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Sample records for tomography ct diagnostics

  1. Diagnostic reference level of computed tomography (CT) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takei, Hiroyuki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Otake, Hidenori; Endo, Keigo

    2012-08-01

    Optimisation of computed tomography (CT) parameters is important in avoiding excess radiation exposure. The aim of this study is to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRL) of CT in Japan by using dose-length product (DLP). Datasheets were sent to all hospitals/clinics which had CT scanner(s) in Gunma prefecture. Data were obtained for all patients who underwent CT during a single month (June 2010), and the distributions of DLP were evaluated for eight anatomical regions and five patient age groups. The DRL was defined as the 25th and 75th percentiles of DLP. Datasheets were collected from 80 of 192 hospitals/clinics (26 090 patients). DLP for head CT of paediatric patients tended to be higher in Japan compared with DRLs of paediatric head CTs reported from the EU or Syria. Although this study was performed with limited samples, DLP for adult patients were at comparable levels for all anatomical regions.

  2. Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrs, Christian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Südkamp, Norbert P

    2009-01-01

    diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X-rays (22 AP + axillary views, 22 AP + scapular Y-views) and CT (multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum...... diagnostic methods was assessed according to the number of fractured parts (Bonferroni-Holm adjustment). RESULTS: There was significantly more overlap of the fractured region on the scapular Y-views (mean 71.5%, range 45-90%) than on axillary views (mean 56.2%, range 10.5-100%). CT-diagnostics allowed...

  3. Radiation dose reduction through combining positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and diagnostic CT in children and young adults with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhihua; Gates, Erica L; O'Brien, Maureen M; Trout, Andrew T

    2018-02-01

    Both [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) and diagnostic CT are at times required for lymphoma staging. This means some body segments are exposed twice to X-rays for generation of CT data (diagnostic CT + localization CT). To describe a combined PET/diagnostic CT approach that modulates CT tube current along the z-axis, providing diagnostic CT of some body segments and localization CT of the remaining body segments, thereby reducing patient radiation dose. We retrospectively compared total patient radiation dose between combined PET/diagnostic CT and separately acquired PET/CT and diagnostic CT exams. When available, we calculated effective doses for both approaches in the same patient; otherwise, we used data from patients of similar size. To confirm image quality, we compared image noise (Hounsfield unit [HU] standard deviation) as measured in the liver on both combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT images. We used t-tests for dose comparisons and two one-sided tests for image-quality equivalence testing. Mean total effective dose for the CT component of the combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT exams were 6.20±2.69 and 8.17±2.61 mSv, respectively (Pdose savings with the combined approach was 24.8±17.8% (2.60±2.51 mSv [range: 0.32-4.72 mSv]) of total CT effective dose. Image noise was not statistically significantly different between approaches (12.2±1.8 HU vs. 11.7±1.5 HU for the combined and separately acquired diagnostic CT images, respectively). A combined PET/diagnostic CT approach as described offers dose savings at similar image quality for children and young adults with lymphoma who have indications for both PET and diagnostic CT examinations.

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... imaging provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special ... the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... imaging provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography ( ... cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT of the sinuses is primarily used ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography ( ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed ... nasal cavity by small openings. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the removal of fluid from a localized infection ( abscess ). In patients with narrowing ( stenosis ) of the spine ... Survey Images × Image Gallery Computed Tomography (CT or CAT scan) equipment View full size with caption Do ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  4. Diagnostic reference levels for common computed tomography (CT) examinations: results from the first Nigerian nationwide dose survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, Ernest U; Adejoh, Thomas; Akwo, Judith D; Emeka, Owujekwe C; Modu, Ali A; Abba, Mohammed; Adesina, Kudirat A; Omiyi, David O; Chiegwu, Uche H

    2018-01-29

    To explore doses from common adult computed tomography (CT) examinations and propose national diagnostic reference levels (nDRLs) for Nigeria. This retrospective study was approved by the Nnamdi Azikiwe University and University Teaching Hospital Institutional Review Boards (IRB: NAUTH/CS/66/Vol8/84) and involved dose surveys of adult CT examinations across the six geographical regions of Nigeria and Abuja from January 2016 to August 2017. Dose data of adult head, chest and abdomen/pelvis CT examinations were extracted from patient folders. The median, 75th and 25th percentile CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and dose-length-product (DLP) were computed for each of these procedures. Effective doses (E) for these examinations were estimated using the k conversion factor as described in the ICRP publication 103 (E DLP  =  k × DLP ). The proposed 75th percentile CTDI vol for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis are 61 mGy, 17 mGy, and 20 mGy, respectively. The corresponding DLPs are 1310 mGy.cm, 735 mGy.cm, and 1486 mGy.cm respectively. The effective doses were 2.75 mSv (head), 10.29 mSv (chest), and 22.29 mSv (abdomen/pelvis). Findings demonstrate wide dose variations within and across centres in Nigeria. The results also show CTDI vol comparable to international standards, but considerably higher DLP and effective doses.

  5. Computed tomography of neurodegenerative disease in childhood. Serial CT findings and their diagnostic values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Hojo, Hiroatsu

    1984-12-01

    Serial computed tomographic scans were performed on seven children with neurodegenerative disorders. In two cases of white-matter diseases (Krabbe's disease and metachromatic leukodystrophy), diffuse, low-density lesions of white matter were visible in the early stage of the diseases. In one case of adrenoleukodystrophy, regional low-density lesions of the white matter around the posterior horns and peculiar high-density strip lesions were visible in the early stage. In two cases of storage-type gray-matter diseases (Tay-Sachs' and infantile Gaucher's disease), there were no abnormalities in the early stage, but diffuse cortical atrophies in the late stage. In one case of Leigh's disease, there were small, low-density lesions of the basal ganglia and multiple low-density lesions of the gray matter in the early stage. In one case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, there were no abnormalities in the early stage, but small, low-density lesions of the basal ganglia and diffuse cerebral atrophies in the late stage. Diagnostic values were recognized dominantly in two cases of adrenoleukodystrophy and Leigh's disease. In the other cases, however, serial CT scans were useful in the diagnostic process. (author).

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You ... a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You ... a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... risks? What are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known ... newborns, infants and older children. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images ...

  13. Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Positron emission tomography (PET) ... Emission Tomography – Computed Tomography (PET/CT)? What is Positron Emission Tomography – Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Scanning? Positron emission tomography, ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric ... cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even ...

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of laparoscopy following computed tomography (CT) scanning for assessing the resectability with curative intent in pancreatic and periampullary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria B; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Kalia, Amun; Davidson, Brian R

    2016-07-06

    Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic and periampullary cancer. A considerable proportion of patients undergo unnecessary laparotomy because of underestimation of the extent of the cancer on computed tomography (CT) scanning. Laparoscopy can detect metastases not visualised on CT scanning, enabling better assessment of the spread of cancer (staging of cancer). This is an update to a previous Cochrane Review published in 2013 evaluating the role of diagnostic laparoscopy in assessing the resectability with curative intent in people with pancreatic and periampullary cancer. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of diagnostic laparoscopy performed as an add-on test to CT scanning in the assessment of curative resectability in pancreatic and periampullary cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OvidSP (from inception to 15 May 2016), and Science Citation Index Expanded (from 1980 to 15 May 2016). We included diagnostic accuracy studies of diagnostic laparoscopy in people with potentially resectable pancreatic and periampullary cancer on CT scan, where confirmation of liver or peritoneal involvement was by histopathological examination of suspicious (liver or peritoneal) lesions obtained at diagnostic laparoscopy or laparotomy. We accepted any criteria of resectability used in the studies. We included studies irrespective of language, publication status, or study design (prospective or retrospective). We excluded case-control studies. Two review authors independently performed data extraction and quality assessment using the QUADAS-2 tool. The specificity of diagnostic laparoscopy in all studies was 1 because there were no false positives since laparoscopy and the reference standard are one and the same if histological examination after diagnostic laparoscopy is positive. The sensitivities were therefore meta-analysed using a univariate random-effects logistic

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... a relatively short time, especially when compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an implanted medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special x-ray equipment to create ... your doctor and the technologist prior to the exam if your child has a known allergy to ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray ... Materials Anesthesia Safety Children and Radiation Safety Images related to Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Videos related ...

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... images and send an official report to your primary care physician or physician who referred you for ... of soft tissue (particularly the brain, including the disease processes) are less visible on CT scans . CT ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits A CT scan is one of the ... CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ... the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. The actual CT ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ... the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. A CT scan ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... allows the body parts to be distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT ... benefits vs. risks? Benefits A CT scan is one of the safest means of studying the sinuses. ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... the nasal cavity by small openings. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ... information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The CT scanner ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... a technique called CT angiography. For more information, see the CT Angiography page . top of page How ... is any possibility that they may be pregnant. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... benefits vs. risks? Benefits A CT scan is one of the safest means of studying the sinuses. ... CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. A CT scan of the face produces ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... actual CT scanning is performed. Depending on the type of CT scan, the machine may make several ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide ... clicking and whirring sounds as the CT scanner's internal parts, not usually visible to you, revolve around ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. When you enter the CT ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. When you enter the CT ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... sinus cavities – hollow, air-filled spaces within the bones of the face surrounding the nasal cavity. CT ... CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... see the CT Angiography page . top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose- ... of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... a stroke. a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain cavities ( ... brain. assess aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations through a technique called CT angiography. For more information, see the ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can ... to ensure that you are properly positioned. With modern CT scanners, you will hear only slight buzzing, ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can ... to ensure that you are properly positioned. With modern CT scanners, you will hear only slight buzzing, ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the ... Then, the table will move slowly through the machine as the actual CT scanning is performed. Depending ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the ... Then, the table will move slowly through the machine as the actual CT scanning is performed. Depending ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. The actual CT ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. A CT scan ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... which may be causing hearing problems. determine whether inflammation or other changes are present in the paranasal ... CT scans . CT is not sensitive in detecting inflammation of the meninges —the membranes covering the brain. ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... air-filled spaces within the bones of the face surrounding the nasal cavity. CT scanning is painless, ... and blood vessels. A CT scan of the face produces images that also show a patient's paranasal ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  16. Coronary CT angiography: Diagnostic value and clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-12-26

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography has been increasingly used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease due to improved spatial and temporal resolution with high diagnostic value being reported when compared to invasive coronary angiography. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography has been significantly improved with the technological developments in multislice CT scanners from the early generation of 4-slice CT to the latest 320- slice CT scanners. Despite the promising diagnostic value, coronary CT angiography is still limited in some areas, such as inferior temporal resolution, motion-related artifacts and high false positive results due to severe calcification. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the technical developments of multislice CT and diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease based on different generations of multislice CT scanners. Prognostic value of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease is also discussed, while limitations and challenges of coronary CT angiography are highlighted.

  17. Diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) for emergency paediatric head computed tomography (CT) scans performed at a South ... LDRL values were compared with several national DRLs from Europe and Australia. ... Standard age stratification for DRL and LDRL reporting is recommended.

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the ... or any disorder of the heart, kidneys or thyroid gland , or if you ... brain, including the disease processes) are less visible on CT scans . CT ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ... information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The CT scanner ...

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT ...

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    Full Text Available ... time staying still, are claustrophobic, or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer you some medication to help you tolerate the CT scanning procedure. ...

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    Full Text Available ... time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer you some medication to help you tolerate the CT scanning procedure. ...

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    Full Text Available ... page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays ... time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a ... conventional x-rays, CT scanning provides very detailed images of many ...

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging ...

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging ...

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    Full Text Available ... stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same time. ...

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    Full Text Available ... done with low-dose technique. top of page What are the limitations of CT of the Sinuses? CT is usually the first test ordered when a sinus tumor is suspected. If additional information is needed to determine the extent of soft tissue of the tumor, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... of imaging in these procedures in children. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ... needed diagnostic information. The benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. See the Safety page ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple ... your doctor of any recent illnesses or other medical conditions your child may have, and if there ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children ... that will provide the needed diagnostic information. The benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  12. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of preoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging in penile carcinoma patients without palpable inguinal lymph nodes via single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) as compared to planar scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Carsten Maik; Colberg, Christian; Jüptner, Michael; Marx, Marlies; Zhao, Yi; Jiang, Ping; Hamann, Moritz Franz; Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Zuhayra, Maaz; Lützen, Ulf

    2018-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy represents a well-established diagnostic tool for the assessment of lymphatic metastasis. Correct pre- and intraoperative visualization of SLN is of the utmost importance to ensure the safety and feasibility of the procedure. Aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of preoperative SLN imaging via single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and planar scintigraphy in patients with penile carcinoma with nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. After peritumoral intradermal tracer injection (150MBq/4.05mCi Tc-99m nanocolloid), we acquired planar scintigraphies including indirect body contouring using a twin head gamma camera. Subsequently we acquired SPECT/CT images of the abdomen via a hybrid system. Prospective evaluation of 52 groins in 26 examined patients was done for all image files obtained with both techniques by 2 trained experts in consensual assessment. A total of 71 SLNs in 37 groins were identified by means of planar scintigraphy. In these images, no radiolabeled lymph nodes were visualized in 15 out of 52 groins (28.8%). The SPECT/CT images showed a total of 82 SLNs in 42 groins. In 19.2% (10 of the 52 groins), there was no visualization of lymph nodes in SPECT/CT. 8 SLNs in 7 groins that were visualized in the planar technique were found to be false positive by SPECT/CT. In total, 19 SLNs in 16 groins that were overlooked by planar imaging could only be detected by SPECT/CT. In contrast to planar scintigraphy, SPECT/CT imaging enabled clear and precise anatomical localization of SLNs in all 42 groins where radiolabeled SLNs were visible. Even under consideration of all lymphatic drainage regions, statistical evaluation showed a significantly higher number of detected SLNs with SPECT/CT in comparison to the planar technique (P = 0.0022). In these patients SPECT/CT is capable of visualizing SLNs that cannot be detected with planar imaging. The SPECT/CT technique reduces the number of

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    Full Text Available ... small amount of radiation is aimed at and passes through the part of the body being examined, ... of CT scan, the machine may make several passes. You may be asked to hold your breath ...

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    Full Text Available ... many areas of the body, particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a ...

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    Full Text Available ... slices. When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

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    Full Text Available ... slices. When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

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    Full Text Available ... hours prior to your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... the CT images and should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may ...

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    Full Text Available ... can lead to artifacts on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen ... advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the ...

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    Full Text Available ... can lead to artifacts on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen ... advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the ...

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    Full Text Available ... brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save ... to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide ...

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    Full Text Available ... of the nasal cavity and sinuses. plan for surgery by defining anatomy. top of page How should ... CT scanning may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a ...

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    Full Text Available ... an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... will hear only slight buzzing, clicking and whirring sounds as the CT scanner's internal parts, not usually ...

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    Full Text Available ... an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... will hear only slight buzzing, clicking and whirring sounds as the CT scanner's internal parts, not usually ...

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    Full Text Available ... artifacts on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen on a photograph ... verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. The actual CT scan takes ...

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    Full Text Available ... medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ... to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective radiation dose ...

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    Full Text Available ... particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ... to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective radiation dose ...

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    Full Text Available ... a relatively short time, especially when compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT scanning is painless, noninvasive ... the extent of soft tissue of the tumor, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be helpful. A person ...

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    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray, and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray beams and ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ...

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    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray, and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray beams and ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ...

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    Full Text Available ... to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal ... have diabetes —particularly if you are taking Glucophage . Women should always inform their physician and the CT ...

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    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... hard time staying still, are claustrophobic, or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to ...

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... of the Sinuses? CT is usually the first test ordered when a sinus tumor is suspected. If ...

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    Full Text Available ... about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the center. You will ...

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  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT ... iodine is extremely rare, and radiology departments are well-equipped to deal with them. Because children are ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... beneficial for all patients but especially children, the elderly and critically ill, all of whom may have ... x-rays. CT scanning is, in general, not recommended for pregnant women unless medically necessary because of ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... beneficial for all patients but especially children, the elderly and critically ill, all of whom may have ... x-rays. CT scanning is, in general, not recommended for pregnant women unless medically necessary because of ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, ... us improve RadiologyInfo.org by taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, ... us improve RadiologyInfo.org by taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk ... imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT is less sensitive to patient movement than ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... you through a built-in intercom system. With pediatric patients, a parent may be allowed in the room but will be required to wear a lead apron to minimize radiation exposure. After a CT exam, the intravenous line used to inject the contrast material will be ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... a relatively short time, especially when compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... the extent of soft tissue of the tumor, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be helpful. A person who is ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on June 21, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? ... Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... patients with facial trauma, and planning surgical reconstruction. diagnose diseases of the temporal bone on the side of ... to contrast materials that contain iodine is extremely rare, and radiology ... essential for making a diagnosis and should not have repeated CT exams unless ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may be pregnant. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... at and passes through the part of the body being examined, recording an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... at and passes through the part of the body being examined, recording an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of CT of the ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of CT Scanning of ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... shield may stay in the room with their child. However, the technologist will always be able to ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... shield may stay in the room with their child. However, the technologist will always be able to ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on March 30, 2018 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? ... Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast ...

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    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... in direct visual contact and usually with the ability to hear and talk to you with the use of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... in direct visual contact and usually with the ability to hear and talk to you with the use of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other ... another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x-ray exam, a ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other ... another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x-ray exam, a ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... operates the scanner and monitors your examination in direct visual contact and usually with the ability to hear and talk to you with the use of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... operates the scanner and monitors your examination in direct visual contact and usually with the ability to hear and talk to you with the use of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of ... tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of ... tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood ...

  16. Studies on improvement of diagnostic ability of computed tomography (CT) in the parenchymatous organs in the upper abdomen, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Ryo

    1982-01-01

    Three postoperative fatty liver cases were reported. Furthermore, the significance of CT value in diagnosis of the fatty liver was studied experimentally in 32 rabbits. Three postoperative cases, which underwent massive intestinal resection and/or intravenous hyperalimentation including fat emulsion administration, were diagnosed by CT to have the fatty liver. Daily intravenous administration of fat emulsion was done in rabbits for 4 weeks. In the group in which 2g/kg/day of fat emulsion were given as well as in the group in which 4g/kg/day of fat emulsion were given, a slight reduction in CT value was observed after the administration. In the group in which 8g/kg/day of fat emulsion were given, CT value showed a definitive reduction, or -14.9+-5.1 in Hounsfield Unit, after the administration and CT diagnosis of the fatty liver of a moderate degree could be made. Correlation between CT values of the liver and constituents of the liver was examined in the rabbits. It was found that CT values correlated significantly with the amounts of triglyceride, total cholesterol and cholesterol ester. A significant correlation was found between the degree of reduction in CT value and the degree of vacuolation in specimens of the liver of the rabbits. Thus it was shown that a moderate or higher degree of fat accumulation in the liver was expected to be diagnosed by CT as the fatty liver. (J.P.N.)

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images ...

  18. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  19. Reduction of diagnostic expense in space-occupying processes of the pancreas by fine-needle biopsy under computerized tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luening, M.; Kursawe, R.; Menzel, A.; Stargardt, A.; Lorenz, D.; Schoepke, W.; Hoppe, E.; Meier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative analysis of diagnostic accuracy (dignity determination) in CT-guided fine-needle biopsy (141 patients), CT (141), ultrasonography (89), angiography (50), and cholegraphy (ERCP, 55), was carried out in suspected space-occupying lesions of the pancreas. With accuracy of 86%, sensitivity of 37% and specificity of 92% fine-needle biopsy was superior to imaging procedures. Additional comparison of the results concerning the patients and Roc curves confirm the statements. For reduction of the number of imaging investigations a diagnostic algorithm is proposed, that starts with diagnostic CT and subsequent fine-needle biopsy controlled by CT. This would result in a more adequate use of angiography and ERCP and in the elimination of ultrasonography. (author)

  20. How does arm positioning of polytraumatized patients in the initial computed tomography (CT) affect image quality and diagnostic accuracy?

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    Kahn, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.kahn@charite.de; Grupp, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.grupp@charite.de; Maurer, Martin, E-mail: martin.maurer@charite.de

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of different arm positions on abdominal image quality during initial whole-body CT (WBCT) in polytraumatized patients and to assess the risk of missing potentially life-threatening injuries due to arm artifacts. Materials and methods: Between July 2011 and February 2013, WBCT scans of 203 patients with arms in the abdominal area during initial WBCT were analyzed. Six different arms-down positions were defined: patients with both (group A)/one arm(s) (group B) down alongside the torso, patients with both (group C)/one arm(s) (group D) crossed in front of the upper abdomen, patients with both (group E)/one arm(s) (group F) crossed in front of the pelvic area. A group of 203 patients with elevated arms beside the head served as a control group. Two observers jointly evaluated image quality of different organ regions using a 4-point scale system. Follow-up examinations (CT scans and/or ultrasound) were analyzed to identify findings missed during initial WBCT due to reduced image quality. Results: Image quality for most of the organ regions analyzed was found to be significantly different among all groups (p < 0.05). Image quality was most severely degraded in group A, followed by groups E and C. Positioning with one arm up resulted in significantly better image quality than both arms down (p < 0.05). Overall, arms-up positioning showed significantly better image quality than arms-down positions (p < 0.05). In one case, liver hemorrhage missed in the initial WBCT because of arm artifacts, was revealed by follow-up CT. Conclusion: In WBCT arms-down positioning significantly degrades abdominal image quality and artifacts might even conceal potentially life-threatening injuries. If the patient's status does not allow elevation of both arms, image quality can benefit from raising at least one arm. Otherwise, arms should be placed in front of the upper abdomen instead of alongside the torso.

  1. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  2. Thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Koukichi

    1992-01-01

    There are several useful diagnostic examinations for thyroid disease. The diagnostic value of CT in thyroid disease is still controvertial, although CT has become a routine clinical examination, since the plain CT does not always identify tumors accurately. In this paper, we introduce for the first time thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT) which may improve the diagnostic value of CT. The technique combines CT with thyroid lymphography. We performed TLG-CT in 92 patients with various thyroid diseases and 20 normal controls and classified the radiological features into the following 6 types: entire (normal thyroid); moth-eaten (Hashimoto's thyroiditis); defect (follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter); lobate (papillary carcinoma); localized (various thyroid diseases); and extrathyroid defect (parathyroid tumor). In addition, we examined the relationship between TLG-CT type and the macroscopic appearance of the cut surface of the thyroid and lymph node metastasis in 20 patients with papillary carcinoma. The results suggest that papillary TLG-CT type carcinomas have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis. Our preliminary results suggest that TLG-CT is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of thyroid disease and the assessment of the pathologic diagnosis as well as lymph node metastasis. (author)

  3. Diagnostic significance of CT discography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Toru; Tomita, Yu; Maeda, Katsuhisa; Takayama, Atsuya; Takada, Shunichi; Murakami, Masazumi; Saito, Yasufumi.

    1986-01-01

    In a total of 179 patients, comprising 161 with intervertebral disorder and 18 with spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, CT discographic findings of 456 intervertebral discs were reviewed. Computed tomographic discography showed the direction of herniation, the size of hernial masses, and the deformity of the intervertebral disc and joint, being helpful in deciding indications for surgery and selecting surgical procedures. Computed tomographic discographic patterns of disk deformity were classified as types A, B, and C. This classification almost concurred with the findings of conventional discography. Discography or CT discography is recommended to be used when deformity at the L5-S1 level may be missed on myelography and there is extraforaminal lateral disc herniation. Combined use of myelography, discography, and CT discography would increase the diagnostic accuracy for lumbar diseases. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... on newborns, infants and older children. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ... your child for the CT examination. top of page What does the CT equipment look like? The CT ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an implanted medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. CT imaging provides real-time imaging, making it ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called "multislice CT" or "multidetector CT," ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... child for the CT examination. top of page What does the CT equipment look like? The CT scanner is typically a large machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the center. A moveable ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... beneficial for all patients but especially children, the elderly and critically ill. For some CT exams, a ... clinical problems. CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you ...

  9. Computed tomography (CT) of orbital cellulitis

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    Nakashima, H.; Hara, K.; Okamura, R.; Watanabe, T.; Nagata, M. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-12-01

    Two cases of orbital cellulitis showed a tumor-like shadow in the orbit on CT examination. Abnormal shadows were also noticed in both cases in the frontal and ethmoid sinuses. Postoperatively, one case was diagnosed as pyocele of the frontal sinus, the other as sinusitis with subperitoneal hematoma. In these diagnoses, plane skull X-P, tomography and CT scanning were valuable.

