead travelling cranre was mounted in one of the bays of Hall 193 (AA). An identical crane was mounted on the other bay. See also photo 8004261. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  12. Comportement en flexion des bétons fibrés sous chargement cyclique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulekbache Bensaid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier présente les résultats d’une étude expérimentale sur le comportement en flexion des bétons de fibres métalliques. On étudie l’effet de la rhéologie du béton sur l’orientation des fibres et l’influence de l’orientation sur les propriétés mécaniques. La rigidité de l’ancrage des fibres étudiée par les essais cycliques est liée aux caractéristiques rhéologiques et mécaniques de la matrice. Les résultats montrent que la fluidité des bétons est un paramètre essentiel de l’orientation des fibres. Dès lors que l’on obtient une orientation dans le sens de l’efficacité mécanique, la résistance à la flexion est nettement améliorée.

  13. 2016 Billion-ton report: Advancing domestic resources for a thriving bioeconomy, Volume 1: Economic availability of feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.H. Langholtz; B.J. Stokes; L.M. Eaton

    2016-01-01

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified...

  14. 46 CFR 25.25-17 - Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger... Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. (a) Each uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons must have adequate survival craft with enough capacity...

  15. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  16. Valorisation et Recyclage des Déchets Plastiques dans le Béton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benimam Samir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La valorisation des déchets dans le génie civil est un secteur important dans la mesure où les produits que l’on souhaite obtenir ne sont pas soumis à des critères de qualité trop rigoureux. Le recyclage des déchets touche deux impacts très importants à savoir l’impact et l’impact économique. Donc plusieurs pays du monde, différents déchets sont utilisé dans le domaine de la construction et spécialement dans le ciment ou béton comme poudre, fibres ou agrégats. Ce travail s’intéresse à la valorisation d’un déchet qui est nuisible pour l’environnement vu son caractère encombrant et inesthétique il s’agit du déchet plastique. Trois types de déchets plastiques sont ajoutés dans le béton (sous forme de grains et fibres (ondulées et rectilignes. Les propriétés à l’état frais (maniabilité, air occlus et densité et à l’état durci (résistance à la compression, à la traction, retrait et absorption d’eau des différents bétons réalisés sont analysées et comparés par rapport leurs témoins respectifs. D’après les résultats expérimentaux on peut conclure que le renforcement de la matrice cimentaire avec des fibres plastiques ondulées montrent une nette amélioration de la résistance à la traction du béton ainsi qu’une diminution remarquable de sa capacité d’absorption de l’eau lorsqu’on utilise des grains plastiques.

  17. Techniques et systèmes de renfort des structures en béton

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda-Vizuete, J

    2000-01-01

    Bien qu'appelé « pierre artificielle », le béton est un matériau vivant qui se modifie tout au long de sa vie utile. Il change car la structure dont il fait partie subit elle-même des changements. Ces changements proviennent soit de modifications ou de rénovations, soit d'une altération de sa capacité de support par un accroissement des charges. Dans la plupart des cas, ils nécessitent un renfort. Le renforcement d'une structure en béton consiste à améliorer les caractéristiques mécaniques des éléments qui la composent, de manière à ce qu'elle offre une meilleure solidité aussi bien en état de service qu'en état de résistances ultimes. Ce document présente les méthodes les plus utilisées dans le domaine de renfort des structures dont l'incorporation des profiles métalliques, l'augmentation de section structurelle et celle plus récente du renforcement à base d'adjonction de matériaux composites extérieurs.

  18. Drought analysis in the Tons River Basin, India during 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Gautam, Randhir; Kahya, Ercan

    2018-05-01

    The primary focus of this study is the analysis of droughts in the Tons River Basin during the period 1969-2008. Precipitation data observed at four gauging stations are used to identify drought over the study area. The event of drought is derived from the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on a 3-month scale. Our results indicated that severe drought occurred in the Allahabad, Rewa, and Satna stations in the years 1973 and 1979. The droughts in this region had occurred mainly due to erratic behavior in monsoons, especially due to long breaks between monsoons. During the drought years, the deficiency of the annual rainfall in the analysis of annual rainfall departure had varied from -26% in 1976 to -60% in 1973 at Allahabad station in the basin. The maximum deficiency of annual and seasonal rainfall recorded in the basin is 60%. The maximum seasonal rainfall departure observed in the basin is in the order of -60% at Allahabad station in 1973, while maximum annual rainfall departure had been recorded as -60% during 1979 at the Satna station. Extreme dry events ( z score <-2) were detected during July, August, and September. Moreover, severe dry events were observed in August, September, and October. The drought conditions in the Tons River Basin are dominantly driven by total rainfall throughout the period between June and November.

  19. Combustion characteristics and NO formation for biomass blends in a 35-ton-per-hour travelling grate utility boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ruiyang; Wang, Zhenwang; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Guangbo

    2009-04-01

    Measurements were taken for a 35-ton-per-hour biomass-fired travelling grate boiler. Local mean concentrations of O(2), CO, SO(2) and NO gas species and gas temperatures were determined in the region above the grate. For a 28-ton-per-hour load, the mass ratios of biomass fly ash and boiler slag were 42% and 58%, the boiler efficiency was 81.56%, and the concentrations of NO(x) and SO(2) at 6% O(2) were 257 and 84 mg/m(3). For an 18-ton-per-hour load, the fuel burning zone was nearer to the inlet than it was for the 28-ton-per-hour load, and the contents of CO and NO in the fuel burning zone above the grate were lower.

  20. Development and Manufacturing Technology of Prototype Monoblock Low Pressure Rotor Shaft by 650ton Large Ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Duk-Yong; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jungyeup; Lee, Jongwook; Ko, Seokhee [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to establish the manufacturing technology for monoblock LP rotor shaft, DHI has produced the prototype monoblock LP rotor shaft with a maximum diameter of φ 2,800 mm using 650 ton ingot and investigated the mechanical properties and the internal quality of the ingot. As a result, the quality and mechanical properties required the large rotor shaft for nuclear power plant met a target. These results indicate that DHI can be contributed to increasing demands with high efficiency and capacity at the nuclear power plant. Additionally, some tests such as high cycle fatigue (HCF), low cycle fatigue (LCF), fracture toughness (K1C/J1C) and dynamic crack propagation velocity (da/dN) are in progress.

  1. Modified Cooling System for Low Temperature Experiments in a 3000 Ton Multi-Anvil Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, R.; Yong, W.

    2017-12-01

    A new modified cooling system for a 3000-ton multi-anvil press has been developed to reach temperatures below room temperature at high pressures. The new system is much simpler in design, easier to make and use, and has the same cooling capability as the previous design (Secco and Yong, RSI, 2016). The key component of the new system is a steel ring surrounding the module wedges that contains liquid nitrogen (LN2) which flows freely through an entrance port to flood the interior of the pressure module. Upper and lower O-rings on the ring seal in the liquid while permitting modest compression and an thermally insulating layer of foam is attached to the outside of the ring. The same temperature of 220 K reached with two different cooling systems suggests that thermal equilibrium is reached between the removal of heat by LN2 and the influx of heat through the massive steel components of this press.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Al-TON zeolite using a dialkylimizadolium as structure-directing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Christian Wittee; Pergher, Sibele Berenice Castella, E-mail: chriswittee@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Villarroel-Rocha, Jhonny [Laboratorio de Solidos Porosos, Instituto de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco, San Luis (Argentina); Silva, Bernardo Araldi Da; Mignoni, Marcelo Luis [Universidade Regional Integrada, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    In this work, the synthesis of zeolites using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C{sub 4}MI]Cl as a structure-directing agent was investigated. The organic cation shows effectiveness and selectivity for the syntheses of TON zeolites under different reaction conditions compared to the traditional structure directing agent, 1,8-diaminooctane. The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation lead to highly crystalline materials and its role as OSDA in our synthesis conditions has been confirmed by characterization techniques. ICP-OES confirms the presence of Al in the samples and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR analysis indicated that aluminum atoms were incorporated in tetrahedral coordination. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that changing the crystallization condition (static or stirring), zeolites with different crystal size were obtained, which consequently affects the textural properties of the zeolites. Moreover, varying some synthesis parameters MFI zeolite can also be obtained. (author)

  3. Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorning, R.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

  4. Light Readout for a 1 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, Vittorio; Baudis, Laura; Otyugova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter (DM) has been reported using astronomical observations in systems such as the Bullet cluster. Weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs), in particular the lightest neutralino, are the most popular DM candidates within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Many groups in the world are focussing their attention on the direct detection of DM in the laboratory. The detectors should have large target masses and excellent noise rejection capabilities because of the small cross section between DM and ordinary matter (σWIMP−nucleon < 4 · 10−8 pb). Noble liquids are today considered to be one of the best options for large-size DM experiments, as they have a relatively low ionization energy, good scintillation properties and long electron lifetime. Moreover noble liquid detectors are easily scalable to large masses. This thesis deals with the development of a large (1 ton) LAr WIMP detector (ArDM) which could measure simultaneously light and charge from the scintilla...

  5. Community Extreme Tonnage User Service (CETUS): A 5000 Ton Open Research Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Rowland, R. L., II; Draper, D. S.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Large sample volume 5000 ton multi-anvil presses have contributed to the exploration of deep Earth and planetary interiors, synthesis of ultra-hard and other novel materials, and serve as a sample complement to pressure and temperature regimes already attainable by diamond anvil cell experiments. However, no such facility exists in the Western Hemisphere. We are establishing an open user facility for the entire research community, with the unique capability of a 5000 ton multi-anvil and deformation press, HERA (High pressure Experimental Research Apparatus), supported by a host of extant co-located experimental and analytical laboratories and research staff. We offer wide range of complementary and/or preparatory experimental options. Any required synthesis of materials or follow up experiments can be carried out controlled atmosphere furnaces, piston cylinders, multi-anvil, or experimental impact apparatus. Additionally, our division houses two machine shops that would facilitate any modification or custom work necessary for development of CETUS, one for general fabrication and one located specifically within our experimental facilities. We also have a general sample preparation laboratory, specifically for experimental samples, that allows users to quickly and easily prepare samples for ebeam analyses and more. Our focus as contract staff is on serving the scientific needs of our users and collaborators. We are seeking community expert input on multiple aspects of this facility, such as experimental assembly design, module modifications, immediate projects, and future innovation initiatives. We've built a cooperative network of 12 (and growing) collaborating institutions, including COMPRES. CETUS is a coordinated effort leveraging HERA with our extant experimental, analytical, and planetary process modelling instrumentation and expertise in order to create a comprehensive model of the origin and evolution of our solar system and beyond. We are looking to engage

  6. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF 6 in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF 6 is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF 6 may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF 6 cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail

  7. Reconstruction and Analysis for the DUNE 35-ton Liquid Argon Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbank, Michael James [Sheffield U.

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino physics is approaching the precision era, with current and future experiments aiming to perform highly accurate measurements of the parameters which govern the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. The ultimate ambition with these results is to search for evidence of CP-violation in the lepton sector, currently hinted at in the world-leading analyses from present experiments, which may explain the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a future long-baseline experiment based at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), with a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and a baseline of 1300 km. In order to make the required precision measurements, the far detector will consist of 40 kton liquid argon and an embedded time projection chamber. This promising technology is still in development and, since each detector module is around a factor 15 larger than any previous experiment employing this design, prototyping the detector and design choices is critical to the success of the experiment. The 35-ton experiment was constructed for this purpose and will be described in detail in this thesis. The outcomes of the 35-ton prototype are already influencing DUNE and, following the successes and lessons learned from the experiment, confidence can be taken forward to the next stage of the DUNE programme. The main oscillation signal at DUNE will be electron neutrino appearance from the muon neutrino beam. High-precision studies of these νe interactions requires advanced processing and event reconstruction techniques, particularly in the handling of showering particles such as electrons and photons. Novel methods developed for the purposes of shower reconstruction in liquid argon are presented with an aim to successfully develop a selection to use in a νe charged-current analysis, and a first-generation selection using the new techniques is presented.

  8. Constructing experimental devices for half-ton synthesis of gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator and its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Seo; Jang, Yeong Min; Joo, Kyung Kwang

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes in brief features of various experimental devices constructed for half-ton synthesis of gadolinium(Gd)-loaded liquid scintillator (GdLS) and also includes the performances and detailed chemical and physical results of a 0.5% high-concentration GdLS. Various feasibility studies on useful apparatus used for loading Gd into solvents have been carried out. The transmittance, Gd concentration, density, light yield, and moisture content were measured for quality control. We show that with the help of adequate automated experimental devices and tools, it is possible to perform ton scale synthesis of GdLS at moderate laboratory scale without difficulty. The synthesized GdLS was satisfactory to meet chemical, optical, and physical properties and various safety requirements. These synthesizing devices can be expanded into massive scale next-generation neutrino experiments of several hundred tons.

  9. Study of light detection and sensitivity for a ton-scale liquid xenon dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y; Lin, Q; Xiao, X; Ni, K

    2013-01-01

    Ton-scale liquid xenon detectors operated in two-phase mode are proposed and being constructed recently to explore the favored parameter space for the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) dark matter. To achieve a better light collection efficiency while limiting the number of electronics channels compared to the previous generation detectors, large-size photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) such as the 3-inch-diameter R11410 from Hamamatsu are suggested to replace the 1-inch-square R8520 PMTs. In a two-phase xenon dark matter detector, two PMT arrays on the top and bottom are usually used. In this study, we compare the performance of two different ton-scale liquid xenon detector configurations with the same number of either R11410 (config.1) or R8520 (config.2) for the top PMT array, while both using R11410 PMTs for the bottom array. The self-shielding of liquid xenon suppresses the background from the PMTs and the dominant background is from the pp solar neutrinos in the central fiducial volume. The light collection efficiency for the primary scintillation light is largely affected by the xenon purity and the reflectivity of the reflectors. In the optimistic situation with a 10 m light absorption length and a 95% reflectivity, the light collection efficiency is 43%(34%) for config.1(config.2). In the conservative situation with a 2.5 m light absorption length and a 85% reflectivity, the value is only 18%(13%) for config.1(config.2). The difference between the two configurations is due to the larger PMT coverage on the top for config.1. The slightly different position resolutions for the two configurations have a negligible effect on the sensitivity. Based on the above considerations, we estimate the sensitivity reach of the two detector configurations. Both configurations can reach a sensitivity of 2 ∼ 3 × 10 −47 cm 2 for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section for 100 GeV/c 2 WIMPs after two live-years of operation. The one with R8520 PMTs for the top

  10. Nouvelles Techniques d'Intervention sur la Corrosion des Armatures du Béton Armé

    CERN Document Server

    Colloca, C

    1999-01-01

    Les principaux dégâts constatés dans les armatures passives du béton armé sont la corrosion généralisée et la corrosion locale. Ces dégradations sont provoquées soit par la carbonatation du béton soit par le contact avec l'eau pure ou l'eau chargée de chlorures pénétrant dans les pores et dans les fissures de surface. Ce document présente de nouvelles techniques d'intervention, fondées sur d'anciens principes, introduites pour le traitement électrochimique des zones altérées liées aux différentes conditions. La réalcalinisation (dans le cas de béton carbonaté) permet d'augmenter le pH du béton et de rétablir un niveau de basicité garantissant la passivation de l'armature. La désalification (dans le cas de béton entamé par les chlorures) provoque l'élimination des ions chlorure à travers la surface du béton. Les avantages de ces traitements, par rapport aux anciennes techniques, sont appréciables si l'on considère la durée d'exécution et leur coût moins élevé.

  11. Ici, la priorité est aux piétons / Pedestrians have the right of way at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Au CERN, nous sommes tous piétons, très souvent automobilistes et parfois cyclistes. Mais peu importe notre moyen de locomotion si l'on reste vigilant et si l'on se rappelle que le piéton est un usager de la route à part entière, mais plus vulnérable. / At CERN, we are all pedestrians, often drivers, and occasionally cyclists. But our means of locomotion do no matter so long as we exercise caution and remember that a pedestrian has equal rights as a roa user, except than that he runs greater risks.

  12. Consideration on the 1 ton bucket elevator installed under water of pool in IMEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ung Sup; Lee, Jong Heon; Lee, Hong Gi; Choo, Yong Sun; Jung, Yang Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The bucket elevator which can transfer examination capsule or fuel from pool to hot cell is installed under water of pool (3x6x10 m) in IMEF. A allowable load is 1 ton and the dimension of bucket is 25x25x150 cm. The upper and lower sides motion of bucket have about 63 degrees inclined duties with a chain driving system. A specialized made chain catches a rug of bucket with a roller sliding way between right and left guide rails which are fixed at inner of a square tube and moves to an upper and lower sides and it is made so that it is operated by sprocket wheel installed in a hot cell working table below. Sprocket wheel is executed to two steps of driving shaft by reduction geared motor installed at right outside of M1 hot cell. As for the starting operation, it is executed by push an operation button on a operating panel located at front of M1 hot cell.

  13. Study of hot cracking potential in a 6-ton steel ingot casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing'an; Liu, Baicheng; Shen, Houfa

    2018-04-01

    A new hot cracking potential (HCP) criterion, for the appearance of hot tearing in steel ingot castings, is proposed. The maximum value of the first principal stress, divided by the dynamic yield strength in the brittle temperature range (BTR), was used to identify the HCP. Experiments were carried out on a 6-ton P91 steel ingot in which severe hot tearing was detected in the upper centerline. Another ingot, with a better heat preservation riser, and without hot tearing, was used for comparison. Samples were obtained from the area of the ingot body with hot tearing, and their morphologies were inspected by a X-ray high energy industrial computed tomography. The carbon and sulfur distributions around the hot tearing were characterized by an infrared spectrometry carbon and sulfur analyzer. High temperature mechanical properties were obtained by a Gleeble thermal simulation machine, under different strain rates. Then, thermo-mechanical simulations using an elasto-viscoplastic finite-element model were conducted to analyze the stress and strain evolution during ingot solidification. The results showed that the hot tearing area, which was rich in both carbon and sulfur, was under excessive tensile stress in the BTR, bearing the highest HCP.

  14. 1000–ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V. [The D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), 3 Doroga na Metallostroy, Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-29

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented.

  15. 1000–ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented

  16. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  17. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lettenmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

  18. Shrinkage Porosity Criterion and Its Application to A 5.5 Ton Steel Ingot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the distribution of shrinkage porosity in steel ingot efficiently and accurately, a criterion R√L and a method to obtain its threshold value were proposed. The criterion R√L was derived based on the solidification characteristics of steel ingot and pressure gradient in the mushy zone, in which the physical properties, the thermal parameters, the structure of the mushy zone and the secondary dendrite arm spacing were all taken into consideration. The threshold value of the criterion R√L was obtained with combination of numerical simulation of ingot solidification and total solidification shrinkage rate. Prediction of the shrinkage porosity in a 5.5 ton ingot of 2Cr13 steel with criterion R√L>0.21 m · °C1/2 · s−3/2 agreed well with the results of experimental sectioning. Based on this criterion, optimization of the ingot was carried out by decreasing the height-to-diameter ratio and increasing the taper, which successfully eliminated the centreline porosity and further proved the applicability of this criterion.

  19. VALIDACIÓN RESISTIVA ESTRUCTURAL DE UN VARADERO PARA EMBARCACIONES DE 600 ton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Novo Soto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se valida la capacidad de carga portante de la estructura de un varadero a partirde las condiciones a resistencia y rigidez. El varadero consta de 2 carros trapezoidales, sobre los cualesse desplazan transversalmente 6 boggies, que permiten trasladar la embarcación varada hacia losapartaderos, así mismo dispone de 3 motores con sus respectivos sistemas de reducción y tamboras,uno de ellos permite sacar la embarcación que se encuentra soportada sobre los boggies y los 2 carroscunas, otro se emplea para retornar dicha embarcación al mar y el último se utiliza para desplazar laembarcación sobre los boggies, transversalmente a los carros cunas, hacia los apartaderos.Dada la complejidad estructural del sistema se desarrolla un modelo físico matemático, el que mediantela aplicación del Método de los Elementos Finitos, permite obtener los esfuerzos equivalente máximos deMises y los desplazamientos máximos con lo que finalmente se valida, a través del Análisis porElementos Finitos, la capacidad portante de la estructura para varar una embarcación de 600 ton.

  20. The economic value of one ton CO2: what system of reference for public action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    Given the convergence of scientific analyses of global warming and its consequences for the planet - evaluated for years by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - it is no longer possible to postpone the efforts required to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. However, the choice of actions to take and the calendar of priorities are proving complex to define: the social and economic consequences are great, and neither France (which represents 2% of global emissions) nor Europe (15%) are up to treating the problem independently of the rest of the world. Faced with this challenge, and with budgetary constraints imposing a rationalisation of expenditure, public action must have measuring instruments at its disposal: the value of one ton of carbon is one such instrument. This Strategic Newswatch has a twofold objective: to recall the usefulness of this reference value which, though it cannot guarantee the validity of different public policies, may contribute to ensuring their consistency; and to present the different approaches and difficulties that producing such a reference system introduces. (author)

  1. Etude comparative de la cinétique de la réaction d’hydratation des bétons autoplaçants et des bétons vibrés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gargouri

    2014-04-01

    En effet, la nature exothermique de la réaction chimique du ciment peut induire des déformations de dilatation et de contraction. Par ailleurs, la dépression capillaire crée par la consommation d’eau due à l’hydratation du ciment entraine un retrait de dessiccation. Ces déformations peuvent entrainer des micros fissurations pouvant affecter la durabilité de l’ouvrage à long terme surtout pour les ouvrages épais. D’où l’importance d’étudier la cinétique d’hydratation de ses bétons non conventionnels et de les comparer à celle des bétons vibrés traditionnels. L’évolution de la température adiabatique ainsi que la variation en fonction du temps du degré d’hydratation sont déterminées pour le béton autoplaçant et le béton vibré. L’analyse des résultats expérimentaux obtenus montre que le changement de composition modifie considérablement la cinétique de la réaction d’hydratation.

  2. Articulated vehicles of 25 meter and 60 ton in The Netherlands: the start of a pilot project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogvelt, R.B.J.; Huijbers, J.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    At this moment the total allowable length of an articulated vehicle in The Netherlands is 18.35 meter and its total weight is 50 ton. Several Dutch transportation organisations requested a pilot project with longer and heavier vehicles for heavy goods transpotation. Because of the environmental

  3. Active Seismic Monitoring Using High-Power Moveable 40-TONS Vibration Sources in Altay-Sayn Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, V. M.; Seleznev, V. S.; Emanov, A. F.; Kashun, V. N.; Elagin, S. A.; Romanenko, I.; Shenmayer, A. E.; Serezhnikov, N.

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents data of operating vibroseismic observations using high-power stationary 100-tons and moveable 40-tons vibration sources, which have been carried out in Russia for 30 years. It is shown that investigations using high-power vibration sources open new possibilities for study stressedly-deformed condition of the Earth`s crust and the upper mantle and tectonic process in them. Special attention is given to developing operating seismic translucences of the Earth`s crust and the upper mantle using high-power 40-tons vibration sources. As a result of experimental researches there was proved high stability and repeatability of vibration effects. There were carried out long period experiments of many days with vibration source sessions of every two hours with the purpose of monitoring accuracy estimation. It was determined, that repeatability of vibroseismic effects (there was researched time difference of repeated sessions of P- and S-waves from crystal rocks surface) could be estimated as 10-3 - 10-4 sec. It is ten times less than revealed here annual variations of kinematic parameters according to regime vibroseismic observations. It is shown, that on hard high-speed grounds radiation spectrum becomes narrowband and is dislocated to high frequency; at the same time quantity of multiple high-frequency harmonic is growing. At radiation on soft sedimentary grounds (sand, clay) spectrum of vibration source in near zone is more broadband, correlograms are more compact. there Correspondence of wave fields from 40-tons vibration sources and explosions by reference waves from boundaries in he Earth`s crust and the upper mantle at record distance of 400 km was proved by many experiments in various regions of Russia; there was carried out the technique of high-power vibration sources grouping for increase of effectiveness of emanation and increase of record distance. According to results of long-term vibroseismic monitoring near Novosibirsk (1997-2012) there are

  4. Investigation of the thermal behavior of 2 1/2 ton cylinder protective overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    UF 6 cylinders containing reactor grade enriched uranium are transported in protective overpacks. Recently, the design of the 2 1/2 ton UF 6 cylinder overpack was modified to insure the safety of the cylinder inside the overpack. Modifications include a continuous stainless steel liner from the outer surface to the inner surface of the overpack and step joints between the upper and lower halves of the overpack. The effects of a continuous stainless steel liner and moisture in the insulation layer of a UF 6 cylinder protective overpack were investigated with a numerical code. Results were compared with limited available field data. The purpose of comparing the numerical results with field data is to insure the validity of the numerical analysis and the physical properties used in the analysis. The study indicates that the continuous stainless steel liner did not influence the heat transfer rate much from the outer surface of the overpack to the 30B cylinder inside. The effect of step joints was not modeled due to the difficulty of quantifying the leakage rate through the gap. With a continuous stainless steel liner from the outside of the overpack to the inside, the overpack satisfies the thermal design criteria of protecting the cylinder inside for a minimum of 30 minutes when the overpack is exposed to a fire. The effect of moisture inside the insulation layer in the overpack is to reduce the energy to the cylinder with its high thermal capacity. The high pressure steam generated from the moisture will be relieved externally through the vent holes on the outer surface of the overpack. Although these holes are sealed after the overpack is dried, the plug sealing the holes will melt when the overpack is exposed to a fire

  5. TENERIFE program: high temperature experiments on A 4 tons UF6 container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.; Wataru, M.; Shiomi, S.; Ozaki, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    1993-01-01

    To know the input of the future thermo-mechanical code, we have to get a better understanding of the thermo-physical evolution of the UF 6 which pressurizes the container. This evolution is function of: a) the heat transfer rate from the fire to the container b) the UF 6 behaviour in the container. These tests are essentially analytical at simulated fire temperatures of between 800 and 1000degC. They use a representative mass of UF 6 (around 4 tons). The tests will not seek to rupture the test container which has a diameter equal to the 48Y container, but shorter length. These tests carried out in realistic conditions (typical thermal gradient at the wall, characteristic period for UF 6 internal mass transfer) should make possible to improve knowledge of two fundamental phenomena: 1) vaporization of UF 6 on contact with the heated wall (around 400degC), a phenomenon which controls the container internal pressurization kinetic, 2) the equivalent conductivity of solid UF 6 , a phenomenon which is linked to the heat transfer by UF 6 vaporization-condensation through the solid's porosities and which depends on the diameter of the container. In addition, they will allow the influence of other parameters to be studied, such as UF 6 container filling mode or the mechanical characteristics of the container material. A UF 6 container fitted with instruments (wall temperature, UF 6 temperature, pressure) is heated by a rapid heat transient in a radiating furnace where the temperature and thermal power supplied can be measured. The test continues until pre-established thresholds have been reached: 1) strain threshold measured on the container surface (strain gauges positioned on the outside), 2) maximum temperature threshold of UF 6 , 3) container internal pressure threshold. (J.P.N.)

  6. Analysis of internal crack in a six-ton P91 ingot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-an Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available P91 is a new kind of heat-resistant and high-tensile steel. It can be extruded after ingot casting and can be widely used for different pipes in power plants. However, due to its mushy freezing characteristics, a lack of feeding in the ingot center often generates many defects, such as porosity and crack. A six-ton P91 ingot was cast and sliced, and a representative part of the longitudinal section was inspected in more detail. The morphology of crack-like defects was examined by X-ray high energy industrial CT and reconstructed by 3D software. There are five main portions of defects larger than 200 mm3, four of which are interconnected. These initiated from continuous liquid film, and then were torn apart by excessive tensile stress within the brittle temperature range (BTR. The 3D FEM analysis of thermo-mechanical simulation was carried out to analyze the formation of porosity and internal crack defects. The results of shrinkage porosity and Niyama values revealed that the center of the ingot suffers from inadequate feeding. Several criteria based on thermal and mechanical models were used to evaluate the susceptibility of hot crack formation. The Clyne and Davies’ criterion and Katgerman’s criterion successfully predicted the high hot crack susceptibility in the ingot center. Six typical locations in the longitudinal section had been chosen for analysis of the stresses and strains evolution during the BTR. Locations in the defects region showed the highest tensile stresses and relative high strain values, while other locations showed either low tensile stresses or low strain values. In conclusion, hot crack develops only when stress and strain exceed a threshold value at the same time during the BTR.

  7. Development and operation of a 30 ton/ day gasification and melting plant for municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hae Young; Seo, Yong-Chil; Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jang-Su; Lee, Ki-Bae; Jeong, Dae-Woon; Kim, Woo-Hyun; Roh, Seon-Ah; Min, Tai-Jin

    2010-01-01

    As one of the efforts to increase recycling rate of end of life vehicles enforcing by the governmental regulation, automobile shredder residue (ASR) was considered to treat by a thermal method with converting waste to energy. Gasification and melting experimental processes of lab (1 kg/ hour) and pilot (5 ton. day) scale were installed. ASR collected from a domestic shredding company was experimented at a lab-scale and pilot-scale gasification and melting process which is similar to the shaft type gasification melting furnace. The characteristics of syngas, tar and residue (slag) generated from a conversion process (gasification and melting) were analyzed to provide the information to further utilize them as fuel and recyclable materials in scaled up plants. A series of experiments have been conducted with various air equivalent ratios (ERs), and syngas compositions, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value of syngas, yield and characteristics of slag were analyzed. Finally, slags generated from the process were recycled with various alternative technologies. In summary, energy conversion technology of ASR with the least production of residue by gasification and slag utilization has been developed. The main components in product gas were H 2 , CO, CH 4 and CO 2 ; and concentrations of C 2 H 4 and C 2 H 6 were less. This can be used as clean fuel gas whose heating value ranged from 2.5 to 14.0 MJ/ m 3 . Most of slag generated from the process can further be fabricated to valuable and usable products. Such combined technology would result in achieving almost zero waste release from ELVs. (author)

  8. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  9. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  10. Fluoresceination of FepA during colicin B killing: effects of temperature, toxin and TonB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Chuck R; Marco, Amparo Gala; Xiao, Qiaobin; Trinh, Vy; Newton, Salete M C; Klebba, Phillip E

    2009-06-01

    We studied the reactivity of 35 genetically engineered Cys sulphydryl groups at different locations in Escherichia coli FepA. Modification of surface loop residues by fluorescein maleimide (FM) was strongly temperature-dependent in vivo, whereas reactivity at other sites was much less affected. Control reactions with bovine serum albumin showed that the temperature dependence of loop residue reactivity was unusually high, indicating that conformational changes in multiple loops (L2, L3, L4, L5, L7, L8, L10) transform the receptor to a more accessible form at 37 degrees C. At 0 degrees C colicin B binding impaired or blocked labelling at 8 of 10 surface loop sites, presumably by steric hindrance. Overall, colicin B adsorption decreased the reactivity of more than half of the 35 sites, in both the N- and C- domains of FepA. However, colicin B penetration into the cell at 37 degrees C did not augment the chemical modification of any residues in FepA. The FM modification patterns were similarly unaffected by the tonB locus. FepA was expressed at lower levels in a tonB host strain, but when we accounted for this decrease its FM labelling was comparable whether TonB was present or absent. Thus we did not detect TonB-dependent structural changes in FepA, either alone or when it interacted with colicin B at 37 degrees C. The only changes in chemical modification were reductions from steric hindrance when the bacteriocin bound to the receptor protein. The absence of increases in the reactivity of N-domain residues argues against the idea that the colicin B polypeptide traverses the FepA channel.

  11. Assessment of Reusing 14-Ton, Thin-Wall, Depleted UF6 Cylinders as LLW Disposal Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.G.; Poole, A.B.; Shelton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    of 48 inches and nominally contain 14 tons (12.7 MT) of DUF 6 , were originally designed and fabricated for temporary storage of DUF 6 . They were fabricated from pressure-vessel-grade steels according to the provisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Cylinders are stored in open yards at the three sites and, due to historical storage techniques, were subject to corrosion. Roughly 10,000 of the 14TTW cylinders are considered substandard due to corrosion and other structural anomalies caused by mishandling. This means that approximately 40,000 14TTW cylinders could be made available as containers for LLW disposal In order to demonstrate the use of 14TTW cylinders as LLW disposal containers, several qualifying tasks need to be performed. Two demonstrations are being considered using 14TTW cylinders--one demonstration using contaminated soil and one demonstration using U 3 O 8 . The objective of this report are to determine how much information is known that could be used to support the demonstrations, and how much additional work will need to be done in order to conduct the demonstrations. Information associated with the following four qualifying tasks are evaluated in this report

  12. Reheating experiment in the 35-ton pile; Experience de rechauffage sur la pile de 35 tonnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherot, J; Girard, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    When the 35-ton pile was started up it was necessary for us, in order to study certain effects (xenon for example), to know the anti reactivity value of the rods as a function of their dimensions. We have made use of the possibility, in the reheating experiment, of raising the temperature of the graphite-uranium block by simple heating, in order to determine the anti reactivity curves of the rods, and from that the overall temperature coefficient. For the latter we have considered two solutions: first, one in which the average temperature of the pile is defined as our arithmetical mean of the different values given by the 28 thermocouples distributed throughout the pile; a second in which the temperature in likened to a poisoning and is balanced by the square of the flux. The way in which the measurements have been made is indicated, and the different instruments used are described. The method of reheating does not permit the separation of the temperature coefficients of uranium and of graphite. The precision obtained is only moderate, and suffers from the changes of various parameters necessary to other manipulations carried out simultaneously (life time modulators for example), and finally it is a function of the comparatively restricted time allowed. It is evident of course that more careful stabilisation at the different plateaux chosen would have necessitated long periods of reheating. (author) [French] Nous avions besoin lors de la montee en puissance de la pile de 35 tonnes, pour l'elude de divers effets (xenon par ex.) de la valeur de l'antireactivite des barres en fonction de leurs cotes. Nous avons profite dans l'experience rechauffage de la possibilite de monter en temperature, non nucleairement, le bloc graphite uranium, pour determiner les courbes d'antireactivite des barres et de la le coefficient global de temperature. Nous avons considere pour ce dernier deux solutions. Une premiere dans laquelle la temperature moyenne de la pile est definie comme

  13. Tonometer calibration in Brasília, Brazil Calibragem de tonômetros em Brasília, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pires da Silva Abrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine calibration errors of Goldmann applanation tonometers in ophthalmic clinics of Brasília, Brazil, and correlate the findings with variables related to tonometers model and utilization. METHODS: Tonometers from ophthalmic clinics in Brasília, Brazil, were checked for calibration errors. A standard Goldmann applanation tonometer checking tool was used to asses the calibration error. Only one trained individual made all verifications, with a masked reading of the results. Data on the model, age, daily use, frequency of calibration checking and the nature of the ophthalmic department - private or public - were collected and correlated with the observed errors. RESULTS: One hundred tonometers were checked for calibration. Forty seven percent (47/100 were out of 1 mmHg range at least at one point checking. Tonometers mounted to slit lamp, with less than 5 years, used in less than 20 patients daily, that had a calibration check on a yearly basis, and those from private office exhibit a lower rate of inaccuracy, but only the first variable was statistically significant. Sixty one percent of tonometers on public hospitals were out of calibration. CONCLUSION: Calibration of tonometers in the capital of Brazil is poor; those from general hospitals are worst, and this fact can lead to inaccurate detection and assessment of glaucoma patients, overall in the population under government assistance.OBJETIVOS: Determinar os erros de calibração dos tonômetros de aplanação de Goldmann em clínicas oftalmológicas de Brasília, Brasil, e correlacioná-los a variáveis relativas ao modelo e à utilização dos aparelhos. MÉTODOS: Tonômetros de clínicas oftalmológicas de Brasília tiveram a calibragem aferida usando um cilindro padrão fornecido pelo fabricante dos aparelhos. Todas as aferições foram realizadas por um só examinador previamente treinado e a leitura das medidas foi mascarada por um observador independente. As medidas

  14. TNF-α promotes nuclear enrichment of the transcription factor TonEBP/NFAT5 to selectively control inflammatory but not osmoregulatory responses in nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zariel I; Doolittle, Alexandra C; Snuggs, Joseph W; Shapiro, Irving M; Le Maitre, Christine L; Risbud, Makarand V

    2017-10-20

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) causes chronic back pain and is linked to production of proinflammatory molecules by nucleus pulposus (NP) and other disc cells. Activation of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP)/NFAT5 by non-osmotic stimuli, including proinflammatory molecules, occurs in cells involved in immune response. However, whether inflammatory stimuli activate TonEBP in NP cells and whether TonEBP controls inflammation during IDD is unknown. We show that TNF-α, but not IL-1β or LPS, promoted nuclear enrichment of TonEBP protein. However, TNF-α-mediated activation of TonEBP did not cause induction of osmoregulatory genes. RNA sequencing showed that 8.5% of TNF-α transcriptional responses were TonEBP-dependent and identified genes regulated by both TNF-α and TonEBP. These genes were over-enriched in pathways and diseases related to inflammatory response and inhibition of matrix metalloproteases. Based on RNA-sequencing results, we further investigated regulation of novel TonEBP targets CXCL1 , CXCL2 , and CXCL3 TonEBP acted synergistically with TNF-α and LPS to induce CXCL1 -proximal promoter activity. Interestingly, this regulation required a highly conserved NF-κB-binding site but not a predicted TonE, suggesting cross-talk between these two members of the Rel family. Finally, analysis of human NP tissue showed that TonEBP expression correlated with canonical osmoregulatory targets TauT/SLC6A6 , SMIT/SLC5A3 , and AR/AKR1B1 , supporting in vitro findings that the inflammatory milieu during IDD does not interfere with TonEBP osmoregulation. In summary, whereas TonEBP participates in the proinflammatory response to TNF-α, therapeutic strategies targeting this transcription factor for treatment of disc disease must spare osmoprotective, prosurvival, and matrix homeostatic activities. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Determining the potential benefits for the freight carriage by road in Spain facing an increase in vehicles gvm 40 to 44 tons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Reguero, A.H.; Campos Cacheda, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    A very significant percentage of the products shipped by road in Spain using heavy goods vehicles (HGV) make 40 tons GVM (gross vehicle mass). Any changes aimed at increasing productivity in that vehicles category would result in a very positive way in the road freight transport market, by lowering transport costs, decreasing environmental costs, rationalizing the sector and improving logistics market. Therefore it is discussed here the improvement derived from the transfer of HGV that currently have a limitation of 40 tons GVM to a new limit of 44 tons GVM, establishing the potential benefits that would be set after the change. (Author)

  16. Ton H.M. van Schaik and Karin Strengers-Olde Kalter, Het Arme Roomse Leven. Geschiedenis van de katholieke caritas in de stad Utrecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost van Genabeek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ton H.M. van Schaik and Karin Strengers-Olde Kalter, Het Arme Roomse Leven. Geschiedenis van de katholieke caritas in de stad Utrecht (Hilversum: Verloren, 2016, 276 pp., isbn 978 90 8704 578 4.

  17. Transportability Testing of the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) 10-Ton Dump Truck, TP-94-01, Rev. 2, June 2004, "Transportability Testing Procedures"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip W

    2007-01-01

    ... (FMTV) 10-ton dump truck manufactured by Stewart and Stevenson Systems, Inc., Sealy, Texas. The testing was conducted in accordance with TP-94-01, Revision 2, June 2004 "Transportability Testing Procedures...

