WorldWideScience

Sample records for tomato plant culture

  1. Effect of a Bacterial Grass Culture on the Plant Growth and Disease Control in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Seong Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the plant growth-promoting and biocontrol potential of a grass culture with Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN8 on tomato. For this experiment, treatments of a chemical fertilizer (F, a bacterial grass culture (G, a 1/3 volume of G plus 2/3 F (GF, and F plus a synthetic fungicide (FSf were applied to tomato leaves and roots. The result showed that the severity of Alternariasolani and Botrytiscinerea symptoms were significantly reduced after the application of the bacterial grass culture (G and GF and FSf. In addition, root mortality in G and GF was lower compared to F. Tomato plants treated with G or GF had better vegetative growth and yield compared to F. Application of G affected the fungal and bacterial populations in the soil. In conclusion, treatment with a bacterial grass culture decreased disease severity and increased tomato growth parameters. However, there were no statistically significant correlations between disease occurrence and tomato yields. This experiment presents the possibility to manage diseases of tomato in an environmentally friendly manner and to also increase the yield of tomato by using a grass culture broth containing P. ehimensis KWN38.

  2. Bacterial siderophores efficiently provide iron to iron-starved tomato plants in hydroponics culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzki, W; Gutierrez Mañero, F J; Algar, E; Lucas García, J A; García-Villaraco, A; Ramos Solano, B

    2013-09-01

    Iron is one of the essential elements for a proper plant development. Providing plants with an accessible form of iron is crucial when it is scant or unavailable in soils. Chemical chelates are the only current alternative and are highly stable in soils, therefore, posing a threat to drinking water. The aim of this investigation was to quantify siderophores produced by two bacterial strains and to determine if these bacterial siderophores would palliate chlorotic symptoms of iron-starved tomato plants. For this purpose, siderophore production in MM9 medium by two selected bacterial strains was quantified, and the best was used for biological assay. Bacterial culture media free of bacteria (S) and with bacterial cells (BS), both supplemented with Fe were delivered to 12-week-old plants grown under iron starvation in hydroponic conditions; controls with full Hoagland solution, iron-free Hoagland solution and water were also conducted. Treatments were applied twice along the experiment, with a week in between. At harvest, plant yield, chlorophyll content and nutritional status in leaves were measured. Both the bacterial siderophore treatments significantly increased plant yield, chlorophyll and iron content over the positive controls with full Hoagland solution, indicating that siderophores are effective in providing Fe to the plant, either with or without the presence of bacteria. In summary, siderophores from strain Chryseobacterium C138 are effective in supplying Fe to iron-starved tomato plants by the roots, either with or without the presence of bacteria. Based on the amount of siderophores produced, an effective and economically feasible organic Fe chelator could be developed.

  3. Embryogenesis induction, callogenesis, and plant regeneration by in vitro culture of tomato isolated microspores and whole anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí-Simarro, José M; Nuez, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    In this work, some of the different in vitro developmental pathways into which tomato microspores or microsporocytes can be deviated experimentally were explored. The two principal ones are direct embryogenesis from isolated microspores and callus formation from meiocyte-containing anthers. By means of light and electron microscopy, the process of early embryogenesis from isolated microspores and the disruption of normal meiotic development and change of developmental fate towards callus proliferation, morphogenesis, and plant regeneration have been shown. From microspores isolated at the vacuolate stage, embryos can be directly induced, thus avoiding non-androgenic products. In contrast, several different morphogenic events can be triggered in cultures of microsporocyte-containing anthers under adequate conditions, including indirect embryogenesis, adventitious organogenesis, and plant regeneration. Both callus and regenerated plants may be haploid, diploid, and mostly mixoploid. The results demonstrate that both gametophytic and sporophytic calli occur in cultured tomato anthers, and point to an in vitro-induced disturbance of cytokinesis and subsequent fusion of daughter nuclei as a putative cause for mixoploidy and genome doubling during both tetrad compartmentalization and callus proliferation. The potential implications of the different alternative pathways are discussed in the context of their application to the production of doubled-haploid plants in tomato, which is still very poorly developed.

  4. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  5. Bacterial siderophores efficiently provide iron to iron-starved tomato plants in hydroponics culture

    OpenAIRE

    Radzki, W.; Gutierrez Ma?ero, F. J.; Algar, E.; Lucas Garc?a, J. A.; Garc?a-Villaraco, A.; Ramos Solano, B.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is one of the essential elements for a proper plant development. Providing plants with an accessible form of iron is crucial when it is scant or unavailable in soils. Chemical chelates are the only current alternative and are highly stable in soils, therefore, posing a threat to drinking water. The aim of this investigation was to quantify siderophores produced by two bacterial strains and to determine if these bacterial siderophores would palliate chlorotic symptoms of iron-starved toma...

  6. Tomato plant inheritance of antixenotic resistance to tomato leafminer

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    Adilson de Castro Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of resistance by antixenosis in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum to tomato leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae]. Evaluations were performed for tomato plants of the generations P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 and RC2. The measured characteristic in the parents, BGH-1497 (P2 male and 'Santa Clara' (P1 female, and in the F1, F2, RC1 and RC2 generations was the number of eggs per plant. This number was converted to the oviposition nonpreference index. The inheritance of antixenosis resistance of genotype BGH-1497 is ruled by a gene of greater effect and polygenes in epistatic interactions, with a phenotypic proportion of 13:3 between susceptible and resistant genotypes, respectively.

  7. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  8. Characterization of culturable bacteria isolated from hot springs for plant growth promoting traits and effect on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal Samir; Naik, Jinal Hardik; Chaudhari, Sejal; Amaresan, Natarajan

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate the functional diversity of hot spring bacteria, 123 bacteria were isolated and screened for evaluating their multifunctional plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. The antagonistic activity against different phytopathogens showed the presence of a high amount of biocontrol bacteria in the hot springs. During screening for PGP properties, 61.0% isolates showed production of indole acetic acid and 23.6% showed inorganic phosphate solubilization qualitatively. For production of extracellular enzymes, it was found that 61.0% isolates produced lipase, 56.9% produced protease, and 43.9% produced cellulase. In extreme properties, half of the isolates showed tolerance to 5% NaCl (w/v) and 48.8% isolates survived heat shock at 70°C. The identification of 12 multipotential bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the bacteria belonged to Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus and Bacillus spp. Bacterization of tomato seeds showed that the hot spring bacteria promoted shoot height, fresh shoot weight, root length, and fresh root weight of tomato seedlings, with values ranging from 3.12% to 74.37%, 33.33% to 350.0%, 16.06% to 130.41%, and 36.36% to 318.18%, respectively, over the control. This research shows that multifunctional bacteria could be isolated from the hot springs. The outcome of this research may have a potential effect on crop production methodologies used in saline and arid environments. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of some detergents, humate, and composition of seedbed on crop of tomato plants in a hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guminka, A. Z.; Gracz-Nalepka, M.; Lukasiewicz, B.; Sobolewicz, E.; Turkiewicz, I. T.

    1978-01-01

    It is established that single detergent doses distinctly stimulate vegetative development of plants in the initial stage when humates are available. When detergents are applied every four weeks in a hydroponic culture, in which the seedbed does not contain active humates, the crop is reduced by 50%. This adverse effect does not occur when the seedbed is a mixture of brown coal and peat.

  10. Integrating cultural control methods for tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, J.; Frinking, H.D.; Jeger, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cultural control measures against tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) were evaluated in six field experiments over 3 years in Uganda. Each experiment included sanitation (removal of diseased plant tissues), fungicide (mancozeb) application, and an untreated control, as standard treatments.

  11. Novel components of leaf bacterial communities of field-grown tomato plants and their potential for plant growth promotion and biocontrol of tomato diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fernando M; Marina, María; Pieckenstain, Fernando L

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize potentially endophytic culturable bacteria from leaves of cultivated tomato and analyze their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae. Bacteria were obtained from inner tissues of surface-disinfected tomato leaves of field-grown plants. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified bacterial isolates related to Exiguobacterium aurantiacum (isolates BT3 and MT8), Exiguobacterium spp. (isolate GT4), Staphylococcus xylosus (isolate BT5), Pantoea eucalypti (isolate NT6), Bacillus methylotrophicus (isolate MT3), Pseudomonas veronii (isolates BT4 and NT2), Pseudomonas rhodesiae (isolate BT2) and Pseudomonas cichorii (isolate NT3). After seed inoculation, BT2, BT4, MT3, MT8, NT2 and NT6 were re-isolated from leaf extracts. NT2, BT2, MT3 and NT6 inhibited growth of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in vitro, produced antimicrobial compounds and reduced leaf damage caused by B. cinerea. Some of these isolates also promoted growth of tomato plants, produced siderophores, the auxin indole-3-acetic and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Thus, bacterial communities of leaves from field-grown tomato plants were found to harbor potentially endophytic culturable beneficial bacteria capable of antagonizing pathogenic microorganisms and promoting plant growth, which could be used as biological control agents and biofertilizers/biostimulators for promotion of tomato plant growth. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of aluminum treatment on proteomes of radicles of seeds derived from Al-treated tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive A1 3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 uM AlK(SO4)2. Seeds harv...

  13. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  14. Protection of Tomato Seedlings against Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato by Using the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato, and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense were inoculated onto tomato plants, either alone, as a mixed culture, or consecutively. The population dynamics in the rhizosphere and foliage, the development of bacterial speck disease, and their effects on plant growth were monitored. When inoculated onto separate plants, the A. brasilense population in the rhizosphere of tomato plants was 2 orders of magnitude greater than the population of P. syringae pv. tomato (107 versus 105 CFU/g [dry weight] of root). Under mist chamber conditions, the leaf population of P. syringae pv. tomato was 1 order of magnitude greater than that of A. brasilense (107 versus 106 CFU/g [dry weight] of leaf). Inoculation of seeds with a mixed culture of the two bacterial strains resulted in a reduction of the pathogen population in the rhizosphere, an increase in the A. brasilense population, the prevention of bacterial speck disease development, and improved plant growth. Inoculation of leaves with the mixed bacterial culture under mist conditions significantly reduced the P. syringae pv. tomato population and significantly decreased disease severity. Challenge with P. syringae pv. tomato after A. brasilense was established in the leaves further reduced both the population of P. syringae pv. tomato and disease severity and significantly enhanced plant development. Both bacteria maintained a large population in the rhizosphere for 45 days when each was inoculated separately onto tomato seeds (105 to 106 CFU/g [dry weight] of root). However, P. syringae pv. tomato did not survive in the rhizosphere in the presence of A. brasilense. Foliar inoculation of A. brasilense after P. syringae pv. tomato was established on the leaves did not alleviate bacterial speck disease, and A. brasilense did not survive well in the phyllosphere under these conditions, even in a mist chamber. Several applications

  15. Obtaining of Grafted Planting Material at Some Romanian Tomatoes

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    Madalina Doltu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomatoes have highest share in Romanian crops from protected spaces (greenhouses, solariums. The grafting is an agronomical technique that induces or improves some qualities of the tomato cultivars (resistance to soil diseases and pests, resistance to abiotic factors, quantity and quality of fruit production. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for producing of scion and rootstock seedlings from L. esculentum species, to obtain compatible phenotype when is grafted. The observations of this research were conducted on Department of Horticultural Cultures in Protected Spaces from Horting Institute Bucharest. The experience was carry out on a cultivar collection consisting from L. esculentum plants: scions (‘Siriana’–F1 hybrid and ‘Buzău 1600’– variety, creations from the germplasm bank of Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău Romania (VDRS Buzău and rootstock (‘Groundforce’–F1 hybrid. The plant diameters were correlated for a grafting by the annexation method, cutting at 45 degrees. The grafting was performed successfully. The technological steps have achieved phenotypic compatibility of the symbiotes when was the grafting by annexation. The technology for producing of scion and rootstock seedlings at these Romanian tomatoes (‘Siriana’ and ‘Buzău’ 1600 was established for the crops in protected spaces in south area of Romania.

  16. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  17. DS read-out transcription in transgenic tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudenko, George N.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    To select for Ds transposition in transgenic tomato plants a phenotypic excision assay, based on restoration of hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT II) gene expression, was employed. Some tomato plants, however, expressed the marker gene even though the Ds had not excised. Read-out transcriptional

  18. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Xu, Lihong; Tan, Chengxiang; Goodman, Erik D.; Fu, Daichang; Xin, Longjiao

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment) for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms. PMID:25675284

  19. Phosphorus deficiency enhances molybdenum uptake by tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuwinkel, H.; Kirkby, E.A.; Le Bot, J.; Marschner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Water culture experiments are described which provide conclusive evidence that Mo uptake by tomato plants is markedly enhanced by P deficiency. In a longterm experiment, which ran for 11 days, in marked contrast to the uptake of other nutrients, a three fold higher Mo uptake rate was observed after only four days of withdrawal of P from the nutrient medium. In contrast to the gradual increase in pH of the nutrient medium of the plants supplied with P, the pH in the medium of the -P plants fell. Throughout the growth of these plants net H+ efflux could be accounted for by excess cation over anion uptake, indicating that organic acid extrusion plays no major role in the observed fall in pH. Further evidence that Mo uptake is enhanced in P deficient tomato plants is provided in short-term nutrient solution experiments (1h and 4h) using radioactive molybdenum (99Mo). Compared with P sufficient plants, the uptake rates of 99Mo by P deficient plants were three to five times higher after 1h and nine to twelve times higher after 4h. Resupplying P during the uptake periods to deficient plants reduced the uptake rate of 99Mo to values similar to those of P sufficient plants. It is concluded that the uptake of molybdate occurs via phosphate binding/ transporting sites at the plasma membrane of root cells. Further support for this conclusion comes from exchange experiments with non-labelled molybdenum, which show a much larger amount of 99Mo exchangeable from the roots of P deficient plants

  20. Tomato marchitez virus, a new plant picorna-like virus from tomato related to tomato torrado virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. This plant showed symptoms locally known as `marchitez disease¿: severe leaf necrosis, beginning at the base of the leaflets, and necrotic rings on the fruits. A virus was isolated from the infected plant consisting of

  1. Key factors to inoculate Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants

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    Álefe Vitorino Borges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies addressing the biological control of Botrytis cinerea have been unsuccessful because of fails in inoculating tomato plants with the pathogen. With the aim of establishing a methodology for inoculation into stems, experiments were designed to assess: i. the aggressiveness of pathogen isolates; ii. the age at which tomato plants should be inoculated; iii. the susceptibility of tissues at different stem heights; iv. the need for a moist chamber after inoculation; and v. the effectiveness of gelatin regarding inoculum adhesion. Infection with an isolate from tomato plants that was previously inoculated into petioles and then re-isolated was successful. An isolate from strawberry plants was also aggressive, although less than that from tomato plants. Tomato plants close to flowering, at 65 days after sowing, and younger, middle and apical stem portions were more susceptible. There was positive correlation between lesion length and sporulation and between lesion length and broken stems. Lesion length and the percentage of sporulation sites were reduced by using a moist chamber and were not affected by adding gelatin to the inoculum suspension. This methodology has been adopted in studies of B. cinerea in tomato plants showing reproducible results. The obtained results may assist researchers who study the gray mold.

  2. Key factors to inoculate Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Álefe Vitorino; Saraiva, Rodrigo Moreira; Maffia, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Studies addressing the biological control of Botrytis cinerea have been unsuccessful because of fails in inoculating tomato plants with the pathogen. With the aim of establishing a methodology for inoculation into stems, experiments were designed to assess: i. the aggressiveness of pathogen isolates; ii. the age at which tomato plants should be inoculated; iii. the susceptibility of tissues at different stem heights; iv. the need for a moist chamber after inoculation; and v. the effectiveness...

  3. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms.

  4. Energetic use of the tomato plant waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinar, Jose M.; Martinez, Gloria [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica. UEX. Avda de Elvas s/n. 06071 Badajoz, Tf. 34 924 289672 (Spain); Gonzalez, Juan F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada. UEX. Avda de Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    A study of the conventional pyrolysis of the tomato plant waste has been carried out. The objective of this work was to characterize the solid, liquid and gaseous phases obtained in the process for their possible utilization in energy generation. Also, a study of the influence of operation variables has been performed, determining the optimal conditions in which the process can be accomplished. The operation variables studied were temperature (400-800 C), the initial sample mass (2.5-10 g of tomato plant waste) and the particle size (0.63-2.00 mm). Under the conditions studied here, an increase in reaction temperature leads to a decrease in solid and liquid yields and to an increase in gas phase yield. However the variation in the initial sample mass and the particle size does not seem to exert a defined influence in the yield of the different phases. The higher heating value (HHV) of solids and liquids was determined; also the immediate analysis of the solid phase was carried out. The gas phase, mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and traces of ethane and ethylene, was analyzed chromatographically. The solid phase is constituted for a charcoal with an average higher heating value of 26 MJ kg{sup -} {sup 1}, the liquid phase presents a HHV of 7.8 MJ kg{sup -} {sup 1} at 400 C, this value diminishes when the temperature is increased, and the gas phase has an HHV between 0.5 and 8.0 MJ (kg of raw material){sup -} {sup 1}. According to their characteristics and energy contents, the solid phase can be used as fuel or precursor for the manufacture of activated carbons. The liquid phase could be used as liquid fuel or as organic-compounds source. The gas phase could be used to heat the pyrolysis reactor or to generate heat and electricity in a gas-turbine/vapour-turbine combined cycle. Finally, as previous step to the design of the industrials equipments, a kinetic study of the process, based in the generation of the principal gases, has been carried

  5. GRAFT TAKES OF TOMATO ON OTHER SOLANACEOUS PLANTS

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    ANDRÉ RICARDO ZEIST

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess tomato grafting on different solanaceous species through two grafting methods. Scions were cut from cultivar Santa Cruz Kada seedlings. A fully randomized experimental design was carried out with treatments in a 9 x 2 factorial scheme. As rootstocks, four accessions of mini - tomatoes (0224 - 53, RVTC 57, RVTC 20 and 6889 - 50 - Solanum lycopersicum L; two species of wild tomato ( Solanum habrochaites var hirsutum ‘PI - 127826’ and Solanum pennellii ‘LA716’; other two tomato species [ Solanum, cocona ( Solanum sessiliflorum and physalis ( Physalis peruviana ] and a control with cultivar Santa Cruz Kada (auto - graft rootstocks were used. In addition, two grafting methods were evaluated full cleft and approach graft. Fifteen days after grafting, plants were assessed for graft - take percentage; root length; plant height; leaf number; foliar area; root, stem and leaf dry matter; and ratio between shoot and root dry matter. Based on the results, we may state rootstock and grafting interaction had effect on both graft - take rate and plant development. Overall, the studied plants should be recommended as rootstock, except for 6889 - 50 mini - tomato ( S. lycopersicum L. and S. pennellii . Full cleft grafting was most suitable for cocona and physalis, while the approach method showed better results for the mini - tomato accessions 0224 - 53, RVTC 57 and RVTC 20, as well as for S. habrochaites .

  6. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial diseases of tomato plants in terms of open and covered growing of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Kolomiets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the main causes of mass diseases of tomato in covered ground in Ukraine are agents of bacterial black spotting, bacterial speck and in open ground are agent of bacterial cancer of tomato plants. Typical symptoms of diseases are wilting and die-off of young plants, blackening of fiber vascular bundles, black spotting of leaves and fruits, and fruit stem rot. It was studied morphological and cultural, as well as physiological and biochemical properties of the selected strains of the agents of tomato bacterial diseases. We recommended biological preparations Phytocide and Phytohelp based on the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, to restrict the development of the agents of bacterial black spotting Xanthomonas vesicatoria and bacterial cancer Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  8. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  9. Colonization and Internalization of Salmonella enterica in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sarah; Reynolds, Sara; Millner, Patricia; Arce, Gabriela; Blodgett, Robert J.; Brown, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fresh tomatoes has been linked to numerous food-borne outbreaks involving various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Recent advances in our understanding of plant-microbe interactions have shown that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, are adapted to survive in the plant environment. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) grown in sandy loam soil from Virginia's eastern shore (VES) were inoculated with S. enterica serovars to evaluate plausible internalization routes and to determine if there is any niche fitness for certain serovars. Both infested soil and contaminated blossoms can lead to low internal levels of fruit contamination with Salmonella. Salmonella serovars demonstrated a great ability to survive in environments under tomato cultivation, not only in soil but also on different parts of the tomato plant. Of the five serovars investigated, Salmonella enterica serovars Newport and Javiana were dominant in sandy loam soil, while Salmonella enterica serovars Montevideo and Newport were more prevalent on leaves and blossoms. It was also observed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium had a poor rate of survival in all the plant parts examined here, suggesting that postharvest contamination routes are more likely in S. Typhimurium contamination of tomato fruit. Conversely, S. Newport was the most prevalent serovar recovered in both the tomato rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Plants that were recently transplanted (within 3 days) had an increase in observable internalized bacteria, suggesting that plants were more susceptible to internalization right after transplant. These findings suggest that the particular Salmonella serovar and the growth stage of the plant were important factors for internalization through the root system. PMID:23377940

  10. Compost and vermicompost as nursery pot components: effects on tomato plant growth and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazcano, C.; Arnold, J.; Tato, A.; Zaller, J. G.; Dominguez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Post transplant success after nursery stage is strongly influenced by plant morphology. Cultural practices strongly shape plant morphology, and substrate choice is one of the most determining factors. Peat is the most often used amendment in commercial potting substrates, involving the exploitation of non-renewable resources and the degradation of highly valuable peatland ecosystems and therefore alternative substrates are required. Here the feasibility of replacing peat by compost or vermicompost for the production of tomato plants in nurseries was investigated through the study of the effect of increasing proportions of these substrates (0%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 75% and 100%) in target plant growth and morphological features, indicators of adequate post-transplant growth and yield. Compost and vermicompost showed to be adequate substrates for tomato plant growth. Total replacement of peat by vermicompost was possible while doses of compost higher than 50% caused plant mortality. Low doses of compost (10 and 20%) and high doses of vermicompost produced significant increases in aerial and root biomass of the tomato plants. In addition these treatments improved significantly plant morphology (higher number of leaves and leaf area, and increased root volume and branching). The use of compost and vermicompost constitute an attractive alternative to the use of peat in plant nurseries due to the environmental benefits involved but also due to the observed improvement in plant quality. Additional key words: peat moss, plant nursery, soil-less substrate, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Author) 37 refs.

  11. Pochonia chlamydosporia promotes the growth of tomato and lettuce plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological agents used to control plant-parasitic nematodes. This study found that the isolates Pc-3, Pc-10 and Pc-19 of this fungus promote the growth of tomato and lettuce seedlings. The isolate Pc-19 colonized the rhizoplane of tomato seedlings in only 15 days and produced a large quantity of chlamydospores. This isolate was able to use cellulose as a carbon source, in addition to glucose and sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that hyphae of the P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 penetrated the epidermal cells of the tomato roots. These three P. chlamydosporia isolates promote the growth of tomato and lettuce.

  12. Phosphorylation and proteome dynamics in pathogen-resistant tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, I.J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat on global food production. Similar to disease resistance in mammals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognise pathogens and swiftly activate defence. For the work described in this thesis, the interaction between tomato and the

  13. Effects of plant hormones and 20-hydroxyecdysone on tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is the major phytoecdysteroid of about 6% of plants. Its role in plant physiology has not been fully elucidated. In this work we studied the effects of 20E application on some morphological and biochemical parameters of tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum, seed during germination and seedling ...

  14. A Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Is Systemically Induced upon Wounding in Tomato Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, José Manuel; Raíces, Marcela; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Ulloa, Rita María

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone (LeCDPK1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) was isolated by screening a cDNA library from tomato cell cultures exposed to Cladosporium fulvum elicitor preparations. The predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA reveals a high degree of similarity with other members of the CDPK family. LeCDPK1 has a putative N-terminal myristoylation sequence and presents a possible palmitoylation site. The in vitro translated protein conserves the biochemical properties of a member of the CDPK family. In addition, CDPK activity was detected in soluble and particulate extracts of tomato leaves. Basal levels of LeCDPK1 mRNA were detected by northern-blot analysis in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of tomato plants. The expression of LeCDPK1 was rapidly and transiently enhanced in detached tomato leaves treated with pathogen elicitors and H2O2. Moreover, when tomato greenhouse plants were subjected to mechanical wounding, a transient increase of LeCDPK1 steady-state mRNA levels was detected locally at the site of the injury and systemically in distant non-wounded leaves. The increase observed in LeCDPK1 mRNA upon wounding correlates with an increase in the amount and in the activity of a soluble CDPK detected in extracts of tomato leaves, suggesting that this kinase is part of physiological plant defense mechanisms against biotic or abiotic attacks. PMID:11788771

  15. Internal Colonization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ganyu; Hu, Jiahuai; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; Richardson, Susanna M.; Bartz, Jerry A.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Several Salmonella enterica outbreaks have been traced back to contaminated tomatoes. In this study, the internalization of S. enterica Typhimurium via tomato leaves was investigated as affected by surfactants and bacterial rdar morphotype, which was reported to be important for the environmental persistence and attachment of Salmonella to plants. Surfactants, especially Silwet L-77, promoted ingress and survival of S. enterica Typhimurium in tomato leaves. In each of two experiments, 84 tomato plants were inoculated two to four times before fruiting with GFP-labeled S. enterica Typhimurium strain MAE110 (with rdar morphotype) or MAE119 (without rdar). For each inoculation, single leaflets were dipped in 109 CFU/ml Salmonella suspension with Silwet L-77. Inoculated and adjacent leaflets were tested for Salmonella survival for 3 weeks after each inoculation. The surface and pulp of ripe fruits produced on these plants were also examined for Salmonella. Populations of both Salmonella strains in inoculated leaflets decreased during 2 weeks after inoculation but remained unchanged (at about 104 CFU/g) in week 3. Populations of MAE110 were significantly higher (Penterica Typhimurium. In the second year, Salmonella was detected in adjacent non-inoculated leaves of eight tomato plants (five inoculated with strain MAE110). The pulp of 12 fruits from two plants inoculated with MAE110 was Salmonella positive (about 106 CFU/g). Internalization was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can move inside tomato plants grown in natural field soil and colonize fruits at high levels without inducing any symptoms, except for a slight reduction in plant growth. PMID:22096553

  16. Comparison of regeneration potentials in tissue cultures of primitive and cultivated tomato species (Lycopersicon sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration capacities of two tomato cultivars: Potentat and Rutgers, and of three accessions of wild tomato species: Lycopersicon peruvianum PI 128650, L. peruvianum var. dentatum PI 128655 and L. glandulosum were studied using an universal medium suitable for regeneration of those plants from leaf pieces in tissue culture. Fragments of leaf blades were taken from plants raised in greenhouse conditions and placed on a modified MS medium containing 0.3 mg/l IAA and 3.0 mg/l BAP solidified with 1% agar. The explants were transferred every 4-5 weeks on fresh medium of the same composition. It was shown that all the three primitive tomato species revealed much higher multiplication coefficients than the two cultivars. Appropriate values were: 11 - for L. glandulosum, 8 - for L. peruvianum, 7 - for L. peruvianum var. dentatum, 4 - for L. esculentum cv. Potentat and 2 - cv. Rutgers. Completely regenerated plants were obtained from all the tested species, but organogenesis occurred almost two weeks earlier in wild tomatoes than in the culitivated varieties of L. esculentum.