  10. Role of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Diagnostic Evaluation of Carcinoma Urinary Bladder: Comparison with Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kashyap, Raghava; Mete, Utham Kumar; Narang, Vikram; Das, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Anish; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Mandal, Arup K.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most frequent tumor of the urinary tract and accounts 7% of all malignancies in men and 2% of all malignancies in women. This retrospective study was carried out to assess the diagnostic utility of F18-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the imaging evaluation of bladder carcinoma. Seventy-seven consecutive patients diagnosed to have carcinoma urinary bladder referred for F18-FDG PET/CT were included in this study. Thirty-four patients were for initial staging after transurethral biopsy and remaining 43 patients were for restaging. All patients also underwent CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. PET/CT findings were correlated with diagnostic CT scan and histopathological findings. In 30 of the 34 patients for initial staging, both PET/CT and CT confirmed the primary lesion in the bladder. Histopathology report was available in 23 patients. Lymph nodes FDG uptake reported to be metastatic in 10/23 patients while CT detected lymph node metastasis in 12 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy have been calculated to be 87.5%, 80%, 70%, 92%, 82% for PET/CT and 66%, 57%, 50%, 72%, 60% for CT respectively. PET/CT detected metastatic disease in 8 patients whereas CT detected in 4 patients. Of the 43 patients for restaging, local recurrence was detected in 24 patients on both PET/CT and CT. Histopathology report was available in 17 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 85%, 60%, 60%, 85%, 70% for PET/CT and 80%, 50%, 40%, 85%, 58% for CT respectively. Nineteen patients were detected to have metastatic disease by PET/CT, whereas CT detected metastases in 11 patients. F-18 FDG PET/CT is a very useful modality in pre-operative staging and monitoring after surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy of patients with carcinoma urinary bladder

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called "multislice CT" or "multidetector CT," ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT ... be performed to evaluate blood vessels throughout the body. With CT, it is possible to obtain very ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT scans that are not clearly needed. Another strategy is to consider other tests, such as MRI ... sensitive to radiation, they should have a CT study only if it is essential for making a ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine ... CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks The risk of serious allergic reaction to contrast ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... such as inflammation of the bronchi (breathing passages) birth defects trauma to blood vessels or lung CT ... used to: diagnose appendicitis detect abdominal tumors or birth defects In the pelvic region, CT scans can ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... medications and allergies. Inform your doctor and the technologist prior to the exam if your child has ... exam. This can be discussed with the CT technologist, the specialist who will be performing the CT ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... to wear a lead apron to prevent radiation exposure. The radiation dose directly outside of the CT ... However, CT scans result in a low-level exposure. Whether such levels cause cancer is debatable but ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... the body, in a shorter period of time. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can ... ensure that he/she is properly positioned. With modern CT scanners, your child will hear only slight ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... outside of the CT scanner itself is very low. If you suspect you may be pregnant, however, ... cause cancer. However, CT scans result in a low-level exposure. Whether such levels cause cancer is ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT is used to help diagnose a wide range of conditions due to injury or illness. In ... a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT is less sensitive to ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... is faster than the older CT scanners, reducing the need for sedation and general anesthesia. New technologies that ... A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... with the CT technologist or nurse at the time of the CT examination. If your child has ... detectors rotate around the patient. At the same time, the examination table is moving through the scanner, ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT is used to help diagnose a ... top of page How should we prepare for the CT scan? Your child should wear comfortable, loose- ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... trauma to blood vessels or lung CT is well-suited for visualizing diseases or injury of important ... detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... obtain CT images. It is known that high levels of radiation may cause cancer. However, CT scans result in a low-level exposure. Whether such levels cause cancer is debatable ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scans may be performed on newborns, infants and older children. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... multislice CT" or "multidetector CT," allow thinner slices to be obtained, resulting in more detail of the body, in a shorter period of time. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of the body in just a few seconds. Such speed is beneficial for ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... or lung CT is well-suited for visualizing diseases or injury of important organs in the abdomen including the liver, kidney and spleen. CT is sometimes used to: diagnose appendicitis detect abdominal tumors or birth defects In ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... many ways, CT scanning is like other x-ray examinations. X-rays are a form of radiation, like light ... denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do we get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Children's CT? What ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children is faster than the older CT scanners, reducing the need for sedation and general anesthesia. New technologies that will make even faster scanning possible are ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray exam, a small burst of radiation passes through the body, recording an image on photographic ... of CT scan, the machine may make several passes. Patients may be asked to hold their breath ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT of the chest is used to evaluate: complications from infections such as pneumonia a tumor that ... radiation dose. There always is a risk of complications from general anesthesia or sedation. Every measure will ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner is typically a large machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the center. A moveable ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray beams and ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ... radiation children may receive from a CT scan. One of the best ways of limiting radiation exposure ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... imaging provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... areas of the body that sometimes are as good as or better than those obtained by CT ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... beneficial for all patients but especially children, the elderly and critically ill. For some CT exams, a ... the need for sedation and general anesthesia. New technologies that will make even faster scanning possible are ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X- ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special image recording plate . Bones appear ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices ... the need for sedation and general anesthesia. New technologies that will make even faster scanning possible are ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... tissues show up in shades of gray and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray ... determines that the images are of high enough quality for the radiologist to read. top of page ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... may have a warm, flushed sensation during the injection of the contrast materials and a metallic taste ... CT scans that are not clearly needed. Another strategy is to consider other tests, such as MRI ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding ... may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a patient's body ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... determines that the images are of high enough quality for the radiologist to read. top of page ... in CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks The risk of serious allergic reaction to ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... for the chest x-ray, CT is the most commonly used imaging procedure for evaluating the chest. ... scanning, especially if the chest is being scanned. Most children older than six years are able to ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost- ... the reason for the exam, the body area being examined, and the child's size. Radiologists generally attempt ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost- ... to protect the welfare of your child, including close monitoring. Because children are more sensitive to radiation, ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When ... known that high levels of radiation may cause cancer. However, CT scans result in a low-level ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... sits. The technologist will always be able to see your child in the CT scanner. top of ... scan. However, the technologist will be able to see, hear and speak with your child at all ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... in CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks The risk of serious allergic reaction to ... of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. See the Safety page for more information about radiation ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same time. Unlike conventional x-rays, CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose a wide range of conditions due to injury or illness. In children, CT is typically used to diagnose causes of abdominal pain, evaluate for injury after trauma, diagnose and stage cancer, monitor response ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can ... slices of the body, to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images, which are then displayed on a ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... slices. When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate for injury after trauma. Tell your doctor about your child’s ... diagnose a wide range of conditions due to injury or illness. In children, CT is typically used ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... radiation children may receive from a CT scan. One of the best ways of limiting radiation exposure ... or pediatrician and the radiologist will decide which type of examination is best for your child. top ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... on photographic film or a special image recording plate . Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... will hear only slight buzzing, clicking and whirring sounds as the CT scanner revolves around him/her ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety Children and Radiation Safety Images ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... images and send an official report to your primary care physician or physician who referred you for the ... those obtained by CT scanning. Working together, your primary care physician or pediatrician and the radiologist will decide ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... of the body, in a shorter period of time. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of the body in just a few seconds. Such speed is beneficial for ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT ... note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A ... 450 pounds—for the moving table. Other imaging methods such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... as pneumonia a tumor that arises in the lung or has spread there from a distant site ... passages) birth defects trauma to blood vessels or lung CT is well-suited for visualizing diseases or ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... children. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT is used to help ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... is the procedure performed? The technologist begins by positioning the patient on the CT examination table, usually ... encourage your child to report any discomfort during positioning because it is important to keep very still ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... easier for children to hold their breath during critical parts of the exam. CT scanning is painless, ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast material will be given to ... unlike MRI. CT imaging provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children is faster than the older ... clearly needed. Another strategy is to consider other tests, such as MRI or ultrasound which might give ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... create detailed images of your child’s internal organs, bones, soft tissues and blood vessels. It may be ... CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... when the IV is inserted, usually into the hand or arm. The child may have a warm, ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... read. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... scanning itself causes no pain, your child may experience some discomfort from having to remain still for ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... CT scans that are not clearly needed. Another strategy is to consider other tests, such as MRI ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... In children, CT is typically used to diagnose causes of abdominal pain, evaluate for injury after trauma, ... lie still is reduced. Though the scanning itself causes no pain, your child may experience some discomfort ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... fine tune" the CT settings based on the reason for the exam, the body area being examined, ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... the x-rays in varying degrees. In a conventional x-ray exam, a small burst of radiation ... blood vessels all at the same time. Unlike conventional x-rays, CT scanning provides very detailed images ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... it is possible, every effort is made to limit the amount of radiation children may receive from ... CT scanner or may be over the weight limit—usually 450 pounds—for the moving table. Other ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. There ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast material will be ... in CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks The risk of serious allergic reaction to ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... like? The CT scanner is typically a large machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the ... of this tunnel. In the center of the machine, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices ... the technologist determines that the images are of high enough quality for the radiologist to read. top ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... her during the imaging process. The technologist will leave the room to perform the CT scan. However, ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... abdominal tumors or birth defects In the pelvic region, CT scans can help: detect cysts or tumors ... tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. Discuss the fees associated with your prescribed procedure ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... stay in the exam room until your child has fallen asleep. There may be a somewhat longer ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, ... us improve RadiologyInfo.org by taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision ... imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT is less sensitive to patient movement than ...

  10. Diagnostic performance of on-site CT-derived fractional flow reserve versus CT perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hak; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kang, Joon-Won; Ahn, Jung-Min; Kweon, Jihoon; Lee, Jung Bok; Choi, Seong Hoon; Shin, Eun-Seok; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung; Lim, Tae-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of on-site computed tomography (CT)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) and stress CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) in patients with coronary artery disease. Using a prospective CTP registry, 72 patients with invasive FFR were enrolled. CT-derived FFR was computed on-site using rest-phase CTP data. The diagnostic accuracies of coronary CT angiography (CCTA), CT-derived FFR, and stress CTP were evaluated using an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) with invasive FFR as a reference standard. Logistic regression and the net reclassification index (NRI) were used to evaluate incremental differences in CT-derived FFR or CTP compared with CCTA alone. The per-vessel prevalence of haemodynamically significant stenosis (FFR ≤ 0.80) was 39% (54/138). Per-vessel sensitivity and specificity were 94 and 66% for CCTA, 87 and 77% for CT-derived FFR, and 79 and 91% for CTP, respectively. There was no significant difference in the AUC values of CT-derived FFR and CTP (P = 0.845). The diagnostic performance of CCTA (AUC = 0.856) was improved by combining it with CT-derived FFR (AUC = 0.919, P = 0.004, NRI = 1.01) or CTP (AUC = 0.913, P = 0.004, NRI = 0.66). CT-derived FFR values had a moderate correlation with invasive FFR (r = 0.671, P CT-derived FFR combined with CCTA provides an incremental diagnostic improvement over CCTA alone in identifying haemodynamically significant stenosis defined by invasive FFR, with a diagnostic accuracy comparable with CTP. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Quality assurance of computed tomography (CT) scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.; Sanu, K.K. . Email : a_sankaran@vsnl.com

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the present status of research work and development of various test objects, phantoms and detector/instrumentation systems for quality assurance (QA) of computed tomography (CT) scanners, carried out in advanced countries, with emphasis on similar work done in this research centre. CT scanner is a complex equipment and routine quality control procedures are essential to the maintenance of image quality with optimum patient dose. Image quality can be ensured only through correlation between prospective monitoring of system components and tests of overall performance with standard phantoms. CT examinations contribute a large share to the population dose in advanced countries. The unique dosimetry problems in CT necessitate special techniques. This article describes a comprehensive kit developed indigenously for the following QA and type approval tests as well as for research studies on image quality/dosimetry on CT scanners

  12. Flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Willi A.; Kyriakou, Yiannis

    2007-01-01

    Flat-panel detectors or, synonymously, flat detectors (FDs) have been developed for use in radiography and fluoroscopy with the defined goal to replace standard X-ray film, film-screen combinations and image intensifiers by an advanced sensor system. FD technology in comparison to X-ray film and image intensifiers offers higher dynamic range, dose reduction, fast digital readout and the possibility for dynamic acquisitions of image series, yet keeping to a compact design. It appeared logical to employ FD designs also for computed tomography (CT) imaging. Respective efforts date back a few years only, but FD-CT has meanwhile become widely accepted for interventional and intra-operative imaging using C-arm systems. FD-CT provides a very efficient way of combining two-dimensional (2D) radiographic or fluoroscopic and 3D CT imaging. In addition, FD technology made its way into a number of dedicated CT scanner developments, such as scanners for the maxillo-facial region or for micro-CT applications. This review focuses on technical and performance issues of FD technology and its full range of applications for CT imaging. A comparison with standard clinical CT is of primary interest. It reveals that FD-CT provides higher spatial resolution, but encompasses a number of disadvantages, such as lower dose efficiency, smaller field of view and lower temporal resolution. FD-CT is not aimed at challenging standard clinical CT as regards to the typical diagnostic examinations; but it has already proven unique for a number of dedicated CT applications, offering distinct practical advantages, above all the availability of immediate CT imaging in the interventional suite or the operating room. (orig.)

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... a gown. You may be instructed to withhold food or drink beforehand, especially if sedation or anesthesia is to be used. In general, children who have recently been ill will not be sedated or anesthetized. What is Children's CT? What are some common uses ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... images of your child’s internal organs, bones, soft tissues and blood vessels. It may be used to help diagnose ... DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... if there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast material will be given to your child for the CT examination. top of page What ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... the exam if your child has a known allergy to contrast material. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be ... the time of the CT examination. If your child has a known contrast material allergy, you should inform the doctor and technologist prior ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast material will be given to your child for the CT examination. top of page What ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... wide range of conditions due to injury or illness. In children, CT is typically used to diagnose causes of abdominal pain, evaluate for injury after trauma, diagnose and stage cancer, monitor response to treatment for cancer, and diagnose and monitor infectious or ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... read. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... conventional CT scanner or may be over the weight limit—usually 450 pounds—for the moving table. Other imaging methods such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide pictures of certain areas of the body that sometimes are as good as or better ...

  2. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanakumar, A.; Vaideki, K.; Govindarajan, K. N.; Jayakumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDI w ), volumetric CT dose index (CTDI v ), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south I...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of ... tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... that will provide the needed diagnostic information. The benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. There always is a risk of complications ...

  5. Incremental Diagnostic Value of Stress Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion With Whole-Heart Coverage CT Scanner in Intermediate- to High-Risk Symptomatic Patients Suspected of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Guaricci, Andrea I; Baggiano, Andrea; Fazzari, Fabio; Guglielmo, Marco; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Berzovini, Claudio Maria; Pasquini, Annalisa; Mushtaq, Saima; Conte, Edoardo; Calligaris, Giuseppe; De Martini, Stefano; Ferrari, Cristina; Galli, Stefano; Grancini, Luca; Ravagnani, Paolo; Teruzzi, Giovanni; Trabattoni, Daniela; Fabbiocchi, Franco; Lualdi, Alessandro; Montorsi, Piero; Rabbat, Mark G; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Pepi, Mauro

    2018-02-09

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of stress computed tomography myocardial perfusion (CTP) for the detection of functionally significant coronary artery disease (CAD) by using invasive coronary angiography (ICA) plus invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard in consecutive intermediate- to high-risk symptomatic patients. Stress CTP recently emerged as a potential strategy to combine the anatomic and functional evaluation of CAD in a single scan. A total of 100 consecutive symptomatic patients scheduled for ICA were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent rest coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) followed by stress static CTP with a whole-heart coverage CT scanner (Revolution CT, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wisconsin). Diagnostic accuracy and overall effective dose were assessed and compared versus those of ICA and invasive FFR. The prevalence of obstructive CAD and functionally significant CAD were 69% and 44%, respectively. Coronary CTA alone demonstrated a per-vessel and per-patient sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 98%, 76%, 99%, 63%, and 83% and of 98%, 54%, 96%, 68%, and 76%, respectively. Combining coronary CTA with stress CTP, per-vessel and per-patient sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy were 91%, 94%, 96%, 86%, and 93% and 98%, 83%, 98%, 86%, and 91%, with a significant improvement in specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy in both models. The mean effective dose for coronary CTA and stress CTP were 2.8 ± 1.4 mSv and 2.5 ± 1.1 mSv. The inclusion of stress CTP for the evaluation of patients with an intermediate to high risk for CAD is feasible and improved the diagnostic performance of coronary CTA for detecting functionally significant CAD. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation dose differences between thoracic radiotherapy planning CT and thoracic diagnostic CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderud, A.; England, A.; Hogg, P.; Fosså, K.; Svensson, S.F.; Johansen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the absorbed dose from computed tomography (CT) in radiotherapy planning (RP-CT) against those from diagnostic CT (DG-CT) examinations and to explore the possible reasons for any dose differences. Method: Two groups of patients underwent CT-scans of the thorax with either DG-CT (n = 55) or RP-CT (n = 55). Patients from each group had similar weight and body mass index (BMI) and were divided into low (<25) and high BMI (>25). Parameters including CTDIvol, DLP and scan-length were compared. Results: The mean CTDIvol and DLP values from RP-CT (38.1 mGy, 1472 mGy cm) are approximately four times higher than for DG-CT (9.63 mGy, 376.5 mGy cm). For low BMI group, the CTDIvol in the RP-CT scans (36.4 mGy) is 6.3 times higher than the one in the DG-CT scans (5.8 mGy). For the high BMI group, the CTDIvol in the RP-CT (39.6 mGy) is 2.5 times higher than the one in the DG-CT scans (15.8 mGy). In the DG-CT scans a strong negative linear correlation between noise index (NI) and mean CTDIvol was observed (r = −0.954, p = 0.004); the higher NI, the lower CTDIvol. This was not the case in the RP-CT scans. Conclusion: The absorbed radiation dose is significantly higher and less BMI dependent for RP-CT scans compared to DG-CT. Image quality requirements of the examinations should be researched to ensure that radiation doses are not unnecessarily high. - Highlights: • The radiation dose differences in diagnostic vs. radiotherapy planning thorax CT. • The average effective dose given to radiotherapy planning patients are 30.0 mSv. • The average effective dose given to diagnostic patients are 7.7 mSv. • The CTDIvol is less BMI dependent for radiotherapy planning thorax CT scans compared to diagnostic scans.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a fast, painless exam that uses special x-ray equipment to create detailed images of your child’s ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  8. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Janbabanezhad Toori A.; Shabestani-Monfared A.; Deevband M.R.; Abdi R.; Nabahati M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT) are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT) examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic ...

  9. Computed tomography (CT) in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, M.; Ambler, Z.

    1997-01-01

    For 24 patients with confirmed neuromuscular disorders, the clinical picture of the disease was complemented with CT examination. It is concluded, in accordance with the literature, that CT has a supplementary value as regards the extent and degree of disorder of the affected muscle groups. The basic pathological picture includes muscular atrophies, dystrophies, hypertrophies, and their combinations. The CT images are non-specific for the individual neuromuscular disorders and are of minor importance in the diagnostic process. 1 tab., 7 figs., 6 refs

  10. Flat-detector computed tomography in diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, T.; Doerfler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Originally aimed at improving standard radiography by providing higher absorption efficiency and a wider dynamic range than available with film-screen and phosphor luminescence, radiography flat detector technology is now widely accepted for neuroangiographic imaging. Especially flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT), which uses rotational C-arm mounted flat-panel detector technology, is capable of volumetric imaging with a high spatial resolution. As ''angiographic CT'' FD-CT may be helpful in many diagnostic and neurointerventional procedures, e.g. intracranial stenting for cerebrovascular stenoses, stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms and embolization of arteriovenous malformations. By providing morphologic, CT-like images of the brain within the angiography suite FD-CT allows rapid visualization of periprocedural hemorrhaging and may thus improve rapid complication management without the need of patient transfer. In addition, myelography and postmyelographic FD-CT imaging can be carried out using a single modality. Spinal interventions, such as kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty might also benefit from FD-CT. Imaging of the temporal bone may also develop into an important field of FD-CT. This paper briefly reviews the technical principles of FD technology and the potential applications in diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology. (orig.) [de

  11. PET/CT diagnostic of colo-rectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straciuc, O.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Objective: Presenting the advantages of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/ CT) examination, using the radiotracer fluorure 18-deoxyglucose (FDG) in colo-rectal cancer diagnostic. Basics of the method will be also presented. Introduction: FDG PET/CT is recognized as the most efficient diagnostic imaging weapon in colorectal cancer, enable too comprehend all the 3 targets needed for staging of colo-rectal cancers: 1)Detection and evaluation of primary tumor (T) and recurrence; 2) Lymphadenopathy (N); 3)Metastatic disease (M). Assessment of treatment response during and after therapy, follow up and radiotherapy planning are also indications for PET/CT. There are two essential advantages of the method: 1)The whole body examination; 2)The complementary morphological information offered by CT and functional information offered by PET. Material and methods: Study of a total of 394 patients diagnosed with colo-rectal cancer of the total of 4125 investigated by PET/CT in Diagnosztika Pozitron center of Oradea, between 01.06.2008 - 06.06.2012. All cases had documented preoperative or postoperative histopathologic evaluation. We used a Siemens Biograph 16 device and only FDG as radiotracer, injected intravenously at a dose of 0.1-0.15 mCi /kg. Standard protocol of examination was performed at 60 minutes after FDG injection. CT acquisition consists of 'low dose' from vertex to thighs, followed by PET acquisition in 7 to 8 beds. Results: We followed the performance of PET/CT diagnostic in staging and restaging of colorectal cancer compared with other imaging methods. 141 patients had negative examinations. 107 patients were diagnosed with locally recurrent lesions, lymphadenopathy and/ or metastases. Compared with the results of previous imaging new metabolically active lesions were detected in 87 patients by PET/CT and suspected lesions were denied in 48 patients. Significant clinically cases are presented. Conclusions: The data obtained by PET

  12. CT diagnostic significance of tuboovarian abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tieqiao; Dong Jie; Xu Quanying; An Haiqin; Sang Chunyu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze computed tomographic (CT) imaging features of tuboovarian abscess as well as to discuss CT diagnostic significance. Methods: Ten patients with tuboovarian abscess were performed CT enhancing scans. Results: Ten patients manifested thick-walled, cystic-solid complex adnexal mass and indistinct margins on CT imaging. Internal thick septations and layered enhancement of the mass border on CT contrast images were common. Associated findings of CT included thickening of' the uterosacral ligaments in 9 of 10 patients, increased attenuation of the presacral and perirectal fat secondary to edema in 9 patients, serpiginous structure corresponding to a dilated, pus-filled fallopian tube in 6 patients and fluid-filled within uterine cavity in 4 patients. On CT scans, the inflammatory infiltration of adnexal abscesses involved pelvic structure included adhesion with borders of uterus in 9 patients, adhesion with rectal or sigmoid in 4 patients and pelvic wall or bowel loop in 3 patients. Two cases with peritoneal thicken showed ascites on CT images and right adnexal tuboovarian abscess in 2 patients were associated with appendicitis. Conclusion: CT can reveal pelvic adjacent organs involvement or adhesion and inflammatory infihration of pelvic floor soft-tissues or fascial planes except showing cystic solid complex mass of adnexal location so that indicating characteristics and the extent of the suspected pelvic inflammatory diseases. CT can be valuable in difficult cases of gynecologic infective diseases. (authors)

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography using lower doses of radiation for patients with Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic resonance and ultrasonography have increasing roles in the initial diagnosis of Crohn\\'s disease, but computed tomography (CT) with positive oral contrast agents is most frequently used to identify those with acute extramural complications. However, CT involves exposure of patients to radiation. We prospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT (at a dose comparable to that used to obtain an abdominal radiograph) with conventional-dose CT in patients with active Crohn\\'s disease.

  14. National diagnostic reference level initiative for computed tomography examinations in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Korir, Geoffrey K.; Wambani, Jeska S.; Korir, Ian K.; Tries, Mark A.; Boen, Patrick K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the computed tomography (CT) examination frequency, patient radiation exposure, effective doses and national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) associated with CT examinations in clinical practice. A structured questionnaire-type form was developed for recording examination frequency, scanning protocols and patient radiation exposure during CT procedures in fully equipped medical facilities across the country. The national annual number of CT examina...

  15. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone Roshan; Dinakaran Paul

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded ...

  16. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) in Suspected Recurrent Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Gerke, Oke; Baun, Christina

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the diagnostic accuracy of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with dual-time-point imaging, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and bone scintigraphy (BS) in patients with suspected breast cancer recurrence....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred women with suspected recurrence of breast cancer underwent 1-hour and 3-hour FDG-PET/CT, ceCT, and BS within approximately 10 days. The study was powered to estimate the precision of the individual imaging tests. Images were visually interpreted using a four......-point assessment scale, and readers were blinded to other test results. The reference standard was biopsy along with treatment decisions and clinical follow-up (median, 17 months). RESULTS: FDG-PET/CT resulted in no false negatives and fewer false positives than the other imaging techniques. Accuracy of results...

  17. [Basic principles of flat detector computed tomography (FD-CT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Y; Struffert, T; Dörfler, A; Kalender, W A

    2009-09-01

    Flat detectors (FDs) have been developed for use in radiography and fluoroscopy to replace standard X-ray film, film-screen combinations and image intensifiers (II). In comparison to X-ray film and II, FD technology offers higher dynamic range, dose reduction, fast digital readout and the possibility for dynamic acquisitions of image series, yet keeping to a compact design. It appeared logical to employ FD designs also for computed tomography (CT) imaging. FDCT has meanwhile become widely accepted for interventional and intra-operative imaging using C-arm systems. Additionally, the introduction of FD technology was a milestone for soft-tissue CT imaging in the interventional suite which was not possible with II systems in the past. This review focuses on technical and performance issues of FD technology and its wide range of applications for CT imaging. FDCT is not aimed at challenging standard clinical CT as regards to the typical diagnostic examinations, but it has already proven unique for a number of dedicated CT applications offering distinct practical advantages, above all the availability of immediate CT imaging during an intervention.

  18. Basics principles of flat detector computed tomography (FD-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Y.; Struffert, T.; Doerfler, A.; Kalender, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Flat detectors (FDs) have been developed for use in radiography and fluoroscopy to replace standard X-ray film, film-screen combinations and image intensifiers (II). In comparison to X-ray film and II, FD technology offers higher dynamic range, dose reduction, fast digital readout and the possibility for dynamic acquisitions of image series, yet keeping to a compact design. It appeared logical to employ FD designs also for computed tomography (CT) imaging. FDCT has meanwhile become widely accepted for interventional and intra-operative imaging using C-arm systems. Additionally, the introduction of FD technology was a milestone for soft-tissue CT imaging in the interventional suite which was not possible with II systems in the past. This review focuses on technical and performance issues of FD technology and its wide range of applications for CT imaging. FDCT is not aimed at challenging standard clinical CT as regards to the typical diagnostic examinations, but it has already proven unique for a number of dedicated CT applications offering distinct practical advantages, above all the availability of immediate CT imaging during an intervention. (orig.) [de

  19. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and CT for N staging of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegar Zubović, Sandra; Kristić, Spomenka; Hadžihasanović, Besima

    2017-08-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities of non-invasive diagnostic imaging methods, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and CT, in clinical N staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Retrospective clinical study included 50 patients with diagnosed NSCLC who have undergone PET/CT for the purpose of disease staging. The International association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) nodal mapping system was used for analysis of nodal disease. Data regarding CT N-staging and PET/CT Nstaging were recorded. Two methods were compared using χ2 test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Statistical analysis showed that although there were some differences in determining the N stage between CT and PET/CT, these methods were in significant correlation. CT and PET/CT findings established the same N stage in 74% of the patients. In five patients based on PET/CT findings the staging was changed from operable to inoperable, while in four patients staging was changed from inoperable to operable. Conclusion PET/CT and CT are noninvasive methods that can be reliably used for N staging of NSCLC. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  20. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography, stress dual-energy CT perfusion, and stress perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography for coronary artery disease: Comparison with combined invasive coronary angiography and stress perfusion cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Woo; Ko, Sung Min; Hwang, Hweung Kon; So, Young; Yi, Jeong Geun [Konkuk University Medical Center, Research Institute of Biomedical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress dual-energy computed tomography perfusion (DE-CTP), stress perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the combinations of CCTA with myocardial perfusion imaging (CCTA + DE-CTP and CCTA + SPECT) for identifying coronary artery stenosis that causes myocardial hypoperfusion. Combined invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (SP-CMR) imaging are used as the reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 25 patients with suspected coronary artery disease, who underwent CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, SP-CMR, and ICA. The reference standard was defined as ≥ 50% stenosis by ICA, with a corresponding myocardial hypoperfusion on SP-CMR. For per-vascular territory analysis, the sensitivities of CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, CCTA + DE-CTP, and CCTA + SPECT were 96, 96, 68, 93, and 68%, respectively, and specificities were 72, 75, 89, 85, and 94%, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were 0.84 ± 0.05, 0.85 ± 0.05, 0.79 ± 0.06, 0.89 ± 0.04, and 0.81 ± 0.06, respectively. For per-patient analysis, the sensitivities of CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, CCTA + DE-CTP, and CCTA + SPECT were 100, 100, 89, 100, and 83%, respectively; the specificities were 14, 43, 57, 43, and 57%, respectively; and the AUCs were 0.57 ± 0.13, 0.71 ± 0.11, 0.73 ± 0.11, 0.71 ± 0.11, and 0.70 ± 0.11, respectively. The combination of CCTA and DE-CTP enhances specificity without a loss of sensitivity for detecting hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, as defined by combined ICA and SP-CMR.

  1. Diagnostic Performance of Coronary CT Angiography, Stress Dual-Energy CT Perfusion, and Stress Perfusion Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography for Coronary Artery Disease: Comparison with Combined Invasive Coronary Angiography and Stress Perfusion Cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Woo; Ko, Sung Min; Hwang, Hweung Kon; So, Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Lee, Eun Jeong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress dual-energy computed tomography perfusion (DE-CTP), stress perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the combinations of CCTA with myocardial perfusion imaging (CCTA + DE-CTP and CCTA + SPECT) for identifying coronary artery stenosis that causes myocardial hypoperfusion. Combined invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (SP-CMR) imaging are used as the reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 25 patients with suspected coronary artery disease, who underwent CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, SP-CMR, and ICA. The reference standard was defined as ≥ 50% stenosis by ICA, with a corresponding myocardial hypoperfusion on SP-CMR. For per-vascular territory analysis, the sensitivities of CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, CCTA + DE-CTP, and CCTA + SPECT were 96, 96, 68, 93, and 68%, respectively, and specificities were 72, 75, 89, 85, and 94%, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were 0.84 ± 0.05, 0.85 ± 0.05, 0.79 ± 0.06, 0.89 ± 0.04, and 0.81 ± 0.06, respectively. For per-patient analysis, the sensitivities of CCTA, DE-CTP, SPECT, CCTA + DE-CTP, and CCTA + SPECT were 100, 100, 89, 100, and 83%, respectively; the specificities were 14, 43, 57, 43, and 57%, respectively; and the AUCs were 0.57 ± 0.13, 0.71 ± 0.11, 0.73 ± 0.11, 0.71 ± 0.11, and 0.70 ± 0.11, respectively. The combination of CCTA and DE-CTP enhances specificity without a loss of sensitivity for detecting hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, as defined by combined ICA and SP-CMR.