  18. Un nouveau béton auto-cicatrisant grâce à l’incorporation de bactéries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    La formation d’un réseau continu de fissures contribue à l’augmentation de la perméabilité du béton, réduisant ainsi de manière importante sa résistance à l’attaque d’agents agressifs dissous dans l’eau. Afin d’augmenter la capacité de cicatrisation autogène du béton, certains agents cicatrisants

  19. Hypertonic-induced lamin A/C synthesis and distribution to nucleoplasmic speckles is mediated by TonEBP/NFAT5 transcriptional activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, Nicolas O.; Sterin Speziale, Norma B.; Fernandez Tome, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Lamin A/C is the most studied nucleoskeletal constituent. Lamin A/C expression indicates cell differentiation and is also a structural component of nuclear speckles, which are involved in gene expression regulation. Hypertonicity has been reported to induce renal epithelial cell differentiation and expression of TonEBP (NFAT5), a transcriptional activator of hypertonicity-induced gene transcription. In this paper, we investigate the effect of hypertonicity on lamin A/C expression in MDCK cells and the involvement of TonEBP. Hypertonicity increased lamin A/C expression and its distribution to nucleoplasm with speckled pattern. Microscopy showed codistribution of TonEBP and lamin A/C in nucleoplasmic speckles, and immunoprecipitation demonstrated their interaction. TonEBP silencing caused lamin A/C redistribution from nucleoplasmic speckles to the nuclear rim, followed by lamin decrease, thus showing that hypertonicity induces lamin A/C speckles through a TonEBP-dependent mechanism. We suggest that lamin A/C speckles could serve TonEBP as scaffold thus favoring its role in hypertonicity

  20. The giant superconducting magnet system of 10,000 tons mass for fusion experiment at Cadarache, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) being built at Cadarache, France has many unique features and is one of the biggest scientific adventures in the history of science and technology. Seven partners (India, EU, US, China, Japan, Korea and Russia) have made an International Organization situated at Cadarache, France to provide direction and co-ordination for R and D and construction of this project. The R and D labs and manufacturing industries are spread in these seven partner countries. Components manufactured in these countries will be transported to Cadarache in France for assembly. Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat is coordinating this project activities on behalf of India. The magnet system, required for confinement and control of plasma leading to fusion reaction in ITER is one of the key systems of this project. There are 18 TF (Toroidal Field) Coils, 6 PF (Poloidal Field) coils, 6 CS (Central Solenoid) coils and 18 correction coils (CC), all of which are of superconducting type. All TF and CS coils have Nb3Sn superconductor and all PF and CC coils have NbTi superconductor. Each TF coil has height 15 m and width 9 m and 330 tons mass. The biggest PF coil has diameter 24 m and 300 tons mass. The total mass of these superconducting magnet systems is about 10000 tons. Use of Nb3Sn superconductor for manufacturing superconducting cables for successful use had not reached a matured stage earlier and this project gave a thrust for significant R and D activities worldwide and now due to this project, it is a matured and reliable technology. The jacketing and manufacturing of long cables need up to about 760 m long special infrastructure at Industry. The special building built for PF coil winding at ITER, Cadarache site is of size 250 m X 45 m. All these coils are made using cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC). These long CICCs have to carry current as high as 68 kA in case of TF coils. Due to this high current and

  1. Durabilité des structures en béton et robustesse vis-à-vis des actions accidentelles

    OpenAIRE

    TOUTLEMONDE, François; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2007-01-01

    L'expérience du fonctionnement réel des structures en béton existantes, spécialement sous conditions environnementales extrêmes, sous chargement accidentel sévère, ou au bout d'un vieillissement en service de longue durée, fait ressortir la nécessité de mieux intégrer dans la conception de la structure l'objectif de la durabilité, l'enjeu des nouveaux concepts fiabilistes pour une conception en vue de la durabilité, l'intérêt de la spécification performantielle du matériau, l'importance de la...

  2. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-09-05

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules.

  3. Production equipment development needs for a 700 metric ton/year light water reactor mixed oxide fuel manufacturing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    A literature search and survey of fuel suppliers was conducted to determine how much development of production equipment is needed for a 700 metric tons/y LWR mixed-oxide (UO 2 --PuO 2 ) fuel fabrication plant. Results indicate that moderate to major production equipment development is needed in the powder and pellet processing areas. The equipment in the rod and assembly processing areas need only minor development effort. Required equipment development for a 700 MT/y plant is not anticipated to delay startup of the plant. The development, whether major or minor, can be done well within the time frame for licensing and construction of the plant as long as conventional production equipment is used

  4. arXiv Photon detector system performance in the DUNE 35-ton prototype liquid argon time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.L.; Anderson, J.T.; Bagby, L.; Baird, M.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Biery, K.; Blake, A.; Blaufuss, E.; Boone, T.; Booth, A.; Brailsford, D.; Buchanan, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Convery, M.; Davies, J.; Dealtry, T.; DeLurgio, P.; Deuerling, G.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Eberly, B.; Freeman, J.; Glavin, S.; Gomes, R.A.; Goodman, M.C.; Graham, M.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, J.T.; Hartnell, J.; Higuera, A.; Himmel, A.; Insler, J.; Jacobsen, J.; Junk, T.; Kirby, B.; Klein, J.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kutter, T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lin, S.; Martin-Albo, J.; McConkey, N.; Moura, C.A.; Mufson, S.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nowak, J.; Oberling, M.; Paley, J.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rivera, D.; Santucci, G.; Sinev, G.; Spooner, N.J. C.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Strauss, T.; Sulej, R.; Sun, Y.; Thiesse, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Tsai, Y.T.; Wallbank, M.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Whittington, D.; Wilson, R.J.; Worcester, M.; Worcester, E.; Yang, T.; Zhang, C.

    The 35-ton prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector was a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber with an integrated photon detector system, all situated inside a membrane cryostat. The detector took cosmic-ray data for six weeks during the period of February 1, 2016 to March 12, 2016. The performance of the photon detection system was checked with these data. An installed photon detector was demonstrated to measure the arrival times of cosmic-ray muons with a resolution better than 32 ns, limited by the timing of the trigger system. A measurement of the timing resolution using closely-spaced calibration pulses yielded a resolution of 15 ns for pulses at a level of 6 photo-electrons. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons was observed to be attenuated with increasing distance with a characteristic length of $155 \\pm 28$ cm.

  5. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jiang; Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2008-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 [National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), 2006. Overview of the 11th Five Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. NDRC, Beijing]. This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy-intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO 2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of the most significant carbon mitigation efforts in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model

  6. Land-Use Change and the Billion Ton 2016 Resource Assessment: Understanding the Effects of Land Management on Environmental Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, K. L.; Eaton, L. M.; Efroymson, R.; Davis, M. R.; Dunn, J.; Langholtz, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The federal government, led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), quantified potential U.S. biomass resources for expanded production of renewable energy and bioproducts in the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16) (DOE 2016). Volume 1 of the report provides analysis of projected supplies from 2015 to2040. Volume 2 (forthcoming) evaluates changes in environmental indicators for water quality and quantity, carbon, air quality, and biodiversity associated with production scenarios in BT16 volume 1. This presentation will review land-use allocations under the projected biomass production scenarios and the changes in land management that are implied, including drivers of direct and indirect LUC. National and global concerns such as deforestation and displacement of food production are addressed. The choice of reference scenario, input parameters and constraints (e.g., regarding land classes, availability, and productivity) drive LUC results in any model simulation and are reviewed to put BT16 impacts into context. The principal LUC implied in BT16 supply scenarios involves the transition of 25-to-47 million acres (net) from annual crops in 2015 baseline to perennial cover by 2040 under the base case and 3% yield growth case, respectively. We conclude that clear definitions of land parameters and effects are essential to assess LUC. A lack of consistency in parameters and outcomes of historic LUC analysis in the U.S. underscores the need for science-based approaches.

  7. Caracterização dosimétrica de feixes de fótons com detector de diamante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Sabino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar o detector de diamante, bem como observar seu comportamento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As características dosimétricas de feixes de fótons de 6 MV de energia foram medidas utilizando o sistema automático de varredura MP3 da PTW com um detector de diamante e foram comparadas com medidas usando uma câmara de ionização 31010 da PTW. RESULTADOS: As características dosimétricas do detector de diamante foram observadas por meio de medidas de linearidade com a dose, dependência com a taxa de dose e distribuições de dose em profundidade, bem como perfis. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas medidas com diamante e câmara de ionização foram validadas com resultados publicados na literatura, o que demonstrou um bom comportamento do detector de diamante na comparação com a câmara de ionização, muito utilizada para dosimetria em radioterapia, evidenciando que o diamante é uma boa escolha de detector para dosimetria de campos pequenos.

  8. Performances and stability of a 2.4 ton Gd organic liquid scintillator target for ν-bar e detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, I R; Bezrukov, L B; Danilov, N A; Krilov, Yu S; Yanovich, E A; Malguin, A S; Cattadori, C M; Vacri, A di; Ioannucci, L; Bruno, G; Aglietta, M; Bonardi, A; Fulgione, W; Porta, A; Kemp, E; Selvi, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report the performance and the chemical and physical properties of a 2 x 1.2 ton organic liquid scintillator target doped with Gd up to ∼ 0.1%, and the results of a 3 year long stability survey of the target. In particular we have measured and monitored the optical and fluorescent properties of the Gd-doped liquid scintillator (LS), the amount of both Gd and primary fluor in solution, and the performance of the two Gd doped targets as neutron detectors, namely neutron capture efficiency and average capture time. The experimental survey is ongoing, the targets being continuously monitored. From the spectrophotometric measurements performed on samples periodically extracted along the three years, we can exclude, at 99% C.L. level, a degradation of the light transmittance of the Gd-doped liquid scintillator larger than 1% y -1 ; from the in-tank measurements no significant decrease of the neutron capture efficiency and neutron capture time is observed. This is the largest stable Gd-doped organic liquid scintillator target ever produced and continuously operated for a long period.

  9. Four-Phase Dendritic Model for the Prediction of Macrosegregation, Shrinkage Cavity, and Porosity in a 55-Ton Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Honghao; Ren, Fengli; Li, Jun; Han, Xiujun; Xia, Mingxu; Li, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    A four-phase dendritic model was developed to predict the macrosegregation, shrinkage cavity, and porosity during solidification. In this four-phase dendritic model, some important factors, including dendritic structure for equiaxed crystals, melt convection, crystals sedimentation, nucleation, growth, and shrinkage of solidified phases, were taken into consideration. Furthermore, in this four-phase dendritic model, a modified shrinkage criterion was established to predict shrinkage porosity (microporosity) of a 55-ton industrial Fe-3.3 wt pct C ingot. The predicted macrosegregation pattern and shrinkage cavity shape are in a good agreement with experimental results. The shrinkage cavity has a significant effect on the formation of positive segregation in hot top region, which generally forms during the last stage of ingot casting. The dendritic equiaxed grains also play an important role on the formation of A-segregation. A three-dimensional laminar structure of A-segregation in industrial ingot was, for the first time, predicted by using a 3D case simulation.

  10. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  11. Comportement du béton à l'eau de mer. Synthèse bibliographique Concrete Behavior in Marine Environment. a Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesage J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, dans l'élaboration de structures destinées à l'exploration et à l'exploitation des hydrocarbures en mer, le choix se porte parfois sur les structures en béton plutôt que sur les structures en acier, en particulier dans les zones difficiles de la mer du Nord. C'est pourquoi il nous a semblé intéressant de faire le point des connaissances actuelles sur le comportement du béton à l'eau de mer. Les problèmes les plus importants se situent au niveau de la zone de marnage, c'est-à-dire la zone où le béton est alternativement immergé. Ils sont de tous ordres : contraintes mécaniques avec érosion et cavitation, action capillaire de l'eau avec alternance d'humidification et de séchage, action du gel et du dégel. Les moyens de lutte ne manquent pas : constructions massives, voire surdimensionnées, résistant au choc, choix des formes, mise en aeuvre soignée d'un béton de qualité riche en ciment, correctement dosé en agrégats, dur, dense, compact, imperméable; introduction dans le béton d'un entraineur d'air pour diminuer les effets du gel. L'utilisation d'un ciment prise mer et le choix d'un rapport eau/ciment voisin de 0,45 sont hautement recommandés. Quant à la corrosion, elle concerne les structures en béton à tous les niveaux, aussi bien dans la zone immergée en continu que dans la zone alternativement immergée. L'attaque du béton par les sulfates contenus dans l'eau de mer conduit à la formation de sels de Candlot qui provoquent une dégradation du béton. Le remède consiste à limiter la teneur en aluminate tricalcique du ciment. L'attaque des aciers de renfort par les chlorures a fait l'objet de nombreuses études: la solution consiste surtout à protéger les aciers par galvanisation ou protection cathodique. D'une manière générale, le béton placé dans ce milieu agressif que constitue l'eau de mer subit des contraintes mécaniques et physicochimiques importantes, mais on sait en g

  12. Investigation of ore processing to recover uranium concentrate from sandstone of Pa Lua area on scale of 2 tons of ore per batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hung Thai; Dinh Manh Thang; Tran Van Son; Le Quang Thai; Bui Dang Hanh; Hoang Bich Ngoc; Nguyen Hong Ha; Phung Vu Phong; Nguyen Khac Tuan

    2003-01-01

    Based on the laboratory results, a system for testing on scale of 2 tons uranium ore per batch including following parts was established: equipment for crushing and grinding, equipment for acid leaching, equipment for impurity precipitation and filtration and drying. the results of testing by 2 tons ore per batch scale shown that uranium recovery in the leach circuit were achieved of at least 90% under following conditions: The supplying rate of leach agent 50-701/m 2 .h, sandstone is mixed or incubated with acid before the percolation. About 23 kg filter cake per m 3 solution were disposed as tailings. Flocculants N101, A101 (TOAGOSEL, Japan) were used for improvement of filtration and washing capacity of impurity precipitation. Uranium peroxide was precipitated with addition of hydrogen peroxide. The underflow solids were filtered and calcined. The product contained min. 76% U 3 O 8 . The water recycle was successfully tested. That results in minimization of water addition to only 0.3m 3 /ton of ore. Experimental results on 2 tons scale showed that the proposed processing flow sheet using direct precipitation can meet all environmental and technical objectives. (CHT)

  13. Design, Explanation, and Evaluation of Training Model Structures Based on Learning Organization--In the Cement Industry with a Nominal Production Capacity of Ten Thousand Tons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Hamid; Kazemi, Mojtaba; Abbspour, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effectiveness of training based on learning organization in the staff of cement industry with production capacity over ten thousand tons. The purpose of this study is to propose a training model based on learning organization. For this purpose, the factors of organizational learning were introduced by…

  14. Uji kesetimbangan kalor proses sterilisasi kumbung jamur merang kapasitas 1.2 ton media tanam menggunakan tungku gasifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maulana K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pada setiap budidaya jamur merang memerlukan proses sterilisasi dengan menggunakan uap panas yang dihasilkan dari boiler sederhana dengan tungku tradisional berbahan bakar kayu bakar. Penggunaan tungku tradisional pada aplikasi proses sterilisasi tersebut dinilai kurang efisien karena efisiensi pembakaran yang masih sangat rendah dan emisi gas buang yang mengganggu. Tungku gasifikasi memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik dari pada tungku tradisional karena memiliki efisiensi yang relatif lebih tinggi dan bebas dari asap pembakaran yang mengganggu. Untuk menggantikan tungku tradisional tersebut dengan tunggku gasifikasi, harus dilakukan uji kesetimbangan kalor terlebih dahulu agar dapat diketahui kebutuhan energi yang diperlukan pada proses sterilisasi tersebut. Dengan uji kesetimbangan kalor dapat diketahui perbandingan energi input pada sisi bahan bakar dengan energi yang termanfaatkan (energi output dan energi yang terbuang (heat losses selama proses sterilisasi tersebut berlangsung. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menggunakan kumbung jamur ukuran sebenarnya yang ada di lapangan dengan jumlah media tanam jamur merang sekitar 1.2 ton limbah kapas menggunakan tungku gasifikasi yang dibuat dari drum bekas oli. Pengujian dilakukan dengan dua variasi bahan bakar pada reactor gasifikasinya yaitu bahan bakar limbah kapas dan bahan bakar limbah sekam padi. Dari hasil uji yang didapat, limbah kapas memiliki jumlah energi output yang lebih besar daripada limbah sekam padi (energi output pada limbah kapas sebesar 8.4% dari energi inputnya dan limbah sekam padi memiliki 7.9% energi output. Namun jika dilihat dari efisiensi pembakarannya, limbah sekam padi memiliki efisiensi yang lebih tinggi daripada limbah kapas (28.0% untuk limbah sekam padi dan 27.2% untuk limbah kapas.

  15. Green, Eco, Innovative Design, and Manufacturing Technology of a 1-Ton per Batch Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdsuwan Somrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal treatment of waste by incineration is considered an ultimate solution in order to get rid of waste properly by using the combustible properties of waste and transforming them into inert form and gaseous emission, with the main advantage of a huge reduction in mass and volume of treated waste, destruction of the dangerous components in waste, and obtaining green and clean energy from the exothermal reaction from the completed combustion process. In order to achieve the main goal of incineration, a good design, construction, supervision, and intensive operation and maintenance must be taken into account, especially for the small-scale incinerator. This research will deal with the green, innovative, and eco design and manufacturing technology of a 1-ton per batch municipal solid waste (MSW incinerator. The concept design of the incinerator will focus on the design of the feeding process where only one batch of waste will be discharged into the combustion chamber at one time instead of the semi-feed process, as found in the conventional incinerator. This will ease the operation of the operator and reduce the operating cost. Moreover, the innovative design includes the redesign of combustion air injection into either the primary or secondary combustion chamber in order to achieve the 3Ts of combustion (time, temperature. and turbulence. This design can eliminate the use of an auxiliary burner in the primary combustion chamber. Rethinking the innovative design of using recirculation hot flue gas for preheating of wet garbage in order to pre-dry the waste before combustion is also taken into account. The manufacturing process of the wall composition as well as other parts of the incinerator are also examined.

  16. Probabilistic consequence study of residual radiological effects from a hypothetical ten-ton inadvertent nuclear yield. Weapons Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.; Peters, L.; Serduke, F.; Edwards, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we study the potential radiological consequences of a strategic bomber accident, in which one of the assumed on-board nuclear weapons explodes with an arbitrarily chosen 10-ton nuclear yield. The frequency of such an occurrence is infinitesimal. The safety design features in today s nuclear weapons' systems essentially forbid its occurrence. We have a chosen a military base which has the feature of being a representative combination of urban and rural populations. The assumed ''crash site'' is near the northwest comer of the military base, close to civilian housing located just across the street from the base. A worst case wind would be from the ESE (east south east). This would cause fission debris to be dispersed toward the largest population centers and, thus, would lead to the largest Pu ''collective'' doses (i.e., a dose integrated over time and summed over individuals). Also, if an ESE wind were blowing at accident time, some people in nearby housing could receive lethal gamma-ray doses from fallout before evacuation could occur. It is assumed only one weapon undergoes nuclear yield; the other on-board weapons would HE detonate and the Pu would be aerosolized and lofted. We assume an activity-size distribution and lofting similar to those used to predict fallout measured at NTS. The main thrust of our study is to provide estimates of probabilistic radiological risks to the population local to a strategic bomber crash site. The studied radiological consequences are: cloud-passage doses from Pu inhalation; doses from groundshine due to gamma-producing radionuclides; and areal contamination from Pu and the long-lived fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90

  17. Characterization of the Burkholderia mallei tonB Mutant and Its Potential as a Backbone Strain for Vaccine Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Mott

    Full Text Available In this study, a Burkholderia mallei tonB mutant (TMM001 deficient in iron acquisition was constructed, characterized, and evaluated for its protective properties in acute inhalational infection models of murine glanders and melioidosis.Compared to the wild-type, TMM001 exhibits slower growth kinetics, siderophore hyper-secretion and the inability to utilize heme-containing proteins as iron sources. A series of animal challenge studies showed an inverse correlation between the percentage of survival in BALB/c mice and iron-dependent TMM001 growth. Upon evaluation of TMM001 as a potential protective strain against infection, we found 100% survival following B. mallei CSM001 challenge of mice previously receiving 1.5 x 10(4 CFU of TMM001. At 21 days post-immunization, TMM001-treated animals showed significantly higher levels of B. mallei-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgM when compared to PBS-treated controls. At 48 h post-challenge, PBS-treated controls exhibited higher levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and more severe pathological damage to target organs compared to animals receiving TMM001. In a cross-protection study of acute inhalational melioidosis with B. pseudomallei, TMM001-treated mice were significantly protected. While wild type was cleared in all B. mallei challenge studies, mice failed to clear TMM001.Although further work is needed to prevent chronic infection by TMM001 while maintaining immunogenicity, our attenuated strain demonstrates great potential as a backbone strain for future vaccine development against both glanders and melioidosis.

  18. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials during their road transportation with trucks for loads up to 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation and a coordination of available standards, regulatory prescriptions and directives on stowing are first presented. Then generated forces resulting from road vehicle deceleration in accidental conditions are searched. The investigation shows that higher dangerous materials transportation probabilities essentially concern front end impacts (51.4 %) and side on impacts (19 %). These accidents occur with a speed of about 80 km/h before the impact and 50 km/h during the crash. During the latter, deceleration values ranging from 20 to 100g could be reached, the mean value could be about 30g. A mathematical model is developed. Experiments are realized with the aims on the one hand, to verify the results obtained from a mathematical model of accident and on the other hand to collect experimental values allowing to work out a code of good practice for the stowing of radioactive materials packages having a maximum weight of about 20 tons. A number of 8 tests has been performed with two types of packagings: lower and higher centre of gravity in front end and side on impacts. In case of a front end impact, the stowing system must be able to absorb entirely the kinetic energy generated by the package deceleration. This means that a tie-down system according to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient provided that the package is chocked in the direction of the traffic. The damage is proportional to the weight of the vehicle responsible for such side on impact. This weight could be much higher than the package weight. Deceleration values up to 120g have been recorded. As a result, the tie down system similar to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient, but chocks acting perpendicularly to the direction of the traffic are to be prohibited

  19. Simulations and Data analysis for the 35 ton Liquid Argon detector as a prototype for the DUNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, Thomas Karl [Sheffield U.

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a next-generation neutrino experiment which will be built at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), and will receive a wide-band neutrino beam from Fermilab, 1300~km away. At this baseline DUNE will be able to study many of the properties of neutrino mixing, including the neutrino mass hierarchy and the value of the CP-violating complex phase ($\\delta_{CP}$). DUNE will utilise Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) (LArTPC) technology, and the Far Detector (FD) will consist of four modules, each containing 17.1~kt of LAr with a fiducial mass of around 10~kt. Each of these FD modules represents around an order of magnitude increase in size, when compared to existing LArTPC experiments. \\\\ The 35 ton detector is the first DUNE prototype for the single (LAr) phase design of the FD. There were two running periods, one from November 2013 to February 2014, and a second from November 2015 to March 2016. During t he second running period, a system of TPCs was installed, and cosmic-ray data were collected. A method of particle identification was developed using simulations, though this was not applied to the data due to the higher than expected noise level. A new method of determining the interaction time of a track, using the effects of longitudinal diffusion, was developed using the cosmic-ray data. A camera system was also installed in the detector for monitoring purposes, and to look for high voltage breakdowns. \\\\ Simulations concerning the muon-induced background rate to nucleon decay are performed, following the incorporation of the MUon Simulations UNderground (MUSUN) generator into the DUNE software framework. A series of cuts which are based on Monte Carlo truth information is developed, designed to reject simulated background events, whilst preserving simulated signal events in the $n \\rightarrow K^{+} + e^{-}$ decay channel. No background events are seen to survive the app lication of

  20. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  1. Does the intracellular ionic concentration or the cell water content (cell volume) determine the activity of TonEBP in NIH3T3 cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Schou, Kenneth; Friis, Martin Barfred

    2008-01-01

    of the present investigation was to investigate whether cell shrinkage or high intracellular ionic concentration induced the activation of TonEBP. We designed a model system for isotonically shrinking cells over a prolonged period of time. Cells swelled in hypotonic medium and performed a regulatory volume...... decrease (RVD). Upon return to the original isotonic medium, cells shrank initially followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI). To maintain cell shrinkage, the RVI process was inhibited as follows: Ethyl-isopropyl-amiloride (EIPA) inhibited the Na(+)/H(+) antiport, Bumetanide inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)/2......Cl(-) co-transporter, and Gadolinium inhibited shrinkage-activated Na(+) channels. Cells remained shrunken for at least 4 hours (isotonically shrunken cells). The activity of TonEBP was investigated with a Luciferase assay after isotonic shrinkage and after shrinkage in a high NaCl hypertonic medium...

  2. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  3. Demonstration and evaluation of the 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system, Eldorado Resources, Ltd., Port Hope, Ontario, September 3-4, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Huxford, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    On September 3 and 4, 1986, the prototype 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system (LCBWS) developed by the US Enrichment Safeguards Program (ESP) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., was field tested at the Eldorado Resources, Ltd., (ERL) facility in Port Hope, Ontario. The 20-ton-capacity LCBWS has been designed and fabricated for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verifying the masses of large-capacity UF 6 cylinders during IAEA safeguards inspections at UF 6 handling facilities. The purpose of the Canadian field test was to demonstrate and to evaluate with IAEA inspectorates and with UF 6 bulk handling facility operators at Eldorado the principles, procedures, and hardware associated with using the 20-ton-capacity LCBWS as a portable means for verifying the masses of 10- and 14-ton UF 6 cylinders. Session participants included representatives from the IAEA, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Eldorado Resources, Ltd., the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), and the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Appendix A presents the list of participants and their organization affiliation. The two-day field test involved a formal briefing by ESP staff, two cylinder weighing sessions, IAEA critiques of the LCBWS hardware and software, and concluding discussions on the field performance of the system. Appendix B cites the meeting agenda. Summarized in this report are (1) the technical information presented by the system developers, (2) results from the weighing sessions, and (3) observations, suggestions, and concluding statements from meeting participants

  4. A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newvahner, R.L.; Pryor, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2-1/2-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF 6 cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) slab above a UF 6 hemicylinder, and a UO 2 sphere centered within a UF 6 hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a ''safetime,'' for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF 6 , along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newvahner, R.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2 {1/2}-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF{sub 6} cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) slab above a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder, and a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} sphere centered within a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a {open_quotes}safetime{close_quotes}, for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF{sub 6}, along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations.

  6. Méthode simplifiée de formulation d’un béton à haute performance avec et sans fibre métallique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Sadok Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le présent travail, propose une méthodologie simplifiée, s’appuyant sur des méthodes de formulation de béton connues dans la littérature et sur des essais d’optimisations au laboratoire, permettant la détermination d’une composition d’un béton à haute performance « BHP » et de béton de fibre à haute performance « BFHP ». Pour ce faire, une large caractérisation (physique et mécanique des matériaux utilisés a été conduite. Suivie d’une étude préliminaire, ayant pour objectif d’optimiser le dosage en Superplastifiant (0,65-1% et du ciment (500-700 kg/m3 en se basant sur des essais de résistance à la compression (3, 7, 28 jours et des mesures d’ouvrabilité. Les caractéristiques mécaniques ainsi que la porosité du BHP optimale ont été mesurées. Ainsi, l’effet d’une nouvelle génération de superplastifiant, qui a permis la réduction du rapport E/C à 0,29, a pu être examiné. Ce dernier a permis l’obtention d’un BHP de bonne performance mécanique et de faible porosité. La méthodologie proposée a permis, à ce stade de l’étude, de formuler des bons BHP et reste à ajuster et à compléter pour la formulation des BFHP.

  7. Remodelagem do sistema computacional para dosimetria em radioterapia por nêutrons e fótons baseado em métodos estocásticos - SISCODES

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Machado Trindade

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta a remodelagem do Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia por Nêutrons e Fótons Baseado em Métodos Estocásticos . SISCODES. Para isso mostra a proposta inicial e estado anterior do sistema, as modificações e expansões propostas e executadas, e o estado atual de desenvolvimento do sistema. Melhorias futuras são propostas ao final do trabalho. O SISCODES é um sistema que permite a execução de planejamento computacional 3D em radioterapia, através de si...

  8. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwin, Jeremy; Frenette, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment'). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  9. Proposed method for assigning metric tons of heavy metal values to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    A proposed method is described for assigning an equivalent metric ton heavy metal (eMTHM) value to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository. This method for establishing a curie equivalency between defense high-level waste and irradiated commercial fuel is based on the ratio of defense fuel exposure to the typical commercial fuel exposure, MWd/MTHM. application of this technique to defense high-level wastes is described. Additionally, this proposed technique is compared to several alternate calculations for eMTHM. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Design basis for resistance to shock and vibration of radioactive material packages greater than one ton in truck transport (draft standard for trial use and comment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This standard specifies minimum design values for shock and vibration in highway transport, by truck or by tractor-trailer combination, for fuel and irradiation experiments when package weight exceeds one ton. Shock values correspond to normal transport over rough roads and to minor accidents such as backing into a loading dock. Vibration values correspond to normal transport; any large-amplitude vibration resulting from rough road conditions or a minor accident is treated as shock. This standard includes recommended methods of application to the design of packaging and tiedown systems

  11. Dégradations des poutres en béton armé atteint de l'Alcali Agrégat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    variables (CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2, MgO, Na2O, K2O, SO3) et 58 individus distribués au tableau 4 qui sont : ciment livré, granulat à l'état pur, granulats en zones a-b-c dans les bétons (A et B) « (zone a) de la surface de moulage sur 9 axes, (zone b) du cœur sur 7 axes et (zone c) à coté des aciers internes sur 9 axes », et ...

  12. Quelques considérations sur l’évolution des normes de calcul des poteaux avec la section mixte acier-béton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis près d’un siècle, le système de construction basé sur des portiques en acier ou mixtes acier béton est devenu l’un des types les plus utilisés dans le domaine du génie civil. Plusieurs générations d’ingénieurs se sont préoccupées du développement des méthodes de calcul et des technologies de fabrication relatives à ces structures. En vue d’un dimensionnement optimal des structures, les ingénieurs sont tenus de trouver un compromis entre les exigences structurales de résistance, rigidité et ductilité d’une part, et les objectifs d’utilisation et de fonction relevant d’exigences architecturales d’autre part. Cette article fait une comparaison entre différents méthodes de dimensionnement des poteaux mixtes acier béton, en tenant compte des plusieurs paramètres.

  13. Involvement of the TonB system in tolerance to solvents and drugs in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Ramos-González, M I; Ramos, J L

    2001-09-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E is able to grow with glucose as the carbon source in liquid medium with 1% (vol/vol) toluene or 17 g of (123 mM) p-hydroxybenzoate (4HBA) per liter. After random mini-Tn5'phoA-Km mutagenesis, we isolated the mutant DOT-T1E-PhoA5, which was more sensitive than the wild type to 4HBA (growth was prevented at 6 g/liter) and toluene (the mutant did not withstand sudden toluene shock). Susceptibility to toluene and 4HBA resulted from the reduced efflux of these compounds from the cell, as revealed by accumulation assays with (14)C-labeled substrates. The mutant was also more susceptible to a number of antibiotics, and its growth in iron-deficient minimal medium was inhibited in the presence of ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA). Cloning the mutation in the PhoA5 strain and sequencing the region adjacent showed that the mini-Tn5 transposor interrupted the exbD gene, which forms part of the exbBD tonB operon. Complementation by the exbBD and tonB genes cloned in pJB3-Tc restored the wild-type characteristics to the PhoA5 strain.

  14. Tsuruga: 1 ton, some 10 mCi of rad-liquid leaks out to the sea, no environmental and human costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station of Japan Atomic Power Co., the leakage of radioactivity from the site into the sea occurred, as follows. Due to a valve being left open on March 8, 1981, the overflow of liquid waste from the filter sludge storage tank into the laundry waste filtering room took place. A part of it leaked through the floor into the general underground waterway. The amount was estimated to be one ton with some 10 mCi. The incident is reviewed with the following topics: nobody expected rad-material in the waterway with the leakage from a filter sludge tank; construction, human and management mistakes were revealed in the survey; no environmental impact, with the defect peculiar to Tsuruga; JAPCO executives assume the responsibility; JAPCO and regulatory authorities need review. (Mori, K.)

  15. Simulations numériques d'accidents réels véhicule/piéton et véhicule/cycliste

    OpenAIRE

    SERRE, T; PERRIN, C; CHALANDON, S; DEPRIESTER, JP; GINEYT, G; LLARI, M; DEON, J

    2006-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail est de présenter et d'illustrer une méthode générale de reconstruction d'accidents réels impliquant une automobile et un piéton ou un cycliste. Le principe général s'appuie sur la complémentarité d'une double approche, d'une part accidentologique clinique, fondée sur des Études Détaillées d'Accidents, de l'autre biomécanique, fondée sur la simulation numérique multicorps du choc. Les données accidentologiques recueillies vont tout d'abord fournir, en amont de la simul...

  16. Saving 2,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. Optimal management of power; 2.000 Tonnen CO{sub 2} gespart. Optimales Energiemanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Ullmann, Siegfried; Selig, Ruediger [Siemens AG (Germany); Gaerisch, Stephan

    2008-09-15

    In the year 1989, Hela Gewuerzwerk Hermann Laue GmbH and Co. KG (Ahrensburg, Federal republic of Germany) adopted the former BAT tobacco goods factory Ahrensburg inclusive large parts of the infrastructure of the building, under it the supply of steam and warmth. Due to the constantly rising energy prices, Hela Gewuerzwerk Hermann Laue GmbH and Co. KG decided in the year 2006 to renew the entire supply of gas, warmth and coldness. On basis of a detailed analysis of the energetic requirement of all production departments and energy sectors, a concept was developed which is based on three factors: (a) Uncoupling of production of steam, warmth and coldness; (b) Decentralization: Steam, warmth and coldness are produced according to the user's demand; (c) Scaling: At least, for the generation of steam, warmth and coldness there are two identically constructed systems which are redundantly switched. By means of this concept, in the year 2007, approximately 8 millions kWh gas, 600,000 kWh electricity and 2,000 tons of carbon dioxide were saved.

  17. Study of radiation exposure due to radon, thoron and progeny in the indoor environment of Yamuna and Tons valleys of Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Mukesh; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Ramola, R.C.; Prasad, Ganesh; Mishra, Rosaline

    2016-01-01

    Long-term measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been carried out in dwellings of Yamuna and Tons Valleys of Uttarkashi, Garhwal Himalaya to investigate the health risk associated with inhalation of radon, thoron and progeny. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and progeny concentrations were used to estimate the annual inhalation doses and annual effective doses. The annual inhalation dose has been found to vary from 0.8 to 3.9 mSv y -1 with an average of 1.8 mSv y -1 . The annual effective dose from the exposure to radon and its progeny in the study area has been found to vary from 0.1 to 2.4 mSv with an average of 1.2±0.6 mSv. Similarly, the annual effective dose due to thoron and its progeny has been found to vary from 0.2 to 1.5 mSv with an average of 0.6±0.4. The measurement techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. (authors)

  18. STUDY OF RADIATION EXPOSURE DUE TO RADON, THORON AND PROGENY IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT OF YAMUNA AND TONS VALLEYS OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mukesh; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Prasad, Ganesh; Mishra, Rosaline; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    Long-term measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been carried out in dwellings of Yamuna and Tons Valleys of Uttarkashi, Garhwal Himalaya to investigate the health risk associated with inhalation of radon, thoron and progeny. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and progeny concentrations were used to estimate the annual inhalation doses and annual effective doses. The annual inhalation dose has been found to vary from 0.8 to 3.9 mSv y -1 with an average of 1.8 mSv y -1 The annual effective dose from the exposure to radon and its progeny in the study area has been found to vary from 0.1 to 2.4 mSv with an average of 1.2±0.6 mSv. Similarly, the annual effective dose due to thoron and its progeny has been found to vary from 0.2 to 1.5 mSv with an average of 0.6±0.4. The measurement techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of TON-1713 from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1, a putative member of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Binh Van; Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Yona; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2007-01-01

    A putative member of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily from T. onnurineus has been expressed, purified and crystallized using 1.6 M magnesium sulfate as a precipitant. The crystals belonged to the triclinic space group P1 and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) protein superfamily is one of the largest enzyme families and shows hydrolytic activity towards diverse substrates. Structural analyses of enzymes belonging to the HAD family are required to elucidate the molecular basis underlying their broad substrate specificity and reaction mechanism. For this purpose, TON-1713, a hypothetical protein from Thermococcus onnurineus that is a member of the HAD superfamily, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized at 295 K using 1.6 M magnesium sulfate as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belong to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.5, b = 65.8, c = 203.4 Å, α = 71.1, β = 79.9, γ = 74.3°

  1. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  2. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  3. Study of the muon spectrum at a depth 570 m.w.e. underground by means of the 100-ton scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enikeev, R.I.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Korol'kova, E.V.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Mal'gin, A.S.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Khal'chukov, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The experiment was carried out using the 100-ton apparatus at the Artemovsk Scientific Station of the Institute of Nuclear Research, USSR Academy of Sciences, located in a salt mine at a depth 570 m.w.e. underground. The spectrum of the energy release in the electromagnetic cascades which are generated by muons underground was measured. The electromagnetic and nuclear cascades were separated on the basis of the number of neutrons in these cascades. The spectrum of the energy release obtained is consistent with a spectrum of π and K mesons with γ/sub π//sub ,//sub K/ = 1.75 +- 0.08 for muon energies at sea level E 0 /sub μ/ >0.7 TeV. The experimental data recalculated to the vertical spectrum of muons at sea level agree with the results of other studies. Up to energies of about 100 TeV neither the spectrum of the primary cosmic rays nor the characteristics of the pA interaction undergo changes which could lead to an increase of γ/sub π//sub ,//sub K/ to a value exceeding 1.85

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the TonB-dependent haem outer membrane transporter ShuA from Shigella dysenteriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillet, Karl; Meksem, Ahmed; Thompson, Andrew; Cobessi, David

    2009-01-01

    ShuA from S. dysenteriae was crystallized in several crystallization conditions containing detergents. Adding heavy atoms during crystallization strongly improved the crystal quality and the resolution limits. Diffraction data were collected at an energy remote from the Pb M absorption edges. As part of efforts towards understanding the crystallization of membrane proteins and membrane transport across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, the TonB-dependent haem outer membrane transporter ShuA of Shigella dysenteriae bound to heavy atoms was crystallized in several crystallization conditions using detergents. The insertion of a His 6 tag into an extracellular loop of ShuA, instead of downstream of the Escherichia coli peptide signal, allowed efficient targeting to the outer membrane and the rapid preparation of crystallizable protein. Crystals diffracting X-rays beyond 3.5 Å resolution were obtained by co-crystallizing ShuA with useful heavy atoms for phasing (Eu, Tb, Pb) by the MAD method at the synchrotron, and the SAD or SIRAS method at the Cu wavelength. The authors collected X-ray diffraction data at 2.3 Å resolution using one crystal of ShuA-Pb, and at 3.2 Å resolution at an energy remote from the Pb M absorption edges for phasing on PROXIMA-1 at SOLEIL

  5. The effect of the pore structure of medium-pore zeolites on the dehydroisomerization of n-butane: A comparison of Pt-FER, Pt-TON and Pt-ZSM5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirngruber, G.D.; Zinck, O.P.E.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The catalytic dehydroisomerization of n-butane over Pt–ZSM5, Pt–TON, and Pt–FER was investigated. Pt–ZSM5 showed the highest yield and selectivity to isobutene. Most of the by-products of Pt–ZSM5 were formed by oligomerization/cracking of butene, while acid-catalyzed cracking and metal-catalyzed

  6. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-11

    With the goal of understanding environmental effects of a growing bioeconomy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, and U.S. Forest Service research laboratories, together with academic and industry collaborators, undertook a study to estimate environmental effects of potential biomass production scenarios in the United States, with an emphasis on agricultural and forest biomass. Potential effects investigated include changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water quality and quantity, air emissions, and biodiversity. Effects of altered land-management regimes were analyzed based on select county-level biomass-production scenarios for 2017 and 2040 taken from the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16), volume 1, which assumes that the land bases for agricultural and forestry would not change over time. The scenarios reflect constraints on biomass supply (e.g., excluded areas; implementation of management practices; and consideration of food, feed, forage, and fiber demands and exports) that intend to address sustainability concerns. Nonetheless, both beneficial and adverse environmental effects might be expected. To characterize these potential effects, this research sought to estimate where and under what modeled scenarios or conditions positive and negative environmental effects could occur nationwide. The report also includes a discussion of land-use change (LUC) (i.e., land management change) assumptions associated with the scenario transitions (but not including analysis of indirect LUC [ILUC]), analyses of climate sensitivity of feedstock productivity under a set of potential scenarios, and a qualitative environmental effects analysis of algae production under carbon dioxide (CO2) co-location scenarios. Because BT16 biomass supplies are simulated independent of a defined end use, most analyses do not include benefits from displacing fossil fuels or other

  7. Aplicativo para dosimetria interna usando a distribuição biocinética de fótons baseada em imagens de medicina nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriato Leal Neto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este artigo apresenta uma forma de se obterem estimativas de dose em pacientes submetidos a tratamentos radioterápicos a partir da análise das regiões de interesse em imagens de medicina nuclear. Materiais e Métodos: Foi desenvolvido o software denominado DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes, que recebe as informações sobre os órgãos fontes e o órgão alvo e retorna resultados gráficos e numéricos. As imagens de medicina nuclear utilizadas foram obtidas de catálogos disponibilizados por físicos médicos. Nas simulações utilizaram-se modelos computacionais de exposição constituídos por fantomas de voxels acoplados ao código Monte Carlo EGSnrc. O software foi desenvolvido no Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 com o modelo de projeto Windows Presentation Foundation e a linguagem de programação C#. Resultados: Da aplicação das ferramentas foram obtidos: o arquivo para otimização das simulações Monte Carlo utilizando o EGSnrc, a organização e compactação dos resultados dosimétricos com todas as fontes, a seleção das regiões de interesse, a contagem da intensidade dos tons de cinza nas regiões de interesse, o arquivo das fontes ponderadas e, finalmente, todos os resultados gráficos e numéricos. Conclusão: A interface de usuários pode ser adaptada para uso em clínicas de medicina nuclear como ferramenta computacional auxiliar na estimativa da atividade administrada.