  17. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    The success of plant biotechnology relies on the fundamental techniques of plant tissue culture. Understanding basic biol- ogy of plants is a prerequisite for proper utilization of the plant system or parts thereof. Plant tissue culture helps in providing a basic understanding of physical and chemical requirements of cell, tissue, ...

  18. Eelgrass slabs, a soilless culture substrate that inhibits adhesion of fungi and oomycetes and enhances antioxidant activity in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meot-Duros, Laetitia; Le Floch, Gaëtan; Meot, Benoit; Letousey, Patricia; Jacob, Bruno; Barbier, Georges

    2011-10-26

    Composed of a marine plant, Zostera sp., eelgrass slabs are a novel organic substrate for soilless cultures used in tomato production. The benefit of using eelgrass slabs for growing tomatoes was assessed by comparing it with coconut fiber slabs in regard to contamination by Pythium spp. and to the antioxidant properties of tomato fruits. First, tomato root contamination by Pythium spp. was studied by direct plate counting, and a molecular comparison of fungal and oomycete communities was conducted using PCR-DHPLC. Second, the antioxidant properties of tomato fruits were analyzed by measuring total phenol and carotenoid contents and by evaluating radical scavenging activity. Compared to plants grown on coconut fiber slabs, those on eelgrass slabs presented a lower rate of Pythium spp. root contamination. Moreover, culture on eelgrass slabs produced fruits with better radical scavenging activity and higher total phenol content compared to controls. Carotenoid content was not affected by the type of substrate. This study highlights the value of detrital leaves of Zostera sp. as a substrate for soilless culture that reduces root contamination and also promotes the production of tomato fruits with better nutritional value.

  19. Studies on the reaction in tissue culture of tomato genotypes under biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanus-Fajerska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration in vitro from virus-infected somatic tomato (Lycopersicon sp. tissue was performed. Regeneration experiments were started after the determination of virus presence, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in leaves used as a source of explants. Leaf explants infected with selected strains of tomato mosaic Tobamovirus or cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus respectively, were cultured on a standarised MS agar medium to induce adventitious shoots, which were afterwards excised, rooted in vitro and cultured to plants. Explants were also screened for their ability to produce callus. Diverse effects of viral infection, ranging from stimulation to inhibition of callus formation and of morphogenesis rate, were observed. The health condition of the tissue proved to affect regeneration potential of Lycopersicon esculentum, whereas wild accesions did not react in that case so distinctly. In cultivated tomato was encountered the decline in competence to reproduce shoots adventitiously in infected tissue. There was also relationship between donor plant health condition and adventitious root formation in regenerated shoots. Experiments with short-term cultures of L. esculenum reveled also that a certain number of shoots regenerated from diseased tissue can be virus-free.

  20. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  1. Role of soil, crop debris, and a plant pathogen in Salmonella enterica contamination of tomato plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri D Barak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential for crop debris to act as inoculum from one crop to the next, and any interaction between the seedbourne plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and S. enterica on tomato plants. Our results show S. enterica can survive for up to six weeks in fallow soil with the ability to contaminate tomato plants. We found S. enterica can contaminate a subsequent crop via crop debris; however a fallow period between crop incorporation and subsequent seeding can affect contamination patterns. Throughout these studies, populations of S. enterica declined over time and there was no bacterial growth in either the phyllosphere or rhizoplane. The presence of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria on co-colonized tomato plants had no effect on the incidence of S. enterica tomato phyllosphere contamination. However, growth of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere occurred on co-colonized plants in the absence of plant disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: S. enterica contaminated soil can lead to contamination of the tomato phyllosphere. A six week lag period between soil contamination and tomato seeding did not deter subsequent crop contamination. In the absence of plant disease, presence of the bacterial plant pathogen, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was beneficial to S. enterica allowing multiplication of the human pathogen population. Any event leading to soil contamination with S. enterica could pose a public health risk with subsequent tomato production, especially in areas prone to bacterial spot disease.

  2. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  3. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  4. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV)

  5. Uptake and degradation of metamidophos by tomato plants and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkowitz, J.A.; Horler, D.F.; Revilla, A.P.; Baruel, J.; Cermelli, M.

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of the insecticide metamidophos (0,S-dimethyl phosphoroamidothioate) in tomato plants was investigated using 14 C- and 32 P-labelled insecticide. The insecticide showed an effective half-life of about six weeks in fruits. The insecticide showed very little movement from the site of application. Principal loss of insecticide from leaves and plants occurs by a phenomenon associated with transpiration. Degradation in basic soils is rapid yielding phosphorothioates, phosphoroamides and phosphates. (author)

  6. Morphoagronomic Characterization of Tomato Plants and Fruit: A Multivariate Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniela Pilar Campos de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers in the fresh fruit market choose fruits mainly following criteria related to the external appearance. However, the introduction of new material for planting depends on the productive capacity of the plant as well as on the formation of fruit that meets consumer desires. Given the above, the objective of this study was to morphoagronomically characterize tomato genotypes using multivariate statistics. The genotype seedlings (Ellus, Black Mauri, Green Zebra, Green Tomato, Pomodoro Marmande, Pomodoro Fiorentino, Pitanga, and Black Krim were transplanted 30 days after sowing. The morphoagronomic characterization of the genotypes was carried out by evaluating plants and fruits. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, namely, position and variability measurements. In addition, a multivariate cluster analysis and a principal component analysis were carried out for plant and fruit attributes. The cluster and principal component analyses were efficient in characterizing plants and/or fruits of different tomato genotypes. Such efficiency enhances result interpretation and proposed inferences, with applied relevance for the producers. The genotype Ellus has a combination of morphoagronomic plant and fruit traits superior to other genotypes. Such superior traits enable a high productivity.

  7. Increased hexose transport in the roots of tomato plants submitted to prolonged hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Imène; Ricard, Bérénice; Smiti, Samira; Bizid, Essia; Brouquisse, Renaud

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the effects of prolonged hypoxia on the sugar uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. MP-1) roots. Hydroponic cultures of whole tomato plants were submitted to hypoxic treatment for 1 week, and the roots were analyzed for sugar concentrations, hexose uptake and hexose transporter expression level. Contrary to what has been observed after anoxic shock or short-term hypoxic treatment, we show that sugar concentrations increase and hexose uptake is up-regulated in the roots after 1 week of hypoxic treatment. Increased hexose transport is concomitant with the induction of the hexose transporter gene LeHT2. These responses may be due either to a direct effect of low O(2) supply, or to a secondary effect associated with the increase in sugar concentrations, which, typically, develops in most hypoxic plants.

  8. Wageningen researchers create ideal virtual tomato plant (interview with Pieter de Visser and Leo Marcelis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, M.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    What does the ideal tomato plant look like? What is the ideal planting distance? At what plant height is light most effective? These questions are difficult to answer in trials and/or they are expensive. Greek researcher, Vaia Sarlikioti, developed a virtual tomato plant during her doctorate study

  9. RESPONSE OF TOMATO PLANTS EXPOSED TO TREATMENT WITH NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Giordani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of Tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom to nanoparticles (NPs treatment was investigated. Tomato seedlings were grown in hydroponic condition and NPs treatments were carried out by adding Fe3O4 or TiO2 NPs to nutrient solution. At the end of treatments, NPs root uptake and tissue deposition were investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical identification. At morphological level, one week after the beginning of NP treatment, seedlings grown with high concentration of TiO2 NPs showed an abnormal proliferation of root hairs, as compared to the control seedlings and to the seedlings exposed to Fe3O4 NPs, Shoot morphology did not differ in tomato seedlings grown under different conditions and no symptoms of toxicity were observed in NP-treated plants. In order to analyse genetic effects of NPs treatments, RNA transcription was studied in roots of NP-exposed and control plants by Illumina RNA sequencing, evidencing the induction of transposable elements.

  10. The metabolic response of cultured tomato cells to low oxygen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo-Asiama, J; Baiye, V M M; Hertog, M L A T M; Waelkens, E; Geeraerd, A H; Nicolai, B M

    2014-05-01

    The storage of fruits and vegetables under a controlled atmosphere can induce low oxygen stress, which can lead to post-harvest losses through the induction of disorders such as core breakdown and browning. To gain better understanding of the metabolic response of plant organs to low oxygen, cultured tomato cells (Lycopersicum esculentum) were used as a model system to study the metabolic stress response to low oxygen (0 and 1 kPa O2). By adding 13C labelled glucose, changes in the levels of polar metabolites and their 13C label accumulation were quantified. Low oxygen stress altered the metabolite profile of tomato cells, with the accumulation of the intermediates of glycolysis in addition to increases in lactate and sugar alcohols. 13C label data showed reduced label accumulation in almost all metabolites except lactate and some sugar alcohols. The results showed that low oxygen stress in tomato cell culture activated fermentative metabolism and sugar alcohol synthesis while inhibiting the activity of the TCA cycle and the biosynthesis of metabolites whose precursors are derived from central metabolism, including fluxes to most organic acids, amino acids and sugars. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Yield of determinate tomato cultivars grown in a closed hydroponic system as affected by plant spacing

    OpenAIRE

    Maboko, Martin M; Plooy, Christian P Du; Chiloane, Silence

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In South Africa there are no established spacing recommendations for determinate tomato cultivar production under closed hydroponic systems. This study was conducted to determine yield and quality of hydroponically grown determinate tomato cultivars at different plant densities. Four determinate tomato cultivars (Dynimo, Mariana, Mion and Sama) were subjected to four plant densities (10, 16, 20 and 25 plants/m2) during the spring/summer and summer/fall seasons. Experimental layout wa...

  12. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    closely linked with the discovery and characterization of plant hormones, and has facilitated our understanding of plant growth and development. Furthermore, the ability to grow plant cells and tissues in culture and to control their development forms the basis of many practical applications in agriculture, horticulture indus-.

  13. Nitrogen nutrition of tomato plant alters leafminer dietary intake dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueret, Victoire; Le Bot, Jacques; Larbat, Romain; Desneux, Nicolas; Robin, Christophe; Adamowicz, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    The leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of the tomato crop and its development rate is known to decline when nitrogen availability for crop growth is limited. Because N limitation reduces plant primary metabolism but enhances secondary metabolism, one can infer that the slow larval development arises from lower leaf nutritive value and/or higher plant defence. As an attempt to study the first alternative, we examined the tomato-T. absoluta interaction in terms of resource supply by leaves and intake by larvae. Tomato plants were raised under controlled conditions on N-sufficient vs. N-limited complete nutrient solutions. Plants were kept healthy or artificially inoculated with larvae for seven days. Serial harvests were taken and the N, C, dry mass and water contents were determined in roots, stems and leaves. Leaf and mine areas were also measured and the N, C, dry mass and water surface densities were calculated in order to characterize the diet of the larvae. The infestation of a specific leaf lessened its local biomass by 8-26%, but this effect was undetectable at the whole plant scale. Infestation markedly increased resource density per unit leaf area (water, dry mass, C and N) suggesting that the insect induced changes in leaf composition. Nitrogen limitation lessened whole plant growth (by 50%) and infested leaflet growth (by 32-44%). It produced opposite effects on specific resource density per unit area, increasing that of dry mass and C while decreasing water and N. These changes were ineffective on insect mining activity, but slowed down larval development. Under N limitation, T. absoluta consumed less water and N but more dry mass and C. The resulting consequences were a 50-70% increase of C:N stoichiometry in their diet and the doubling of faeces excretion. The observed limitation of larval development is therefore consistent with a trophic explanation caused by low N and/or water intakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. The effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction somatic embryogenesis of hybird tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S. A.; Shah, S. H.; Ali, S.; Ali, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient tissue culture system is important for transformation of important genes in hybrid tomato cultivars. The present study was undertaken to develop an efficient tissue culture system for hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86. The young primary leaves and stems were inoculated into five different MS media having different concentrations of plant growth regulators in different combinations for callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and for both direct and indirect regeneration. Maximum callus induction frequency 90 percentage was achieved with MS media containing 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. The direct somatic embryogenesis was found highest on MS media supplemented with 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. Maximum indirect regeneration frequency 87 percentage was achieved from primary leaves explants with MS media containing IAA 0.5 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1 and highest direct regeneration frequency 77% was obtained from primary leaves explants with MS media containing NAA 1 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1. The high concentration of 2,4-D increased callus induction and somatic embryogenesis frequencies while the high concentration of BAP increased regeneration frequency. An improved tissue culture system of hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86 was established and it may be recommended for further transformation experiments. (author)

  15. Microorganisms associated to tomato seedlings growing in saline culture act as osmoprotectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cortés-Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Less than 0.5% of total water in the world is available for human consumption and agriculture. The major part of the world's water is saline and salinity in soils interferes in germination of seeds and the posterior development of the plant. In order to increase the osmotolerance of tomato, seedlings were associated with Azospirillum brasilense Cd, Azospirillum brasilense Cd transformed bacteria with a plasmid harboring a trehalose biosynthesis gene-fusion or Chlorella vulgaris. Two plant culture media: Hydroponic and Murashige and Skoog were tested. In the first set of studies seedlings were associated to single free cells meanwhile in a second set single and combined free cells were studied. A positive interaction between transformed Azospirillum and Chlorella vulagris and tomato plants was observed. Seedlings showed a salt concentration tolerance, as sodium chloride, up to 200 mM. According to our results, the association of plants with A. brasilense Cd-BIF and C. vulgaris is a viable approach to increase their salt tolerance and biomass, as consequence the possible use of sea water to irrigate horticultural plants.

  16. A transformation procedure for recalcitrant tomato by addressing transgenic plant-recovery limiting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro D; Ramos, Pedro L; Sánchez, Yadira; Callard, Danay; Ferreira, Aleines; Tiel, Kenia; Cobas, Karen; Rodríguez, Raisa; Borroto, Carlos; Doreste, Vivian; Pujol, Merardo

    2008-08-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens technology is the battle horse for tomato genetic transformation. However, tomato varieties with low regeneration capacity are very difficult to transform. In the past, tomato transformation through Agrobacterium infection was focused on varieties capable of high regeneration yield, while successful transformation of low regenerable cultivars has not been reported. The genotype response to tissue culture conditions is believed to drive the frequency of regeneration of transgenic plant, whereas the capacity for cell proliferation could determine the transformation efficiency through this technology. The Campbell-28 cultivar is an example of constraints arising from a high morphogenetic potential with low conversion compared to normal plants. In the present work the roles that contribute to improved transgenic plant recovery from this recalcitrant variety were explored for factors like Agrobacterium concentration and antibiotics for bacterial removal and transformant selection. Analysis of the efficiency from independent transformation experiments revealed a more than twofold increase of transformant regeneration after selection on ammonium glufosinate compared to kanamycin selection, showing a transformation efficiency of 21.5%.

  17. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gresa, M Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  18. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pilar López-Gresa

    Full Text Available Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA, were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH, which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  19. Fungi colonizing the soil and roots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. plants treated with biological control agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants, cv. Rumba Ożarowska, grown in the greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury, were protected in the form of alternate spraying (twice and watering (twice with 5% aqueous extracts of the following plant species: Aloe vulgaris Lam., Achillea millefolium L., Mentha piperita L., Polygonum aviculare L., Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L. and Urtica dioica L. Plants not treated with the extracts served as control. After fruit harvest, samples of roots and soil were collected. The roots were disinfected and next placed on PDA medium. Soil-colonizing fungi were cultured on Martin medium. Fungi were identified microscopically after incubation. Pathogenic fungal species, Colletotrichum coccodes, Fusarium equiseti, F. oxysporum and F. poae, accounted for over 60% of all isolates obtained from the roots of tomato plants. The soil fungal community was dominated by yeast-like fungi (75.4%, whereas pathogenic fungi were present in low numbers. The applied 5% aqueous plant extracts effectively reduced the abundance of fungi, including pathogenic species, colonizing tomato plants and soil. The extract from P. aviculare showed the highest efficacy, while the extract from J. regia was least effective. Fungi showing antagonistic activity against pathogens (Paecilomyces roseum and species of the genus Trichoderma were isolated in greatest abundance from the soil and the roots of tomato plants treated with A. millefolium, M. piperita and U. dioica extracts.

  20. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom.

  1. Distribution of Tomato spotted wilt virus in dahlia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, S; Hirayama, Y; Matsushita, Y

    2017-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes significant losses in the production of the ornamental plant Dahlia variabilis in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of TSWV in dahlia plants and identify plant parts that can be used in the selection of TSWV-free plants. The distribution of TSWV was investigated using reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and tissue blot immunoassay. The detection rate of TSWV in latent infected compound leaves was the highest in the petiole, and it decreased from the veins and rachis to the lamina. The tissue blot immunoassays of the leaflets showed an uneven distribution of TSWV, especially along the edge of the leaf blade. In stems, the detection rate of TSWV was high partway up the stem compared to that in the upper and the lower parts of the stem during the vegetative growth stage. A highly uneven distribution was observed in the bulb. Our results indicated that middle parts of the stem as well as the petioles, rachis, and veins of compound leaves are suitable for detection of TSWV in dahlias. This study is the first to report uneven distribution of TSWV in dahlia plants. In this study, the distribution of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in various parts of dahlia plants was investigated for the first time. The distribution of TSWV was uneven in compound leaves, leaflets, stems, and bulbs. The middle parts of the stem or the petiole and leaf veins should be sampled to detect TSWV when selecting healthy plants. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effects of Red Light Night Break Treatment on Growth and Flowering of Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kai; Cui, Lirong; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Xiaoting; Bao, Encai; Zhao, Hailiang; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Compact and healthy young plants increase crop production and improve vegetable quality. Adverse climatic conditions and shading can cause young plants to become elongated and spindly. We investigated the effects of night break (NB) treatments on tomato plants using red light (RL) with an intensity of 20 μmol·m(2)·s(-1). Tomato plants were subjected to NB treatments with different frequencies ranging from every 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, and plant growth, flowering, and yield were monitored. The results showed that with the increase of RL NB frequency, plant height decreased, stem diameter increased, and flower initiation delayed, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin 3 (GA3) in the leaf and stem declined. When the RL NB frequency was every 1 h, the heights of tomato plant decreased by 32.73% compared with the control, the diameter of tomato plants increased by 27.09% compared with the control, the number of leaves produced before flowering increased to 11, compared with 8 in the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the leaf decreased by 33.3 and 41.29% respectively compared with the control, the contents of IAA and GA3 in the stem decreased by 56.04 and 57.14% respectively compared with the control. After RL NB treatments, tomato plants were transplanted into a solar greenhouse to evaluate tomato yield. When tomato plants pre-treated with RL NB, per tomato fresh weight of the first spica increased with the increase of RL NB frequencies. These results indicate that more compact and healthier tomato plants could be gotten by RL NB treatments and improve tomato early yield.

  3. Effect Of Salinization On Fusarium Wilt Disease In Tomato Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; Fath El-Bab, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Salinization of soils or waters is one of the serious environmental problems in agriculture. It is necessary to determine the environmental factors under which the plants give higher yields and better quality to solve this problem. The problem of salinity is characterized by disruption in the physiological processes in plant which lead to shorting in growth and decrease in yield. The study was carried out to control fusarium disease in tomato plant irrigated with salt water (500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm). These treatments lead to excess in malic and citric acids i.e. from 21 mmol/g fresh weight in control to 38.8 mmol/g fresh weight at 100000 ppm for citric acid while for malic acid, the value was increased from 1.4 mmol/g fresh weight for control to 2.1 mmol/g fresh weight. The excess of malic and citric acids lead to increase in acidity and vitamin C in tomato fruits. On the other side, the plant may adapt to this stress by increasing its proline content from 0.59 µmol/g fresh weight to 6.56 µmol/g fresh weight at 100000 and abscisic acid from 0.49 µmol/g fresh weight to 20.7 µmol/g fresh weight. The results showed that the fusarium fungal growth was observed till 100000 ppm but did not form sclerotia spores at 45000 ppm. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity was found to be 0.46, 2.3, 23.1, 69.2 and 153.8 dS/m for salinity levels of 500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm, respectively. This study aimed to control the fusarium wilt disease by irrigating the plant with water has high salinity

  4. Drought-Stressed Tomato Plants Trigger Bottom-Up Effects on the Invasive Tetranychus evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximénez-Embún, Miguel G; Ortego, Félix; Castañera, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will bring more drought periods that will have an impact on the irrigation practices of some crops like tomato, from standard water regime to deficit irrigation. This will promote changes in plant metabolism and alter their interactions with biotic stressors. We have tested if mild or moderate drought-stressed tomato plants (simulating deficit irrigation) have an effect on the biological traits of the invasive tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi. Our data reveal that T evansi caused more leaf damage to drought-stressed tomato plants (≥1.5 fold for both drought scenarios). Mite performance was also enhanced, as revealed by significant increases of eggs laid (≥2 fold) at 4 days post infestation (dpi), and of mobile forms (≥2 fold and 1.5 fold for moderate and mild drought, respectively) at 10 dpi. The levels of several essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, valine) and free sugars in tomato leaves were significantly induced by drought in combination with mites. The non-essential amino acid proline was also strongly induced, stimulating mite feeding and egg laying when added to tomato leaf disks at levels equivalent to that estimated on drought-infested tomato plants at 10 dpi. Tomato plant defense proteins were also affected by drought and/or mite infestation, but T. evansi was capable of circumventing their potential adverse effects. Altogether, our data indicate that significant increases of available free sugars and essential amino acids, jointly with their phagostimulant effect, created a favorable environment for a better T. evansi performance on drought-stressed tomato leaves. Thus, drought-stressed tomato plants, even at mild levels, may be more prone to T evansi outbreaks in a climate change scenario, which might negatively affect tomato production on area-wide scales.

  5. Drought-Stressed Tomato Plants Trigger Bottom-Up Effects on the Invasive Tetranychus evansi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel G Ximénez-Embún

    Full Text Available Climate change will bring more drought periods that will have an impact on the irrigation practices of some crops like tomato, from standard water regime to deficit irrigation. This will promote changes in plant metabolism and alter their interactions with biotic stressors. We have tested if mild or moderate drought-stressed tomato plants (simulating deficit irrigation have an effect on the biological traits of the invasive tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi. Our data reveal that T evansi caused more leaf damage to drought-stressed tomato plants (≥1.5 fold for both drought scenarios. Mite performance was also enhanced, as revealed by significant increases of eggs laid (≥2 fold at 4 days post infestation (dpi, and of mobile forms (≥2 fold and 1.5 fold for moderate and mild drought, respectively at 10 dpi. The levels of several essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, valine and free sugars in tomato leaves were significantly induced by drought in combination with mites. The non-essential amino acid proline was also strongly induced, stimulating mite feeding and egg laying when added to tomato leaf disks at levels equivalent to that estimated on drought-infested tomato plants at 10 dpi. Tomato plant defense proteins were also affected by drought and/or mite infestation, but T. evansi was capable of circumventing their potential adverse effects. Altogether, our data indicate that significant increases of available free sugars and essential amino acids, jointly with their phagostimulant effect, created a favorable environment for a better T. evansi performance on drought-stressed tomato leaves. Thus, drought-stressed tomato plants, even at mild levels, may be more prone to T evansi outbreaks in a climate change scenario, which might negatively affect tomato production on area-wide scales.

  6. Effect of salinity stress on antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srineing, K.; Saisavoey, T.; Karnchanatat, A.

    2015-01-01

    Under inappropriate environments, plants responses by changing their metabolisms to maintain homeostasis that acclimation abilities are different among species and varieties. Saline tolerance tomato is an alternative way to overcome saline soil condition of some areas in Thailand. This study aims to select one or some saline tolerance tomato varieties from mostly used commercial ones. Six tomato variety seeds (Pethlanna, Puangphaka, Seeda, Beefeater, Seeda chompoo and TE VF 1-3-4) were grown by tissue culture technique in MS medium and MS medium supplied with 0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM NaCl. The Puangphaka variety was selected since it could grow in all tests NaCl concentrations with best germination time compared to the others cultivar seeds and exhibited 80-90% growth compared to control group. The seedlings were further cultivated in the same medium for 7, 14 and 21 days before they were conducted to determine stem and root superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as amount of chlorophyll. It was found that the SOD, CAT and GPx exhibited increase and decrease trends nearly the same pattern in salinity responses but with different activity levels. Inhibition of nutrient uptake could also be seen from the results. The maximum activities were 5, 0.18, 0.08, 2 and 3 U/mg protein for stem SOD, stem CAT, root CAT, stem GPx and root GPx, respectively. Furthermore, the chlorophyll A and B levels were decrease slightly except for the 21 days plants which presented considerable decrease. (author)

  7. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 8. Plant Tissue Culture - Historical Developments and Applied Aspects. H R Dagla. General Article Volume 17 Issue 8 August 2012 pp 759-767. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  9. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. Results We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1 derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27 with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47. The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1 and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related

  10. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Moya, Carlos; Gisbert, Carmina; Vilanova, Santiago; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-10-20

    Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1) derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27) with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47). The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8) in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1) and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related to regeneration. In this study we have

  11. Irradiation-induced mutation experiments with eiploid and tetraploid tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tomato mutation experiments are described. The tomatoes used in the experiment were the diploid Reziszta and its autotetraploid variety. The experimental plants were exposed to an irradiation of 5000 rsd for 1-2 days, and after transplantation into the gamma field, to chronic irradiation during the whole growing season. The chronic treatment heavily reduced fertility in the generations of tetraploid tomato plants. Recurrent treatment of tetraploid led to further deterioration in fertility. Several berries were formed with few seeds or with no seeds at all. After three irradiations, the chlorophyll mutation frequency increased in the diploid and tetraploid tomato plants. For diploids, treatment applied at the seedling stage gave a lower chlorophyll mutation frequency. With tetraploids the same treatment induced similar chlorophyll mutation frequency. As regards to phenotypic variability of quantitative characteristics in diploid and tetraploid tomatoes, the single and repeated chronic irradiation induced no increase in the variability of properties like flowering time, weight, height etc. (author)

  12. Variation among volatile profiles induced by Botrytis cinerea infection of tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not

  13. Changes in volatile production during an infection of tomato plants by Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Miebach, M.; Kleist, E.; Henten, van E.J.; Wildt, J.