  2. Method of evaluation of diagnostics reference levels in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Walter Flores

    1999-04-01

    Computerized tomography is a complex technique with several selectable exposition parameters delivering high doses to the patient. In this work it was developed a simple methodology to evaluate diagnostic reference levels in computerized tomography, using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Health Ministry. For evaluation of the MSAD, a dose distribution was obtained through a measured dose profile on the axial axis of a water phantom with thermoluminescence dosemeters, TLD-100, for different exam technique. The MSAD was evaluated hrough two distinct methods. First, it was evaluated by the integration of the dose profile of a single slice and, second, obtained by the integration on central slice of the profile of several slices. The latter is in of accordance with the ionization chamber method, suggesting to be the most practical method of dose evaluation to be applied in the diagnostic reference level assessment routine for CT, using TLDs. (author)

  3. Diagnostic value of computer tomography in chronic pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Schrumpf, E.; Bergan, A.; Larsen, S.

    1981-01-01

    During a 3-year-period 39 patients with chronic pancreatitis were subjected to roentgen examinations and exocrine pancreatic function tests (EPFT). Computer tomography (CT) was carried out in 36 of these, and revealed pancreatic disease in 29, while characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis were demonstrated in 24 patients. CT was particularly valuable in diagnosing intra- and extrapancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic abscesses complicating chronic pancreatitis. At endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) pathologic alterations were demonstrated in 23 of 24 patients, and was diagnostic for chronic pancreatitis in 20 patients. The cannulation failed in 7 patients. The results indicate that ERP cannot be replaced by CT. ERP is still needed for detailed demonstration of the pancreatic duct system, especially preoperatively. Conventional films of the abdomen, EPFT and angiography were the least sensitive tests. (Auth.)

  4. Usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of portosystemic collaterals in liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Yoshihiko

    1984-01-01

    This study assesses the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of portosystemic collaterals in liver cirrhosis. Seventy-eight patients with liver cirrhosis underwent both CT and angiography. Comparison was made between CT and angiography on eleven types of collaterals, and many of them were demonstrated on CT scans better than angio. Especially, esophageal varices, paraesophageal varices, umbilical pathway and caput medusa were diagnostic on CT scans. Gastrorenal collaterals, splenorenal collaterals, retroperitoneal pathway are also well demonstrated. Dilatation of azygos systems and small veins in the liver surface are only observed on CT scans. However, coronary varices and short gastric varices are well diagnostic in angiography. But considering all types of collaterals, it was stressed that angiography can be eliminated by CT in evaluation of collaterals in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  5. Diagnostic Role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the Follow-up of Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Comparison with Serum CEA, CA 19-9 Levels and Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Min; Song, Bong Il; Lee, Hong Je; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae; Choi, Kyu Suk; Jun, Soo Han [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Early detection of recurrence is an important factor for long term survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Measurement of serum levels of CEA, CA 19-9, CT and PET/CT has been commonly used in the postoperative surveillance of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic ability of PET/CT, tumor marker and CT for recurrence in colorectal cancer patients after treatment. F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging was performed in 189 colorectal cancer patients who underwent curative surgical resection and/or chemotherapy. Measurement of serum levels of CEA, CA 19-9 and CT imaging were performed within 2 months of PET/CT examination. Final diagnosis of recurrence was made by biopsy, radiologic studies or clinical follow-up for 6 months after each study. Overall sensitivity, specificity of PET/CT was 94.7%, 91.1%, while those of serum CEA were 44.7% and 97.3%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 94.2%, 90.4% for PET/CT and better than those of combined CEA and CA 19-9 measurement (52.1%, 88.5%) in 174 patients measured available both CEA and CA 19-9 data. In 115 patients with both tumor markers and CT images available, PET/CT showed similar sensitivity but higher specificity (92.9%, 91.3%) compared to combination of tumor markers and CT images (92.9%, 74.1%). PET/CT was superior for detection of recurred colorectal cancer patients compared with both CEA, CA 19-9, and even with combination of both tumor markers and CT. Therefore PET/CT could be used as a routine surveillance examination to detect recurrence or metastasis of colorectal cancer.

  6. Stratified computed tomography findings improve diagnostic accuracy for appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geon; Lee, Sang Chul; Choi, Byung-Jo; Kim, Say-June

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients with symptoms and signs of appendicitis, but without confirmative computed tomography (CT) findings. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the database of 224 patients who had been operated on for the suspicion of appendicitis, but whose CT findings were negative or equivocal for appendicitis. The patient population was divided into two groups: a pathologically proven appendicitis group (n = 177) and a non-appendicitis group (n = 47). The CT images of these patients were re-evaluated according to the characteristic CT features as described in the literature. The re-evaluations and baseline characteristics of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: The two groups showed significant differences with respect to appendiceal diameter, and the presence of periappendiceal fat stranding and intraluminal air in the appendix. A larger proportion of patients in the appendicitis group showed distended appendices larger than 6.0 mm (66.3% vs 37.0%; P appendicitis group. Furthermore, the presence of two or more of these factors increased the odds ratio to 6.8 times higher than baseline (95%CI: 3.013-15.454; P appendicitis with equivocal CT findings. PMID:25320531

  7. The clinical usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in follow-up of curatively resected pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woohyun; Jang, Jin-Young; Kang, Mee Joo; Chang, Ye Rim; Shin, Yong Chan; Chang, Jihoon; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography and serum tumor markers have limited value in detecting recurrence after curative surgery of pancreatic cancer. This study evaluated the clinical utility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in diagnosing recurrence. One hundred ten patients underwent curative resection of pancreatic cancer were enrolled. The diagnostic value of abdominal computed tomography (CT), PET-CT and serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 concentration were compared. The prognostic value of SUVmax on PET-CT was evaluated. PET-CT showed relatively higher sensitivity (84.5% vs. 75.0%) and accuracy (84.5% vs. 74.5%) than CT, whereas PET-CT plus CT showed greater sensitivity (97.6%) and accuracy (90.0%) than either alone. In detecting distant recurrences, PET-CT showed higher sensitivity (83.1% vs. 67.7%) than CT. Nineteen patients showed recurrences only on PET-CT, with eleven having invisible or suspected benign lesions on CT, and eight had recurrences in areas not covered by CT. SUVmax over 3.3 was predictive of poor survival after recurrence. PET-CT in combination with CT improves the detection of recurrence. PET-CT was especially advantageous in detecting recurrences in areas not covered by CT. If active post-operative surveillance after curative resection of pancreatic cancer is deemed beneficial, then it should include PET-CT combined with CT. Copyright © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Basics principles of flat detector computed tomography (FD-CT); Grundlagen der Flachdetektor-CT (FD-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakou, Y.; Struffert, T.; Doerfler, A.; Kalender, W.A. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Flat detectors (FDs) have been developed for use in radiography and fluoroscopy to replace standard X-ray film, film-screen combinations and image intensifiers (II). In comparison to X-ray film and II, FD technology offers higher dynamic range, dose reduction, fast digital readout and the possibility for dynamic acquisitions of image series, yet keeping to a compact design. It appeared logical to employ FD designs also for computed tomography (CT) imaging. FDCT has meanwhile become widely accepted for interventional and intra-operative imaging using C-arm systems. Additionally, the introduction of FD technology was a milestone for soft-tissue CT imaging in the interventional suite which was not possible with II systems in the past. This review focuses on technical and performance issues of FD technology and its wide range of applications for CT imaging. FDCT is not aimed at challenging standard clinical CT as regards to the typical diagnostic examinations, but it has already proven unique for a number of dedicated CT applications offering distinct practical advantages, above all the availability of immediate CT imaging during an intervention. (orig.) [German] Flachdetektoren (FD) sind fuer die Anwendung in der Radiographie und Fluoroskopie entwickelt worden, um die damaligen Standards - Film-Folien-Kombinationen (FFK) und Bildverstaerker (BV) - zu ersetzen. Im Vergleich zu FFK und BV bietet die FD-Technologie eine hoehere Dynamik, Verzerrungsfreiheit und eine gesteigerte Dosiseffizienz. Weitere Vorteile sind die Anfertigung Serienaufnahmen, eine sofortige Digitalausgabe und eine kompakte Bauweise. Dies legt auch eine Anwendung von Flachdetektoren in der Computertomographie (CT) nahe. Inzwischen ist die FD-CT weitgehend in der interventionellen und intraoperativen Bildgebung etabliert - meist als C-Bogen-System. Die FD-Technologie hat erstmals die Weichteilbildgebung in der interventionellen Suite ermoeglicht, was mit BV-Systemen nicht moeglich war. Diese

  9. Yttrium-90 internal pair production imaging using first generation PET/CT provides high-resolution images for qualitative diagnostic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Y H; Tan, E H; Lim, K Y; Ng, C E; Goh, S W

    2012-07-01

    Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) internal pair production can be imaged by positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and is superior to bremsstrahlung single-photon emission CT/CT for evaluating hepatic (90)Y microsphere biodistribution. We illustrate a case of (90)Y imaging using first generation PET/CT technology, producing high-quality images for qualitative diagnostic purposes.

  10. Reassessment of CT images to improve diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspected acute appendicitis and an equivocal preoperative CT interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Sang Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To identify CT features that discriminate individuals with and without acute appendicitis in patients with equivocal CT findings, and to assess whether knowledge of these findings improves diagnostic accuracy. 53 patients that underwent appendectomy with an indeterminate preoperative CT interpretation were selected and allocated to an acute appendicitis group or a non-appendicitis group. The 53 CT examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus to identify CT findings that could aid in the discrimination of those with and without appendicitis. In addition, two additional radiologists were then requested to evaluate independently the 53 CT examinations using a 4-point scale, both before and after being informed of the potentially discriminating criteria. CT findings found to be significantly different in the two groups were; the presence of appendiceal wall enhancement, intraluminal air in appendix, a coexistent inflammatory lesion, and appendiceal wall thickening (P < 0.05). Areas under the curves of reviewers 1 and 2 significantly increased from 0.516 and 0.706 to 0.677 and 0.841, respectively, when reviewers were told which CT variables were significant (P = 0.0193 and P = 0.0397, respectively). Knowledge of the identified CT findings was found to improve diagnostic accuracy for acute appendicitis in patients with equivocal CT findings. circle Numerous patients with clinically equivocal appendicitis do not have acute appendicitis circle Computed tomography (CT) helps to reduce the negative appendectomy rate circle CT is not always infallible and may also demonstrate indeterminate findings circle However knowledge of significant CT variables can further reduce negative appendectomy rate circle An equivocal CT interpretation of appendicitis should be reassessed with this knowledge. (orig.)

  11. A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Value of CT Imaging in Diagnosing Otosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, Inge; van Waes, Anne M A; Bittermann, Arnold J; Buitinck, Sophie H; Dekker, Caroline F; Kurk, Sophie A; Rados, Matea; Grolman, Wilko

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) in detecting otosclerosis in patients with conductive hearing loss and a clinical suspicion of otosclerosis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. STUDY SELECTION: A systematic search was conducted. Studies

  12. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography in the diagnostic evaluation of smoldering multiple myeloma: identification of patients needing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontis, B; Kumar, S; Dispenzieri, A; Drake, M T; Lacy, M Q; Buadi, F; Dingli, D; Kapoor, P; Gonsalves, W; Gertz, M A; Rajkumar, S V

    2015-10-23

    We studied 188 patients with a suspected smoldering multiple myeloma (MM) who had undergone a positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan as part of their clinical evaluation. PET-CT was positive (clinical radiologist interpretation of increased bone uptake and/or evidence of lytic bone destruction) in 74 patients and negative in 114 patients. Of these, 25 patients with a positive PET-CT and 97 patients with a negative PET-CT were observed without therapy and formed the study cohort (n=122). The probability of progression to MM within 2 years was 75% in patients with a positive PET-CT observed without therapy compared with 30% in patients with a negative PET-CT; median time to progression was 21 months versus 60 months, respectively, P=0.0008. Of 25 patients with a positive PET-CT, the probability of progression was 87% at 2 years in those with evidence of underlying osteolysis (n=16) and 61% in patients with abnormal PET-CT uptake but no evidence of osteolysis (n=9). Patients with positive PET-CT and evidence of underlying osteolysis have a high risk of progression to MM within 2 years when observed without therapy. These observations support recent changes to imaging requirements in the International Myeloma Working Group updated diagnostic criteria for MM.

  13. The accuracy of after-hour registrar computed tomography (CT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... tomography (CT) reporting in a South African tertiary teaching hospital. Authors: ... The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of after-hour registrar CT reporting, to identify possible factors that may .... The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) that may have ...

  14. The diagnostic utility of ultrasonography, CT and PET/CT for the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis inpapillary thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Young Sang; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography (US), CT and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) in the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. The study population consisted of 300 patients with pathologically diagnosed papillary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Preoperative US, CT, and PET/CT findings were compared with pathologic outcomes after thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Sensitivity in detecting central lymph node metastasis (US 29.9%, CT 27.9%, PET/CT 18.8%) was lower than that for lateral lymph node metastasis (US 56.3%, CT 66.2%, PET/CT 43.7%). Specificity in detecting central lymph node metastasis (US 80.6%, CT 77.7%, PET/CT 83.0%) was lower than that for lateral lymph node metastasis (US 96.8%, CT 80.6%, PET/CT 95.2%). The combination of US and CT had higher specificity (77.3%) and higher sensitivity (33.1%) than US alone. PET/CT has no significant additional benefit over the combination of US and CT. In preoperative evaluations of neck lymph node metastasis, US and CT and PET/CT are more useful in lateral lymph node areas than in central lymph node areas. The combination of US and CT has higher sensitivity than US alone.

  15. Evaluation of dosimetric techniques in positrons emission tomography and computerized tomography (PET/CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Gabriella Montezano

    2014-01-01

    Among diagnostic techniques PET/CT is one of those with the highest dose delivery to the patient as a cause of external exposure to X-rays, and the use of a radiopharmaceutical that results in a high energy gamma emission. The dosimetry of these two components becomes important in order to optimize and justify the technique. Various dosimetric techniques are found in literature without a consensus of the best to use. With the advances in technological and consequent equipment configuration changes, upgrades and variation in methodologies, particularly in computed tomography, a standardization of these techniques is required. Previous studies show that CT is responsible for 70 % of the dose delivered to the patient in PET/CT examinations. Thus, many researchers have been focused on CT dose optimization protocols studies. This work analyzes the doses involved in a PET/CT oncology protocol by using an Alderson female anthropomorphic phantom in a public hospital of Rio de Janeiro city. The dose estimate for PET examination resulting from the use of 18 F - FDG radiopharmaceutical was conducted through dose factors published in ICRP 106; the dose for CT was estimated and compared by calculation of the absorbed doses to patients according to four methods: thermoluminescent dosimetry (TL0100) distributed in critical organs of the Alderson phantom; measurements of CTOI according to AAPM number 96; correction factor for effective diameter SSOE (AAPM Number 204); and simulation by ImPACT program For CT, the results in terms of effective dose presented (TLO, CTOI and ImPACT) ± 5 % maximum variations between methodologies. Considering medium absorbed dose (TLO, SSOE and ImPACT) the results differed in ± 7 % from each other. These findings demonstrate that parameters provided by the manufacturer on the console can be used to have a primary approach of both, absorbed and effective doses to the patient since that a quality assurance program of these parameters are adopted in

  16. A comparison of the diagnostic value of MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT in suspected spondylodiscitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smids, C.; Kouijzer, Ilse Johanna Elsa; Vos, F.J.; Sprong, T.A.; Hosman, A.J.F.; de Rooy, J.W.; Aarntzen, E.H.J.G.; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Oyen, W.J.G.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing spondylodiscitis and its complications, such as epidural and paraspinal

  17. A comparison of the diagnostic value of MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT in suspected spondylodiscitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smids, C.; Kouijzer, I.J.E.; Vos, F.J.; Sprong, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Rooy, J.W.J. de; Aarntzen, E.H.J.G.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Oyen, W.J.G.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing spondylodiscitis and its complications, such as epidural and paraspinal

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of static CT perfusion for the detection of myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørgaard, Mathias Holm; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Linde, Jesper James

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to provide a meta-analysis of all published studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of stress CT myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients suspected of or with known coronary artery disease. This analysis is limited to static stress CTP. METHODS......: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of static CTP imaging alone or combined with coronary CT angiography (CTA) in comparison to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP), and/or invasive coronary angiography......). CONCLUSION: In selected patients, static CT myocardial perfusion has high diagnostic accuracy to detecting myocardial ischemia. Specificity increases significantly when CT myocardial perfusion is combined with coronary CTA....

  19. French diagnostic reference levels in diagnostic radiology, computed tomography and nuclear medicine: 2004-2008 Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roch, P.; Aubert, B.

    2013-01-01

    After 5 y of collecting data on diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Inst. (IRSN) presents the analyses of this data. The analyses of the collected data for radiology, computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine allow IRSN to estimate the level of regulatory application by health professionals and the representativeness of current DRL in terms of relevant examinations, dosimetric quantities, numerical values and patient morphologies. Since 2004, the involvement of professionals has highly increased, especially in nuclear medicine, followed by CT and then by radiology. Analyses show some discordance between regulatory examinations and clinical practice. Some of the dosimetric quantities used for the DRL setting are insufficient or not relevant enough, and some numerical values should also be reviewed. On the basis of these findings, IRSN formulates recommendations to update regulatory DRL with current and relevant examination lists, dosimetric quantities and numerical values. (authors)

  20. French diagnostic reference levels in diagnostic radiology, computed tomography and nuclear medicine: 2004-2008 review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, P; Aubert, B

    2013-04-01

    After 5 y of collecting data on diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Institute (IRSN) presents the analyses of this data. The analyses of the collected data for radiology, computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine allow IRSN to estimate the level of regulatory application by health professionals and the representativeness of current DRL in terms of relevant examinations, dosimetric quantities, numerical values and patient morphologies. Since 2004, the involvement of professionals has highly increased, especially in nuclear medicine, followed by CT and then by radiology. Analyses show some discordance between regulatory examinations and clinical practice. Some of the dosimetric quantities used for the DRL setting are insufficient or not relevant enough, and some numerical values should also be reviewed. On the basis of these findings, IRSN formulates recommendations to update regulatory DRL with current and relevant examination lists, dosimetric quantities and numerical values.

  1. Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients With Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx: Diagnostic Accuracy and Impact on Clinical Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordin, Arie; Golz, Avishay; Daitzchman, Marcello; Keidar, Zohar; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Kuten, Abraham; Israel, Ora

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma as compared with PET and conventional imaging (CI) alone, and to assess the impact of PET/CT on further clinical management. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma had 45 PET/CT examinations. The study was a retrospective analysis. Changes in patient care resulting from the PET/CT studies were recorded. Results: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 92%, 90%, 90%, 90%, and 91%, respectively, as compared with 92%, 65%, 76%, 86%, and 80% for PET and 92%, 15%, 60%, 60%, and 60% for CI. Imaging with PET/CT altered further management of 19 patients (57%). Imaging with PET/CT eliminated the need for previously planned diagnostic procedures in 11 patients, induced a change in the planned therapeutic approach in 5 patients, and guided biopsy to a specific metabolically active area inside an edematous region in 3 patients, thus decreasing the chances for tissue sampling errors and avoiding damage to nonmalignant tissue. Conclusions: In cancer of the nasopharynx, the diagnostic performance of PET/CT is better than that of stand-alone PET or CI. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography had a major impact on further clinical management in 57% of patients

  2. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx: diagnostic accuracy and impact on clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Arie; Golz, Avishay; Daitzchman, Marcello; Keidar, Zohar; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Kuten, Abraham; Israel, Ora

    2007-06-01

    To assess the value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma as compared with PET and conventional imaging (CI) alone, and to assess the impact of PET/CT on further clinical management. Thirty-three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma had 45 PET/CT examinations. The study was a retrospective analysis. Changes in patient care resulting from the PET/CT studies were recorded. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 92%, 90%, 90%, 90%, and 91%, respectively, as compared with 92%, 65%, 76%, 86%, and 80% for PET and 92%, 15%, 60%, 60%, and 60% for CI. Imaging with PET/CT altered further management of 19 patients (57%). Imaging with PET/CT eliminated the need for previously planned diagnostic procedures in 11 patients, induced a change in the planned therapeutic approach in 5 patients, and guided biopsy to a specific metabolically active area inside an edematous region in 3 patients, thus decreasing the chances for tissue sampling errors and avoiding damage to nonmalignant tissue. In cancer of the nasopharynx, the diagnostic performance of PET/CT is better than that of stand-alone PET or CI. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography had a major impact on further clinical management in 57% of patients.

  3. Establishment of CT diagnostic reference levels in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Shane J.; McEntee, Mark F.; Rainford, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose Irish CT diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation doses for the most commonly performed CT examinations. Methods: A pilot study investigated the most frequent CT examinations. 40 CT sites were then asked to complete a survey booklet to allow the recording of CT parameters for each of 9 CT examinations during a 12-week period. Dose data [CT volume index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP)] on a minimum of 10 average-sized patients in each category we...

  4. Diagnostic value of CT on hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Zhang Xuelin; Qiu Shijun; Zhang Yuzhong; Wen Ge; Zhong Qun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess CT manifestations and diagnostic value in patients with hepatic tuberculosis. Methods: Ten cases of hepatic tuberculosis proved by hepatic biopsy or surgical specimens were analyzed retrospectively. Results: This group of hepatic tuberculosis included three types. (1) Five cases of miliary hepatic tuberculosis demonstrated that the liver swelled diffusely associated with multiple miliary low attenuations, and showed no enhancement after contrast agents administration. (2) Three cases of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis depicted multiple hypodensity areas or mixed density regions in the liver. The extension of lesions reduced in arterial phase, and a ring-like enhancement was displayed in the portal phase. (3) One case of hepatic tuberculoma illustrated solitary space occupying lesion accompanied with central necrosis. The envelope was thin and smooth which enhanced slightly after injecting Gd-DTPA. Another one was hepatic abscess and depicted fluid-fluid level inside the lesion. Conclusions: The CT manifestations of miliary hepatic tuberculosis lack of characteristics, it is hard to make the diagnosis clear-cut unless integrating the medical history and lab test. The 'powder calcification' findings of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis is propitious to draw a qualitative diagnosis. And the feature of hepatic tuberculomas with fluid- fluid level is in favor of making a differential diagnosis against parallel tumors. (authors)

  5. Quality assurance of computed tomography scanner beams in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskoug, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    The number of computed tomography (CT) scanners in diagnostic radiology is increasing, to the extent that they are now found in relatively small hospitals. These hospitals do not have local physicists available and so methods must be developed to allow quality assurance to be carried out at distant laboratories. Several different types of solid water phantoms are available with various built-in test objects that may supply sufficient information about the many parameters that must be checked. The dose distributions, however, are usually not so well considered, although the connection between image quality and absorbed dose must be known for optimal use of a CT scanner. By introducing thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) into a commercial phantom (RMI), it was possible to measure the absorbed dose profile and the line integral of the absorbed dose across the slit. The computer-guided readout of the TLDs gives the absorbed dose, the average dose and half maximum width, absorbed dose curve, and also the line integral of the peak. The only modification of the phantom was five holes, drilled at strategic positions, that did not influence the built-in test objects. This single measurement provides an appropriate monthly quality assurance check of the CT scanner with little extra effort. (author)

  6. Diagnostic value of ultrasound, computed tomography, and angiography in ruptured aortic aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landtman, M.; Kivisaari, L.; Bondestam, S.; Taavitsainen, M.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Somer, K.

    1984-11-01

    Some ruptural aneurysms cause nonspecific symptoms and the patients are referred for radiological examination because of the problems of differential diagnosis from conditions such as renal colic, diverticulitis, herniated disc, aortic dissection etc. Seven such patients have been examined either with ultrasonography, computed tomography or angiography. The diagnostic methods are compared. The more recent US and CT imaging methods are sufficiently rapid and reliable for diagnostic purposes, which should improve the prognosis for patients requiring immediate surgery for ruptured aortic aneurysms.

  7. Diagnostic value of ultrasound, computed tomography, and angiography in ruptured aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landtman, M.; Kivisaari, L.; Bondestam, S.; Taavitsainen, M.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Somer, K.

    1984-01-01

    Some ruptural aneurysms cause nonspecific symptoms and the patients are referred for radiological examination because of the problems of differential diagnosis from conditions such as renal colic, diverticulitis, herniated disc, aortic dissection etc. Seven such patients have been examined either with ultrasonography, computed tomography or angiography. The diagnostic methods are compared. The more recent US and CT imaging methods are sufficiently rapid and reliable for diagnostic purposes, which should improve the prognosis for patients requiring immediate surgery for ruptured aortic aneurysms. (orig.)

  8. Fundamental study of computed tomography (CT), 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Toshihiko; Kimura, Kazue; Suzuki, Kenji; Ito, Masami; Okuaki, Koji

    1980-01-01

    Discussion was made on errors when the size of objects were measured on CT images, comparing among various measurement methods. The measured object was an acryl pipe of 47.95 mm in external diameter and 27.65 mm in internal diameter, in which water and alchol were stuffed. CT scanning of this acryl pipe was performed at 90 0 , 60 0 , and 30 0 of angles between an acryl pipe and CT slice plane, and the size of this pipe was measured on CT images by three methods, (1) CT values profile, (2) recognition of multiformat images, and (3) enhancement curves of multiformat images. CT images were taken in slice thickness of 14 and 17 mm. As a result, No. 1 method was the best. When slice thickness was thin, measurement errors were small, even on CT images taken at small angles to the slice plane. When the size of the object was measured on multiformat images, it was better to take CT images at window level with intermediate CT values between two adjacent objects. In case of measurement by recognition, measurement errors became smallest when the size of object were measured on multiformat images with the smallest window width at the intermediate window level. Clinically, it was easy to use such a method that after measuring by many examiners on CT images taken with the widest window width at the most adequate possible window level, then average out the measured values. (J.P.N.)

  9. Patient doses in paediatric CT: feasibility of setting diagnostic reference levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, H; Merimaa, K; Seuri, R; Tyrväinen, E; Perhomaa, M; Savikurki-Heikkilä, P; Svedström, E; Ziliukas, J; Lintrop, M

    2011-09-01

    Despite the fact that doses to paediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) examinations are of special concern, only few data or studies for setting of paediatric diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have been published. In this study, doses to children were estimated from chest and head CT, in order to study the feasibility of DRLs for these examinations. It is shown that for the DRLs, patient dose data from different CT scanners should be collected in age or weight groups, possibly for different indications. For practical reasons, the DRLs for paediatric chest CT should be given as a continuous DRL curve as a function of patient weight. For paediatric head CT, DRLs for a few age groups could be given. The users of the DRLs should be aware of the calibration phantom applied in the console calibration for different paediatric scanning protocols. The feasibility of DRLs should be re-evaluated every 2-3 y.

  10. Computer Tomography: A Novel Diagnostic Technique used in Horses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Veterinary Medicine, Computer Tomography (CT scan) is used more often in dogs and cats than in large animals due to their small size and ease of manipulation. This paper, however, illustrates the use of the technique in horses. CT scan was used in the diagnosis of two conditions of the head and limbs, namely alveolar ...