  8. Bioatividade de ácidos húmicos: efeitos sobre o desenvolvimento radicular e sobre a bomba de prótons da membrana plasmática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Façanha Arnoldo Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade de ácidos húmicos (AH isolados de lodo da estação de tratamento de esgoto (AHL e de vermicomposto (AHV foi avaliada pela ação dessas substâncias sobre o transporte de prótons através da membrana plasmática de células de raízes de café e milho e sua relação com o desenvolvimento dessas espécies. Houve estímulo da área superficial radicular em ambas as espécies cultivadas com ambos AH, mostrando uma concentração ótima em torno de 40 mg L-1. Nessa condição, os tratamentos com AHL e AHV estimularam a H+-ATPase de membrana plasmática em plântulas de café e milho. Os AHL foram mais efetivos na promoção desses efeitos do que os AHV. A modificação do perfil cromatográfico dos AH em solução antes e após o cultivo das plântulas revelou que a interação planta-AH promoveu uma redistribuição das massas moleculares dessas substâncias, sugerindo uma dinâmica de mobilização de subunidades funcionais dos AH por exsudatos das raízes. A análise estrutural dos AH detectou a presença de grupamentos de auxina. A análise comparativa da ação desses dois AH sobre as espécies representantes de plantas monocotiledôneas (milho e dicotiledôneas (café apontam para a ativação da H+-ATPase de plasmalema como possível marcador metabólico de bioatividade dos ácidos húmicos.

  9. Att drabbas av cancer i tonåren : En kvantitativ studie om hälsorelaterad livskvalitet två till fyra år efter diagnos

    OpenAIRE

    Hiding, Markus; Lavemark, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    Syfte Studiens syfte var att undersöka: självskattad hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos tonåringar som drabbats av cancer två år (T5), tre år (T6) och fyra år (T7) efter diagnos, samt att jämföra deras skattningar med en referensgrupp randomiserad från befolkningen.   Metod Tonåringarna med cancer besvarade SF-36 2 år (N=38), 3 år (N=42) samt 4 år (N=39) efter diagnos. En referensgrupp (N=300) randomiserad av Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) besvarade samma formulär vid ett tillfälle. Samtlig data...

  10. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Stokes, Bryce [Allegheny Science & Technology, LLC, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Maggie R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hellwinckel, Chad [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scott, D. Andrew [USDA Forest Service, Normal, AL (United States); Jager, Henrietta I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ha, Miae [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Baskaran, Latha Malar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kreig, Jasmine A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rau, Benjamin [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Muwamba, Augustine [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Trettin, Carl [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Panda, Sudhanshu [Univ. of North Georgia, Oakwood, GA (United States); Amatya, Devendra M. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Tollner, Ernest W. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Sun, Ge [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Zhang, Liangxia [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Duan, Kai [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Gangsheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sutton, Nathan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busch, Ingrid Karin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Donner, Deahn M. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Wigley, T. Bently [National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, Darren A. [Weyerhaeuser Company, Federal Way, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pattullo, Molly [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Daly, Christopher [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Halbleib, Mike [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Negri, Cristina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonner, Ian [Monsanto Company, Twin Falls, ID (United States); Dale, Virginia H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of understanding environmental effects of a growing bioeconomy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, and U.S. Forest Service research laboratories, together with academic and industry collaborators, undertook a study to estimate environmental effects of potential biomass production scenarios in the United States, with an emphasis on agricultural and forest biomass. Potential effects investigated include changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water quality and quantity, air emissions, and biodiversity. Effects of altered land-management regimes were analyzed based on select county-level biomass-production scenarios for 2017 and 2040 taken from the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16), volume 1, which assumes that the land bases for agricultural and forestry would not change over time. The scenarios reflect constraints on biomass supply (e.g., excluded areas; implementation of management practices; and consideration of food, feed, forage, and fiber demands and exports) that intend to address sustainability concerns. Nonetheless, both beneficial and adverse environmental effects might be expected. To characterize these potential effects, this research sought to estimate where and under what modeled scenarios or conditions positive and negative environmental effects could occur nationwide. The report also includes a discussion of land-use change (LUC) (i.e., land management change) assumptions associated with the scenario transitions (but not including analysis of indirect LUC [ILUC]), analyses of climate sensitivity of feedstock productivity under a set of potential scenarios, and a qualitative environmental effects analysis of algae production under carbon dioxide (CO2) co-location scenarios. Because BT16 biomass supplies are simulated independent of a defined end use, most analyses do not include benefits from displacing fossil fuels or

  11. Evaluation de la performance des TRC et des solutions hybrides dans le cadre de la réparation et le renforcement de poutres en béton armé

    OpenAIRE

    SI LARBI, A.; HAMELIN, P.; CONTAMINE, R.

    2011-01-01

    Le présent travail, à caractère exploratoire, vise à mettre en évidence l’intérêt de solutions alternatives au carbone-époxy dans le cadre de la réparation de structures en béton armé vis-à-vis de la flexion par l’emploi de matériaux composites de type textile mortier(TRC). Il a permis de mettre en avant les bonnes dispositions des solutions hybrides que ce soit en termes de comportement ultime ou de comportement en service avec des niveaux de performances très comparables aux ...

  12. Análise da distribuição espacial de dose absorvida em próton terapia ocular Spatial distribution analysis of absorbed dose in ocular proton radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Tavares Christóvão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propõe-se avaliar os perfis de dose em profundidade e as distribuições espaciais de dose para protocolos de radioterapia ocular por prótons, a partir de simulações computacionais em código nuclear e modelo de olho discretizado em voxels. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As ferramentas computacionais empregadas foram o código Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking Toolkit e o SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia. O Geant4 é um pacote de software livre, utilizado para simular a passagem de partículas nucleares com carga elétrica através da matéria, pelo método de Monte Carlo. Foram executadas simulações computacionais reprodutivas de radioterapia por próton baseada em instalações pré-existentes. RESULTADOS: Os dados das simulações foram integrados ao modelo de olho através do código SISCODES, para geração das distribuições espaciais de doses. Perfis de dose em profundidade reproduzindo o pico de Bragg puro e modulado são apresentados. Importantes aspectos do planejamento radioterápico com prótons são abordados, como material absorvedor, modulação, dimensões do colimador, energia incidente do próton e produção de isodoses. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que a terapia por prótons, quando adequadamente modulada e direcionada, pode reproduzir condições ideais de deposição de dose em neoplasias oculares.OBJECTIVE: The present study proposes the evaluation of the depth-dose profiles and the spatial distribution of radiation dose for ocular proton beam radiotherapy protocols, based on computer simulations in nuclear codes and an eye model discretized into voxels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The employed computational tools were Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking Toolkit and SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia - Computer System for Dosimetry in Radiotherapy. Geant4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through the matter, based on Monte Carlo method. Computer simulations

  13. Perfil físico-químico de aguardente durante envelhecimento em tonéis de carvalho Chemical profile of aguardente - Brazilian sugar cane alcoholic drink - aged in oak casks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Branco de Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se por um período de 390 dias o perfil da composição química da aguardente sob envelhecimento em tonéis de carvalho de 20 L. O envelhecimento da aguardente em tonéis de madeira melhora a qualidade sensorial do destilado. As aguardentes envelhecidas foram analisadas aos 0, 76, 147, 228, 314 e 390 dias de armazenamento quanto às concentrações de etanol, acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos, furfural, álcoois superiores (n-propílico, isobutílico e isoamílicos, metanol, cobre, extrato seco, taninos e cor. Após os 390 dias de armazenamento, a aguardente apresentou maiores concentrações de acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos, furfural, álcoois superiores, congêneres, extrato seco e tanino. Sua coloração tornou-se amarelada. As concentrações de etanol e de metanol não se alteraram, e o teor de cobre apresentou ligeiro declínio. O envelhecimento da aguardente por 390 dias em tonéis de carvalho alterou a sua composição química, porém ela se manteve dentro de todos os padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação nacional em vigor.The chemical composition of aguardente - Brazilian sugar cane alcoholic drink - under aging during in 20 L oak casks was evaluated for 390 days. Aging sugar cane aguardente in wood casks improves the sensorial quality of the distillate. The concentrations of ethanol, volatile acidity, esters, aldehydes, furfural, higher alcohols (n-propylic, isobutylic and isoamylics, methanol, copper, dry extract, tannins, and color of the aged sugar cane aguardente were analysed at 0, 76, 147, 228, 314, and 390 days of storage. After 390 days of aging the sugar cane aguardente presented higher concentrations of volatile acidity, esters, aldehydes, furfural, higher alcohols, congeners, dry extract, and tannin. Its color became golden. The concentrations of ethanol and methanol did not change and the copper content decreased slightly. The aging of the sugar cane aguardente in oak casks for 390 days

  14. Prédiction de la compacité des bétons compactés au rouleau à l'aide d'un modèle d'empilement granulaire

    OpenAIRE

    POULIOT, N; SEDRAN, T; DE LARRARD, F; MARCHAND, J

    2001-01-01

    Le béton compacté au rouleau (BCR) est régulièrement utilisé pour la construction de barrages, de chaussées routières et d'aires d'entreposage (en particulier, au Canada). La rapidité de mise en place, les faibles teneurs en ciment et l'utilisation d'ajouts minéraux (cendres volantes, fillers calcaires, résidus miniers, etc.) en font un matériau économiquement très intéressant pour l'industrie de la construction. Le BCR possède cependant une structure interne particulière de par sa forte prop...

  15. Geoquímica e Geocronologia do Plutonismo Granítico Mesoproterozóico do SW do Estado de Mato Grosso (SW do Cráton Amazônico)

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Cesar Geraldes

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é o estudo geocronológico e da composição química dos granitóides da porção SW do estado do Mato Grosso. A abordagem deste projeto tem relevância para o entendimento da evolução geológica através da identificação, na área de estudo, de eventos de acresção crustal durante o Paleo e Mesoproterozóico que vieram a compor significativa fração do SW Cráton Amazônico. Na região do Terreno Jauru, tonalitos, vulcânicas ácidas e gnaisses analisados pelo método U/Pb em zircões ...

  16. Quand la musique donne le ton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Le lycée Sainte-Anne de Copenhague est un établissement réputé pour les résultats de ses élèves et pour être le foyer d’une intense tradition chorale et musicologique. L’article interroge les parcours de 32 élèves d’une même classe, tous reçus au baccalauréat 2014 avec une option musique et mathé...... de comprendre cette coexistence entre musique et éducation, la relation entre « individu » et « communauté » est examinée et la notion de « culture » désigne le point d’articulation qui peut rendre compte de la dynamique pédagogique en question....

  17. Experimental study of columns partially filled with concrete under compressive axial loads Etude expérimentale des colonnes partiellement remplis par le béton sous charge axiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoura D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, on présente les résultats expérimentaux obtenus sur des poteaux mixtes béton-acier mince réalisés par soudures. Un total de 24 profilés en acier, et en forme de I a été testé sous charge de compression uni-axiale à l’âge de 28 jours. les spécimens ont été réparties comme suit: 4 à vides, 4 partiellement remplies avec un béton ordinaire sans l’addition des connecteurs, 4 renforcés par des connecteurs de cisaillements de type cornière en U, 4 autres l’ont été avec des connecteurs de cisaillements type goujons et 8 restants ont été renforcés avec des liens transversaux d’espacement 100mm, 50mm, soudés aux bouts des ailes opposées. Les principaux paramètres étudiés sont: l’élancement du profilé, le type de connecteur de renforcement. A partir des résultats d’essais obtenus, il est confirmé que les parois minces sont plus sensibles de l’apparition au voilement et la longueur des profilés a un effet considérable sur la capacité portante et le mode de rupture. L’addition des connecteurs de renforcement a confirmé l’augmentation de la charge ultime par rapport aux profilés sans connecteurs. In the present work, results of tests conducted on thin welded steel-concrete stubs are presented. A total of 24 stubs an I steel section were tested under axial compression at 28 days after the date of casting, 4 were empty, 4 filled with normal concrete, 8 columns had shear connecters welded along the centreline of the web, and 8 columns had steel rods welded between the tips of opposing flanges on both sides of the spacing of the transverse link 100 mm and 50 mm. The main parameters studied were: the heel height, and type of connector strengthening. From the test results, it is confirmed that the thin walls are more sensitive to the appearance local buckling and the length of the profiles has a significant effect on the bearing capacity and failure mode. The bearing capacity was increased

  18. Efficacité du renforcement des poutres en béton armé par des matériaux composites Efficiency of strengthening concrete beams using FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemrouk M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pour réduire le coût et assurer un comportement relativement plus ductile pour des éléments en béton armés renforcés, l’addition des fibres de verre pourrait être considérée comme solution de rechange, puisqu’elles sont relativement plus déformables et meilleur marché que la fibre de carbone. Dans ce sens, le travail actuel vise à évaluer l’efficacité du renfort externe sur les poutres renforcées par le tissu de FRP (verre-carbone. Un total de sept poutres en béton armé a été renforcé en flexion et en cisaillement, et testé sous un chargement quatre points cyclique statique. Les champs des contraintes et de déformation ont été contrôlés par un système de caméra numérique “Gom-Aramis”. Les résultats ont été analysés en termes de résistance, rigidité, ductilité et mode de rupture. To reduce the cost and to ensure a behavior relatively more ductile for concrete strengthening elements, the addition of glass fibers could be regarded as solution of replacement, since they are relatively more deformable and cheaper than carbon fiber. In this sense, current work aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the external reinforcement on the beams strengthened by fabric of FRP (glass – carbon. Seven concrete beams reinforced were strengthening in bending and shearing, and were testing under four point cyclic static. The fields of the stresses and deformation were controlled by a numerical system of camera “Gom-Aramis”. The results were analyzing in term of resistance, rigidity, ductility and mode of failure

  19. The Big-Wheel TGC-1 being moved against the Barrel Muon Spectrometer. The 216 trigger chambers are supported by a thin structure of 22 m diameter and 0.4 m thickness, weighting 44 tons and supported on two rails.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The Big-Wheel TGC-1 being moved against the Barrel Muon Spectrometer. The 216 trigger chambers are supported by a thin structure of 22 m diameter and 0.4 m thickness, weighting 44 tons and supported on two rails.

  20. Estudo de Estranheza em Colisões próton-próton no LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David

    In this work, we study the production of strange hadrons in proton-proton (pp) collisions at energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7~TeV$ measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. We present the first measurements of particle yields at central rapidities for the $K^{0}_{S}$ meson as well as for the $\\Lambda$, $\\Xi^{-}$ and $\\Omega^{-}$ baryons and their antiparticles. Total particle production rates exceed predictions by models that use Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (pQCD). In particular, we compare our measurements to predictions by the PYTHIA event generator and find that predictions agree with data only at transverse momenta (pt) higher than $6-7~GeV/c$. This result indicates that the leading order processes implemented in PYTHIA are well adjusted, but the implementation of a calculation that describes the data at low $p_{t}$ is still an open issue. The results presented here should contribute to improve our understanding of particle production mechanisms at low $p_{t}$. Proton-proton collisions are also used as ...

  1. Análise do masseter, por espectroscopia de próton, em pacientes com esclerose sistêmica Proton spectroscopy study of the masseter in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcucci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de metabólitos no masseter em portadores de esclerose sistêmica, analisando os índices de creatina, colina, lipídio e lactato, e relacionar com a presença de osteólise mandibular. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 25 pacientes, sendo 15 com diagnóstico de esclerose sistêmica e agrupados de acordo com a presença (grupo I ou ausência (grupo II de osteólise, e 10 indivíduos normais (grupo III, controle. Todos foram submetidos a exame de espectroscopia de próton por ressonância magnética, com técnica PRESS e aquisição tridimensional. RESULTADOS: O estudo dos metabólitos dos três grupos apresentou os mesmos valores absolutos de creatina e lipídio. Os pacientes do grupo I apresentaram maior quantidade de colina em relação aos do grupo III. Já os indivíduos dos grupos I e II apresentaram menor quantidade de lactato em relação aos indivíduos normais. Os índices creatina/lipídio e colina/lactato foram os mesmos em todos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos menor quantidade de lactato nos pacientes com esclerose sistêmica (grupos I e II. A colina está aumentada nos pacientes com osteólise mandibular (grupo I. Os índices creatina/colina, creatina/lactato, lipídio/lactato e colina/lipídio foram diferentes entre os grupos estudados. Mais estudos são necessários para a compreensão da participação do masseter no desenvolvimento da osteólise mandibular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate metabolite concentration in the masseter of patients with systemic sclerosis, by analyzing creatine, choline, lipid and lactate levels, and correlating them with the presence of mandibular osteolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 25 individuals, 15 of them with diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, divided into two groups according to the presence (group I or absence (group II of osteolysis, and 10 healthy individuals (group III, control. All of them were submitted to proton magnetic resonance

  2. Sistemas primários de transporte de prótons integram os mecanismos de desintoxicação do mesotrione em plantas de milho Proton transport primary systems used as mechanisms of mesotrione detoxification in corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ogliari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O mesotrione é um dos mais efetivos herbicidas desenvolvidos para o controle de uma ampla gama de plantas daninhas que infestam campos de milho (Zea mays. Todavia, as bases bioquímicas e moleculares da tolerância das plantas de milho a esse herbicida ainda não foram estabelecidas. Para compreender os mecanismos de desintoxicação do mesotrione em plantas de milho, foram analisadas as atividades dos principais sistemas primários de transporte de prótons (íons H+ das membranas plasmática e vacuolar (H+-ATPases do tipo P e V e H+-PPases de células de diferentes tecidos de plantas tratadas após aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Para isso, foram realizados procedimentos de fracionamento celular, de tecidos radiculares, foliares e do caule, por centrifugação diferencial e purificação de vesículas membranares em gradiente de densidade de sacarose. Os ensaios enzimáticos das atividades hidrolíticas das três bombas de H+ foram realizados aplicando-se um método colorimétrico para medir o fosfato liberado das hidrólises dos substratos: adenosina-5'-trifosfato (ATP e pirofosfato (PPi. Parâmetros fotossintéticos foram analisados como marcadores fisiológicos dos diferentes estádios da desintoxicação das plantas. Essa análise demonstrou que o tratamento com mesotrione promoveu uma redução na taxa fotossintética e na relação Fv/Fm no terceiro dia após aplicação (DAA, mas não afetou significativamente a fotossíntese a partir do quinto DAA. Nos três tecidos analisados, raiz, folha e caule, aos 3 DAA, foi observado forte estímulo da atividade da H+-PPase vacuolar, a qual variou de cerca de 100 a 600%. Essa forte ativação foi reduzida significativamente aos 7 DAA, mas permaneceu pelo menos duas vezes maior com relação ao controle. Por sua vez, as H+-ATPases das membranas plasmática e vacuolar foram bem menos moduladas pelo tratamento com o herbicida, apresentando estimulações e inibições que n

  3. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  4. Study of the effect of the nature of aggregates on the mechanical behaviour of the concrete in hot and dry zones «Contribution of the curing» Etude de l’effet de la nature des granulats sur le comportement mécanique du béton en zones chaudes et arides «Contribution de la cure»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendjillali K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Laghouat est parmi les villes de l’Algérie riches en matériaux de différentes natures, tels que les roches calcaires massives et les matériaux alluvionnaires meubles siliceux et silico-calcaires. L’objectif premier de ce travail est d’établir une comparaison des performances mécaniques des bétons préparés avec de granulats de natures différentes. Nôtre second objectif est l’étude de l’influence de la cure sur la résistance à la compression et la résistance à la flexion des bétons étudiés. Les échantillons sont conservés sous un climat chaud et sec réel qui est le climat de Laghouat. Nous avons utilisé comme cure: le film plastique, la toile de jute mouillée et l’immersion dans l’eau. A travers ce travail expérimental, nous avons pu constater que les meilleures résistances à la compression sont obtenues dans les bétons à sable siliceux et celles à la flexion sont obtenues dans les bétons à granulats calcaires. La conservation du béton dans une ambiance aride sans protection augmente sa résistance mécanique à jeune âge, mais à long terme, cette dernière chute d’une façon significative. L’étude a mis en évidence la nécessité de l’emploi d’un super plastifiant et de l’application immédiate de la cure pour le bétonnage en climat chaud. Laghouat is among the cities of Algeria rich in materials of various natures, such as the massive limestone rocks and the natural river materials. The first objective of this work is to establish a comparison of the mechanical performances between concretes with aggregates of different natures. The second objective is to study the effect of curing on the compressive and the flexural strength of concretes. Samples are conserved under a real hot and dry climate which is the climate of Laghouat. We used as curing: plastic film, wet hessian and immersing in water. Through this work, we noticed that the best compressive strengths are obtained in concretes

  5. Valorisation du sable de concassage et du sable du désert dans la composition des bétons autoplaçants Valorization of the crushed sand and of the desert sand in the composition of the self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R’mili A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Les bétons autopla÷ants (BAP sont des bétons très fluides qui demandent des dosages élevés en sables et en éléments fins par rapport au béton ordinaire (BO. Le sable de concassage (SC, à granularité étalée, est un sous-produit de concassage des roches massives. Le sable du désert (SD est un sable extra-fin, caractérisé par une distribution serrée de grosseur des grains. Renfermant des teneurs importantes en fines, ces deux sables peuvent êtres des composants intéressants des BAP. Cette recherché consiste à incorporer le SC dans la composition des bétons et étudier l’effet de son remplacement progressif par le SD sur le comportement à l’état frais et durci des BAP. L’étude expérimentale montre que les paramètres d’ouvrabilité des BAP sont améliorés lorsque le SC est partiellement remplacé par le SD ( 30%, des quantités supplémentaires en eau et en superplastifiant sont nécessaires, pour répondre aux propriétés autopla÷antes. Les résistances mécaniques diminuent en ajoutant le SD au SC, mais elles atteignent des valeurs acceptables pour des dosages modérés en SD. Les performances des BAP sont nettement meilleures que celles des BO confectionnées avec les mêmes granulats. Les essais de spécification de la durabilité montrent que les coefficients d’absorption d’eau par capillarité et par immersion augmentent en ajoutant le SD au SC alors que le coefficient de perméabilité diminue. Self-compacting concretes (SCC are highly fluid concretes that require high proportions in sand and fine particles with respect to the ordinary concrete (OC. The crushed sand (CS, spread granulometry, is a by-product of crushing rock mass. The desert sand (DS is an extra fine sand, characterized by a tight distribution of grain size. Containing significant levels of fine sand, these two sands can be both interesting components of the SCC. This research is to incorporate the CS in the composition of concrete and

  6. MRI and ¹H-MRS findings of three patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome Síndrome de Sjögren-Larsson: achados à ressonância magnética e espectroscopia de prótons em três pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nakayama

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS is a rare autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder caused by deficiency of the microsomal enzyme fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase. Patients present the classical triad of congenital ichthyosis, mental retardation and spastic di- or tetraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain usually shows hypomyelination involving the periventricular white matter. Cerebral proton MR spectroscopy (¹H-MRS reveals a characteristic abnormal lipid peak. We report three cases of SLS from different families with the typical clinical triad. The MRI and ¹H-MRS findings are discussed.A síndrome de Sjögren-Larsson (SJL é distúrbio raro, autossômico recessivo, caracterizado pela tríade clássica de ictiose congênita, retardo mental e tetraplegia ou diplegia espástica. Trata-se de um erro inato do metabolismo dos lipídios, causado pela deficiência da enzima microssômica aldeído graxo desidrogenase. Os achados de imagem do encéfalo na SJL demonstram atrofia cerebral e alteração da substância branca. A espectroscopia de prótons, com poucos casos relatados, caracteriza-se pelo elevado pico de lipídios e redução de N-acetil-aspartato. Apresentamos três casos de SJL, com ênfase nos achados da ressonância magnética e da espectroscopia de prótons.

  7. Aspectos da composição química e aceitação sensorial da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar envelhecida em tonéis de diferentes madeiras Aspects of the chemical composition and sensorial acceptance of sugar cane spirit aged in casks of different types of woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho determinou aspectos da composição química e aceitação sensorial da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar envelhecida por 3 anos em tonéis de diferentes madeiras (amendoim, araruva, cabreúva, carvalho, cerejeira, grápia, ipê-roxo, jequitibá e pereira. O destilado alcoólico simples que originou a aguardente foi produzido na Destilaria Piloto da ESALQ/USP. Após envelhecimento, as aguardentes foram avaliadas quanto ao grau alcoólico, acidez volátil, furfural, aldeídos, ésteres, álcoois superiores, álcool metílico, cobre, compostos fenólicos totais, cor e aceitação sensorial. Independentemente da madeira com que o tonel foi construído, a aguardente envelhecida apresentou coloração mais escura e maior concentração de acidez volátil, de furfural, de ésteres, de álcoois superiores, de congêneres e de compostos fenólicos totais que o destilado alcoólico simples. Por outro lado, a aguardente envelhecida apresentou menor concentração de aldeídos, de metanol e de cobre que o destilado alcoólico simples. A análise estatística geral, considerando a composição físico-química global das aguardentes envelhecidas nos tonéis das diferentes madeiras indicou similaridades entre as aguardentes envelhecidas nos tonéis de amendoim, araruva e jequitibá; entre as aguardentes envelhecidas nos tonéis de cabreúva e pereira; e entre as aguardentes envelhecidas nos tonéis de carvalho, cerejeira, grápia e ipê-roxo. A aguardente envelhecida nos tonéis das diferentes madeiras manteve-se dentro de todos os padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação nacional em vigor. A aguardente envelhecida na madeira carvalho foi a que apresentou a melhor aceitação sensorial. Dentre as madeiras nacionais, ipê-roxo, amendoim, cabreúva, cerejeira e pereira foram aquelas que propiciaram as melhores qualidades sensoriais à aguardente.This study evaluated some aspects of the chemical composition and sensorial acceptance of

  8. ANALISA KEHILANGAN ENERGI PADA FIRE TUBE BOILER KAPASITAS 10 TON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditio Primayudi Aji Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penulisan ini adalah menghitung kinerja boiler dengan mengetahui kerugian energi pada saat produksi steam. Analisa teknis pada boiler sangat diperlukan, sebagai upaya peningkatan efisiensi dan mengetahui banyaknya energi yang terbuang sebagai kerugian. Faktorfaktor penyebab kehilangan panas/heat loss terbesar pada boiler antara lain : “kehilangan panas akibat gas buang kering, kandungan steam dalam gas buang, kandungan air dalam bahan bakar, kandungan air dalam suplai udara dan lain-lain”.Kehilangan panas/heat loss atau juga bisa disebut kehilangan energi merupakan salah satu faktor penting yang sangat berpengaruh dalam mengidentifikasi efisiensi pada boiler.Untuk itu dilakukan studi analisa dengan perhitungan kehilangan panas dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui besarnya penurunan performance dan penyebab dari penurunan performance. Berdasarkan data dan analisa metode direct diketahui penurunan sebesar 21% pada kondisi normal (operasi 79% dan dari hasil perhitungan kehilangan panas indirect sebesar 16.68% efisiensi boiler sebesar 83.32% maka dari itu adanya kehilangan panas, perlu adanya perbaikan dalam control pengaturan bahan bakar dan udara yang masuk secara optimum dengan cara menggunakan Oxygen Trim Control yang berfungsi untuk mengukur konsentrasi oksigen pada cerobong dan secara otomatis mengatur oksigen pada udara yang masuk burner sehingga dihasilkan pembakaran dengan efisiensi yang optimal.dan dengan menggunakan economizer pada pemanasan awal suhu air umpan dapat menaikan efisiensi boiler.

  9. 2003 Castor seminar - 120 tons of high technology for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Castor (Cask for Storage and Transport of Radioactive Material) has become a symbol of the pros and cons of nuclear power in the public debate. Actually, what is Castor, and what is the technology behind this name? Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik and the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearbehaelter mbH (GNB) invited interested parties to a presentation of the concept, technology, and manufacture on the occasion of the 2003 Castor Seminar. There was the possibility, among other events, to attend the casting process of a Castor cask at the Krefeld foundry of Siempelkamp. GNB offered a visit to its Muelheim works where the final assembly of the Castor cask could be observed. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of the 30 Ton CHA Crane Wheel Axle Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RICH, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    An existing design for eccentric bushings was utilized and updated as necessary to accommodate minor adjustment as required to correct wheel alignment on the North West Idler wheel. The design is revised to install eccentric bushings on only one end

  11. Les tons dans les dictionnaires de langues gabonaises: situation et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Elle descend d'abord vers le point le plus bas, avant de remonter vers le point le plus haut. Langues. Exemples. Traduction française. Seki dikŏn lance. Sake yă ... C'est le point situé au milieu de la courbe mélodique, c'est-à-dire entre le point le plus bas et le point le plus haut de la courbe mélodique. Langues. Exemples.

  12. Evaluation of the sampling methods applied to phycoperiphyton studies in the Ratones River estuary, Brazil Avaliação dos métodos de coleta aplicados no estudo do ficoperifíton no estuário do rio Ratones, SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Vettorato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study aimed on testing the efficiency of four sampling methods for identification and quantification applied in studies on the biodiversity and spatial-temporal distribution of the phycoperiphyton in the Ratones River estuary; METHODS: The sampling were carried out in three sampling stations along the Ratones River in March and August 2008. The methodologies used for the separation of the periphyton from the sediment were made with the use of sieves and trapping tissue. A removing method through manual agitation and "in situ" analysis was used for epiphytes. To evaluate the efficiency of the methodology for periphyton, data on phytoplankton was included for comparative reasons; RESULTS: The trapping method option was the most appropriate for removing the live specimens from the sediment, and to try to minimize the problems found with the other two methodologies tested. In the case of the epiphytic microalgae the best counting technique resulted from the "in situ" method; CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the results presented here support the difficulties faced in studying phycoperiphytic samples in estuaries, which are shallow and dynamic environments, and for that reason the communities occurring in these areas are constantly influenced by the sediment.OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho tem por objetivo testar a eficiência de quatro métodos de coleta para a identificação e quantificação empregadas no estudo sobre a biodiversidade e distribuição espaço temporal do ficoperifíton no estuário do rio Ratones; MÉTODOS: As coletas foram realizadas em três estações de amostragem ao longo do rio Ratones em março e agosto de 2008. As metodologias testadas para separação do perifíton do sedimento foram realizadas através do uso de peneiras e armadilhas de tecido. Para as epífitas, foi utilizado método de remoção através de agitação manual e análise "in situ". Para avaliar a eficiência da metodologia para perifíton, foram

  13. Procura de Sinais de Dimensões Extras Universais em Colisões Próton-Antipróton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza Santos, Angelo [Sao Paulo, IFT

    2012-01-01

    Models that predict the existence of extra spatial dimensions have been studied since the beginning of the 20th century. These models can incorporate gravity in the framework that describes the other interactions and they can present a number of interesting features such as a dark matter candidate. In this work, we explore the consequences of the Universal Extra Dimensions (UED) model by searching for the production of Kaluza-Klein particles whose decay chain leads to signature $\\mu^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm} + \\mathrm{jets} + \\met$. We employ the data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of \\unit{7.3}{\\femto\\barn}$^{-1}$, collected by the \\dzero{} detector at a $p\\bar p$ collider at a center of mass energy of \\unit{1.96}{\\tera\\electronvolt}. Since no excess was observed in the data, we were able to set a lower limit on the compactification scale of $R^{-1}>260$ GeV in the model. This is the first study to impose a direct limit on the minimal UED model.

  14. Transportation of a 451 ton generator stator and a 234 ton generator rotor from Hartsville, TN, to Los Alamos, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Rogers, J.D.; McLelland, G.R.; Pelts, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    A 1430 MVA steam turbine generator was acquired from a cancelled nuclear power plant in Tennessee to be used as the pulsed power and energy storage unit for the Confinement Physics Research Facility being built at Los Alamos, NM. The transportation from Hartsville, near Nashville, TN, to Los Alamos, NM, of the two largest single pieces of the generator, a 451 t stator and a 234 t rotor presented a special challenge. Details of the move, by barge from Hartsville to Catoosa, near Tulsa, OK, by rail from Catoosa to Lamy, near Santa Fe, NM, and by road from Lamy to Los Alamos are described. The greatest difficulty of the successful move was the crossing of the Rio Grande river on an existing reinforced concrete bridge. The two-lane wide road transporters for the stator and rotor were fitted with outriggers to provide a four-lane wide vehicle, thus spreading the load over the entire bridge width and meeting acceptable load distribution and bridge safety factors. 2 refs., 6 figs

  15. Skelleftea lennujaama puidust torn / Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Just, Alar

    2005-01-01

    16. 09 2004 avatud lennujuhtimistorn, mille kandekonstruktsioonid on puidust. Arhitekt Ingemar Sjöstrand, inseneriarvutused tegi SP Trätek. Torni puitkonstruktsioonid valmisid AB-s Martinsons. 5 värv. ill

  16. Simulação computacional de um feixe de fótons de 6 MV em diferentes meios heterogêneos utilizando o código PENELOPE Computer simulation of a 6 MV photon beam in different heterogeneous media utilizing the PENELOPE code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Salata

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Utilizar o código PENELOPE e desenvolver geometrias onde estão presentes heterogeneidades para simular o comportamento do feixe de fótons nessas condições. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram feitas simulações do comportamento da radiação ionizante para o caso homogêneo, apenas água, e para os casos heterogêneos, com diferentes materiais. Consideraram-se geometrias cúbicas para os fantomas e geometrias em forma de paralelepípedos para as heterogeneidades com a seguinte composição: tecido simulador de osso e pulmão, seguindo recomendações da International Commission on Radiological Protection, e titânio, alumínio e prata. Definiram-se, como parâmetros de entrada: a energia e o tipo de partícula da fonte, 6 MV de fótons; a distância fonte-superfície de 100 cm; e o campo de radiação de 10x 10 cm². RESULTADOS: Obtiveram-se curvas de percentual de dose em profundidade para todos os casos. Observou-se que em materiais com densidade eletrônica alta, como a prata, a dose absorvida é maior em relação à dose absorvida no fantoma homogêneo, enquanto no tecido simulador de pulmão a dose é menor. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos demonstram a importância de se considerar heterogeneidades nos algoritmos dos sistemas de planejamento usados no cálculo da distribuição de dose nos pacientes, evitando-se sub ou superdosagem dos tecidos próximos às heterogeneidades.OBJECTIVE: The PENELOPE code was utilized to simulate irradiation geometries where heterogeneities are present and to simulate a photon beam behavior under these conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the homogeneous case, the ionizing radiation behavior was simulated only with water, and different materials were introduced to simulate heterogeneous conditions. Cubic geometries were utilized for the homogeneous phantoms, and parallelepiped-shaped geometries for the heterogeneities with the following composition: bone and lung tissue simulators, as recommended

  17. Avaliação de um novo produto na desinfecção do tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann The evaluation of a new product in the desinfection of the applanation tonometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Maimone

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia de um produto usado habitualmente para limpeza de lentes de contato (CompleteÒ: poliexametileno de biguanida (TrisChemTM, tiloxapol, trometamina e EDTA em solução isotônica estéril na desinfecção do cone do tonômetro de aplanação. Métodos: O cone permaneceu imerso na solução no período médio de 28 minutos. Foi utilizado um recipiente para limpeza de lentes de contato e um suporte de isopor. Ao final de cada dia, durante 22 dias, foram realizadas culturas para fungos e bactérias, exames diretos para fungos e bacterioscopia por Gram. Foi testado "in vitro" o poder bactericida e fungicida do produto para S. aureus ATCC#25923, E. coli ATCC#25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC#27853, C. albicans ATCC# 76615, A. niger ATCC#16404. Resultados: Nas culturas, nos exames diretos para fungos e nas bacterioscopias por Gram não foram identificados microrganismos. No estudo "in vitro", foram necessárias 48 horas para eliminação completa de todas cepas estudadas. Conclusão: Não foram encontradas bactérias e fungos em todos exames realizados da solução e recipiente. No entanto, os testes "in vitro" demonstraram que o tempo de imersão do cone na solução (média de 28 minutos é insuficiente para eliminação completa dos microrganismos, o que inviabiliza o uso desse produto na desinfecção do cone plástico do tonômetro de aplanação.Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a product which is normally used for cleaning of contact lenses (CompleteÒ: polyhexamethylene biguanide (Tris ChemTM, Tyloxapol, USP, Tromethamine, USP, and Edetate disodium, USP, in sterile isotonic solution in the disinfection of the cone of the applanation tonometer. Methods: The cone remained immersed in the solution for an average period of 28 minutes. A container for cleaning the contact lenses and a polystyrene support were used. At the end of each day, for 22 days, cultures for fungi and bacteria were carried out as well as direct

  18. Meduloblastoma: correlação entre ressonância magnética convencional, difusão e espectroscopia de prótons Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vieira de Melo da Fonte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os achados de ressonância magnética convencional, difusão e espectroscopia de prótons nos meduloblastomas, e compará-los aos dados da literatura. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de exames de ressonância magnética pré-operatórios de nove pacientes na faixa pediátrica com diagnóstico histológico de meduloblastoma (oito desmoplásicos e um de células gigantes. Foram considerados dados demográficos e características do tumor como localização, característica morfológica, intensidade de sinal, realce, disseminação e achados na difusão e espectroscopia. RESULTADOS: Na maioria dos casos os tumores apresentaram epicentro no vermis cerebelar (77,8%, sendo predominantemente sólido (88,9%, com hipossinal nas seqüências ponderadas em T1 e iso/hipersinal nas seqüências ponderadas em T2 e FLAIR, realce heterogêneo (100%, sinais de disseminação/extensão tumoral (77,8% e restrição à movimentação das moléculas de água (100%. A espectroscopia de prótons pela técnica STEAM (n = 6 demonstrou redução da relação Naa/Cr (83,3% e aumento de Co/Cr (100% e mI/Cr (66,7%, e pela técnica PRESS (n = 7 evidenciou pico de lactato (57,1%. CONCLUSÃO: O conjunto dos achados macroscópicos obtidos pela ressonância magnética, somado às características bioquímicas dos meduloblastomas, têm sido úteis na tentativa de diferenciação entre os principais tumores da fossa posterior.OBJECTIVE: To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics

  19. Prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in near drowning patients: reversibility of the early metabolite abnormalities relates with a good outcome Valor prognóstico da espectroscopia de prótons em vítimas de quase-afogamento: reversibilidade das anormalidades metabólicas precoces relacionou-se com bom prognóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Vasco Aragão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In two children with near drowning hypoxic encephalopathy and normal-appearing structural MRI, acute proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS showed biochemical alterations that correctly indicated prognosis and helped to guide management decisions. Elevation of the lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks, on the early (72 hour ¹H MRS, predicts a poor prognosis. Absence of lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks on the early ¹H MRS and reversibility of early mild metabolite abnormalities on follow up examination relates with good outcome.Em duas criancas vítimas de quase-afogamento com encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica, que apresentaram ressonância magnética por imagem normal, a espectroscopia de prótons por ressonância magnética (¹H MRS na fase aguda mostrou alterações bioquímicas que corretamente indicaram o prognóstico e ajudaram a guiar o manejo terapêutico. Elevação dos picos de lipídeo-lactato e glutamina-glutamato na ¹H MRS precoce realizada com 72 horas previu um mau prognóstico. Relacionaram-se com bom prognóstico; a ausência dos picos de lipídeo-lactato e glutamina-glutamato na ¹H MRS precoce, e a reversibilidade no exame de controle (3 meses das discretas anormalidades metabólicas encontradas no primeiro exame.