    2006-01-01

    Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not

  14. Yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruit harvested from plants grown in mulched soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Majkowska-Gadomska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study investigating the yield of field-grown tomatoes was conducted in 2007–2009 in the Garden of the Research and Experimental Station of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experimental materials comprised two tomato cultivars, 'Bawole Serce' and 'Złoty Ożarowski'. Tomato plants were grown in bare soil and in soil mulched with black non-woven PP 50 fabric. Cultivar selection had a significant effect only on average early yield of 'Bawole Serce'. The highest average early yield for three years of the study was recorded for 'Bawole Serce' grown in mulched soil, while the lowest one for 'Złoty Ożarowski' grown in mulched plots. Tomato marketable yield was significantly higher in both treatments where 'Bawole Serce' plants were grown. Fruits harvested from tomato plants 'Złoty Ożarowski' had a higher dry matter content. Soil mulching significantly increased the dry matter content of 'Złoty Ożarowski' tomato fruit. The experimental factors had no influence on the concentrations of L-ascorbic acid, total sugars, and organic acids. Nitrate levels in tomato fruit were within permissible limits, and they were significantly affected by the cultivation method and the method x cultivar interaction. Nitrate accumulation was reduced in tomato plants 'Złoty Ożarowski' grown in mulched soil.

  15. Effect of deficit irrigation on growth and development of tomato plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differing amounts of water were used to irrigate tomato in order to determine the effect of deficit irrigation on the growth, development and yield of tomato plants. A randomized complete block design with four (4) treatments and three (3) replications was adopted. Treatment one (T1), two (T2), three (T3), and four (T4) were ...

  16. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures--Botrytis cinerea interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowska, E; Różalska, S; Kaźmierczak, A; Nawrocka, J; Małolepsza, U

    2015-01-01

    This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity were studied. In vivo staining methods with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) as well as fluorescent microscopy were used to assess tomato and B. cinerea cells death. The biochemical studies of ROS and RNS concentrations in plant cell extract were complemented by in vivo ROS and nitric oxide (NO) imaging using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), diaminobenzidine (DAB) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-DA) staining methods, and confocal microscope technique. B. cinerea infection proceeded slower in Perkoz cell cultures. It was evidenced by measuring the pathogen conidia germination and germination tube development in which nuclei revealing cell death dominated. Two different types of tomato cell death were observed: cells with necrotic nuclei dominated in Corindo whereas in Perkoz cells with characteristic of vacuolar death type prevailed. In Perkoz cells, constitutive levels of NO and S-nitrosothiols (SNO) were significantly higher and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and superoxide anion (O₂(-)) concentrations were slightly higher as compared with Corindo cells. Moreover, increases in these molecule concentrations as a result of B. cinerea inoculation were observed in both, Perkoz and Corindo cell cultures. The enzymatic GSNOR activity seems to be an important player in controlling the SNO level in tomato cells. Involvements of the studied compounds in molecular mechanisms of tomato resistance to B. cinerea are discussed in the paper.

  17. Variation among volatile profiles induced by Botrytis cinerea infection of tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, R.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not suitable for large sample sizes. In contrast we propose a fast and non-destructive detection method for plant diagnosis using volatiles as an early indicator of plant diseases. This report presents...

  18. Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies.

  19. pH and expansin action on single suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C X; Wang, L; McQueen-Mason, S J; Pritchard, J; Thomas, C R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure key material properties of the cell walls of single suspension-cultured plant cells and relate these to cell-wall biochemistry. To this end, micromanipulation was used to compress single tomato cells between two flat surfaces until they ruptured, and force-deformation data were obtained. In addition to measuring the bursting force, we also determined the elastic (Young's) modulus of the cell walls by matching low strain (composites and proposed mechanisms of such failure. Through the measurement of cell-wall material properties using micromanipulation, it may be possible to understand more fully how cell-wall composition, structure and biochemistry lead to cell mechanical behaviour.

  20. Assessment of transformability of bacteria associated with tomato and potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Ray, J.L.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Transformation of plant-associated bacteria by plant DNA has never been demonstrated in agricultural fields. In total 552 bacterial isolates from stems of Ralstonia solanacearum-infected and healthy tomato plants and from stems and leaves of healthy potato plants were tested for natural genetic

  1. The plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocomo, O.J.; Sharp, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Progress in the field of plant tissue culture at the Plant Biochemistry Sector, Centro de Energia na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil, pertains to the simplification of development in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' by dividing the organism into its component organs, tissues, and cells and the maintenance of these components on defined culture media 'in vitro'. This achievement has set the stage for probing the basis for the stability of the differentiated states and/or the reentry of mature differentiated cells into the mitotic cell cycle and their subsequent redifferentiation. Data from such studies at the cytological and biochemical level have been invaluable in the elucidation of the control mechanisms responsible for expression of the cellular phenotype. Unlimited possibilities exist for the application of tissue culture in the vegetative propagation of 'Phaseolus' and other important cultivars in providing genocopies or a large scale and/or readily obtaining plantlets from haploid cell lines or from protoplast (wall-less cells) hybridization products following genetic manipulation. These tools are being applied in this laboratory for the development and selection of high protein synthesizing 'Phaseolus' cultivars

  2. Tomato root growth and phosphorus absorption kinetics by tomato plants as affected by phosphorus concentration in nutrient solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, P.C.R.; Barber, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects P concentrations in nutrient solution on root growth and on root physiological characteristics involved in P uptake by tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants, six seedlings were grown in nutrient solution at initial concentrations of 48.5, 97, 194 and 388 μMP until one day before harvest. They were then transferred to solutions with P at 20 μM and 30 μM, and the depletion curves and Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined. The conclusions were that as P supply increased and as the plant P contents are sufficient for maximum growth, the rate of P uptake tends to be lower. The results also indicate that total P uptake by tomato seedlings depends on the amount of root surface area exposed to P. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  4. HOW FUNGI INTERACT WITH NEMATODE TO ACTIVATE THE PLANT DEFENCE RESPONSE TO TOMATO PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, P; Costanza, A; Zonno, M C; Molinari, S; Altomare, C

    2014-01-01

    Management of plant parasitic nematodes with nematode predators, parasites or antagonists is an eco-friendly approach that may avoid the problems arisen by the use of toxic chemicals. Fungi belonging to Trichoderma spp. are well known in literature for their role in control of plant parasitic nematodes. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), Meloidogyne spp., are obligate parasites that cause the formation of familiar galls on the roots of many cultivated plants. The interaction between the M. incognita motile second stage juveniles (J2s) and the isolate ITEM 908 of Trichoderma harzianum was examined in its effect on the nematode infestation level of susceptible tomato plants. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which ITEM 908 interacts with nematode-infected tomato plants, the expression patterns of the genes PR1 (marker of Salycilic Acid-depending resistance signalling pathway) and JERF3 (marker of the Jasmonic Acid/Ethylene-depending resistance signalling pathway) were detected over time in: i) untreated roots; ii) roots pre-treated with the fungus; iii) roots inoculated with the nematode; iv) pre-treated and inoculated roots. Infestation parameters were checked in untreated plants and plants treated with the fungus to test the effect of the fungus on nematode infestation level and to compare this effect with the expression of the genes PR1 and JERF3, involved in induced resistance.

  5. Halophytic Companion Plants Improve Growth and Physiological Parameters of Tomato Plants Grown under Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, S.; Cullu, M. A.; Kaya, C.; Dikilitas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity becomes a major concern when soil salt concentration becomes excessive in growth medium. Halophytes are capable of accumulating high concentrations of NaCl in their tissues, thus using halophytic plants in crop rotations or even in mixed cropping systems may be a promising management practices to mitigate salt stress related yield loses. Salinity induced yield losses and related physiological parameters on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. SC2121) grown with or without halophytic companion plants (SalsolasodaL. and Portulacaoleracea L.) were investigated in pot experiment. Treatments consist of four soil type (collected from Harran plain-Turkey) with similar physical properties but varying in salinity level: electrical conductivity (EC): 0.9, 4.2, 7.2, and 14.1 dS m/sup -1/. The reduction in plant total dry weight was 24, 19, and 48 percent in soils with slight (4.2dS m/sup -1/), moderate (7.2 dS m/sup -1/) and high (14.1 dS m/sup -1/) salinity as compared to non-saline soil (0.9 dS m/sup -1/), respectively. Leaf content of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) enzyme activity increased with increasing level of salinity. In tomato plants grown in consociation with Salsolasoda, salinity induced DM decrease was only 6, 12 and 28% in soils with slight, moderate and high salinity as compared to non-saline soil, respectively. However, when Portulaca oleracea used as companion plant, no significant change in biomass or fruit yield was observed. This study showed that mixed planting with Salsolasodain high saline soils may be an effective phyto-remediation technique that may secure yield formation and quality of tomato. (author)

  6. Iron uptake system mediates nitrate-facilitated cadmium accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bing Fang; Du, Shao Ting; Lu, Kai Xing; Liu, Wen Jing; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO₃⁻ accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH₄⁺. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO₃⁻. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO₃⁻-facilitated Cd accumulation in plants.

  7. Rhizosphere Microbiome Recruited from a Suppressive Compost Improves Plant Fitness and Increases Protection against Vascular Wilt Pathogens of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Anastasis; Tsolakidou, Maria-Dimitra; Stringlis, Ioannis A.; Pantelides, Iakovos S.

    2017-01-01

    Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects. While suppressiveness is usually attributed to the compost’s microorganisms, the mechanisms governing microbial recruitment by the roots and the composition of selected microbial communities are not fully elucidated. Herein, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of a compost on tomato plant growth and its suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Foxl) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). First, growth parameters of tomato plants grown in sterile peat-based substrates including 20 and 30% sterile compost (80P/20C-ST and 70P/30C-ST) or non-sterile compost (80P/20C and 70P/30C) were evaluated in a growth room experiment. Plant height, total leaf surface, and fresh and dry weight of plants grown in the non-sterile compost mixes were increased compared to the plants grown in the sterile compost substrates, indicating the plant growth promoting activity of the compost’s microorganisms. Subsequently, compost’s suppressiveness against Foxl and Vd was evaluated with pathogenicity experiments on tomato plants grown in 70P/30C-ST and 70P/30C substrates. Disease intensity was significantly less in plants grown in the non-sterile compost than in those grown in the sterile compost substrate; AUDPC was 2.3- and 1.4-fold less for Foxl and Vd, respectively. Moreover, fungal quantification in planta demonstrated reduced colonization in plants grown in the non-sterile mixture. To further investigate these findings, we characterized the culturable microbiome attracted by the roots compared to the unplanted compost. Bacteria and fungi isolated from unplanted compost and the rhizosphere of plants were sequence-identified. Community-level analysis revealed

  8. Biological nutrient recovery from culturing of pearl gourami (Trichogaster leerii ) by cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in aquaponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdom, Shima; Shekarabi, Seyed Pezhman Hosseini; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using different densities of cherry tomato as a bio-filter in a simple media-based aquaponic system to recycle nutrients from pearl gourami intensive culture wastewater was evaluated. Water quality parameters including total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite (NO 2 - ), nitrate (NO 3 - ), phosphate (PO 4 3- ), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were determined in outlet of the aquaponic system during a 60-day experimental period. Cherry tomato was planted at four densities of 0 (control), 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 9 (T3) plants per aquaponic unit with a constant fish stock density. Each treatment was equipped with aquaponic systems containing fish tank and plant growing bed. Productivity of the system was measured by recording the fish and plant growth indices. The potential in removing nitrogen of the water was the highest in T3 (with nine plants) compared to other treatments (p aquaponic growing bed system can be created a sustainable ecosystem which both the plant and fish can thrive and suitable for home-made production system.

  9. TAI vacuolar invertase orthologs: the interspecific variability in tomato plants (Solanum section Lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugina, M A; Shchennikova, A V; Kochieva, E Z

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh tomato fruit represents an ideal system for examining the role of sucrose cleavage enzymes in fruit development, and wild tomato species differing in storage sugars serve as an excellent research material for this purpose. Plant vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in the sink organs. In the present study, we identified complete gene sequences encoding the TAI vacuolar invertase in 11 wild and one cultivated tomato accessions of the Solanum section Lycopersicon. The average level of interspecific polymorphism in TAI genes was 8.58%; however, in the green-fruited tomatoes, the TAI genes contained 100 times more SNPs than those in the red-fruited accessions. The TAI proteins demonstrated 8% variability, whereas the red-fruited species had none. A TAI-based phylogenetic tree revealed two main clusters containing self-compatible and self-incompatible species, which concurs with the previous crossability-based division and demonstrates that the TAI genes reflect the evolutionary relationships between the red- and green-fruited tomatoes. Furthermore, we detected differential expression patterns of the TAI genes in the fruits of wild and cultivated tomatoes, which corresponded to sugar composition. The polymorphism analysis of the TAI acid invertases of Solanum section Lycopersicon species will contribute to the understanding of the genetic potential of TAI genes to impact tomato breeding through genetic engineering of the carbohydrate composition in the fruit.

  10. Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

    The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content

  11. A Plant Phytosulfokine Peptide Initiates Auxin-Dependent Immunity through Cytosolic Ca2+ Signaling in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Hu, Zhangjian; Lei, Cui; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Jiao; Shao, Shujun; Li, Xin; Xia, Xiaojian; Cai, Xinzhong; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine H; Shi, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that is an important signaling molecule. Although it has recently been implicated in plant defenses to pathogen infection, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Using surface plasmon resonance and gene silencing approaches, we showed that the tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) PSK receptor PSKR1, rather than PSKR2, functioned as the major PSK receptor in immune responses. Silencing of PSK signaling genes rendered tomato more susceptible to infection by the economically important necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea Analysis of tomato mutants defective in either defense hormone biosynthesis or signaling demonstrated that PSK-induced immunity required auxin biosynthesis and associated defense pathways. Here, using aequorin-expressing tomato plants, we provide evidence that PSK perception by tomato PSKR1 elevated cytosolic [Ca 2+ ], leading to auxin-dependent immune responses via enhanced binding activity between calmodulins and the auxin biosynthetic YUCs. Thus, our data demonstrate that PSK acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern and is perceived mainly by PSKR1, which increases cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] and activates auxin-mediated pathways that enhance immunity of tomato plants to B. cinerea . © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolism of fluoranthene in different plant cell cultures and intact plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, M.; Harms, H.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolism of fluoranthene was investigated in 11 cell cultures of different plant species using a [{sup 14}C]-labeled standard. Most species metabolized less than 5% of fluoranthene to soluble metabolites and formed less than 5% nonextractable residues during the standardized 48-h test procedure. Higher metabolic rates were observed in lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 6%), wheat (Tricitum aestivum, 9%), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, 15%). A special high metabolic rate of nearly 50% was determined for the rose species Paul's Scarlet. Chromatographic analysis of metabolites extracted from aseptically grown tomato plants proved that the metabolites detected in the cell cultures were also formed in the intact plants. Metabolites produced in tomato and rose cells from [{sup 14}C]-fluoranthene were conjugated with glucose, glucuronic acid, and other cell components. After acid hydrolyses, the main metabolite of both species was 1-hydroxyfluoranthene as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The second metabolite formed by both species was 8-hydroxyfluoranthene. A third metabolite in tomatoes was 3-hydroxyfluoranthene.

  13. Effect of Aluminum Treatment on Proteomes of Radicles of Seeds Derived from Al-Treated Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okekeogbu, Ikenna; Ye, Zhujia; Sangireddy, Sasikiran Reddy; Li, Hui; Bhatti, Sarabjit; Hui, Dafeng; Zhou, Suping; Howe, Kevin J; Fish, Tara; Yang, Yong; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2014-03-28

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive Al 3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 µM AlK(SO₄)₂. Seeds harvested from Al-treated plants contained a significantly higher Al content than those grown in the control hydroponic solution. In this study, these Al-enriched tomato seeds (harvested from Al-treated tomato plants) were germinated in 50 µM AlK(SO₄)₂ solution in a homopiperazine-1,4-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer (pH 4.0), and the control solution which contained the buffer only. Proteomes of radicles were analyzed quantitatively by mass spectrometry employing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ ® ). The proteins identified were assigned to molecular functional groups and cellular metabolic pathways using MapMan. Among the proteins whose abundance levels changed significantly were: a number of transcription factors; proteins regulating gene silencing and programmed cell death; proteins in primary and secondary signaling pathways, including phytohormone signaling and proteins for enhancing tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. Among the metabolic pathways, enzymes in glycolysis and fermentation and sucrolytic pathways were repressed. Secondary metabolic pathways including the mevalonate pathway and lignin biosynthesis were induced. Biological reactions in mitochondria seem to be induced due to an increase in the abundance level of mitochondrial ribosomes and enzymes in the TCA cycle, electron transport chains and ATP synthesis.

  14. Effect of Aluminum Treatment on Proteomes of Radicles of Seeds Derived from Al-Treated Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikenna Okekeogbu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive Al3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 µM AlK(SO42. Seeds harvested from Al-treated plants contained a significantly higher Al content than those grown in the control hydroponic solution. In this study, these Al-enriched tomato seeds (harvested from Al-treated tomato plants were germinated in 50 µM AlK(SO42 solution in a homopiperazine-1,4-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid buffer (pH 4.0, and the control solution which contained the buffer only. Proteomes of radicles were analyzed quantitatively by mass spectrometry employing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ®. The proteins identified were assigned to molecular functional groups and cellular metabolic pathways using MapMan. Among the proteins whose abundance levels changed significantly were: a number of transcription factors; proteins regulating gene silencing and programmed cell death; proteins in primary and secondary signaling pathways, including phytohormone signaling and proteins for enhancing tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. Among the metabolic pathways, enzymes in glycolysis and fermentation and sucrolytic pathways were repressed. Secondary metabolic pathways including the mevalonate pathway and lignin biosynthesis were induced. Biological reactions in mitochondria seem to be induced due to an increase in the abundance level of mitochondrial ribosomes and enzymes in the TCA cycle, electron transport chains and ATP synthesis.

  15. Technical feasibility and carbon footprint of biochar co-production with tomato plant residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach-Massana, Pere; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Peña, Javier; Rieradevall, Joan; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Puy, Neus

    2017-09-01

    World tomato production is in the increase, generating large amounts of organic agricultural waste, which are currently incinerated or composted, releasing CO 2 into the atmosphere. Organic waste is not only produced from conventional but also urban agricultural practices due recently gained popularity. An alternative to current waste management practices and carbon sequestration opportunity is the production of biochar (thermally converted biomass) from tomato plant residues and use as a soil amendment. To address the real contribution of biochar for greenhouse gas mitigation, it is necessary to assess the whole life cycle from the production of the tomato biomass feedstock to the actual distribution and utilisation of the biochar produced in a regional context. This study is the first step to determine the technical and environmental potential of producing biochar from tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum arawak variety) waste biomass and utilisation as a soil amendment. The study includes the characterisation of tomato plant residue as biochar feedstock (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and metal content); feedstock thermal stability; and the carbon footprint of biochar production under urban agriculture at pilot and small-scale plant, and conventional agriculture at large-scale plant. Tomato plant residue is a potentially suitable biochar feedstock under current European Certification based on its lignin content (19.7%) and low metal concentration. Biomass conversion yields of over 40%, 50% carbon stabilization and low pyrolysis temperature conditions (350-400°C) would be required for biochar production to sequester carbon under urban pilot scale conditions; while large-scale biochar production from conventional agricultural practices have not the potential to sequestrate carbon because its logistics, which could be improved. Therefore, the diversion of tomato biomass waste residue from incineration or composting to biochar production for use as a soil amendment

  16. Development of an irrigation control device based on solar radiation and its adaptability for cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, M.; Shibuya, K.; Kubai, K.; Komatsu, H.; Hosokawa, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2009-01-01

    An irrigation control device based on solar radiation was developed to allow automatic irrigation management for high soluble solid tomato fruit production in root zone restriction culture. Its adaptability for long-term cultivation (planting carried out in early September and harvesting ending in late June) of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture was examined. The following results were obtained: 1. The control device was composed of generally available electronic parts. A change of setting was possible for the irrigation starting point, the irrigation time period, and the once amount of irrigation. For the first irrigation of the day, one of two irrigation control modes can be chosen; the first determines irrigation dependent on the solar radiation after the irrigated time of the previous day. The second mode irrigates at a set time. 2. The correlation between the total integrated solar radiation and the evapotranspiration rate of tomato plants were investigated. Positive correlations were observed for each month from October to June. Moreover, total integrated solar radiation per unit evapotranspiration was different for each month. 3. In long-term cultivation of tomato fruit using this device, the marketable yield of high soluble solid tomato fruit (more than Brix 8%) was 9.7t/10a. 4. This device exhibited the necessary adaptability for use in long-term cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture, by changing the set value of the irrigation starting point and the irrigation time period in accordance with the growth period

  17. Transgenic tomato plants expressing the antigen gene PfCP-2.9 of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Kantor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain transgenic tomato plants expressing the PfCP-2.9 protein (a chimera of the antigens MSP1 and AMA1 of Plasmodium falciparum. Cotyledons of seven-day-old tomatoes, cultivar Summers, were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgenic expression in the T0 plants was verified in the DNA extracted from fruits. PCR analysis was used to test the presence of the gene of interest in the T1 generation. Reverse transcriptase PCR provided evidence of gene expression at the RNA level, and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of the protein of interest in the T1 plants. This is the first report of successful transformation with the expression of a malaria antigen (PfCP-2.9 in transgenic tomato plants from the T0 and T1 generations.

  18. Plant insects and mites uptake double-stranded RNA upon its exogenous application on tomato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Anupam; Sarmah, Nomi; Kaldis, Athanasios; Perdikis, Dionysios; Voloudakis, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Exogenously applied double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules onto tomato leaves, moved rapidly from local to systemic leaves and were uptaken by agricultural pests namely aphids, whiteflies and mites. Four small interfering RNAs, deriving from the applied dsRNA, were molecularly detected in plants, aphids and mites but not in whiteflies. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) acts as the elicitor molecule of the RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi), the endogenous and evolutionary conserved surveillance system present in all eukaryotes. DsRNAs and their subsequent degradation products, namely the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), act in a sequence-specific manner to control gene expression. Exogenous application of dsRNAs onto plants elicits resistance against plant viruses. In the present work, exogenously applied dsRNA molecules, derived from Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) HC-Pro region, onto tomato plants were detected in aphids (Myzus persicae), whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and mites (Tetranychus urticae) that were fed on treated as well as systemic tomato leaves. Furthermore, four siRNAs, deriving from the dsRNA applied, were detected in tomato and the agricultural pests fed on treated tomato plants. More specifically, dsRNA was detected in agricultural pests at 3 and 10 dpt (days post treatment) in dsRNA-treated leaves and at 14 dpt in systemic leaves. In addition, using stem-loop RT-PCR, siRNAs were detected in agricultural pests at 3 and 10 dpt in aphids and mites. Surprisingly, in whiteflies carrying the applied dsRNA, siRNAs were not molecularly detected. Our results showed that, upon exogenous application of dsRNAs molecules, these moved rapidly within tomato and were uptaken by agricultural pests fed on treated tomato. As a result, this non-transgenic method has the potential to control important crop pests via RNA silencing of vital genes of the respective pests.

  19. Multiploidy occurrence in tomato calli from anther culture | Julião ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... duration did not directly influence the occurrence of endoreduplication. In this work, this type of somaclonal variation has been reported for the first time in tomato anther culture, and their possible origin has been discussed. Key words: Callogenesis, flow cytometry, polyploidy, Solanum lycopersicum, somaclonal variation.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of plant-specific Dof transcription factor family in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhang, Chanjuan; Zhang, Tingyan; Hu, Tixu; Ye, Jie; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-06-01

    The Dof (DNA binding with One Finger) family encoding single zinc finger proteins has been known as a family of plant-specific transcription factors. These transcription factors are involved in a variety of functions of importance for different biological processes in plants. In the current study, we identified 34 Dof family genes in tomato, distributed on 11 chromosomes. A complete overview of SlDof genes in tomato is presented, including the gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogeny, protein motifs and evolution pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 34 SlDof proteins resulted in four classes constituting six clusters. In addition, a comparative analysis between these genes in tomato, Arabidopsis and rice was also performed. The tomato Dof family expansion has been dated to recent duplication events, and segmental duplication is predominant for the SlDof genes. Furthermore, the SlDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth conditions. This is the first step towards genome-wide analyses of the Dof genes in tomato. Our study provides a very useful reference for cloning and functional analysis of the members of this gene family in tomato and other species. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdones, Ángela; Tur, Núria; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film-forming dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro-Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre-harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. The application of the FFDs at '3 Leaves' stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer-EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the 'Fruit' stage the pre-harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer-EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non-treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. The application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Elevated O₃ enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongying; Su, Jianwei; Wei, Jianing; Hu, Yongjian; Ge, Feng

    2014-06-18

    We experimentally examined the effects of elevated O₃ and whitefly herbivory on tomato volatiles, feeding and oviposition preferences of whiteflies and behavioural responses of Encarsia formosa to these emissions on two tomato genotypes, a wild-type (Wt) and a jasmonic acid (JA) defence-enhanced genotype (JA-OE, 35S). The O₃ level and whitefly herbivory significantly increased the total amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), monoterpenes, green leaf volatiles (GLVs), and aldehyde volatiles produced by tomato plants. The 35S plants released higher amount of total VOCs and monoterpene volatiles than Wt plants under O₃+herbivory treatments. The feeding and oviposition bioassays showed that control plants were preferred by adult whiteflies whereas the 35S plants were not preferred by whiteflies. In the Y-tube tests, O₃+herbivory treatment genotypes were preferred by adult E. Formosa. The 35S plants were preferred by adult E. formosa under O₃, herbivory and O₃+herbivory treatments. Our results demonstrated that elevated O₃ and whitefly herbivory significantly increased tomato volatiles, which attracted E. formosa and reduced whitefly feeding. The 35S plants had a higher resistance to B. tabaci than Wt plant. Such changes suggest that the direct and indirect defences of resistant genotypes, such as 35S, could strengthen as the atmospheric O₃ concentration increases.

  3. Kanamycin resistance during in vitro development of pollen from transgenic tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.; Hille, J.; Franken, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of kanamycin on pollen germination and tube growth of pollen from non-transformed plants and from transgenic tomato plants containing a chimaeric kanamycin resistance gene were determined. Germination of pollen was not affected by the addition of kanamycin to the medium in both genotypes.