  11. Comparison of Image Quality and Diagnostic Performance of Cone-Beam CT during Drug-Eluting Embolic Transarterial Chemoembolization and Multidetector CT in the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucatelli, Pierleone; Argirò, Renato; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano; Saba, Luca; Cirelli, Carlo; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Ricci, Carmelo; Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Catalano, Carlo; Bezzi, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To compare image quality and diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography (CT) and multidetector CT in the detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis undergoing transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting embolic agents. Fifty-five consecutive patients referred for chemoembolization of hypervascular HCC were prospectively enrolled. Imaging included preprocedural multidetector CT within 1 month before planned treatment, intraprocedural cone-beam CT, and 1-month follow-up multidetector CT. Analysis of image quality was performed with calculations of lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (LLCNR) and lesion-to-liver signal-to-noise-ratio (LLSNR). One-month follow-up multidetector CT was considered the reference standard for the detection of HCC nodules. Median LLCNR values were 3.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.06-5.05) for preprocedural multidetector CT and 6.90 (95% CI, 5.17-7.77) for intraprocedural cone-beam CT (P cone-beam CT (P cone-beam CT detected 15 additional hypervascular nodules that were also visible on 1-month follow-up multidetector CT. Cone-beam CT has a significantly higher diagnostic performance compared with preprocedural multidetector CT in the detection of HCCs and can influence management of patients with cirrhosis by identifying particularly aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. National diagnostic reference level initiative for computed tomography examinations in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Geoffrey K.; Wambani, Jeska S.; Korir, Ian K.; Tries, Mark A.; Boen, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the computed tomography (CT) examination frequency, patient radiation exposure, effective doses and national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) associated with CT examinations in clinical practice. A structured questionnaire-type form was developed for recording examination frequency, scanning protocols and patient radiation exposure during CT procedures in fully equipped medical facilities across the country. The national annual number of CT examinations per 1000 people was estimated to be 3 procedures. The volume-weighted CT dose index, dose length product, effective dose and NDRLs were determined for 20 types of adult and paediatric CT examinations. Additionally, the CT annual collective effective dose and effective dose per capita were approximated. The radiation exposure during CT examinations was broadly distributed between the facilities that took part in the study. This calls for a need to develop and implement diagnostic reference levels as a standardisation and optimisation tool for the radiological protection of patients at all the CT facilities nationwide. PMID:25790825

  13. Computed tomography (CT) of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Hideo; Morimoto, Takehiko; Takahashi, Mitsugi; Habara, Shinji; Nagai, Hironao; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    We investigated whether or not computerized tomography (CT) of skeletal muscle was of value for the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, through a comparison of CT findings in the skeletal muscle with histological findings in the muscle obtained by surgical biopsy. There were clear histological lesions even in cases in which low density areas were not seen on CT of the skeletal muscle. The muscle exhibiting remarkably low density areas showed high proliferation of the connective tissue and high accumulation of fat, but contained no muscle fibers. Therefore, the most suitable site for a biopsy was the muscle which exhibited mildly low density areas on CT. In floppy infants, the CT value was helpful for the diagnosis, even if low density areas did not appear because of remarkable muscle atrophy and monotonous lesions of the whole muscle. (author)

  14. Computed tomography (CT) and diastematomyelia's diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.B. dos; Luca, V. de; Ferreira, M.A.S.; Barros, A.P. de

    1982-01-01

    After a case of diastematomyelia observed at the University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) a review is done of the pertaining literature, and the contribution of the computed tomography for the diagnosis of this disease is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    for assessment of vascularity. CT perfusion has also been used for tumor characterization, staging of disease, response evaluation of newer drugs targeted towards angiogenesis and as a method for early detection of recurrence after radiation and embolization. There are several software solutions available...

  16. Diagnostic impact of SPECT-CT in the assessment of endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Badaoui, A.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Allard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Image fusion using single photon emission computed tomography - computed tomography (SPECT - CT) associates functional and morphological images. This study evaluates the added value of SPECT- CT, obtained with a hybrid SPECT- CT gamma camera, on anatomic localization and diagnostic impact in assessment of endocrine tumours and pheochromocytomas. Method: Six months prospective study was undertaken including 33 consecutive exams encompassing 20 Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphies (S.R.S.) and 13 123 I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (Mibg) scans. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians independently analysed independently planar and SPECT images in a first time, then, SPECT- CT fused images in a second time. They evaluated two parameters: SPECT- CT impact on anatomic localization (L.A.) and its diagnostic impact (I.D.). Each parameter was scored according three levels of evaluation. Results: An added value of SPECT- CT images was evidenced in 55% of cases on the anatomic localization and in 41% of the patients on the diagnostic impact. Therefore, a more important benefit was noted when SPECT was positive (L.A.: 90%; I.D.: 70%) than when it was negative (L.A.: 15%; I.D.: 8%). Furthermore, the added value proved higher for the S;R.S. compared to Mibg scans. Conclusion: SPECT- CT fusion images obtained by a hybrid system is more relevant to determine anatomic localization and more accurate than SPECT alone, particularly in the assessment of endocrine tumours. The added value of SPECT- CT seems to be lower for Mibg scans in the assessment of pheochromocytomas. (authors)

  17. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography for oral masses in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.C.M. Kafka

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT in oral masses of dogs. Nineteen dogs underwent clinical, MR and CT examinations. Eleven malignant and ten non-malignant masses were evaluated. Osteosarcoma was the most commonly found malignant oral mass and gingival hyperplasia was the most commonly found benign mass. The results showed that MRI provided more accurate information regarding the size of the masses and invasion of adjacent structures although MRI and CT show similar accuracy in assessment of bone invasion. Calcification and cortical bone erosion was better seen on CT images. Whereas contrast-MRI provided useful additional information, contrast-CT had no added benefit. In general, oral masses located in the caudal mandible, oropharynx and maxilla are better evaluated using MRI, once the histological type has been verified.

  18. Anterior mediastinal tumors: Diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Honda, Osamu; Tsubamoto, Mitsuko; Inoue, Atsuo; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Kuriyama, Keiko; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Johkoh, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hironobu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy for anterior mediastinal tumors among CT, MRI, and both CT and MRI, and to determine the optimal CT and MRI procedures for the diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors. Materials and methods: Both CT and MRI were performed in 127 patients with pathologically diagnosed anterior mediastinal tumors. The patients included 48 cases of thymoma, 12 cases of thymic carcinoma, 12 cases of thymic cyst, 20 cases of mature teratoma, 13 cases of malignant germ cell tumor, and 22 cases of malignant lymphoma. The CT and MRI scans were assessed by two chest radiologists without knowledge of their clinical and pathologic data. The observers recorded various CT and MRI findings and their first choice of diagnosis. Results: The two observers made a correct first-choice diagnosis in an average of 78 (61%) of 127 cases on CT, 71 (56%) of 127 cases on MRI, and 85.5 (67%) of 127 cases on both CT and MRI. These included 83% cases of thymoma on CT, 84% on MRI, and 85% on both CT and MRI; 38% cases of thymic carcinoma on CT and 13% on MRI, and 33% on both CT and MRI; 46% cases of thymic cyst on CT and 71% on MRI, and 63% on both CT and MRI; 58% cases of mature teratoma and 38% on MRI, and 78% on both CT and MRI; 35% cases of malignant germ cell tumor on CT and 27% on MRI, and 31% on both CT and MRI; and 55% cases of malignant lymphoma on CT and 43% on MRI, and 61% on both CT and MRI. There were significant differences between the diagnostic accuracy by CT and MRI in the cases with both thymic cysts and thymic carcinoma (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CT is equal or superior to MRI in the diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors except for thymic cyst. CT should be considered the modality of choice following chest radiography, however, in certain circumstances, such as thymic cyst with hemorrhage or inflammation which mimic solid tumor despite low enhancement, MRI may be better in distinguishing anterior mediastinal tumors. For more helpful information in

  19. Anterior mediastinal tumors: Diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: tomiyama@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Honda, Osamu; Tsubamoto, Mitsuko; Inoue, Atsuo; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuriyama, Keiko [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, 2-1-14 Hoenzaka Chuo-ku, Osaka 540-0006 (Japan); Kusumoto, Masahiko [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Medical Physics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakamura, Hironobu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy for anterior mediastinal tumors among CT, MRI, and both CT and MRI, and to determine the optimal CT and MRI procedures for the diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors. Materials and methods: Both CT and MRI were performed in 127 patients with pathologically diagnosed anterior mediastinal tumors. The patients included 48 cases of thymoma, 12 cases of thymic carcinoma, 12 cases of thymic cyst, 20 cases of mature teratoma, 13 cases of malignant germ cell tumor, and 22 cases of malignant lymphoma. The CT and MRI scans were assessed by two chest radiologists without knowledge of their clinical and pathologic data. The observers recorded various CT and MRI findings and their first choice of diagnosis. Results: The two observers made a correct first-choice diagnosis in an average of 78 (61%) of 127 cases on CT, 71 (56%) of 127 cases on MRI, and 85.5 (67%) of 127 cases on both CT and MRI. These included 83% cases of thymoma on CT, 84% on MRI, and 85% on both CT and MRI; 38% cases of thymic carcinoma on CT and 13% on MRI, and 33% on both CT and MRI; 46% cases of thymic cyst on CT and 71% on MRI, and 63% on both CT and MRI; 58% cases of mature teratoma and 38% on MRI, and 78% on both CT and MRI; 35% cases of malignant germ cell tumor on CT and 27% on MRI, and 31% on both CT and MRI; and 55% cases of malignant lymphoma on CT and 43% on MRI, and 61% on both CT and MRI. There were significant differences between the diagnostic accuracy by CT and MRI in the cases with both thymic cysts and thymic carcinoma (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CT is equal or superior to MRI in the diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors except for thymic cyst. CT should be considered the modality of choice following chest radiography, however, in certain circumstances, such as thymic cyst with hemorrhage or inflammation which mimic solid tumor despite low enhancement, MRI may be better in distinguishing anterior mediastinal tumors. For more helpful information in

  20. Diagnostic value of CT scanning in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulcke, J.A.L.; Leuven Univ.; Herpels, V.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of myopathies has become easier since the CT technique is available. In this article the possibilities of CT for diagnostic procedures of neuromuscular diseases are pointed out. Density measurements increase differentiation of atrophy or hypertrophy of muscles as well as other pathological changes. (orig.)

  1. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography for detection of concomitant coronary disease in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei; Ma, Xiaohai; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Zhanhong; Fan, Zhanming [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Ge, Hailong [Capital Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Teraoka, Kunihiko [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-10-31

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and suspected coexistent coronary artery diseases (CADs). Sixty patients were enrolled in this study. Cardiac CT examination included CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and delayed enhancement CT. CT performance in evaluation of the coronary artery was assessed and compared with that of catheter-based coronary angiography (CA). The left ventricle (LV) wall thickness, functional indices and myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE) were measured via cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and CT images. Compared with catheter-based CA, CTCA produced a 100 % (24/24) sensitivity, a 94.4 % (34/36) specificity, a 92.3 % (24/26) positive predictive value and a 100 % (34/34) negative predictive value. CT-measured LV wall thickness and functional indices were correlated with those measured via CMR (P < 0.01), though the CT-measured values were smaller than the CMR-measured values. Bland-Altman analysis showed the volume of the focal MDE determined via CT was slightly smaller than that determined using CMR (mean difference: 0.3 cm{sup 3}). For patients with HCM and suspected coexistent CAD, this comprehensive cardiac CT protocol can be helpful in ruling out coronary stenosis and can provide information regarding morphology, function and tissue characterization of the LV myocardium. (orig.)

  2. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Dinakaran, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

  3. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Roshan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS; 44 multislice CT (MSCT scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

  4. Reducing image noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography: effect of an integrated circuit CT detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Leng, Shuai; Michalak, Gregory J; Vrieze, Thomas J; Duan, Xinhui; Qu, Mingliang; Shiung, Maria M; McCollough, Cynthia H; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the integrated circuit (IC) detector results in reduced noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography (CTC). Three hundred sixty-six consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated CTC using the same CT scanner system, except for a difference in CT detectors (IC or conventional). Image noise, patient size, and scanner radiation output (volume CT dose index) were quantitatively compared between patient cohorts using each detector system, with separate comparisons for the abdomen and pelvis. For the abdomen and pelvis, despite significantly larger patient sizes in the IC detector cohort (both P noise was significantly lower (both P 0.18). Based on the observed image noise reduction, radiation dose could alternatively be reduced by approximately 20% to result in similar levels of image noise. Computed tomography colonography images acquired using the IC detector had significantly lower noise than images acquired using the conventional detector. This noise reduction can permit further radiation dose reduction in CTC.

  5. Bone SPECT-CT: An additional diagnostic tool for undiagnosed wrist pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, R A; Dhawan, R T; Rodrigues, J N; Evans, D M

    2016-10-01

    Diagnosis of wrist pain can be difficult to determine with clinical examination and conventional imaging techniques alone. Bone SPECT-CT (single-photon emission tomography with computerized tomography) is a hybrid imaging technique that overlays functional bone scintigraphy in tomographic/3D mode with conventional CT. Data from the two modalities are complementary; areas of abnormal bone metabolism can be localized with anatomical precision, hitherto lacking in conventional bone scans, while structural information from the CT scan further embellishes the diagnostic information. Over the last 6 years, one surgeon (David Evans) has used bone SPECT and later bone SPECT-CT as an additional line of investigation. This is a series of 21 consecutive patients with wrist pain that could not be diagnostically resolved with the usual combination of history, examination, and conventional imaging, and therefore underwent bone SPECT-CT. Clinical and imaging findings, management, and outcomes of these cases are discussed to explore the potential role of this hybrid functional modality in hand and wrist surgical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Quality assurance in CT: implementation of the updated national diagnostic reference levels using an automated CT dose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, E; Kröpil, P; Bethge, O T; Aissa, J; Thomas, C; Antoch, G; Boos, J

    2018-03-20

    To evaluate the implementation of the updated computed tomography (CT) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection into clinical routine using an automatic CT dose monitoring system. CT radiation exposure was analysed before and after implementing the updated national DRLs into routine clinical work in 2016. After the implementation process, institutional CT protocols were mapped to the anatomical regions for which DRLs were provided. Systematically, protocols that exceeded the thresholds were optimised and analysed in detail. The CT radiation output parameters analysed were volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP). Three radiologists evaluated subjective image quality using a three-point Likert scale. The study included 94,258 CT series (from 27,103 CT examinations) in adult patients performed in 2016. When averaged over all body regions with available DRL, institutional CTDIvol/DLP values were always below the DRLs (65.2±32.9%/67.3±41.5% initially; 59.4±32%/60.5±39.9% after optimisation). Values exceeding the national DRLs were found for pelvis (n=268; CTDIvol 107.7±65.7%/DLP 106.3±79.3%), lumbar spine (n=91; 160.8±74.7%/175.2±104.1%), and facial bones (n=527; 108±39%/152.7±75.7%). After optimisation, CTDIvol and DLP were 87.9±73%/87.8±80.8% for the pelvis, 67.8±33.2%/74.5±50.6% for the lumbar spine and 95.1±45.8%/133.3±74.6% for the viscerocranium. An automatic CT dose monitoring system enabled not only comprehensive monitoring of a DRL implementation process but can also help to optimise radiation exposure. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Importance of PET/CT in lymphoma diagnostics; Stellenwert der PET/CT in der Lymphomdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar-Oromieh, A.; Kratochwil, C.; Haberkorn, U.; Giesel, F.L. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Radiologische Klinik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Staging or re-staging of lymphomas using conventional imaging modalities is based on morphological changes, usually on the diameter of lesions. However, vitality of tumors cannot be evaluated. In this context computed tomography (CT) has been used as a standard modality. Since the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET), evaluation of tumor vitality has become possible. Moreover PET/CT hybrid scanners were brought onto the market one decade ago. The fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT technique is now accepted as one of the most accurate modalities in the diagnosis of aggressive lymphomas due to a high FDG uptake (overall accuracy > 90%, sensitivity >90%). However, indolent lymphomas suffer from lower FDG uptake due to a moderate metabolic activity. After the introduction of PET/CT hybrid imaging the specificity of this diagnostic technique increased significantly compared to PET alone (from > 80% to > 90%). With the utilization of PET approximately 20% more lesions are detected when comparing to CT alone and in up to 15% of the patients this also results in a change of the therapeutic regime. As post-chemotherapy scar tissue usually persists for months, evaluation of vitality within residual bulks using FDG-PET can predict therapy response much earlier than CT, enabling therapy stratification. Other PET tracers apart from FDG have low impact in imaging of lymphomas and only the thymidine analogue fluorothymidine (FLT) is used in some cases for non-invasive measurement of proliferation. Despite the capability of FDG-PET/CT there is no evidence that the improvement in diagnostics is translated into a better patient outcome and therefore warrants the high costs. False positive findings in PET can result in unnecessary treatment escalation with subsequent higher therapy-associated toxicity and costs. Some pitfalls can be avoided by scheduling PET scans carefully. As treatment-induced inflammation early after therapy can be misinterpreted as vital tumor tissue

  8. Diagnostic reference levels of paediatric computed tomography examinations performed at a dedicated Australian paediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbo, Giovanni; Brown, Scott; Linke, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) of procedures involving ionizing radiation are important tools to optimizing radiation doses delivered to patients and in identifying cases where the levels of doses are unusually high. This is particularly important for paediatric patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations as these examinations are associated with relatively high-dose. Paediatric CT studies, performed at our institution from January 2010 to March 2014, have been retrospectively analysed to determine the 75th and 95th percentiles of both the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol ) and dose-length product (DLP) for the most commonly performed studies to: establish local diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography examinations performed at our institution, benchmark our DRL with national and international published paediatric values, and determine the compliance of CT radiographer with established protocols. The derived local 75th percentile DRL have been found to be acceptable when compared with those published by the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and two national children's hospitals, and at the international level with the National Reference Doses for the UK. The 95th percentiles of CTDIvol for the various CT examinations have been found to be acceptable values for the CT scanner Dose-Check Notification. Benchmarking CT radiographers shows that they follow the set protocols for the various examinations without significant variations in the machine setting factors. The derivation of DRL has given us the tool to evaluate and improve the performance of our CT service by improved compliance and a reduction in radiation dose to our paediatric patients. We have also been able to benchmark our performance with similar national and international institutions. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  9. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janbabanezhad Toori A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL. Methods: Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW, Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol and Dose Length Product (DLP were calculated. Results: The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6- 73, (3.8-25. 8, (4.5-16.3 and (7-16.3, respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981, (41.8-184, (131-342.3 and (283.6-486 for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses.

  10. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbabanezhad Toori, A; Shabestani-Monfared, A; Deevband, M R; Abdi, R; Nabahati, M

    2015-12-01

    Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT) are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT) examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL). Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW), Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol) and Dose Length Product (DLP) were calculated. The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6-73), (3.8-25. 8), (4.5-16.3) and (7-16.3), respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981), (41.8-184), (131-342.3) and (283.6-486) for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses.

  11. Prior CT May Improve Diagnostic Confidence in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pareen; Wassef, Heidi; Colletti, Patrick M

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with matching myocardial perfusion imaging defects may have prior CT examinations that include the myocardial region of interest, such as a CT chest or CT abdomen. We correlate these perfusion defects with available prior CT examinations to determine if this will improve diagnostic confidence. Myocardial perfusion scans were reviewed to identify cases with myocardial perfusion defects and prior CT imaging that included the myocardium. The CT was reviewed for evidence of myocardial injury that correlated with the perfusion defect. A retrospective review of 732 myocardial perfusion scans was performed, of which 69 cases with perfusion defects were identified that also had prior CT imaging available for review. Of this subset of patients, 19 patients had findings on the CT scan compatible with ischemia or infarction in the expected region of the perfusion defect, which allowed for a more confident diagnosis. Reviewing a prior CT scan, if available, during the interpretation of a myocardial perfusion scan, can help improve diagnostic confidence in over 25% of cases. This can lead to decreased indeterminate results and can be used to potentially avoid unhelpful further testing.

  12. Comparative diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography and MRI for characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Min; Shin, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions. We conducted a retrospective study on 34 patients with histopathologically proven cystic pancreatic lesions who underwent both preoperative MDCT and MRI. CT and MRI were independently evaluated for differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions, differentiating aggressive vs. non-aggressive lesion, analyzing morphological features, and evaluating specific leading diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were determined. Competency assessment of lesional morphology analysis was performed using the kappa values of the 2 tests. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI for differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions were higher than CT (p = 0.03). For differentiating aggressiveness, the sensitivity of MRI was better than CT, but the specificity of CT was better than MRI. In evaluation of morphologic features, MRI showed better performance in characterization of septa and wall. Otherwise, the 2 modalities showed similarly good performance. MRI was better than CT in determining a specific diagnosis (58.8% vs. 47.2%, respectively). CT and MRI are reasonable diagnostic methods for characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions. However, MRI enables more confident assessment than CT in differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions and characterization of the septa and wall

  13. Diagnostic value of axial CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1983-03-01

    Axial CT scan was used to investigate the radiological details of the temporal bone of 33 patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere disease, vertigo, facial spasm, and neoplasma. The axial scans showed anatomic details of the temporal bone, and at the same time clearly demonstrated the extent of the soft-tissue masses in the middle ears, as well as the destructions of the ossicles. Bone changes of the anterior walls of the epitympanum and external auditory meatus were more clearly demonstrated than by coronary CT scan. However, the axial scan had the disadvantages in demonstrating the stapes, crista transversa, and the mastoid portion of the facial canal.

  14. Computed Tomography is Diagnostic in the Cervical Imaging of Helmeted Football Players With Shoulder Pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninger, Kevin N; Rothman, Michael; Foley, Jack; Heller, Michael

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospective, observational case series evaluating the value of cervical spine computed tomography (CT) scans in the initial evaluation of a helmeted football player with suspected cervical spine injury. SUBJECTS: Five asymptomatic male football players, fully equipped and immobilized on a backboard. DESIGN: Multiple 3.0-mm, helically acquired, axially displayed CT images of the cervical spine were obtained from the skull base inferiorly through T1, with images filmed at soft tissue and bone windows. Sagittal and coronal reformatted images were performed. Software was used to minimize metallic artifact. MEASUREMENTS: All series were reviewed by a Board-certified neuroradiologist for image clarity and diagnostic capability. RESULTS: Lateral scout films demonstrated mild segmental degradation, depending on the location of the metallic snaps overlying the spine. Anteroposterior scout films and bone window images were of diagnostic quality. The soft tissue windows showed minimal localized artifact occurring at the same levels as in the lateral scout views. This minimal beam-hardening streak artifact did not affect the diagnostic quality of the soft tissue windows. Reconstructed images were uniformly of clinical diagnostic quality. DISCUSSION: When CT scans were reviewed as a unit, sufficient information was available to allow reliable clinical decisions about the helmeted football player. In light of recent publications demonstrating the difficulty of obtaining adequate radiographs to evaluate cervical spine injury in equipped football players, helmeted athletes may undergo CT scanning without any significant diagnostic limitations.

  15. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for paediatric patients in Sudan: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric patients are recognised to be at higher risk of developing radiation-induced cancer than adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the radiation doses to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) procedures in order to propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A total of 296 patients (aged 6-10 y) were investigated in 8 hospitals equipped with 64-, 16- and dual-slice CT machines. The mean dose length product values were 772, 446 and 178 mGy cm for head, abdomen and chest, respectively. Imaging protocols were not adapted to the patient's weight in certain CT machines. The results confirmed that paediatric patients are exposed to an unnecessary radiation dose. The established DRLs were higher than those available in other countries. This study showed the need for harmonisation of the practice in CT departments and radiation dose optimisation. (authors)

  16. Acute appendicitis: Meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of CT and graded compression US related to prevalence of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Randen, Adrienne; Bipat, Shandra; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a head-to-head comparison of graded compression ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in helping diagnose acute appendicitis with an emphasis on diagnostic value at different disease prevalences, commonly occurring in various hospital settings. Materials and

  17. SPECTCT cerebral perfusion scintigraphy; is the low-dose CT component of diagnostic value?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulkin, T.V.C. [Department of Clinical Imaging, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tom.sulkin@rcht.cornwall.nhs.uk; Cousens, C. [Department of Clinical Imaging, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Aim: To assess the potential diagnostic value of the low-dose computed tomography (CT) component of dual-examination single photon emission CT and CT (SPECTCT) cerebral perfusion studies. Method and materials: Two hundred and forty consecutive 99 mTc hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) SPECTCT studies were considered for inclusion. The images were acquired on a hybrid dual-head gamma camera/low-dose CT system. The CT component had a fixed tube current of 2.5 mA. The CT section thickness was 5 mm and total acquisition time approximately 7.5 min. Studies in which no CT images were acquired, or those excessively degraded by movement artefact were excluded. The CT images of each of the remaining studies were retrospectively reviewed and categorized as normal or abnormal. Details of the abnormalities were recorded. Results: Fifteen of the 240 studies were excluded as no CT images were obtained. A further 14 were excluded as they were considered excessively degraded by movement artefact. A single abnormality was demonstrated on 48 (23%), and two abnormalities on four (2%) of the remaining 211 studies. The most common abnormal findings were low attenuation in the deep cortical white matter (n = 22), infarcts (n = 12), cerebral atrophy (n = 7), dilated ventricles (n = 5), basal ganglia calcification (n = 4), and post-surgical change (n = 3). Other findings included a chronic subdural haematoma, a meningioma, and a posterior fossa cyst. Previous cerebral imaging was available for comparison in 31% of cases. There was 85% concordance between previous imaging and the low-dose CT images. Conclusion: Twenty-five percent of the low-dose CT images in this study demonstrated abnormalities. Therefore the CT component of cerebral perfusion SPECTCT investigations should be routinely reported in their own right.

  18. Diagnostic bone imaging in patients with prostate cancer: patient experience and acceptance of NaF-PET/CT, choline-PET/CT, whole-body MRI, and bone SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrberg, Eva; Larsen, Emil L; Hendel, Helle W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2018-01-01

    Background Patient acceptance is an important factor when implementing imaging methods in clinical practice in line with availability, diagnostic accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. Purpose To investigate patient experience and acceptance regarding18F-sodium fluoride (NaF) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), 11 C-choline-PET/CT, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI), and 99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate (HDP) single photon emission/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Material and Methods One hundred and forty-nine patients with prostate cancer filled in a questionnaire regarding their experience of the imaging procedures they had been undergoing as part of a diagnostic accuracy study. Each patient had been undergoing a NaF-PET/CT, a WB-MRI, and either a SPECT/CT (group A) or a choline-PET/CT (group B). Results All four imaging methods received overall experience ratings at the favorable end of a 5-point Likert scale with the two PET/CT scans receiving marginally better average ratings (2.0) compared to SPECT/CT (2.2) and WB-MRI (2.3). The arm positioning above the head was the most uncomfortable part of the three nuclear medicine scans, whereas the acoustic noise was the most unpleasant part of the WB-MRI. The experience of staff instruction was relatively strongly correlated to the overall scanning experience of all four imaging modalities. Overall, the patients were willing to repeat the four imaging methods and NaF-PET/CT was the method most preferred in both groups. Conclusion Four imaging procedures were evaluated from the perspective of a selected group of prostate cancer patients. NaF-PET/CT, choline-PET/CT, WB-MRI, and bone SPECT/CT are well accepted imaging methods, and most patients prefer NaF-PET/CT.

  19. PET/CT for diagnostics and therapy stratification of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratochwil, C.; Haberkorn, U.; Giesel, F.L.

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) and more recently the hybrid systems PET/CT, the management of cancer patients in the treatment strategy has changed tremendously. The combination of PET with multidetector CT scanning enables the integration of metabolic and high resolution morphological image information. PET/CT is nowadays an established modality for tumor detection, characterization, staging and response monitoring. The increased installation of PET/CT systems worldwide and also the increased scientific publications underline the importance of this imaging modality. PET/CT is particular the imaging modality of choice in lung cancer staging and re-staging (T, N and M staging). The possible increased success of surgery in lung cancer patients and also the expected reduction in additional invasive diagnostics lead to benefits for both the individual patient and the healthcare system. In this review article PET and PET/CT is presented for diagnostic and therapeutic stratification in lung cancer. The fundamentals of glucose metabolism, staging, tumor recurrence and therapeutic monitoring are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. [PET/CT for diagnostics and therapy stratification of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, C; Haberkorn, U; Giesel, F L

    2010-08-01

    With the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) and more recently the hybrid systems PET/CT, the management of cancer patients in the treatment strategy has changed tremendously. The combination of PET with multidetector CT scanning enables the integration of metabolic and high resolution morphological image information. PET/CT is nowadays an established modality for tumor detection, characterization, staging and response monitoring. The increased installation of PET/CT systems worldwide and also the increased scientific publications underline the importance of this imaging modality. PET/CT is particular the imaging modality of choice in lung cancer staging and re-staging (T, N and M staging). The possible increased success of surgery in lung cancer patients and also the expected reduction in additional invasive diagnostics lead to benefits for both the individual patient and the healthcare system. In this review article PET and PET/CT is presented for diagnostic and therapeutic stratification in lung cancer. The fundamentals of glucose metabolism, staging, tumor recurrence and therapeutic monitoring are presented.