  20. New molecular targets for PET and SPECT imaging in neurodegenerative diseases Novos alvos moleculares para tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET e tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT em doenças neurodegenerativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Benadiba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD has not yet been completely elucidated. However, in the past few years, there have been great knowledge advances about intra-and extracellular proteins that may display impaired function or expression in AD, PD and other ND, such as amyloid beta (Aβ, α-synuclein, tau protein and neuroinflammatory markers. Recent developments in the imaging techniques of positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT now allow the non-invasive tracking of such molecular targets of known relevance to ND in vivo. This article summarizes recent findings of PET and SPECT studies using these novel methods, and discusses their potential role in the field of drug development for ND as well as future clinical applications in regard to differential diagnosis of ND and monitoring of disease progression.A fisiopatologia das doenças neurodegenerativas (DN, tais como a doença de Alzheimer (DA e a doença de Parkinson (DP, ainda não é completamente compreendida. No entanto, nos últimos anos, houve grandes avanços em termos do conhecimento sobre proteínas intra e extracelulares, tais como beta-amiloide (Aβ, α-sinucleína, proteína tau e marcadores neuroinflamatórios, que podem ter sua função ou expressão prejudicada na DA, DP ou em outras DN. Progressos recentes nas técnicas de tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET e tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT permitem hoje em dia a identificação não invasiva de tais alvos moleculares in vivo. Este artigo resume descobertas recentes de estudos de PET e SPECT cerebral usando esses alvos moleculares inovadores e discute o papel potencial dessas técnicas no campo do desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos para as DN, bem como futuras aplicações clínicas em relação ao diagnóstico diferencial e monitoramento da progressão dessas

  1. Factors affecting Helicobacter pylori eradication using a seven-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, tinidazole and clarithromycin, in brazilian patients with peptic ulcer Fatores que afetam a erradicação do Helicobacter pylori usando um tratamento triplo de sete dias com um inibidor de bomba de prótons associado ao tinidazol e a claritromicina, em pacientes brasileiros com úlcera péptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marcuz Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple therapy is accepted as the treatment of choice for H. pylori eradication. In industrialized countries, a proton pump inhibitor plus clarithromycin and amoxicillin or nitroimidazole have shown the best results. Our aims were: 1. To study the eradication rate of the association of a proton pump inhibitor plus tinidazole and clarithromycin on H. pylori infection in our population. 2. To determine if previous treatments, gender, age, tobacco, alcohol use, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs change the response to therapy. METHODS: Two hundred patients with peptic ulcer (upper endoscopy and H. pylori infection (histology and rapid urease test - RUT were included. A proton pump inhibitor (lansoprazole 30 mg or omeprazole 20 mg, tinidazole 500 mg, and clarithromycin 250 mg were dispensed twice a day for a seven-day period. Eradication was assessed after 10 to 12 weeks of treatment through histology and RUT. RESULTS: The eradication rate of H. pylori per protocol was 65% (128/196 patients. This rate was 53% for previously treated patients, rising to 76% for not previously treated patients, with a statistical difference pO esquema tríplice tem sido demonstrado como sendo o melhor tratamento para a erradicação do Helicobacter pylori. Nos países industrializados o uso de um inibidor de bomba de prótons associado a claritromicina e a amoxicilina ou a um nitroimidazólico, tem proporcionado os melhores resultados. Objetivamos estudar na nossa população a taxa de erradicação do H. pylori para a associação de um inibidor de bomba de prótons com o tinidazol e a claritromicina e determinar se a resposta ao tratamento é influenciada pelo tratamento prévio, sexo, tabagismo, alcoolismo, idade e uso de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs. PACIENTES E PROCEDIMENTOS: Duzentos pacientes com diagnóstico endoscópico de úlcera péptica e com infecção pelo H. pylori, confirmada pelo exame histológico e pelo teste rápido da

  2. Solution Améliorée Pour La Détermination Des Contraintes d’interfaces d’une Poutre En Béton Armé Renforcée Avec Une Plaque En Composite. Improved closed-form solution to interfacial stresses in RC beams strengthened with FRP strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tounsi A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le renforcement des structures en béton armé en utilisant les matériaux composites est devenu une technique très répandue dans le domaine de la réparation et de la réhabilitation des ouvrages existants. Cependant, le décollement des plaques de renforcement par rapport à la structure renforcée empêche de profiter pleinement de cette technique. L’analyse des contraintes d’interface joue un rôle prépondérant dans la compréhension du phénomène de décollement. Dans ce travail, il est question d’étudier une poutre en flexion, simplement appuyée et renforcée par une plaque en composite en développant une nouvelle approche théorique basée sur la prise en compte de l’effet du cisaillement. En effet une distribution parabolique des contraintes de cisaillement le long des épaisseurs des adhérents est considérée. Contrairement à d’autres travaux qui reposent sur l’hypothèse d’une même courbure pour les adhérents ce travail propose une nouvelle approche considérant la moyenne des courbures au niveau de l’adhésif. Une modélisation par éléments finis est réalisée dans le but de la comparer avec le modèle analytique proposé. Les résultats de cette étude semblent concorder avec ceux de la littérature et apporte ainsi une nouvelle contribution dans le calcul des structures hybrides. The strengthening of concrete structures in situ with externally bonded fiberreinforced plastic (FRP composite sheets is increasingly being used for the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. However, debonding along the FRP-concrete interface can lead to premature failure of the structures. The interfacial stresses have played a significant role in understanding this premature debonding failure of such repaired structures. In this paper, an improved theoretical analysis of the interfacial stresses is presented for a simply supported concrete beam bonded with a FRP plate. The shear strains of the adherends have

  3. Avaliação de foco epileptogênico do lobo temporal: correlação entre SPECT ictal, ressonância magnética e ressonância magnética com espectroscopia de prótons Evaluation of epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe: correlation between ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Martins Diegues

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a existência de concordância entre os métodos radioisotópico e radiológico e, em caso positivo, avaliar a utilidade do SPECT ictal na determinação do foco epileptogênico. Foram realizados SPECT ictal, ressonância magnética (RM e ressonância magnética com espectroscopia de prótons (RME em seis pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal refratária. O SPECT ictal foi realizado após a retirada das drogas antiepilépticas durante monitoramento por vídeo-EEG, utilizando-se o 99mTc-ECD, administrado aos pacientes no início da crise. As imagens de RM foram obtidas em T1, T2 e FLAIR, com cortes de 3 e 5 mm de espessura, e a RME foi realizada com técnica PRESS, com voxel único posicionado no hipocampo, bilateralmente. A análise estatística incluiu os valores de Kappa (k, erro-padrão (ep e o nível de significância (p para a lateralização do foco. Os achados foram analisados com base na localização por EEG da descarga ictal, no tempo de duração da crise (109-280 s; média: 152 s e no tempo de administração do traçador (30-262 s; média: 96 s. Obtivemos dados correlatos em quatro pacientes (67%, com valores de k = 0,67, ep = 0,38 e p = 0,041. Concluímos que existe concordância entre SPECT ictal, RM e RME, e a utilidade do procedimento radioisotópico está relacionada aos casos em que o EEG não é diagnóstico e quando há discordância ou indefinição diagnóstica na análise comparativa entre EEG, RM e RME.The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of concordance between radiological and radioisotopic methods and, if positive, to evaluate the usefulness of ictal SPECT in the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS were performed on six patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT was performed after withdrawal of the anti-epileptogenic drugs during video

  4. Absorption de l’eau et son effet sur la durabilité des bétons de sable allégés par ajout de copeaux de bois Water absorption and its effect on the durability of sand concrete lightened by the addition of wood shavings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quéneudec M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif principal de ce travail est d’étudier l’effet de l’eau sur les bétons de sable léger à base de matériaux et de déchets locaux. Les matériaux utilisés sont un sable de dune et un sable d’oued et les déchets sont des fillers calcaires (déchets de concassage et des copeaux de bois (déchets de la menuiserie [1, 2]. En général, on a remarqué que dans le cas de copeaux de bois non traités, plus le taux de bois est élevé, plus l’absorption d’eau est importante, que ce soit par immersion ou par capillarité. En soumettant le matériau à une série de cycles “mouillage – séchage” accélérés, une légère diminution dans la résistance à la compression a été enregistrée. Par ailleurs, le traitement des copeaux de bois avant leur utilisation [3] a considérablement amélioré la résistance vis à vis de ces cycles “mouillage-séchage”. De même, l’absorption d’eau, par immersion et par capillarité, a été considérablement diminuée. Il convient de noter enfin, que ces résultats viennent confirmer la possibilité d’utilisation de ce matériau montrée par les résultats encourageants trouvés dans les travaux précédents, telles que les propriétés mécaniques et thermiques. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of water on lightweight sand concrete based on local materials and wastes The materials used are dune sand and river sand and the wastes are limestone fillers (aggregates crushing waste and wood shavings (wood work activities wastes [1, 2]. It was generally noted that in the case of untreated wood shavings, the higher the wood content, more important the water absorption, whether by immersion or by capillarity. By subjecting the material to a series of accelerated "wet – dry cycling", a slight decrease in compressive strength was recorded. Moreover, the treatment of wood shavings before their use [3] had greatly improved the resistance with respect to these

  5. A "ton of feathers": gender discrimination in academic medical careers and how to manage it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Szalacha, Laura; Barnett, Rosalind; Caswell, Cheryl; Inui, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of gender discrimination among a limited sample of women in academic medicine, specifically, the role of discrimination in hindering careers, coping mechanisms, and perceptions of what institutions and leaders of academic medicine can do to improve the professional workplace climate for women. In-depth, semistructured telephonic individual interviews of 18 women faculty who experienced or may have experienced discrimination in the course of their professional academic medical careers from 13 of the 24 institutions of the National Faculty Survey. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding. Themes expressed by multiple faculty were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Forty percent of respondents ranked gender discrimination first out of 11 possible choices for hindering their career in academic medicine. Thirty-five percent ranked gender discrimination second to either "limited time for professional work" or "lack of mentoring." Respondents rated themselves as poorly prepared to deal with gender discrimination and noted effects on professional self-confidence, self-esteem, collegiality, isolation, and career satisfaction. The hierarchical structure in academe is perceived to work against women, as there are few women at the top. Women faculty who have experienced gender discrimination perceive that little can be done to directly address this issue. Institutions need to be proactive and recurrently evaluate the gender climate, as well as provide transparent information and fair scrutiny of promotion and salary decisions. According to this subset of women who perceive that they have been discriminated against based on gender, sexual bias and discrimination are subtly pervasive and powerful. Such environments may have consequences for both women faculty and academic medicine, affecting morale and dissuading younger trainees from entering academic careers. Medical schools need to evaluate and may need to improve the environment for women in academe.

  6. One million ton of hydrogen is the key piece in the Danish renewable energy puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandal, Rune Duban; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    Designing a 100 % renewable energy system (RES) for Denmark, the availability of a sustainable biomass resource potential is found to be a limiting factor. The biomass demand derives from specific needs in the system, i.e. 1) storable fuel for energy for balancing fluctuating power production, 2...... storage, i.e. storing wind power through electrolysis and further reaction of hydrogen to hydrocarbons with carbon feedstock from biomass. This involves biomass gasification and hydrogenation of the syngas or hydrogenation of recycled CO2. The advantage of hydro storage is a superior energy efficiency......) carbon feedstock for materials and chemicals and 3) energy dense fuels for the more demanding branches of the transportation sector such as aviation, ship freight and long distance road transportation. The challenge of balancing electricity over different timeslots comprise a short term balancing...

  7. Dark Matter Results from 54-Ton-Day Exposure of PandaX-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangyi; Abdukerim, Abdusalam; Chen, Wei; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Dong, Binbin; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, Linhui; Gu, Yikun; Guo, Xuyuan; Guo, Zhifan; Han, Ke; He, Changda; Huang, Di; He, Shengming; Huang, Xingtao; Huang, Zhou; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Li, Shaoli; Li, Yao; Lin, Heng; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixiang; Ning, Jinhua; Ren, Xiangxiang; Shi, Fang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Xuming; Wu, Qinyu; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Tianqi; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jifang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng; PandaX-II Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report a new search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the combined low background data sets acquired in 2016 and 2017 from the PandaX-II experiment in China. The latest data set contains a new exposure of 77.1 live days, with the background reduced to a level of 0.8 ×10-3 evt /kg /day , improved by a factor of 2.5 in comparison to the previous run in 2016. No excess events are found above the expected background. With a total exposure of 5.4 ×104 kg day , the most stringent upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section is set for a WIMP with mass larger than 100 GeV /c2 , with the lowest 90% C.L. exclusion at 8.6 ×10-47 cm2 at 40 GeV /c2 .

  8. 90,000 Tons of Diplomacy: How the U.S. Navy Supports Naval Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    coming years from the revitalization of naval aviation to the replacement for the Ohio Class nuclear ballistic submarine (SSBN-X).133 Serious negative...www.defensenews.com/ apps /pbcs.dll/article?AID=2014301250024. 177 Ibid. 57 2. Arms Sales Critics provide powerful points in their discussions of threats...Minnick, Wendell. “Experts Wary Over News of China’s 2 nd Carrier.” Defense News. January 25, 2014. http://www.defensenews.com/ apps /pbcs.dll

  9. Commissioning and Charge Readout Calibration of a 5 Ton Dual Phase Liquid Argon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2098555

    Dual phase time projection chambers with amplification of ionization electrons provide a novel technique for measuring and analyzing rare events with excellent spatial resolution and great calorimetric properties. This thesis describes the commissioning of the WA105 3 x 1 x 1 m3 dual phase liquid argon detector, built to demonstrate the performance of this kind of detector on large scales in order to determine the viability of giant dual phase time projection chambers in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The properties of the insulation and the main tank vessel are described and analyzed, such as the pressure, temperature and argon purity requirements during operation in order to guarantee stable conditions and good event tracking. As signals are induced due to electrons from ionizing radiation, crosstalk is caused by capacitive couplings between strips of the charge readout plane and in the electronics of the data acquisition. These induced signals are studied and compared to capacitance and pu...

  10. Head injury management algorithm as described in Hippocrates' "peri ton en cephali traumaton".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Vassilios G; Machinis, Theofilos G; Fountas, Kostas N; Robinson, Joe S

    2005-12-01

    HIPPOCRATIC WORKS LEND themselves still today to the modern physician for further analysis of his approach to the diagnosis and treatment of various pathological conditions. We present an attempt to systematize his methodology regarding the management of head trauma and present it in the format of a modern-era algorithm.

  11. Centrifuge Health Monitoring of the 50gTon beam centrifuge at the University of Sheffield

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, C.M.; Black, J.A.; Hakhamanshi, M.; Baker, N.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand scientific test data it is crucial that we first understand the back-ground centrifuge operational environment and its variation with time and centrifugal acceleration. For exam-ple, changes in ambient air temperature or relative humidity in the centrifuge chamber during operation can have a significant impact on the evaporation levels of water from the surface of a clay model. It is vital to un-derstand these temporal changes in order to mitigate drying out of th...

  12. 3 tons pure electric vehicles power system design based on Cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure electric minivan is different from electric car. Combined with a given vehicle, vehicle simulation model established in Cruise software, complete simulation by setting tasks for the selected models designed drivetrain. Simulation results show that: The design of the transmission ratio can best meet the performance requirements of the matching target power analysis and simulation of electric minivan provides a new way, with practical guidance.

  13. Last ton. The Houve - 23 april 2004. An industrial epic is ending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-03-01

    Since october 1994 the closure of ''La Houve'' site is managed as an industrial project, ''the coal pact'', around objectives of planning, security, costs control and economical and environmental rehabilitation of mining sites. After a presentation of the historical aspect of ''La Houve'' site, the author presents the reconversion management and the implementing of the ''coal pact''. (A.L.B.)

  14. Development of NUPAC 140B 100 ton rail/barge cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The 140-B Cask Ancillary Equipment includes all cask-related hardware necessary for a complete transportation package and for handling of the cask at shipping and receiving facilities. The transportation package equipment includes the cask tiedown system, the railcar and the sunshield/personnel barrier. The cask handling systems include both single and dual load path cask lifting fixtures, a cask uprighting system, an intermodal transfer system, and the cask drain and fill system. This document describes the individual systems in terms of their purpose, their function, and their mechanical features. Structural analyses are provided for the cask lifting and tiedown devices. The cask ancillary equipment will also include special tools and equipment such as seal surface protection device, special torque wrenches, leak test equipment, etc., for handling the cask at a reactor site. Although final design work remains to be completed, the ancillary equipment design information presented in this document ensures that the 140-B cask transportation package will meet or exceed all structural, functional, and operational requirements, within the specified gross vehicle weight limit. 18 figs

  15. From Throw Weights to Metric Tons: The Radioactive Waste Problems of Russia's Northern Fleet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pruefer, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... In a microcosm of the shortsighted planning, reckless development and lack of ecological concern that epitomized the Soviet era, 70 decommissioned nuclear submarines are currently moored in ports...

  16. Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a detailed description of the design, analyses, and testing programs for the BR-100 cask. The BR-100 is a Type B(U) cask designed for transport by rail or barge. This report presents the preliminary analyses and tests which have been performed for the BR-100 and outlines the confirmatory analyses and tests which will be performed

  17. Manufacturing recombinant proteins in kg-ton quantities using animal cells in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Wurm, Florian M

    2011-06-01

    Mammalian cells in bioreactors as production host are the focus of this review. We wish to briefly describe today's technical status and to highlight emerging trends in the manufacture of recombinant therapeutic proteins, focusing on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. CHO cells are the manufacturing host system of choice for more than 70% of protein pharmaceuticals on the market [21]. The current global capacity to grow mammalian cells in bioreactors stands at about 0.5 million liters, whereby the largest vessels can have a working volume of about 20,000l. We are focusing in this article on the upstream part of protein manufacturing. Over the past 25 years, volumetric yields for recombinant cell lines have increased about 20-fold mainly as the result of improvements in media and bioprocess design. Future yield increases are expected to come from improved gene delivery methods, from improved, possibly genetically modified host systems, and from further improved bioprocesses in bioreactors. Other emerging trends in protein manufacturing that are discussed include the use of disposal bioreactors and transient gene expression. We specifically highlight here current research in our own laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Circulation induced by diffused aeration in a shallow lake | Toné ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field surveys were carried out to investigate the surface jet flows and the resulting circulation patterns generated by diffused aeration in a shallow lake. In conrast to previous studies, the experimental conditions included point-source bubble plumes with very high air flow rates (100–400 L/min) relative to the shallow water ...

  19. La base sous-marine de Bordeaux, sous le béton la culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Marsan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Active à peine plus d’un an pendant l’Occupation, la base sous-marine de Bordeaux cristallise encore les souvenirs douloureux des heures sombres du Port de la Lune. Le bunker attire pourtant depuis les années 1960 des artistes, cinéastes, plasticiens et musiciens fascinés par l’esprit du lieu. Institutionnalisée au début des années 1990, la base sous-marine devient un espace dédié au nautisme avant d’être consacrée à l’art contemporain au début du XXIe siècle. Aujourd’hui au cœur du projet d’aménagement des bassins à flot du quartier de Bacalan, la base sous-marine questionne et intrigue ses visiteurs sur son passé, mais aussi – et surtout – sur son avenir.Build during the German occupation, the submarine base of Bordeaux active during hardly more than a year still crystallizes the painful memories of the dark hours of the « Port de la Lune ». Nevertheless, the bunker attracts artists, film-makers, visual artists and musicians fascinated by the spirit of the place since the 1960’s. Institutionalized at the beginning of 1990’s, the submarine base became a space dedicated to the yachting before contemporary art at the beginning of the XXIth century. Nowadays at the heart of the project of redevelopment of the wet docks in the urban area of Bacalan, the submarine base questions and intrigues its visitors on its past, but also – and especially – on its future.

  20. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years....

  1. Materials in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2012 (in tons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years....

  2. Research on Swivel Construction Technology of 22,400 Tons in Zoucheng Thirty Meter Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Benlin, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of highways and railways in our country, there have been many new bridges that need to cross the existing routes. If the conventional construction methods are used, the existing traffic will be affected and the traffic will be built above the busy traffic lines, so there is a big security risk, the construction methods must be improved and innovated. In this paper, it intends to research and develop some key technologies of swivel construction. According to the construction features to use finite element method of swivel cable-stayed bridge to analyse the cable-stayed bridge . The swivel construction process is carried out to solve the technical problems and difficulties in the construction.

  3. Safety analysis report on the ''Paducah Tiger'' overpack for 10-ton cylinder of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stitt, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of analysis performed to assess the puncture resistance of the Paducah Tiger under a particularly severe (worst case) orientation of the external puncture pin is presented. The six-inch diameter cylindrical puncture pin has been oriented to place its impact location immediately opposite the valve body mounted to the dished head of the uranium hexafluoride cylinder. The valve body is assumed to have a one-inch clearance relative to the inner wall of the overpack. Analysis indicates that significant residual kinetic energy remains in the system at the instant of overpack inner wall contact with the valve body. Thus, there is strong evidence suggesting that the valve body can be damaged, or sheared from the dished head of the UF 6 , under the assumed worst case impact orientation

  4. From clay bricks to deep underground storage; vom lehmziegel bis zum tiefenlager -- anwendung von ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at the use of clay strata for the storage of radioactive wastes in deep-lying repositories. First of all, a geological foray is made concerning the history of the use of clay and its multifarious uses. The characteristics of clay and its composition are examined and its formation in the geological past is explained. In particular Opalinus clay is looked at and the structures to be found are discussed. The clay's various properties and industrial uses are examined and its sealing properties are examined. Also, Bentonite clay is mentioned and work done by Nagra and co-researchers is noted.

  5. High-energy cosmic rays: Puzzles, models, and giga-ton neutrino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    magnetic field, it is believed that cosmic rays of energy <1019 eV are of galactic ... high energy near the central source is impossible due to the high density of pho- .... 1020 eV, the Fly's Eye, HiRes and Yakutsk experiments are in agreement .... detection rate of ~20 neutrino-induced muon events per year (over 4π sr) in a.

  6. Tecnologías Educativas. Una Letanía Sin Ton Ni Son

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Piscitelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The author pleads for a meditation on co-determination and co-evolution of technology/education free from maniqueisms. He states that the heart of the discussion is the acceptance of the fact that technologies' effects and global relations cannot be understood in terms of interests of media and aims. He also criticizes the studies where technology is separated from culture.

  7. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means of steering so as not to impair the reliability and availability of the control required by paragraph (b)(7) of this section. (15) Manual capability to center and steady the rudder if the vessel loses...

  8. Plus 10 million tons plan. Feasible increased Danish production of sustainable biomass for bio-refineries; + 10 mio. tons planen - muligheder for en oeget dansk produktion af baeredygtig biomasse til bioraffinaderier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, M.; Scott Bentsen, N.; Felby, C.; Kvist Johannsen, V. (Koebenhavns Univ., Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Joergensen, Uffe; Kristensen, Inge T.; Dalgaard, T. (Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The desire to create sustainable solutions in the energy sector has led researchers at the University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University and research and development staff from DONG Energy to enter into a cooperation agreement that will start concrete initiatives in research and education in green energy. An important part of the collaboration is a study of how we can produce more biomass compared to today without compromising food production, feed production or the environment. The present study shows that it can be done through a total commitment to sustainable technology and biology. The report also describes the effects of the establishment of a Danish supplied bio-refinery sector. In order to achieve this required additional research and development is required, particularly in agriculture and forestry but also in biological and chemical conversion of biomass. The initiative supports the BioRefining Alliance, which brings together Danish companies, public partners and organizations with world-class knowledge and technologies for bio-refinery. (LN)

  9. Metropolisation and the Evoluti\ton of Systems of Cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland Since 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zdanowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of systems of cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland since 1950, and especially since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 when Central and Eastern European cities started to experience the process of metropolisation. This period corresponds to an intense globalisation of the economy which has been characterised by some researchers as an emergence of a world urban system. While the metropolises of formerly industrialised countries had already been strongly interconnected on a macro-regional level, Central and Eastern European countries took on the unique approach of prioritising relations directly at an international level. In addition to its highly exacerbated characteristics, the metropolisation in Central and Eastern Europe has been taking place within a substantially shorter time period in relation to other countries. This article investigates how these phenomena might have influenced the configuration of today’s urban systems. After presenting the methodology used to reconstruct urban agglomerations since 1950 until now, we examine the evolution of the Czech, Hungarian and Polish systems of cities by using several national databases. By analysing the changes in urban hierarchy and new urban patterns, we can stress that after 1989 the metropolisation has rather contributed to raise the predominance of the capital city in the urban systems than to diminish inequalities between the cities.

  10. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  11. Influence of the irradiated diet on the longevity and reproduction of Cyric cephalonic a (Stain ton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: parlayed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Graziela dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims to irradiate diets with multiple doses, as recommended by the Decree DINAL n.o 09 of 08/03/1985 to disinfestation of insects, which means, the dose of 1,0 kGy and observes the longevity and reproduction of C. cephalonica (Staint., 1865) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

  12. Safety analysis report on the ''Paducah Tiger'' protective overpack for 10-ton cylinders of uranium hexafluoride. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stitt, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    This supplement details design changes made to the ''Paducah Tiger'' since the issue date of the SAR, June 16, 1976. A 3 / 8 -inch thick, 304L stainless steel plate has been added on the valve end of existing and future overpacks to provide increased puncture resistance and the overpack cavity has been modified to preclude incorrect loading of the type 48X cylinder. Temperature profiles of the ''Paducah Tiger'' during the 30-minute fire test are included

  13. Numerical simulation of a 374 tons/h water-tube steam boiler following a feedwater line break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deghal Cheridi, Amina Lyria; Chaker, Abla; Loubar, Ahcène

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate the behavior of a steam boiler during feed-water line break accident. • To perform accident analysis of the steam boiler, Relap5/Mod3.2 system code is used. • A Relap5 model of the boiler is developed and qualified at the steady state level. • A good agreement between Relap5 results and available experimental data. • The Relap5 model predicts well the main transient features of the boiler. - Abstract: To ensure the operational safety of an industrial water-tube steam boiler it is very important to assess various accident scenarios in real plant working conditions. One of the most challenging scenarios is the loss of feedwater to the steam boiler. In this paper, a simulation of the behavior of an industrial water-tube radiant steam boiler during feedwater line break accident is discussed. The simulation is carried out using the RELAP5 system code. The steam boiler is installed in an Algerian natural gas liquefaction complex. The simulation shows the capabilities of RELAP5 system code in predicting the behavior of the steam boiler at both steady state and transient working conditions. From another side, the behavior of the steam boiler following the accident shows how the control system can successfully mitigate the effects and consequences of such accident and how the evaporator tubes can undergo a severe damage due to an uncontrolled increase of the wall temperature in case of failure of this system.

  14. Caractérisation d'un béton autoplaçant avec addition de laitier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of a self-compacting concrete with addition of crystallized slag and reinforced with polypropylene and diss fibers. Concrete reinforcement by steel fibers, a synthetic or hybrid fiber is usual. However, for self compacting concrete (SSC) the fiber-reinforcement can decrease the workability. This is particularly ...

  15. Étude thermodynamique du corium en cuve - Application à l'interaction corium/béton

    OpenAIRE

    Quaini , Andrea

    2015-01-01

    During a severe accident in a pressurised water reactor, the nuclear fuel can interact with the Zircaloy cladding, the neutronic absorber and the surrounding metallic structure forming a partially or completely molten mixture. The molten core can then interact with the reactor steel vessel forming a mixture called in-vessel corium. In the worst case, this mixture can pierce the vessel and pour onto the concrete underneath the reactor, leading the formation of the ex-vessel corium. Furthermore...

  16. Les bétons autoplaçants renforcés par un fibrage mixte et multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of two or more types of fibers in a suitable combination may potentially not only improve the overall properties of self-compacting concrete, but may also result in performance synergy. The combining of fibers, often called hybridization, is investigated in this paper for a cimentous matrix. Control, single, two fibers ...

  17. Preliminary design report: Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information on burnup credit as applied to the preliminary design of the BR-100 shipping cask. There is a brief description of the preliminary basket design and the features used to maintain a critically safe system. Following the basket description is a discussion of various criticality analyses used to evaluate burnup credit. The results from these analyses are then reviewed in the perspective of fuel burnups expected to be shipped to either the final repository or a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The hurdles to employing burnup credit in the certification of any cask are then outlines and reviewed. the last section gives conclusions reached as to burnup credit for the BR-100 cask, based on our analyses and experience. All information in this study refers to the cask configured to transport PWR fuel. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel satisfies the criticality requirements so that burnup credit is not needed. All calculations generated in the preparation of this report were based upon the preliminary design which will be optimized during the final design. 8 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Lynn L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, Bryce J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Erbach, Donald C. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country's present petroleum consumption.

  19. Caractérisation d'un béton autoplaçant avec addition de laitier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DK

    comportement à l'état frais (étalement, taux de remplissage et stabilité au tamis) et le comportement à l'état durci. (essai de .... Compositions chimiques et caractéristiques physiques des additions. Oxydes. (%) ...... nulé et de la poudre de verre.

  20. Diversity of leaf litter ant communities in Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary and nearby rubber plantations, Songkhla, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias O. Bickel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of Southern Thailand's former natural rainforest have been replaced by rubber plantations. Despite the fact that rubber plantations dominate the landscape, little is known about its capacity to sustain forest dwelling species. We used leaf litter ants as a bioindicator from two natural forests, a rubber plantation forest and a completely cleared ruderal area in Southern Thailand, Songkla Province. There was a substantial decline in ant diversity from the undisturbed forest towards the ruderal area along a gradient of environmental disturbance. Additionally, there was a turnover in species composition between the different habitats and an increase in arboreal species "enhancing" the sparse ground foraging ant community in the plantation habitat. Also, alien tramp species replaced native species in the plantation and ruderal habitats. This study shows that despite their forest like appearance rubber plantations are a poor habitat for native leaf litter-inhabiting ants and unsuitable to sustain biodiversity in general. The changes in community structure in the secondary forest showed the importance of primary forest habitat to maintain regional biodiversity.

  1. ANTIOXIDANT AN O ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TANNINS OF OENOTHERA ROSEA L 'HÉR. EX A/TON

    OpenAIRE

    Kasay, M. I.; Huamán, J.; Woolcott, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the antioxidant activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the Oenothera rosea L "Hér. Ex Aiton by using the DPPH method getting as an inhibitory concentration far leaves in ethanol extrae!(IC50) 34,99 µg/ml. We also performed the antimicrobial activity assay which yielded an antibacterial response against Escherichia co/ i, but not against Sa/monel/a gal/inarun, far all concentrations of the aqueous and ethanol extracts. El objetivo ...

  2. The Foulness multi-ton air blast simulator. Part 2. Recent developments - the linear charge driven facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare, P.M.

    1978-02-01

    The gun-driven facility for simulating nuclear air blast has been described in Part 1 (AWRE Report 031/74). It was, however, subject to certain limitations in providing the requisite blast parameters for nuclear hardening. The efficiency of the simulator has been improved beyond that of the gun-driven facility to produce blast waves of higher peak overpressure, longer positive duration and greater equivalent yield. This has been done by firing in the 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter section of the tunnel instead of in the guns. Various line charge arrangements were investigated and the pressures and strains developed in the 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter section were measured. The shock loading on the tube walls was less than that produced by firing in the guns and consisted of a short duration shock decaying to a lower amplitude pressure pulse of longer duration (1 ms), followed by a few reflected shocks which the tube walls were well able to withstand. The equipment is described and results discussed. (author)

  3. Turning Maneuver Limitations Imposed by Sudden Strut Side Ventilation on a 200-Ton 80-Knot Hydrofoil Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    ventilated, but never supercavitating , for speeds up to 80 knots. In particular, choking of the air flow to the foil vent was not con- sidered. If this...4Conolly, A.C., "Experimental Investigations of Supercavitating Hydrofoils with Flaps," General Dynamics/Convair Report GD/C-63-210 (Dec 1963). 10 THE SIX...Dec 1966). 4. Conolly, A.C., "Experimenta, Investigations of Supercavitating Hydro- foils with Flaps," General Dynamics/Convair Report GD/C-63-210 (Dec

  4. The IRIS Incinerator at Cea-Valduc assessment after more than one ton and a half of active waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauvieux, H.; Guiberteau, P.; Longuet, T.; Lemort, F.; Lannaud, J.; Lorich, M.; Medzadourian, M.

    2000-01-01

    During the operation of its facilities, the Valduc Research Center produces alpha-contaminated solid waste. An incineration facility has been built to treat the most contaminated combustible waste. The process selected for waste incineration is the IRIS process, which was developed by the CEA at the Marcoule Nuclear Research Center. The Valduc Center asked SGN to build the incineration facility. The facility was commissioned in late 1996, and inactive waste incineration campaigns were run during more than 2,500 hours in 1997-1998. Active commissioning of the facility was performed in March 1999. Since then five campaigns with active waste and a complete plutonium cleaning session have been carried out, the results of which are given in the paper. The Valduc incinerator is the first industrial active application of the IRIS process. (authors)

  5. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  6. 78 FR 3883 - The Bon-Ton Stores, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...) 504-7602. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The text of the Agreement and Order appears below. Dated... strangling or entangling on neck and waist drawstrings. The Guidelines state that drawstrings can cause, and... cribs. In the Guidelines, staff recommends that there be no hood and neck drawstrings in children's...

  7. Philologikes Paratereseis gia ten proime proslepse ton ergon tu Ch. K. Antersen sten Hellada: He periptose tes ”Historias mias meteras”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Sproglig litterær analyse af tre græske oversættelser af H.C. Andersens ”Historien om en Moder”. Bidrag til mindekonference for Sophia Scopetea, afholdt 2009 af det Filosofiske Fakultet, Universitetet i Thessaloniki....

  8. C'est le Ton Qui Fait la Critique—for the powerful: the effects of feedback framing and power on affective reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, Jana; Wisse, Barbara; Rus, Diana; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Sassenberg, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Although negative feedback is usually provided with the best of intentions, it often causes unfavorable affective reactions in the receiver such as anger and shame. The purpose of the present research is to identify factors that may attenuate or intensify these reactions to negative feedback. We

  9. Comportement des poteaux mixtes acier-béton soumis aux sollicitations de type monotone. Étude expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Câmpian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than one hundred years the construction system based on steel or composite steel -- concrete frames became one of the more utilized types of building in civil engineering domain. For an optimal dimensioning of the structure, the engineers had to found a compromise between the structural exigency for the resistance, stiffness and ductility, on one side, and architectural exigency on the other side. Three monotonic tests and nine cyclic tests according to ECCS loading procedure were carried out in Cluj Laboratory of Concrete. The tested composite columns of fully encased type were subject to a variable transverse load at one end while keeping a constant value of the axial compression force into them. An analytical interpretation is given for the calculus of column stiffness for the monotonic tests, making a comparation with the latest versions of the Eurocode 4 stiffness formula.

  10. Structural studies of potential new-generation antibiotic targets and the use of one of them, TonB as a model protein in protein engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ciragan, Annika

    2017-01-01

    At the present time resistance to every main class of antibiotic has been observed. Therefore, the continuous development of new-generation antibiotics is crucial to combat the rise of antibiotic resistant strains. Identification of potential antibiotic targets and investigation of their structure and function represent a rational approach to developing a better understanding of the essential processes in which they are involved, and may lead to finding a mechanism to inhibit these processes....

  11. Request for Confirmation of the Definition of a 100-Ton Source as Applied to Controls in the Gasoline Storage and Marketing Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 660... - 2009, Harvest Guidelines for Minor Rockfish by Depth Sub-groups (weights in metric tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... population in the California Current ecosystem, a non-quantitative assessment was conducted in 2007. The... 50 percent of the 2008 ABC and OY values. The stock is expected to remain at its current equilibrium... catcher/processors, 60.0 mt for motherships, and 105.0 mt for shore-based. r Canary rockfish—A canary...

  13. 50 CFR Table 1c to Part 660... - 2009, Open Access and Limited Entry Allocations by Species or Species Group (weights in metric tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... population in the California Current ecosystem, a non-quantitative assessment was conducted in 2007. The... 50 percent of the 2008 ABC and OY values. The stock is expected to remain at its current equilibrium... fishery: 85.0 mt for catcher/processors, 60.0 mt for motherships, and 105.0 mt for shore-based. r/ Canary...

  14. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 660... - 2010, and Beyond, Harvest Guidelines for Minor Rockfish by Depth Sub-groups (weights in metric tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unexploited rockfish population in the California Current ecosystem, a non-quantitative assessment was... current equilibrium with these harvest specifications. q Widow rockfish was assessed in 2005, and an... Canary rockfish—A canary rockfish stock assessment was completed in 2007 and the stock was estimated to...