  4. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato: the right pathogen, of the right plant, at the right time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, G M

    2000-09-01

    Abstract Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and the closely related pathovar P. s. pv. maculicola have been the focus of intensive research in recent years, not only because of the diseases they cause on tomato and crucifers, but because strains such as P. s. pv. tomato DC3000 and P. s. pv. maculicola ES4326 are pathogens of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Consequently, both P. s. pv. tomato and P. s. pv. maculicola have been widely used to study the molecular mechanisms of host responses to infection. Analyses of the molecular basis of pathogenesis in P. s. pv. tomato reveal a complex and intimate interaction between bacteria and plant cells that depends on the coordinated expression of multiple pathogenicity and virulence factors. These include toxins, extracellular proteins and polysaccharides, and the translocation of proteins into plant cells by the type III (Hrp) secretion system. The contribution of individual virulence factors to parasitism and disease development varies significantly between strains. Application of functional genomics and cell biology to both pathogen and host within the P. s. pv. tomato/A. thaliana pathosystem provides a unique opportunity to unravel the molecular interactions underlying plant pathogenesis. Taxonomic relationship: Bacteria; Proteobacteria; gamma subdivision; Pseudomonadaceae/Moraxellaceae group; Pseudomonadaceae family; Pseudomonas genus; Pseudomonas syringae species; tomato pathovar. Microbiological properties: Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, polar flagella, oxidase negative, arginine dihydrolase negative, DNA 58-60 mol% GC, elicits the hypersensitive response on tobacco. Primarily studied as the causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato and as a model pathogen of A. thaliana, although it has been isolated from a wide range of crop and weed species. Disease symptoms: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum): Brown-black leaf spots sometimes surrounded by chlorotic margin; dark superficial specks on green fruit

  5. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  6. Efforts towards domestication of wild tomato (solanum pimpinellifolium L.) using mutation and in vitro culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartey, E. K.

    2010-06-01

    Wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) is an under-exploited and undomesticated species which possesses a number of economically important traits. The fruit contains about forty (40) times as much lycopene as common tomatoes and is a store house of essential elements and vitamins. However, its tiny fruits (which weigh 1.6 g as compared to 72.0 g in domesticated tomato), coupled with indeterminate growth habit hinder its domestication. The main objective of the study was to induce mutations, through gamma radiation of seeds, as a first step towards creating variability towards selection for improved fruit size and determinate plant growth habit. Following a radiosensitivity test, LD 50 was determined at 300 Gy, based on 50% reduction in seedling height. Seeds irradiated at 150 Gy, 300 Gy and 450 Gy, were later nursed in the nursery and the seedlings transplanted in the field alongside seedlings from un-irradiated seeds, serving as control. M 2 plants were generated by sowing seeds from fruits harvested from the first four branches of M 1 plants. Selection in the M 2 generation was based on plant architecture, fruit weight and colour. Seeds from these variants were sown to generate M 3 plants. Twelve plants (i.e. 5 'dwarf' and 7 'semi-dwarf') were selected for modified plant architecture, 14 for improved fruit characteristics (2.51 - 3.02 g) and 6 for fruit colour (2 yellow-fruited, 1 light red-fruited, and 3 deep red-fruited variants). Fruits of variant lines selected for fruit colour were analysed for lycopene content, total solids, total soluble solids, pH and total antioxidant properties. Elemental composition of the fruits was also determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Fruits of variant line X-I*4(9) (deep red fruits) recorded higher lycopene contents of 146.1 mg/kg on fresh weight basis and 156.7 mg/kg on dry weight basis compared to 136 mg/kg and 152 mg/kg respectively for the control. They also recorded higher total

  7. Comparative study of different application methods of 14C-Fosthiazate in tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitesh Sharma; Surendra Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of different application methods of nematicide 14 C-Fosthiazate was done for the uptake in tomato plants in two varieties Pusa Ruby and Pusa Early Dwarf. The application methods used for the research purpose are seed treatment, soil supplication and drip application in presence and absence of surfactant (Tween-80).It as found that percent absorption was the highest in the drip irrigation method in presence of surfactant. The percent uptake of 14 C-Fosthiazate in two varieties of tomato plants was found to be higher in Pusa Early Dwarf in all the treatment methods. (author)

  8. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  9. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1, niacin (vitamin B3, pyridoxine (vitamin B6, and menadione (vitamin K3. In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10⁶ colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml. Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  10. Agrobacteria Enhance Plant Defense Against Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamovšek, Janja; Stare, Barbara Gerič; Pleško, Irena Mavrič; Širca, Saša; Urek, Gregor

    2017-06-01

    The increased incidence of the crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has long been associated with activities of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Pot experiments on tomato were designed to assess plant vitality, nematode reproduction, and crown gall incidence in combined infection with Agrobacterium and Meloidogyne spp. on tomato roots. Results suggest that tomato plants infected with pathogenic A. tumefaciens 2 days before the nematodes show enhanced plant defense against M. ethiopica resulting in lower egg and gall counts on roots 45 and 90 days postinoculation (dpi); no significantly enhanced defense was observed when the plant was inoculated with bacteria and nematodes at the same time. Split-root experiments also showed that the observed interaction was systemic. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis that targeted several genes under plant hormonal control suggests that the suppression was mediated via systemic acquired resistance by the pathogenesis-related protein 1 and that M. ethiopica did not enhance the defense reaction of tomato against Agrobacterium spp. Nematodes completely inhibited tumor growth in a 45-day experiment if inoculated onto the roots before the pathogenic bacteria. We conclude that the observed antagonism in the tested pathosystem was the result of initially strong plant defense that was later suppressed by the invading pathogen and pest.

  11. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Applications on Plant and Fruit Yield in Greenhouse Organic Tomato Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Ulusu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato production is in the first place in Turkey, 34% of total tomato production (3.614.472 tonnes is under greenhouse conditions. The increase in yield in Turkey is due to the spread of undergrowth cultivation besides the use of qualified varieties and seeds. Synthetic fertilizers can’t be used to obtain economic efficiency in underground organic tomato growing Therefore, the application of alternative fertilizers (barn stubble, green manure, organic fertilizer, vermicompost etc. needs to be improved. For this purpose, effect of the eight different fertilizer combination including organic and worm liquid fertilizer, humic acid and mycorrhizae applications on tomato plant and fruit yield were investigated in the study. Negative check without any fertilizer application growing and a positive check; a synthetic liquid fertilizer application was included. Experiment was set up according to completely randomised block design with 3 replications under greenhouse conditions. Tomato fruit length, diameter and weight was determined as fruit yield and fresh and dry weight as plant yield. There was not any statistical difference among fertilizer applications for fruit and plant yield. However, the highest tomato fruit yield was obtained in the treatments of organic (7.17 kg/ plot and worm fertilizers (4,80 kg/ plot in combination with mycorrhizae. The results were similar for fruit diameter and length. Plant fresh and dry weight was between 2.01 to 5.92 and 0.368 to 1.153 kg, respectively. The highest plant weight was belong to mycorrhizae and organic fertilizer application.

  12. The MADS-box gene SlMBP11 regulates plant architecture and affects reproductive development in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhu; Chen, Guoping; Naeem, Muhammad; Yu, Xiaohu; Tang, Boyan; Li, Anzhou; Hu, Zongli

    2017-05-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants. In the present study, SlMBP11, a member of the AGL15 subfamily, was cloned in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicon M.). SlMBP11 is ubiquitously expressed in all of the tissues we examined, whereas the SlMBP11 transcription levels were significantly higher in reproductive tissues than in vegetative tissues. Plants exhibiting increased SlMBP11 levels displayed reduced plant height, leaf size, and internode length as well as a loss of dominance in young seedlings, highly branched growth from each leaf axil, and increased number of nodes and leaves. Moreover, overexpression lines also exhibited reproductive phenotypes, such as those having a shorter style and split ovary, leading to polycarpous fruits, while the wild type showed normal floral organization. In addition, delayed perianth senescence was observed in transgenic tomatoes. These phenotypes were further confirmed by analyzing the morphological, anatomical and molecular features of lines exhibiting overexpression. These results suggest that SlMBP11 plays an important role in regulating plant architecture and reproductive development in tomato plants. These findings add a new class of transcription factors to the group of genes controlling axillary bud growth and illuminate a previously uncharacterized function of MADS-box genes in tomato plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological control of necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi: Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it was less effective against Phytophthora infestans (64.7 % RGI), Botrytis cinerea (58.3 % RGI), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (57.4 % RGI) Rhizoctonia solani (42.7 % RGI). When B. subtilis was applied to Tomato field, it exhibited different efficiency in suppressing Fusarium wilt. Time of implementation was critical for ...

  14. Plant-derived Antibacterial Metabolites Suppressing Tomato Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Thu Vu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC causes bacterial wilt, and it is one of the most important soil-borne plant pathogenic bacteria. RSSC has a large host range of more than 50 botanical families, which represent more than 200 plant species, including tomato. It is difficult to control bacterial wilt due to following reasons: the bacterial wilt pathogen can grow inside the plant tissue, and it can also survive in soil for a long period; moreover, it has a wide host range and biological diversity. In most previous studies, scientists have focused on developing biological control agents, such as antagonistic microorganisms and botanical materials. However, biocontrol attempts are not successful. Plant-derived metabolites and extracts have been promising candidates to environmentally friendly control bacterial wilt diseases. Therefore, we review the plant extracts, essential oils, and secondary metabolites that show potent in vivo antibacterial activities (in potted plants or in field against tomato bacterial wilt, which is caused by RSSC.

  15. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed; Heuer, Holger; Hallmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidative mechanisms in tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.) plants sprayed with different pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiztekin, M.; Kaya, C.

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to appraise the influence of exogenously applied pesticides such as abamectin, thiamethoxam, pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid on oxidative defence system and some key physiological attributes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Each of these pesticides was applied in three doses (recommended dose, twice and three times higher than the recommended dose). Higher doses of pesticides sprayed to the plants resulted in marked increase in leaf free proline content and electrolyte leakage, but in a decrease in shoot dry matter, chl a, chl b and chl a+b in tomato plants as compared to those plants not sprayed with pesticides. These reductions were greater in tomato plants sprayed with highest doses of thiamethoxam (144 mg L-1), whereas the reverse was true for proline content and electrolyte leakage. The foliar application of pesticides at the highest levels caused enhanced accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in most cases, and these being greater in treatment of foliar application of thiamethoxam at the highest level. The highest doses of pesticides promoted the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in most cases. The results clearly indicate that application of pesticides at higher doses than recommended doses provoked both oxidative and antioxidative systems in tomato plants. (author)

  17. Growth and conversion of solar energy of grafted tomato plants under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pedó

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The grafting technique favors cultivation tomato under conditions environment adverse, being the effects on the physiology of scarce plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the growth and solar energy conversion efficiency in grafted tomato and not grafted in greenhouse. The grafting was performed by grafting of cleft and the treatments consisted of tomato plants grafted on hybrid Kaguemusha® and not grafted. The samples for growth analysis were performed at intervals of fourteen days after transplanting (DAT by the end of the crop cycle. At each harvest, plants were separated into organs, being determined to total dry matter (Wt, rates of dry matter production (Ct and relative growth (Rw, net assimilation (Ea, leaf area index (L, growth rate, leaf area (Ca, relative growth of leaf area (Ra, leaf area ratio (Fa, leaf weight (Fw, specific leaf area (Sa, conversion efficiency solar energy (? and assimilation rate of fruit (Efr. From the analysis of data growth, the plants grafted on the hybrid Kaguemusha® had higher Wt, Ct, Rw, Ea and ? compared to non-grafted that showed a high Fa and Fw. Therefore, the stress caused by grafting did not affect the growth at the end of the development cycle of tomato plants, being important feature to keep the crop yield

  18. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  19. Comprehensive exergy analysis of a commercial tomato paste plant with a double-effect evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojarab Soufiyan, Mohamad; Dadak, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Sina; Nasiri, Farshid; Dowlati, Majid; Tahmasebi, Maryam; Aghbashlo, Mortaza

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy evaluation of a commercial tomato paste plant with a double-effect evaporator was conducted in order to provide information on the system thermodynamic inefficiencies. Using energy and exergy balance equations, all components of the plant were analyzed individually and their exergetic parameters were calculated on the basis of actual operational data. The required data were obtained from Nazchin tomato paste factory located in Tehran, Iran. In addition, it was attempted to quantify the exergy utilized for processing a given amount of the tomato paste. The results showed that over 82% of the total destroyed exergy in the plant occurred in the boiler combination as the main component wasting exergy. Furthermore, exergy analysis introduced this combination as the main equipment rejecting exergy to the ambient where 4.79% of its total exergy input was lost. The rational exergy efficiency of the first- and second-effect evaporative units was found to be 65.33% and 56.60%, respectively. The specific exergy consumption of the tomato paste production was also determined as 16.83 MJ/kg. Generally, exergy concept and its extensions could be served as a powerful assessment technique to optimize the design and performance of multiple-effect evaporation systems employed in food industry. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis of a tomato paste plant with a double-effect evaporator was done. • 82% of the total exergy destruction rate occurred in the boiler combination. • 16.83 MJ exergy was utilized for production of 1 kg tomato paste. • Optimal number of effects could be potentially found using exergy-based approaches.

  20. Evaluation of influence of fertilizers in radium concentration from tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira C.; Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Alleluia, Irene B.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2001-01-01

    The fertilizer contribution to radio uptake by tomato plants was assessed. Tomato and soil samples from four different plantations were analyzed: two using organic fertilizer and two using phosphate fertilizer. The Ra concentrations in eight of the most used tomato fertilizers were determined. The concentration values ranged from 14 to 221 Bq/kg of Ra-226 and from 25 to 176 Bq/kg of Ra-228. Owing to the low Ra concentration and to the used fertilizer quantities, the fertilizers would not increase significantly the Ra soil concentration. However, the highest soil to plant concentration ratios were found in the plantations using phosphate fertilizers. This outcome pointed out the higher Ra availability in the phosphate fertilizer plantations than in the organic fertilizer plantations, showing a possible positive influence of phosphate fertilizers for the tomato Ra uptake. Due to the phosphate fertilizer used, the dose could increase from 0,05 Sv/year to 0,24 Sv/year. However this increase is not significant face the ingestion average worldwide effective dose. (author)

  1. Pre-infestation of Tomato Plants by Aphids Modulates Transmission-Acquisition Relationship among Whiteflies, Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao L. Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivory defense systems in plants are largely regulated by jasmonate-(JA and salicylate-(SA signaling pathways. Such defense mechanisms may impact insect feeding dynamic, may also affect the transmission-acquisition relationship among virus, plants and vectoring insects. In the context of the tomato – whitefly – Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV biological model, we tested the impact of pre-infesting plants with a non-vector insect (aphid Myzus persicae on feeding dynamics of a vector insect (whitefly Bemisia tabaci as well as virus transmission-acquisition. We showed that an aphid herbivory period of 0–48 h led to a transient systemic increase of virus concentration in the host plant (root, stem, and leaf, with the same pattern observed in whiteflies feeding on aphid-infested plants. We used real-time quantitative PCR to study the expression of key genes of the SA- and JA-signaling pathways, as well as electrical penetration graph (EPG to characterize the impact of aphid pre-infestation on whitefly feeding during TYLCV transmission (whitefly to tomato and acquisition (tomato to whitefly. The impact of the duration of aphid pre-infestation (0, 24, or 48 h on phloem feeding by whitefly (E2 during the transmission phase was similar to that of global whitefly feeding behavior (E1, E2 and probing duration during the acquisition phase. In addition, we observed that a longer phase of aphid pre-infestation prior to virus transmission by whitefly led to the up-regulation and down-regulation of SA- and JA-signaling pathway genes, respectively. These results demonstrated a significant impact of aphid pre-infestation on the tomato – whitefly – TYLCV system. Transmission and acquisition of TYLCV was positively correlated with feeding activity of B. tabaci, and both were mediated by the SA- and JA-pathways. TYLCV concentration during the transmission phases was modulated by up- and down-regulation of SA- and JA-pathways, respectively. The two

  2. FEATURES OF MINERAL NUTRITION FOR TOMATO PLANTS WITH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN OPEN FIELD CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Akhmetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dagestan is the largest region with irrigation system of agriculture in Russia. Irrigated lands provide 70% of total plant production. The field cultivation is carried on arable land in plain region of the republic. The drip irrigation as an ecologically safe technology for watering is regarded as major means for vegetable production farming. This approach maintains the propitious level of water and air in the soil without surface and deep drainage of irrigating water. These irrigated lands are expected to be used first of all for valuable and profitable crops such as tomato that is a leading crop in Dagestan. The experimental work was carried out at OOO ‘Dagagrocomplex’, Aleksandro-Nevskoye, in Tarumovskiy region. The aim of the study was to determinate the optimal dose of mineral fertilizers and the way of their application to improve the productivity without quality loss. The complex analysis of the technology for tomato production under drip irrigation through nontransplanting culture showed its high efficiency, because volume and quality of yield directly depended on soil moisture and precise supporting of mineral nutrition rates. The maximal yield of tomato fruits, 88.7-94.5 t/ha was observed with once mineral fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60 with soil humidity 70-80% (field moisture capacity, and also at the dose of N180P135K60 with basic application of N100 in nutrition rate. The result of the study showed that the optimization of two factors, namely soil water rate and mineral nutrition, enabled to produce additionally 39.2 t/ha. It was shown the tight connection between yielding and its quality; when yielding 95 t/ha, the increased contents of dry matter to 7.01%, sugar to 3.8% vitamin C to 18.46% were noticed. The high quality of produced output was supported by pre-watering threshold of moisture at 75-80% (field moisture capacity, when once fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60. 

  3. The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is genetically monomorphic and under strong selection to evade tomato immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongman Cai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. A mutational hotspot was found in the type III-secreted effector gene hopM1. These mutations abolish the cell death triggering activity of the full-length protein indicating strong selection for loss of function of this effector, which was previously considered a virulence factor. Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. Interestingly, the ancestral allele of this MAMP induces a stronger tomato immune response than the derived alleles. The ancestral allele has largely disappeared from today's Pto populations suggesting that flagellin-triggered immunity limits pathogen fitness even in highly virulent pathogens. An additional non-synonymous mutation was identified in flg22 in South American isolates. Therefore, MAMPs are more variable than expected differing even between otherwise almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain.

  4. Environmental Metabolomics of the Tomato Plant Surface Provides Insights on Salmonella enterica Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sanghyun; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-05-15

    Foodborne illness-causing enteric bacteria are able to colonize plant surfaces without causing infection. We lack an understanding of how epiphytic persistence of enteric bacteria occurs on plants, possibly as an adaptive transit strategy to maximize chances of reentering herbivorous hosts. We used tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars that have exhibited differential susceptibilities to Salmonella enterica colonization to investigate the influence of plant surface compounds and exudates on enteric bacterial populations. Tomato fruit, shoot, and root exudates collected at different developmental stages supported growth of S. enterica to various degrees in a cultivar- and plant organ-dependent manner. S. enterica growth in fruit exudates of various cultivars correlated with epiphytic growth data (R(2) = 0.504; P = 0.006), providing evidence that plant surface compounds drive bacterial colonization success. Chemical profiling of tomato surface compounds with gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) provided valuable information about the metabolic environment on fruit, shoot, and root surfaces. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed quantitative differences in phytocompounds among cultivars and changes over a developmental course and by plant organ (P enterica growth, while fatty acids, including palmitic and oleic acids, were negatively correlated. We demonstrate that the plant surface metabolite landscape has a significant impact on S. enterica growth and colonization efficiency. This environmental metabolomics approach provides an avenue to understand interactions between human pathogens and plants that could lead to strategies to identify or breed crop cultivars for microbiologically safer produce. In recent years, fresh produce has emerged as a leading food vehicle for enteric pathogens. Salmonella-contaminated tomatoes represent a recurrent human pathogen-plant commodity pair. We demonstrate that Salmonella can utilize

  5. Fungal endophytes – the hidden inducers of volatile terpene biosynthesis in tomato plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntana, Fani; Jensen, Birgit; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    and herbivores. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop, often challenged by fungal pathogens and insect pests. The wide variety of secondary metabolites produced by the plant, and especially terpenes, play a crucial role in plant defence, helping in repelling possible enemies. This project is focused...... on establishing a balanced interaction between S. indica and tomato in vitro, as well as reliable detection methods that show fungal colonization of inoculated plant roots. The effect of root colonization by S. indica on host specialized metabolism is also determined, by comparing volatile terpene profiles of S......Endophytes comprise a polyphyletic and diverse group of microorganisms that colonize plant tissues and do not cause any immediate infection symptoms. Revealing the mechanisms of plant-endophyte mutualistic interactions has attracted considerable attention lately, mainly due to their multiple...

  6. History of plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture, or the aseptic culture of cells, tissues, organs, and their components under defined physical and chemical conditions in vitro, is an important tool in both basic and applied studies as well as in commercial application. It owes its origin to the ideas of the German scientist, Haberlandt, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The early studies led to root cultures, embryo cultures, and the first true callus/tissue cultures. The period between the 1940s and the 1960s was marked by the development of new techniques and the improvement of those that were already in use. It was the availability of these techniques that led to the application of tissue culture to five broad areas, namely, cell behavior (including cytology, nutrition, metabolism, morphogenesis, embryogenesis, and pathology), plant modification and improvement, pathogen-free plants and germplasm storage, clonal propagation, and product (mainly secondary metabolite) formation, starting in the mid-1960s. The 1990s saw continued expansion in the application of the in vitro technologies to an increasing number of plant species. Cell cultures have remained an important tool in the study of basic areas of plant biology and biochemistry and have assumed major significance in studies in molecular biology and agricultural biotechnology in the twenty-first century. The historical development of these in vitro technologies and their applications is the focus of this chapter.

  7. Characterization of the Ac/Ds behaviour in transgenic tomato plants using plasmid rescue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommens, Caius M.T.; Rudenko, George N.; Dijkwel, Paul P.; Haaren, Mark J.J. van; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Blok, Karin M.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    We describe the use of plasmid rescue to facilitate studies on the behaviour of Ds and Ac elements in transgenic tomato plants. The rescue of Ds elements relies on the presence of a plasmid origin of replication and a marker gene selective in Escherichia coli within the element. The position within

  8. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is probably due to that fact that Kp includes the hydraulic conductance of the root system, which offers the highest resistance to water flow in a plant, and the frictional resistance of the proximal part of the crown. Day time course of water relation parameters were monitored in melon and tomato (predawn, 1100 to 1400 h) ...

  9. Modelling of water potential and water uptake rate of tomato plants in the greenhouse: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, G.T.; Schouwink, H.E.; Gieling, Th.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented which predicts water potential and water uptake rate of greenhouse tomato plants using transpiration rate as input. The model assumes that water uptake is the resultant of water potential and hydraulic resistance, and that water potential is linearly related to water

  10. Proteome modification in tomato plants upon long-term aluminum treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to identify the aluminum (Al)-induced proteomes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, “Micro-Tom”) after long-term exposure to the stress factor. Plants were treated in Magnavaca’s solution (pH 4.5) supplemented with 7.5 uM Al3+ ion activity over a 4 month period beginning at the emergen...

  11. First Report of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in Tomato Plants in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants exhibiting symptoms that resemble those of permanent yellowing disease (locally known as “permanente del tomate”) that is associated with phytoplasmas and/or ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection were observed in the state of Sinaloa, México i...

  12. within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In this study, within plant resistance to water transport (hydraulic conductance) was monitored in tomato (Lycopersicum esculuntum) and sweet melon (Citrullus lanatus) using the high pressure flow meter (HPFM) and evaporative flux (EF) methods. In the evaporative flux method, measure- ments of transpiration flux and leaf ...

  13. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, within plant resistance to water transport (hydraulic conductance) was monitored in tomato (Lycopersicum esculuntum) and sweet melon (Citrullus lanatus) using the high pressure flow meter (HPFM) and evaporative flux (EF) methods. In the evaporative flux method, measurements of transpiration flux and leaf ...

  14. Use of hereditary for the detection of radioinduced variability in the height of tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundora, Z.; Perez Talavera, S.; Auchet, F.; Moya, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is about the study of induced variability in the height of tomato plants from seeds treated with Co-60 gamma-rays. Hereditary coefficients in narrow sense were used trough progenitor-descendant regression of varieties irradiated on the control as indicator of the variability induced by the different doses

  15. Effects of chilling on protein synthesis in tomato suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matadial, B.; Pauls, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of chilling on cell growth, cell viability, protein content and protein composition in suspension cultures of L. esculentum and L. hirsutum was investigated. Cell growth for both species was arrested at 2 degrees C but when cultures were transferred to 25 degree C cell growth resumed. There was no difference in viability between control and chilled cultures of L. esculentum, however, L. hirsutum control cultures exhibited larger amounts of Fluorescein Diacetate induced fluorescence than chilled cultures. 35 S-methionine incorporation into proteins was 2.5-2 times higher in L. hirsutum than in L. esculentum. Quantitative and qualitative differences, in 35 S-methionine labelled proteins, between chilled and control cultures were observed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Protein content in chilled cultures decreased over time but then increased when cultures were transferred to 25 degrees C

  16. Epigenetics in plant tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Plants produced vegetatively in tissue culture may differ from the plants from which they have been derived. Two major classes of off-types occur: genetic ones and epigenetic ones. This review is about epigenetic aberrations. We discuss recent studies that have uncovered epigenetic modifications at

  17. Salinity and ripening on/off the plant effects on lycopene synthesis and chlorophyll breakdown in hybrid Raf tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-González, María J.; Schouten, Rob E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Cruz Sánchez-Guerrero, M.; Medrano, Evangelina; Rio-Celestino, del Mercedes; Lorenzo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiology of fruit colour in tomato as affected by salinity and ripening on and off the plant. Chlorophyll and lycopene levels were repeatedly measured in ninety Raf tomatoes over a period of eight days using remittance spectroscopy. Fruits were

  18. Design And Control Of Agricultural Robot For Tomato Plants Treatment And Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Arnes; Budiman, Arif; Lestari, Yuyun D.

    2017-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest agricultural country in the world, implementation of robotic technology, otomation and efficiency enhancement in agriculture process hasn’t extensive yet. This research proposed a low cost agricultural robot architecture. The robot could help farmer to survey their farm area, treat the tomato plants and harvest the ripe tomatoes. Communication between farmer and robot was facilitated by wireless line using radio wave to reach wide area (120m radius). The radio wave was combinated with Bluetooth to simplify the communication between robot and farmer’s Android smartphone. The robot was equipped with a camera, so the farmers could survey the farm situation through 7 inch monitor display real time. The farmers controlled the robot and arm movement through an user interface in Android smartphone. The user interface contains control icons that allow farmers to control the robot movement (formard, reverse, turn right and turn left) and cut the spotty leaves or harvest the ripe tomatoes.