  1. Diagnostic performance of Contrast-enhanced CT in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids-induced Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xuefeng; Ye, Jin; Rong, Xinxin; Lu, Zhiwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids(PAs)-containing herbals. Since PAs exposure is obscure and clinical presentation of HSOS is unspecific, it is challenge to establish the diagnosis of PAs-induced HSOS. Gynura segetum is one of the most wide-use herbals containing PAs. The aim of our study is to describe the features of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in gynura segetum-induced HSOS, and then determine diagnostic performance of radiological signs. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and CT images of HSOS patients (71 cases) and the controls (222 cases) enrolled from January 1, 2008, to Oct 31, 2015. The common findings of contrast CT in PAs-induced HSOS included: ascites (100%), hepatomegaly (78.87%), gallbladder wall thickening (86.96%), pleural effusion (70.42%), hepatic vein narrowing (87.32%), patchy liver enhancement (92.96%), and heterogeneous hypoattenuation (100%); of these signs, patchy enhancement and heterogeneous hypoattenuation were valuable features. Then, the result of diagnostic performance demonstrated that contrast CT possessed better performance in diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS compared with various parameters of Seattle criteria. In conclusion, the patients with PAs-induced HSOS display distinct radiologic features at CT-scan, which reveals that contrast-enhanced CT provides an effective noninvasive method for diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS. PMID:27897243

  2. Diagnostics of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M. de; Verbeeten, B.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In this article the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography is treated. Computerized tomography of skeletal muscles give no information which is pathognomonic for particular diseases. But the technique can be used in the following aspects: to choose a muscle for a biopsy; when it is not possible to examine the function of a muscle, a CT scan can visualize morphological deviations; in the differentiation of muscle hypertrophy and pseudo-hypertrophy. For some cases as Becker-type muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and Kugelberg-Welander type spinal muscular atrophy computerized tomography gives characteristic images. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  3. The diagnostic value of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for severe sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofuku, Katsuhiro; Koga, Hiroaki; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the value of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction. SPECT/CT was performed in 32 patients with severe SIJ dysfunction, who did not respond to 1-year conservative treatment and had a score of >4 points on a 10-cm visual analog scale. We investigated the relationship between the presence of severe SIJ dysfunction and tracer accumulation, as confirmed by SPECT/CT. In cases of bilateral SIJ dysfunction, we also compared the intensity of tracer accumulation on each side. Moreover, we examined the relationship between the intensity of tracer accumulation and the different treatments the patients subsequently received. All 32 patients with severe SIJ dysfunction had tracer accumulation with a standardized uptake value (SUV) of >2.2 (mean SUV 4.7). In the 19 patients with lateralized symptom intensity, mean SUVs of the dominant side were significantly higher than those of the nondominant side. In 10 patients with no lateralization, the difference in the SUVs between sides was tracer accumulation required more advanced treatment. Patients with higher levels of tracer accumulation had greater symptom severity and also required more advanced treatment. Thus, we believe that SPECT/CT may be a suitable supplementary diagnostic modality for SIJ dysfunction as well as a useful technique for predicting the prognosis of this condition.

  4. Lesson of the month 1: Large vessel vasculitis - a diagnostic challenge and the role of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Andrew; Mootoo, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    Large vessel vasculitis can pose a significant diagnostic challenge. It may be insidious in onset with the only presenting symptoms consisting of constitutional compromise. It may mimic other pathologies and the only serological abnormalities may be abnormal inflammatory markers. Conventional imaging modalities may not be diagnostic. We present a case of large vessel vasculitis that proved a significant diagnostic challenge with diagnosis established on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) computerised tomography (CT) imaging. This is one of five cases of large vessel vasculitis that were diagnosed in the rheumatology department at our trust over a 12-month period with diagnosis established with the use of 18F-FDG PET CT. We discuss the advantages of 18F-FDG PET CT over more conventional imaging modalities in diagnosing large vessel vasculitis. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  5. Opportunities for new CT contrast agents to maximize the diagnostic potential of emerging spectral CT technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Benjamin M; FitzGerald, Paul F; Edic, Peter M; Lambert, Jack W; Colborn, Robert E; Marino, Michael E; Evans, Paul M; Roberts, Jeannette C; Wang, Zhen J; Wong, Margaret J; Bonitatibus, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of spectral CT imaging in the form of fast clinical dual-energy CT enabled contrast material to be differentiated from other radiodense materials, improved lesion detection in contrast-enhanced scans, and changed the way that existing iodine and barium contrast materials are used in clinical practice. More profoundly, spectral CT can differentiate between individual contrast materials that have different reporter elements such that high-resolution CT imaging of multiple contrast agents can be obtained in a single pass of the CT scanner. These spectral CT capabilities would be even more impactful with the development of contrast materials designed to complement the existing clinical iodine- and barium-based agents. New biocompatible high-atomic number contrast materials with different biodistribution and X-ray attenuation properties than existing agents will expand the diagnostic power of spectral CT imaging without penalties in radiation dose or scan time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Correction of an image size difference between positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) improves image fusion of dedicated PET and CT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, W.V.; Dalen, J.A. van; Schinagl, D.A.X.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Huisman, H.J.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Clinical work in software positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) image fusion has raised suspicion that the image sizes of PET and CT differ slightly from each other, thus rendering the images suboptimal for image fusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of

  7. Establishment of CT diagnostic reference levels in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, S J; McEntee, M F; Rainford, L A

    2012-10-01

    To propose Irish CT diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation doses for the most commonly performed CT examinations. A pilot study investigated the most frequent CT examinations. 40 CT sites were then asked to complete a survey booklet to allow the recording of CT parameters for each of 9 CT examinations during a 12-week period. Dose data [CT volume index (CTDI(vol)) and dose-length product (DLP)] on a minimum of 10 average-sized patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDI(vol) and DLP value. The rounded 75th percentile was used to calculate a DRL for each site and the country by compiling all results. are compared with international DRL data. Results Data were collected for 3305 patients. 30 sites responded with data for 34 scanners, representing 54% of the national total. All equipment had multislice capability (2-128 slices). DRLs are proposed using CTDI(vol) (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for CT head (66/58 and 940, respectively), sinuses (16 and 210, respectively), cervical spine (19 and 420, respectively), thorax (9/11 and 390, respectively), high resolution CT (7 and 280, respectively), CT pulmonary angiography (13 and 430, respectively), multiphase abdomen (13 and 1120, respectively), routine abdomen/pelvis (12 and 600, respectively) and trunk examinations (10/12 and 850, respectively). These values are lower than current DRLs and comparable to other international studies. Wide variations in mean doses are noted across sites. Baseline figures for Irish CT DRLs are provided on the most frequently performed CT examinations. The variations in dose between CT departments as well as between identical scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of examinations.

  8. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose

  9. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  10. Head computed tomography scanning during pediatric neurocritical care: diagnostic yield and the utility of portable studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRovere, Kerri L; Brett, Molly S; Tasker, Robert C; Strauss, Keith J; Burns, Jeffrey P

    2012-04-01

    We report our use of portable head computed tomography (CT) and the diagnostic yield and radiation dose from head CT in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). 204 PICU patients underwent head CT during 2008-2009. Therapeutic interventions and resource intensity during CT were categorized. Severity of illness was summarized using the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM-III) model. Estimates of patient radiation dose were based on dose measurements made in four anthropomorphic head phantoms. 242 (62%) out of 391 head CT studies were portable. New pathology was identified on 80 (40%) scans. CT findings prompted a change in management in 46 (23%) patients; 25 of these resulted in life-extending treatments and 21 had forgoing of life-sustaining treatments within 24 hours. 26 patients with PRISM score greater than 30% underwent CT; 23 (88%) of these were portable. More portable versus fixed examinations were performed in patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, inhaled nitric oxide, high levels of positive end expiratory pressure, and those with high vasopressor scores (P change in management in 1/4 of higher acuity patients scanned. The estimated radiation dose from portable CT is within the current national guidelines.

  11. CT enteroclysis in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, M.; Annabhani, A.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The role of CT enteroclysis is gaining on importance in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases. The aim of the study was to present own experiences in CT enteroclysis application, with the use of a 64-detector CT unit. Material/Methods: CT enteroclyses were performed in 60 patients: 53 with the suspicion of the Crohns disease, 2 suspected for carcinoid, 1 with suspicion of the fistula between the small bowel and the bladder, 2 suspected for the tumor of the ileo-caecal region, and in 1 case, the aim of examination was to carry out an evaluation of the postsurgical state of the bowel-bowel anastomosis. We used own endoscopic technique of catheter insertion into the bowel, which shortens the examination time and improves patients comfort. Results: The catheter was correctly introduced into the small bowel in 58 patients (endoscopy had to be repeated in 4 cases). Only 2 examinations failed, because patients refused repeated endoscopy. Radiological signs of the Crohns disease were found in 50 out of 53 patients. In the 3 remaining patients, the appearance of the small bowel was normal. In 5 non-Crohns disease patients, CT enteroclysis enabled a good visualization of the pathology (tumors, fistula). Conclusions: CT enteroclysis with the use of the 64-detector CT unit is a valuable method in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases. It could supplement or precede capsule endoscopy. (authors)

  12. Indication-based national diagnostic reference levels for paediatric CT: a new approach with proposed values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, H; Seuri, R; Kortesniemi, M; Lajunen, A; Hallinen, E; Savikurki-Heikkilä, P; Laarne, P; Perhomaa, M; Tyrväinen, E

    2015-07-01

    Indication-based national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for a few most common paediatric computed tomography (CT) examinations are proposed. Patient dose data (CTDI vol and dose length product) were collected for over 1000 patients in 4 university hospitals with best experiences in paediatric CT. Four indications for chest CT and two for abdomen (abdomen + pelvis), chest + abdomen and head CT were considered. The DRLs for the body examinations are proposed as exponential DRL-curves, where CTDI vol and dose length product are presented as a function of patient weight. The same DRL curve applies to all the indications studied. The basic 75 % level curve is supplemented by 50 % level curve to enable considerations on varying levels of technology. For head CT, DRLs are proposed for a few age groups (1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 y), separately for routine CT and CT for ventricular size. The proposed DRLs are generally lower than the few published DRLs in other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Optical coherence tomography as a diagnostic tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used in biomedical applications as a method to non-invasively detect changes occurring in tissue such as the detection of skin cancer. The effect of skin tone on detection of skin cancer has however...

  14. Diagnostic performance of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging fusion images of gynecological malignant tumors. Comparison with positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, Kazuya; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Inoue, Atsuo

    2010-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic accuracy of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion images for gynecological malignancies. A total of 31 patients with gynecological malignancies were enrolled. FDG-PET images were fused to CT, T1- and T2-weighted images (T1WI, T2WI). PET-MRI fusion was performed semiautomatically. We performed three types of evaluation to demonstrate the usefulness of PET/MRI fusion images in comparison with that of inline PET/CT as follows: depiction of the uterus and the ovarian lesions on CT or MRI mapping images (first evaluation); additional information for lesion localization with PET and mapping images (second evaluation); and the image quality of fusion on interpretation (third evaluation). For the first evaluation, the score for T2WI (4.68±0.65) was significantly higher than that for CT (3.54±1.02) or T1WI (3.71±0.97) (P<0.01). For the second evaluation, the scores for the localization of FDG accumulation showing that T2WI (2.74±0.57) provided significantly more additional information for the identification of anatomical sites of FDG accumulation than did CT (2.06±0.68) or T1WI (2.23±0.61) (P<0.01). For the third evaluation, the three-point rating scale for the patient group as a whole demonstrated that PET/T2WI (2.72±0.54) localized the lesion significantly more convincingly than PET/CT (2.23±0.50) or PET/T1WI (2.29±0.53) (P<0.01). PET/T2WI fusion images are superior for the detection and localization of gynecological malignancies. (author)

  15. Diagnosis demystified: CT as diagnostic tool in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruthi, Nagaraja; Murthy, B V Sreenivasa; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-06-27

    Diagnosis in endodontics is usually based on clinical and radiographical presentations, which are only empirical methods. The role of healing profession is to apply knowledge and skills towards maintaining and restoring the patient's health. Recent advances in imaging technologies have added to correct interpretation and diagnosis. CT is proving to be an effective tool in solving endodontic mysteries through its three-dimensional visualisation. CT imaging offers many diagnostic advantages to produce reconstructed images in selected projection and low-contrast resolution far superior to that of all other X-ray imaging modalities. This case report is an endeavour towards effective treatment planning of cases with root fracture, root resorption using spiral CT as an adjuvant diagnostic tool.

  16. Optical Coherence Tomography for Artwork Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targowski, P.; Gora, M.; Wojtkowski, M.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique is given. Time domain, spectral and sweep source modalities are briefly described, and important physical parameters of the OCT instrument are discussed. Examples of the application of OCT to diagnosis of various art objects such as oil paintings on canvas (imaging of glaze and varnish layers), porcelain, faience, and parchment are presented. Applications to surface profilometry of painting on canvas are also discussed.

  17. Clinical value of {sup 18}F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT) for detecting pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luster, Markus; Zeich, Katrin; Glatting, Gerhard; Buck, Andreas K.; Solbach, Christoph; Reske, Sven N. [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Karges, Wolfram [RWTH Aachen, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Aachen (Germany); Pauls, Sandra [University of Ulm, Department of Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Dralle, Henning [University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Halle (Germany); Neumaier, Bernd [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung, Section for Radiochemistry, Cologne (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    In detecting pheochromocytoma (PHEO), positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabelled amine precursor {sup 18}F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) offers excellent specificity, while computed tomography (CT) provides high sensitivity and ability to localize lesions; therefore, the combination of these modalities could be advantageous in this setting. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately detects and localizes PHEO lesions than does each modality alone. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET, CT and {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT images of 25 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic scanning of suspected sporadic or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome-associated PHEO were reviewed retrospectively in randomized sequence. Two blinded observers scored the images regarding the likelihood of PHEO being present and localizable. Results were correlated with subsequent clinical history and, when available, histology. Of the 19 lesions detected by all three modalities, PET identified each as positive for PHEO, but was unable to definitively localize 15 of 19 (79%). CT could definitively localize all 19 lesions, but could not definitively diagnose or exclude PHEO in 18 of 19 (95%) lesions. Furthermore, CT falsely identified as negative for PHEO one lesion which was judged to be positive for this tumor by both PET and PET/CT. Only in PET/CT scans were all 19 lesions accurately characterized and localized. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivity of {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT for PHEO was 100% and the specificity 88%, with a 100% positive predictive value and an 88% negative predictive value. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately diagnoses and localizes adrenal and extra-adrenal masses suspicious for PHEO than do {sup 18}F-DOPA PET or CT alone. (orig.)

  18. Clinical value of 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA PET/CT) for detecting pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, Markus; Zeich, Katrin; Glatting, Gerhard; Buck, Andreas K.; Solbach, Christoph; Reske, Sven N.; Karges, Wolfram; Pauls, Sandra; Verburg, Frederik A.; Dralle, Henning; Neumaier, Bernd; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2010-01-01

    In detecting pheochromocytoma (PHEO), positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabelled amine precursor 18 F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ( 18 F-DOPA) offers excellent specificity, while computed tomography (CT) provides high sensitivity and ability to localize lesions; therefore, the combination of these modalities could be advantageous in this setting. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined 18 F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately detects and localizes PHEO lesions than does each modality alone. 18 F-DOPA PET, CT and 18 F-DOPA PET/CT images of 25 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic scanning of suspected sporadic or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome-associated PHEO were reviewed retrospectively in randomized sequence. Two blinded observers scored the images regarding the likelihood of PHEO being present and localizable. Results were correlated with subsequent clinical history and, when available, histology. Of the 19 lesions detected by all three modalities, PET identified each as positive for PHEO, but was unable to definitively localize 15 of 19 (79%). CT could definitively localize all 19 lesions, but could not definitively diagnose or exclude PHEO in 18 of 19 (95%) lesions. Furthermore, CT falsely identified as negative for PHEO one lesion which was judged to be positive for this tumor by both PET and PET/CT. Only in PET/CT scans were all 19 lesions accurately characterized and localized. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivity of 18 F-DOPA PET/CT for PHEO was 100% and the specificity 88%, with a 100% positive predictive value and an 88% negative predictive value. 18 F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately diagnoses and localizes adrenal and extra-adrenal masses suspicious for PHEO than do 18 F-DOPA PET or CT alone. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariya Vawda

    2015-11-01

    Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of volume-based CT dose index (CTDIvol and dose length product (DLP data from uncontrasted paediatric head CT scans performed in the Trauma and Emergency Unit of a tertiary-level SA hospital from January to June 2013. A random sample of 30 patients in each of 3 age groups (0–2, >2–5 and >5–10 years was used. LDRL values were compared with several national DRLs from Europe and Australia. Results: Mean CTDIvol and DLP values were: 30 mGy and 488 mGy.cm for the 0–2 years age group; 31 mGy and 508 mGy.cm for the >2–5 years group, and 32 mGy and 563 mGy.cm for the >5–10 years group, respectively. The mean DLP for 0–2 year-olds was the only parameter outside the range of corresponding published reference data. Stratification into narrower age groupings showed an increase in DLP values with age. Conclusion: An institutional review of the head CT scanning technique for emergency studies performed on children less than 2 years of age is recommended. The current study highlights the role of LDRLs in establishing institutional dosimetry baselines, in refining local imaging practice, and in enhancing patient safety. Standard age stratification for DRL and LDRL reporting is recommended.

  20. PET-CT for nuclear medicine diagnostics of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Functional or morphofunctional imaging modalities are used in myeloma patients for the diagnosis and therapy management within research protocols. Despite new staging criteria, which take into account the viability of a myeloma lesion, positron emission tomography (PET) is not used routinely. The impact of PET is therefore open. The role of PET and PET computed tomography (PET-CT) for the diagnosis and therapy management is discussed. The use of PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) allows the measurement of viable myeloma lesions and correlates with the stage of disease. A negative FDG examination correlates with a better prognosis. Furthermore, the number of focal lesions as well as the whole functional volume of myeloma lesions in FDG have a prognostic impact. Several studies have demonstrated the impact of FDG for the assessment of therapy monitoring and show that FDG is an earlier indicator for therapy response as compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The CT component of the new hybrid systems allows the assessment of osteolytic lesions in CT and their viability in FDG. The combination of PET with an MRT scanner allows the simultaneous measurement of bone marrow infiltration, focal lesions and their viability. The use of modern hybrid scanners, such as PET-CT and PET-MRT facilitates the simultaneous measurement of viable myeloma lesions, osteolytic lesions and bone marrow infiltration in the whole body; therefore, it is expected that these imaging modalities will play a greater role both in diagnosis and therapy management. (orig.) [de

  1. Patient doses in CT examinations in Switzerland: Implementation of national diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, R.; Aroua, A.; Verdun, F. R.; Samara, E.; Stuessi, A.; Trueb, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were established for 21 indication-based CT examinations for adults in Switzerland. One hundred and seventy-nine of 225 computed tomography (CT) scanners operated in hospitals and private radiology institutes were audited on-site and patient doses were collected. For each CT scanner, a correction factor was calculated expressing the deviation of the measured weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI) to the nominal weighted CTDI as displayed on the workstation. Patient doses were corrected by this factor providing a realistic basis for establishing national DRLs. Results showed large variations in doses between different radiology departments in Switzerland, especially for examinations of the petrous bone, pelvis, lower limbs and heart. This indicates that the concept of DRLs has not yet been correctly applied for CT examinations in clinical routine. A close collaboration of all stakeholders is mandatory to assure an effective radiation protection of patients. On-site audits will be intensified to further establish the concept of DRLs in Switzerland. (authors)

  2. CT and Positron Emission Tomography/CT Findings of Mediastinal Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma with Extensive Distant Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Yi; Ko, Jeong Min; Park, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Suwon, (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare aggressive malignant tumor, usually occurring in the chest wall of children and young adults. Although EES shows aggressive growth pattern, it seldom demonstrates distant metastasis at diagnosis. Herein, we present computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) findings of EES in anterior mediastinum in a 68-year-old man, showing multi-organ distant metastasis at diagnosis. It is another atypical case with unusual presentation in point of old age, mediastinal location and distant metastasis at diagnosis, showing PET/CT findings.

  3. CT and Positron Emission Tomography/CT Findings of Mediastinal Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma with Extensive Distant Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bom Yi; Ko, Jeong Min; Park, Hyun Jin

    2012-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare aggressive malignant tumor, usually occurring in the chest wall of children and young adults. Although EES shows aggressive growth pattern, it seldom demonstrates distant metastasis at diagnosis. Herein, we present computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) findings of EES in anterior mediastinum in a 68-year-old man, showing multi-organ distant metastasis at diagnosis. It is another atypical case with unusual presentation in point of old age, mediastinal location and distant metastasis at diagnosis, showing PET/CT findings.

  4. Positron emission tomography of malignant tumours at head and neck. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of positron emission tomography by comparison with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettler, Nele

    2011-01-01

    Imaging methods for early, accurate diagnosis and aftercare of malignant growths is currently one of the most important research topics. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDG-positron emission tomography by comparison with computed tomography for patients with squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma or sarcoma at head and neck. Measurement criteria are sensitivity and specificity. A retrospective evaluation of 100 examinations on 85 patients of University clinic Aachen was performed. The examination reports were supported by reports from histology, positron emission tomography and computed tomography. In each case, the histological results were assumed to provide a reliable benchmark. Sensitivity and specificity for the primary tumour site, metastatic lymphatic nodes and defined anatomic structures were compared across all patients. Comparisons were also performed on sub groups separated by gender, cancer type and the time and frequency at which tumours arose. The statistic analysis was done with MedCalc. Results: The results for sensitivity and specificity of the primary tumour site were 86.42% and 42.86%, and 64.71% and 66.07%, for positron emission tomography and computed tomography respectively. The results for the lymphatic nodes were 51.52% and 92.86% and 64.71% and 66.07%. When the constituent anatomic structures were evaluated separately, the specificity was significantly higher. The separation by gender showed no difference. Because the classification by tumor type resulted in samples that were of varying size, a comparison was difficult. For the diagnosis of primary tumours, the examination with positron emission tomography was superior, whereas computed tomography proved more effective for the diagnosis of recurrent tumours. For the diagnosis of the main tumour site, both methods were shown to be equally suitable. For the assessment of lymphatic nodes, positron emission tomography was superior to computed tomography

  5. A systematic review on diagnostic accuracy of CT-based detection of significant coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janne d'Othee, Bertrand; Siebert, Uwe; Cury, Ricardo; Jadvar, Hossein; Dunn, Edward J.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic review of diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced coronary computed tomography (CE-CCT). Background: Noninvasive detection of coronary artery stenosis (CAS) by CE-CCT as an alternative to catheter-based coronary angiography (CCA) may improve patient management. Methods: Forty-one articles published between 1997 and 2006 were included that evaluated native coronary arteries for significant stenosis and used CE-CCT as diagnostic test and CCA as reference standard. Study group characteristics, study methodology and diagnostic outcomes were extracted. Pooled summary sensitivity and specificity of CE-CCT were calculated using a random effects model (1) for all coronary segments, (2) assessable segments, and (3) per patient. Results: The 41 studies totaled 2515 patients (75% males; mean age: 59 years, CAS prevalence: 59%). Analysis of all coronary segments yielded a sensitivity of 95% (80%, 89%, 86%, 98% for electron beam CT, 4/8-slice, 16-slice and 64-slice MDCT, respectively) for a specificity of 85% (77%, 84%, 95%, 91%). Analysis limited to segments deemed assessable by CT showed sensitivity of 96% (86%, 85%, 98%, 97%) for a specificity of 95% (90%, 96%, 96%, 96%). Per patient, sensitivity was 99% (90%, 97%, 99%, 98%) and specificity was 76% (59%, 81%, 83%, 92%). Heterogeneity was quantitatively important but not explainable by patient group characteristics or study methodology. Conclusions: Current diagnostic accuracy of CE-CCT is high. Advances in CT technology have resulted in increases in diagnostic accuracy and proportion of assessable coronary segments. However, per patient, accuracy may be lower and CT may have more limited clinical utility in populations at high risk for CAD

  6. Dose evaluation in diagnostic for computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, W.; Borges, J.C.; Mota, H.

    1998-01-01

    The patients which are subjected to computerized tomography tests are exposed to relatively high doses given as result doses on organs that are not matter to test. It was realized a dose levels raising in patients subjected to tests by T C, utilizing to measure this magnitude, TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters which were put directly on the patient, in eye regions, thyroid, breast and navel; founding doses fluctuating between 29.10-49.39 mGy in organs examined and dose values between 0.21-29.10 mGy for organs that no matter to test. The applications of ionizing radiations in medicine do not have dose limits, but paying attention to the radiological protection optimization principle, it is recommended the use of clothes to anti-rays protection for zones not examined, getting with this to reduce the level doses as low as possible, without this to diminish the test quality. (Author)

  7. Comparison of the Diagnostic Image Quality of the Canine Maxillary Dentoalveolar Structures Obtained by Cone Beam Computed Tomography and 64-Multidetector Row Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Jason W.; Drees, Randi; Koenig, Lisa J.; Snyder, Christopher J.; Hetzel, Scott; Miles, Chanda R.; Schwarz, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective of this blinded study was to validate the use of cone beam computed tomography (CT) for imaging of the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures by comparing its diagnostic image quality with that of 64-multidetector row CT. Sagittal slices of a tooth-bearing segment of the maxilla of a commercially purchased dog skull embedded in methyl methacrylate were obtained along a line parallel with the dental arch using a commercial histology diamond saw. The slice of tooth-bearing bone that best depicted the dentoalveolar structures was chosen and photographed. The maxilla segment was imaged with cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT. Four blinded evaluators compared the cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT images and image quality was scored as it related to the anatomy of dentoalveolar structures. Trabecular bone, enamel, dentin, pulp cavity, periodontal ligament space, and lamina dura were scored. In addition, a score depicting the evaluators overall impression of the image was recorded. Images acquired with cone beam CT were found to be significantly superior in image quality to images acquired with 64-multidetector row CT overall, and in all scored categories. In our study setting, cone beam CT was found to be a valid and clinically superior imaging modality for the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures when compared to 64-multidetector row CT. PMID:26415384

  8. Program standard of quality control for a system of Positron Emission Tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) used in the Foundation Valle de Lili

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Nathalia I.; Benavides, Sivor O.; Lopera, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    A standard protocol of quality control in the Fundacion Valle del Lili for the implementation of a multimodal scanner developed emission tomography BIOGRAPH mCT X-3R of SIEMENS ® covering routine testing, frequency, acceptance ranges necessary corrective and preventive measures to detect and correct any faults and proceed if the upper detection precision and accuracy ranges accepted deviations actions. In order to minimize errors in the planning and management of patient dose, thereby improving the quality of the diagnostic image with the dose of radiation is reasonably low as possible, consistent with the clinical use of the equipment used and the information requested diagnostic study

  9. Diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yie, Miyeon [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi, E-mail: jkm7290@empal.com [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Yul [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent a diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan for acute pancreatitis were included. The readers assessed the presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, enhancement of gallbladder (GB) and common bile duct (CBD) wall, pericholecystic fat strands, GB wall thickening, stone in the GB or CBD, and focal or diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis on abdominal CT scans. In addition, the maximal transverse luminal diameters of the GB and CBD were measured. Results: The presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, GB wall enhancement and thickening, pericholecystic fat strands, stone in the GB or CBD, and diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis achieved statistical significance for differentiation of gallstone induced pancreatitis from non-biliary pancreatitis (p < 0.05). The mean values of maximal transverse luminal diameter of GB and CBD were significantly higher in gallstone induced pancreatitis group (39.67 {+-} 7.26 mm, 10.20 {+-} 4.13 mm) than non-biliary pancreatitis group (27.01 {+-} 6.14 mm, 3.85 {+-} 2.51 mm, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Gallbladder features of CT in patients with pancreatitis could be the valuable clues for the diagnosis of gallstone induced pancreatitis.