  15. Nom de Nom, descends de ton trône ! L’onomastique au service de la caricature dans Parodia de tronos de José Fonollosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fournet-Pérot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El éxito internacional de la serie Juego de Tronos —adaptación televisiva de las novelas de George R. R. Martin— inspiró en 2015 a José Fonollosa la elaboración de un cómic paródico titulado Parodia de Tronos. El autor va caricaturizando a los personajes con fines sobre todo humorísticos pero también, a veces, críticos sintetizándolos mediante un par de palabras relevantes. La originalidad de nuestro análisis es realzar que, aunque en el universo del cómic la parodia se manifieste por las imágenes, el texto en sí es capaz de traducir la voluntad paródica, en particular a través de la onomástica, juiciosamente maltratada por Fonollosa.

  16. "A Ton of Faith in Science!" Nature and Role of Assumptions in, and Ideas about, Science and Epistemology Generated upon Watching a Sci-Fi Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Y.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    This study (i) explicates the sorts of ideas about science and the nature of knowing that were generated among participant graduate students who viewed the sci-fi film, "Contact," and (ii) examines the interactions between these ideas and ontic stances with which participants approached viewing the film. Eleven doctoral students of…

  17. Cálculos teóricos de afinidades por próton de n-alquilaminas usando o método ONIOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Ataualpa A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ONIOM method was used to calculate the proton affinities (PA of n-alkylamines (CnH2n+1NH2, n = 3 to 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18. The calculations were carried out at several levels (HF, MP2, B3LYP, QCISD(T, ... using Pople basis sets and at the QCISD(T level using basis sets developed by the generator coordinate method (GCM and adapted to effective core potentials. PAs were also obtained through the GCM and high level methods, like ONIOM[QCISD(T/6-31+G(2df,p:MP2/6-31G+G(d,p//ONIOM[MP2/6-31+G(d,p:HF/6-31G]. The average error using the GCM, with respect to experimental data, was 3.4 kJ mol-1.

  18. Last ton. The Houve - 23 april 2004. An industrial epic is ending; Derniere tonne. La Houve - 23 avril 2004. Une epopee industrielle s'acheve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladoucette, Ph de

    2004-03-01

    Since october 1994 the closure of ''La Houve'' site is managed as an industrial project, ''the coal pact'', around objectives of planning, security, costs control and economical and environmental rehabilitation of mining sites. After a presentation of the historical aspect of ''La Houve'' site, the author presents the reconversion management and the implementing of the ''coal pact''. (A.L.B.)

  19. L’accueil du piéton dans les espaces publics du centre‐ville de Marseille : discours, pratiques, actions

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoncello , Brigitte; HERNANDEZ , Frédérique; Bertoni , Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; For over ten years Marseille has been a city under construction. Rehabilitation works have being carried out on the city centre, including building intervention and improved mobility with a focus on traffic regulation. The challenges of this urban regeneration is to attract a new population of future residents and future visitors. The city seeks to improve the quality and comfort of the city centre: the inclusion of the pedestrian dimension becomes an essential element...

  20. Last ton. The Houve - 23 april 2004. An industrial epic is ending; Derniere tonne. La Houve - 23 avril 2004. Une epopee industrielle s'acheve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-03-01

    Since october 1994 the closure of ''La Houve'' site is managed as an industrial project, ''the coal pact'', around objectives of planning, security, costs control and economical and environmental rehabilitation of mining sites. After a presentation of the historical aspect of ''La Houve'' site, the author presents the reconversion management and the implementing of the ''coal pact''. (A.L.B.)

  1. Rôles de la température et de la composition sur le couplage thermo-hydro-mécanique des bétons

    OpenAIRE

    Brue , Flore

    2009-01-01

    The French project of the storage of nuclear wastes, which is managed by the Andra, needs some experimental data on the durability of the concrete. Loadings which are taken into account are the desaturation/resaturation processes, the heat load and the mechanical evolution. Hence this study focuses on the coupling thermo-hydro-mechanical on concretes of the research program of Andra, made with CEM I and CEM V/A cement type. The water saturation degree and shrinkages of materials, which are su...

  2. Sistema computacional para dosimetria de nêutrons e fótons baseado em métodos estocásticos aplicado a radioterapia e radiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Machado Trindade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo mostra um procedimento de conversão de imagens de tomografia computadorizada ou de ressonância magnética em modelo de voxels tridimensional para fim de dosimetria. Este modelo é uma representação personalizada do paciente que pode ser usado na simulação, via código MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle, de transporte de partículas nucleares, reproduzindo o processo estocástico de interação de partículas nucleares com os tecidos humanos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O sistema computacional desenvolvido, denominado SISCODES, é uma ferramenta para planejamento computacional tridimensional de tratamentos radioterápicos ou procedimentos radiológicos. Partindo de imagens tomográficas do paciente, o plano de tratamento é modelado e simulado. São então mostradas as doses absorvidas, por meio de curvas de isodoses superpostas ao modelo. O SISCODES acopla o modelo tridimensional ao código MCNP5, que simula o protocolo de exposição à radiação ionizante. RESULTADOS: O SISCODES vem sendo utilizado no grupo de pesquisa NRI/CNPq na criação de modelos de voxels antropomórficos e antropométricos que são acoplados ao código MCNP para modelar braquiterapias e teleterapias aplicadas a tumores em pulmões, pelve, coluna, cabeça, pescoço, e outros. Os módulos atualmente desenvolvidos no SISCODES são apresentados junto com casos exemplos de planejamento radioterápico. CONCLUSÃO: O SISCODES provê de maneira rápida a criação de modelos de voxels personalizados de qualquer paciente que podem ser usados em simulações por códigos estocásticos tipo MCNP. A combinação da simulação via MCNP com um modelo personalizado do paciente traz grandes melhorias na dosimetria de tratamentos radioterápicos.

  3. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  4. Comportement des poteaux composites en profils creux en acier remplis de béton Behavior of composite columns in hollow steel section filled with concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othmani N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article, est la determination des rigidites flexionnelles EIx et EIy d’fune section mixte acier beton et plus precisement d’fun poteau en tube d’facier de section rectangulaire, remplie de beton, sollicitee a la flexion bi-axiale (N, Mx et My. L’festimation des rigidites sera faite a partir d’fune approche theorique par une analyse du poteau en elements finis (element barre a 4 degres de liberte, basee sur les conditions d’fequilibres a mi-portee en utilisant la relation moment-courbure (M–Φ de l’felement deforme par application de l’fequation suivante: EI=M/Φ. Le comportement des materiaux est celui comme adopte par les reglements Eurocode 2 et 3, respectivement pour le beton et l’facier. Afin de valider l’fapproche theorique utilisee dans cette etude, deux comparaisons ont ete faites : une premiere permettant de comparer les resultats des rigidites determinees par les relations moments courbures et celles calculees par l’fEurocode 4 et une deuxieme comparaison entre les charges de ruines de deux poteaux de grandeurs natures avec ceux testes au laboratoire [2]. Au vu des resultats obtenus, nous pouvons conclure que l’approche théorique utilisée dans cette étude ainsi que les modèles de comportement des matériaux sont adéquats pour ce genre de problèmes. The purpose of this paper is the determination of flexural stiffness EIx and EIy of a concrete filled rectangular cross section of a composite steel column, under biaxial bending (N, Mx and My. The rigidities will be estimated from a theoretical approach using a finite element analysis (element bar with 4 degrees of freedom, based on the equilibrium conditions at mid-span using the moment-curvature relationships (M–Φ of the deformed element by applying the following equation: EI=M/Φ. The material behavior is the one adopted by Eurocode 2 and 3, respectively, for concrete and steel. To validate the theoretical approach used, two comparisons were made: one comparing the rigidities given by the moment-curvature relations versus those calculated by the Eurocode 4, and a second comparison between failure loads of two columns scale one with those tested in the laboratory [2]. Based on the results obtained, we may conclude that the theoretical approach used in this study and the models of behavior of materials are suitable for such problems.

  5. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UMA ESCALA EM SILICONA PARA TONS DE PELE HUMANA DEVELOPMENT OF A SILICONE SCALE FOR SHADES OF HUMAN SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Claro NEVES

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor desenvolveu em silicona uma escala de tonalidades de pele humana. Foram confeccionados vinte e sete corpos-de-prova em silicona acética (Silastic 732 RTV, pigmentados com óxidos de ferro e dióxido de titânio. A quantidade de silicona acética manteve-se constante (dois gramas em todos os corpos-de-prova, e os pigmentos foram misturados a ela em várias proporções até a obtenção de vinte e sete diferentes tonalidades. Através da comparação da cor dos corpos-de-prova com a cor da pele de quarenta e um indivíduos, foram selecionados os cinco corpos-de-prova com as tonalidades que mais se igualavam à cor da pele dos pacientes, compondo, assim, um guia de tonalidades. Com a metodologia empregada, foi possível desenvolver uma escala de tonalidades de pele que poderá facilitar a definição do tom da pele do paciente quando da confecção de próteses faciais em silicona, permitindo economia de tempo e de material no momento da seleção da cor.The author developed a scale in silicone of shades of human skin. Twenty-seven samples were produced in acetic silicone (Silastic 732 RTV, pigmented with iron oxides and titanium dioxide. The amount of acetic silicone was kept constant (two grams in all of the samples, and the pigments were mixed to it in varying proportions, until twenty-seven different shades were obtained. By comparing the color of the samples with the skin color of forty-one individuals, five samples were selected of the shades that best matched a patient's color of skin to form a shade guide. With the methodology employed, it was possible to develop a shade guide that will facilitate a definition of a patient's skin color in producing facial prostheses in silicone, to afford economy in time and in material at time for selecting the color.

  6. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  7. Investigation of the performances of an ECR charge breeder at ISOLDE: a study of the 1$^{+}\\to$n$^{+}$ scenario for the next generation ISOL facilities.

    CERN Document Server

    MARIE-JEANNE, M; Delahaye, P

    2009-01-01

    The work described here was performed at ISOLDE, CERN. It aimed at giving an objective report of the current performances of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources used as charge breeders, with both stable and radioactive ion beams. As a prerequisite, some technical developments were undertaken during the PhD thesis to improve the setup and to lead the tests with optimal conditions. A major part of these developments concerns beam purity, and is detailed in this thesis. Then, measurements of the charge breeding efficiencies of various isotopes were completed with different charge breeding modes. Results of these experiments are analyzed and compared to the current performances of other types of charge breeding methods. At the end, some conclusions are drawn from this investigation in perspective of the choices to make for future ISOL postaccelerators. The discussion is extended to the immediate application of ECR charge bred radioactive ion beams to physics experiments.

  8. 30 CFR 772.12 - Permit requirements for exploration that will remove more than 250 tons of coal or that will...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... listed on the National Register of Historic Places; (ii) Cultural or historical resources known to be... applicant claims the right to enter that land for the purpose of conducting exploration and reclamation. (14) For any lands listed in § 761.11 of this chapter, a demonstration that, to the extent technologically...

  9. The Scandinavian Value Nihilists. The Crisis of Democracy in the 1930s and 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1930s and 40s many theories were raised about some kind of connection between relativistic or nihilistic moral theories and the rise of totalitarianism in Europe. In Scandinavia these allegations were directed at the adherents of the value nihilistic theory of Axel Hägerström.This article explores the ways in which three democratically-minded followers of Hägerström (Ingemar Hedenius, Herbert Tingsten and Alf Ross struggled to overcome these charges and to reconcile their democratic convictions with Hägerström’s value nihilistic theory.

  10. Non-steady state modelling of wheel-rail contact problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiral, A.; Alonso, A.; Baeza, L.; Giménez, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Among all the algorithms to solve the wheel-rail contact problem, Kalker's FastSim has become the most useful computation tool since it combines a low computational cost and enough precision for most of the typical railway dynamics problems. However, some types of dynamic problems require the use of a non-steady state analysis. Alonso and Giménez developed a non-stationary method based on FastSim, which provides both, sufficiently accurate results and a low computational cost. However, it presents some limitations; the method is developed for one time-dependent creepage and its accuracy for varying normal forces has not been checked. This article presents the required changes in order to deal with both problems and compares its results with those given by Kalker's Variational Method for rolling contact.

  11. Shaft sealing concepts for high-level radioactive waste repositories based on the host-rock options rock salt and clay stone; Schachtverschlusskonzepte fuer zukuenftige Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle fuer die Wirtsgesteinsoptionen Steinsalz und Ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram; Gruner, Matthias [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdbau und Spezialtiefbau; Herold, Philipp; Jobmann, Michael [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Unlike the shaft barriers used for the dry preservation of former mine workings and underground storage sites, shaft seals designed for radioactive-waste repositories must also fulfil additional requirements associated with the design diversity of the sealing system. This diversity makes use of the simple redundancy principle in order to prevent the proliferation of defects. In practice this means combining several sealing elements made from different materials or from materials with different properties. The R and D project, Shaft sealing systems for final repositories for high-level radioactive waste (ELSA) - phase 2: concept design for shaft seals and testing of the functional elements of shaft seals', which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), set out to investigate potential sealing elements for the two host-rock options rock salt and mudstone. This paper combines the text that the authors presented at the First International Freiberg Shaft Colloquium held at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology on 01.10.2014 with a presentation on the sealing elements that were investigated as part of the R and D project.

  12. Från tonåring till toppbloggare : En kvalitativ fallstudie om självpresentation och det personliga varumärket kommunicerat genom en blogg

    OpenAIRE

    Laricchia, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Sammanfattning Detta är en fallstudie över en Sveriges mest välkända och framgångsrika bloggar – www.kenzas.se, driven av Kenza Zouiten. Syftet med studien var att ta reda på hur man via självpresentation genom en blogg kan bygga upp och skapa sig ett starkt personligt varumärke. De frågeställningar studien utgick ifrån var hur Kenza Zouiten väljer att framställa sig själv som person i skriven text och i bilder, samt huruvida det finns några skillnader i hur hon väljer att framställa sig själ...

  13. Modélisation du comportement thermo-hydro-chemo-mécanique des enceintes de confinement nucléaire en béton armé-précontraint

    OpenAIRE

    CHHUN , PONLEU

    2017-01-01

    In the context of life extension and safety demonstration of nuclear reactor buildings following the severe accidents of Chernobyl (in Ukraine, 1986) and Fukushima (in Japan, 2011), the “Confinement Assessment of a vessel during an Accident” (MACENA) project supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR) has been initiated since 2013. The experimental campaigns and modelling works of this project are based on an experimental containment vessel mock-up at scale 1/3 named VeRCoRs which ...

  14. Parâmetros bióticos e abióticos em tanques de piscicultura tratados com macrófita aquática e perifíton

    OpenAIRE

    Penariol, Iara Carolina [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture has become an important and lucrative agricultural activity, with great commercial and social interest, however can be highly impacting to the environment if not managed properly. Proper management of fish farming in pond systems and nurseries is to maintain water quality, since the production of aquatic organisms is dependent on external subsidies as the supply of nutrients, generating waste, whose accumulation in the system, can be harmful the fish, the aquatic microbiota and th...

  15. Safety Assessment of Wearing the AN/PVS-14 Monocular Night Vision Device (MNVD) and AN/AVS-6 Aviators' Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS) During 5-Ton and HMMWV Night Driving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redden, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    .... The Communications-Electronics Command Directorate for Safety Risk Management, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, will use the results of the assessment to determine the suitability of both devices for driving...

  16. Incorporation des sables concassés à différents taux de fillers dans la composition des bétons à très hautes performances : Comportement mécanique et Durabilité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chiheb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chiheb, D., Belaoura, M., Oudjit, M.N. and Bali, A. 2016. Incorporation of crushed sand at different rates of fillers in the composition of concretes with very high performances: mechanical behavior and durability. Lebanese Science Journal, 17 (2: 146-165. This study focuses on the characterization of concretes Very High Performance comparing crushed sand to high levels of fine limestone available in large quantities in Algeria as an alternative resource to rolled sand. The parameters studied were the sand substitution rate to roll crushed sands, and the dosage of silica fume, cement and superplasticizer. Several tests were performed such as mechanical strength, shrinkage and a sustainability study to identify the mechanisms that govern the behavior of these new concretes. The results showed that the crushed sand is a very promising material; it opens up great horizons to optimize VHPC in Algeria, since it provides good compactness, better mechanical performance, very good different behavior and excellent sustainability indicators when combined with rolled sand.

  17. Fosforitos do Grupo Bambuí na região de Campos Belos (GO)/ Arraias (TO), na borda oeste do Cráton São Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Cimara Francisca

    2009-01-01

    Os depósitos de fosfato sedimentar da região de Campos Belos (GO) e Arraias (TO) compreendem ate o momento três depósitos de volume reduzido, mas com teores elevados, superiores a 24% P2O5, denominados: São Bento, Coite 1 e Coite 2. Os fosforitos e siltitos fosfatados encontrados na regiao estao inseridos na porcao basal da Formação Sete Lagoas, pertencente ao Grupo Bambui, de idade Neoproterozoica. O Grupo Bambui integra a porção oriental da Faixa de Dobramentos Brasília e tambem compõe ampl...

  18. Electromagnetic design of a pos-accelerator of protons for ocular neoplasm therapy; Projeto eletromagnético de um pós-acelerador de prótons para tratamento de tumor ocular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Luísa de Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Proton therapy is an effective technique in the treatment and control of cancer, which is not available in most countries. The low number of specialized centers for this type of treatment is because of the high cost of implementing and maintaining the accelerators. This study presents a model for the Electromagnetic (EM) acceleration of protons to sufficient energies for the treatment of ocular tumors. This is the scientific possibility of a compact technology that uses cyclotrons to produce radioisotopes (present in various countries) as accelerator guns via an analytical assessment of the physical parameters of the beam and a simulation of the electromagnetic equipment structures, acceleration, and movement of the proton beam using CST STUDIO® 3D 2015 (Computer Simulation Technology) software. In addition, the geometry required to provide synchronization between the acceleration and beam path was analyzed using the motion equations of the protons. The simulations show a final model that is compact and simplified as compared with the isochronic cyclotron and synchrotron (used for proton therapy). The synchronism requirements of a circular accelerator are fulfilled in this model so that in all orbits the beam has the same movement time. The extraction energy of the presented model is sufficient for the treatment of ocular tumors. This is an alternative method that could improve the quality of life for patients with ocular tumors in developing countries. Future studies will be conducted to complete the technical design presentation and evaluate the accelerated beam's interaction with neoplastic tissues. (author)

  19. Os vários tons de uma guerra imaginada: duas visões femininas sobre a guerra colonial de Moçambique DOI - 10.5752/P.2358-3428.2014v18n35p183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Borille de Abreu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo comparar e contrastar a maneira imaginada como a protagonista moçambicana Minosse, do romance Ventos do Apocalipse, de Paulina Chiziane, e a portuguesa Eva Lopo, de A costa dos murmúrios, de Lídia Jorge, descrevem a nação moçambicana antes e depois da guerra colonial, e como elas narram o trauma vivenciado na guerra. A hipótese é que a guerra é imaginada por essas mulheres porque o trauma de guerra precisa ser simbolizado para ser processado. Sendo assim, é possível afirmar que escrever sobre o trauma de guerra parece trazer algum tipo de conforto para a mulher afetada pela violência.Palavras-chave: Literaturas de língua portuguesa. Escrita feminina. Escrita feminina de Guerra. Teoria do trauma. Life writing.

  20. Rhéologie des bétons fluides à hautes performances : relations entre formulations, propriétés rhéologiques, physico-chimie et propriétés mécaniques

    OpenAIRE

    Yammine , Joumana

    2007-01-01

    The High Performance Concrete, from high to low plastic consistency, develops high long term mechanical resistances. Nevertheless, it presents the disadvantage of a very hard filling in dense steel reinforcements rebars like in the Millau's viaduct piles, which constitute a framework of barriers for the concrete casting by vibration. To guarantee a total filling in the framework, the self compacting concretes are the issue and are adopted respecting mechanical performances and durability main...

  1. Improving Technology And Setting-Up A Production Line For High Quality Zinc Oxide (99.5%) With A Capacity Of 150 Ton/Year By Reduction-Oxidation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Minh Tuan; Tran The Dinh; Tran Ngoc Vuong; Tuong Duy Nhan; Tran Trung Son; Le Huu Thiep; Nguyen Trung Dung; Le Thi Hong; Luong Manh Hung; Bui Huy Cuong

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide is used not only for the rubber industry, but also in many other industries such as pigments, ceramics, cosmetics etc. On the basis of references on international scientific researches and practical activities for the production of zinc oxide in our country, we have carried out additional research and testing to establish a zinc oxide production line for preparation of high quality (99.5%) product by treating the industrial zinc containing waste to obtain required composition materials [Zn] >50%; [Pb] < 0.3%; [Cl]/[PbO] < 0.2 for reduction-oxidation processes using reverberatory furnace. (author)

  2. Mechanical behavior of the reinforced concrete frame with masonry filling Comportement mécanique des portiques en béton armé avec remplissage en maçonnerie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kettar Jalal

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of frames filled with masonry is very complex. This complexity is linked from one part to the difference in the nature of elements and its behavior that make up the masonry itself (brick and mortar and their interaction, and on the other part, for the large dispersion that characterizes the bricks as well as the execution's quality parameters which make it difficult to define reliable criteria for the masonry. The objective of this work is to experimentally highlight the influence of the hollow brick masonry filler, commonly used in Morocco, on reinforced concrete frames subject to lateral stresses, to deepen understanding the seismic behavior of the masonry structures by evaluating the structural performance of a specimen wall. These experimental results will be compared to those found by modeling prototypes, using SAP 2000 software, based on various approaches and models as well as other results deduced from the other researchers. The experimental study was carried out according to standard NF EN 1052-3 on two reinforced concrete frames, of dimensions (2m X 1.6m, the one with the masonry filling, and the other without filling in order to determine the initial characteristic resistance to the shearing of the masonry walls. The obtained results showed that a filling has a beneficial effect on rigidity which can be doubled compared to an empty frame. in the same way the lateral resistance. But this effect is much contrasted; it depends a lot on the characteristics essentially of the materials (bricks and concrete. This is the main reason, which justifies the divergence of the results deduced from the nine models that we used.

  3. Geological and ecological assessment of the exposure degree of the Zăton-Bulba karst system (Mehedinţi Plateau to anthropogenic hazards: intrinsic vulnerability and biodiversity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mehedinţi Plateau represents an area highly marked by the intensity of the karst processes and by the diversity of the exokarst and endokarst features. The analyzed area includes two parallel limestone bars, developed on the Carpathian structures direction (NNE-SSW. The geological and geomorphological research, guided by a working protocol similar to that of the EPIK method, highlighted the role played by the lithology, structure, tectonics, epikarst and protective cover, related to the infiltration conditions, flow parameters and impact area of a potential contamination event; also, we carried on microtectonic studies on the Bulba Valley, Peşterii Hill, Podul Natural Cave and Bulba Cave. In addition to the results obtained following the EPIK method protocol, we bring forward data concerning the water quality, performing hydrogeochemical analyses on water samples collected from the main sources in the region. Our research has been focused on TDS, on cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+ and on anions (HCO3-, Cl-. We conclude by modelling the cumulative abundance and the species richness of the harvestmen (Opiliones in the studied area, under different degrees of human impact on habitats

  4. Les performances mécaniques et thermiques d’un béton léger à base de déchets industriels solides et de granulats de bois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Larbi Benmalek

    2014-04-01

    Les résultats expérimentaux montrent qu’à densité égale, les matériaux élaborés sont mécaniquement et thermiquement compétitifs. Ils sont intéressants du point de vue confort et stockage thermiques.

  5. Hur hotellgäster väljer att ta ton & vad vill de egentligen ha? : En kvantitativ studie om gästers uppfattning av service recovery inom hotellbranschen.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Caroline; Sundholm, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    Hotellbranschen är en bransch som ständigt expanderar. Även om beläggningsgraden på hotellen inte ökar avsevärt växer antalet övernattningar på hotell vilket tyder på en ökad konkurrensbild på marknaden. Samtidigt fokuserar tjänsteföretagen alltmer på företagets personalresurser och att kunna erbjuda något utöver kärntjänsten för att differentiera företagets position på marknaden. På ett hotell där hotellrummen är den huvudsakliga tjänsten läggs ett allt större f...

  6. Modelagem da eletro-oxidação de etanol sobre catalisador PtSn/C aplicada a células a combustível de etanol direto do tipo membrana trocadora de prótons (DEPEMFC)

    OpenAIRE

    Piña, Renzo Fabricio Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica, Florianópolis, 2014 Neste trabalho desenvolve-se a modelagem da reação eletroquímica de oxidação de etanol em células a combustível de etanol direto tipo PEM (DEPEMFC). O modelo da célula DEPEMFC considera a cinética de eletro-oxidação de etanol, o transporte de massa e a resistência elétrica dos diversos materiais que formam a célula a combustível. A reação elet...

  7. Improving technology and setting-up a production line for high quality zinc oxide (99.5%) with a capacity of 150 ton/year by evaporation-oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Dinh Thinh; Pham Minh Tuan; Luong Manh Hung; Tran Ngoc Vuong

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the technology improvement and a production line to produce high quality zinc oxide of purity upper than 99.5% ZnO by evaporation-oxidation method. Secondary zinc metal recovered from galvanizing industrial will undergo a pre-treatment to meet all requirements of standardized feed material for evaporation-oxidation process. Zinc metal is melted at a temperature of about 650"oC, some impurities and metallic oxides are separated preliminary, then zinc metal is converted into liquid in evaporation pot. Here the temperature is maintained around 1050"oC, zinc liquid is evaporated, zinc vapor is oxidized by air in the oxidation chamber naturally by oxygen in the air and then zinc vapor is converted to zinc oxide. Zinc oxide is passed through a product classification systems and then go to a product collection of filtering bag design. The whole process of melting, evaporation, oxidation, particles classification and product collection is a continuous process. The efficiency of the transformation of zinc metal into zinc oxide can reach the value of 1.1 to 1.2. ZnO product quality is higher than 99.5%. (author)

  8. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  9. Creep force modelling for rail traction vehicles based on the Fastsim algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Polach, Oldrich; Cole, Colin

    2013-11-01

    The evaluation of creep forces is a complex task and their calculation is a time-consuming process for multibody simulation (MBS). A methodology of creep forces modelling at large traction creepages has been proposed by Polach [Creep forces in simulations of traction vehicles running on adhesion limit. Wear. 2005;258:992-1000; Influence of locomotive tractive effort on the forces between wheel and rail. Veh Syst Dyn. 2001(Suppl);35:7-22] adapting his previously published algorithm [Polach O. A fast wheel-rail forces calculation computer code. Veh Syst Dyn. 1999(Suppl);33:728-739]. The most common method for creep force modelling used by software packages for MBS of running dynamics is the Fastsim algorithm by Kalker [A fast algorithm for the simplified theory of rolling contact. Veh Syst Dyn. 1982;11:1-13]. However, the Fastsim code has some limitations which do not allow modelling the creep force - creep characteristic in agreement with measurements for locomotives and other high-power traction vehicles, mainly for large traction creep at low-adhesion conditions. This paper describes a newly developed methodology based on a variable contact flexibility increasing with the ratio of the slip area to the area of adhesion. This variable contact flexibility is introduced in a modification of Kalker's code Fastsim by replacing the constant Kalker's reduction factor, widely used in MBS, by a variable reduction factor together with a slip-velocity-dependent friction coefficient decreasing with increasing global creepage. The proposed methodology is presented in this work and compared with measurements for different locomotives. The modification allows use of the well recognised Fastsim code for simulation of creep forces at large creepages in agreement with measurements without modifying the proven modelling methodology at small creepages.

  10. Non-steady state modeling of wheel-rail contact problem

    OpenAIRE

    Guiral, A.; Alonso, A.; Baeza González, Luis Miguel; Giménez, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Among all the algorithms to solve the wheel–rail contact problem, Kalker's FastSim has become the most useful computation tool since it combines a low computational cost and enough precision for most of the typical railway dynamics problems. However, some types of dynamic problems require the use of a non-steady state analysis. Alonso and Giménez developed a non-stationary method based on FastSim, which provides both, sufficiently accurate results and a low computational cost. However, it pre...

  11. An Agricultural Expansion Strategy for Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-04

    missions. Farmers were able to work continuous plots only in tl. cast of pineapple, strawberries, and pomegranates. However, fruit trees such as the guava ...110 tons Lemons 1,200 tons Pomelos 25 tons Avocados 12,000 tons Mangoes 5,200 tons Guavas 3,200 tons Beef heart 280 tons Medlars 320 tons Total 31,485...30,908 9 1987-1988 36,223 1,040 37,263 10 1988-1989 34,112 1,200 35,312 35 TABLE 3 PRODUCTION OF TEA 1987 1988 Production of Tea Leaves (tons) 20,562

  12. Study of the railway vehicle suspension using the multibody method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe GHITA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model for the study of a passenger coach hunting motion using the multibody approach. The model comprises the lateral displacement, rolling and yawing motions for the main constitutive elements: axles, bogies and case. The equation system is written applying energetic methods. The forced vibrations determined by the irregular profile of the tracks are considered. The wheel – rail contact forces are expressed using the creepage coefficients established according to Kalker's linear theory. The equations system is solved through numeric methods using specialized calculus programs. The response of the system – passenger coach on a tangent track, the critical speed and the influence of the constructive characteristics of the coach on its performances are determined.

  13. A non-Hertzian method for solving wheel-rail normal contact problem taking into account the effect of yaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Binbin; Bruni, Stefano; Vollebregt, Edwin

    2016-09-01

    A novel approach is proposed in this paper to deal with non-Hertzian normal contact in wheel-rail interface, extending the widely used Kik-Piotrowski method. The new approach is able to consider the effect of the yaw angle of the wheelset against the rail on the shape of the contact patch and on pressure distribution. Furthermore, the method considers the variation of profile curvature across the contact patch, enhancing the correspondence to CONTACT for highly non-Hertzian contact conditions. The simulation results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate estimation than the original algorithm compared to Kalker's CONTACT, and that the influence of yaw on the contact results is significant under certain circumstances.

  14. Type test of the Rados MTS-N thermoluminescent dosimetry system for individual monitoring of whole body photons in HP (10); Teste de tipo do sistema de dosimetria termoluminescente RADOS MTS-N para monitoração individual de fótons de corpo inteiro em H{sub P}(10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.S.; Silva, E.R. da; Maurício, C.L.P., E-mail: max.das.ferreira@gmail.com, E-mail: everton@ird.gov.br, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ), uses an automatic thermoluminescent dosimetry (TL) system for evaluation of whole body for photons with individual monitors RADOS MTS-N, with TLF detector of LiF: Mg, Ti. The objective of this work was to characterize this system for the evaluation of H{sub P} (10) operating magnitude. The measuring range is 0.2 mSv to 2 Sv, for photon energies from 20 keV to 1250 keV. Performance tests were done for the following characteristics: homogeneity of the monitors, system reproducibility, linearity, temperature and humidity effect, energy and angular dependence and fading. The acceptance requirements used to test system performance have been drawn from national and international documents. The results obtained prove that the system can be used to measure the occupational dose of photons in H{sub P} (10)

  15. A Global Need, a Global Resource Nuclear Power and the New Millennium: In Contrast to the 25 Billion Tons of Carbon Dioxide Emitted into the Atmosphere Each Year as Fossil Fuel Waste, the Spent Fuel Produced Yearly from All the World's Reactors Would Fit inside a Two-Story Structure Built on a Basketball Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    The technological literacy standards were developed to act as a beacon for educators to guide them in their quest to develop a population of technically literate citizens who possess the skills, abilities, and knowledge necessary to actively and constructively participate in the democratic, technologically dependent society of the United States.…

  16. Desenvolvimento de processo de produção de conjuntos eletrodo-membrana-eletrodo para células a combustível baseadas no uso de membrana polimérica condutora de prótons (PEMFC por impressão a tela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Bonifácio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC requires membrane electrode assemblies (MEA to generate electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen. In this study a MEA production process by sieve printing and an ink composition were developed to produce catalyst layers of MEAs. The deposition of the exact catalyst content was possible on cathodes and anodes with only one print step. The optimal ink developed shown viscosity of 2.75 Pa s, density 1.27 g cm-3, total solid content of 33.76 % and tack of 92 U.T. The electrodes prepared in only one printing step showed higher performance than those prepared in several steps.

  17. Experimental apparatus to determine lead attenuation coefficients for photons of 0.511 MeV; Aparato experimental para determinar os coeficientes de atenuação no chumbo para fótons de 0,511 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Luis C.B.; Cardoso, Domingos O.; Gavazza, Sérgio; Morales, Rudnei K., E-mail: claudiovargasbrito@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Luciano S. R. [Instituto de Defesa Química Biológica Radiológica Nuclear (IDQBRN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radioactive gamma-emitting sources with higher energies than 1.022 MeV, may interact with matter by pair production process, generating two photons of 0.511 MeV in the positron annihilation, that may contribute to increase doses in both IOE´s or public. National regulatory agencies require a radiation protection plan and a shielding project to consider the influence of these photons in the licensing procedure. This work will present all steps for the development of the experimental apparatus for determination of the attenuation coefficients for photons with energy of 0.511 MeV in lead. (author)

  18. Early marginal ulcer following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass under proton pump inhibitor treatment: prospective multicentric study Úlcera perianastomótica após derivação gástrica em Y-de-Roux mesmo em uso de inibidor de bomba de prótons: estudo prospectivo multicêntrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Belarmino Garrido Jr.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Causal factors of gastrojejunal ulcers after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass include peptic acid secretion from the gastric pouch. Esomeprazole is a potent inhibitor of acid secretion. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of dyspepsia and gastrojejunal ulcers within the first 2 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass during the use of esomeprazole. METHODS: One hundred eighteen morbid obese subjects were submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Preoperative upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy was negative for H. pylori. All subjects received esomeprazole for 60 days after surgery. RESULTS: Two weeks after surgery only 13 mild symptoms were reported. After 2 months, 17 also moderate complaints were registered. Endoscopy around the 60th day showed esophagitis in 10 (8.5%, hiatal hernia in 2 (1.7%, foreign body in the anastomotic line in 12 (10.2% and gastrojejunal ulcers was observed in 9 (7.6% subjects, 2 of which had a suture material or metallic staple granuloma in the gastrojejunostomy. Ten subjects took nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at least once during study, but none of them developed ulcer. None of the subjects with ulcer had dyspeptic symptoms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ulcer in the gastrojejunal anastomosis within the first 2 months following Rouxen-Y gastric bypass under proton pump inhibitors is considerable. It was not related to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, highlighting the possibility of ischemia and foreign body as causal factors. The ulcers were asymptomatic, and all post-surgical dyspeptic symptoms were moderate in severity.CONTEXTO: Sintomas dispépticos são comuns após derivação gástrica em Y-de-Roux. Podem decorrer de úlceras de boca anastomótica, cujos possíveis fatores causais incluem a secreção cloridropéptica da bolsa gástrica, isquemia, efeito de corpo estranho dos materiais de sutura e uso de antiinflamatórios não-esteróides. O esomeprazol é um redutor potente da secreção ácida, capaz de diminuir sintomas pépticos e evitar lesões mucosas, mesmo em pacientes usuários de antiinflamatórios não-esteróides. OBJETIVOS: Estudo prospectivo não-randomizado procura avaliar a ocorrência de dispepsia e úlceras perianastomóticas nos 2 primeiros meses após derivação gástrica em Y-de-Roux. MÉTODOS: Cento e dezoito obesos mórbidos foram operados em quatro centros de cirurgia bariátrica pela técnica de derivação gástrica em Y-de-Roux por laparotomia ou laparoscopia. À endoscopia digestiva alta, H. pylori estava ausente. Todos os operados tomaram 20 mg de esomeprazol por dia do 3º ao 60º pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Entre o 10º e o 15º dia, nenhum paciente referiu epigastralgia ou pirose, um referiu vômitos moderados, quatro dor abdominal e oito náuseas. Entre o 55º e o 65º dia, três referiram epigastralgia leve, seis vômitos, um dor abdominal, dois náuseas e seis pirose. O exame endoscópico neste período revelou esofagite em 10 pacientes (8,5%, hérnia hiatal em 2 (1,7% e corpo estranho nas linhas de sutura em 12 (10,2%. Em nove pacientes (7,6% encontrou-se úlcera de boca anastomótica ou adjacente a ela, em dois incluindo granuloma de fio de sutura ou de grampo metálico. Dez pacientes utilizaram alguma vez antiinflamatórios não-esteróides nos 2 meses de estudo, nenhum deles apresentando úlcera. CONCLUSÕES: A ocorrência de úlcera de boca anastomótica 2 meses após derivação gástrica em Y-de-Roux, é considerável, mesmo em uso de esomeprazol. Não houve relação com ingestão de antiinflamatórios não-esteróides, o que realça as possibilidades dos fatores isquemia e corpo estranho na gênese das lesões.

  19. Determination of photon contamination dose of clinical electron beams using the generalized simulated annealing method; Determinação da dose dos fótons contaminantes de feixes de elétrons clínicos usando o Método de Recozimento Simulado Generalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visbal, Jorge H. Wilches; Costa, Alessandro M. da, E-mail: jhwilchev@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras

    2017-07-01

    Clinical electron beams are composed of a mixture of pure electrons and Bremsstrahlung photons produced in the structures of the accelerator head as well as in the air. Accurate knowledge of these components is important for calculating the dose and for treatment planning. There are at least two approaches to deter-mine the contribution of the photons in the percentage depth dose of clinical electrons: a) Analytical Method that calculates the dose of the photons from the previous determination of the spectrum of the incident Bremsstrahlung photons; b) Adjustment method based on a semi-empirical biexponential formula where four parameters must be established from optimization methods. The results show that the generalized simulated annealing method can calculate the photon contamination dose by overestimating the dose in the tail no more than 0.6% of the maximum dose (electrons and photons). (author)

  20. Absolute standardization of radionuclides with complex decay by the peak-sum coincidence method and photon spectrometry with HPGe detector; Padronização primária de radionuclídeos com decaimento complexo pelo método de coincidência pico-soma espectrometria de fótons com detector GeHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ronaldo Lins da

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to present a new methodology for absolute standardization of {sup 133}Ba, which is a complex decay radionuclide, using the peak-sum coincidence method associated with gamma spectrometry with a high resolution germanium detector. The use of the method of direct multiplication of matrices allowed identifying all the energies of sum coincidence, as well as their probabilities of detection, which made possible the calculation of the probabilities of detecting the energies of interferences. In addition, with the use of deconvolution software it was possible to obtain the areas of energy without interference of other sums, and by means of the deduced equation for the peak sum method, it was possible to standardize {sup 133}Ba. The result of the activity was compared with those found by the absolute methods existing in the LNMRI, where the result obtained by coincidence peak-sum was highlighted among all. The estimated uncertainties were below 0.30%, compatible with the results found in the literature by other absolute methods. Thus, it was verified that the methodology was able to standardize radionuclide {sup 133}Ba with precision, accuracy, easiness and quickness. The relevance of this doctoral thesis is to provide the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) with a new absolute standardization methodology for complex decay radionuclides. (author)

  1. Mobility of the element aluminium in the weathering of hard coal material containing pyrites. Investigations on piled-up clay and silt stones of the Upper Carbon layer. Mobilitaet des Elementes Aluminium bei der Verwitterung von pyrithaltigem Steinkohlenbergematerial. Untersuchungen an aufgehaldeten Ton- und Siltsteinen des Oberkarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, G

    1992-06-17

    In connection with the recultivation problems of mining material, investigations were made of the mobility and toxicity of aluminium in the course of weathering of mining material containing upper carbonic pyrites, and particular attention was paid to interaction of the aluminium with other ions in the weathering solution. From the aluminium type, from the ratios of Ca/Al, Al/SO[sub 4] and Al/TOC, and based on these investigations, the aluminium factor can probably be excluded as the main cause of the difficult recultivation and re-greening of mining material in the first decade of weathering. Only certain types of aluminium have toxic effects. These include ionic aluminium and different aluminium hydroxy compounds. Sulphate, fluoride, nitrate compounds of aluminium and organic aluminium compounds have not proved to be toxic. The proportion of aluminium in the ion pool can be decisive, as shown by the Ca/Al ratio. The ratio of these two cations determines the degree of danger from aluminium, depending on the type of plant. (orig.)