  19. Effects of soil acidity on the uptake of trace elements in soybean and tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifang; Takematsu, Noburu; Ambe, Shizuko

    2000-01-01

    The effects of soil acidity on the uptake of trace elements (Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Tc, Ru, Rh and Re) in soybean and tomato were studied by a multitracer technique. The soybean and tomato plants were cultivated on soils at pH 6.4 (normal soil) and 4.2 (acid soil) and administered with a multitracer for 15-60 days. In general, the uptake of cationic elements in the leaves and stems of soybean plants cultivated on acid soil became higher than those of plants cultivated on normal soil during the late period of growth. However, the effect of soil acidification on the uptake of the anionic element, Se, was quite different from that on the cationic elements. The uptake of Se by the plants cultivated on normal soil was higher than that of the plants cultivated on acid soil at all four harvest points. The uptake behavior of these elements in soybean was discussed in relation to their adsorption behavior on the same soil as was used for soybean cultivation. The growth of tomato plants was seriously affected by the soil acidity and lowering of uptake of elements was observed for the plants cultivated on acidified soil

  20. Integrating role of ethylene and ABA in tomato plants adaptation to salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, Muhammad; Akhtar, Javaid; Anwar-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Saline stress seriously disrupts the growth and physiology of plants, whereas phytohormones play an important role in regulating plant responses to salinity stress. The involvement of phytohormones in salt tolerance of tomato and the interaction between potassium and phytohormones was studied...... the negative impact of salinity stress and thus increased the hormone concentration. Enhanced concentration of hormones in salt-tolerant genotype positively affected plant physiology and thus better chlorophyll content index (CCI), stomatal conductance and ion homeostasis that is higher K+/Na+ ratio...... in the xylem. Salt stress altered the stomatal morphology and significantly decreased stomatal density and aperture in both genotypes. It was concluded that under salt stress enhanced phytohormones concentration positively affected the tomato plant physiology, especially in the salt-tolerant genotype...

  1. Biological control of Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants using Streptomyces ahygroscopicus strain CK-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, B B; Cheng, Y; Liu, Y; Liu, B H; Zhang, K C

    2015-12-01

    We developed a real-time PCR assay to specifically detect and quantify the efficacy of a biological fungicide from Streptomyces ahygroscopicus var. wuyiensis on tomato leaves. This fungicide, the natural secondary metabolite wuyiencin, is an antifungal agent against Botrytis cinerea. Specific primers were designed based on the β-actin gene sequences, which were used to detect a 303 bp fragment from B. cinerea isolates. Our assay is highly sensitive and can be used to reliably detect and quantify as little as 1·75 pg of B. cinerea DNA. We used this detection method to monitor the progression of B. cinerea infection in inoculated plant material under preventive (wuyiencin) and nonpreventive treatment. After 5 days, plants under preventive treatment exhibited a sharp decrease in fungal biomass and no symptoms, whereas plants under nonpreventive treatment displayed severe disease symptoms. The results demonstrate that wuyiencin has significant effects on B. cinerea in tomato plants and that real-time PCR is a reliable method for evaluating the effects of Streptomyces wuyiensis CK-15 on B. cinerea. Botrytis cinerea commonly produces latent or nonsymptomatic infection on and within plant tissues, which can develop into symptomatic infection when triggered by changes in environmental conditions or host plant physiology. In this study, we develop a specific, sensitive real-time PCR assay for detecting and quantifying B. cinerea on tomato leaves to determine the control efficacy of Streptomyces ahygroscopicus var. wuyiensis as a biological fungicide. Our findings demonstrate that wuyiencin has significant effects on B. cinerea in tomato plants and that real-time PCR is a reliable method for evaluating the effects of biological fungicides on plant pathogens. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Comparative effects of partial rootzone drying and deficit irrigation on growth and physiology of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slađana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD, deficit irrigation (DI, and full irrigation (FI on tomato physiology were investigated. In PRD and DI plants, leaf water potential values and stomatal conductance were significantly lower, while xylem ABA concentration was greater compared to FI plants. Photosynthesis was similar for all treatments. Water use efficiency was improved by PRD and DI, which reduced fruit dry weight, but had no effect on dry weight of leaves and stems.

  3. Tomato SlGGP-LIKE gene participates in plant responses to chilling stress and pathogenic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Yue; Li, Meng; Ma, Na-Na; Yang, Xing-Hong; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Plants are always exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses which can adversely affect their growth and development. As an important antioxidant, AsA plays a vital role in plant defence against damage caused by stresses. In this study, we cloned a tomato GDP- L -galactose phosphorylase-like (SlGGP-LIKE) gene and investigated its role in resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses by using antisense transgenic (AS) tomato lines. The AsA content in AS plants was lower than that in WT plants. Under chilling stress, the growth of AS plants was inhibited significantly, and they yielded higher levels of ROS, REC and MDA but demonstrated weaker APX activity than that shown by WT plants. Additionally, the declined values of Pn, Fv/Fm, oxidisable P700, and D1 protein content of PSII in AS lines were significant. Furthermore, the effect on xanthophyll cycle of AS plants was more severe than that on WT plants, and the ratio of zeaxanthin (Z)/(V + A + Z) and (Z + 0.5 A)/(V + A + Z) in AS lines was lower than that in WT plants. In spite of chilling stress, under Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain infection, AS plants showed lesser bacterial cell growth and dead cells than those shown by WT plants. This finding indicated that AS plants demonstrated stronger resistance against pathogenic infection. Results suggest that SlGGP-LIKE gene played an important role in plant defence against chilling stress and pathogenic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  5. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Ahmad Nazrul Abdul Wahid; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2012-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N 2 -fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  6. Effect of coloured shade-nets on plant leaf parameters and tomato fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Zoran S; Milenković, Lidija; Šunić, Ljubomir; Fallik, Elazar

    2015-10-01

    The concept of photo-selective netting using commercial cultivation practices was studied in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Vedetta') summer cultivation in south Serbia (under high solar radiation 910 W m(-2) , with a photosynthetic photon flux density of 1661 µmol m(-2) s(-1) ), under four different coloured shade-nets (pearl, red, blue and black) with 40% relative shading. The aim of the study was to determine how different environmental control technologies (coloured shade-nets as screen house or plastic-house integrated with coloured shade-nets) could influence plant parameters, production and quality traits in tomato fruits cultivated in south Serbia (Balkan region). The leaf area index (LAI) ranged from 4.6 to 5.8 in open field and plastic tunnels plants (control) with maximum LAI values of 7.9-8.2 in net houses with red colour nets. Shade-grown leaves generally have higher total chlorophyll and carotenoids content than do control leaves. Pericarp thickness was significantly higher tomatoes grown under pearl (7.215.82 µm), red (7099.00 µm) and blue nets (6802.29 µm) compared to other treatments and to control (6202.48 µm). The highest concentration of lycopene was detected in tomatoes grown in plastic houses integrated with red colour nets (64.9 µg g(-1) fresh weight). The plastic house and open field (control) tomato production had a taste index mean value of 1.09-1.10. This is significantly higher than the values determined for the treatments with different coloured shade-nets. These results show that red and pearl photo-selective nets create optimal growing conditions for the growth of the plant and produce fruits with thicker pericarp, the highest lycopene content, a satisfactory level of taste index and can be further implemented within protected cultivation practices. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Oligandrin. A Proteinaceous Molecule Produced by the Mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum Induces Resistance to Phytophthora parasitica Infection in Tomato Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Karine; Ponchet, Michel; Blein, Jean-Pierre; Rey, Patrice; Tirilly, Yves; Benhamou, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    A low-molecular weight protein, termed oligandrin, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of the mycoparasitic fungus Pythium oligandrum. When applied to decapitated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Prisca) plants, this protein displayed the ability to induce plant defense reactions that contributed to restrict stem cell invasion by the pathogenic fungus Phytophthora parasitica. According to its N-terminal sequence, low-molecular weight, acidic isoelectric point, ultraviolet spectrum, and migration profile, the P. oligandrum-produced oligandrin was found to share some similarities with several elicitins from other Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. However, oligandrin did not induce hypersensitive reactions. A significant decrease in disease incidence was monitored in oligandrin-treated plants as compared with water-treated plants. Ultrastructural investigations of the infected tomato stem tissues from non-treated plants showed a rapid colonization of all tissues associated with a marked host cell disorganization. In stems from oligandrin-treated plants, restriction of fungal growth to the outermost tissues and decrease in pathogen viability were the main features of the host-pathogen interaction. Invading fungal cells were markedly damaged at a time when the cellulose component of their cell walls was quite well preserved. Host reactions included the plugging of intercellular spaces as well as the occasional formation of wall appositions at sites of potential pathogen entry. In addition, pathogen ingress in the epidermis was associated with the deposition of an electron-opaque material in most invaded intercellular spaces. This material, lining the primary walls, usually extended toward the inside to form deposits that frequently interacted with the wall of invading hyphae. In the absence of fungal challenge, host reactions were not detected. PMID:10982451

  8. Accumulation of cell wall-bound phenolic metabolites and their upliftment in hairy root cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2008-07-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis of cell wall material of tomato hairy roots yielded ferulic acid as the major phenolic compound. Other phenolics were 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and 4-coumaric acid. The content of phenolics was much higher at the early stage of hairy root growth. The ferulic acid content decreased up to 30 days and then sharply increased to 360 microg/g at 60 days of growth. Elicitation of hairy root cultures with Fusarium mat extract (FME) increased ferulic acid content 4-fold after 24 h. As the pathogen-derived elicitors have specific receptors in plants, FME may thus be used for inducing resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

  9. NEW VALUABLE GENOTYPES OF TOMATO ADDED IN CULTURE TO INCDBH STEFANESTI-ARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bădulescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing vegetables was one of the first practical human activities. But with the advent of society have continuously developed knowledge and methods of cultivation of vegetable plants, this rate becomes very fast in the modern era, which led to the strengthening of vegetables as a science of its own, detach thus the cultivation of which belonged. It should be noted that Romanian farming was found and is still in a less pleasant due to the unified European market liberalization, and globalization of trade in such products. Among the new creations of the vegetable produced in the country are those approved and patented in INCDBH Ştefăneşti in recent years: Arges 11 Arges 20 Arges 123, Arges 16 varieties of tomato growing determined Ştefăneşti 22, Stefanesti 24, Costate 21, Costate 23 tomato varieties with indeterminate growth.

  10. Influence of simulated Quinclorac drift on the accumulation and movement of herbicide in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Michael L; Hoagland, Robert E; Talbert, Ronald E; Scherder, Eric F

    2009-07-22

    Quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid) is a herbicide commonly used in rice, and its drift has been suspected of causing injury to off-target tomato fields throughout Arkansas. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of single and multiple simulated quinclorac drift applications on tomato plant growth and development. Residues extracted from tomato plants treated with 0.42 g of ai ha(-1) were below the detection limit of liquid chromatography-double mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Quinclorac residue levels and half-lives in tomato tissue increased as the application rate and number of applications increased. From 3 to 72 h after (14)C-quinclorac treatment of plants, most of the absorbed (14)C was retained in the treated leaf, and translocations of (14)C out of the treated leaf of vegetative and flowering tomato plant tissues were similar. Of the (14)C that translocated out of the treated leaf, the greatest movement was acropetally. The flower cluster contained 1% of the total absorbed (14)C, which suggests the potential for quinclorac translocation into tomato fruit. More extensive research will be required to understand the impact that quinclorac may have on tomato production in the area.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate oxidative stress induced by ADOR and enhance antioxidant responses of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Palma, José Manuel; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2014-03-15

    The behaviour of tomato plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi grown in the presence of aqueous extracts from dry olive residue (ADOR) was studied in order to understand how this symbiotic relationship helps plants to cope with oxidative stress caused by ADOR. The influence of AM symbiosis on plant growth and other physiological parameters was also studied. Tomato plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae and were grown in the presence of ADOR bioremediated and non-bioremediated by Coriolopsis floccosa and Penicillium chrysogenum-10. The antioxidant response as well as parameters of oxidative damage were examined in roots and leaves. The data showed a significant increase in the biomass of AM plant growth in the presence of ADOR, regardless of whether it was bioremediated. The establishment and development of the symbiosis were negatively affected after plants were exposed to ADOR. No differences were observed in the relative water content (RWC) or PS II efficiency between non-AM and AM plants. The increase in the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) were simultaneous to the reduction of MDA levels and H2O2 content in AM root growth in the presence of ADOR. Similar H2O2 levels were observed among non-AM and AM plants, although only AM plants showed reduced lipid peroxidation content, probably due to the involvement of antioxidant enzymes. The results highlight how the application of both bioremediated ADOR and AM fungi can alleviate the oxidative stress conditions, improving the growth and development of tomato plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Hexanoic acid-induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; Kravchuk, Zhana; Real, María Dolores; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2009-11-01

    We have demonstrated that root treatment with hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea. Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was blocked in the jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutant jai1 (a coi1 homolog) and in the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant flacca (flc). Upon infection, the LoxD gene as well as the oxylipin 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and the bioactive molecule JA-Ile were clearly induced in treated plants. However, the basal ABA levels were not altered. Hexanoic acid primed callose deposition against B. cinerea in a cultivar-dependent manner. Treated plants from Ailsa Craig, Moneymaker, and Rheinlands Ruhm showed increased callose deposition but not from Castlemart. Hexanoic acid did not prime callose accumulation in flc plants upon B. cinerea infection; therefore, ABA could act as a positive regulator of Hx-IR by enhancing callose deposition. Furthermore, although hexanoic acid protected the JA-deficient mutant defensless1 (def1), the priming for callose was higher than in the wild type. This suggests a link between JA and callose deposition in tomato. Hence, the obtained results support the idea that callose, oxylipins, and the JA-signaling pathway are involved in Hx-IR against B. cinerea. Moreover our data support the relevance of JA-signaling for basal defense against this necrotroph in tomato. Hexanoic acid also protected against Pseudomonas syringae, indicating a broad-spectrum effect for this new inducer.

  13. Persistence of endosulfan and its metabolites in tomato plants and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carazo, E.; Barquero, M.; Valverde, B.

    1999-01-01

    Tests were conducted to study the persistence of 14 C-labelled α and β -endosulfan in tomato plants and soil under the greenhouse conditions when applied at the rate and number of applications used by tomato growers in Costa Rica. Two applications, at 30 and 55 days after planting were made. Plant and soil samples were extracted 37, 49, 71 and 125 days after planting and analyzed by LSC, TLC and GC-ECD. At 37 days after planting the compounds identified were α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate with a combined concentration of 3.6 mg/kg in plant and 0.6 mg/kg in the soil. At 49 days after planting the same three compounds were found at the combined concentration of 1.51 mg/kg in the plant and at 0.34 mg/kg in the soil. After 71 days low levels of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate and endosulfan lactone were found in plants and soil. Similarly, at 125 days low levels of these compounds as well as low levels of two other metabolites, endosulfan alcohol and endosulfan ether were detected. Under the conditions of the experiment endosulfan residues do not seem to be significant or persistant. (author)

  14. Colonization of Tomato Plants by Two Agrocin-Producing Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    OpenAIRE

    Macrae, Sharmane; Thomson, Jennifer A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    1988-01-01

    For a bacterium to be a successful biocontrol agent against crown gall disease, it must produce an effective agrocin specific for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and be able to colonize host plants efficiently. The colonization abilities of K84 and J73, successful and potential biocontrolling strains, respectively, were compared both in vivo and in vitro. Both strains produced fibrils attaching them to tomato root surfaces and had similar colonization efficiencies up to 14 days after inoculation. H...

  15. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From an economic viewpoint, tomato is considered as the second most valuable crop after potato. It is also preceded by the potato in terms of per capita consumption in the world. In 2008, the cultivation area used for the tomato as equal to 163,539 hectares in Iran and the production of it was equal to 5,887,715 tons with an average production of 117,887 tons in 4352 hectares in the provinces, respectively. Having high production volume and quality, costly hybrid seeds are currently used for the major planting areas of vegetable in Iran. Most of the used transplanted seedlings are 83%. Since the seeds are expensive, the percentage of seedlings and healthy and disease-free seeds should be used for maximized germination and be transferred to the fields of open space. Preparing seedlings in transplanting trays is a technology to respond to this need. Trays are covered with a layer of Peat and Miculite fertilizers. Then, one seed is manually placed in each cell after gauging and preparing a suitable field. However, manually placing seeds is time-consuming and requires hard labor. Sixteen working labors per hour are required for 15 × 7 cell in order to have 10200 seedlings grown in 100 trays. Due to lack of adequate labor, production capacity of greenhouses is reduced, especially in the farming season when finding labor for planting vegetable sprouts is laborious. Therefore, mechanizing tray seeding operations is essential to increase the capacity of the growing industry of greenhouses in Iran. Materials and Methods: Initially, the tomato seeds were examined in the laboratory. The most important parameters of the study included size, shape, weight, the speed of getting out of the tank and the minimum carrying speed. Then, a vacuum-based single seed picking unit was prepared to investigate the factors influencing the design, so that a single tomato seed can be harvested from the masses. The most important factors considered in the

  16. Inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on Meloidogyne javanica reproduction in tomato plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moslemi, F.; Fatemy, S.; Bernard, F.

    2016-11-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), play a major role in loss of agricultural production. Natural substances, such as salicylic acid (SA) could possibly be involved in inducing host plant resistance against nematodes. The present study is concerned with exploring the effects of varying concentrations of SA as seed priming and soil drench on tomato growth parameters and the reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. SA at 50 μM concentration caused only 2% of juvenile mortality under in vitro conditions. SA applied as 50 μM seed treatment caused 95% and, as a soil drench, 78% reduction in the number of egg masses that formed on tomato plants. The numbers of galls were reduced to a lesser extent. Final nematode density per gram of soil was reduced to less than 1 by the 50 μM SA seed treatment, and in other treatments decreased by between 70 and 88% compared with control plants. Our results indicate SA has potential to lower root knot nematode reproduction in tomato, and seed priming is a fairly easy method to work with. (Author)

  17. Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

    2011-01-01

    A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

  18. Carnivore Attractant or Plant Elicitor? Multifunctional Roles of Methyl Salicylate Lures in Tomato Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Elizabeth; Gutensohn, Michael; Dudareva, Natalia; Kaplan, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic plant volatile lures attract natural enemies, but may have non-target effects due to the multifunctional nature of volatile signals. For example, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is used to attract predators, yet also serves as a signaling hormone involved in plant pathogen defense. We investigated the consequences of deploying MeSA lures to attract predators for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defense against herbivores. To understand the spatial distribution of the lure's effect, we exposed tomatoes in the field to MeSA along a linear distance gradient and induced defenses by simulating feeding by hornworm caterpillars in a fully crossed factorial design (+/- MeSA, +/- herbivory). Subsequently, we analyzed activity of several defensive proteins (protease inhibitors, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase), development of hornworm larvae (Manduca sexta), growth of fungal pathogens (Cladosporium and Alternaria), and attractiveness to herbivores and predators. Overall, MeSA-exposed plants were more resistant to both insects and pathogens. Secondary pathogen infection was reduced by 25% in MeSA exposed plants, possibly due to elevated polyphenol oxidase activity. Interestingly, we found that lures affected plant pathogen defenses equivalently across all distances (up to 4 m away) indicating that horizontal diffusion of a synthetic volatile may be greater than previously assumed. While thrips avoided colonizing hornworm- damaged tomato plants, this induced resistance was not observed upon pre-exposure to MeSA, suggesting that MeSA suppresses the repellant effect induced by herbivory. Thus, using MeSA lures in biological control may inadvertently protect crops from pathogens, but has mixed effects on plant resistance to insect herbivores.

  19. Opposite extremes in ethylene/nitric oxide ratio induce cell death in suspension culture and root apices of tomato exposed to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, P; Borbély, P; Kovács, Judit; Papp, Anita; Szepesi, Ágnes; Takács, Z; Tari, Irma

    2014-12-01

    The plant hormone ethylene or the gaseous signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO) may enhance salt stress tolerance by maintaining ion homeostasis, first of all K+/Na+ ratio of tissues. Ethylene and NO accumulation increased in the root apices and suspension culture cells of tomato at sublethal salt stress caused by 100 mM NaCl, however, the induction phase of programmed cell death (PCD) was different at lethal salt concentration. The production of ethylene by root apices and the accumulation of NO in the cells of suspension culture did not increase during the initiation of PCD after 250 mM NaCl treatment. Moreover, cells in suspension culture accumulated higher amount of reactive oxygen species which, along with NO deficiency contributed to cell death induction. The absence of ethylene in the apical root segments and the absence of NO accumulation in the cell suspension resulted in similar ion disequilibrium, namely K+/Na+ ratio of 1.41 ± 0.1 and 1.68 ± 0.3 in intact plant tissues and suspension culture cells, respectively that was not tolerated by tomato.

  20. Breeding of a Tomato Genotype Readily Accessible to Genetic Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Maarten; Hanhart, Corrie; Jongsma, Maarten; Toma, Ingrid; Weide, Rob; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques

    1986-01-01

    A tomato genotype, superior in regenerating plants from cell cultures, was obtained by transferring regeneration capacity from Lycopersicon peruvianum into L. esculentum by classical breeding. This genotype, MsK93, greatly facilitates genetic manipulation of tomato, as was demonstrated by successful

  1. Effect of plant development (age and size) on the Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, C I; Muñiz, M; Nombela, G

    2017-12-01

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is one of the most important pests of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. The Mi-1 gene mediates tomato resistance to the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) species of B. tabaci, three species of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Tomato seedlings bearing the Mi-1 gene are resistant to nematodes soon after germination but resistance to aphids is developmentally regulated; a reliable conclusion about Mi-1 resistance to B. tabaci was not available to date. In the present work, 3-, 5- and 8-week-old plants of the tomato cultivars Motelle and Moneymaker (bearing and lacking the Mi-1 gene, respectively) were simultaneously tested under free-choice (antixenosis) and no-choice (antibiosis) conditions, to assess the real influence of plant age on the Mi-1-mediated resistance to the MED species of B. tabaci. Subsequently, plants of the same age but with different level of development were compared to check whether the plant size can also affect this tomato resistance. Obtained results demonstrated that Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci is developmentally regulated, as variations in the age of bearing-Mi-1 plants affects most infestation parameters tested. Differences between cultivars with and without the Mi-1 gene were significant for 8- but not for 3-week-old plants. For 5-week-old plants, differences between cultivars were less pronounced than in older plants, expressing an intermediate level of resistance in Motelle. Plant size also influenced whitefly infestation and reproductive activity on the resistant cultivar. However, plant age has more impact than plant size on the Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to B. tabaci.

  2. Accumulation of carbohydrates in the development of tomato plants treated with different chemical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work had the purpose to study the physiological effects of pyraclostrobin, boscalid, plant growth regulators and plant extract on the accumulation of carbohydrates during the development of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana, in protected environment conditions. The treatments were: T1- control; T2- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1; T3- boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T4- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1 + boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T5- IBA + GA3 + kinetin 375 mg L-1, T6- GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine 100 mg L-1 and T7- plant extract 100 mg L-1. The carbohydrate accumulation curve was accomplished with 5 samples, at 20-day intervals between evaluations, the 1st evaluation being carried out at 30 days after transplantation, on the day of the first treatment application. At each sampling the plants were separated in stem, leaves and fruits, of which the contents of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and saccharose were evaluated. The effects of the treatments on chlorophyll content and gas exchanges were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 repetitions and 6 destructive evaluations during the development, with 1 plant per experimental unit for each sampling. The pyraclostrobin and boscalid applied in isolation and/or combined favor the increase of carbohydrates in leaves, stems and fruits of tomato hybrid Giuliana

  3. Enhanced resistance to early blight in transgenic tomato lines expressing heterologous plant defense genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Scott C; Gasic, Ksenija; Cammue, Bruno; Broekaert, Willem; van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Korban, Schuyler S

    2005-11-01

    Genes coding for an iris ribosomal-inactivating protein (I-RIP), a maize beta-glucanase (M-GLU), and a Mirabilis jalapa antimicrobial peptide (Mj-AMP1) were separately introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Sweet Chelsea) cotyledons via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic lines carrying each of the transgenes were confirmed for integration into the tomato genome using Southern blot hybridization. Transcription of I-RIP, M-GLU, and Mj-AMP1 genes in various transgenic lines was determined using Northern blot analysis. Plants of selected transgenic lines were inoculated with a 2-3x10(4) conidial spores/ml suspension of the fungal pathogen Alternaria solani, the causal agent of tomato early blight. Compared to control (non-transformed) plants, two transgenic lines carrying either a M-GLU or Mj-AMP1 showed enhanced resistance to early blight disease. None of the four lines carrying the I-RIP transgene showed increased resistance to early blight.

  4. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase exhibit elevated hydroxycinnamic acid amide levels and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Laura; Lisón, Purificación; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Rodrigo, Ismael; Zacarés, Laura; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are secondary metabolites involved in plant development and defense that have been widely reported throughout the plant kingdom. These phenolics show antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) is the key enzyme in HCAA synthesis and is induced in response to pathogen infection, wounding, or elicitor treatments, preceding HCAA accumulation. We have engineered transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato THT. These plants displayed an enhanced THT gene expression in leaves as compared with wild type (WT) plants. Consequently, leaves of THT-overexpressing plants showed a higher constitutive accumulation of the amide coumaroyltyramine (CT). Similar results were found in flowers and fruits. Moreover, feruloyltyramine (FT) also accumulated in these tissues, being present at higher levels in transgenic plants. Accumulation of CT, FT and octopamine, and noradrenaline HCAA in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection was higher in transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Transgenic plants showed an enhanced resistance to the bacterial infection. In addition, this HCAA accumulation was accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene induction. Taken together, these results suggest that HCAA may play an important role in the defense of tomato plants against P. syringae infection.

  5. Prolonged root hypoxia effects on enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation pathway in tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Horchani, Faouzi; Aschi-Smiti, Samira

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of root hypoxia (1–2% oxygen) on the nitrogen (N) metabolism of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom), a range of N compounds and N-assimilating enzymes were performed on roots and leaves of plants submitted to root hypoxia at the second leaf stage for three weeks. Obtained results showed that root hypoxia led to a significant decrease in dry weight (DW) production and nitrate content in roots and leaves. Conversely, shoot to root DW ratio a...

  6. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24 h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B. cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Assessing Salinity in Cotton and Tomato Plants by Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated lands in semi-arid and arid areas are subjected to salinization processes. An example of this phenomenon is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel where soil salinity has increased over the years. The increase in soil salinity results in the deterioration of the soil structure and crops damage. In this experiment we quantified the relation between the chemical and spectral features of cotton and tomato plants and their mutual relationship to soil salinity. The experiment was carried out as part of ongoing research aiming to detect and monitor saline soils and vegetation by combining different remote sensing methods. The aim of this study was to use vegetation reflectance measurements to predict foliar Cl and Na concentration and assess salinity in the soil and in vegetation by their reflectance measurements. The model developed for determining concentrations of chlorine and sodium in tomato and cotton produced good results ( R2 = 0.92 for sodium and 0.85 for chlorine in tomato and R2 = 0.84 for sodium and 0.82 for chlorine in cotton). Lately, we extend the method to calculate vegetation salinity, by doing correlation between the reflectance slopes of the tested crops CL and Na from two research areas. The developed model produced a good results for all the data (R2=0.74) Our method can be implemented to assess vegetation salinity ahead of planting, and developed as a generic tool for broader use for agriculture in semi-arid regions. In our opinion these results show the possibility of monitoring for a threshold level of salinity in tomato and cotton leaves so remedial action can be taken in time to prevent crop damage. Our results strongly suggest that future imaging spectroscopy remote sensing measurements collected by airborne and satellite platforms could measure the salinity of soil and vegetation over larger areas. These results can be the first steps for generic a model which includes more vegetation for salinity measurements.