  10. Diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, Miyeon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Yul; Choi, Dongil

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent a diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan for acute pancreatitis were included. The readers assessed the presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, enhancement of gallbladder (GB) and common bile duct (CBD) wall, pericholecystic fat strands, GB wall thickening, stone in the GB or CBD, and focal or diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis on abdominal CT scans. In addition, the maximal transverse luminal diameters of the GB and CBD were measured. Results: The presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, GB wall enhancement and thickening, pericholecystic fat strands, stone in the GB or CBD, and diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis achieved statistical significance for differentiation of gallstone induced pancreatitis from non-biliary pancreatitis (p < 0.05). The mean values of maximal transverse luminal diameter of GB and CBD were significantly higher in gallstone induced pancreatitis group (39.67 ± 7.26 mm, 10.20 ± 4.13 mm) than non-biliary pancreatitis group (27.01 ± 6.14 mm, 3.85 ± 2.51 mm, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Gallbladder features of CT in patients with pancreatitis could be the valuable clues for the diagnosis of gallstone induced pancreatitis.

  11. Diagnostic value of FDG-PET/(CT) in children with fever of unknown origin and unexplained fever during immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhuis, Gijsbert J.; Diender, Marije G.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. [Radboud University Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Draaisma, Jos M.T. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Paediatrics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) and unexplained fever during immune suppression in children are challenging medical problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and FDG-PET combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in children with FUO and in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. All FDG-PET/(CT) scans performed in the Radboud university medical center for the evaluation of FUO or unexplained fever during immune suppression in the last 10 years were reviewed. Results were compared with the final clinical diagnosis. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 31 children with FUO. A final diagnosis was established in 16 cases (52 %). Of the total number of scans, 32 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in these patients was 80 % and 78 %, respectively. FDG-PET/(CT) scans were performed in 12 children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. A final diagnosis was established in nine patients (75 %). Of the total number of these scans, 58 % were clinically helpful. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT in children with unexplained fever during immune suppression was 78 % and 67 %, respectively. FDG-PET/CT appears a valuable imaging technique in the evaluation of children with FUO and in the diagnostic process of children with unexplained fever during immune suppression. Prospective studies of FDG-PET/CT as part of a structured diagnostic protocol are warranted to assess the additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

  12. Single source dual-energy computed tomography in the diagnosis of gout: Diagnostic reliability in comparison to digital radiography and conventional computed tomography of the feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Tobias; Diekhoff, Torsten [Department of Radiology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität, Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hermann, Sandra [Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Stroux, Andrea [Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Mews, Jürgen; Blobel, Jörg [Toshiba Medical Systems Europe, BV, Zilverstraat 1, 2701 RP Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität, Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hermann, Kay-Geert A., E-mail: kghermann@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität, Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic value of single-source dual-energy computed tomography (SDECT) in gouty arthritis and to compare its capability to detect urate depositions with digital radiography (DR) and conventional computed tomography (CT). Methods: Forty-four patients who underwent SDECT volume scans of the feet for suspected gouty arthritis were retrospectively analyzed. SDECT, CT (both n = 44) and DR (n = 36) were scored by three blinded readers for presence of osteoarthritis, erosions, and tophi. A diagnosis was made for each imaging modality. Results were compared to the clinical diagnosis using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria. Results: The patient population was divided into a gout (n = 21) and control (n = 23) group based on final clinical diagnosis. Osteoarthritis was evident in 15 joints using CT and 30 joints using DR (p = 0.165). There were 134 erosions detected by CT compared to 38 erosions detected by DR (p < 0.001). In total 119 tophi were detected by SDECT, compared to 85 tophi by CT (p = 0.182) and 25 tophi by DR (p < 0.001). SDECT had best diagnostic value for diagnosis of gout compared to DR and conventional CT (sensitivity and specificity for SDECT: 71.4% and 95.7%, CT: 71.4% and 91.3% and DR: 44.4% and 83.3%, respectively). For all three readers, Cohen’s kappa for DR and conventional CT were substantial for all scoring items and ranged from 0.75 to 0.77 and 0.72–0.76, respectively. For SDECT Cohen’s kappa was good to almost perfect with 0.77–0.84. Conclusions: SDECT is capable to detect uric acid depositions with good sensitivity and high specificity in feet, therefore diagnostic confidence is improved. Using SDECT, inter-reader variance can be markedly reduced for the detection of gouty tophi.

  13. Dental imaging using laminar optical tomography and micro CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feixiao; Ozturk, Mehmet S.; Intes, Xavier; Kotha, Shiva

    2014-02-01

    Dental lesions located in the pulp are quite difficult to identify based on anatomical contrast, and, hence, to diagnose using traditional imaging methods such as dental CT. However, such lesions could lead to functional and/or molecular optical contrast. Herein, we report on the preliminary investigation of using Laminar Optical Tomography (LOT) to image the pulp and root canals in teeth. LOT is a non-contact, high resolution, molecular and functional mesoscopic optical imaging modality. To investigate the potential of LOT for dental imaging, we injected an optical dye into ex vivo teeth samples and imaged them using LOT and micro-CT simultaneously. A rigid image registration between the LOT and micro-CT reconstruction was obtained, validating the potential of LOT to image molecular optical contrast deep in the teeth with accuracy, non-invasively. We demonstrate that LOT can retrieve the 3D bio-distribution of molecular probes at depths up to 2mm with a resolution of several hundred microns in teeth.

  14. The Positron Emission Tomography. A diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, P.

    2001-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a new imaging modality, which is able to assess non-invasively the biochemical mechanisms, underlying physiological and pathophysiological processes in vivo in humans. The technique relies on the administration of radioactive tracers labeled with short-lived positron emitters, which need to be produced on site via a particle accelerator (cyclotron). Radionuclides are produced upon request and formulated into biologically active organic molecules having precise pharmacokinetics and specificity. The radiotracer can be detected by the PET scanner and represented as tomographic sections (images of body sections) showing its regional distribution and concentration. This makes it possible to address clinical questions concerning occurrence and evolution of many diseases as well as their response to therapy. The ability to image (measure) biological processes and not only anatomy enables PET to explore diseases in the very early stage, including those diseases which are not related to modifications of organ structure (e.g. psychiatric diseases, metabolic disorders, biochemical disfunction). PET plays a major role, in conjunction with the other imaging modalities, to improve diagnosis capabilities and disease mechanism understanding [it

  15. Pulmonary actinomycosis: CT studies of diagnostic and post-treatment findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jung; Song, Sun Wha; Bo, Seal Hwang; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Kim, Ki Jun; Kim, Horrim; Park, Seog Hee [College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    To investigate the value of the computed tomography (CT) in the study of diagnostic and post-treatment findings of pulmonary actinomycosis. Clinical data and CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in 10 patients with histopathologically confirmed pulmonary actinomycosis. We analyzed the initial CT findings in search of patterns and distributions which suggest possible lung abnormalities and found the pleura, chest wall, and lymphadenopathy to be involved as part of the indicators of lung abnormalities. We analyzed follow-up CT findings for changes in the lungs after antibiotic therapy and recurrence after surgery. Of the 10 patients analyzed by CT for lung lesions, seven had been diagnosed with alcoholism and nine were male. The initial CTs (n = 10) indicated that all the pulmonary lesions were solitary without chest wall involvement. However, a transfissural extension was observed in 20% of the study population (n = 2). Furthermore, peripheral lung distribution and adjacent pleural thickening was observed in 70% of the study population (n = 7). Within the consolidation (n = 6) or mass (n = 4), a central low density with peripheral enhancement was seen in 70% of the study population (n = 7). A follow-up CT of the seven cases following antiobiotic therapy revealed that four cases showed minimal improvement or aggravation of their lung lesions, whereas three cases showed resolution or improvement. The improvement of the central low density was related to the improvement of consolidation or mass. Furthermore the presence of fibrosis was observed after the resolution of pulmonary lesions (n = 2). No relationship was found between the duration and response of antibiotic therapy. A follow-up CT (n = 4) subsequent to a lung resection revealed the onset of chest wall actinomycosis and a thickened pleura in one case. The results of this study highlight the value of the CT in pulmonary actinomycosis in order to diagnose and evaluate antibiotic responses, complications, or

  16. Role of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in diagnostic iodine-131 scintigraphy before initial radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2005-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the incremental value of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over planar radioiodine imaging before radioiodine ablation in the staging, management and stratification of risk of recurrence (ROR) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. Totally, 83 patients (21 male, 62 female) aged 17–75 (mean 39.9) years with DTC were included consecutively in this prospective study. They underwent postthyroidectomy planar and SPECT/CT scans after oral administration of 37–114 MBq iodine-131 (I-131). The scans were interpreted as positive, negative or suspicious for tracer uptake in the thyroid bed, cervical lymph nodes and sites outside the neck. In each case, the findings on planar images were recorded first, without knowledge of SPECT/CT findings. Operative and pathological findings were used for postsurgical tumor–node–metastasis staging. The tumor staging was reassessed after each of these two scans. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography localized radioiodine uptake in the thyroid bed in 9/83 (10.8%) patients, neck nodes in 24/83 (28.9%) patients and distant metastases in 8/83 (9.6%) patients in addition to the planar study. Staging was changed in 8/83 (9.6%), ROR in 11/83 (13.2%) and management in 26/83 (31.3%) patients by the pretherapy SPECT/CT in comparison to planar imaging. SPECT/CT had incremental value in 32/83 patients (38.5%) over the planar scan. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography is feasible during a diagnostic I-131 scan with a low amount of radiotracer. It improved the interpretation of pretherapy I-131 scintigraphy and changed the staging and subsequent patient management

  17. Target localization on standard axial images in computed tomography (CT) stereotaxis for functional neurosurgery - a technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, A.-A.

    1986-01-01

    A simple technique for marking functional neurosurgery target on computed tomography (CT) axial image is described. This permits the use of standard axial image for computed tomography (CT) stereotaxis in functional neurosurgery. (Author)

  18. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions: rate of diagnostic success and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Macello Jose Sampaio; Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Chung, Wu Tu; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: macellomaciel@me.com [A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: To determine the rates of diagnostic success and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions suspected for malignancy. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study including 186 cases of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. All the specimens were obtained with 8-10 gauge needles. The following data were collected: demographics, previous history of malignancy, data related to the lesion, to the procedure, and to histological results. Results: Most patients were women (57%), and the mean age was 53.0 ± 16.4 years. In 139 cases (74.6%), there was diagnostic suspicion of metastasis and the most common primary tumors were breast (32.1%) and prostate (11.8%). The bones most commonly involved were spine (36.0%), hip (32.8%) and long bones (18.3%). Complications occurred in only three cases (1.6%) including bone fracture, paraesthesia with functional impairment, and needle breakage requiring surgical removal. The specimens collected from 183 lesions (98.4%) were considered appropriate for diagnosis. Malignant results were more frequently found in patients who had a suspected secondary lesion and history of known malignancy (p < 0.001), and in patients who underwent PET/CT-guided procedures (p = 0.011). Conclusion: CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for the diagnosis of suspicious bone lesions. (author)

  19. Comparison of the Diagnostic Image Quality of the Canine Maxillary Dentoalveolar Structures Obtained by Cone Beam Computed Tomography and 64-Multidetector Row Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Jason W; Drees, Randi; Koenig, Lisa J; Snyder, Christopher J; Hetzel, Scott; Miles, Chanda R; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this blinded study was to validate the use of cone beam computed tomography (C) for imaging of the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures by comparing its diagnostic image quality with that of 64-multidetector row CT Sagittal slices of a tooth-bearing segment of the maxilla of a commercially purchased dog skull embedded in methylmethacrylate were obtained along a line parallel with the dental arch using a commercial histology diamond saw. The slice of tooth-bearing bone that best depicted the dentoalveolar structures was chosen and photographed. The maxillary segment was imaged with cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT. Four blinded evaluators compared the cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT images and image quality was scored as it related to the anatomy of dentoalveolar structures. Trabecular bone, enamel, dentin, pulp cavity, periodontal ligament space, and lamina dura were scored In addition, a score depicting the evaluators overall impression of the image was recorded. Images acquired with cone beam CT were found to be significantly superior in image quality to images acquired with 64-multidetector row CT overall, and in all scored categories. In our study setting cone beam CT was found to be a valid and clinically superior imaging modality for the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures when compared to 64-multidetector row CT.

  20. Anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery: diagnostic accuracy of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauv, Paul; Benadjaoud, Samir; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Zins, Marc [Fondation Hopital Saint-Joseph, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Curis, Emmanuel [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire de biomathematiques, Faculte de pharmacie, Paris (France); Loriau, Jerome [Fondation Hopital Saint-Joseph, Department of Digestive Surgery, Paris (France)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT in postoperative colorectal anastomotic leakage (AL). Two independent blinded radiologists reviewed 153 CTs performed for suspected AL within 60 days after surgery in 131 consecutive patients, with (n = 58) or without (n = 95) retrograde contrast enema (RCE). Results were compared to original interpretations. The reference standard was reoperation or consensus (a radiologist and a surgeon) regarding clinical, laboratory, radiological, and follow-up data after medical treatment. AL was confirmed in 34/131 patients. For the two reviewers and original interpretation, sensitivity of CT was 82 %, 87 %, and 71 %, respectively; specificity was 84 %, 84 %, and 92 %. RCE significantly increased the positive predictive value (from 40 % to 88 %, P = 0.0009; 41 % to 92 %, P = 0.0016; and 40 % to 100 %, P = 0.0006). Contrast extravasation was the most sensitive (reviewers, 83 % and 83 %) and specific (97 % and 97 %) sign and was significantly associated with AL by univariate analysis (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001). By multivariate analysis with recursive partitioning, CT with RCE was accurate to confirm or rule out AL with contrast extravasation. CT with RCE is accurate for diagnosing postoperative colorectal AL. Contrast extravasation is the most reliable sign. RCE should be performed during CT for suspected AL. (orig.)

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of high-definition CT coronary angiography in high-risk patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, S.S.; Morgan-Hughes, G.; Ukoumunne, O.; Clayton, B.; Davies, E.J.; Nikolaou, V.; Hyde, C.J.; Shore, A.C.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) using a combination of high-definition CT (HD-CTCA) and high level of reader experience, with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference standard, in high-risk patients for the investigation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods: Three hundred high-risk patients underwent HD-CTCA and ICA. Independent experts evaluated the images for the presence of significant CAD, defined primarily as the presence of moderate (≥50%) stenosis and secondarily as the presence of severe (≥70%) stenosis in at least one coronary segment, in a blinded fashion. HD-CTCA was compared to ICA as the reference standard. Results: No patients were excluded. Two hundred and six patients (69%) had moderate and 178 (59%) had severe stenosis in at least one vessel at ICA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 97.1%, 97.9%, 99% and 93.9% for moderate stenosis, and 98.9%, 93.4%, 95.7% and 98.3%, for severe stenosis, on a per-patient basis. Conclusion: The combination of HD-CTCA and experienced readers applied to a high-risk population, results in high diagnostic accuracy comparable to ICA. Modern generation CT systems in experienced hands might be considered for an expanded role. - Highlights: • Diagnostic accuracy of High-Definition CT Angiography (HD-CTCA) has been assessed. • Invasive Coronary angiography (ICA) is the reference standard. • Diagnostic accuracy of HD-CTCA is comparable to ICA. • Diagnostic accuracy is not affected by coronary calcium or stents. • HD-CTCA provides a non-invasive alternative in high-risk patients.

  2. The diagnostic value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT and MRI in suspected vertebral osteomyelitis - a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Ilse J E; Scheper, Henk; de Rooy, Jacky W J; Bloem, Johan L; Janssen, Marcel J R; van den Hoven, Leon; Hosman, Allard J F; Visser, Leo G; Oyen, Wim J G; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing vertebral osteomyelitis. From November 2015 until December 2016, 32 patients with suspected vertebral osteomyelitis were prospectively included. All patients underwent both 18 F-FDG-PET/CT and MRI within 48 h. All images were independently reevaluated by two radiologists and two nuclear medicine physicians who were blinded to each others' image interpretation. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT and MRI were compared to the clinical diagnosis according to international guidelines. For 18 F-FDG-PET/CT, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV in diagnosing vertebral osteomyelitis were 100%, 83.3%, 90.9%, and 100%, respectively. For MRI, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 100%, 91.7%, 95.2%, and 100%, respectively. MRI detected more epidural/spinal abscesses. An important advantage of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT is the detection of metastatic infection (16 patients, 50.0%). 18 F-FDG-PET/CT and MRI are both necessary techniques in diagnosing vertebral osteomyelitis. An important advantage of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT is the visualization of metastatic infection, especially in patients with bacteremia. MRI is more sensitive in detection of small epidural abscesses.

  3. CT imaging of congenital lung lesions: effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, Jay E.; Smith, Ethan A.; Dillman, Jonathan R. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kunisaki, Shaun M. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDI{sub vol} was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose. (orig.)

  4. CT imaging of congenital lung lesions: effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, Jay E.; Smith, Ethan A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Kunisaki, Shaun M.

    2015-01-01

    Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDI vol was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose. (orig.)

  5. Three dimensional computed tomography (CT) algorithms for a planar object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Yong Ki

    2007-02-01

    Recently modern X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner is rapidly moving towards cone-beam geometry. One of the important advantages of the cone-beam CT is its fast volumetric scanning capability. Also it provides the opportunity for tomographic image reconstruction with magnified resolution. This opportunity is applicable for Emission CT (ECT) scanner with a convergent collimator, which functions as cone beam geometry. However, in a cone-beam image reconstruction, current existing reconstruction algorithms put limitations from long object problems due to the nature of insufficient data or limited source scanning. Therefore, the algorithms that is based on cone-beam geometry and free from limited source scanning highly demanded these days. In this study, for planar object, we have developed full and half-scan algorithms based on approximated cone-beam back-projection. For solving long object problems, many other reconstruction algorithms have been adopted by several helical CT scanners that are composed of a micro-focus X-ray tube and flat panel detector. Although these efforts make the long object problem solved, it remains for planar object as ever due to limited source scanning such as non-isocentric circular orbit. Prior to the algorithmic development, we report digital tomosynthesis (DT) called laminography using geometric projection methods for reconstructing arbitrary cross-section images as well as three dimensional laminography images for cone-beam CT. Digital laminography are advantageous in terms of temporal resolution, and widely used only with a few number of projection data on cone-beam geometry. While existing laminography algorithms use the geometric projection methods, in this dissertation we substitute back-projection technique instead of the geometric projection. Both of laminography without filtering and weighting steps have similar results except for the complexity between their algorithms but it makes the blurring and other severe artifacts in

  6. Diagnostic performance of combined noninvasive coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging using 320 row detector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavere, Andrea L; Simon, Gregory G; George, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    the diagnostic performance of combined 320-row CTA and myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in comparison with the combination of invasive coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). The trial is being performed at 16 medical centers located in 8...... to detect myocardial ischemia. In this article, we describe the design of the CORE320 study ("Combined coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial perfusion evaluation using 320 detector row computed tomography"). This prospective, multicenter, multinational study is unique in that it is designed to assess...... countries worldwide. CT has the potential to assess both anatomy and physiology in a single imaging session. The co-primary aim of the CORE320 study is to define the per-patient diagnostic accuracy of the combination of coronary CTA and myocardial CTP to detect physiologically significant coronary artery...

  7. Diagnostic value of electron-beam computed tomography (EBT). I. cardiac applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzweiler, C.N.H.; Lembcke, A.; Rogalla, P.; Taupitz, M.; Wiese, T.H.; Hammm, B.; Becker, C.R.; Reiser, M.F.; Felix, R.; Knollmann, F.D.; Georgi, M.; Weisser, G.; Lehmann, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam tomography (EBT) directly competes with other non-invasive imaging modalities, such as multislice computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and echocardiography, in the diagnostic assessment of cardiac diseases. EBT is the gold standard for the detection and quantification of coronary calcium as a preclinical sign of coronary artery disease (CAD). Its standardized examination protocols and the broad experience with this method favor EBT. First results with multislice CT indicate that this new technology may be equivalent to EBT for coronary calcium studies. The principal value of CT-based coronary calcium measurements continues to be an issue of controversy amongst radiologists and cardiologists due to lack of prospective randomized trials. Coronary angiography with EBT is characterized by a high negative predictive value and, in addition, may be indicated in some patients with manifest CAD. It remains to be shown whether coronary angiography with multislice CT is reliable and accurate enough to be introduced into the routine work-up, to replace some of the many strictly diagnostic coronary catheterizations in Germany and elsewhere. Assessment of coronary stent patency with EBT is associated with several problems and in our opinion cannot be advocated as a routine procedure. EBT may be recommended for the evaluation of coronary bypasses to look for bypass occlusions and significant stenoses, which, however, can be equally well achieved with multislice CT. Quantification of myocardial perfusion with EBT could not replace MRI or other modalities in this field. EBT has proven to be accurate, reliable and in some instances equivalent to MRI, which is the gold standard for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of cardiac function. Some disadvantages not the least of which is the limited distribution of electron beam scanners, favor MRI for functional assessment of the heart. (orig.) [de

  8. Dental optical coherence tomography: new potential diagnostic system for cracked-tooth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Lee, Jong-Jin; Chung, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting cracked teeth and its relative clinical effectiveness by comparing it with other diagnostic methods including conventional visual inspection, trans-illumination, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The reliability of swept source OCT (SS-OCT) was verified by comparing the number of detected crack lines on 109 surfaces of 61 teeth with those detected with other conventional methods. One to one comparison revealed that crack lines that were invisible with naked eyes could be found in SS-OCT images. The detection ability of SS-OCT was superior or similar to those of micro-CT (100.0 %) and trans-illumination. Crack lines shown in the SS-OCT images had distinct characteristics, and structural crack lines and craze lines could be distinguished in SS-OCT images. Thus, the detection ability of SS-OCT renders it an acceptable diagnostic device for cracked-tooth syndrome.

  9. Utility of 18FDG-PET/CT in breast cancer diagnostics--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warning, Karina; Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Kristensen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) is a non-invasive method for visualization of focally increased metabolism in the presence of discrete morphological changes. Based on a systematic review of current literature, PET/CT cannot be recommended...

  10. Diagnostic potentialities of computerized tomography in mediastinal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Ermakov, N.P.; Khamarne, Eh.I.

    1986-01-01

    The potentialities of computerized tomography as a highly informative method was described for diagnosis of mediastinal neoplasms, its superiorities over routine X-ray methods. The developed and modified roentgenofunctional method of CT examination in suspicion of a mediastinal neoplasm using polyposition procedures, respiratory tests and intesified image methods made it possible to raise the level of precise diagnosis up to 95.5%. Differential diagnosis of vascular formations and other mediastinal tumors as well as malignant tumors of the right cardiodiaphragmatic angle proved to be successfull almost in 100% of cases

  11. A comparison of the diagnostic value of MRI and18F-FDG-PET/CT in suspected spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smids, Carolijn; Kouijzer, Ilse J E; Vos, Fidel J; Sprong, Tom; Hosman, Allard J F; de Rooy, Jacky W J; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Oyen, Wim J G; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing spondylodiscitis and its complications, such as epidural and paraspinal abscesses. From January 2006 to August 2013 patients with a clinical suspicion of spondylodiscitis, with an infection, or with fever of unknown origin were retrospectively included if 18 F-FDG-PET/CT and MRI of the spine were performed within a 2-week time span. Imaging results were compared to the final clinical diagnosis and follow-up data were collected. Sixty-eight patients were included of whom 49 patients were diagnosed with spondylodiscitis. MRI showed an overall sensitivity of 67 % and specificity of 84 %. Diagnostic accuracy was 58 %, when MRI was performed within 2 weeks after the start of symptoms and improved to 82 %, when performed more than 2 weeks after onset of symptoms. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 96 % and a specificity of 95 %, with no relation to the interval between the scan and the start of symptoms. As compared to MRI, 18 F-FDG-PET/CT has superior diagnostic value for detecting early spondylodiscitis. After 2 weeks both techniques perform similarly.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive 64-slice CT coronary angiography in patients with stable angina pectoris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, Francesca; Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mollet, Nico R.A.; deFeyter, Pim J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Runza, Giuseppe [University of Palermo, Department of Radiology, Palermo (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma, Department of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Mieghem, Carlos van; Meijboom, Willem B.; Baks, Timo [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Malagutti, Patrizia [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); University of Ferrara, Department of Cardiology, Ferrara (Italy); Cademartiri, Filippo [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma, Department of Radiology, Parma (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Multislice computed tomography (CT) is an emerging technique for the non-invasive detection of coronary stenoses. While the diagnostic accuracy of 4-slice scanners was limited, 16-slice CT imagers showed promising results due to increased temporal and spatial resolution. These technical advances prompted us to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 64-slice CT coronary angiography in the detection of significant stenoses (defined as {>=} 50% luminal diameter reduction) versus invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Thirty-five patients with stable angina pectoris underwent CT coronary angiography performed with a 64-slice scanner (gantry rotation time 330 ms, individual detector width 0.6 mm) prior to conventional coronary angiography. Patients with heart rates >70 beats/min received 100 mg metoprolol orally. One hundred millilitres of contrast agent with an iodine concentration of 400 mgl/ml were injected at a rate of 5 ml/s into the antecubital vein. The CT scan was triggered with the bolus tracking technique. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values of 64-slice CT were 99%, 96%, 78% and 99%, respectively, on a per-segment basis. The values obtained on a per-patient basis were 100%, 90%, 96% and 100%, respectively. When referral to catheterisation is questionable, CT coronary angiography may identify subjects with normal angiograms and consistently decrease the number of unnecessary invasive procedures. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive 64-slice CT coronary angiography in patients with stable angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, Francesca; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Mollet, Nico R.A.; DeFeyter, Pim J.; Runza, Giuseppe; Mieghem, Carlos van; Meijboom, Willem B.; Baks, Timo; Malagutti, Patrizia; Cademartiri, Filippo

    2006-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography (CT) is an emerging technique for the non-invasive detection of coronary stenoses. While the diagnostic accuracy of 4-slice scanners was limited, 16-slice CT imagers showed promising results due to increased temporal and spatial resolution. These technical advances prompted us to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 64-slice CT coronary angiography in the detection of significant stenoses (defined as ≥ 50% luminal diameter reduction) versus invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Thirty-five patients with stable angina pectoris underwent CT coronary angiography performed with a 64-slice scanner (gantry rotation time 330 ms, individual detector width 0.6 mm) prior to conventional coronary angiography. Patients with heart rates >70 beats/min received 100 mg metoprolol orally. One hundred millilitres of contrast agent with an iodine concentration of 400 mgl/ml were injected at a rate of 5 ml/s into the antecubital vein. The CT scan was triggered with the bolus tracking technique. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values of 64-slice CT were 99%, 96%, 78% and 99%, respectively, on a per-segment basis. The values obtained on a per-patient basis were 100%, 90%, 96% and 100%, respectively. When referral to catheterisation is questionable, CT coronary angiography may identify subjects with normal angiograms and consistently decrease the number of unnecessary invasive procedures. (orig.)