  2. Implantação de um programa de controle de qualidade de um acelerador linear de 6 MeV de fótons Implementation of a quality control program for a 6 MeV linear photon accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda F. Berdaky

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a parte operacional do processo final envolvido na implantação de um programa de controle de qualidade por meio de testes rotineiros mecânicos e de radiação. O programa de controle de qualidade, durante 35 meses, mostrou a estabilidade excelente deste acelerador.This paper describes the operational characteristics of the final process of implementation of a quality control program using routine mechanical and radiation tests. The quality control program was performed during 35 months and demonstrated the excellent stability of this accelerator.

  3. Catalisadores a base de platina e nióbio para o ânodo da célula a combustível de membrana trocadora de prótons alimentada com alcoóis de baixa massa molecular

    OpenAIRE

    Thairo de Araújo Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho descreve-se o estudo das reações de oxidação eletroquímica de metanol e etanol em catalisadores contendo platina (Pt) e Nióbio (Nb) suportados em carbono de alta área superficial. Os materiais estudados foram PtNb/C, Pt-Nb2O5(amorfo)/C e Pt-Nb2O5(cristalino) /C, utilizando-se como padrão para comparação o catalisador comercial Pt/C E-TEK 20 %. A caracterização física foi realizada com o auxílio das técnicas de Difração de Raios X (DRX), Espectroscopia por Energia Dispersiva de ...

  4. Efeito dos dióxidos de enxofre e de nitrogênio no desempenho de uma célula a combustível de membrana de intercâmbio de prótons Effect of sulfur and nitrogen dioxides on the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is presently much interest in the clean and efficient generation of energy by proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC, using hydrogen as fuel. The generation of hydrogen by the reforming of other fuels, anaerobic fermentation of residual waters and other methods, often produce contaminants that affect the performance of the cell. In this work, the effect of gaseous SO2 and NO2 on the performance of a H2/O2 single PEMFC is studied. The results show that SO2 decreases irreversibly the performance of the cell under operating conditions, while NO2 has a milder effect that allows the recovery of the system.

  5. Modèle de confinement pour les colonnes de section circulaire en béton armé confiné avec des enveloppes en polymère renforcé de fibres de carbone Confinement model for circular RC columns wrapped with CFRP composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzaid R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Un programme experimental comprenant des essais sur 30 cylindres 160×320 mm a ete mene en vue de determiner le gain de resistance et de ductilite du beton confine par collage externe de tissu de polymere renforce de fibres de carbone (PRFC. Les variables etudiees sont la resistance a la compression du beton non confine f’co, le niveau de confinement, exprime par le nombre de plis de PRFC applique aux eprouvettes. La deformation circonferentielle a la rupture du composite PRF et l’feffet de la pression de confinement laterale effective de l’fenveloppe composite ont ete egalement etudies. Pour l’fensemble des specimens testes, l’faugmentation de la rigidite du confinement entraine a la fois une augmentation significative de la resistance a la compression axiale et de la ductilite des specimens en beton confine avec des PRFC par rapport aux specimens en beton non confine. Base sur les resultats experimentaux, un modele de confinement pratique est propose pour predire la resistance a la compression maximale du beton confine avec des materiaux composites (f’cc et la deformation axiale correspondante (εcc. The present paper deals with the analysis of experimental results, in terms of load carrying capacity and strains, obtained from tests on plain- and reinforced- concrete (RC cylinder, strengthened with external carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The parameters considered are the number of composite layers, the compressive strength of unconfined concrete. The effective circumferential FRP failure strain and the effect of the effective lateral confining pressure were investigated. Totally thirty cylinders (160×320 mm were subjected to axial compression which includes control specimens. All the test specimens were loaded to failure in axial compression and the behaviour of the specimens in the axial and transverse directions was investigated. Test results shown that the CFRP wrap increases the strength and ductility of reinforced concrete cylinders, significantly. A simple model is presented to predict the compressive strength and axial strain of FRP-confined RC columns.

  6. 78 FR 49061 - Valuation of Federal Coal for Advance Royalty Purposes and Information Collection Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... following new data elements (xxxi, xxxii, xxxiii, and xxxiv) would apply only to Western Phosphate leases: (xxxi) Sales Units (Wet Tons) would mean the tons of raw ore produced; (xxxii) Sales Units (Dry Tons...

  7. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1334

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-16

    drums In liquid form Natural asphalt Marble in blocks Copper wire Soda ash Tannin extract 40,000 tons 10,000 tons 10,000 tons 55,000 tons...Legumes 300 5 Seed grain 300 6 Tobacco and tobacco products 6,200 7 Wine , including bottled wine 2,300 8 Sorghum straw 600 9 Hemp and tow 500 10

  8. Orientatie binnen de intensieve visteelt in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkers PATA; van de Giessen AW; Notermans SHW

    1991-01-01

    Fish farming has increased considerably in the Netherlands over the past ten years. At the moment about 1250 tons of fish are produced yearly (1000 ton of catfish, 150 ton of eel and 100 ton of trout). In this report an overview is given of the production chain of fish farming. The production

  9. Reserves, the extraction of petroleum and the number of wells in the countries of the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluzhnikov, B I

    1981-01-01

    The greatest percentage increase in the proven reserves of petroleum for the beginning of 1980 (in percentage) was noted in the Philippines (158.8), the Netherlands (100), France (68.3), Oman (47.4), and Bolivia. A decrease in the reserves of petroleum was noted in Marocco (-40.5%), Israel (-20.3%), Japan (-15.6%), and so forth. Proven reserves of petroleum are as follows in billions of tons: Saudia Arabia, 23; Kuwait, 10; Iran, 5.5; Mexico, 4.5. The extraction of oil in the first half of 1980 amounted to 243 million tons in Saudia Arabia; 213 million tons in the United States; 86 million tons in Iraq; 55 million tons in Venezuela; 53 million tons in Nigeria; 52 million tons in Iraq; 47 million tons in Kuwait; 45 million tons in Libya; and 40 million tons in Great Britain.

  10. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-29

    nettle and flax 198,300 33.7 JPRS-CAR-88-016 29 MARCH 1988 14 ECONOMIC 1987 changes from (tons) (percent) of which: ramie 109,800 110.0 jute...189,900 tons 18.8 Chemical 1,138,100 tons 24.1 fertilizer Chemical 11,300 tons 18.2 insecticides Cement 9,207,600 tons 10.0 Motor vehi- 110,800 21.8

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 5. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 5). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elementary matters, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include engineering specifications related to electrical designs, lists of electrical items, specifications related to civil engineering designs, drawings such as planning drawings, and a detailed construction design drawn by an Australian engineering corporation and related documents and drawings. Concerning the manufacture of mechanical systems, items procurable in Japan, specifications of items procurable in Australia, lists, drawings, etc., are shown. Also included are the details of on-site preparation for construction and on-site work, conceptual designs of processes of dehydration, deashing, and secondary hydrogenation, etc. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 4. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (Shiryo 4). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elements, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include instrumentation-related drawings covering an instrumentation loop sketch, instrument inspection specifications (flow meter, level gage, pressure gage, thermometer, regulation meter, analyzing meter, signal receiving meter, and instrument board), general specifications for electrical instrumentation facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 5. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 5). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elementary matters, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include engineering specifications related to electrical designs, lists of electrical items, specifications related to civil engineering designs, drawings such as planning drawings, and a detailed construction design drawn by an Australian engineering corporation and related documents and drawings. Concerning the manufacture of mechanical systems, items procurable in Japan, specifications of items procurable in Australia, lists, drawings, etc., are shown. Also included are the details of on-site preparation for construction and on-site work, conceptual designs of processes of dehydration, deashing, and secondary hydrogenation, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 3. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 3). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the instrumentation design, such as the meter specifications, front view drawings for meter panels, drawings for panel arrangement in the central control room, a computer room layout drawing, control system explanation drawings, interlock diagrams, and the instrumentation power supply diagrams. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 2. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 2). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the machine design, such as the piping specifications, standard piping drawings, piping design procedures, piping drawings, pipe lists, and device inspection specifications. In relation with the instrumentation design, the instrumentation engineering specifications and meter lists. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the achievements in development of a coal liquefaction technology (a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology) in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 1. Development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant (50 t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 1). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the data-1 for developing a brown coal based solvent extraction plant in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. The data are for the development of a liquefaction plant for Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). Fiscal 1981 has performed detailed design on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the machines and devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. Detailed design documents and drawings were prepared. The data collected in relation with the plant design included the followings: device lists, entire factory layout drawings, device arrangement drawings, process flow sheets, utility flow sheets (fuel gas and fuel oil systems, steam and condensate systems, air for instrumentation, plant air, cooling water supply and return, industrial water and treated water, a waste water treatment system, a nitrogen system, and a waste gas system), public pollution preventing facilities, hazardous location classifying plans, and material balances. The data collected in relation with the machine design included pressure vessel engineering specifications, heat exchanger engineering specifications, and device purchase specifications. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Data 4. Development of coal liquefaction technology/Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology/Development of brown coal solvent extraction plant (Development of 50t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (Shiryo 4). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a liquefaction plant (50t/d pilot plant) for Australia's Victorian brown coal. In fiscal 1981, using the process concept and design data obtained through the study of elements, a detailed design of a primary hydrogenation system is drawn, part of the equipment is procured, and on-site construction work is started. The book is a collection of materials which include instrumentation-related drawings covering an instrumentation loop sketch, instrument inspection specifications (flow meter, level gage, pressure gage, thermometer, regulation meter, analyzing meter, signal receiving meter, and instrument board), general specifications for electrical instrumentation facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Recycling of nuclear matters. Myths and realities. Calculation of recycling rate of the plutonium and uranium produced by the French channel of spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeytaux, X.; Schneider, M.

    2000-05-01

    The recycling rate of plutonium and uranium are: from the whole of the plutonium separated from the spent fuel ( inferior to 1% of the nuclear matter content) attributed to France is under 50% (under 42 tons on 84 tons); from the whole of plutonium produced in the French reactors is less than 20% (42 tons on 224 tons); from the whole of the uranium separated from spent fuels attributed to France is about 10 % (1600 tons on 16000 tons); from the whole of the uranium contained in the spent fuel is slightly over 5%. (N.C.)

  19. A shallow marine storm-induced heavy-mineral deposit in the Witteberg group near Willomore, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.; Labuschagne, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two heavy-mineral-bearing sandstone beds were discovered within the Weltevrede Formation of the Witteberg Group during a routine investigation of an aerial radiometric survey. Maximum concentrations of 142 ppm U and 434 ppm Th were determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis. The sandstone beds that were investigated closely resemble amalgamated storm deposits, each unit representing the product of an individual storm. A radiometric survey indicated that the highest concentration of heavy-minerals are limited to the upper 20 cm of the main bed and the indicated resources are as follows: rutile - 2700 tons, zircon - 850 tons, ilmenite - 650 tons, magnetite - 550 tons, monozite - 200 tons, and uranium - 5 tons

  20. KANDUNGAN KARBON DI HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT KAWASAN KONSERVASI PT NATIONAL SAGO PRIMA, KEPULAUAN MERANTI, RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusi Rosalina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to collect information regarding carbon storage, particularly the carbon stored in the aboveground biomass as well as in the peat soil. The study site was in a conservation area of the PT National Sago Prima belonging to the PT Sampoerna Agro Tbk. Group. The work was undertaken in January-February 2012. The total aboveground biomass and carbon storage in the research site indicates  that the conservation area is a secondary peat swamp forest, with the biomass of 149.18 ton/ha and carbon stock of 70.12 ton C/ha. The aboveground biomass and carbon consisted of biomass and carbon of tree (83.97 ton/ha containing 39.47 ton C/ha, respectively, saplings (20.69 ton/ha containing 9.72 ton C/ha and seedlings and undergrowth plants (0.03 ton/ha containing 0.01 ton C/ha, wood  necromass (24.06 ton/ha containing 11.31 ton C/ha, and litter (20.44 ton/ha containing 9.61 ton C/ha. An allometric equation was developed for Pandanus atrocarpus Griff. providing an estimated total biomass and carbon of 5.16 ton/ha containing 2.42 ton C/ha. The underground C with the mean peat depth of 5.5 m, mean bulk density of  0.18 g/cm3, and the mean organic C of 46.6 % was 464.895,94 ton C/ha. In the entire conservation forest area of 541 ha the total aboveground biomassa and carbon storage was estimated to be  80,708.64 ton and 37,934.00 ton C, while the total underground carbon was 238,96 million MT C.

  1. Solid waste generation and characterization in the University of Lagos for a sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, A E; Nubi, A T; Adelopo, A O

    2017-09-01

    Waste characterization is the first step to any successful waste management policy. In this paper, the characterization and the trend of solid waste generated in University of Lagos, Nigeria was carried out using ASTM D5231-92 and Resource Conservation Reservation Authority RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance methods. The recyclable potential of the waste is very high constituting about 75% of the total waste generated. The estimated average daily solid waste generation in Unilag Akoka campus was estimated to be 32.2tons. The solid waste characterization was found to be: polythene bags 24% (7.73tons/day), paper 15% (4.83tons/day), organic matters 15%, (4.83tons/day), plastic 9% (2.90tons/day), inert materials 8% (2.58tons/day), sanitary 7% (2.25tons/day), textile 7% (2.25tons/day), others 6% (1.93tons/day), leather 4% (1.29tons/day) metals 3% (0.97tons/day), glass 2% (0.64tons/day) and e-waste 0% (0.0tons/day). The volume and distribution of polythene bags generated on campus had a positive significant statistical correlation with the distribution of commercial and academic structures on campus. Waste management options to optimize reuse, recycling and reduce waste generation were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  3. A survey of wheel-rail contact models for rail vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymand, Sajjad Z.; Keylin, Alexander; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Accurate and efficient contact models for wheel-rail interaction are essential for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle. Assessment of the contact forces and moments, as well as contact geometry provide a fundamental foundation for such tasks as design of braking and traction control systems, prediction of wheel and rail wear, and evaluation of ride safety and comfort. This paper discusses the evolution and the current state of the theories for solving the wheel-rail contact problem for rolling stock. The well-known theories for modelling both normal contact (Hertzian and non-Hertzian) and tangential contact (Kalker's linear theory, FASTSIM, CONTACT, Polach's theory, etc.) are reviewed. The paper discusses the simplifying assumptions for developing these models and compares their functionality. The experimental studies for evaluation of contact models are also reviewed. This paper concludes with discussing open areas in contact mechanics that require further research for developing better models to represent the wheel-rail interaction.

  4. The steady-state tangential contact problem for a falling drop type of contact area on corrugated rail by simplified theory of rolling contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jerzy

    1991-10-01

    Investigation of contact mechanical nonlinearities of a mathematical model of corrugation revealed that the typical shape of contact patch resembles a falling drop of water. A contact patch of that shape was approximated with a figure composed of two parts of ellipses with different eccentricities. The contact pressure distribution was assumed as a smoothing ensemble of two paraboloidal distributions. The description of a general case of double half elliptical contact area was given but a special case of double half elliptical contact is more interesting as it possesses some Hertzian properties. It was shown how three geometrical parameters of double half elliptical contact can be chosen when actual, non-Hertzian contact is known. A linear theory was written which indicates that the lateral vibrations of the rail may be excited only due to shape variation on corrugation even if any other cause for these vibrations does not exist. For nonlinear theory a computer program, based on FASTSIM algorithm by Kalker, was written. The aim is to calculate the creep forces and frictional power density distribution over the contact area. Also, a graphic program visualizing the solution was written. Numerical results are not provided; unattended and unsolved problems relevant for this type of contact are listed.

  5. An alternative to FASTSIM for tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichani, Matin Sh.; Enblom, Roger; Berg, Mats

    2016-06-01

    In most rail vehicle dynamics simulation packages, tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact is gained by means of Kalker's FASTSIM algorithm. While 5-25% error is expected for creep force estimation, the errors of shear stress distribution, needed for wheel-rail damage analysis, may rise above 30% due to the parabolic traction bound. Therefore, a novel algorithm named FaStrip is proposed as an alternative to FASTSIM. It is based on the strip theory which extends the two-dimensional rolling contact solution to three-dimensional contacts. To form FaStrip, the original strip theory is amended to obtain accurate estimations for any contact ellipse size and it is combined by a numerical algorithm to handle spin. The comparison between the two algorithms shows that using FaStrip improves the accuracy of the estimated shear stress distribution and the creep force estimation in all studied cases. In combined lateral creepage and spin cases, for instance, the error in force estimation reduces from 18% to less than 2%. The estimation of the slip velocities in the slip zone, needed for wear analysis, is also studied. Since FaStrip is as fast as FASTSIM, it can be an alternative for tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact in simulation packages.

  6. 210Po and 210Pb concentration in drinking water of Bangalore and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiva Prasad, N.G.; Nagaiah, N.; Ashok, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water samples collected from different locations of Bangalore and its surrounding area were analysed for the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb by employing radiochemical analysis. The measure concentration of 210 Po varies from 0.46 to 36.46 mBq L -1 with a mean of 6.17 mBq L -1 and that of 210 Pb ranges from 1.19 to 56.95 mBq L -1 with a mean of 13.98 mBq L -1 . The activity concentrations of these radionuclides were found to be low at the place Kambasandra and high at Kalkere. The range and the mean value obtained in the present study are well within the guidance value of 100 mBq L -1 as prescribed by World Health Organization. From the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the annual effective dose was calculated for different age groups: for babies (age below 1 y), children (age from 2 to 7 y) and adults (age from 17 y and above) using IAEA dose conversion factors and the prescribed water consumption rates. The total dose received is very much less than the ICRP recommended value of 1000 μ Sv y -1 for all age groups. (author)

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    attention primarily was due to the need to improve maize cultivation given the ecological and ... recommended average yield of 3 tons per hectare for open pollinated seeds and 5tons ... urban areas and make farming attractive to the youths.

  8. Uranium oxide fuel cycle analysis in VVER-1000 with VISTA simulation code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirekhtiary, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Abbasi, Akbar

    2018-02-01

    The VVER-1000 Nuclear power plant generates about 20-25 tons of spent fuel per year. In this research, the fuel transmutation of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuel was calculated by using of nuclear fuel cycle simulation system (VISTA) code. In this simulation, we evaluated the back end components fuel cycle. The back end component calculations are Spent Fuel (SF), Actinide Inventory (AI) and Fission Product (FP) radioisotopes. The SF, AI and FP values were obtained 23.792178 ton/y, 22.811139 ton/y, 0.981039 ton/y, respectively. The obtained value of spent fuel, major actinide, and minor actinide and fission products were 23.8 ton/year, 22.795 ton/year, 0.024 ton/year and 0.981 ton/year, respectively.

  9. 77 FR 52072 - Request To Amend a License to Import Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... processing various 1,000 tons for volume materials (e.g., metal, 4,000 reduction via wood, metal, tons dry thermal and non- paper, cloth, activity thermal concrete, material, and treatment. rubber, plastic, 500...

  10. Life after Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    Ethnographic film Directed by Ton Otto and Christian Suhr Edited by Gary Kildea Baluan Island, Papua New Guinea......Ethnographic film Directed by Ton Otto and Christian Suhr Edited by Gary Kildea Baluan Island, Papua New Guinea...

  11. Experiments at the Soudan mine: operating and proposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    We report on the initial operation of a 30 ton dense calorimeter and on the proposed construction of a 1000 ton calorimeter at the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota - both optimized for the detection of proton decay

  12. 40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Calcium oxide and magnesium oxide content must be analyzed monthly for each lime type: ER30OC09.073 Where... subpart) (metric tons CO2/metric tons MgO). CaOi,n = Calcium oxide content for lime type i, for month n... = Calcium oxide content for sold lime byproduct/waste type i, for month n (metric tons CaO/metric ton lime...

  13. CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: The 400 tons mobile crane outside SX1 lifts the 1rst truck onto the traveling crane Photo 02: The 50 tons of the truck lifted by the mobile crane. Photo 03: How to hold 50 tons by hand... Photo 04: The truck on its way onto the 280 tons travelling crane. Photo 05: The truck is about to take place on the beams. Photo 06: Mise en place finale.

  14. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China’s Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    34Food and Agricultural Imports from China," 4. 40 in developing equivalent standards to the United States for the inspection meat and poultry ...interview: “With more than 10,000 athletes and 22,000-plus international journalist in Beijing, China, for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games [food safety...of fruits and vegetables, 130 tons of meat , 82 tons of seafood, 21 tons of cheese and 19 tons of eggs…There [was] great pressure on [the Beijing

  15. APLIKASI KOMBINASI KOMPOS JERAMI, KOMPOS AZOLLA DAN PUPUK HAYATI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN JUMLAH POPULASI BAKTERI PENAMBAT NITROGEN DAN PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN PADI BERRBASIS IPAT-BO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferina Rosiana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk mengetahui efek pemberian kombinasi kompos jerami dengan Azolla dan pupuk hayati majemuk terhadap peningkatan populasi bakteri penambat N dan produktivitas tanaman padi dengan teknologi IPAT-BO dilaksanakan dari bulan April hingga Juli 2012 di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, dengan ketinggian + 740 m dpl. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok faktor tunggal dengan dua belas perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari (A tanpa kompos jerami, (B kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1, (C kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1, (D kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (E kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (F kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (G pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (H kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (I kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (J kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (K kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (L kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1.Aplikasi perlakuan kompos jerami, kompos Azolla dan pupuk hayati majemuk memberikan pengaruh terhadap populasi penambat N (Azotobacter sp. dan Azospirilium sp. dan produktifitas tanaman padi. Aplikasi kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 dengan pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1 memberikan hasil GKP yaitu 64,39 g tanaman-1 (6,13 ton ha-1. Kata kunci: IPAT-BO, kompos Azolla, kompos jerami, pupuk hayati.

  16. Direct measurement of muon polarization in e/sup +/e/sup /minus/ /yields/ /mu//sup /minus//mu//sup +/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.; Stevenson, M.L.; Wenzel, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two detectors are considered that are thick enough to stop 15 GeV μ/sup+/, with polarimeters to measure the polarization. Nearly 4π coverage would require a uranium ball of 10 4 tons and a polarimeter of 3000--4000 tons. A more nearly feasible approach uses a small angle 1500 ton detector with uranium plus magnetized iron to focus the muons on to a 400 ton polarimeter

  17. Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure Project Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    are the applied to the following factors depending on the corresponding years. Year 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOXE = .015 * Trips PM10E...0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOXE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips To...convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 Nox (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000 PM10(tons/yr) = PM10E

  18. Mathematical models for the efficiency of flotation process for the recovery of north waziristan copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Rahman, S.U.; Khan, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical models were developed to give an insight into the effect of process variables, propylxanthae (X/sub 1/ g/ton), pH (X/sub 2/), sodium sulphide (X3 g/ton) and sodium cyanide (X/sub 4/ g/ton), on the recovery (YR) of copper. The optimum recovery (YR) 62.95%, was obtained at X/sub 4/=60g/ton. (author)

  19. Vegetable seedling production with sugarcane bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 380,000 ac and 12.8 million tons of harvested sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons of raw sugar (brown sugar), and an estimated 3 million tons of the fibrous plant residue called bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after remov...

  20. Statistiques des peche des sardiniers ivoiriens - annee 1982

    OpenAIRE

    Bouberi, D.

    1984-01-01

    The fishing in 1982 has been oriented towards Sardinella aurita stock, which becomes the target species with 11.200 tons over 21.300 tons, taking the place of Sardinella maderensis, which reaches only 4,800 tons. The high abundance of this species explains the decrease of fishing effort.

  1. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da J.J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being

  2. 40 CFR 98.65 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... factor (1.6 metric tons CO2/metric ton aluminum produced). MPp = Metal production from prebake process... produced). MPs = Metal production from Sderberg process (metric tons Al). (b) For other parameters, use the... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production § 98.65 Procedures for...

  3. Final Environmental Assessment: To Relocate Air Force Explosive Ordnance Disposal Administrative Complex at Eglin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE...Air Force Base, Florida To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 NOx (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000

  4. Final Environmental Assessment to Implement the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission Recommendations for Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE ... VOCE * DPYII/2000 Nox (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000 PM10(tons/yr) = PM10E * DPYII/2000 CO (tons/yr) = COE * DPYII/2000 Where: Commercial

  5. Environmental Impact of the Lead-Zinc Mine at Mestersvig, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Asmund, Gert; Aastrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Det danske selskab Nordisk Mineselskab drev en bly-zink mine ved Mestersvig i Østgrønland fra 1956 til 1963. Minedriften fandt sted under overfladen ca. 10 km inde i landet syd for Kong Oscars Fjord. Der blev brudt 554.000 tons malm og produceret 58.000 tons blykoncentrat og 75.000 tons zinkkonce...

  6. 25 CFR 214.10 - Royalty rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and allied substances, the lessee shall pay quarterly a royalty of 10 cents per ton of 2,000 pounds on crude material, and 60 cents per ton on refined substances. (d) For substances other than gold, silver... in the selling price per ton thereof over and above the following, which shall be the agreed base or...

  7. Acute toxicity of sea-dumped chemical munitions: Luminating the environmental toxicity of legacy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed Abdullah Christensen, Ilias; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses...

  8. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . 60-70%. Mullets w 11%. Pearl spot 10%. Catfish A 4 9%. Others v. 1%. For the entire Kerala backwaters the composition of the local catch in 1970 was. 14,000 to 17,000 tons of fish, 88,000 tons of claims and 1,70,000 tons of molluscan shells.

  9. Ameliorative properties of lignite fly ash in reclaiming saline and alkali soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalingam, P K

    1973-08-01

    Statistical analysis of the yield of rice grain and straw reveals that there is a significant increase in the yield of grain and straw due to the application of lignite fly ash over controls and application of lignite fly ash either at 5 tons or 10 tons per acre was on par with gypsum application at 5 tons/acre. Maximum yield was recorded in treatment with 5 tons of daincha plus 5 tons of lignite fly ash per acre. This is due to the combined effect of green manure and lignite fly ash. 4 references, 3 tables.

  10. Food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States. A status update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the status of food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States in 2010. Our results show that quantities of irradiated foods in Asia, the EU, and the US in 2010 were estimated at 285200, 9300, and 103000 tons, respectively. Compared with 2005, the quantity of irradiated foods was 100000 tons higher in Asia and 10000 tons higher in the US but 6000 tons lower in the EU. Thus, commercial food irradiation has increased significantly in Asia during the 5-year period studied. Phytosanitary irradiation of fruits and agricultural products has recently increased with 6 countries having irradiated 18500 tons in 2010. (author)

  11. Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Master Development Plan for Test Area D-51, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-25

    depending on the corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year...2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips To convert from pounds per day to tons per year...VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 NOx (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000 PM10 (tons/yr) = PM10E * DPYII/2000 CO (tons/yr) = COE * DPYII/2000

  12. Revised Final Environmental Review for the Construction of a New Base Exchange at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    factors depending on the corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262...Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips To convert from pounds per day to...tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 Nox (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000 PM10(tons/yr) = PM10E * DPYII/2000 CO (tons/yr) = COE * DPYII

  13. Environmental Assessment for Selected Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    applied to the following factors depending on the corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022...Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips To convert from...pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 Nox (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000 PM10(tons/yr) = PM10E * DPYII/2000 CO (tons

  14. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    1992-01-01

    The United States produced 257 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1992. This was the second highest quarterly production level ever recorded. US coal exports in January through March of 1992 were 25 million short tons, the highest first quarter since 1982. The leading destinations for US coal exports were Japan, Italy, France, and the Netherlands, together receiving 46 percent of the total. Coal exports for the first quarter of 1992 were valued at $1 billion, based on an average price of $42.28 per short ton. Steam coal exports totaled 10 million short tons, an increase of 34 percent over the level a year earlier. Metallurgical coal exports amounted to 15 million short tons, about the same as a year earlier. US coal consumption for January through March 1992 was 221 million short tons, 2 million short tons more than a year earlier (Table 45). All sectors but the residential and commercial sector reported increased coal consumption

  15. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 3. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 3). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the instrumentation design, such as the meter specifications, front view drawings for meter panels, drawings for panel arrangement in the central control room, a computer room layout drawing, control system explanation drawings, interlock diagrams, and the instrumentation power supply diagrams. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the achievements in the projects subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 2. Development of a coal liquefaction technology - development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology - 'development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant' (Development of a 50-t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 2). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Developmental researches were carried out on a liquefaction plant for the Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). In fiscal 1981, detailed design was performed on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. The present data is a collection of drawings in relation with the machine design, such as the piping specifications, standard piping drawings, piping design procedures, piping drawings, pipe lists, and device inspection specifications. In relation with the instrumentation design, the instrumentation engineering specifications and meter lists. (NEDO)

  17. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emission from paddy fields and uplands during 1990-2000 in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangshyng Yang; Chungming Liu; Yenlan Liu; Chaoming Lai

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the greenhouse gases emissions from paddy fields and uplands, methane and nitrous oxide emissions were estimated from local measurement and the IPCC guidelines during 1990-2000 in Taiwan. Annual methane emission from 182 807 to 242 298 ha of paddy field in the first crop season ranged from 8062 to 12 066 ton, and it was between 16 261 and 25 007 ton for 144 178-211 968 ha in the second crop season with local measurement. The value ranged from 12 132 to 17 465 ton, and from 16 046 to 24 762 ton of methane in the first and second crop season with the IPCC guidelines for multiple aeration treatments, respectively. Annual nitrous oxide emission was between 472 and 670 ton and between 236 and 359 ton in the first and second crop season, respectively. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from uplands depend on crop, growth season, fertilizer application and environmental conditions. Annual methane emission from upland crops, vegetable, fruit, ornamental plants, forage crops and green manure crops was 138-252, 412-460, 97-100, 3-5, 4-5 and 3-51 ton, respectively. Annual nitrous oxide emission was 1080-1976, 1784-1994, 2540-2622, 31-54, 43-53 and 38-582 ton, respectively. Annual nitrous oxide emission ranged from 91 to 132 ton for 77 593-112 095 ton of nitrogen-fixing crops, from 991 to 1859 ton for 325 9731-6 183 441 ton of non-nitrogen-fixing crops, and from 1.77 to 2.22 Gg for 921 169-1 172 594 ton of chemical fertilizer application. In addition, rice hull burning emitted 19.3-24.2 ton of methane and 17.2-21.5 ton of nitrous oxide, and corn stalk burning emitted 2.1-4.2 ton of methane and 1.9-3.8 ton of nitrous oxide. Methane emission from the agriculture sector was 26 421-37 914 ton, and nitrous oxide emission was 9810-11 649 ton during 1990-2000 in Taiwan. Intermittent irrigation in paddy fields reduces significantly methane emission; appropriate application of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation in uplands and paddy fields also decreases nitrous oxide

  18. Estimating the Population Impact of a New Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Program in England Using Social Media Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Moritz; Lampos, Vasileios; Yom-Tov, Elad; Pebody, Richard; Cox, Ingemar J

    2017-12-21

    The rollout of a new childhood live attenuated influenza vaccine program was launched in England in 2013, which consisted of a national campaign for all 2 and 3 year olds and several pilot locations offering the vaccine to primary school-age children (4-11 years of age) during the influenza season. The 2014/2015 influenza season saw the national program extended to include additional pilot regions, some of which offered the vaccine to secondary school children (11-13 years of age) as well. We utilized social media content to obtain a complementary assessment of the population impact of the programs that were launched in England during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 flu seasons. The overall community-wide impact on transmission in pilot areas was estimated for the different age groups that were targeted for vaccination. A previously developed statistical framework was applied, which consisted of a nonlinear regression model that was trained to infer influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from Twitter posts originating in pilot (school-age vaccinated) and control (unvaccinated) areas. The control areas were then used to estimate ILI rates in pilot areas, had the intervention not taken place. These predictions were compared with their corresponding Twitter-based ILI estimates. Results suggest a reduction in ILI rates of 14% (1-25%) and 17% (2-30%) across all ages in only the primary school-age vaccine pilot areas during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 influenza seasons, respectively. No significant impact was observed in areas where two age cohorts of secondary school children were vaccinated. These findings corroborate independent assessments from traditional surveillance data, thereby supporting the ongoing rollout of the program to primary school-age children and providing evidence of the value of social media content as an additional syndromic surveillance tool. ©Moritz Wagner, Vasileios Lampos, Elad Yom-Tov, Richard Pebody, Ingemar J Cox. Originally published in the

  19. Development and validation of a wear model for the analysis of the wheel profile evolution in railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auciello, J.; Ignesti, M.; Malvezzi, M.; Meli, E.; Rindi, A.

    2012-11-01

    The numerical wheel wear prediction in railway applications is of great importance for different aspects, such as the safety against vehicle instability and derailment, the planning of wheelset maintenance interventions and the design of an optimal wheel profile from the wear point of view. For these reasons, this paper presents a complete model aimed at the evaluation of the wheel wear and the wheel profile evolution by means of dynamic simulations, organised in two parts which interact with each other mutually: a vehicle's dynamic model and a model for the wear estimation. The first is a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle implemented in SIMPACK™, a commercial software for the analysis of mechanical systems, where the wheel-rail interaction is entrusted to a C/C++user routine external to SIMPACK, in which the global contact model is implemented. In this regard, the research on the contact points between the wheel and the rail is based on an innovative algorithm developed by the authors in previous works, while normal and tangential forces in the contact patches are calculated according to Hertz's theory and Kalker's global theory, respectively. Due to the numerical efficiency of the global contact model, the multibody vehicle and the contact model interact directly online during the dynamic simulations. The second is the wear model, written in the MATLAB® environment, mainly based on an experimental relationship between the frictional power developed at the wheel-rail interface and the amount of material removed by wear. Starting from a few outputs of the multibody simulations (position of contact points, contact forces and rigid creepages), it evaluates the local variables, such as the contact pressures and local creepages, using a local contact model (Kalker's FASTSIM algorithm). These data are then passed to another subsystem which evaluates, by means of the considered experimental relationship, both the material to be removed and its distribution along

  20. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) substance flow analysis for safe and sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Hwang, Yongwoo; Yoo, Mijin; Chen, Sha; Lee, Ik-Mo

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the chemical substance flow of hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, HF) in domestic chemical industries in 2014 was analyzed in order to provide a basic material and information for the establishment of organized management system to ensure safety during HF applications. A total of 44,751 tons of HF was made by four domestic companies (in 2014); import amount was 95,984 tons in 2014 while 21,579 tons of HF was imported in 2005. The export amount of HF was 2180 tons, of which 2074 ton (China, 1422 tons, U.S. 524 tons, and Malaysia, 128 tons) was exported for the manufacturing of semiconductors. Based on the export and import amounts, it can be inferred that HF was used for manufacturing semiconductors. The industries applications of 161,123 tons of HF were as follows: manufacturing of basic inorganic chemical substance (27,937 tons), manufacturing of other chemical products such as detergents (28,208 tons), manufacturing of flat display (24,896 tons), and manufacturing of glass container package (22,002 tons). In this study, an analysis of the chemical substance flow showed that HF was mainly used in the semiconductor industry as well as glass container manufacturing. Combined with other risk management tools and approaches in the chemical industry, the chemical substance flow analysis (CSFA) can be a useful tool and method for assessment and management. The current CSFA results provide useful information for policy making in the chemical industry and national systems. Graphical abstract Hydrogen fluoride chemical substance flows in 2014 in South Korea.

  2. The Stock Potency of Demersal Fish Resource at The Coastal Zone, East Kutai District in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliani Juliani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate the potency of demersal fish resource spread over three sub-districts i.e. Sangkulirang, Sandaran and Kaliorang in Kutai district, East Kalimantan province. The result showed that the highest total biomass was produced by aquatic zone of Sandaran sub-district with 1,763,713.6 ton/zone and the density stock was 13,566.5 kg/km2. It was followed by Sangkulirang sub-district with 264,653.3 ton/zone and 6,640.4 kg/km2, respectively and then by Kaliorang sub-district with 58.086,5 ton/zone and 2,768.0 kg/km2, respectively. In term of species particularly from crustaseaae family, the most economic aquatic zone was found in Sangkulirang sub-district. The export product species Penaeus sp was obtained from Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus sp, Parapenaeopsis sculptilis, Penaeus sp, and lobster which was accounted by 3,381.6 tons/zone, 83,199 tons/zone, 14,492.7 tons/zone, 24,691.3 tons/zone, 41,331.1 tons/zone, and 1,073.5 tons/zone, respectively. It was followed by Sandaran sub-district with export product species was Penaeus merguensis 33,495.7 tons/zone and non-export products were Parapenaeopsis sculptilis 63,641.7 tons/zone, Penaeus sp 16,747.8 tons/zone, Metapenaeus sp 1.674,8 tons/zone, Caridina sp 1.562.572,2 tons/zone, and Scylla serrata 3,349.6 tons/zone. Next was Kaliorang sub-district which accounted by Penaeus merguensis 62.2 tons/zone and Metapenaeus monoceros 49.7 tons/zone. In situ measurement on seven physical-chemical quality parameters of water which compared to the standardized of sea water showed that water quality found in coastal zone of Kaliorang, Sangkulirang and Sandaran sub-district, East Kutai province was suitable and feasible for the aquatic and living of marine habitats Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Status of food irradiation in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannonndai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Uenoyama, Naoki [Department of International Cooperation and Industrial Infrastructure Development, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Shimbashi Fuji Bld., 2-1-3, Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8605 Japan (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: kobayashi.yasuhiko@jaea.go.jp

    2009-03-15

    The status of food irradiation in the world in 2005 was investigated using published data, a questionnaire survey and direct visits. The results showed that the quantity of irradiated foods in the world in 2005 was 405,000 ton and comprised 1,86,000 ton (46%) for disinfection of spices and dry vegetables, 82,000 ton (20%) for disinfestation of grains and fruits, 32,000 ton (8%) for disinfection of meat and fish, 88,000 ton (22%) for sprout inhibition of garlic and potato, and 17,000 ton (4%) of other food items that included health foods, mushroom, honey, etc. Commercial food irradiation is increasing significantly in Asia, but decreasing in EU.