  8. Residual polysaccharides from fungi reduce the bacterial spot in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsis Aguiar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polysaccharides from fungal wastes were partially characterized and evaluated for their protective effects against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas gardneri on four tomato cultivars: Santa Cruz Kada, Natália, BRS Sena and Forty. The polysaccharides were extracted from spent mushroom substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus, residual brewery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and basidiocarps discarded from Lentinula edodes production. These polysaccharides were characterized for total carbohydrates, phenolics and proteins content, pH, scatter intensity, conductivity, Zeta potential, DPPH scavenging assay and infrared spectroscopy. The effects of time interval between treatment and inoculation (4 or 7 days and polysaccharide concentrations (0.5 or 1.5 mg.mL–1 were assessed for disease severity using a susceptible tomato cultivar. The polysaccharide action mode was investigated by determining the activity of peroxidases and phenylalanine ammonialyase and by quantifying flavonoids and total phenolics in the plants treated and challenged with X. gardneri. The polysaccharides obtained from Lentinula edodes (PSHII, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PRC and Pleurotus ostreatus (PSPO (1.5 mg.mL-1 reduced bacterial spot severity by 50% on tomato cotyledons, leaflets and five-leaf plants. Furthermore, PRC and PSHII (1.5 mg.mL–1 could decrease disease severity in all tested cultivars. PSHII, the most effective, did not cause change in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity or flavonoid content on the cultivars Kada and Natália. However, an increase in peroxidase activity and total phenol content on cv. Kada was noted. The polysaccharides obtained from food industry wastes could provide protection against bacterial spot on tomato cultivars by inducing defense mechanisms and can be useful in formulating products with phytosanitary potential.

  9. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient and heritable targeted mutagenesis in tomato plants in the first and later generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Changtian; Ye, Lei; Qin, Li; Liu, Xue; He, Yanjun; Wang, Jie; Chen, Lifei; Lu, Gang

    2016-04-21

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has successfully been used in various organisms for precise targeted gene editing. Although it has been demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 system can induce mutation in tomato plants, the stability of heredity in later generations and mutant specificity induced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system in tomato plants have not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, two genes, SlPDS and SlPIF4, were used for testing targeted mutagenesis in tomato plants through an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. A high mutation frequency was observed in all tested targets in the T0 transgenic tomato plants, with an average frequency of 83.56%. Clear albino phenotypes were observed for the psd mutants. High frequencies of homozygous and biallelic mutants were detected even in T0 plants. The majority of the detected mutations were 1- to 3-nucleotide deletions, followed by 1-bp insertions. The target mutations in the T0 lines were stably transmitted to the T1 and T2 generations, without new modifications or revision. Off-target activities associated with SlPDS and SlPIF4 were also evaluated by sequencing the putative off-target sites, and no clear off-target events were detected. Our results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient tool for generating stable and heritable modifications in tomato plants.

  10. Influence of spaceflight on the efficiency of tomatoes quality and plant resistance to viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashchenko, Anna; Mishchenko, Lidiya

    Tomatoes are an important agricultural crop. The use of plants for life support in long-term space flight advances multiple problems - an adaptation to microgravity and taste. Conditions of microgravity are stressful for plants and they cause them adaptation syndrome to protect and preserve homeostasis (Kordyum, 2010, 2012;. Hasenstein, 1999). Tomatoes are also a product of the diet of astronauts, which is an important part of their life - the regeneration gas environment (photosynthesis), the relaxation factor in psychological people and a powerful antioxidant. In 2007, the tomato seeds, genetically created by scientists from the University of North Carolina, was placed on the International Space Station. But the experiment failed because the seedlings died (Khodakovskaya). Although researchers do not bind this fact with microgravity, it is clear that the study of this factor on plants is rather important. Therefore, the study of the effect of space flight conditions on plant species continues. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of space flight on tomato plant resistance to viral infection and quality products. Seeds of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Sort Podmoskovny early) 6 years (1992-1998) were in terms of long-term space flight on the Russian space station "Mir". Then the seeds germinated in the spring of 2011 and grew up in the Earth's field on the natural infectious background. Part of the plants underwent 5 reproductive phase, resulting in 2011 investigated tomatoes from seed 1st and 5th reproduction, in 2012 - the second and sixth, respectively, and in 2013 - as the second and sixth (sow seeds obtained by us in the Ukraine in 2011.) In our research we used two controls: 1 (stationary control) - plants of the first generation seeds which were not in outer space; 2 - five plants from seed reproduction that exhibited in space and were grown in parallel under the same conditions of the studied plants. Defining of β-carotene and

  11. PLANT REGENERATION THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE OF PEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    culture media, calli embryogenic potential and fertile plants regeneration were conserved for more than 12 months. Characteristics of regenerated plants were similar to control. It appears that dissected shoot apex was a new appropriate tool in tissue culture. Key words: Tissue culture, culture medium, callus induction, shoot ...

  12. Eugenol confers resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating the expression of SlPer1 in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Lv, Wen-Jing; Li, Li-Na; Yin, Gan; Hang, Xiaofang; Xue, Yanfeng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhiqi

    2016-05-25

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most devastating plant diseases, and poses a significant agricultural concern because of the lack of an efficient control method. Eugenol is a plant-derived natural compound that has been widely used as a food additive and in medicine. In the present study, we demonstrated the potential of eugenol to enhance the resistance of tomato plants to TYLCV. The anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol was significantly higher than that of moroxydine hydrochloride (MH), a widely used commercial antiviral agent. Eugenol application stimulated the production of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and salicylic acid (SA) in tomato plants. The full-length cDNA of SlPer1, which has been suggested to be a host R gene specific to TYLCV, was isolated from tomato plants. A sequence analysis suggested that SlPer1 might be a nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT) belonging to the permease family. The transcript levels of SlPer1 increased markedly in response to treatment with eugenol or TYLCV inoculation. The results of this study also showed that SlPer1 expression was strongly induced by SA, MeJA (jasmonic acid methyl ester), and NO. Thus, we propose that the increased transcription of SlPer1 contributed to the high anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol, which might involve in the generation of endogenous SA and NO. Such findings provide the basis for the development of eugenol as an environmental-friendly agricultural antiviral agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant-mediated restriction of Salmonella enterica on tomato and spinach leaves colonized with Pseudomonas plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiun-Kang; Micallef, Shirley A

    2017-10-16

    Reducing Salmonella enterica association with plants during crop production could reduce risks of fresh produce-borne salmonellosis. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonizing plant roots are capable of promoting plant growth and boosting resistance to disease, but the effects of PGPR on human pathogen-plant associations are not known. Two root-colonizing Pseudomonas strains S2 and S4 were investigated in spinach, lettuce and tomato for their plant growth-promoting properties and their influence on leaf populations of S. enterica serovar Newport. Plant roots were inoculated with Pseudomonas in the seedling stage. At four (tomato) and six (spinach and lettuce) weeks post-germination, plant growth promotion was assessed by shoot dry weight (SDW) and leaf chlorophyll content measurements. Leaf populations of S. Newport were measured after 24h of leaf inoculation with this pathogen by direct plate counts on Tryptic Soy Agar. Root inoculation of spinach cv. 'Tyee', with Pseudomonas strain S2 or S4 resulted in a 69% and 63% increase in SDW compared to non-inoculated controls (pPseudomonas S4 restricted S. Newport populations inoculated on leaves of spinach (pPseudomonas-treated plants than those on non-inoculated control plants after 24h was modest with differences of one log or less. By contrast, the survival of S. Newport on the leaves of Romaine lettuce was not influenced by Pseudomonas root colonization. These findings provide evidence that root inoculation of certain specialty crops with beneficial Pseudomonas strains exhibiting PGPR properties may not only promote plant growth, but also reduce the fitness of epiphytic S. enterica in the phyllosphere. Plant-mediated effects induced by PGPR may be an effective strategy to minimize contamination of crops with S. enterica during cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  15. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development of...

  16. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing Tomato Glutathione S-Transferase Showed Enhanced Resistance to Salt and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Xing, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Xue, Yong; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) are involved in response to abiotic stress, limited information is available regarding gene function in tomato. In this study, a GST gene from tomato, designated LeGSTU2, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression profile analysis results showed that it was expressed in roots and flowers, and the transcription was induced by salt, osmotic, and heat stress. The gene was then introduced to Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were normal in terms of growth and maturity compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic plants also showed an enhanced resistance to salt and osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol. The increased tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the changes in proline, malondialdehyde and antioxidative emzymes activities. Our results indicated that the gene from tomato plays a positive role in improving tolerance to salinity and drought stresses in Arabidopsis.

  17. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing Tomato Glutathione S-Transferase Showed Enhanced Resistance to Salt and Drought Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available Although glutathione S-transferases (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 are involved in response to abiotic stress, limited information is available regarding gene function in tomato. In this study, a GST gene from tomato, designated LeGSTU2, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression profile analysis results showed that it was expressed in roots and flowers, and the transcription was induced by salt, osmotic, and heat stress. The gene was then introduced to Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were normal in terms of growth and maturity compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic plants also showed an enhanced resistance to salt and osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol. The increased tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the changes in proline, malondialdehyde and antioxidative emzymes activities. Our results indicated that the gene from tomato plays a positive role in improving tolerance to salinity and drought stresses in Arabidopsis.

  18. Responses of soilless grown tomato plants to arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Soilless cultivation serves to improve better control of the growing medium and to avoid any likely problems for watering and maintaining proper. *Corresponding author. E -mail: dasgan@cu.edu.tr. Tel: + 90. 322 3386871. Fax: + 90 322 338 6388. nutrient concentrations. Good control of the plant growth.

  19. A New Israeli Tobamovirus Isolate Infects Tomato Plants Harboring Tm-22 Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Victoria; Bekelman, Ilana; Lapidot, Moshe; Levin, Ilan; Elad, Nadav; Tam, Yehudit; Sela, Noa; Abu-Ras, Ahmad; Ezra, Nadav; Haberman, Ami; Yitzhak, Liron; Lachman, Oded

    2017-01-01

    An outbreak of a new disease infecting tomatoes occurred in October-November 2014 at the Ohad village in Southern Israel. Symptomatic plants showed a mosaic pattern on leaves accompanied occasionally by narrowing of leaves and yellow spotted fruit. The disease spread mechanically and rapidly reminiscent of tobamovirus infection. Epidemiological studies showed the spread of the disease in various growing areas, in the South and towards the Southeast and Northern parts of the country within a year. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed a single rod-like form characteristic to the Tobamovirus genus. We confirmed Koch’s postulates for the disease followed by partial host range determination and revealed that tomato cultivars certified to harbor the Tm-22 resistance gene are susceptible to the new viral disease. We further characterized the viral source of the disease using a range of antisera for serological detection and analyzed various virus genera and families for cross-reactivity with the virus. In addition, next generation sequencing of total small RNA was performed on two cultivars grown in two different locations. In samples collected from commercial cultivars across Israel, we found a single virus that caused the disease. The complete genome sequence of the new Israeli tobamovirus showed high sequence identity to the Jordanian isolate of tomato brown rugose fruit virus. PMID:28107419

  20. Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Onur Akça

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar application to soils is being considered as a means to sequester carbon (C while concurrently improving soil functions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the effects of biochar from the pyrolysis poultry litter (PL on the soil enzyme activities, organic matter content and growth of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants. In the experiment, the combination of 15.15.15 composite fertilizer with 0, 200, 400 and 600kg/da doses of PL biochar were applied into the clay loam soil. Compared to the control and chemical fertilizer alone, the soil organic matter was significantly increased after biochar amendments. β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and arylsulphatase enzyme activities in soils were increased by the biochar applications significantly (P<0.05. Plant fresh and dry weight of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants were higher in 4kg/ha PL biochar treatment than in the other treatments. The results showed that PL biochar amendment to soils in the agricultural use increased yield of plants and enzyme activities with increasing soil organic matter content as well as improving soil properties.

  1. Plant flavonoids target Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 flagella and type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Paola; Farias, Gabriela A; Nogales, Joaquina; Prada, Harold; Carvajal, Vivian; Barón, Matilde; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta; Olmedilla, Adela; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites involved in plant protection against pathogens, but micro-organisms have developed resistance mechanisms to those compounds. We previously demonstrated that the MexAB-OprM efflux pump mediates resistance of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 to flavonoids, facilitating its survival and the colonization of the host. Here, we have shown that tomato plants respond to Pto infection producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. The effects of flavonoids on key traits of this model plant-pathogen bacterium have also been investigated observing that they reduce Pto swimming and swarming because of the loss of flagella, and also inhibited the expression and assembly of a functional type III secretion system. Those effects were more severe in a mutant lacking the MexAB-OprM pump. Our results suggest that flavonoids inhibit the function of the GacS/GacA two-component system, causing a depletion of rsmY RNA, therefore affecting the synthesis of two important virulence factors in Pto DC3000, flagella and the type III secretion system. These data provide new insights into the flavonoid role in the molecular dialog between host and pathogen. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Salt and genotype impact on plant physiology and root proteome variations in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaa, Arafet; Ben Ahmed, Hela; Valot, Benoît; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the genotypic variation of salt stress response in tomato, physiological analyses and a proteomic approach have been conducted in parallel on four contrasting tomato genotypes. After a 14 d period of salt stress in hydroponic conditions, the genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of plant growth, particularly root growth, foliar accumulation of Na(+), and foliar K/Na ratio. As a whole, Levovil appeared to be the most tolerant genotype while Cervil was the most sensitive one. Roma and Supermarmande exhibited intermediary behaviours. Among the 1300 protein spots reproducibly detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 90 exhibited significant abundance variations between samples and were submitted to mass spectrometry for identification. A common set of proteins (nine spots), up- or down-regulated by salt-stress whatever the genotype, was detected. But the impact of the tomato genotype on the proteome variations was much higher than the salt effect: 33 spots that were not variable with salt stress varied with the genotype. The remaining number of variable spots (48) exhibited combined effects of the genotype and the salt factors, putatively linked to the degrees of genotype tolerance. The carbon metabolism and energy-related proteins were mainly up-regulated by salt stress and exhibited most-tolerant versus most-sensitive abundance variations. Unexpectedly, some antioxidant and defence proteins were also down-regulated, while some proteins putatively involved in osmoprotectant synthesis and cell wall reinforcement were up-regulated by salt stress mainly in tolerant genotypes. The results showed the effect of 14 d stress on the tomato root proteome and underlined significant genotype differences, suggesting the importance of making use of genetic variability.

  3. Changes in SBPase activity influence photosynthetic capacity, growth, and tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Zhang, Shuoxin; Ai, Xizhen

    2016-09-02

    Sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is an important enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle. Here, we report the impact of changes in SBPase activity on photosynthesis, growth and development, and chilling tolerance in SBPase antisense and sense transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. In transgenic plants with increased SBPase activity, photosynthetic rates were increased and in parallel an increase in sucrose and starch accumulation was evident. Total biomass and leaf area were increased in SBPase sense plants, while they were reduced in SBPase antisense plants compared with equivalent wild-type tomato plants. Under chilling stress, when compared with plants with decreased SBPase activity, tomato plants with increased SBPase activity were found to be more chilling tolerant as indicated by reduced electrolyte leakage, increased photosynthetic capacity, and elevated RuBP regeneration rate and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. Collectively, our data suggest that higher level of SBPase activity gives an advantage to photosynthesis, growth and chilling tolerance in tomato plants. This work also provides a case study that an individual enzyme in the Calvin cycle may serve as a useful target for genetic engineering to improve production and stress tolerance in crops.

  4. Control efficiency and expressions of resistance genes in tomato plants treated with ε-poly-l-lysine against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangzheng; Wang, Han; Shi, Beibei; Shangguan, Nini; Wang, Yang; Ma, Qing

    2017-11-01

    The antifungal properties and the induction of resistance by ε-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) were examined to reveal its potential in protecting tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea. As presented herein, ε-PL at 1200mg/L was found to have optimal in vitro antifungal activities, achieving an inhibition rate of 94.96%. In first-year field tests, ε-PL (1200mg/L) had a control effect of up to 79.07% against tomato grey mould. Similar results were obtained in the second year. In greenhouse experiments, ε-PL was observed to effectively reduce leaf infection, with an observed control rate at 89.22%. To define the molecular-genetic mechanisms, we compared the gene expression under four different conditions: sterile water sprayed plants (Control), Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), ε-PL-treated plants (ε-PL) and ε-PL-treated+infected plants (ε-PL+Inf). Quantitative PCR analysis at 36h after inoculation revealed that ε-PL+Inf plants exhibited significant expression and priming of several key Botrytis-induced genes in tomato. The results indicate that ε-PL promoted plant capacity of tomato to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. In total, these findings revealed that ε-PL should be an excellent biocontrol agent candidate that combined direct antifungal activity against B. cinerea and plant resistance capacity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Plant Pathogen-Induced Water-Soaking Promotes Salmonella enterica Growth on Tomato Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Neha; Colee, James; Jones, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogen infection is a critical factor for the persistence of Salmonella enterica on plants. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of S. enterica on diseased tomato plants by using four diverse bacterial spot Xanthomonas species that differ in disease severities. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and X. gardneri infection fostered S. enterica growth, while X. perforans infection did not induce growth but supported the persistence of S. enterica. X. vesicatoria-infected leaves harbored S. enterica populations similar to those on healthy leaves. Growth of S. enterica was associated with extensive water-soaking and necrosis in X. euvesicatoria- and X. gardneri-infected plants. The contribution of water-soaking to the growth of S. enterica was corroborated by an increased growth of populations on water-saturated leaves in the absence of a plant pathogen. S. enterica aggregates were observed with bacterial spot lesions caused by either X. euvesicatoria or X. vesicatoria; however, more S. enterica aggregates formed on X. euvesicatoria-infected leaves as a result of larger lesion sizes per leaf area and extensive water-soaking. Sparsely distributed lesions caused by X. vesicatoria infection do not support the overall growth of S. enterica or aggregates in areas without lesions or water-soaking; S. enterica was observed as single cells and not aggregates. Thus, pathogen-induced water-soaking and necrosis allow S. enterica to replicate and proliferate on tomato leaves. The finding that the pathogen-induced virulence phenotype affects the fate of S. enterica populations in diseased plants suggests that targeting of plant pathogen disease is important in controlling S. enterica populations on plants. PMID:26386057

  6. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  7. Ratio of mutated versus wildtype coat protein sequences in Pepino mosaic virus determines nature and severity of yellowing symptoms on tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasiów-­Jaroszewska, B.; Paeleman, A.; Ortega-Parra, N.; Borodynko, N.; Byczyk, J.; Czerowniec, A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Hanssen, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) infections causing severe yellowing symptoms in tomato plants have been reported in glasshouse tomato crops. When studying this phenomenon in commercial glasshouses, two different types of yellowing symptoms, occurring in adjacent plants, were distinguished:

  8. Tomato chlorotic mottle virus is a target of RNA silencing but the presence of specific short interfering RNAs does not guarantee resistance in transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, S.G.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV) is a begomovirus found widespread in tomato fields in Brazil. ToCMoV isolate BA-Se1 (ToCMoV-[BA-Se1]) was shown to trigger the plant RNA silencing surveillance in different host plants and, coinciding with a decrease in viral DNA levels, small interfering RNAs

  9. Effect of biological and chemical preparations on peroxidase activity in leaves of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Kolomiets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of treating tomato variety Chaika with chemical preparations with active substances if aluminum phosphate, 570 g/l + phosphorous acid 80 g/,l and mankotseb in concentration of 640 g/kg, the maximum increase in peroxidase activity in leaves of plants was observed in12 hours. In terms of use of biological preparations based on living cells Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum its activity was maximum in 24 hours and ranged from 77.7 to 112.7 un.mg-1•s-1

  10. Physiological and Metabolic Responses Triggered by Omeprazole Improve Tomato Plant Tolerance to NaCl Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Youssef; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Lucini, Luigi; Carillo, Petronia; Kyriacou, Marios C; Colla, Giuseppe; Cirillo, Valerio; Pannico, Antonio; El-Nakhel, Christophe; De Pascale, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively. Increasing NaCl concentration from 1 to 75 mM decreased the tomato shoot dry weight by 49% in the 0 μM OMP treatment, whereas the reduction was not significant at 10 or 100 μM of OMP. Treatment of salinized (75 mM NaCl) tomato plants with 10 and especially 100 μM OMP decreased Na + and Cl - while it increased Ca 2+ concentration in the leaves. However, OMP was not strictly involved in ion homeostasis since the K + to Na + ratio did not increase under combined salinity and OMP treatment. OMP increased root dry weight, root morphological characteristics (total length and surface), transpiration, and net photosynthetic rate independently of salinity. Metabolic profiling of leaves through UHPLC liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry facilitated identification of the reprogramming of a wide range of metabolites in response to OMP treatment. Hormonal changes involved an increase in ABA, decrease in auxins and cytokinin, and a tendency for GA down accumulation. Cutin biosynthesis, alteration of membrane lipids and heightened radical scavenging ability related to the accumulation of phenolics and carotenoids were observed. Several other stress-related compounds, such as polyamine conjugates, alkaloids and sesquiterpene lactones, were altered in response to OMP. Although a

  11. Physiological and Metabolic Responses Triggered by Omeprazole Improve Tomato Plant Tolerance to NaCl Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Rouphael

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny treated with omeprazole (OMP, a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively. Increasing NaCl concentration from 1 to 75 mM decreased the tomato shoot dry weight by 49% in the 0 μM OMP treatment, whereas the reduction was not significant at 10 or 100 μM of OMP. Treatment of salinized (75 mM NaCl tomato plants with 10 and especially 100 μM OMP decreased Na+ and Cl− while it increased Ca2+ concentration in the leaves. However, OMP was not strictly involved in ion homeostasis since the K+ to Na+ ratio did not increase under combined salinity and OMP treatment. OMP increased root dry weight, root morphological characteristics (total length and surface, transpiration, and net photosynthetic rate independently of salinity. Metabolic profiling of leaves through UHPLC liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry facilitated identification of the reprogramming of a wide range of metabolites in response to OMP treatment. Hormonal changes involved an increase in ABA, decrease in auxins and cytokinin, and a tendency for GA down accumulation. Cutin biosynthesis, alteration of membrane lipids and heightened radical scavenging ability related to the accumulation of phenolics and carotenoids were observed. Several other stress-related compounds, such as polyamine conjugates, alkaloids and sesquiterpene lactones, were altered in response to OMP

  12. Uv-c irradiation effects on young tomato plants: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronuovo, D.; Tataranni, G.; Candido, V.; Sofo, A.; Scopa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-C radiation (UV-C = 100-280 nm) is strongly affected by ozone levels, so that the amount of this radiation reaching the Earth's surface is extremely low. In the future, UV-C radiation is expected to increase as the result of stratospheric ozone depletion due to atmospheric pollution, with strong negative effects on economically important crops. To assess the effect of UV-C irradiation on young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; cv Cuore di bue), an experiment was conducted in controlled conditions, using a black chamber equipped with an UV-C lamp. Tomato plants were divided in four groups on the basis of UV-C irradiation time (10, 30, 60, and 120 min), and non-irradiated plants were kept as controls. Plant gas exchange, leaf color and morphologic traits were recorded before and after UV-C treatments. The photosynthetic apparatus was influenced by UV-C treatment, as shown by the strong increase in intracellular CO/ sub 2/, particularly evident in the 120 min treatment (338 micro L L-1). This was due both to the stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition of the assimilation activity due to UV-C exposure. In 10 and 30-min treated plants, leaf color, measured immediately after the irradiation, did not statistically change, whereas the 60 and 120-min treatments were characterized by a deep senescence with a general stem and leaf yellowing. The results demonstrate that high UV-C doses determined irreversible damages, both at physiological and morphological levels, that lead plants to death, whereas lower irradiations (up to 60 min) allowed plants to partially recovery their normal physiological status. (author)

  13. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. ► Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. ► Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  14. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  16. Soil and plant nitrogen dynamics of a tomato crop under different fertilization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Muñoz, P; Antón, A

    2010-01-01

    . The model was calibrated using data from a previous experiment. No differences between treatments were observed with respect to yield or N content in marketable fruits. The amount of N left in the field at the end of the cropping period was significantly lower in TO than in TC and TM. Simulated plant growth......A field experiment was conducted in 2007 to investigate the effects of the N fertilizer source on the soil and plant N dynamics of a tomato crop grown in a sandy loam soil. The fertilization treatments were: mineral N-fertilization applied by fertigation (TM); organic N-fertilization (TO...... (TM) kg N ha-1. The N contents of plants sampled on three occasions during the growing period and those of marketable fruits were also analyzed. Total marketable yield was determined at the end of the harvest period. The EU-Rotate_N model was used to predict the effects of the applied treatments...

  17. Oil palm EgCBF3 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants through modulation of the ethylene signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mortaza; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2016-09-01

    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Different Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici to Exploit the Differentially Expressed Proteins Responsible for Virulence on Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Manikandan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vascular wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is an important soil borne pathogen causes severe yield loss. The molecular characterization and their interaction with its host is necessary to develop a protection strategy. 20 isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL were isolated from wilt infected tomato plants across Tamil Nadu. They were subjected to cultural, morphological, molecular and virulence studies. The results revealed that all the isolates produced both micro and macro conidia with different size, number of cells. The colors of the culture and growth pattern were also varied. In addition, chlamydospores were observed terminally and intercalary. The PCR analysis with F. oxysporum species-specific primer significantly amplified an amplicon of 600 bp fragment in all the isolates. Based on the above characters and pathogenicity, isolate FOL-8 was considered as virulent and FOL-20 was considered as least virulent. Proteomics strategy was adopted to determine the virulence factors between the isolates of FOL-8 and FOL-20. The 2D analyses have showed the differential expression of 17 different proteins. Among them, three proteins were down regulated and 14 proteins were significantly up regulated in FOL-8 than FOL-20 isolate. Among the 17 proteins, 10 distinct spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The functions of the analyzed proteins, suggested that they were involved in pathogenicity, symptom expression and disease development, sporulation, growth, and higher penetration rate on tomato root tissue. Overall, these experiments proves the role of proteome in pathogenicity of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato and unravels the mechanism behinds the virulence of the pathogen in causing wilt disease.