  14. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.; Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Al-Naemi, H.M.; Al Suwaidi, J.S.; Arandjic, D.; Bashier, E.H.O.; Kodlulovich Renha, S.; El-Nachef, L.; Aguilar, J.G.; Gershan, V.; Gershkevitsh, E.; Gruppetta, E.; Hustuc, A.; Jauhari, A.; Hassan Kharita, Mohammad; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Khosravi, H.R.; Khoury, H.; Kralik, I.; Mahere, S.; Mazuoliene, J.; Mora, P.; Muhogora, W.; Muthuvelu, P.; Nikodemova, D.; Novak, L.; Pallewatte, A.; Pekarovic, D.; Shaaban, M.; Shelly, E.; Stepanyan, K.; Thelsy, N.; Visrutaratna, P.; Zaman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  15. Analysis of risk in computerized tomography and other diagnostic radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Medical practice entails continuous risks to the patient taken in good faith by the physician for the benefit of the patient. Risk of radiation induced cancer death approximates 10(-4) per cGy (rad). Assuming an average whole body dose of 0.1 cGy for many diagnostic X-ray procedures, the probability of radiation-induced cancer death is about 10(-5). The purpose of this paper is to compare the risks of common diagnostic X-ray procedures including computerized tomography (CT) with risks of smoking or automobile travel. Such comparisons should be constructive in putting radiation in perspective and facilitating explanation of risk/benefit to patients

  16. Identifying Institutional Diagnostic Reference Levels for CT with Radiation Dose Index Monitoring Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Kate; Li, Iris; Dowdell, Timothy; Gray, Bruce G

    2015-08-01

    To retrospectively evaluate radiation optimization efforts over 4 years for three computed tomography (CT) protocols and to determine institutional (local) diagnostic reference levels for prospective tracking by using automated radiation dose index monitoring software. Approval for this retrospective observational study was obtained from the hospital research ethics board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. The study followed a 48-month radiation dose optimization effort in a large academic inner-city trauma and quaternary referral center. Exposure according to equipment, protocol, and year (2010-2013) for adult patients was determined for routine unenhanced head CT examinations, CT pulmonary angiography examinations, and CT examinations for renal colic. Mean exposure (as volume CT dose index [CTDIvol] and dose-length product [DLP]) was averaged to establish local diagnostic reference levels. Means and 75th percentiles for 2013 were compared with findings from surveys in Canada and diagnostic reference levels for similar protocol types internationally. Student t tests were performed to assess significance between annual means, and χ(2) tests were performed for changes in categoric variables. There were 36 996 examinations in 25 234 patients. There was an average exposure reduction of 22% for CTDIvol and 13% for DLP from 2010 to 2013. In 2013, mean CTDIvol for routine head examinations was 50.8 mGy ± 3.7 (standard deviation), 11.8 mGy ± 5.6 for CT pulmonary angiography examinations, and 10.2 mGy ± 4.2 for renal colic CT examinations, while mean DLP was 805.7 mGy · cm ± 124.3, 432.8 mGy-cm ± 219.9, and 469.4 mGy · cm ± 209.2, respectively. The mean CTDIvol and DLP in 2013 were at or close to identified reference values; however, additional optimization is required to reach "as low as reasonably achievable" values for all examinations. Automated methods of radiation dose data collection permit a detailed analysis of radiation dose according

  17. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, A; Vaideki, K; Govindarajan, K N; Jayakumar, S

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDIw), volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDIw, CTDIv, and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDIv and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level.

  18. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saravanakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDI w , volumetric CT dose index (CTDI v , and dose length product (DLP are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDI w , CTDI v , and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDI v and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level.

  19. Establishing national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Dina Husseiny; Vassileva, Jenia; Mahdaly, Gamal; Shawki, Mona; Salama, Ahmad; Gilley, Debbie; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2017-07-01

    To establish national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in Egypt for computed tomography (CT) examinations of adults and identify the potential for optimization. Data from 3762 individual patient's undergoing CT scans of head, chest (high resolution), abdomen, abdomen-pelvis, chest-abdomen-pelvis and CT angiography (aorta and both lower limbs) examinations in 50 CT facilities were collected. This represents 20% of facilities in the country and all of the 27 Governorates. Results were compared with DRLs of UK, USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and France. The Egyptian DRLs for CTDI vol in mGy are for head: 30, chest (high resolution): 22, abdomen (liver metastasis): 31, abdomen-pelvis: 31, chest-abdomen-pelvis: 33 and CT angiography (aorta and lower limbs): 37. The corresponding DRLs for DLP in mGy.cm are 1360, 420, 1425, 1325, 1320 and 1320. For head CT, the Egyptian DRL for CTDI vol is 2-3 times lower than the DRLs from other countries. However, the DRL in terms of DLP is in the same range or higher as compared to others. The Egyptian DRL for chest CT (high resolution) is similar to others for DLP but higher for CTDI vol . For abdomen and abdomen-pelvis DRLs for CTDI vol are higher than others. For DLP, the DRLs for abdomen are higher than DRL in UK and lower than those in Japan, while for abdomen-pelvis they are higher than other countries. Despite lower DRLs for CTDI vol , an important consistent problem appears to be higher scan range as DRLs for DLP are higher. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic value of preoperative SUVmax on FDG-PET/CT for the detection of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Yuko; Kobayashi, Aya; Shiro, Michihisa; Ota, Nami; Takano, Rei; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Yagi, Shigetaka; Minami, Sawako; Terada, Masaki; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the preoperative diagnostic value of F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with ovarian cancer. One hundred sixty patients suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors were included in this study. All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scans before operation, and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor was measured. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SUVmax for detecting malignancy and its relationship with histological findings. Postoperative pathological diagnoses showed that 67 were malignant, 14 were borderline malignant, and 79 were benign tumors. With the use of a cutoff SUVmax of 2.9 obtained from the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy were 80.6%, 94.6%, 91.5%, and 87.1%, respectively. Positive FDG accumulation (SUVmax ≥ 2.9) was shown in 89.5% of serous adenocarcinoma and in 92.3% of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. In contrast, lower frequencies of positive FDG accumulation were shown in clear cell adenocarcinoma (54.5%), mucinous adenocarcinoma (66.7%), and metastatic carcinoma (66.7%), and the median SUVmax of these 3 histological types were significantly lower than those of serous and endometrioid types. In addition, a positive FDG accumulation was shown in all patients with malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma. Finally, of the 14 borderline malignant tumors, only 2 (14.3%) showed positive FDG accumulation. The SUVmax on FDG-PET/CT is useful for differentiating ovarian cancer from borderline or benign tumor with a high specificity and positive predictive value. However, our data also demonstrated a lower FDG uptake value in clear cell or mucinous histological finding, suggesting that SUVmax may vary depending on the tumor histological subtype.

  1. Lymphography and computed tomography in the assessment of lymphnode invasion by bladder cancer. Comparison of diagnostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguay, O.; Bellin, M.F.; Richard, F.; Mallet, A.; Grellet, J.

    1989-01-01

    The diagnostic value of lymphography and computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of lymph node invasion by bladder cancers has been compared on the basis of 30 observations. Although computed tomography apparently yields better results (reliability: 93%) than lymphography (reliability: 87%), these findings have no statistical significance. The study of literature shows that the statistical exploitation of the results was seldom carried out. The combination of both exploration techniques seems to improve predictive values, but this improvement was not statistically significant in the study [fr

  2. Diagnostic Yield of Recommendations for Chest CT Examination Prompted by Outpatient Chest Radiographic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. Benjamin; Gilman, Matthew D.; Wu, Carol C.; Cushing, Matthew S.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Zhao, Jing; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Shepard, Jo-Anne O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic yield of recommended chest computed tomography (CT) prompted by abnormalities detected on outpatient chest radiographic images. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. Reports of all outpatient chest radiographic examinations performed at a large academic center during 2008 (n = 29 138) were queried to identify studies that included a recommendation for a chest CT imaging. The radiology information system was queried for these patients to determine if a chest CT examination was obtained within 1 year of the index radiographic examination that contained the recommendation. For chest CT examinations obtained within 1 year of the index chest radiographic examination and that met inclusion criteria, chest CT images were reviewed to determine if there was an abnormality that corresponded to the chest radiographic finding that prompted the recommendation. All corresponding abnormalities were categorized as clinically relevant or not clinically relevant, based on whether further work-up or treatment was warranted. Groups were compared by using t test and Fisher exact test with a Bonferroni correction applied for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4.5% (1316 of 29138 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 4.3%, 4.8%]) of outpatient chest radiographic examinations that contained a recommendation for chest CT examination, and increasing patient age (P history (P = .001) were associated with increased likelihood of a recommendation for chest CT examination. Of patients within this subset who met inclusion criteria, 65.4% (691 of 1057 [95% CI: 62.4%, 68.2%) underwent a chest CT examination within the year after the index chest radiographic examination. Clinically relevant corresponding abnormalities were present on chest CT images in 41.4% (286 of 691 [95% CI: 37.7%, 45.2%]) of cases, nonclinically relevant corresponding abnormalities in 20.6% (142 of 691 [95% CI: 17

  3. Clinically useful diagnostic tool of contrast enhanced ultrasonography for focal liver masses: comparison to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sung Woo; Bok, Gene Hyun; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won; Ham, Nam Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Eui Ju; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Lee, Woong Cheul; Shim, Kwang Yeun; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast (SonoVue(®)) enhancement ultrasonography (CEUS) and to compare this method with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating liver masses. CEUS (n=50), CT (n=47), and MRI (n=43) were performed on 50 liver masses in 48 patients for baseline mass haracterization. The most likely impression for each modality and the final diagnosis, based on the combined biopsy results (n=14), angiography findings (n=36), and clinical course, were determined. The diagnostic value of CEUS was compared to those of CT and MRI. The final diagnosis of the masses was hepatocellular carcinoma (n=43), hemangioma (n=3), benign adenoma (n=2), eosinophilic abscess (n=1), and liver metastasis (n=1). The overall diagnostic agreement with the final diagnosis was substantial for CEUS, CT, and MRI, with κ values of 0.621, 0.763, and 0.784, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83.3%, 87.5%, and 84.0%, respectively, for CEUS; 95.0%, 87.5%, and 93.8%, respectively, for CT; and 94.6%, 83.3%, and 93.0%, respectively for MRI. After excluding the lesions with poor acoustic sonographic windows, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for CEUS were 94.6%, 87.5%, and 93.3%, respectively, with a κ value of 0.765. If an appropriate acoustic window is available, CEUS is comparable to CT and MRI for the diagnosis of liver masses.

  4. The diagnostic role of abdominal CT imaging findings in adults intussusception: Focused on the vascular compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Beom Jin; Jin, Yong Hyun; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Kyoung Won

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of one segment of the gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. Unlike that in children, adult intussusception is a relatively rare condition. More than 90% of patients with adult intussusception have been reported to have an organic cause, with benign or malignant tumors for accounting for approximately 65% of the cases. In general, the diagnosis is easily made by means of computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The imaging appearance of a bowel-within-bowel configuration with or without contained fat and mesenteric vessels, is pathognomonic. As the intussusceptum enters into the intussuscipiens, the mesentery is carried forward and trapped between the overlapping layers of bowel. The twisting or severe constriction of the mesenteric vessels may result in vascular compromise with subsequent edematous thickening of the involved bowel. In these circumstances, ischemic necrosis may develop if timely intervention is not undertaken. Therefore, determination of the presence or absence of intestinal necrosis in intussusception is important in patient management. On CT, the presence of well-known diagnostic CT criteria for strangulated obstruction (especially severe engorgement or twisting of the mesenteric vessels) as well as evidence of loss of the layered pattern, accumulation of extraluminal fluid collection, and bowel perforation, may suggest the diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. CT and MR imaging are limited in determining the primary disease causing intussusception. However, CT and MR provide excellent pre-operative evaluation, including the possible extension and/or dissemination of a malignant tumor. CT and MR imaging may also be useful in suggesting the presence of vascular compromise

  5. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions: rate of diagnostic success and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Macello Jose Sampaio; Tyng, Chiang Jeng; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Matushita Junior, João Paulo Kawaoka; Zurstrassen, Charles Edouard; Chung, Wu Tu; Chojniak, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    To determine the rates of diagnostic success and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of bone lesions suspected for malignancy. Retrospective study including 186 cases of CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of bone lesions in the period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. All the specimens were obtained with 8-10 gauge needles. The following data were collected: demographics, previous history of malignancy, data related to the lesion, to the procedure, and to histological results. Most patients were women (57%), and the mean age was 53.0 ± 16.4 years. In 139 cases (74.6%), there was diagnostic suspicion of metastasis and the most common primary tumors were breast (32.1%) and prostate (11.8%). The bones most commonly involved were spine (36.0%), hip (32.8%) and long bones (18.3%). Complications occurred in only three cases (1.6%) including bone fracture, paresthesia with functional impairment, and needle breakage requiring surgical removal. The specimens collected from 183 lesions (98.4%) were considered appropriate for diagnosis. Malignant results were more frequently found in patients who had a suspected secondary lesion and history of known malignancy (p guided procedures (p = 0.011). CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is a safe and effective procedure for the diagnosis of suspicious bone lesions.

  6. ESTABLISHING DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS FOR CARDIAC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhailiy, Ali B; Kench, Peter L; McEntee, Mark F; Brennan, Patrick C; Ryan, Elaine A

    2018-01-17

    Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a commonly used diagnostic imaging tool for cardiovascular disease. Despite constant improvements to imaging technologies, the radiation dose to patients remains a concern when using this procedure. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are used as a trigger to identify and alert individual facilities that are using high doses during CT. This study aims to assess patient radiation dose and establish new national DRLs (NDRL) associated with CCTA in Saudi clinical practices. A structured booklet survey was designed for recording patient and scanning protocols during CCTA procedures. The data were collected retrospectively from the participating centres. NDRLs for CCTA were defined as the 75th and 25th of volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). Specific DRLs based on two main ECG-gating modes were also proposed. Data sets related to 197 CCTAs with a mean weight of 77 kg were analysed in detail. The DRL values for CTDIvol and DLP for prospective gating mode and retrospective gating mode were 29 and 62 mGy and 393 and 1057 mGy cm, respectively. NDRLs for CCTA in Saudi Arabia are comparable or slightly lower than European DRLs due to the current use of dose-saving technology. There are major variations in patient doses during CCTA due to differences in CT scanners, scanning modes and departmental CCTA protocols. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography imaging and the importance of a clinical decision for lung cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Koike, Teruaki; Yamato, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging and the validity of surgical intervention based on the clinical decision to perform surgery for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 1755 patients who had undergone pulmonary resection for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. CT scans were performed on all patients. Surgical intervention to diagnose and treat was based on a medical staff conference evaluation for the suspected lung cancer patients who were pathologically undiagnosed. We evaluated the relation between resected specimens and preoperative CT imaging in detail. A total of 1289 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer by preoperative pathology examination; another 466 were not pathologically diagnosed preoperatively. Among the 1289 patients preoperatively diagnosed with lung cancer, the diagnoses were confirmed postoperatively in 1282. Among the 466 patients preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were definitively diagnosed with lung cancer, and there were 383 p-stage I disease patients. There were 38 noncancerous patients who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of confirmed or suspected lung cancer. Among the 1755 patients who underwent surgery, 1717 were pathologically confirmed with lung cancer, and the diagnostic yield of preoperative CT imaging was 97.8%. Among the 466 patients who were preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were compatible with the predicted findings of lung cancer. Diagnostic yields of preoperative CT imaging based on clinical evaluation are sufficiently reliable. Diagnostic surgical intervention was acceptable when the clinical probability of malignancy was high and the malignancy was pathologically undiagnosed. (author)

  8. ESTIMATION OF DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS FOR CT CORONAROGRAPHY IN SLOVAKIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdyová, Zuzana; Horváthová, Martina; Nikodemová, Denisa

    2018-02-16

    The coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a frequent diagnostic method connected with large variability of effective dose. Therefore, it is the type of examination where optimization is very important and the use of a national diagnostic reference level (DRL) recommended. In Slovakia the DRL for interventional radiology examinations until now fails. The objective of our study was to propose the national DRL for CCTA examinations in Slovak Republic, on the basis of a cross-sectional multicenter study, performed in four departments of radiology. The study was realized in 2014-16 in a sample of 1725 patients undergoing CCTA examination. The proposed DRL expressed by CTDIVOL is 45 mGy and of DLP is 510 mGy cm.

  9. CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour cutting needle biopsy. Retrospective evaluation of diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors for diagnostic failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Matsui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Gobara, Hideo; Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Okayama (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate retrospectively the diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors for diagnostic failure of computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy. Biopsies were performed for 208 tumours (mean diameter 2.3 cm; median diameter 2.1 cm; range 0.9-8.5 cm) in 199 patients. One hundred and ninety-nine tumours were ≤4 cm. All 208 initial procedures were divided into diagnostic success and failure groups. Multiple variables related to the patients, lesions, and procedures were assessed to determine the risk factors for diagnostic failure. After performing 208 initial and nine repeat biopsies, 180 malignancies and 15 benign tumours were pathologically diagnosed, whereas 13 were not diagnosed. In 117 procedures, 118 Grade I and one Grade IIIa adverse events (AEs) occurred. Neither Grade ≥IIIb AEs nor tumour seeding were observed within a median follow-up period of 13.7 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed only small tumour size (≤1.5 cm; odds ratio 3.750; 95% confidence interval 1.362-10.326; P = 0.011) to be a significant risk factor for diagnostic failure. CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy is a safe procedure with a high diagnostic yield. A small tumour size (≤1.5 cm) is a significant risk factor for diagnostic failure. (orig.)

  10. Diagnostic tools in maxillofacial fractures: Is there really a need of three-dimensional computed tomography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheerin Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because of its functional and cosmetic importance, facial injuries, especially bony fractures are clinically very significant. Missed and maltreated fractures might result in malocclusion and disfigurement of the face, thus making accurate diagnosis of the fracture very essential. In earlier times, conventional radiography along with clinical examination played a major role in diagnosis of maxillofacial fractures. However, it was noted that the overlapping nature of bones and the inability to visualise soft tissue swelling and fracture displacement, especially in face, makes radiography less reliable and useful. Computed tomography (CT, also called as X-ray computed radiography, has helped in solving this problem. This clinical study is to compare three-dimensional (3D CT reconstruction with conventional radiography in evaluating the maxillofacial fractures preoperatively and effecting the surgical management, accordingly. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients, with suspected maxillofacial fractures on clinical examination, were subjected to conventional radiography and CT face with 3D reconstruction. The number and site of fractures in zygoma, maxilla, mandible and nose, detected by both the methods, were enumerated and compared. The final bearing of these additional fractures, on the management protocol, was analysed. Results: CT proved superior to conventional radiography in diagnosing additional number of fractures in zygoma, maxilla, mandible (subcondylar and nasal bone. Coronal and axial images were found to be significantly more diagnostic in fracture sites such as zygomaticomaxillary complex, orbital floor, arch, lateral maxillary wall and anterior maxillary wall. Conclusion: 3D images gave an inside out picture of the actual sites of fractures. It acted as mind's eye for pre-operative planning and intra-operative execution of surgery. Better surgical treatment could be given to 33% of the cases because of better diagnostic

  11. Diagnostic tools in maxillofacial fractures: Is there really a need of three-dimensional computed tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheerin; Uppal, Sanjeev K.; Mittal, Rajinder K.; Garg, Ramneesh; Saggar, Kavita; Dhawan, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Because of its functional and cosmetic importance, facial injuries, especially bony fractures are clinically very significant. Missed and maltreated fractures might result in malocclusion and disfigurement of the face, thus making accurate diagnosis of the fracture very essential. In earlier times, conventional radiography along with clinical examination played a major role in diagnosis of maxillofacial fractures. However, it was noted that the overlapping nature of bones and the inability to visualise soft tissue swelling and fracture displacement, especially in face, makes radiography less reliable and useful. Computed tomography (CT), also called as X-ray computed radiography, has helped in solving this problem. This clinical study is to compare three-dimensional (3D) CT reconstruction with conventional radiography in evaluating the maxillofacial fractures preoperatively and effecting the surgical management, accordingly. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients, with suspected maxillofacial fractures on clinical examination, were subjected to conventional radiography and CT face with 3D reconstruction. The number and site of fractures in zygoma, maxilla, mandible and nose, detected by both the methods, were enumerated and compared. The final bearing of these additional fractures, on the management protocol, was analysed. Results: CT proved superior to conventional radiography in diagnosing additional number of fractures in zygoma, maxilla, mandible (subcondylar) and nasal bone. Coronal and axial images were found to be significantly more diagnostic in fracture sites such as zygomaticomaxillary complex, orbital floor, arch, lateral maxillary wall and anterior maxillary wall. Conclusion: 3D images gave an inside out picture of the actual sites of fractures. It acted as mind's eye for pre-operative planning and intra-operative execution of surgery. Better surgical treatment could be given to 33% of the cases because of better diagnostic ability of CT

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound, computed tomography, and endoscopic retrograde choleangiopancreatography in the detection of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasanen, P.A.; Partainen, K.; Pikkarainen, P.; Alhava, E.; Pirinen, A.; Janatuinen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the distinction between extrahepatic and intrahepatic causes of jaundice. The limit for the inclusion to the study was defined as a serum bilirubin concentration ≥40μmol/l. Altogether 187 jaundiced patients were studied. The sensitivities of US, CT and ERCP were 63%, 77%, and 87%, respectively. The differences between all these methods were statistically significant. The specificities and positive predictive values were high, reaching 96-99%, but the negative predictive values were low, ranging between 38% and 60%. Choledochal stone disease constituted the main etiology of false-negative studies in all investigations. Imaging procedures have a prominent role in the diagnostic study of the jaundiced patient, but it is obvious that their diagnostic accuracy may vary between institutions because of the variance in local experience and expertise and because of the differences in diseases causing jaundice. 37 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Diagnostic yield and accuracy of CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography for detection of macrovascular causes of intracerebral haemorrhage: Prospective, multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.J. Van Asch (Charlotte J.J.); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); G.J.E. Rinkel (Gabriël J.E.); A. Algra (Ale); G.A.P. de Kort (G. A P); T.D. Witkamp (Theo); J.C.M. De Ridder (Johanna C.M.); K.M. Van Nieuwenhuizen (Koen M.); F.-E. De Leeuw (Frank-Erik); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); T.W.M. Raaymakers (Theodora W.M.); J. Hofmeijer; M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); H. Kerkhoff (Henk); K. Jellema (Korné); I.M. Bronner (Irene M.); M.J.M. Remmers (Michel ); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); R.J.G.M. Witjes (Ron J.G.M.); J.P. Greving (Jacoba); C.J.M. Klijn (Catharina J.M.); H.F. de Leeuw (Frank); H.B. Boogaarts; E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); W.J. Schonewille; W.M.J. Pellikaan; C. Puppels-De Waard; P.L.M. De Kort; J.P. Peluso; J. van Tuijl (Jordie); J. Hofmeijer; F.B.M. Joosten (Frank); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); L. Khajeh (Ladbon); T.W.M. Raaijmakers; M.J. Wermer; M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); H. Kerkhoff; E. Zock; K. Jellema (Korné); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); I.M. Bronner; M.J.M. Remmers; R.J.G.M. Witjes; H.P. Bienfait; K.E. Droogh-Greve; R. Donders (Rogier); V.I.H. Kwa; T.H.C.M.L. Schreuder (Tobien H. C. M. L.); C.L. Franke (Cees); J.S. Straver; C. Jansen; S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); C.C. Pleiter (C.); M.C. Visser; C.J.J. Van Asch; B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); G.J.E. Rinkel (Gabriel); K.M. Van Nieuwenhuizen; C.J.M. Klijn (Catharina J.M.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStudy question What are the diagnostic yield and accuracy of early computed tomography (CT) angiography followed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage? Methods This

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in comparison with CT and/or MRI in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta [Nuclear Medicine Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Torzilli, Guido; Donadon, Matteo; Palmisano, Angela [Hepatobiliary Surgery, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Poretti, Dario; Lanza, Ezio; Pedicini, Vittorio [Radiology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Neto, Lauro J.S. de; Sabongi, Juliano Guerra [Medicina Nuclear, Centro Medico Imagem, Sorocaba (Brazil); Rimassa, Lorenza; Personeni, Nicola [Medical Oncology and Hematology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Ceriani, Roberto [Hepatology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Comito, Tiziana; Scorsetti, Marta [Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Nuclear Medicine Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Humanitas University, Chair of Diagnostic Imaging, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In recent decades, the use of radiopharmaceuticals in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become established, and new findings indicate that radiolabelled choline has considerable potential in this setting. Therefore, in this study we aimed to assess the diagnostic role of {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, compared with conventional imaging with CT/MRI, in patients with HCC. The study population comprised 45 patients (male to female ratio = 37:8, median age 70.5 years) referred to our institution owing to HCC: 27 at initial diagnosis and 18 for restaging after recurrence. In all cases we performed whole-body {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT and compared its findings with contrast-enhanced CT (n = 35) or MRI (n = 29) or both (n = 15) for a total of 50 paired scans. The reference standard was either histological proof (21 patients) or a multidisciplinary consensus. Diagnostic accuracy was then determined in a scan-based (SBA) and a lesion-based analysis (LBA). On SBA the sensitivity and specificity for PET were 88 and 90 %, respectively, whereas for CT/MRI they were 90 and 73 %, respectively (p > 0.05). On LBA the overall sensitivity and specificity were 78 and 86 %, respectively, for PET vs 65 and 55 % for CT/MRI. Overall we investigated 168 disease sites, of which 100 were in the liver and 68 were extrahepatic. When considering only liver lesions, {sup 11}C-choline PET and CT/MRI showed an accuracy of 66 and 85 %, respectively, while for extrahepatic lesions PET showed an accuracy of 99 %, while the accuracy of CT/MRI was 32 %. In both cases, there was a statistically significant difference in accuracy between the two modalities (p < 0.01). Combination of the PET results with those of CT/MRI resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy in both analyses, at 92 % for SBA and 96 % for LBA. In 11 patients (24 %) the PET findings modified the therapeutic strategy, the modification proving appropriate in 10 of them. {sup 11}C-Choline PET

  15. Opportunistic Osteoporosis Screening - Gleaning Additional Information from Diagnostic Wrist CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Joseph J; Gausden, Elizabeth B; Anderson, Paul A; Carlson, Michelle G; Weiland, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Although screening for and treating osteoporosis can prevent subsequent fractures, the rates of such interventions are low following a distal radial fracture. One potential method for identifying metabolic bone disease is via Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements from diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans. We hypothesized that HU values of the distal aspect of the radius could be used to assess local bone quality and would be predictive of distal radial fracture risk, thereby allowing the identification of patients in need of further management. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) were made for 100 patients on the basis of HU values of cancellous portions of the distal aspect of the radius, the ulnar head, and the capitate. The HU values in twenty-five male and twenty-five female patients with an acute distal radial fracture documented on CT were compared with those of age and sex-matched control patients who had a CT scan obtained for other indications. Among the control patients, HU values decreased as age increased. When assessed on the basis of sex, both male and female patients with a distal radial fracture had significantly lower regional BMD compared with nonfracture control patients. A distal radial HU value of 218 for females and 246 for males optimized sensitivity and specificity; values below this threshold were associated with an increased risk of distal radial fracture. HU measurements can be obtained from any diagnostic CT scan using modern software programs and can be obtained by physicians in the office setting with minimal effort and at no additional cost or radiation exposure to the patient. Regardless of imaging indications, we suggest that patients with HU values below the identified thresholds be considered for further metabolic bone disease work-up, such as additional imaging, laboratory assessments, the initiation of osteoporosis treatment, or appropriate referral. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery

  16. Predicting need for additional CT scan in children with a non-diagnostic ultrasound for appendicitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Takuya; Maeda, Shigenobu; Goldman, Ran D; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which children with suspected appendicitis should be considered for a computerized tomography (CT) scan after a non-diagnostic ultrasound (US) in the Emergency Department (ED). We retrospectively reviewed patients 0-18year old, who presented to the ED with complaints of abdominal pain, during 2011-2015 and while in the hospital had both US and CT. We recorded demographic and clinical data and outcomes, and used univariate and multivariate methods for comparing patients who did and didn't have appendicitis on CT after non-diagnostic US. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to determine what variables were independently associated with appendicitis. A total of 328 patients were enrolled, 257 with non-diagnostic US (CT: 82 had appendicitis, 175 no-appendicitis). Younger children and those who reported vomiting or had right lower abdominal quadrant (RLQ) tenderness, peritoneal signs or White Blood Cell (WBC) count >10,000 in mm 3 were more likely to have appendicitis on CT. RLQ tenderness (Odds Ratio: 2.84, 95%CI: 1.07-7.53), peritoneal signs (Odds Ratio: 11.37, 95%CI: 5.08-25.47) and WBC count >10,000 in mm 3 (Odds Ratio: 21.88, 95%CI: 7.95-60.21) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Considering CT with 2 or 3 of these predictors would have resulted in sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 67%, positive predictive value of 57% and negative predictive value of 96% for appendicitis. Ordering CT should be considered after non-diagnostic US for appendicitis only when children meet at least 2 predictors of RLQ tenderness, peritoneal signs and WBC>10,000 in mm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasound, radiography and computed tomography for gender determination in four species of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Francesco; Volta, Antonella; Pelizzone, Igor; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gender determination is frequently requested by reptile breeders, especially for species with poor or absent sexual dimorphism. The aims of the current study were to describe techniques and diagnostic sensitivities of ultrasound, radiography, and computed tomography for gender determination (identification of hemipenes) in four species of lizards. Nineteen lizards of known sex, belonging to four different species (Pogona vitticeps, Uromastyx aegyptia, Tiliqua scincoides, Gerrhosaurus major) were prospectively enrolled. With informed owner consent, ultrasound, noncontrast CT, contrast radiography, and contrast CT (with contrast medium administered into the cloaca) were performed in conscious animals. Imaging studies were reviewed by three different operators, each unaware of the gender of the animals and of the results of the other techniques. The lizard was classified as a male when hemipenes were identified. Nineteen lizards were included in the study, 10 females and nine males. The hemipenes were seen on ultrasound in only two male lizards, and appeared as oval hypoechoic structures. Radiographically, hemipenes filled with contrast medium appeared as spindle-shaped opacities. Noncontrast CT identified hemipenes in only two lizards, and these appeared as spindle-shaped kinked structures with hyperattenuating content consistent with smegma. Hemipenes were correctly identified in all nine males using contrast CT (accuracy of 100%). Accuracy of contrast radiography was excellent (94.7%). Accuracy of ultrasound and of noncontrast CT was poor (64.3% and 63.1%, respectively). Findings from the current study supported the use of contrast CT or contrast radiography for gender determination in lizards. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Cine-CT: A new technique in X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaschke, W.; Georgi, M.; Lipton, M.J.; Gould, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The 'Cine-CT' belongs to a new generation of CT devices permitting not only diagnostics on a morphological basis but also function studies. By means of Cine-CT's electron beam technique, image frequencies of up to 17 images per second and exposure times of 50 msec are possible. (orig.) [de

  19. A Case of Urethral Metastasis from Sigmoid Colon Cancer Diagnostically and Prognostically Indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Han Seok; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Soyon; Im, Su Jin; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Hur, So Chong

    2011-01-01

    Urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and is known to have a poor prognosis. A 72 year old man with a history of colectomy and colostomy due to sigmoid colon cancer was admitted to the emergency room with bowel distension, rectal bleeding and urinary symptoms. Computed tomography of the abdominopelvis showed sigmoid colon cancer with multiple metastases involving the liver. Positron emission tomography with F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed multiple hypermetabolic foci in the liver, penis and pubic bone, which otherwise could not be diagnosed. The lesions revealed no improvement with chemotherapy and urological surgery on follow up F 18 FDG PET/CT. We present a case of urethral metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer diagnostically and prognostically indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT.