  4. The upper pennsylvanian pittsburgh coal bed: Resources and mine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Bragg, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a digital coal resource assessment model of the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed, which indicates that after subtracting minedout coal, 16 billion short tons (14 billion tonnes) remain of the original 34 billion short tons (31 billion tonnes) of coal. When technical, environmental, and social restrictions are applied to the remaining Pittsburgh coal model, only 12 billion short tons (11 billion tonnes) are available for mining. Our assessment models estimate that up to 0.61 billion short tons (0.55 billion tonnes), 2.7 billion short tons (2.4 billion tonnes), and 8.5 billion short tons (7.7 billion tonnes) could be available for surface mining, continuous mining, and longwall mining, respectively. This analysis is an example of a second-generation regional coal availability study designed to model recoverability characteristics for all the major coal beds in the United States. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  5. The use of corn (ZEA MAYS) biomass in drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The most important agricultural crop in the world, besides wheat and rice is corn. In the last 10 years, Republic of Croatia has produced about 2000000 tons of corn. Most of that is used for food and feed and for seed production and it is 1000000 tons in quantity. This quantity demands between 35000 to 40000 tons of oil. For the reason, this paper describes the possibilities of the substitution of oil with corn biomass after harvesting. (author)

  6. The use of corn (ZEA MAYS) biomass in drying process; Upotreba biomase kukuruza (ZEA MAYS) u procesu susenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kricka, T; Pliestic, S [Agronomski fakultet, Zavod za poljoprivrednu tehnologiju, skladistenje i transport, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    The most important agricultural crop in the world, besides wheat and rice is corn. In the last 10 years, Republic of Croatia has produced about 2000000 tons of corn. Most of that is used for food and feed and for seed production and it is 1000000 tons in quantity. This quantity demands between 35000 to 40000 tons of oil. For the reason, this paper describes the possibilities of the substitution of oil with corn biomass after harvesting. (author). 3 tabs., 13 refs.

  7. 2007 Joint Service Power Expo: Power and Energy Independence for Warfighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-26

    longitudinal, and lateral directions: - 55-ton overhead chain hoist - Remotely controlled 60-ton hydraulic load application system - Airbag inflation system...Step Apply & Load Dump Inductive Load Start Short Circuit Thermal Limits Step Load Steady State Thermal Loading 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 1.000...15 ton payload primary and secondary roads • MTVR Based Variants – Cargo, Dump Truck, Wrecker, HIMARS Re-Supply Vehicle, Tractor, LHS (load

  8. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  9. Coal's sleeping market: non-utility generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, R.L.; Knutson, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The article briefly profiles the coal market for non-utility generation (NUG). Coal consumption by NUGs, currently estimated at around 6.1 million tons, is projected to reach nearly 13.6 million tons by 1995 and 21.2 million tons by 2000. If the projected growth is achieved the NUG market may become one of the strongest market segments for the coal industry into the next century. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Development of nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolowski, E.

    1994-01-01

    The history and development of nuclear energetics in Sweden has been described. Up to now 12 units (9 BWR and 3 PWR nuclear reactors) with total 70 TWh electric power is being working in Sweden. If the same power will be installed as a coal-fired units the emissions of 65 million tons of CO 2 , 240,000 tons of SO 2 and 140 tons of NO x would be expected. 1 tab

  11. Lake Holloman Recreational Area Development Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    facilities Total daily trips are applied to the following factors depending on the corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016...Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022...Trips COE = .262 * Trips To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 NOx (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000

  12. Final Environmental Assessment for the Military Family Housing Privatization Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Appendix A Additional Materials Final...Environmental Assessment Page A-39 Military Family Housing Privatization Initiative Robins Air Force Base, Georgia Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE ...yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 NOx (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000 PM10 (tons/yr) = PM10E * DPYII/2000 CO (tons/yr) = COE * DPYII/2000 Where: Area of

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for the Okaloosa Regional Airport Expansion at Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    construction Total daily trips are then applied to the following factors depending on the corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE ...016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E...0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 Nox (tons/yr) = NOxE

  14. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada

  15. Development of Siberian wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, V

    1977-10-01

    A railway is being built towards the Nerungri coal basin with estimated coal reserves reaching 40,000-million tons. A 13-million ton/year opencast coal mine with a concentrating plant having a capacity of 9-million tons of coal concentrate is to be built on the bank of the Nerungri River. Other plans for the town of Nerungri, the Baikal-Amur Railway, and the Achisay Ore Center are also discussed.

  16. TONNEAU2/FASS Regulates the Geometry of Microtubule Nucleation and Cortical Array Organization in Interphase Arabidopsis Cells[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirik, Angela; Ehrhardt, David W.; Kirik, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Organization of microtubules into ordered arrays involves spatial and temporal regulation of microtubule nucleation. Here, we show that acentrosomal microtubule nucleation in plant cells involves a previously unknown regulatory step that determines the geometry of microtubule nucleation. Dynamic imaging of interphase cortical microtubules revealed that the ratio of branching to in-bundle microtubule nucleation on cortical microtubules is regulated by the Arabidopsis thaliana B′′ subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, which is encoded by the TONNEAU2/FASS (TON2) gene. The probability of nucleation from γ-tubulin complexes localized at the cell cortex was not affected by a loss of TON2 function, suggesting a specific role of TON2 in regulating the nucleation geometry. Both loss of TON2 function and ectopic targeting of TON2 to the plasma membrane resulted in defects in cell shape, suggesting the importance of TON2-mediated regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton in cell morphogenesis. Loss of TON2 function also resulted in an inability for cortical arrays to reorient in response to light stimulus, suggesting an essential role for TON2 and microtubule branching nucleation in reorganization of microtubule arrays. Our data establish TON2 as a regulator of interphase microtubule nucleation and provide experimental evidence for a novel regulatory step in the process of microtubule-dependent nucleation. PMID:22395485

  17. GROWTH AND YIELD OF ORGANIC RICE WITH COW MANURE APPLICATION IN THE FIRST CROPPING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Arif Sudarsono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was addressed to investigating the effect of cow manure application rate on organic rice growth and yield in the first cropping season. The study was conducted from January to April 2012 in Blora, Central Java, Indonesia. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design, consisting of four treatments and four replications. There were two types of control treatments i.e. organic fertilizer treatments (statistically analyzed and conventional fertilizer (not statistically analyzed. The treatments were corn biomass, corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1, corn biomass+cow manure (10 tons ha-1 and cow manure (10 tons ha-1 with square spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm. The organic control treatments were corn biomass+sheep manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with double-row spacing of 40 cm x 25 cm x 15 cm. For every treatment, the rate of corn biomass was 3 tons ha-1. All organic treatments were also added with 3 tons rice hull ash ha-1. The application of cow manure (10 tons ha-1 with square spacing or corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with double-row spacing resulted in better performance than those of other treatments.

  18. Principal Ports and Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...

  19. Pengaruh Pemberian Kompos Jerami Dan Pupuk Sp-36 Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Terhadap Perubahan Sifat Kimia Serta Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi (Oryza Sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakari, Herlina Eka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of rice straw compost and the application of phosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils, rice growth and production (Oryza sativa L). This study used a randomized block design factorial, with 2 factors : factor 1 : rice straw compost treatment (J) wich consist of : J0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0 g straw/pot) ; J1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g straw/pot); J2 = 20 ton ha-1 (80 g straw /pot); J3 = 30 ton ha-1 ...

  20. Kajian Sifat Kimia Tanah, Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Akibat Pemberian Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dan Pupuk Sp-36

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Sri Wahyuni; Fauzi, Fauzi; Purba, Marpaung

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of empty palm oil bunch compost (EPOBC) andthe application of phosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils,rice growth and production (Oryza sativa L.). This study used a randomized block design factorial,with 2 factors: factor 1: compost EPOBC treatment (B) which consist of: B0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0g EPOBC/pot) ; B1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g EPOBC/pot); B2 = 20 ton ha-1 (80 g EPOBC/pot);B3 = 30 ton ha-1 (120 g EPOB...

  1. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  2. Humus application produced by organic waste transformation in growing lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, M. G.; Morales Osorio, A.; Gutierrez Martinez, R.; Marquez Monsalvo, J. J.; Reyes Reyes, G.

    2009-01-01

    Every year in Mexico are produced more tons of garbage (19 874 259 tons) than tons of corn (18 309 000 tons). Fifty percent of domestic garbage is constituted by organic remainders. In december 2005 began de project Biotransformation of Organic Remainders in Humus for its Application in growing Lands with the purpose to prove the methods of: 1) Natural outdoors transformation, 2) Accelerated fermentation with thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms, and 3) Transformation with microorganisms such as californian red worm, Eisenia andrei, to transform efficiently fruits and vegetables remainders. (Author)

  3. Marine mud and manure treatment in Ultisols increase pH and phosphate availability and affectCapsicum annum L. grows and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Matulessy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine mud and manure has potentially to improve ultisol soil condition, especially in soil acidity, CEC, base saturation, neutralizing organic acid, improving soil structure, soil nutrient retention, aeration, soil humidity, capacity of water holding capacity and infiltration and enhance the rapid supply of phosphate for plant grows and development. Two treatments, namely planting media with 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure and 400 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure were able to increase pH from 4.6 to 5.6.Significant decrease of Alexcsolubility about 0.03 meq.100 g-1 was found in M1O3; M2O1; M2O3 and M3O1 treatment about. Increase of phosphate about 5.02 ppm was found at treatment 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure. There are significant interaction in plant high about 62.42 cm in the media without marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1manure treatments. The amount of 30 ton,ha-1manure produce plant with leaf size about 95,52 cm2.tan-1and produce fresh fruit about 9.81 ton.ha-1.

  4. Wrestling with data: Establishing a national waste information baseline for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ) Waste Type Identified Quantity Estimated Quantity % error between identified and estimated quantity Medical Waste 125 tons/month 205 tons/month 61.0 Oil/Grease Wastes 160 tons/month 400 tons/month 40.0 Used Oil 0.79 million litres/year 9 million... Regulations. Accuracy of data is a second concern that requires urgent attention. Implementation of the SAWIS and reaping the benefit of such a system is highly dependent on the availability of accurate data. It is however envisaged that accuracy of waste...

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for the Military Family Housing Privatization Initiative Columbus Air Force Base, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-03

    daily trips are applied to the following factors depending on the corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015...Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE...262 * Trips To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 NOx (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII/2000 PM10 (tons/yr

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for Construction of a Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory Facility on Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    daily trips are then applied to the following factors depending on the corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE...015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE...262 * Trips E = emissions To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 lbs/ton NOx (tons/yr) = NOxE * DPYII

  7. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons

  8. Principal Ports and Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...

  9. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  10. What is more dangerous: Nuclear power plants or carbon fired power plants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruc, J [Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper environmental impacts of radionuclides and other pollutants released into environment from nuclear power plants (NPP) and coal fired power plants (CFPP) are compared. Assuming coal contains uranium and thorium concentrations of 1.3 ppm and 3.2 ppm, respectively, each typical 1000 MW{sub e} CFPP released 5.2 tons of uranium (containing 36.92 kg of U-235) and 12.8 tons of thorium. Total releases in 1990 from worldwide combustion of {approx}3300 million tons of coal totaled {approx}4552 tons of uranium (contains {approx}32317 kg of uranium-235) and {approx}10860 tons of thorium are estimated. Based on the predicted combustion of 12,580 million tons worldly during the year 2040, cumulative releases for the 100 years of coal combustion following 1937 were predicted to be Planetary release (from combustion of 637,409 million tons): uranium: 828,632 tons (containing 5883 tons of uranium-235); thorium: 2,039,709 tons. According to the NCRP, the average radioactivity is 427 {mu}Ci/t of coal. This value was used to calculate the average expected radioactivity release from coal combustion. For 1990 the total release of radioactivity from worldwide 3300 million tons coal combustion was, therefore about 1,41 MCi. Another unrecognized problem is the gradual production of plutonium 239 through the exposure of uranium-238 in coal waste to neutrons from the cosmic rays. Other environmental impacts from NPP and CFPP are discussed. The fact that large quantities of uranium and thorium are released from CFPPs without restriction increases a paradoxical situation. Considering that the nuclear power industry has been compelled to invest in expensive measures to greatly reduce releases of radionuclides from nuclear fuel and fission products to the environment, should coal-fired power plants be allowed to do so without constraints. (J.K.) 1 tab., 15 refs.

  11. What is more dangerous: Nuclear power plants or carbon fired power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper environmental impacts of radionuclides and other pollutants released into environment from nuclear power plants (NPP) and coal fired power plants (CFPP) are compared. Assuming coal contains uranium and thorium concentrations of 1.3 ppm and 3.2 ppm, respectively, each typical 1000 MW e CFPP released 5.2 tons of uranium (containing 36.92 kg of U-235) and 12.8 tons of thorium. Total releases in 1990 from worldwide combustion of ∼3300 million tons of coal totaled ∼4552 tons of uranium (contains ∼32317 kg of uranium-235) and ∼10860 tons of thorium are estimated. Based on the predicted combustion of 12,580 million tons worldly during the year 2040, cumulative releases for the 100 years of coal combustion following 1937 were predicted to be Planetary release (from combustion of 637,409 million tons): uranium: 828,632 tons (containing 5883 tons of uranium-235); thorium: 2,039,709 tons. According to the NCRP, the average radioactivity is 427 μCi/t of coal. This value was used to calculate the average expected radioactivity release from coal combustion. For 1990 the total release of radioactivity from worldwide 3300 million tons coal combustion was, therefore about 1,41 MCi. Another unrecognized problem is the gradual production of plutonium 239 through the exposure of uranium-238 in coal waste to neutrons from the cosmic rays. Other environmental impacts from NPP and CFPP are discussed. The fact that large quantities of uranium and thorium are released from CFPPs without restriction increases a paradoxical situation. Considering that the nuclear power industry has been compelled to invest in expensive measures to greatly reduce releases of radionuclides from nuclear fuel and fission products to the environment, should coal-fired power plants be allowed to do so without constraints. (J.K.)

  12. Survey of United States uranium marketing activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Krusiewski, S.V.

    1980-07-01

    In 1979 US buyers contracted for a net increase of 15,400 tons U 3 O 8 in new procurement after deducting for changes to January 1, 1979, commitments. Export commitments made in 1979 totalled 2800 tons, while import commitments amounted to 1000 tons U 3 O 8 . Buyers' inventories of domestic- and foreign-origin normal and enriched uranium increased to 52,300 tons U 3 O 8 during 1979, with the larger part of the increase being in enriched uranium. The average price reported for 1979 deliveries was $23.85 per pound of U 3 O 8 . Settlements of market price contracts average $42.55 for 1979 delivery and $45.80 for 1980 delivery. Producers expect to be able to offer 33,700 tons U 3 O 8 for sale in the 1980-1985 period, about 20% less than was estimated in the 1979 survey. Utilities made sales of 500 tons U 3 O 8 for 1979-1980 delivery as well as loans of 1600 tons U 3 O 8 that are to be repaid by 1984; more than half of these sales or loans were made to uranium producers. Reactor manufacturers have sold about 1100 tons U 3 O 8 since January 1, 1979, and loaned 120 tons. Unfilled requirements have decreased more than 100,000 tons U 3 O 8 since January 1, 1978, and currently total 75,700 tons U 3 O 8 . Responses to the 1980 survey suggest that there seems to be an adequate supply of uranium to meet US demand at least through 1985

  13. 77 FR 52073 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to..., 2012, July 31, 2012, XW012/ radioactive total of 5,500 materials and/or 02, 11005699. waste including tons or about radioactive various 1,000 tons waste that is materials (e.g., metal, 4,000 attributed to...

  14. 40 CFR 98.423 - Calculating CO2 supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 98.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... quarterly the mass of CO2 in a CO2 stream in metric tons, prior to any subsequent purification, processing... stream in metric tons, prior to any subsequent purification, processing, or compressing, by multiplying...

  15. Value addition to locally produced soybean in Ghana: production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana produces about 50,000 metric tons of soy beans per annum, of which only about 15 metric tons are utilized. One aspect of utilizing the beans is in the production of soy sauce, a product whose demand is on the increase due to changing food habits of the Ghanaian society. A preliminary attempt to produce soy sauce ...

  16. Activities of four bus terminals of Semarang City gateway and the related GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Wardhana, I. W.; Sutrisno, E.; Wangi, L. S.; Lina, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    The activities of the bus terminal, including loading-unloading passengers, bus idling, and bus movements at the terminal, will emit GHG’s emission. This research analyzes GHG emission from four terminals, i.e., Mangkang, Terboyo, Penggaron, and Sukun in Semarang City. The emission was estimated by observing detail activities of public transport means, especially for moving and idling time. The emission was calculated by Tier 2 method based on the vehicle type as well as fuel consumption. The highest CO2e during vehicle movements at Sukun area was contributed by large bus about 2.08 tons/year, while at Terboyo terminal was contributed by medium bus about 347.97 tons/year. At Mangkang terminals, the highest emission for vehicle movements was attributed by medium bus as well of about 53.18 tons/year. At last, Penggaron terminal’s highest GHG emission was attributed by BRT about 26.47 tons/year. During idling time, the highest contributor to CO2e was the large bus at the three terminals, i.e., Sukun of 43.53 tons/year, Terboyo of 196.56 tons/year, and Mangkang of 84.26 tons/year, while at Penggaron, BRT dominated with CO2e of 26.47 tons/year. The management of public transport in terminals is crucial to mitigate the emission related to bus terminals activities.

  17. Helianthus tuberosus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... The first frost kills the stems and leaves, but tubers withstand freezing for months. Average tuber yields of 16 to 20 ton/ha may be expected from crops grown under ordinary farm conditions. Yields of tops for forage average are 18 to 28 ton/ha green weight (Duke,. 1983). The effect of cutting of Helianthus ...

  18. Plastics Derived from Biological Sources: Present and Future: A Technical and Environmental Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the time period 2010 2015, the worldwide annual production of plastics is very likely to surpass 300 million tons,1,2 requiring multiple amounts of petroleum and leading to hundreds of millions of tons ofCO2 in addition to health risks for the public due to the release of other types of

  19. 76 FR 7633 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... walruses consume approximately 3 million metric tons (3,307 tons) of benthic biomass annually, and that the... prey use described here. Walruses typically swallow invertebrates without shells in their entirety (Fay 1982, p. 165). Walruses remove the soft parts of mollusks from their shells by suction, and discard the...

  20. Corrigendum to “Metal scarcity and sustainability, analyzing the necessity to reduce the extraction of scarce metals” [Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 93 1–8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors regret to inform that there is error in the zirconium data provided in Table 2. For zirconium, Table 2 of the publication erroneously states a 2010 extraction of 1250 tons of Zirconium. This should be 1,250,000 tons of Zirconium mineral gross weight. According to a USGS publication of

  1. Quantifying urban forest structure, function, and value: the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; David Nowak; Gordon Heisler; Sue Grimmond; Catherine Souch; Rich Grant; Rowan Rowntree

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review of research in Chicago that linked analyses of vegetation structure with forest functions and values. During 1991, the region's trees removed an estimated 5575 metric tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing worth $9.2 million. Each year they sequester an estimated 315 800 metric tons of carbon. Increasing tree cover 10% or planting...

  2. Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    services, such as maternal child health, rehabilitation services, and chronic diseases including diabetes , heart disease, HIV, and tuberculosis...Prince Paraguay 5,000 kilos of food; 400 blankets; 13 volunteers Peru 54 tons of food and medicine Philippines $50,000 medical team Poland...5,000 kilos of food; 400 blankets; 13 volunteers Peru 54 tons of food and medicine Saint Lucia

  3. Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Western Europe, approximately 25% of the 200 million tons of municipal solid waste that is generated each year is of organic origin and therefore compostable. Presently 35% of this organic waste is composted, resulting in 9 million tons of compost, and used mainly in agriculture,

  4. RETROFIT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL FILTER FOR RESTAURANT UNDERFIRED CHARBROILERS - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each day about 700,000 U.S. food service operations/restaurants emit more than 285 tons of particulate matter (PM) and more than 41 tons of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a significant source of environmental air pollution that can adversely impact health. An estimated 32...

  5. FY 2000 report on the survey of geological structures overseas, etc. Volume 1. 'Tanjung Enim IV Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia'; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. 1. Nippon Indonesia sekitan kyodo tansa Tanjung Enim project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of the surveys in the final fiscal year (FY 2000) and in the past five years of the Tanjung Enim IV Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia. In FY 2000, conducted in the South Arahan area were the surface reconnaissance (50km+ACI-2), boring survey (11 holes, 1,847m), borehole physical logging (11 holes), reflection method seismic survey (3 traverse lines), pumping test, coal analysis (112 specimens), etc. As a result of the exploration/study made during 5 years, coal reserves in the South Arahan area were 223 million tons in north block (proved coal reserves: 213 million tons) and 332 million tons (proved coal reserves: 303 million tons) in south block. The coal in the area is in the depth of {+-}0m from surface, and the coal reserve is enough for large scale open pit mining. Further, coal reserves in the Banjarsari area were 442 million tons (proved coal reserves: 330 million tons) in the whole area and 223 million tons (proved coal reserves: 214 million tons) in the syncline part. About the syncline part promising as that for open pit mining, the overburden ratio was divided into three for calculation: 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 or below. (NEDO)

  6. Environmental factors affecting recruitment of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Siegstad, H.

    2012-01-01

    Survey estimates of biomass of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters increased from about 178000 tons in 1998 to about 598000 tons in 2003. The increase in stock size was preceded by several consecutive years in which recruitment was substantially above average. Recruitment...

  7. Chemistry of nickel and copper production from sulphide ores | Love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nickel is one of Zimbabwe's principle metallurgical exports. It is processed to a very high level of purity and hence has a high value. The economics of nickel production can be difficult, as the selling value of nickel varies tremendously with time, from a low of US$ 3 900 per ton in late 1998 to US$ 10 100 per ton in May 2000, ...

  8. 2001-2002 carbon dioxide emissions in OECD; Emissions de CO{sub 2} dues a l'energie dans l'OCDE en 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    This document provides carbon dioxide emissions data, from energy uses and production, from 2001 to 2002 in the OECD. It concerns the climate corrected CO{sub 2} emissions in France, the non corrected CO{sub 2} emissions (M tons), the emissions intensity / the Gross Domestic Product and the emissions intensity / the population (tons per inhabitant). (A.L.B.)

  9. 2001-2002 carbon dioxide emissions in OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This document provides carbon dioxide emissions data, from energy uses and production, from 2001 to 2002 in the OECD. It concerns the climate corrected CO 2 emissions in France, the non corrected CO 2 emissions (M tons), the emissions intensity / the Gross Domestic Product and the emissions intensity / the population (tons per inhabitant). (A.L.B.)

  10. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Wwww of... - Data Requirements for New and Existing Continuous Lamination Lines and Continuous Casting Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Continuous Lamination Lines and Continuous Casting Lines Complying With a Lbs/Ton Organic HAP Emissions Limit... Requirements for New and Existing Continuous Lamination Lines and Continuous Casting Lines Complying With a Lbs... with a lbs/ton organic HAP emissions limit for continuous lamination lines and continuous casting lines...

  11. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  12. Progress in the chemistry of shortleaf and loblolly pine bark flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Hemingway

    1976-01-01

    The forest products industries of the southern United States harvest approximately 7 million dry tons of pine bark each year. This resource receives little utilization other than recovery of fuel values. approximately 2 million dry tons (30-40% of bark dry weight) of potentially valuable polyflavonoids are burned annually. Conifer bark flavonoids have potential...

  13. 40 CFR 98.363 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion device (metric tons CH4/yr). V = Average annual volumetric flow rate, calculated in Equation JJ-7... CH4 flow to digester combustion device, as calculated in Equation JJ-6 of this section (metric tons CH4). DE = CH4 destruction efficiency from flaring or burning in engine (lesser of manufacturer's...

  14. Institutional factors in resource recovery co-disposal demonstration project, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Spring 1980 - Summer 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, R. M.

    1982-02-01

    A proposal to provide 1200 tons per day of solid waste disposal combined with 200 tons per day of sludge disposal was presented. The prospects for codisposal in Middlesex County were analyzed. Technically, codisposal was possible, however, it lacked a proven track record. Proposal for a resource recovery plant to be designed, built, and operated was acknowledged as consistent with County planning.

  15. Toward Improved Environmental and Social Management of Indian Shrimp Farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, Indian shrimp aquaculture production tripled from 30,000 tons (1990) to 102,000 tons (1999). This fast development, combined with a lack of adequate planning and regulation, caused a number of environmental problems and social conflicts, including conversion of mangroves, water

  16. America's War on Cocaine: The National Drug Control Supply Reduction Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasicot, Gary

    2004-01-01

    ...) estimates that the annual U.S. consumption of cocaine exceeds 300 metric tons. To satisfy this demand for the illicit drug, the IACM estimates that over 500 metric tons of cocaine is shipped from South America to the United States annually...

  17. Field and laboratory investigation of warm mix asphalt in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    During the first half of this research study, TxDOT had only placed 1000 tons of warm mix asphalt : (WMA) as part of a demonstration project. By the end of this three year study, TxDOT had placed more : than 1,000,000 tons of WMA and allowed its use ...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5915 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Notifications, Reports, and... section, when complying with the percent reduction and/or lbs/ton requirements specified in paragraphs (a... determine percent reduction and/or lbs/ton as applicable; (2) You must keep a brief description of the...

  19. S. Afr. Tydskr. Veek. I I , 2BS -286 ( I 98 I ) NAVORSINGSBERIG DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die produksie van lusernhooi het toegeneem vanaf. 448 000 ton in die l95ll52 seisoen tot | 254 000 ton in die 1979180 seisoen (Kortbegrip van l-andboustati- stiek, l98l). Verder is dit insiggewend om daarop te let dat lusemhooi nagenoeg3g/' bydra tot die hoeveelheid proteibne geproduseer uit die proteibnryke voersoorte ...

  20. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

    2014-09-15

    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Summary of coal production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Data are presented on the productivity of surface and underground coal mining from Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming, and remaining US states. Productivity data are given as tons per employee-hour as well as total tons for 1989 through 1998. The number of fatal accidents is also given

  2. U.S. Trends in Solid Waste Management and GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, 243 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) was produced in the United States. Currently, 34% of the 243 million tons of MSW is recovered and recycled or composted which conserves energy and natural resources as well as avoid waste disposal. Of the remaining MSW th...

  3. Towards sustainable fish feed production using novel protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fish and fish-related products is increasing. Due to improved welfare and suggested health benefits, consumers are now eating more fish. In 2008, global fisheries supplied the world with about 142 million tons of fish, of which 115 million tons was used as human food, which is

  4. Effect of support on hydro-metathesis of propene: A comparative study of W(CH 3 ) 6 anchored to silica vs. silica-alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Tretiakov, Mykyta; Samantaray, Manoja; Saidi, Aya; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Hydro-metathesis of propene was carried out by using well-defined W(CH3)6 supported on silica and silica-alumina. It was observed that W(CH3)6 supported silica-alumina catalyst is much better (TON 4577) than the silica supported catalyst (TON 2104

  5. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2008-03-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  6. 21 CFR 558.460 - Penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin. 558.460 Section 558.460 Food and Drugs... Animal Feeds § 558.460 Penicillin. (a) Specifications. As penicillin procaine G or feed grade penicillin.... (1) It is used as follows: Penicillin in grams per ton Combination in grams per ton Indications for...

  7. 7 CFR 457.124 - Raisin crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh fruit on acreage where appropriate cultural practices were followed. Ton—Two thousand (2,000... delivered tons; or (2) For units damaged by rain—By adding the delivered tons to any verified loss of... unit; (e) Final adjustment of a loss on a unit; or (f) Abandonment of the raisins. 10. Causes of Loss...

  8. Financial Management of Hazardous Waste Compliance and Mitigation Costs: Constraints and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    materials. TABLE I DRMO Market Price Paper $ 45 / ton Canvas $ 0.024 / lb Aluminum $ 0.26/1b Tires * $ 0.02 / lb Corrugated $ 63 /ton Silver Reclaimed...quality control check in accordance with their permit requirements. They pull samples and do a fingerprint analysis. If during that analysis they find that

  9. 78 FR 53285 - Seagoing Barges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...) exemption, or as a rational business decision meant to facilitate the barge's anticipated near-term use for... 100 gross tons making voyages beyond the statutorily defined Boundary Line.\\1\\ In 1997, the Coast... of ``seagoing barge,'' (``a non- self-propelled vessel of at least 100 gross tons . . . making...

  10. 76 FR 56394 - Kootenai National Forest, Sanders, County, MT; Rock Creek Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... be driven from the adit every 500 feet to provide turnouts for vehicle passing, sump construction, and space for pump installations. About 90,000 tons of barren development rock and 88,000 tons of ore... environmental review process. First, reviewers of draft environmental impact statements must structure their...

  11. Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Master Development Plan for Test Area D-51 Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips...NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII

  12. Final Environmental Assessment: For Construction of an Addition to the Joint Strike Fighter Reprogramming Facility, Building 614, on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013...Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips E = emissions To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000 lbs

  13. Contribution of Nutrients and some Trace Metals from a Huge Egyptian Drain to the SE-Mediterranean Sea, west of Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. EL-RAYIS

    2006-06-01

    The present work is a monthly study over a year of levels of concentration of some mainly trace elements (nutrients and some heavy metals in the proper water of the drain before mixing and in the effl uent from the lake, and calculations of both the concentrations and the corresponding expected loads of these elements contributed by the drain to the sea. The results revealed that the respective loads to the sea are 77380 ton/year for total suspended matter, 823 tons/year for dissolved PO4 -P, 4745 tons/year for inorganic N, 23.7 tons/year for Fe, 3.28 tons/year for Mn, 5.84 tons/year for Cu, 2.9 ton/year for Cd, and 24 tons/year for Zn. The elements loaded by the lake effl uent represent values ranging between 8 and 57.5% of the total load contributed by the drain to the sea. The plant nutrients (ammonia and reactive phosphorus are of values exceeding 44%.

  14. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing requirement... include import quantity (metric tons), import Customs value (U.S. $), and average unit value ($/metric ton... and will also present a range of historical data for comparison purposes. Provision of this aggregate...

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Highlands (40 ton/day), Labuan (60 tons/day) and one mass scale .... ethics are essentially closely related with the intrinsic value and beliefs, religions have been .... Similarly, deleting any inner self causes environmental crisis, which is ... maxims that can be referred is, “harm must be eliminated” (al darara ...

  16. Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes for yield and oil quality under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The total consumption of edible oil amounted to 2.381 million tons during 2007 - 2008; local production of edible oil was estimated at 0.833 million tons and the remaining ... susceptible to a number of pests, insect control need more care to reduce losses and check costly pesticide damaging to honeybees ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1183 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1183 ref|YP_420327.1| Periplasmic protein TonB [Magnetospirillum magne...ticum AMB-1] dbj|BAE49768.1| Periplasmic protein TonB [Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1] YP_420327.1 0.019 25% ...

  18. An assessment of uncertainty in forest carbon budget projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Estimates of uncertainty are presented for projections of forest carbon inventory and average annual net carbon flux on private timberland in the US using the model FORCARB. Uncertainty in carbon inventory was approximately ±9% (2000 million metric tons) of the estimated median in the year 2000, rising to 11% (2800 million metric tons) in projection year 2040...

  19. Biomassawerf Rova

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, G.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Het idee van een biomassawerf (vorm van grondstoffenbank) sluit goed aan bij de rol en positie die Rova vervult in de afvalverwerkingsketen en het streven naar hoogwaardige recycling. In de regio IJssel Vecht zamelt Rova ca. 33.500 ton gft in, in de overige regio’s ca. 9.500 ton. Andere stromen die

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_002678 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002678 gi|13473528 >1u07A 4 89 172 254 2e-09 ... ref|NP_105096.1| energy transduce...r TonB [Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099] ... dbj|BAB50882.1| energy transducer; TonB [Mesorhizobium ...

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_006513 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein, possibly TonB-like energy transducer ... [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07122.1| hypothetical ... ... ... protein, possibly TonB-like energy transducer [Azoarcus ... sp. EbN1] ... Length = 87 ... Q

  2. A study of facilities relative to stabilization of uranium mill tailings at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The total project capital cost of facilities to stabilize uranium mill tailings at Elliot Lake while producing 350,000 short tons per year of sulphuric acid and 266,000 short tons per year of triple superphosphate is approximately 153 million dollars. This includes pyrite flotation, roasting, acid and phosphate production, site preparation, utilities and project overhead. A new operating credit of 20.43 dollars per short ton of acid is estimated, achieved from the sale of steam and fertilizer. Two alternatives to the above were also examined, as follows: a) Production of 596,000 short tons per year of acid, and the sale of 246,000 short tons which are in excess of the Elliot Lake mill's requirement. The capital cost of this scheme is approximately 89 million dollars, with a net operating credit of 14.97 dollars per short ton of acid. b) Production of only 350,000 short tons per year of acid. This would entail disposal of the excess pyrite floated from the Rio Algom mills. The capital cost of this scheme is approximately 75 million dollars, with an operating cost of 10.47 dollars per short ton of acid

  3. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  4. Improving U.S.-India HA/DR Coordination in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Indian Navy’s amphibious ships—INS Gharial, INS Mahish, INS Cheetah , and INS Kumbhir—shipped rice and other relief materials to Chittagong. Of the four...ships, INS Cheetah arrived first, on December 8, with 250 tons of rice. The tank-landing ship INS Gharial transported 4,000 tons of rice to

  5. 21 CFR 558.305 - Laidlomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use... Type B feeds may be manufactured from dry laidlomycin Type A articles. The liquid Type B feeds must... follows: Laidlomycin in grams per ton Combination in grams per ton Indications for use Limitations Sponsor...

  6. 21 CFR 558.665 - Zilpaterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in...) Type B Liquid Feeds can be manufactured containing 68 to 680 g zilpaterol hydrochloride/ton. The liquid... grams/ton Indications for use Limitations Sponsor (1) 6.8 to provide 60 to 90 mg/head/day Cattle fed in...

  7. Summary of coal production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the productivity of surface and underground coal mining from Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming, and remaining US states. Productivity data are given as tons per employee-hour as well as total tons for 1990 through 1997. The number of fatal accidents is also given

  8. Estimation of risks associated to land transport of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Tomachevsky, E.

    1987-01-01

    The system analysed concerns the packaging 48Y containing about 12 tons of hexafluoride, 1000 tons/year are forecasted for 1990 on the 900 km road Pierrelatte-Le Havre (France). Probabilities are given by the accident file, container failure by impact or fire and sanitary consequences are analysed. Risk is evaluated and discussed [fr

  9. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates. (a) Each U.S. oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above... Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate. (b) Each oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above and each... construction, equipment, fittings, or arrangements required by the pollution prevention requirements of parts...

  10. 40 CFR 98.86 - Data reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tons CO2/metric ton CKD produced). (12) Annual organic carbon content of each raw material (wt-fraction... (number of quarters) (vi) Organic carbon contents of raw materials (number of times). (vii) Raw material...) Monthly fraction of total CaO, total MgO, non-calcined CaO and non-calcined MgO in clinker for each kiln...

  11. 40 CFR 98.343 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (fraction); default is 1. DOC = Degradable organic carbon from Table HH-1 of this subpart or measurement data, if available [fraction (metric tons C/metric ton waste)]. DOCF = Fraction of DOC dissimilated (fraction); default is 0.5. F = Fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas from measurement data, if...

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIMAL MANURES ON SOIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    tons/ha and 13.4 tons/ha of poultry, goat and dairy cow manure will suffice the requirement of. 40 kg N/ha and 20 ..... supplementation with inorganic P sources. Rate. Manure ... organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science.

  13. RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF GROUNDNUT PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    2012-09-28

    Sep 28, 2012 ... A stratified sampling technique was employed to select 58 respondents. ... there is still opportunity to increase their production to attain optimal economic efficiency. The ... metric tons and an average productivity of 1.4 metric tons /ha. Developing ... The educated population are gainfully employed in some.

  14. Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1986. Part 1. Waterways and Harbors, Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-31

    AHARfl THENCE IN DECEMBER 1996, 16.9 FEET ToI LOSDELL CANAL, I.? -ILES; THENCE IN MAY 1984, 11.3 FEET TO MARKET STREET BRIDGE AT WIL4149TON, ?.1 MILES...389,252 FREIGHT TRAFFIC, 1986 OCEANGnING (SHORT TONS) FOREIGN DOMESTIC COASToIsE COM4OO TY TOTAL IMPORTS ESPORTS RECEIPTS SHIPMENTS TOTAL

  15. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 88 ± 36 g CH 4 ton -1 , and 69 ± 16 g N 2 O ton -1 , while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH 4 ton -1 and 259.76 g N 2 O ton -1 , and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 43.44 g CH 4 ton -1 and 401.21 g N 2 O ton -1 , respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for A facility and 11,082 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 for A facility and 32,916 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 , indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 , while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 . The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and

  16. Survey of United States uranium marketing activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusiewski, S.V.; Thomas, D.C.; Patterson, J.A.

    1981-06-01

    In 1980 US buyers contracted for 12,500 short tons U 3 O 8 in new procurement. Nontheless, there was a net decrease of 13,100 tons in total commitments as of January 1, 1981, because of even larger changes to the delivery commitments as of January 1, 1980. The average contract price of domestic uranium was $28.15 per pound of U 3 O 8 for 1980 delivery and $30.70 for 1981 delivery. Settlements of domestic market price contracts averaged $36.75 for 1980 delivery and $46.80 for 1981 delivery. Prices of foreign uranium averaged $43.10 for 1980 delivery and $40.00 for 1981 delivery. Producers expect to be able to offer 21,800 tons U 3 O 8 for sale in the 1981 to 1985 period, about 30 percent less than was estimated in the 1980 survey. US producers also estimated that 30,600 tons U 3 O 8 would be available for sale in the 1986 to 1990 period. Utilities made sales of 800 tons U 3 O 8 for 1980 to 1981 delivery as well as loans of another 800 tons. New export commitments made in 1980 totalled 4000 tons U 3 O 8 ; however, 2500 tons of these commitments are options or delivery is contingent on price developments. Import commitments made in 1980 totalled 2300 tons U 3 O 8 . Inventories of natural and enriched uranium held by US buyers increased from 52,300 to 63,400 tons U 3 O 8 during 1980. In addition, inventories of uranium held by US producers increased from 2400 to 2700 tons U 3 O 8 . Unfilled requirements for the 1981 to 1990 period decreased from 75,300 tons U 3 O 8 , as reported in last year's survey, to 54,500 tons in this year's survey, a decrease of 20,800 tons. Responses to the 1981 survey suggest that there seems to be an adequate supply of uranium to meet US demand at least through 1986, although the apparent buyer requirements reported as of January 1, 1981 for the 1987 to 1990 period are higher than the total domestic production or supply

  17. Mapping boreal forest biomass with imagery from polarimetric and semi-polarimetric SAR sensors / Mapeamento da biomassa fl orestal boreal com imagens dos sensores SAR polarimétricos e semi-polarimétricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjo Rauste

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from ALOS/Palsar and TerraSAR-X were used to estimate forest biomass in Boreal forest zone in Finland. In the study site in Heinavesi (forest biomass between 0 and 255 tons/ha, the HH-polarised componentof dual-polarised ALOS/Palsar produced biomass estimation accuracies (RMSE between 35 and 42 tons/ha. In the Kuortane site (biomass0…188 tons/ha the RMSE varied between 25 and 28 tons/ha. Since onlytwo winter-time scenes from TerraSAR-X were available, TerraSAR-X results were very preliminary. The phase of the HH-VV cross-coherenceproduced the highest biomass-correlations among the TerraSAR-X derived features. This produced a biomass estimation accuracy (RMSE of 49 tons/ha in the Heinavesi study site.