  19. Multidisciplinary approach to assess the sensitivity of dwarf tomato plants to low-LET ionising radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta; Vitaglione, Paola; Turano, Mimmo; Arena, Carmen

    Ionising radiation, acting alone or in interaction with microgravity and other environmental constraints, may affect plant at molecular, morpho-structural and physiological level. The intensity of the plant’s response depends on the properties of radiation and on the features of the plant itself. Indeed, different species are characterised by different susceptibility to radiation which may change during the life course. The aim of this research was to study the radiosensitivity to low-LET ionising radiation of plants of dwarf tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Microtom’) at two phenological phases (vegetative and reproductive), within the purpose of analysing plants for consideration as candidates for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) in Space. To pursue this objective, plants of the cultivar Microtom were irradiated with different doses of X-rays either at the stage of the second true leaf (VP - vegetative phase) or when at least one flower was blossomed (RP - reproductive phase). Plant’s response to ionising radiation was assessed through a multidisciplinary approach combining genetic analyses, ecophysiological measurements, morpho-anatomical characterisation of leaves and fruits, nutritional analyses of fruits. Growth, molecular and morpho-functional traits were measured during plant development up to fruiting in both VP and RP plant groups, and compared with non-irradiated control plants. Plant growth was monitored weekly recording parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, flowering and fruiting rate. Potential DNA alterations were explored through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by determining photosynthetic pigment composition, photochemistry and leaf gas exchanges. Leaf and fruit structure were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Leaf anatomical traits related to photosynthetic efficiency, and to structural radioprotection

  20. Morphology and biomass variations in root system of young tomato plants (Solanum sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Gil, Marta A.; Fernández, Ana Fita; Ruiz Sánchez, María del C.; Bolarín Jiménez, María del C.

    2016-01-01

    The scarce exploitation of genotypic variability present in plant roots is an attractive breeding choice with regard to abiotic stresses and supports the objective of this work, which is to identify genotypic variation in root system traits of tomato genotypes (Solanum sp.). Thus, five tomato genotypes were studied: the commercial hybrid cultivar Jaguar (S. lycopersicum), Pera, Volgogradiskij and PE-47 entry (S. pennellii), which were collected in Peru, and the interspecific hybrid PeraxPE-47. Plants were grown in hydroponics for 26 days since germination; their roots were extracted and images were digitalized on scanner to evaluate total length, average diameter, the projected area and root length, following the categories per diameter of the whole root system through software Win Rhizo Pro 2003. The dry mass of roots and aerial parts was also recorded. Results indicated that genotypes differed in morphology, length according to diameter, root system spatial configuration and biomass, mainly with respect to the wild salinity resistant species PE-47. The interspecific hybrid PxPE-47 could be used as a rootstock to increase salt tolerance of susceptible cultivars. (author)

  1. Effect Of Heavy Metals Stress On Enzyme Activities And Chlorophyll Content Of Pea (Pisum Sativum) And Tomato Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; El Maghrabi, G.; Hashem, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on the chlorophyll in addition to catalase and peroxidase activities were studied in the leaves and roots of tomato and pea plants. Four groups were studied; the control group and other three groups treated with heavy metals. Group 1HM was treated with 1.0 mg CuSO 4 /l + 0.2 mg CdSO 4 /l + 0.1 mg ZnNO 3 /l every 10 days while in group 5 HM and group 10 HM, the doses were 5 and 10 folds the 1 HM, respectively. Leaves and roots of control and heavy metal-stressed plants were harvested after 10 weeks for chlorophyll determination. The chlorophyll content, especially chlo. b, was significantly decreased with the increase in heavy metals stress in both plants. In leaves of heavy metal-stressed plants, the peroxidase level in different stress levels was increased with increasing stress levels in tomato and pea while catalase was unchanged in leaves of tomato in comparison with the control. The activities of catalase and peroxidase in roots of heavy metal-stressed plants were increased in group 5 HM then decreased in case of group 10 HM. The increase in enzyme activities demonstrated that tomato is more tolerant to heavy metals than pea

  2. Comparative Effectiveness and Injury to Tomato Plants of Three Neotropical Mirid Predators of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenteren, Joop C; Bueno, V H P; Calvo, F J; Calixto, Ana M; Montes, Flavio C

    2018-03-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest of tomato and is quickly spreading over the world. We conducted an experiment aimed at evaluating the control capacity and risk for plant damage of three Neotropical mirid species, Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho; Hemiptera: Miridae), Engytatus varians (Distant; Hemiptera: Miridae) and Macrolophus basicornis (Stal; Hemiptera: Miridae) on T. absoluta infested tomato plants in large cages in an experimental greenhouse. During three successive periods of 9 wk each, we followed population development of the three mirids when exposed to T. absoluta, and of T. absoluta alone in separate cages in the greenhouse. We determined weekly the numbers of T. absoluta eggs and larvae per leaf, the number of mirid predators per leaf, the percentage of damaged leaves and fruits by T. absoluta, and the weight of fruits. Two of the mirid predators, C. infumatus and M. basicornis, successfully established on T. absoluta infested tomato plants and significantly reduced T. absoluta numbers, which ultimately resulted in an increased yield. These two mirid species hardly injured tomato plants or fruits as a result of plant feeding. Surprisingly, the species E. varians, which showed high predation rates in laboratory experiments, did not establish and reduce pest populations in any of the tests.

  3. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using ...

  4. Automatic detection of diseased tomato plants using thermal and stereo visible light images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-e-Ahmed Raza

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely detection of plant diseases can help mitigate the worldwide losses experienced by the horticulture and agriculture industries each year. Thermal imaging provides a fast and non-destructive way of scanning plants for diseased regions and has been used by various researchers to study the effect of disease on the thermal profile of a plant. However, thermal image of a plant affected by disease has been known to be affected by environmental conditions which include leaf angles and depth of the canopy areas accessible to the thermal imaging camera. In this paper, we combine thermal and visible light image data with depth information and develop a machine learning system to remotely detect plants infected with the tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici. We extract a novel feature set from the image data using local and global statistics and show that by combining these with the depth information, we can considerably improve the accuracy of detection of the diseased plants. In addition, we show that our novel feature set is capable of identifying plants which were not originally inoculated with the fungus at the start of the experiment but which subsequently developed disease through natural transmission.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting pseudomonads improve yield, quality and nutritional value of tomato: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Elisa; Cantamessa, Simone; Massa, Nadia; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Copetta, Andrea; Lingua, Guido; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effects of plant-beneficial microorganisms (two Pseudomonas strains and a mixed mycorrhizal inoculum, alone or in combination) on the quality of tomato fruits of plants grown in the field and subjected to reduced fertilization. Pseudomonas strain 19Fv1T was newly characterized during this study. The size and quality of the fruits (concentration of sugars, organic acids and vitamin C) were assessed. The microorganisms positively affected the flower and fruit production and the concentrations of sugars and vitamins in the tomato fruits. In particular, the most important effect induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was an improvement of citric acid concentration, while bacteria positively modulated sugar production and the sweetness of the tomatoes. The novelty of the present work is the application of soil microorganisms in the field, in a real industrial tomato farm. This approach provided direct information about the application of inocula, allowed the reduction of chemical inputs and positively influenced tomato quality.

  6. Fried Green Tomatoes and The Color Purple: A case study in lesbian friendship and cultural controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proehl, Kristen

    2018-01-02

    Published in the 1980s, Fannie Flagg's Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café and Alice Walker's The Color Purple are lesbian coming-of-age narratives that share a great deal in common in terms of their thematic content, publication histories, and cultural afterlives. In both novels, female friendships are shaped by patriarchal violence and develop in the context of the rural, segregated, early twentieth-century U.S. South. But the two novels also diverge in significant ways, as differences in race, gender, class, and sexuality shape their protagonists' experiences of love and friendship. As filmmakers Steven Spielberg and Jon Avnet adapted these novels for the screen, they made decisions about how to portray the texts' representations of homoerotic friendship and same-sex love. Both films generated significant cultural controversy as a result, particularly as some viewers claimed that the films elided the novels' representations of lesbian sexuality. Building upon recent scholarship in critical race theory, queer theory, and friendship studies, I argue that Walker's and Flagg's representations of queer friendship, a term that I describe in more detail throughout the essay, subvert dominant classifications of romantic, familial, and platonic love. By comparatively analyzing the American public's reception of the two film adaptations in conjunction with close readings of scenes from the novels and films, I reveal how representations of queer friendship not only catalyze cultural controversy, but also serve as a vehicle of social criticism.

  7. Distribution Pattern of Sweet Potato Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius on Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Azam

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the intra plant distribution and temporal dispersion patterns of whitetly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius eggs and nymphs on tomato plants to establish a sampling method which would give accurate estimates of the population size. From the third week to the ninth week after transplanting, terminal leaflets were collected from the outer and inner canopies of each of the upper, middle, and lower plant strata. A strong ovipositional preference was found in whitefly adults at an early crop age. A maximum of 50.6% of the eggs were deposited in the middle stratum followed by upper (36. 15% and lower strata (13.3%. However, most of the nymphs (65.5% were present in the lower stratum followed by middle (32.4% and upper strata (2. l %. These findings indicated that when taking observations in egg counts the most preferred site is the upper and middle strata while for nymphal counts it is the lower and middle strata. There was a sharp decrease in egg and nymphal counts from the seventh week after transplantation which clearly indicated that, after this age , the corp is not preferred by whitefly . Egg and nymphal population of whitefly on tomato plants in the field were distributed in aggregates as evident by high variance to mean ratio. Values ranged from 2.72 to 14.36 and 4.52 to 21.82 for egg counts and nymphal population, respectively.  Aggregation of whitefly eggs and nymphs in all cases might be due to the behavior of adults to congregate and to the heterogeneity of the environment . The appropriate number of leaflets required for the estimation of egg density at 10% and 20% error was found to be 149 and 37, respectively. In the case of nymphal population the numbers were 163 and 41 at 10% and 20% error, respectively.

  8. Release of lipoxygenase products and monoterpenes by tomato plants as an indicator of Botrytis cinerea-induced stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Miebach, M.; Kleist, E.; Henten, van E.J.; Wildt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from tomato induced by the fungus Botrytis cinerea were studied in plants inoculated by spraying with suspensions containing B. cinerea spores. VOC emissions were analysed using on-line gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, with a time

  9. Proteomic Analysis Provides New Insights in Phosphorus Homeostasis Subjected to Pi (Inorganic Phosphate Starvation in Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a major nutrient acquired by plants via high-affinity inorganic phosphate (Pi transporters. To determine the adaptation and homeostasis strategy to Pi starvation, we compared the proteome analysis of tomato leaves that were treated with and without Pi (as KH2PO4 for 10 days. Among 600 reproducible proteins on 2-DE gels 46 of them were differentially expressed. These proteins were involved in major metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, transcriptional/translational regulations, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, protein synthesis, defense response, and other secondary metabolism. The results also showed that the reduction in photosynthetic pigments lowered P content under -Pi treatments. Furthermore, high-affinity Pi transporters (lePT1 and lePT2 expressed in higher amounts under -Pi treatments. Also, the accumulation of Pi transporters was observed highly in the epidermis and palisade parenchyma under +Pi treatments compared to -Pi treatments. Our data suggested that tomato plants developed reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging mechanisms to cope with low Pi content, including the up-regulation of proteins mostly involved in important metabolic pathways. Moreover, Pi-starved tomato plants increased their internal Pi utilization efficiency by increasing the Pi transporter genes and their rational localization. These results thus provide imperative information about how tomato plants respond to Pi starvation and its homeostasis.

  10. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.M.; Driever, S.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Gelder, de A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. Leaf patch clamp pressure changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis Lzh-a42, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Isolated from Tomato Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghua; Chen, Mei; Ran, Kun; Wang, Jihua; Zeng, Qiangcheng; Song, Feng

    2018-03-22

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus velezensis strain Lzh-a42, which has antimicrobial activity, was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Here, we report its genome sequence, which includes several predicted functional genes related to secondary metabolite biosynthesis, antimicrobial activity, and biofilm synthesis. Copyright © 2018 Li et al.

  12. Exogenous Melatonin Mitigates Acid Rain Stress to Tomato Plants through Modulation of Leaf Ultrastructure, Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Biswojit; Hussain, Mubasher; Irshad, Muhammad; Mitra, Sangeeta; Li, Min; Liu, Shuang; Qiu, Dongliang

    2018-02-11

    Acid rain (AR) is a serious global environmental issue causing physio-morphological changes in plants. Melatonin, as an indoleamine molecule, has been known to mediate many physiological processes in plants under different kinds of environmental stress. However, the role of melatonin in acid rain stress tolerance remains inexpressible. This study investigated the possible role of melatonin on different physiological responses involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in tomato plants under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress. SAR stress caused the inhibition of growth, damaged the grana lamella of the chloroplast, photosynthesis, and increased accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation in tomato plants. To cope the detrimental effect of SAR stress, plants under SAR condition had increased both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant substances compared with control plants. But such an increase in the antioxidant activities were incapable of inhibiting the destructive effect of SAR stress. Meanwhile, melatonin treatment increased SAR-stress tolerance by repairing the grana lamella of the chloroplast, improving photosynthesis and antioxidant activities compared with those in SAR-stressed plants. However, these possible effects of melatonin are dependent on concentration. Moreover, our study suggests that 100-μM melatonin treatment improved the SAR-stress tolerance by increasing photosynthesis and ROS scavenging antioxidant activities in tomato plants.

  13. Nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with Trichoderma harzianum expressing the Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amdS gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Domínguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in T. harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by i enhanced growth, ii increased carbon and nitrogen levels and iii a

  14. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  15. Auxin production by the plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens and auxin homoeostasis in infected tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienne, Susan; Freschi, Luciano; Vidotto, Vanessa F; De Souza, Tiago A; Purgatto, Eduardo; Zingales, Bianca

    2014-09-01

    Previously we have characterized the complete gene encoding a pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC)/indolepyruvate decarboxylase (IPDC) of Phytomonas serpens, a trypanosomatid highly abundant in tomato fruits. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the clade that contains the trypanosomatid protein behaves as a sister group of IPDCs of γ-proteobacteria. Since IPDCs are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the ability for IAA production by P. serpens was investigated. Similar to many microorganisms, the production of IAA and related indolic compounds, quantified by high performance liquid chromatography, increased in P. serpens media in response to amounts of tryptophan. The auxin functionality was confirmed in the hypocotyl elongation assay. In tomato fruits inoculated with P. serpens the concentration of free IAA had no significant variation, whereas increased levels of IAA-amide and IAA-ester conjugates were observed. The data suggest that the auxin produced by the flagellate is converted to IAA conjugates, keeping unaltered the concentration of free IAA. Ethanol also accumulated in P. serpens-conditioned media, as the result of a PDC activity. In the article we discuss the hypothesis of the bifunctionality of P. serpens PDC/IPDC and provide a three-dimensional model of the enzyme.

  16. The role of endogenous strigolactones and their interaction with ABA during the infection process of the parasitic weed Phelipanche ramosa in tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xi; Floková, Kristýna; Bouwmeester, Harro; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    The root parasitic plant species Phelipanche ramosa, branched broomrape, causes severe damage to economically important crops such as tomato. Its seed germination is triggered by host-derived signals upon which it invades the host root. In tomato, strigolactones (SLs) are the main germination

  17. The plant growth promoting substance, lumichrome, mimics starch and ethylene-associated symbiotic responses in lotus and tomato roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel eGouws

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis involves responses that maintain the plant host and symbiotic partner’s genetic program; yet these cues are far from elucidated. Here we describe the effects of lumichrome, a flavin identified from Rhizobium spp., applied to lotus (Lotus japonicus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Combined transcriptional and metabolite analyses suggest that both species shared common pathways that were altered in response to this application under replete, sterile conditions. These included genes involved in symbiosis, as well as transcriptional and metabolic responses related to enhanced starch accumulation and altered ethylene metabolism. Lumichrome priming also resulted in altered colonization with either Mesorhizobium loti (for lotus or Glomus intraradices/Glomus mossea (for tomato. It enhanced nodule number but not nodule formation in lotus; while leading to enhanced hyphae initiation and delayed arbuscule maturation in tomato.

  18. The Plant Growth Promoting Substance, Lumichrome, Mimics Starch, and Ethylene-Associated Symbiotic Responses in Lotus and Tomato Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, Liezel M.; Botes, Eileen; Wiese, Anna J.; Trenkamp, Sandra; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Tang, Yuhong; Hills, Paul N.; Usadel, Björn; Lloyd, James R.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Kossmann, Jens; van der Merwe, Margaretha J.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiosis involves responses that maintain the plant host and symbiotic partner’s genetic program; yet these cues are far from elucidated. Here we describe the effects of lumichrome, a flavin identified from Rhizobium spp., applied to lotus (Lotus japonicus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Combined transcriptional and metabolite analyses suggest that both species shared common pathways that were altered in response to this application under replete, sterile conditions. These included genes involved in symbiosis, as well as transcriptional and metabolic responses related to enhanced starch accumulation and altered ethylene metabolism. Lumichrome priming also resulted in altered colonization with either Mesorhizobium loti (for lotus) or Glomus intraradices/G. mossea (for tomato). It enhanced nodule number but not nodule formation in lotus; while leading to enhanced hyphae initiation and delayed arbuscule maturation in tomato. PMID:22701462

  19. Snf2 family gene distribution in higher plant genomes reveals DRD1 expansion and diversification in the tomato genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim W Bargsten

    Full Text Available As part of large protein complexes, Snf2 family ATPases are responsible for energy supply during chromatin remodeling, but the precise mechanism of action of many of these proteins is largely unknown. They influence many processes in plants, such as the response to environmental stress. This analysis is the first comprehensive study of Snf2 family ATPases in plants. We here present a comparative analysis of 1159 candidate plant Snf2 genes in 33 complete and annotated plant genomes, including two green algae. The number of Snf2 ATPases shows considerable variation across plant genomes (17-63 genes. The DRD1, Rad5/16 and Snf2 subfamily members occur most often. Detailed analysis of the plant-specific DRD1 subfamily in related plant genomes shows the occurrence of a complex series of evolutionary events. Notably tomato carries unexpected gene expansions of DRD1 gene members. Most of these genes are expressed in tomato, although at low levels and with distinct tissue or organ specificity. In contrast, the Snf2 subfamily genes tend to be expressed constitutively in tomato. The results underpin and extend the Snf2 subfamily classification, which could help to determine the various functional roles of Snf2 ATPases and to target environmental stress tolerance and yield in future breeding.

  20. Impact of two fluorescent pseudomonads and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on tomato plant growth, root architecture and P acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamalero, Elisa; Trotta, Antonio; Massa, Nadia; Copetta, Andrea; Martinotti, Maria Giovanna; Berta, Graziella

    2004-07-01

    The ability of fluorescent pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to promote plant growth is well documented but knowledge of the impact of pseudomonad-mycorrhiza mixed inocula on root architecture is scanty. In the present work, growth and root architecture of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Guadalete), inoculated or not with Pseudomonas fluorescens 92rk and P190r and/or the AMF Glomus mosseae BEG12, were evaluated by measuring shoot and root fresh weight and by analysing morphometric parameters of the root system. The influence of the microorganisms on phosphorus (P) acquisition was assayed as total P accumulated in leaves of plants inoculated or not with the three microorganisms. The two bacterial strains and the AMF, alone or in combination, promoted plant growth. P. fluorescens 92rk and G. mosseae BEG12 when co-inoculated had a synergistic effect on root fresh weight. Moreover, co-inoculation of the three microorganisms synergistically increased plant growth compared with singly inoculated plants. Both the fluorescent pseudomonads and the myco-symbiont, depending on the inoculum combination, strongly affected root architecture. P. fluorescens 92rk increased mycorrhizal colonization, suggesting that this strain is a mycorrhization helper bacterium. Finally, the bacterial strains and the AMF, alone or in combination, improved plant mineral nutrition by increasing leaf P content. These results support the potential use of fluorescent pseudomonads and AMF as mixed inoculants for tomato and suggest that improved tomato growth could be related to the increase in P acquisition.

  1. Snf2 family gene distribution in higher plant genomes reveals DRD1 expansion and diversification in the tomato genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargsten, Joachim W; Folta, Adam; Mlynárová, Ludmila; Nap, Jan-Peter

    2013-01-01

    As part of large protein complexes, Snf2 family ATPases are responsible for energy supply during chromatin remodeling, but the precise mechanism of action of many of these proteins is largely unknown. They influence many processes in plants, such as the response to environmental stress. This analysis is the first comprehensive study of Snf2 family ATPases in plants. We here present a comparative analysis of 1159 candidate plant Snf2 genes in 33 complete and annotated plant genomes, including two green algae. The number of Snf2 ATPases shows considerable variation across plant genomes (17-63 genes). The DRD1, Rad5/16 and Snf2 subfamily members occur most often. Detailed analysis of the plant-specific DRD1 subfamily in related plant genomes shows the occurrence of a complex series of evolutionary events. Notably tomato carries unexpected gene expansions of DRD1 gene members. Most of these genes are expressed in tomato, although at low levels and with distinct tissue or organ specificity. In contrast, the Snf2 subfamily genes tend to be expressed constitutively in tomato. The results underpin and extend the Snf2 subfamily classification, which could help to determine the various functional roles of Snf2 ATPases and to target environmental stress tolerance and yield in future breeding.

  2. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reducing...... after AM fungi inoculation, roots were challenged with P. aphanidermatum. Variables evaluated at each harvest were root colonization levels of the interacting fungi, plant growth responses, and expression of a plant pathogenesis related protein gene (PR-1). All of the tested AM fungi caused marked...

  3. Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene affects photosynthesis and chlorophyll content in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Priscilla P; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Fani, Fabiola; Lazzara, Luigi; Cosi, Elena; Melani, Lorenzo; Mauro, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Insertion of Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene into plant genome affects plant development, hormone balance and defence. However, beside the current research, the overall transcriptional response and gene expression of rolB as a modulator in plant is unknown. Transformed rolB tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Tondino has been used to investigate the differential expression profile. Tomato is a well-known model organism both at the genetic and molecular level, and one of the most important commercial food crops in the world. Through the construction and characterization of a cDNA subtracted library, we have investigated the differential gene expression between transgenic clones of rolB and control tomato and have evaluated genes specifically transcribed in transgenic rolB plants. Among the selected genes, five genes encoding for chlorophyll a/b binding protein, carbonic anhydrase, cytochrome b 6 /f complex Fe-S subunit, potassium efflux antiporter 3, and chloroplast small heat-shock protein, all involved in chloroplast function, were identified. Measurement of photosynthesis efficiency by the level of three different photosynthetic parameters (F v /F m , rETR, NPQ) showed rolB significant increase in non-photochemical quenching and a, b chlorophyll content. Our results point to highlight the role of rolB on plant fitness by improving photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Salicylic acid induced cysteine protease activity during programmed cell death in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Judit; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2016-06-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death (PCD) during biotic stress is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). The aim of this work was to reveal the role of proteolysis and cysteine proteases in the execution of PCD in response of SA. Tomato plants were treated with sublethal (0.1 mM) and lethal (1 mM) SA concentrations through the root system. Treatment with 1 mM SA increased the electrolyte leakage and proteolytic activity and reduced the total protein content of roots after 6 h, while the proteolytic activity did not change in the leaves and in plants exposed to 0.1 mM SA. The expression of the papain-type cysteine protease SlCYP1, the vacuolar processing enzyme SlVPE1 and the tomato metacaspase SlMCA1 was induced within the first three hours in the leaves and after 0.5 h in the roots in the presence of 1 mM SA but the transcript levels did not increase significantly at sublethal SA. The Bax inhibitor-1 (SlBI-1), an antiapoptotic gene was over-expressed in the roots after SA treatments and it proved to be transient in the presence of sublethal SA. Protease inhibitors, SlPI2 and SlLTC were upregulated in the roots by sublethal SA but their expression remained low at 1 mM SA concentration. It is concluded that in contrast to leaves the SA-induced PCD is associated with increased proteolytic activity in the root tissues resulting from a fast up-regulation of specific cysteine proteases and down-regulation of protease inhibitors.

  5. Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattin Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO32, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 10³, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt and in the fifth leaf (Nf: Nt = 1.287 Nf (R² = 0.80. This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI, from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.

  6. Safety culture of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Beixin

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a summary on the basis of DNMC safety culture training material for managerial personnel. It intends to explain the basic contents of safety, design, management, enterprise culture, safety culture of nuclear power plant and the relationship among them. It explains especially the constituent elements of safety culture system, the basic requirements for the three levels of commitments: policy level, management level and employee level. It also makes some analyses and judgments for some typical safety culture cases, for example, transparent culture and habitual violation of procedure. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of two gene-silencing constructs for resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl viruses in Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallah Chouchane, S; Gorsane, F; Nakhla, M K; Salus, M; Martin, C T; Maxwell, D P; Marrakchi, M; Fakhfakh, H

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration of Agrobacterium tumefaciens into intact plant leaves of N. benthamiana was used to test the efficiency of two virus-based silencing constructs conferring resistance to the closely related begomoviruses. The constructs contained the most conserved sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene and replication-associated protein (Rep) gene of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (Sicily strain) (TYLCSV-[Sic]). Both constructs formed a hairpin structure that enhanced the post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism. When agro-infiltrated plants were challenged separately with infectious viruses TYLCSV-[Sic] and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), the plants showed resistance to TYLCSV-[Sic], but not to the related TYLCV.

  8. Tomato plants increase their tolerance to low temperature in a chilling acclimation process entailing comprehensive transcriptional and metabolic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Huertas, Raúl; Rambla, José Luís; Granell, Antonio; Salinas, Julio

    2016-10-01

    Low temperature is a major environmental stress that seriously compromises plant development, distribution and productivity. Most crops are from tropical origin and, consequently, chilling sensitive. Interestingly, however, some tropical plants, are able to augment their chilling tolerance when previously exposed to suboptimal growth temperatures. Yet, the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this adaptive process, termed chilling acclimation, still remain practically unknown. Here, we demonstrate that tomato plants can develop a chilling acclimation response, which includes comprehensive transcriptomic and metabolic adjustments leading to increased chilling tolerance. More important, our results reveal strong resemblances between this response and cold acclimation, the process whereby plants from temperate regions raise their freezing tolerance after exposure to low, non-freezing temperatures. Both chilling and cold acclimation are regulated by a similar set of transcription factors and hormones, and share common defence mechanisms, including the accumulation of compatible solutes, the mobilization of antioxidant systems and the rearrangement of the photosynthetic machinery. Nonetheless, we have found some important divergences that may account for the freezing sensitivity of tomato plants. The data reported in this manuscript should foster new research into the chilling acclimation response with the aim of improving tomato tolerance to low temperature. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prolonged root hypoxia effects on enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation pathway in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horchani, Faouzi; Aschi-Smiti, Samira

    2010-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of root hypoxia (1-2 % oxygen) on the nitrogen (N) metabolism of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom), a range of N compounds and N-assimilating enzymes were performed on roots and leaves of plants submitted to root hypoxia at the second leaf stage for three weeks. Obtained results showed that root hypoxia led to a significant decrease in dry weight (DW) production and nitrate content in roots and leaves. Conversely, shoot to root DW ratio and nitrite content were significantly increased. Contrary to that in leaves, glutamine synthetase activity was significantly enhanced in roots. The activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase were enhanced in roots as well as leaves. The higher increase in the NH(4)(+) content and in the protease activities in roots and leaves of hypoxically treated plants coincide with a greater decrease in soluble protein contents. Taken together, these results suggest that root hypoxia leaded to higher protein degradation. The hypoxia-induced increase in the aminating glutamate dehydrogenase activity may be considered as an alternative N assimilation pathway involved in detoxifying the NH(4)(+), accumulated under hypoxic conditions. With respect to hypoxic stress, the distinct sensitivity of the enzymes involved in N assimilation is discussed.