  20. A Case of Urethral Metastasis from Sigmoid Colon Cancer Diagnostically and Prognostically Indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han Seok; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Soyon; Im, Su Jin; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Hur, So Chong [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and is known to have a poor prognosis. A 72 year old man with a history of colectomy and colostomy due to sigmoid colon cancer was admitted to the emergency room with bowel distension, rectal bleeding and urinary symptoms. Computed tomography of the abdominopelvis showed sigmoid colon cancer with multiple metastases involving the liver. Positron emission tomography with F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed multiple hypermetabolic foci in the liver, penis and pubic bone, which otherwise could not be diagnosed. The lesions revealed no improvement with chemotherapy and urological surgery on follow up F 18 FDG PET/CT. We present a case of urethral metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer diagnostically and prognostically indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT.

  1. Hybrid-fusion SPECT/CT systems in parathyroid adenoma: Technological improvements and added clinical diagnostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K K; Chondrogiannis, S; Bowles, H; Fuster, D; Sánchez, N; Rampin, L; Rubello, D

    Nuclear medicine traditionally employs planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques to depict the biodistribution of radiotracers for the diagnostic investigation of a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The usefulness of combining functional information with anatomy derived from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and high resolution ultrasound (US), has long been appreciated, either using visual side-by-side correlation, or software-based co-registration. The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows the simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of 3D volume datasets. Thus, it is not surprising that there is growing literature describing the many advantages that contemporary SPECT/CT technology brings to radionuclide investigation of endocrine disorders, showing potential advantages for the pre-operative locating of the parathyroid adenoma using a minimally invasive surgical approach, especially in the presence of ectopic glands and in multiglandular disease. In conclusion, hybrid SPECT/CT imaging has become an essential tool to ensure the most accurate diagnostic in the management of patients with hyperparathyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayesian tomography and integrated data analysis in fusion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Dong, Y. B.; Deng, Wei; Shi, Z. B.; Fu, B. Z.; Gao, J. M.; Wang, T. B.; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yi; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, a Bayesian tomography method using non-stationary Gaussian process for a prior has been introduced. The Bayesian formalism allows quantities which bear uncertainty to be expressed in the probabilistic form so that the uncertainty of a final solution can be fully resolved from the confidence interval of a posterior probability. Moreover, a consistency check of that solution can be performed by checking whether the misfits between predicted and measured data are reasonably within an assumed data error. In particular, the accuracy of reconstructions is significantly improved by using the non-stationary Gaussian process that can adapt to the varying smoothness of emission distribution. The implementation of this method to a soft X-ray diagnostics on HL-2A has been used to explore relevant physics in equilibrium and MHD instability modes. This project is carried out within a large size inference framework, aiming at an integrated analysis of heterogeneous diagnostics.

  3. Research on radiation exposure from CT part of hybrid camera and diagnostic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solný, Pavel; Zimák, Jaroslav

    2014-11-01

    Research on radiation exposure from CT part of hybrid camera in seven different Departments of Nuclear Medicine (DNM) was conducted. Processed data and effective dose (E) estimations led to the idea of phantom verification and comparison of absorbed doses and software estimation. Anonymous data from about 100 examinations from each DNM was gathered. Acquired data was processed and utilized by dose estimation programs (ExPACT, ImPACT, ImpactDose) with respect to the type of examination and examination procedures. Individual effective doses were calculated using enlisted programs. Preserving the same procedure in dose estimation process allows us to compare the resulting E. Some differences and disproportions during dose estimation led to the idea of estimated E verification. Consequently, two different sets of about 100 of TLD 100H detectors were calibrated for measurement inside the Aldersnon RANDO Anthropomorphic Phantom. Standard examination protocols were examined using a 2 Slice CT- part of hybrid SPECT/CT. Moreover, phantom exposure from body examining protocol for 32 Slice and 64 Slice diagnostic CT scanner was also verified. Absorbed dose (DT,R) measured using TLD detectors was compared with software estimation of equivalent dose HT values, computed by E estimation software. Though, only limited number of cavities for detectors enabled measurement within the regions of lung, liver, thyroid and spleen-pancreas region, some basic comparison is possible.

  4. Tailoring CT Dose to Patient Size: Implementation of the Updated 2017 ACR Size-specific Diagnostic Reference Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterkemper, Yan; Appel, Elisabeth; Thomas, Christoph; Bethge, Oliver T; Aissa, Joel; Kröpil, Patric; Antoch, Gerald; Boos, Johannes

    2018-03-23

    To use an automatic computed tomography (CT) dose monitoring system to analyze the institutional chest and abdominopelvic CT dose data as regards the updated 2017 American College of Radiology (ACR) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) based on water-equivalent diameter (Dw) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) to detect patient-size subgroups in which CT dose can be optimized. All chest CT examinations performed between July 2016 and April 2017 with and without contrast material, CT of the pulmonary arteries, and abdominopelvic CT with and without contrast material were included in this retrospective study. Dw and SSDE were automatically calculated for all scans using a previously validated in-house developed Matlab software and stored into our CT dose monitoring system. CT dose data were analyzed as regards the updated ACR DRLs (size groups: 21-25 cm, 25-29 cm, 29-33 cm, 33-37 cm, 37-41 cm). SSDE and volumetric computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) were used as CT dose parameter. Overall, 30,002 CT examinations were performed in the study period, 3860 of which were included in the analysis (mean age 62.1 ± 16.4 years, Dw 29.0 ± 3.3 cm; n = 577 chest CT without contrast material, n = 628 chest CT with contrast material, n = 346 CT of chest pulmonary, n = 563 abdominopelvic CT without contrast material, n = 1746 abdominopelvic CT with contrast material). Mean SSDE and CTDIvol relative to the updated DRLs were 43.3 ± 26.4 and 45.1 ± 27.9% for noncontrast chest CT, 52.3 ± 23.1 and 52.0 ± 23.1% for contrast-enhanced chest CT, 68.8 ± 29.5 and 70.0 ± 31.0% for CT of pulmonary arteries, 41.9 ± 29.2 and 43.3 ± 31.3% for noncontrast abdominopelvic CT, and 56.8 ± 22.2 and 58.8 ± 24.4% for contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT. Lowest dose compared to the DRLs was found for the Dw group of 21-25 cm in noncontrast abdominopelvic CT (SSDE 30.4 ± 21.8%, CTDIvol 30.8 ± 21

  5. ACR-SPR-STR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Rathan M; Janowitz, Warren R; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Lodge, Martin A; Parisi, Marguerite T; Ferguson, Mark R; Hellinger, Jeffrey C; Gladish, Gregory W; Gupta, Narainder K

    2017-12-01

    This clinical practice parameter has been developed collaboratively by the American College of Radiology (ACR), the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR), and the Society of Thoracic Radiology (STR). This document is intended to act as a guide for physicians performing and interpreting positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) of cardiac diseases in adults and children. The primary value of cardiac PET/CT imaging include evaluation of perfusion, function, viability, inflammation, anatomy, and risk stratification for cardiac-related events such as myocardial infarction and death. Optimum utility of cardiac PET/CT is achieved when images are interpreted in conjunction with clinical information and laboratory data. Measurement of myocardial blood flow, coronary flow reserve and detection of balanced ischemia are significant advantages of cardiac PET perfusion studies. Increasingly cardiac PET/CT is used in diagnosis and treatment response assessment for cardiac sarcoidosis.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of high-definition CT coronary angiography in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, S S; Morgan-Hughes, G; Ukoumunne, O; Clayton, B; Davies, E J; Nikolaou, V; Hyde, C J; Shore, A C; Roobottom, C A

    2016-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) using a combination of high-definition CT (HD-CTCA) and high level of reader experience, with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference standard, in high-risk patients for the investigation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Three hundred high-risk patients underwent HD-CTCA and ICA. Independent experts evaluated the images for the presence of significant CAD, defined primarily as the presence of moderate (≥ 50%) stenosis and secondarily as the presence of severe (≥ 70%) stenosis in at least one coronary segment, in a blinded fashion. HD-CTCA was compared to ICA as the reference standard. No patients were excluded. Two hundred and six patients (69%) had moderate and 178 (59%) had severe stenosis in at least one vessel at ICA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 97.1%, 97.9%, 99% and 93.9% for moderate stenosis, and 98.9%, 93.4%, 95.7% and 98.3%, for severe stenosis, on a per-patient basis. The combination of HD-CTCA and experienced readers applied to a high-risk population, results in high diagnostic accuracy comparable to ICA. Modern generation CT systems in experienced hands might be considered for an expanded role. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Value of CT Imaging in Diagnosing Otosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Inge; van Waes, Anne M A; Bittermann, Arnold J; Buitinck, Sophie H; Dekker, Caroline F; Kurk, Sophie A; Rados, Matea; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) in detecting otosclerosis in patients with conductive hearing loss and a clinical suspicion of otosclerosis. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. A systematic search was conducted. Studies reporting original study data were included. Relevance and risk of bias of the selected articles were assessed. Studies with low relevance, high risk of bias, or both were excluded. Prevalences, sensitivities, specificities, and post-test probabilities were extracted from the included articles. Seven studies characterized by a moderate to high relevance and moderate to low risk of bias were included for data extraction. The prevalence of otosclerosis was high (up to 100%) in the majority of the included studies. In those studies with a high prevalence of disease, both positive and negative post-test probabilities were (relatively) high: 99% and between 51% and 67% respectively. In one study with a low prevalence of disease (9%), both positive and negative post-test probabilities were low (23% and 3% respectively). Overall, reported sensitivities ranged between 60% and 95%. Preoperative CT has little to add in establishing otosclerosis and may not be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. We would recommend reserving CT for those patients with suspected additional abnormalities, for specific preoperative planning, or out of legal necessity.

  8. Indication-based diagnostic reference levels for adult CT-examinations in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, A

    2015-07-01

    A diagnostic reference level (DRL) is a predefined dose level, which should not be exceeded in an examination that is conducted appropriately on an average-sized patient. Since dose from only one examination should not be compared with a DRL, the average dose from a good sample of at least 10 average-sized patients should be compared. The previous DRLs for computed tomography (CT)-examinations for adults in Finland were issued in 2007 and only covered examinations conducted on a particular body region. Because the image quality requirements, and thus the dose needed, vary between different indications, there has been a call for indication-based DRLs for CT. The new indication-based DRLs for CT came into effect on June 2013. They are based on a dose survey performed in 2012. Doses were collected from examinations conducted on a particular body region, based on some indication and from some special examination types. The DRLs were set according to the third quartile approach. On average, the DRLs for a particular body region dropped ∼ 20 % from the previous DRLs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scans in detecting trauma: are CT scans reliable enough for courtroom testimony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; Nichols, Joanna J; Dimaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Rapid and accurate recognition of traumatic injuries is extremely important in emergency room and surgical settings. Emergency departments depend on computed tomography (CT) scans to provide rapid, accurate injury assessment. We conducted an analysis of all traumatic deaths autopsied at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office in which perimortem medical imaging (CT scan) was performed to assess the reliability of the CT scan in detecting trauma with sufficient accuracy for courtroom testimony. Cases were included in the study if an autopsy was conducted, a CT scan was performed within 24 hours before death, and there was no surgical intervention. Analysis was performed to assess the correlation between the autopsy and CT scan results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were defined for the CT scan based on the autopsy results. The sensitivity of the CT scan ranged from 0% for cerebral lacerations, cervical vertebral body fractures, cardiac injury, and hollow viscus injury to 75% for liver injury. This study reveals that CT scans are an inadequate detection tool for forensic pathologists, where a definitive diagnosis is required, because they have a low level of accuracy in detecting traumatic injuries. CT scans may be adequate for clinicians in the emergency room setting, but are inadequate for courtroom testimony. If the evidence of trauma is based solely on CT scan reports, there is a high possibility of erroneous accusations, indictments, and convictions.

  10. Evaluation method of reference levels of radiation diagnostic in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Walter; Borges, Jose C.; Mota, Helvecio C.

    2000-01-01

    The computerized tomography (CT) is a complex technique, with many parameters to be selected and protocols of quality control not standardized, connected with high doses in the patients. In this work a simple methodology is developed, to evaluate levels of reference of diagnosis in computerized tomography using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. This methodology, can be used in the routine of inspection of evaluation of radiological safety in medical radiation diagnostics, executed by the Department of Medical Physics of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry and by the sanitary authorities in Brazil. In order to evaluate this dosimeter magnitude the distribution of dose it was studied the dose distribution obtained trough a profile of dose measured in the axial axis of a simulator(phantom) of water with thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD-100, for three techniques of examination by CT. The magnitude MSAD was evaluated by means of two different methods. In first, it was evaluated for an only cut, and in the second for multiple cuts. This last method presents/displays to be more practical and adapted to be applied in the routine of evaluation of reference levels, with TLDs

  11. Inter-laboratory comparison of medical computed tomography (CT) scanners for industrial applications in the slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Bager; Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch

    2013-01-01

    Using computed tomography (CT) in the calibration of online grading equipment has been demonstrated to be beneficial over the last years by several institutions using medical CT scanners. The difference in makes and models calls for a standardized (and calibrated) method to be able to quantify di...

  12. Micro computed tomography (CT) scanned anatomical gateway to insect pest bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international collaboration to establish an interactive Digital Video Library for a Systems Biology Approach to study the Asian citrus Psyllid and psyllid genomics/proteomics interactions is demonstrated. Advances in micro-CT, digital computed tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays to make detailed pic...

  13. Rectal cancer staging: Multidetector-row computed tomography diagnostic accuracy in assessment of mesorectal fascia invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Davide; Drago, Silvia Girolama; Franzesi, Cammillo Talei; Fior, Davide; Sironi, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in identifying mesorectal fascia (MRF) invasion in rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with biopsy proven rectal adenocarcinoma referred for thoracic and abdominal CT staging were enrolled in this study. The contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were performed on a 256 row scanner (ICT, Philips) with the following acquisition parameters: tube voltage 120 KV, tube current 150-300 mAs. Imaging data were reviewed as axial and as multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) images along the rectal tumor axis. MRI study, performed on 1.5 T with dedicated phased array multicoil, included multiplanar T2 and axial T1 sequences and diffusion weighted images (DWI). Axial and MPR CT images independently were compared to MRI and MRF involvement was determined. Diagnostic accuracy of both modalities was compared and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: According to MRI, the MRF was involved in 51 patients and not involved in 40 patients. DWI allowed to recognize the tumor as a focal mass with high signal intensity on high b-value images, compared with the signal of the normal adjacent rectal wall or with the lower tissue signal intensity background. The number of patients correctly staged by the native axial CT images was 71 out of 91 (41 with involved MRF; 30 with not involved MRF), while by using the MPR 80 patients were correctly staged (45 with involved MRF; 35 with not involved MRF). Local tumor staging suggested by MDCT agreed with those of MRI, obtaining for CT axial images sensitivity and specificity of 80.4% and 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 80.4%, negative predictive value (NPV) 75% and accuracy 78%; while performing MPR the sensitivity and specificity increased to 88% and 87.5%, PPV was 90%, NPV 85.36% and accuracy 88%. MPR images showed higher diagnostic accuracy, in terms of MRF involvement, than native axial images

  14. Rectal cancer staging: Multidetector-row computed tomography diagnostic accuracy in assessment of mesorectal fascia invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Davide; Drago, Silvia Girolama; Franzesi, Cammillo Talei; Fior, Davide; Sironi, Sandro

    2016-05-28

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in identifying mesorectal fascia (MRF) invasion in rectal cancer patients. Ninety-one patients with biopsy proven rectal adenocarcinoma referred for thoracic and abdominal CT staging were enrolled in this study. The contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were performed on a 256 row scanner (ICT, Philips) with the following acquisition parameters: tube voltage 120 KV, tube current 150-300 mAs. Imaging data were reviewed as axial and as multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) images along the rectal tumor axis. MRI study, performed on 1.5 T with dedicated phased array multicoil, included multiplanar T2 and axial T1 sequences and diffusion weighted images (DWI). Axial and MPR CT images independently were compared to MRI and MRF involvement was determined. Diagnostic accuracy of both modalities was compared and statistically analyzed. According to MRI, the MRF was involved in 51 patients and not involved in 40 patients. DWI allowed to recognize the tumor as a focal mass with high signal intensity on high b-value images, compared with the signal of the normal adjacent rectal wall or with the lower tissue signal intensity background. The number of patients correctly staged by the native axial CT images was 71 out of 91 (41 with involved MRF; 30 with not involved MRF), while by using the MPR 80 patients were correctly staged (45 with involved MRF; 35 with not involved MRF). Local tumor staging suggested by MDCT agreed with those of MRI, obtaining for CT axial images sensitivity and specificity of 80.4% and 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 80.4%, negative predictive value (NPV) 75% and accuracy 78%; while performing MPR the sensitivity and specificity increased to 88% and 87.5%, PPV was 90%, NPV 85.36% and accuracy 88%. MPR images showed higher diagnostic accuracy, in terms of MRF involvement, than native axial images, as compared to the

  15. Establishment of institutional diagnostic reference level for computed tomography with automated dose-tracking software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chong R; Chen, Priscilla X H; Kapur, Jeevesh; Ong, Michael K L; Quek, Swee T; Kapur, Subhash C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish institutional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by summarising doses collected across the five computed tomography (CT) system in our institution. CT dose data of 15940 patients were collected retrospectively from May 2015 to October 2015 in five institutional scanners. The mean, 75th percentile and 90th percentile of the dose spread were calculated according to anatomic region. The common CT examinations such as head, chest, combined abdomen/pelvis (A/P), and combined chest/abdomen/pelvis (C/A/P) were reviewed. Distribution of CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP) and effective dose (ED) were extracted from the data for single-phasic and multiphasic examinations. The institutional DRL for our CT units were established as mean (50th percentile) of CTDIvol (mGy), DLP (mGy.cm) and ED (mSv) for single and multiphasic studies using the dose-tracking software. In single phasic examination, Head: (49.0 mGy), (978.0 mGy.cm), (2.4 mSv) respectively; Chest: (6.0 mGy), (254.0 mGy.cm), (4.9 mSv) respectively; CT A/P (10.0 mGy), (514.0 mGy.cm), (8.9 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P (10.0 mGy), (674.0 mGy.cm), (11.8 mSv) respectively. In multiphasic studies: Head (45.0 mGy), (1822.0 mGy.cm), (5.0 mSv) respectively; Chest (8.0 mGy), (577.0 mGy.cm), (10.0 mSv) respectively; CT A/P: (10.0 mGy), (1153.0 mGy.cm), (20.2 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P: (11.0 mGy), (1090.0 mGy.cm), (19.2 mSv) respectively. The reported metrics offer a variety of information that institutions can use for quality improvement activities. The variations in dose between scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of radiation dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  16. Derivation of Australian diagnostic reference levels for paediatric multi detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Anna; Wallace, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Australian National Diagnostic Reference Levels for paediatric multi detector computed tomography were established for three protocols, Head, Chest and AbdoPelvis, across two age groups, Baby/Infant 0-4 years and Child 5-14 years by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in 2012. The establishment of Australian paediatric DRLs is an important step towards lowering patient CT doses on a national scale. While Adult DRLs were calculated with data collected from the web based Australian National Diagnostic Reference Level Service, no paediatric data was submitted in the first year of service operation. Data from an independent Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Quality Use of Diagnostic Imaging paediatric optimisation survey was used. The paediatric DRLs were defined for CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy·cm) values that referenced the 16 cm PMMA phantom for the Head protocol and the 32 cm PMMA phantom for body protocols for both paediatric age groups. The Australian paediatric DRLs for multi detector computed tomography are for the Head, Chest and AbdoPelvis protocols respectively, 470, 60 and 170 mGy·cm for the Baby/Infant age group, and 600, 110 and 390 mGy·cm for the Child age group. A comparison with published international paediatric DRLs for computed tomography reveal the Australian paediatric DRLs to be lower on average. However, the comparison is complicated by misalignment of defined age ranges. It is the intention of ARPANSA to review the paediatric DRLs in conjunction with a review of the adult DRLs, which should occur within 5 years of their publication.

  17. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET or PET/CT in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, H.; Yuan, L.; Li, C.; Kan, Y.; Yang, J.; Hao, R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of published data regarding the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty. A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published through May 31, 2012 regarding PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection on a per prosthesis-based analysis were calculated. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious of prosthetic infection. Fourteen studies comprising 838 prosthesis with suspicious of prosthetic infection after arthroplasty were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-90%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The pooled specificity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% CI 83-89%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 on a per prosthesis-based analysis. In patients suspicious of prosthetic infection, FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET or PET/CT are accurate methods in this setting. Nevertheless, possible sources of false positive results and influcing factors should kept in mind.

  18. The Modern Art of Reading Computed Tomography Images of the Lungs: Quantitative CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herth, Felix J F; Kirby, Miranda; Sieren, Jered; Herth, Jonas; Schirm, Joshua; Wood, Susan; Schuhmann, Maren

    2018-01-01

    Lung diseases are increasing in prevalence and overall burden worldwide. To stem the tide, more and more national and international guidelines are recommending the use of various diagnostic algorithms that are disease specific. There is growing consensus among the respiratory community that although patient histories and lung function testing are the minimum required for clinical examinations, these tests alone are not sufficient for disease characterization. Therefore, the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasing used in clinical decision making for lung diseases. Lung diseases affect various components of lung, including the small airways, lung parenchyma, the interstitial space and the pulmonary vasculature. Quantitative CT (QCT) methods are emerging and are increasingly available using commercial software to quantify the underlying disease components, and a growing body of evidence suggests that QCT is an important tool in the clinical setting to help accurately and reproducibly detect where the disease is located in the lung, and to quantify the extent and overall severity for several lung diseases. Furthermore, this growing body of evidence has promoted the use of thoracic QCT to the point that it is now considered by many as an indispensable technology for longitudinal analysis and intervention trials. Many QCT imaging measurements are available to the respiratory physician, and the aim of this review is to introduce and describe pulmonary QCT imaging measurements and methodologies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Dedicated breast CT: Fibroglandular volume measurements in a diagnostic population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi Linxi; Karellas, Andrew; O' Connell, Avice M. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the mean and range of volumetric glandular fraction (VGF) of the breast in a diagnostic population using a high-resolution flat-panel cone-beam dedicated breast CT system. This information is important for Monte Carlo-based estimation of normalized glandular dose coefficients and for investigating the dependence of VGF on breast dimensions, race, and pathology. Methods: Image data from a clinical trial investigating the role of dedicated breast CT that enrolled 150 women were retrospectively analyzed to determine the VGF. The study was conducted in adherence to a protocol approved by the institutional human subjects review boards and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. All participants in the study were assigned BI-RADS{sup Registered-Sign} 4 or 5 as per the American College of Radiology assessment categories after standard diagnostic work-up and underwent dedicated breast CT exam prior to biopsy. A Gaussian-kernel based fuzzy c-means algorithm was used to partition the breast CT images into adipose and fibroglandular tissue after segmenting the skin. Upon determination of the accuracy of the algorithm with a phantom, it was applied to 137 breast CT volumes from 136 women. VGF was determined for each breast and the mean and range were determined. Pathology results with classification as benign, malignant, and hyperplasia were available for 132 women, and were used to investigate if the distributions of VGF varied with pathology. Results: The algorithm was accurate to within {+-}1.9% in determining the volume of an irregular shaped phantom. The study mean ({+-} inter-breast SD) for the VGF was 0.172 {+-} 0.142 (range: 0.012-0.719). VGF was found to be negatively correlated with age, breast dimensions (chest-wall to nipple length, pectoralis to nipple length, and effective diameter at chest-wall), and total breast volume, and positively correlated with fibroglandular volume. Based on pathology, pairwise statistical

  20. Development of a Radiation Dose Reporting Software for X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aiping

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has experienced tremendous technological advances in recent years and has established itself as one of the most popular diagnostic imaging tools. While CT imaging clearly plays an invaluable role in modern medicine, its rapid adoption has resulted in a dramatic increase in the average medical radiation exposure to the worldwide and United States populations. Existing software tools for CT dose estimation and reporting are mostly based on patient phantoms that contain overly simplified anatomies insufficient in meeting the current and future needs. This dissertation describes the development of an easy-to-use software platform, “VirtualDose”, as a service to estimate and report the organ dose and effective dose values for patients undergoing the CT examinations. “VirtualDose” incorporates advanced models for the adult male and female, pregnant women, and children. To cover a large portion of the ignored obese patients that frequents the radiology clinics, a new set of obese male and female phantoms are also developed and applied to study the effects of the fat tissues on the CT radiation dose. Multi-detector CT scanners (MDCT) and clinical protocols, as well as the most recent effective dose algorithms from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 are adopted in “VirtualDose” to keep pace with the MDCT development and regulatory requirements. A new MDCT scanner model with both body and head bowtie filter is developed to cover both the head and body scanning modes. This model was validated through the clinical measurements. A comprehensive slice-by-slice database is established by deriving the data from a larger number of single axial scans simulated on the patient phantoms using different CT bowtie filters, beam thicknesses, and different tube voltages in the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNPX) code. When compared to the existing CT dose software packages, organ dose data in this