  18. AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF ESTIMATING COST FUNCTION DATES PRODUCTION IN MURZUQ, SOUTHWESTERN LIBYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad ARIDAH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results showed that fixed cost represented (41% of the total cost of Murzuq, also the variable cost amounted toapproximately (59% the total cost of Murzuq, and that the optimal size of the production of dates amounted toapproximately (2.01 tons per hectare for Murzuq ,and that production was more than the average actualproduction of dates for the Murzuq by nearly (0.37 tons per hectare , while reported results that the production thatmaximize profit of dates have hit (4.25 tons per hectare for Murzuq , and for community sample as a whole andthat production is more than the actual production of dates by (2.61 tons per hectare. It also showed the results ofthe field study that the average price per ton of harvest dates had been hit (1293.50 dinars for the total samplerespectively.

  19. A study on the recovery of valuable resources from abandoned gold mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Young-Bae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea); Jeong, Soo-Bok; Yoon, Pyoung-Ran [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    1999-08-31

    This study was carried out to, recover gold and silica from abandoned gold mine tailings with about 4.5 g/ton Au and 84.88 wt.% SiO{sub 2}. The beneficiation processes including crushing, screening, magnetic and gravity (humprey spiral, shaking table) separation were employed. Results were feasible to recover the gold concentrates (307.7 g/ton Au:0.60 wt.%, 97.7 g/ton Au:0.27 wt.%, 15.3 g/ton Au:5.23 wt.%, 27.2 g/ton Au:2.42 wt.%) and silica (96.40 wt.% SiO{sub 2}, yield 60.65 wt.%). (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Emerging trends in regional coal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    At an average annual growth rate of 1.9%, the total national demand for coal will increase from 850 million short tons in 1985 to 2 billion short tons annually by the year 2030. A market simulation model (described in this paper) determines the regional pattern of coal production needed to meet these demands. Because compliance or low-sulfur coal resources are a low-cost option for meeting environmental regulations, they could be mined out substantially in the medium term. In the next 15 to 25 years, most of the Eastern compliance coal up to a mining cost of $40 per ton could be mined out and 4 billion short tons of Western compliance coal could be produced. By the year 2030, almost all Eastern low-sulfur coal could be mined out. Most Western compliance coal costing less than $20/ton could be mined out by 2030

  1. Interleukin-16-producing NK cells and T-cells in the blood of tobacco smokers with and without COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anders Andersson,1,* Carina Malmhäll,2,* Birgitta Houltz,1 Sara Tengvall,1 Margareta Sjöstrand,2 Ingemar Qvarfordt,1 Anders Lindén,3 Apostolos Bossios2 1Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Krefting Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Unit for Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Long-term exposure to tobacco smoke causes local inflammation in the airways that involves not only innate immune cells, including NK cells, but also adaptive immune cells such as cytotoxic (CD8+ and helper (CD4+ T-cells. We have previously demonstrated that long-term tobacco smoking increases extracellular concentration of the CD4+-recruiting cytokine interleukin (IL-16 locally in the airways. Here, we hypothesized that tobacco smoking alters IL-16 biology at the systemic level and that this effect involves oxygen free radicals (OFR.Methods: We quantified extracellular IL-16 protein (ELISA and intracellular IL-16 in NK cells, T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes (flow cytometry in blood samples from long-term tobacco smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in never-smokers. NK cells from healthy blood donors were stimulated with water-soluble tobacco smoke components (cigarette smoke extract with or without an OFR scavenger (glutathione in vitro and followed by quantification of IL-16 protein.Results: The extracellular concentrations of IL-16 protein in blood did not display any substantial differences between groups. Notably, intracellular IL-16 protein was detected in all types of blood leukocytes. All long-term smokers displayed

  2. Solar One demolition and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Solar One was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electrical energy from solar power using a central receiver concept. An array of heliostats focused sunlight onto a central receiver, which superheated water to produce steam. Although Solar One was successful, the oil-based Thermal Storage System (TSS), used to store heat energy for power generation at night, was not efficient. When the TSS was demolished for the installation of a more efficient molten salt system, a major effort was made to salvage or recycle all of its equipment and materials. During TSS demolition, approximately 7 tons of aluminum shielding and 205 tons of steel were salvaged as scrap metal; 200 tons of concrete was used for erosion protection along the Mohave River banks; 150,000 gallons of oil was recycled and 100 tons of equipment was salvaged for use at other facilities. During remediation, approximately 9,000 tons of oil contaminated sand, gravel and soil was recycled into approximately 10,000 tons of asphalt concrete and used to pave a nearby 5-acre parking lot at Barstow College. This not only reduced project remediation costs, but also met environmental requirements and provided a much needed community service. Of the estimated 11,864 tons of equipment and material from the TSS, less than 1% was disposed of at a landfill

  3. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the trend of coal demand in Central and South American countries; 1994 nendo kaigaitan kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chunanbei shokoku ni okeru sekitan jukyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Focusing on the present status and future of coal demand in Central/South American countries and the coal trade between Central/South American countries and the U.S., the paper described the present status and future of coal demand there and the effects on Japan. Export of Colombian coal will amount to approximately 30-35 million tons in 2000. Venezuelan coal 10-20 million tons. The U.S. imported good-quality general coal low in sulfur content, 3.08 tons from Columbia and 1.39 tons from Venezuela. Coal export from the U.S. to Central/South America was mostly of raw material coal, 5 million tons in 1993 and 5.39 million tons in 1994. General coal was 180,000 tons. The U.S. has no plans of increasing US coal export to Central/South America. But it is safely predicted that Columbia and Venezuela will increase coal export to Europe in the future. It will bring about decrease in export of US coal to Europe, which connects with increasing pressure for the coal trade amount of Japan. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. Northeast arctic cod stock and fishery dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bulatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Northeast arctic cod stock is one of a most valuable target of fisheries in the Barents Sea. The catches of cod for the period 1960-2014 are widely changed. The minimum level of catches is marked in 1990 (212 thousands ton, and the maximum values of catches were observed in 1969 – 1.2 mill. ton. In the recent years international catch of cod exceeded 1 mill. ton. Fishable and spawning stock biomass (SSB also widely changed in this period. According to ICES data, SSB had a minimum in 1965 (102 thousand tons, and extremely high level in 2013 – 2 150 thousand tons. Fishable biomass changed also widely. The maximum level is registered in 2013 – 3 636 thousand tons, and minimum value was 5 times less, 739 thousand tons (1983. The ratio between historical high level of SSB and catch in 2013 was 2.2:1.0, due to low value of fishing mortality. Possibility to increase catch will be discussed.

  5. Conceptual study of an advanced VTOL transport aircraft; Kosoku VTOL ki no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y; Endo, M; Matsuda, Y; Sugiyama, N; Watanabe, M; Sugahara, N; Yamamoto, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The concept of the advanced 100-passenger class VTOL aircraft equipped with new lift fan engines was clarified as domestic passenger aircraft for the 21st century. Under the assumption of a total weight of 40 tons, a seat fuselage diameter of 3.3m as small as possible and a short seat pitch, the airframe shape satisfying a target performance was obtained without any problems about aerodynamic stability, operability and control capability, and noise lower than that of small helicopters was also estimated. In the case of 10 tons in airframe payload and 8 tons in fuel, even if light-weight composite materials were used for most of parts including fuselage structure, a total weight summed to 42.3 tons exceeding a target by 2.3 tons. As this VTOL aircraft was limited to domestic flight use only, the total weight could be reduced without any change in airframe shape and number of passengers by reducing the payload (baggage weight can be probably reduced by 2 tons/100 passengers in the future domestic flight) and fuel (cruising range around 2500km can be secured even if fuel is reduced by 0.3 tons). In conclusion, this concept was thus technologically reasonable. 6 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. PEMBERIAN KOTORAN KAMBING TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL WORTEL (Daucus carota DAN BAWANG DAUN (Allium fistulosum L. DENGAN BUDIDAYA TUMPANGSARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trias Budi Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping cultivation model is commonly used in organic farming system. The system is aimed to save land and fertilizer aside from creating biodiversity in a portion of a planting. The research was conducted in Permata Hati Farm, Ciburial Village, Cisarua Sub district, Bogor Regency, West Java from October 2012 to January 2013. The purposes of the research are: a to know the effect of goat dung application toward the growth and yield of organically managed carrot and scallion intercropping, and b to determine the best quantity of goat dung to promote growth and yield of carrot and scallion intercropping. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with 6 treatments and 3 replications was used in this experiment. The treatments applied were 0 ton ha- 1, 5 ton ha-1, 10 ton ha-1, 15 ton ha-1, 20 ton ha-1, and 25 ton ha-1 of goat dung. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT at the confidence level of 95% was used to analyze the result. The application of 15 ton ha-1 goat dung affected scallion’s height and number of seedlings as well as carrot’s biomass and height. This dosage resulted in the best yield of scallion and carrot intercropping.

  7. PENGARUH DOSIS PUPUK KANDANG TERHADAP STABILITAS AGREGAT TANAH PADA SISTEM PERTANIAN ORGANIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mustoyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter is important to soil aggregate stability. The research of effect dosage of goat manure tos oil aggregate in organic farming system was do neon Andisols soil in Permata Hati Farm, CiburialHamlet, North Tugu village, Cisarua sub-district, Bogor district, West Java province. The research was conducted on October 2012 until the end of February 2013. The research purposes are: a Know the goat manure’s dosage influence on soil aggregate in organik farming system, b Determine the dos age of goat manure that can provide the best Mean Weight Diameter (MWD and Aggregate Stability Index (ASIin organik farming system. The research used randomized completely block design (RCBD with 6 treatments and 3 replications. Goat manure dosage were used as treatments are 0 ton ha-1, 5 ton ha-1, 10 ton ha-1, 15 ton ha-1, 20 ton ha-1, and 25 ton ha-1. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’sMultiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The research results are showed, with initial number of C-organic >4.5%, goat manure application was significant to change soil aggregate. Goat Manure 5 ton ha-1was enough to increasing Mean Weight Diameter (MWD and ASI (Aggregate Stability Index.

  8. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in India on cement calcination facilities waste heat recovery; 1999 nendo Indo ni okeru cement shosei setsubi hainetsu kaishu model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    India produces 96-million tons/year of cement, ranking fourth in the world, and 55% of the yield comes from 1-million tons/year plants. Some of the waste heat from the manufacturing process is used to dry materials, etc., but much is discharged into the atmosphere. Estimation is made of the energy conservation effect expected to be brought about in case the waste heat power generation technology which is in use to good effect in Japan is introduced into Indian cement plants whose clinker production exceeds 3,000 tons/day. As the result, it is concluded that the model project may be implemented at any of the four plants for which power generation capability and CO2 reduction effect are tentatively calculated below. There will be power generation of 7,300kW and CO2 reduction of 43,125 tons for the Guijarat Ambuja Cement Ltd./Ambuja Cement Eastern plant; power generation of 7,700kW and CO2 reduction of 901,960 tons for the India Cement Ltd./Rassi Cement plant; power generation of 45,098kW and CO2 reduction of 1,140,220 tons for the Larsen and Toubro Ltd./Hirmi plant; and power generation of 5,450kW and CO2 reduction of 32,230 tons for the J. K. Corp Ltd./Lakshmi Cement Sirohi plant. (NEDO)

  9. Emissions of HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and SO2 from civil aviation in China in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiyi; Sun, Yifei; Zhu, Tianle; Wen, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Civil aviation in China has developed rapidly in recent years, and the effects of civil aviation emissions on the atmospheric environment should not be neglected. The establishment of emission inventories of atmospheric pollutants from civil aviation contributes to related policy formation and pollution control. According to the 2010's China flight schedules, aircraft/engine combination information and revised emission indices from the International Civil Aviation Organization emission data bank based on meteorological data, the fuel consumption and HC, CO, NOx, CO2, SO2 emissions from domestic flights of civil aviation in China (excluding Taiwan Province) in 2010 are estimated in this paper. The results show that fuel consumption in 2010 on domestic flights in China is 12.12 million tons (metric tons), HC, CO, NOx, CO2 and SO2 emissions are 4600 tons, 39,700 tons, 154,100 tons, 38.21 million tons and 9700 tons, respectively. The fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of China Southern Airline are responsible for the largest national proportion of each, accounting for 27% and 25-28%, respectively.

  10. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emission from animal production sector in Taiwan during 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangshyng Yang; Chungming Liu; Yenlan Liu

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the greenhouse gases emissions from the feeding and waste management of livestock and poultry, methane and nitrous oxide emissions were estimated from the local measurement and IPCC guidelines during 1990-2000 in Taiwan. Hog is the major livestock and is followed by goat and cattle, while chicken is the major poultry and is followed by duck and geese. Methane emission from enteric fermentation of livestock was 30.9 Gg in 1990, increased to 39.3 Gg in 1996, and then decreased gradually to 34.9 Gg in 2000. Methane emission from the waste management was 48.5 Gg in 1990, reached the peak value of 60.7 Gg in 1996, and then declined to 43.3 Gg in 2000. In the case of poultry, annual methane emission from enteric fermentation and waste management was 30.6-44.1 ton, and 8.7-13.2 Gg, respectively. Nitrous oxide emission from waste management of livestock was 0.78 ton in 1990, increased to 0.86 ton in 1996, and then decreased to 0.65 ton in 2000. Nitrous oxide emission from waste management of poultry was higher than that of livestock with 1.11 ton in 1990, 1.68 ton in 1999, and 1.65 ton in 2000. There is an urgent need to reduce methane emission from enteric fermentation and recover methane from anaerobic waste treatment for energy in livestock and poultry feeding in Taiwan. (Author)

  11. Oil and gas -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A.

    1994-06-01

    This report deals with the use of oil-, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) during 1993. Information about markets and technical environmental questions are also given. Data have been collected from earlier reports, information given by different persons and statistics from SCB and SPI. The import of crude oil increased from 16,8 million tons in 1992 to 17,8 million tons in 1993. The import of oil products decreased by 0,9 million tons down to 6,7 million tons in the same period. During this period, the import of natural gas increased by 9%, a total of 817 million cubic meters. The import of LPG was 748000 tons in 1993, which is 61000 tons less compared to the import of 1992. The production in Sweden for 1993 was 290000 tons, the same level as the level reached in 1992. The export of LPG increased from 107000 tons to 138000 tons during this period. In January 1993, legislative changes were made concerning energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes. The rate of the latter was increased from 25 to 32 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere. For industry and greenhouse production, the penalty rate is only 25% or 8 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide. From 1995 to 1998, yearly increases in the rate of energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes will be based on the consumer price index. Taxes will be increased by 4% in 1994. Due to changes in energy taxes, the consumption of LPG decreased in 1993. Earlier, many industries had changed from oil to LPG but now have changed back to oil. 8 figs, 17 tabs

  12. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  13. Nuclear materials transport in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korycanek, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 1.5 million tons of uranium ore, 8000 tons of uranium concentrate, 1000 tons of UF 6 , 340 spent fuel containers, and 30 000 m 3 of nuclear wastes are transported annually by trucks, trains and ships in France. Annual costs of this transportation amount to 500-600 million FRF, and about 200 employees are engaged in this activity. Transportation of spent fuel to the La Hague and Marcoule fuel reprocessing plants, and the transport of plutonium are dealt with in detail. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  14. POTENSI PENYERAPAN KARBON PADA KARET POLA TUMPANGSARI TANAMAN HUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahuri Sahuri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plant (Hevea brasilliensis has a very big role in the economy and the absorption of CO2. Rubber plants as well as forest plants capable of processing CO2 as a carbon source that is used for photosynthesis. CO2 absorption can be enhanced through the implementation of intercropping pattern rubber and forest plant. This study aims to determine the potential for carbon sequestration in intercropping pattern rubber and forest plant. The experiment was conducted at the Sembawa Research Station, South Sumatra, with three cropping pattern (PT, namely PT1: rubber plants + teak (Tectona grandis, PT2: rubber plants + trembesi (Samanea saman, PT3: rubber plant monocultures, PT4: teak monocultures, and PT5: trembesi plant monocultures. Measurement of carbon reserves consist of tree biomass and soil organic matter. The results showed that the amount of absorption of CO2/year in the rubber plantations for 10 years for PT1, PT2, PT3, PT4, and PT5, respectively were 86.46 tons/ha, 125.90 tons / ha, 77.90 tons/ha, 36.26 tons/ha and 49.03 tons/ha. The addition of carbon sequestration for 10 years due to intercrop rubber and forest plant was 30.13% or 49.17 tons CO2/ha compared to the rubber plant monocultures. Tanaman karet (Hevea brasilliensis memiliki peran yang sangat besar dalam perekonomian dan penyerapan CO2. Tanaman karet seperti halnya tanaman hutan mampu mengolah CO2 sebagai sumber karbon yang digunakan untuk fotosintesis. Penyerapan CO2 dapat ditingkatkan melalui penerapan pola tumpangsari karet dan tanaman hutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi penyerapan karbon pada pola tumpangsari karet dan tanaman hutan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Balai Penelitian Sembawa, Sumatra Selatan, dengan tiga pola tanam (PT, yaitu PT1: tanaman karet + jati (Tectona grandis, PT2: tanaman karet + trembesi (Samanea saman, PT3: tanaman karet monokultur, PT4: tanaman jati monokultur, dan PT5: tanaman trembesi monokultur. Pengukuran

  15. Soviet Military Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    some 27,000 meters of bridging equipment, 13 1 ."¾. million metric tons of arms and ammunition, "J -- and 60 million metric tons of petrol (fuel...rhis ammuitnition. lDuring aI warn sýuppjlis fromn stratev!1( s4tuck- a1lomg with ove-(r 9 m-illion metric tons o )f petrol 10 ~iilt- In thi. Stlviit...been a target for new Soviet overtures Deputy Foreign Minister Vladimir Petrovskiy through political influence operations and ex- went to Tunisia , Iraq

  16. United States Army Weapon Systems 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, 8.8-ton Load Handling System (LHS), 8.8-ton LHS trailer, and 10-ton dump truck models). Three truck variants and...NJ) hydraulic pump and motor: Vickers (Jackson, MS) 131 UnIteD StAteS Army ACqUISItIon phASe InveStment Component High Mobility Engineer Excavator...MEDEVAC and hoist configuration, the UH-72A is also being fielded in a VIP, National Guard Homeland Security (HLS) and a Combined Training Center

  17. Emergency Response and Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr I Support food distribution with U.S. ARMY / WFP - 03 to 18Fev2010 15 Dias 637,5 Ton de alimentos ...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 – 21 a 28Mar2010 1.723 Ton de Alimentos em 30 Dias Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr II Supporting food...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 8 Dias 420 Ton de alimentos Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr III Supporting food distribution by

  18. Offsets, one tool in the toolbox

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available for PM2.5 tons) in the eastern United States. • 100:1 (NOx tons for PM2.5 tons) in the western United States 12 EPA 2011, revised policy for inter-pollutant trading provisions • Obama EPA had litigation and administrative petitions filed against....5 nonattainment area in which it will be applied.” 13 EPA 2011, revised policy for interpollutant trading provisions • “We expect existing models and techniques to be adequate for states to conduct local demonstrations leading to the development of area...

  19. INVENTARISASI EMISI SUMBER BERGERAK DI JALAN (ON ROAD KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Prita Purwanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of population in Denpasar City followed by increasing of transportation facilities that potentially cause pollution by vehicle emissions and cause serious environmental problems and which has adverse effect to the human health. The research aimed to estimate the number and distribution of emission gases on air pollutants, such as: PM10, NOx, SO2, CO, CO2 and HC. The calculation of estimated based on road mobile sources (On Road in Denpasar City, includes all known sources such as the highway, small roads, terminals, and parking lots. The calculation of emissions is calculated by using the approach of emission estimation method. The total load of emissions by moving source on the street in Denpasar for each pollutant gases are: value of NOx is 3765.89 tons/year , value of SO2 is 212.34 tons/year, value of HC is 20049.87 tons/year, value of PM10 is 444.16 tons/year, value of CO2 is 984,280.21 tons/ year, and value of CO is 55432.04 tons/year. Overall, the total load of pollutant emissions gases of Denpasar City is greater than the total load of pollutant emissions gases in Palembang city. Spatially, the distribution of pollutant gas emissions are not spread evenly. The pollutants emissions of NOx, CO2, and HC for each gases have the highest values are about 115 – 239 tons/year, 26.944 – 4.735 tons/year, and 471 – 954 tons/year distributed at West Denpasar District and Niti Mandala Renon area. The highest pollutans emission of SO2 is about 15,5-44 tons/year, distributed at West Denpasar District. The highest pollutans emission of PM10 is about 11,5-21 tons/year, distributed at West Denpasar District, Badung Market area, Puputan Square area, and Niti Mandala Renon area. The highest CO pollutant emission is about 1277-1912 tons/year, distributed at West Denpasar District, Badung Market area, Puputan Square area, Niti Mandala Renon area, and Udayana University area.

  20. EVALUACIÓN AGRONÓMICA DE 25 GENOTIPOS DE MAÍZ (Zea maiz CON FINES FORRAJEROS EN EL VALLE DEL SINÚ MEDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cabrales

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar agronómicamente 25 genotipos de maíz con fines forrajeros. Materiales y métodos. La investigación se realizó en predios del centro de Investigación Turipaná de Corpoica, departamento de Córdoba. Se empleó un diseño de campo en latice 5x5, con 25 tratamientos y tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Resultados. Los genotipos de maíz, que mostraron los mayores rendimientos de materia fresca, seca y de grano fueron: HIT 34 con 63.52 Ton/ha de materia fresca,22.11 Ton/ha de materia seca y 3.10 Ton/ha de grano; VERA 225 con 61.13 Ton/ha de materia fresca, 20.11 Ton/ha de materia seca y 4.37 Ton/ha de grano; SNLP 111 con 60.62 Ton/ha de materia fresca, 19.20 Ton/ha de materia seca y 4.69 Ton/ha de grano; ICA V 156 con 54.51 Ton/ha de materia fresca, 17.1 Ton/ha de materia seca y 4.41 Ton/ha de grano. En cuanto a prolificidad mostró como mejores genotipos el vera 225 con 1 mazorca por planta, siendo el segundo genotipo en producción de materia fresca y uno de los mayores en producción de grano; en índice de grano se destaco el SNLP 111 con 82.87%, destacándose como el genotipo de mayor producción de grano. Con respecto a la materia seca de hoja/tallo/mazorca sobresalieron los genotipos CUBA 91 con 33.63%: 20.43%: 45.97% e ICA V 156 con 32.33%: 24.43%: 43.23% respectivamente. Conclusiones. Se cuenta con buenos genotipos de maíz para ser empleados por los ganaderos en procesos de ensilaje.

  1. Fuel briquettes from wood and agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natividad, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A short review of the production and uses of briquettes and of machinery available for briquetting fine dry, coarse dry and coarse wet raw materials. The potential of a fuel briquette industry in the Philippines with an estimated annual production of 217 million ton of sawdust, 2.09 billion ton of rice hulls and 2.87 million ton of coconut husks is discussed. Studies at the Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) have shown that sawdust, coir dust rice hulls briquettes with 1-2% resin binder have heating values of 6882, 5839 and 3913 cal/g respectively.

  2. EEC's: natural uramium supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The demand for nuclear fuel to supply the nuclear plants within the ECC (31,200 MW at the end of last year) totalled nearly 9,600 tons of natural uranium and 4,900 of separation work units (SWU). Once reactors currently under construction come into service, the demand for natural uranium will reach 13,200 tons by 1985 and that for SWUs to 8,600. If one takes the years 1981 to 1985, total natural uranium needs during this period will be 56,300 tons and those for SWUs 35.100 [fr

  3. Udvikling af opticusneuropati efter beskedent øjentraume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Rene; Gade, Else

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a rare and potentially vision-threatening condition caused by ocular or head trauma. The treatment of TON is controversial with no evidence-based guidelines. We describe a case of an eight-year-old boy, who lost his vision on the right eye after having had...... a trauma of his left lower eyelid when he fell with a bamboo stick. Vision loss was not detected until ten days after the accident, where there were no light perception and a relative afferent pupillary defect. We attributed the vision loss to TON and no treatment was given. Within months optic disc pallor...

  4. Geochemical proxies for understanding paleoceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    of size and volume. The annual delivery of all types of terrigenous material to the oceans is about 25 to 33 billion tons/yr compared to ~2-3 billion tons/yr of volcanogenic sedimentation and ~1.8 billion tons/yr of biogenic sedimentation... (0.1 to 0.2%) in most of the deep-sea sediments regardless of delivery rate to the seafloor and hence has limitations. Consequently, studies on high frequency changes in the major sediment components on the orbital time from the Oman margin reveal...

  5. Effect of support on hydro-metathesis of propene: A comparative study of W(CH 3 ) 6 anchored to silica vs. silica-alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Tretiakov, Mykyta

    2018-03-27

    Hydro-metathesis of propene was carried out by using well-defined W(CH3)6 supported on silica and silica-alumina. It was observed that W(CH3)6 supported silica-alumina catalyst is much better (TON 4577) than the silica supported catalyst (TON 2104). We demonstrated that the present catalysts are much better than the previously reported (tantalum hydride/KCC-1, TON 786) catalyst. For the first time, we observed the formation of n-decane from propene, which enables us to think of using cheaper raw materials and converting them to petroleum range alkanes using hydro-metathesis reaction.

  6. Is the Target Reference Point (F0.1 vulnerable to changes of natural mortality (M ? Case of the european anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758 from the eastern coast of Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerzabi Fedja

    2015-12-01

    Finally, we recommend to adjust the catch effort factor FC, F0.1 (0.24 for M = 0.61 yr-1. This precautionary approach would have as consequences the decrease of production currently in the range of 3250 tons to 2962.7 tons and the revaluation of the exploitable biomass from 3002 to 5333.9 tons. So, the application of this measure would allow long-term renewal of the stock of european anchovy in the eastern region of Algeria.

  7. 1974 assessment of Canada's uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    Canada's uranium resources, recoverable at prices up to $30/lb U 3 O 8 , were assessed. Measured reserves totalled 81 000 short tons U 3 O 8 . Domestic utilities are required to contract for 30-year fuelling requirements, in this case 92 000 short tons U 3 O 8 for the 18 400 MWe expected in service by 1985. Canadian uranium production capability is expected to grow to 15 000 short tons U 3 O 8 by 1984. The problem of defining indicated and inferred reserves is explored. (E.C.B.)

  8. Production costs for SRIC Populus biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Production costs for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) Populus biomass were developed from commercial-sized plantations under investigation throughout the US. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 850 cuttings/acre was projected to yield an average of 7 ovendry (OD) tons/acre/year. Discounted cash-flow analysis of multiple rotations showed preharvest production costs of $14/ton (OD). Harvesting and transportation expenses would increase the delivered cost to $35/ton (OD). Although this total cost compared favorably with the regional market price for aspen (Populus tremuloides), future investments in SRIC systems will require the development of biomass energy markets

  9. Ventilation cost impact of reduced radon-daughter working levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Published information on costs of radon-daughter control in uranium mines was analyzed to develop estimates of the cost per ton for any level of radiation exposure control. All data were converted to 1967 cost of living index to provide a common analysis base. Results of the analysis show that the cost per ton increases exponentially as the radiation level is lowered. A linear relationship with the cost of living index is assumed, and equations and graphs are provided to estimate control cost per ton for any exposure control level and cost of living index

  10. Feasibility analysis of a sewage sludge treatment by an irradiation plant in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J; Colin, A; Tavera, L

    2002-01-01

    Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-] liquid sewage sludge. Considering a 50 k W power of a 10 MeV electron linear accelerator, an irradiation dose of S KGy and a treatment capacity of 346 tons per day, it is estimated that the treatment cost would be of $9.00 US dollars per ton. (Author)

  11. The GALLEX Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsten, T.

    1989-01-01

    The GALLEX collaboration aims at the detection of solar neutrinos in a radiochemical experiment employing 30 tons of Gallium in form of concentrated aqueous Gallium-chloride solution. The detector is primarily sensitive to the otherwise inaccessible pp-neutrinos. Details of the experiment have been repeatedly described before. Here we report the present status of implementation in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). So far, 12.2 tons of Gallium are at hand. The present status of development allows to start the first full scale run at the time when 30 tons of Gallium become available. This date is expected to be January, 1990. 17 refs., 16 figs

  12. Estimated suspended-sediment loads and yields in the French and Brandywine Creek Basins, Chester County, Pennsylvania, water years 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Olson, Leif E.

    2011-01-01

    highest peak discharges generally carried the highest SSLs. For all stations, the greatest SSLs occurred during the late winter in February and March during the 2008 water year. During the 2009 water year, the greatest SSLs occurred during December and August. For French Creek near Phoenixville, the estimated annual SSL was 3,500 tons, and the estimated yield was 59.1 tons per square mile (ton/mi2) for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 4,390 tons, and the yield was 74.3 ton/mi2. For West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, the estimated annual SSL was 4,580 tons, and the estimated yield was 245 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 2,300 tons, and the yield was 123 ton/mi2. For West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, the estimated annual SSL was 7,480 tons, and the estimated yield was 136 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 4,930 tons, and the yield was 90 ton/mi2. For East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown, the estimated annual SSL was 8,900 tons, and the estimated yield was 100 ton/mi2 for the 2008 water year. For the 2009 water year, the annual SSL was 7,590 tons, and the yield was 84 ton/mi2.

  13. Planning for the next generation of proton-decay experiments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    There are now three well-developed proposals for new proton decay detectors to be built in the United States. These are the 1000 to 5000-ton Soudan 2 tracking calorimeter, the 1400-ton Homestake II liquid scintillator Tracking Spectrometer, and the 2500-ton University of Pennsylvania liquid-scintillator - proportional-drift-cell calorimeter. These proposals were reviewed by the Department of Energy Technical Assessment Panel on Proton Decay in February 1982. I shall describe the Soudan and Pennsylvania proposals, present the latest results from the 31-ton Soudan 1 experiment, and discuss the recommendations of the DOE Panel. Following these recommendations, a one-week workshop, to be held at Argonne in June, will focus on the optimization of techniques for future experiments

  14. Advanced Nano fibrous textile based dressing material for treating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    3 Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc .... only amplify the duration of inflammation phase but also cause persistent ... loss of mechanical function due to sudden breakage of chemical bonds limit its.

  15. Radiation preservation and test marketing of fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhicheng, Xu; Dong, Cai; Fuying, He; Deyao, Zhao

    1993-07-01

    To develop the technology for radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, many varieties of fruits and vegetables had been researched. Results showed that the low dose irradiation is useful to preservation of fruits and vegetables. On the besis of research, 1900 tons garlic, 950 tons onion, 500 tons potatoes, 710 tons apples and 1000 kg litchi had been irradiated in commercial scale. The quality control standards of irradiated garlic, onion and potato had been established and used for commercial scale irradiation. In order to collect consumers in store response to irradiated foods, a special counter was set up for selling irradiated apples in Nan Jing Road (W), Shanghai. 634 sheets of consumer in-store respense investigation forms have been returned and analysed. These results showed that when consumer understands the benefit of irradiation preservation such as higher quality, greater safety, longer shelf-live, wide product availability, or good prices for value, consumer would willingly buy irradiated food.

  16. Uranium - raw material reserves for coming generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutner, H.

    1981-01-01

    Large uranium occurences have been discovered in the South of Mexico. The deposits are situated in the Sierra Mixteca. Reserves of 9.400 tons had been at Mexico's disposal even before these new discoveries. The quantitiy discovered recentyl amounts to 20.000 tons. The uranium reserves available apart from those in centrally controlled economic systems are presently estimated at five million tons. Meanwhile American scientists have found out that all the rivers of the world transport about 16.000 tons of uranium from the continents into the oceans per annum. The energy value of this washed out amount of uranium corresponds to the 25-fold world power demand of today. US scientists have discovered that the oceans can provide uranium for about seven million years of the present world energy demand. While the petroleum reserves decrease worldwide it seems that the exploration of uranium has just been started. (orig.) [de

  17. Chelyabinsk: Portrait of an asteroid airburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, David A.; Boslough, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Video and audio from hundreds of smartphones and dashboard cameras combined with seismic, acoustic, and satellite measurements provide the first precise documentation of a 10 000-ton asteroid explosion.

  18. MANUAL OF TEMPORARY EROSION CONTROL PRODUCTS FOR ROADSIDE DITCHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Sediment continues to be the primary pollutant by volume in Ohio's streams and rivers. Unvegetated roadside ditches' side slopes and bottoms erode and contribute tons of sediment annually to local receiving streams. Pollutants attach themselves to se...

  19. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  20. Influence of air pollution on epiphytic lichens at Kopmanholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, R

    1968-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effects of pollutants from a sulfate pulp factory at Kopmanholmen, Sweden on epiphytic lichens. In 1965 the factory produced 130,000 tons of pulp, 9000 tons of chlorine, 10,000 tons of alkalies and 4000 tons of sulfuric acid. The air is polluted by sulfur dioxide, organic compounds of sulfur, chlorine, and hydrogen sulfide. Results indicate that no zone is completely lacking lichen vegetation. Alectoria implexa, Cetraria glauca, Parmeliopsis aleurites and P. hyperopta are especially sensitive to air pollution. Alectoria jubata, Cetraria chlorophylla, C. pinastri, Parmelia physodes and Parmeliopsis ambigua, although injured, seem to be less sensitive to air pollution because they were collected close to the factory. The injuries on the lichens are probably not caused by a single component, but the various pollutants interact and probably intensify the effect of each other. Groups of trees in the polluted area reduce the injuries.

  1. Nuclear fuel requirements in Egypt up to the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.; Ghoneim, M.M.; Abou-Zahra, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear fuel demands (as U 3 O 8 ) in Egypt for the nuclear power and nuclear desalination programmes up to the year 2000 were calculated. The recent nuclear power forecasts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the General Egyptian Electricity Coroporation (GEEC) were used as bases for calculation. The requirements were calculated for light and heavy water reactor (LWR and HWR) strategies. The cumulative uranium requirements for power and desalination programmes were found to be in the range of 19000-25000 tons in case of HWR strategy and 30000-400000 tons in case of LWR strategy. In the year 2000 alone the demands are expected to be 2000-2500 tons in case of HWR strategy and 3200-4000 tons in case of LWR strategy. Intensive uranium exploration coupled with a suitable reactor policy is essential to ensure the availability of these demands and for developing a local nuclear fuel technology

  2. Operating experiences in the reprocessing of LWR fuels in the WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, K.L.

    40 tons of fuel have been processed in the WAK. Problems encountered are reviewed. Through constant control and advance preparation for nonroutine procedures, the average monthly dosage has dropped from more than 100 mrem to 40 to 50 mrem

  3. Submicronic VO2–PVP composites coatings for smart windows applications and solar heat management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madida, IG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available (sup2) of coated windows worldwide with smart coatings, energy saving in the building and automotive economic fields is equivalent of CO(sub2) reduction by about ~100 millions of tons....

  4. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  5. Visiting the SPS installation

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    ...., Guenther Loehr, Hans Horisberger walk along the SPS tunnel: here, on the right, an absorber block of 22 tons for beam dumping in the external beam lines. The chariot serves for the installation of the block.

  6. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.480 Flammable vapor... permit calibration in a vapor free atmosphere. (g) Electrical connections, wiring, and components for a...

  7. 46 CFR 183.330 - Distribution panels and switchboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.330... vessel's wiring, must not have any electrically unshielded or uninsulated surfaces. (j) Switchboards and...

  8. Methods and calculations for regional, continental, and global dose assessments from a hypothetical fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Kern, C.D.; Cooper, R.E.; Watts, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is coordinating an interlaboratory effort to provide, test, and use state-of-the-art methods for calculating the environmental impact to an offsite population from the normal releases of radionuclides during the routine operation of a fuel-reprocessing plant. Results of this effort are the estimated doses to regional, continental, and global populations. Estimates are based upon operation of a hypothetical reprocessing plant at a site in the southeastern United States. The hypothetical plant will reprocess fuel used at a burn rate of 30 megawatts/metric ton and a burnup of 33,000 megawatt days/metric ton. All fuel will have been cooled for at least 365 days. The plant will have a 10 metric ton/day capacity and an assumed 3000 metric ton/year (82 percent online plant operation) output. Lifetime of the plant is assumed to be 40 years

  9. No 2902. Proposal of law dealing with the durable management of forest resources in the consideration of the fight against greenhouse effect; No 2902 proposition de loi portant sur la prise en compte de la lutte contre l'effet de serre par la gestion durable des ressources forestieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This proposal of law aims at implementing viable financial incentive systems for the improvement of forests management resources in France. The easily available but still unemployed wood fuel resource represents today about 10 million tons. (J.S.)

  10. 46 CFR 7.5 - Rules for establishing boundary lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... territorial sea is measured. (b) Barges of 100 gross tons and over operating on the sheltered waters of... and lines continuing the general trend of the seaward, highwater shorelines across entrances to small...

  11. 46 CFR 176.702 - Installation tests and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., machinery, fuel tank, or pressure vessel is installed aboard a vessel after completion of the initial... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.702 Installation tests and...

  12. The development in the in-situ decontamination technique for the large quantity of soils contaminated by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubaki, Junichiro

    2012-01-01

    The new filtration and condensation techniques that decontaminate effectively the large quantity of contaminated soils, was developed. The facility treating the soils of 5 tons per day is being developed. (M.H.)

  13. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Primary copper smelters; (H) Municipal incinerators capable of charging more than 250 tons of refuse per...) Phosphate rock processing plants; (M) Coke oven batteries; (N) Sulfur recovery plants; (O) Carbon black...

  14. Radiation preservation and test marketing of fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhicheng; Cai Dong; He Fuying; Zhao Deyao

    1993-01-01

    To develop the technology for radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, many varieties of fruits and vegetables had been researched. Results showed that low dose irradiation is useful to preserve fruits and vegetables. On the basis of research, 1900 tons of garlic, 950 tons onion, 500 tons potatoes, 710 tons apples and 1000 kg litchi had been irradiated on a commercial scale. The quality control standards of irradiated garlic, onion and potato had been established and used for commercial scale irradiation. In order to collect consumers in-store response to irradiated foods, a special counter was set up for selling irradiated apples in Nan Jing Road (W), Shanghai. 634 sheets of consumer in-store response investigation forms have been returned and analysed. These results showed that when consumer understands the benefit of irradiation preservation such as higher quality, greater safety, longer shelf-life, wide product availability, or good prices for value, consumer would willingly buy irradiated food. (author)

  15. Potentials of Microorganisms Associated with Plantain Peels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    of tons of these agricultural wastes are produced annually in Nigeria and a ... produce cellulolytic enzymes which could be used for possible ..... Fermentation of Industrial Waste for the. Production of ... Foods Industry Hi-Tech. Pimentel, D. and ...

  16. ROE Carbon Storage - Forest Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This polygon dataset depicts the density of forest biomass in counties across the United States, in terms of metric tons of carbon per square mile of land area....

  17. Operation Starvation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mason, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    More than 1,250,000 tons of shipping was sunk or damaged in the last five months of World War II when Twenty-first Bomber Command executed an aerial mining campaign against Japan known as Operation STARVATION...

  18. 46 CFR 356.47 - Special requirements for large vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than 750 gross registered tons (as measured pursuant to 46 U.S.C. Chapter 145) or 1900 gross registered... endorsement after October 21, 1998, application is made for a new fishery endorsement within 15 business days...

  19. 33 CFR 157.08 - Applicability of subpart B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING... barge of less than 1,500 gross tons as measured under 46 U.S.C., Chapter 145, carrying refined petroleum...

  20. Longer combination vehicles : an estimation of their benefits and public perception of their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Longer Combination Vehicles (LCVs) are able to carry more freight than conventional single trailer trucks. As a result, these trucks can increase : efficiencies and benefits for freight movements as less fuel and less labor is used per ton of cargo. ...