  10. Tomato plant and leaf age effects on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, P Houston; Riley, David G

    2008-02-01

    The effect of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., plant and leaf age on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and F. occidentalis (Pergande) was studied using electrical penetration graph technique and whole plant bioassays. Male and female F. fusca probed and ingested more and for longer periods of time on 3- and 4-wk-old plants compared with 6- and 8-wk-old plants. Female F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently than males in the plant age experiment, but not in the leaf age experiment. F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently on 2- and 4-wk-old leaves compared with 1-wk-old leaves. Plant age did not affect the probing frequency or duration of F. occidentalis; however, males probed and ingested longer than females in the plant age experiment and on the oldest leaf in the leaf age experiment. Both thrips species preferred to settle on 3-wk-old plants. F. fusca preferred to settle on 4-wk-old leaves after settling randomly for an hour. F. occidentalis showed no settling preference relative to leaf age. The preference of F. fusca for young plants suggests that this species could attack tomato plants at a very early stage, which is important for understanding its role as a vector in the transmission of Tospovirus in the field.

  11. The levels of nitrite and nitrate, proline and protein profiles in tomato plants infected with pseudomonas syringae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berber, I.; Onlu, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the contents of nitrite-nitrate and free L-proline, and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in tomato plants following inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain were examined. The results of the nitrite and nitrate indicated that there was a reduction in the levels of nitrate in the infected tomato plants through 1-8 study days, compared with the healthy plants. On the other hands, when the nitrite amounts increased in the first and second days, the nitrite concentrations reduced in infected plants at subsequent time periods, compared with uninfected plants. The accumulation of free proline increased in the infected plants, according to control plants. The whole-cell protein profiles displayed that the levels of the protein bands of molecular masses 204.6 kDa and 69.9 kDa significantly increased in infected and uninfected plants during 2-10 study days. In additionally, in the quantities of the protein bands of molecular weights 90.3 and 79.4 kDa were observed an increase in the infected and healthy plants after the fourth day. However, the protein band of molecular weight 54.3 kDa was visible only in uninfected plants for the fourth and eighth days. Finally, the study suggest that there were the sophisticate relationships among the proline accumulation, the conversion of nitrate to nitrite and the induction of PR protein genes in the regulation of defense mechanisms toward microbial invaders. Our results also indicated that the increases in nitrite and proline contents might be useful indicator for the response toward pathogen attacks. (author)

  12. Plasma membrane potential depolarization and cytosolic calcium flux are early events involved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plant-to-plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebelo, Simon A; Matsui, Kenji; Ozawa, Rika; Maffei, Massimo E

    2012-11-01

    Tomato plants respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are released into the surrounding atmosphere. We analyzed the tomato herbivore-induced VOCs and tested the ability of tomato receiver plants to detect tomato donor volatiles by analyzing early responses, including plasma membrane potential (V(m)) variations and cytosolic calcium ([Ca²⁺](cyt)) fluxes. Receiver tomato plants responded within seconds to herbivore-induced VOCs with a strong V(m) depolarization, which was only partly recovered by fluxing receiver plants with clean air. Among emitted volatiles, we identified by GC-MS some green leaf volatiles (GLVs) such as (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, the monoterpene α-pinene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. GLVs were found to exert the stronger V(m) depolarization, when compared to α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, V(m) depolarization was found to increase with increasing GLVs concentration. GLVs were also found to induce a strong [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase, particularly when (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was tested both in solution and with a gas. On the other hand, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, which also induced a significant V(m) depolarization with respect to controls, did not exert any significant effect on [Ca²⁺](cyt) homeostasis. Our results show for the first time that plant perception of volatile cues (especially GLVs) from the surrounding environment is mediated by early events, occurring within seconds and involving the alteration of the plasma membrane potential and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) flux. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of gas exchange, stomatal behaviour and micronutrients uncovers dynamic response and adaptation of tomato plants to monochromatic light treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carrigan, Andrew; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Thomas, Richard; Bellotti, Bill; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Light spectrum affects the yield and quality of greenhouse tomato, especially over a prolonged period of monochromatic light treatments. Physiological and chemical analysis was employed to investigate the influence of light spectral (blue, green and red) changes on growth, photosynthesis, stomatal behaviour, leaf pigment, and micronutrient levels. We found that plants are less affected under blue light treatment, which was evident by the maintenance of higher A, gs, Tr, and stomatal parameters and significantly lower VPD and Tleaf as compared to those plants grown in green and red light treatments. Green and red light treatments led to significantly larger increase in the accumulation of Fe, B, Zn, and Cu than blue light. Moreover, guard cell length, width, and volume all showed highly significant positive correlations to gs, Tr and negative links to VPD. There was negative impact of monochromatic lights-induced accumulation of Mn, Cu, and Zn on photosynthesis, leaf pigments and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the light-induced significant changes of the physiological traits were partially recovered at the end of experiment. A high degree of morphological and physiological plasticity to blue, green and red light treatments suggested that tomato plants may have developed mechanisms to adapt to the light treatments. Thus, understanding the optimization of light spectrum for photosynthesis and growth is one of the key components for greenhouse tomato production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid Induction of Ion Pulses in Tomato, Cucumber, and Maize Plants following a Foliar Application of L(+)-Adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, S.; Savithiry, S.; Wert, V.; Widders, I.

    1993-01-01

    Application of picomole quantities of (+)-adenosine, a plant growth-regulating second messenger elicited by triacontanol, to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), maize (Zea mays L.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) foliage, increased Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ concentrations in the exudate from the stumps of excised plants by 20 to 60% within 5 s after treatment. The change in ionic concentration of the exudate was transitory. When L(+)-adenosine and triacontanol were applied to different tomato plants at the same time, the L(+)-adenosine caused an increase in Ca2+ flux within 3 s, whereas a significant increase from triacontanol was not detectable until 5 min after application. This was expected because triacontanol elicits the formation of L(+)-adenosine. The enantiomer of L(+)-adenosine, D(-)-adenosine, had no effect on the cation concentration in tomato and inhibited the effect of L(+)-adenosine at equimolar or lower concentrations. These observations suggest that L(+)-adenosine acts by eliciting a rapidly propagated signal that increases the concentration of several ions in the apoplast. We postulate that modulations in apoplastic ion concentration, especially increases in Ca2+ concentration, constitute a mechanism by which plants regulate metabolic activity and growth in response to certain stimuli. PMID:12231664

  15. Reduced Drought Tolerance by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated SlMAPK3 Mutagenesis in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liu; Chen, Lin; Li, Rui; Zhao, Ruirui; Yang, Meijing; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin

    2017-10-04

    Drought stress is one of the most destructive environmental factors that affect tomato plants adversely. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important signaling molecules that respond to drought stress. In this study, SlMAPK3 was induced by drought stress, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system was utilized to generate slmapk3 mutants. Two independent T1 transgenic lines and wild-type (WT) tomato plants were used for analysis of drought tolerance. Compared with WT plants, slmapk3 mutants exhibited more severe wilting symptom, higher hydrogen peroxide content, lower antioxidant enzymes activities, and suffered more membrane damage under drought stress. Furthermore, knockout of SlMAPK3 led to up- or down-regulated expressions of drought stress-responsive genes including SlLOX, SlGST, and SlDREB. The results suggest that SlMAPK3 is involved in drought response in tomato plants by protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage and modulating transcription of stress-related genes.

  16. Proteome Modification in Tomato Plants upon Long-Term Aluminum Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Suping; Okekeogbu, Ikenna; Sangireddy, Sasikiran; Ye, Zhujia; Li, Hui; Bhatti, Sarabjit; Hui, Dafeng; McDonald, Daniel W; Yang, Yong; Giri, Shree; Howe, Kevin J; Fish, Tara; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2016-05-06

    This study aimed to identify the aluminum (Al)-induced proteomes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, "Micro-Tom") after long-term exposure to the stress factor. Plants were treated in Magnavaca's solution (pH 4.5) supplemented with 7.5 μM Al(3+) ion activity over a 4 month period beginning at the emergence of flower buds and ending when the lower mature leaves started to turn yellow. Proteomes were identified using a 8-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling strategy followed by a two-dimensional (high- and low-pH) chromatographic separation and final generation of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra of tryptic peptides on an LTQ-Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. Principal component analysis revealed that the Al-treatment had induced systemic alterations in the proteomes from roots and leaves but not seed tissues. The significantly changed root proteins were shown to have putative functions in Al(3+) ion uptake and transportation, root development, and a multitude of other cellular processes. Changes in the leaf proteome indicate that the light reaction centers of photosynthetic machinery are the primary targets of Al-induced stress. Embryo and seed-coat tissues derived from Al-treated plants were enriched with stress proteins. The biological processes involving these Al-induced proteins concur with the physiological and morphological changes, such as the disturbance of mineral homeostasis (higher contents of Al, P, and Fe and reduced contents of S, Zn, and Mn in Al-treated compared to nontreated plants) in roots and smaller sizes of roots and the whole plants. More importantly, the identified significant proteins might represent a molecular mechanism for plants to develop toward establishing the Al tolerance and adaptation mechanism over a long period of stress treatment.

  17. Growth analysis partitioning of assimilate in tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom submitted to nitrogen and pyraclostrobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at comparing the growth and partitioning of assimilate in tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom subjected to nitrogen and pyraclostrobin. This substance favors the development of chloroplasts and the synthesis of chlorophyll. Tomato plants were submitted to the treatments: T1, complete nutrient solution without pyraclostrobin, T2, complete nutrient solution + pyraclostrobin, T3, ½ strength nutrient solution without N pyraclostrobin and T4, ½ strength nutrient solution N + pyraclostrobin. Plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days after transplantation throughout the crop cycle, with dry mass and leaf area being determined. From the primary data, growth analysis was carried out to calculate total dry matter (Wt, the instantaneous rates of dry matter production (Ct, relative growth (Rw e net assimilation (Ea, leaf area (Af, production rates (Ca and relative growth of leaf area index (Ra and leaf weight (Fw specific leaf area (Sa the dry matter partitioning between organs and number (Nfr and fresh fruit weight (Wfr. Plants of T1 showed higher Wt, Ct and Wfr compared to those of other treatments. However, the T2 plants exhibited similar Nfr to T1 plants, being superior to others. Also allocated on the total dry matter and at the end of the cycle, a higher percentage of dry matter in the seafood compared to T3 and T4 plants. Also they allocated relative to the total dry matter and at the end of the cycle, a higher percentage in fruits of plants to T3 and T4. The association between nitrogen and pyraclostrobin changes the growth and assimilated partition on tomato plants cv. Micro – Tom, and those submitted to ½ dose of nitrogen have a higher total dry matter and less final percentage of total dry matter in fruits , comparatively to those submitted to the association ½ dose of nitrogen and pyraclostrobin.

  18. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGolan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1,000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA. To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development.

  19. Energy Analysis of a Rotary Drum Bioreactor for Composting Tomato Plant Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad N. Alkoaik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy produced from plant residue composting has stimulated great interest in heat recovery and utilization. Composting is an exothermic process often controlled through temperature measurements. However, energy analysis of the overall composting system, especially the rotary bioreactors, is generally not well known and very limited. This study presents detailed energy analysis in a laboratory-scale, batch-operated, rotary bioreactor used for composting tomato plant residues. The bioreactor was considered as a thermodynamic system operating under unsteady state conditions. The composting process was described, the input generated and lost energy terms as well as the relative importance of each term were quantitatively evaluated, and the composting phases were clearly identified. Results showed that the compost temperature peaked at 72 h of operation reaching 66.7 °C with a heat generation rate of 9.3 W·kg−1 of organic matter. During the composting process, the accumulated heat generation was 1.9 MJ·kg−1 of organic matter; only 4% of this heat was gained by the composting material, and 96% was lost outside the bioreactor. Contributions of thermal radiation, aeration, cylindrical, and side-walls surfaces of the reactor on the total heat loss were 1%, 2%, 69%, and 28%, respectively. The information obtained is applicable in the design, management, and control of composting operations and in improvement of bioreactor effectiveness and productivity.

  20. Effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under simulated seawater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Jun Kang, Yi; Li Wang, Huan; Sheng Zhang, Xiang; Xin Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of three PGPRs on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato under simulated seawater irrigation, a two consecutive seasons' field experiment was conducted in Yancheng Teachers University plot from April to June and August to October, 2011. The results showed that Erwinia persicinus RA2 containing ACC deaminase exhibited the best ability compared with Bacillus pumilus WP8 and Pseudomonas putida RBP1 which had no ACC deaminase activity to enhance marketable yields of fresh and dried fruits in tomato under simulated seawater irrigation especially under HS condition. B. pumilus WP8 had significant effects on improving tomato fruit quality under the conditions of irrigating with 1.0% NaCl solution (MS) and with 2.0% NaCl solution (HS). Na(+) contents were generally accumulated much more in tomato plant mid-shoot leaves than in fruits whatever the salt concentration. More sodium accumulation in leaves of E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 treatments under HS condition were found than in control. E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 can promote tomato growth, improve fruit quality more firmly than P. putida RBP1 during two consecutive seasons. Our study suggested that E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 are considered to be promising PGPR strains which are suited for application in salt marsh planting, ACC deaminase activity was not unique index on screening for PGPRs with the aim of salt stress tolerance, and plant growth promoting activities may be relevant to different growth indices and different stress conditions.

  1. Infection of a tomato cell culture by Phytophthora infestans; a versatile tool to study Phytophthora-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Schoina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes late blight on potato and tomato. Despite extensive research, the P. infestans-host interaction is still poorly understood. To find new ways to further unravel this interaction we established a new infection system using MsK8 tomato cells. These cells grow in suspension and can be maintained as a stable cell line that is representative for tomato. Results MsK8 cells can host several Phytophthora species pathogenic on tomato. Species not pathogenic on tomato could not infect. Microscopy revealed that 16 h after inoculation up to 36% of the cells were infected. The majority were penetrated by a germ tube emerging from a cyst (i.e. primary infection while other cells were already showing secondary infections including haustoria. In incompatible interactions, MsK8 cells showed defense responses, namely reactive oxygen species production and cell death leading to a halt in pathogen spread at the single cell level. In compatible interactions, several P. infestans genes, including RXLR effector genes, were expressed and in both, compatible and incompatible interactions tomato genes involved in defense were differentially expressed. Conclusions Our results show that P. infestans can prosper as a pathogen in MsK8 cells; it not only infects, but also makes haustoria and sporulates, and it receives signals that activate gene expression. Moreover, MsK8 cells have the ability to support pathogen growth but also to defend themselves against infection in a similar way as whole plants. An advantage of MsK8 cells compared to leaves is the more synchronized infection, as all cells have an equal chance of being infected. Moreover, analyses and sampling of infected tissue can be performed in a non-destructive manner from early time points of infection onwards and as such the MsK8 infection system offers a potential platform for large-scale omics studies and activity screenings of inhibitory

  2. Phytohormones in plant-endophyte interactions: investigating the role of these compounds in the recruitment of tomato root fungal endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, Andrea; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    Endophytes are microbes capable of colonizing the inner part of different plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. In some cases, they have beneficial effects for the host plant. The role of endophytes in biological control of plant pathogens, in induction of plant abiotic stress tolerance...... and in enhancement of plant growth has strongly increased the focus on the isolation of novel endophytic species. In order to implement the use of specific endophytes in agriculture, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in the plant-endophyte interactions. Phytohormones play a significant role...... in this interaction, but little is known about the specific way by which they influence the recruitment and the colonization of the host tissues. The aim of the current project is to go deeper into the role of these signalling compounds in plant-endophyte interactions. The isolation of endophytic fungi from tomato...

  3. The translocation and distribution of CeO2 nanoparticles in plants (Soybeans, Chili, Eggplant and Tomato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Dai, Yanhui

    2018-02-01

    Intensive production of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) would lead to their release into the environment. While their use in commercial goods is constantly increasing, location of NPs in plant is still poorly documented. In this study we determined the translocation of CeO2-NPs in four plants (Soybeans, Tomato, Chili and Eggplant) grown in natural conditions. The plants were digged out 1/4 roots into 2000 mg/L CeO2-NPs solution during the blossoming period. After being exposed for one month, the contents of Ce in plant tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There was more Ce in the leaf of treated plants than in control plants. The contents of Ce in leaf tissues was different. This research offers vital information about the translocation and distribution of CeO2-NPs in higher plants.

  4. RNA-seq analysis reveals the role of red light in resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, You-Xin; Wang, Meng-Meng; Yin, Yan-Ling; Onac, Eugen; Zhou, Guo-Fu; Peng, Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2015-02-25

    Plants attenuate their responses to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, leading to higher incidences of pathogen infection at night. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism responsible for the light-induced defence response; transcriptome data would likely facilitate the elucidation of this mechanism. In this study, we observed diurnal changes in tomato resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000), with the greatest susceptibility before midnight. Nightly light treatment, particularly red light treatment, significantly enhanced the resistance; this effect was correlated with increased salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and defence-related gene transcription. RNA-seq analysis revealed that red light induced a set of circadian rhythm-related genes involved in the phytochrome and SA-regulated resistance response. The biosynthesis and signalling pathways of multiple plant hormones (auxin, SA, jasmonate, and ethylene) were co-ordinately regulated following Pto DC3000 infection and red light, and the SA pathway was most significantly affected by red light and Pto DC3000 infection. This result indicates that SA-mediated signalling pathways are involved in red light-induced resistance to pathogens. Importantly, silencing of nonexpressor of pathogensis-related genes 1 (NPR1) partially compromised red light-induced resistance against Pto DC3000. Furthermore, sets of genes involved in redox homeostasis (respiratory burst oxidase homologue, RBOH; glutathione S-transferases, GSTs; glycosyltransferase, GTs), calcium (calmodulin, CAM; calmodulin-binding protein, CBP), and defence (polyphenol oxidase, PPO; nudix hydrolase1, NUDX1) as well as transcription factors (WRKY18, WRKY53, WRKY60, WRKY70) and cellulose synthase were differentially induced at the transcriptional level by red light in response to pathogen challenge. Taken together, our results suggest that there is a diurnal change in susceptibility to Pto DC3000 with greatest

  5. Organ-dependent oxylipin signature in leaves and roots of salinized tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Ghars, Mohamed Ali; Frettinger, Patrick; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Lutts, Stanley; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2012-07-15

    Oxylipins have been extensively studied in plant defense mechanisms or as signal molecules. Depending on the stress origin (e.g. wounding, insect, pathogen), and also on the plant species or organ, a specific oxylipin signature can be generated. Salt stress is frequently associated with secondary stress such as oxidative damage. Little is known about the damage caused to lipids under salt stress conditions, especially with respect to oxylipins. In order to determine if an organ-specific oxylipin signature could be observed during salt stress, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Money Maker) plants were submitted to salt stress (100 mM of NaCl) for a 30-d period. A complete oxylipin profiling and LOX related-gene expression measurement were achieved in leaves and roots. As expected, salt stress provoked premature senescence in leaves, as revealed by a decrease in photosystem II efficiency (F(v)/F(m) ratio) and sodium accumulation in leaves. In roots, a significant decrease in several oxylipins (9- and 13-hydro(pero)xy linole(n)ic acids, keto and divinyl ether derivatives) was initiated at day 5 and intensified at day 21 after salt treatment, whereas jasmonic acid content increased. In leaves, the main changes in oxylipins were observed later (at day 30), with an increase in some 9- and 13-hydro(pero)xy linole(n)ic acids and a decrease in some keto-derivatives and in jasmonic acid. Oxylipin enantiomeric characterization revealed that almost all compounds were formed enzymatically, and therefore a massive auto-oxidation of lipids that can be encountered in abscission processes can be excluded here. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro performances of hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A plant tissue culture technique is a good method for the evaluation and screening of plant genotypes for salt tolerance. In vitro evaluations of sodium chloride (NaCl) effects on two tomato cultivars (Pearl and Beril) were investigated with four NaCl levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mM) using hypocotyl and cotyledon explants.

  7. Safety culture: A plant operator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the experience of conducting a Safety Culture Audit following the ASCOT Guidelines in a major operating department of the Sellafield Site, where irradiated fuel is received and stored. It also covers the process of implementing changes to strengthen the Safety Culture. The main conclusion of the paper is that the prevailing culture of a department/plant must be recognized and taken account of in preparing for and performing a Safety Culture Audit and again in the implementation of measures to strengthen the Safety Culture. Also, if any success is to be had in strengthening Safety Culture, all personnel must be involved in the process, which requires efficient communication and feedback of results and consultation on the way forward. (author). 3 refs

  8. Use efficiency of photosynthetically active radiation by tomato plants grown in different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radin, B.; Bergamaschi, H.; Reisser Junior, C.; Barni, N.A.; Matzenauer, R.; Didone, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Crop biomass production is related to the amount of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted and absorbed by the leaves, as well as to their efficiency of conversion of this radiant energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the radiation use efficiency by tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown in different environments. Experiments were carried out in plastic-covered greenhouses with and without anti insects screens and at open air plots, in different growth periods (spring-summer and summer-autumn) during the 1999/2000 crop season. Measurements of dry above-ground biomass and leaf area index throughout both crop cycles were performed, and the incident and transmitted radiation fluxes were registered. The greenhouse with anti insects screens had less incident radiation, but resulted in higher use efficiency: 0.44 and 0.60 g dry matter mol -1 during the first and second cycles, respectively. Outside the greenhouses, there was a higher amount of incident radiation, however a lower use efficiency (0.30 and 0.32 g mol -1 for the first and second cycles, respectively), while the greenhouse without anti insects screens had intermediate values (0.45 and 0.53 g mol -1 ). (author) [pt

  9. On Plant Detection of Intact Tomato Fruits Using Image Analysis and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated yield estimation of intact fruits prior to harvesting provides various benefits to farmers. Until now, several studies have been conducted to estimate fruit yield using image-processing technologies. However, most of these techniques require thresholds for features such as color, shape and size. In addition, their performance strongly depends on the thresholds used, although optimal thresholds tend to vary with images. Furthermore, most of these techniques have attempted to detect only mature and immature fruits, although the number of young fruits is more important for the prediction of long-term fluctuations in yield. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to accurately detect individual intact tomato fruits including mature, immature and young fruits on a plant using a conventional RGB digital camera in conjunction with machine learning approaches. The developed method did not require an adjustment of threshold values for fruit detection from each image because image segmentation was conducted based on classification models generated in accordance with the color, shape, texture and size of the images. The results of fruit detection in the test images showed that the developed method achieved a recall of 0.80, while the precision was 0.88. The recall values of mature, immature and young fruits were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively.

  10. On plant detection of intact tomato fruits using image analysis and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Yoshioka, Yosuke; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2014-07-09

    Fully automated yield estimation of intact fruits prior to harvesting provides various benefits to farmers. Until now, several studies have been conducted to estimate fruit yield using image-processing technologies. However, most of these techniques require thresholds for features such as color, shape and size. In addition, their performance strongly depends on the thresholds used, although optimal thresholds tend to vary with images. Furthermore, most of these techniques have attempted to detect only mature and immature fruits, although the number of young fruits is more important for the prediction of long-term fluctuations in yield. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to accurately detect individual intact tomato fruits including mature, immature and young fruits on a plant using a conventional RGB digital camera in conjunction with machine learning approaches. The developed method did not require an adjustment of threshold values for fruit detection from each image because image segmentation was conducted based on classification models generated in accordance with the color, shape, texture and size of the images. The results of fruit detection in the test images showed that the developed method achieved a recall of 0.80, while the precision was 0.88. The recall values of mature, immature and young fruits were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively.

  11. Using genetically modified tomato crop plants with purple leaves for absolute weed/crop classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lati, Ran N; Filin, Sagi; Aly, Radi; Lande, Tal; Levin, Ilan; Eizenberg, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    Weed/crop classification is considered the main problem in developing precise weed-management methodologies, because both crops and weeds share similar hues. Great effort has been invested in the development of classification models, most based on expensive sensors and complicated algorithms. However, satisfactory results are not consistently obtained due to imaging conditions in the field. We report on an innovative approach that combines advances in genetic engineering and robust image-processing methods to detect weeds and distinguish them from crop plants by manipulating the crop's leaf color. We demonstrate this on genetically modified tomato (germplasm AN-113) which expresses a purple leaf color. An autonomous weed/crop classification is performed using an invariant-hue transformation that is applied to images acquired by a standard consumer camera (visible wavelength) and handles variations in illumination intensities. The integration of these methodologies is simple and effective, and classification results were accurate and stable under a wide range of imaging conditions. Using this approach, we simplify the most complicated stage in image-based weed/crop classification models. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Inhibitory effect of lactoferrin against gray mould on tomato plants caused by Botrytis cinerea and possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Hong-Yan; Li, Peng-Peng; Wang, Kai-Yun

    2013-02-15

    Lactoferrin (LF), an 80 kDa iron binding glycoprotein, was effective in the control of gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato. LF strongly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of B. cinerea in vitro, especially at 100 mg/L. When viewed by fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide, the membrane integrity of B. cinerea conidia treated with LF (50 mg/L) decreased to 68% at 2 h. The leakage of carbohydrate and protein from mycelia increased as the dose of LF increased compared with the untreated controls. Furthermore, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content in B. cinerea spores exposed to LF increased markedly. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in spores treated with LF were also 1.3, twice as high as those in the control at 6 h, whereas ATP content was 1.5 times lower. In planta assays demonstrated that LF exhibited significant curative effect (76.3%, 100 mg/L) against gray mould, compared with the preventive effect (52.6%, 100 mg/L). The mechanisms by which LF decreased gray mould decay of tomato plant may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae. These findings suggest that LF has potential as an antifungal agent to reduce the severity of gray mould of tomato plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clustering and cellular distribution characteristics of virus particles of Tomato spotted wilt virus and Tomato zonate spot virus in different plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongkai; Zheng, Kuanyu; Dong, Jiahong; Fang, Qi; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xifeng

    2016-01-19

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV) are the two dominant species of thrip-transmitted tospoviruses, cause significant losses in crop yield in Yunnan and its neighboring provinces in China. TSWV and TZSV belong to different serogroup of tospoviruses but induce similar symptoms in the same host plant species, which makes diagnostic difficult. We used different electron microscopy preparing methods to investigate clustering and cellular distribution of TSWV and TZSV in the host plant species. Negative staining of samples infected with TSWV and TZSV revealed that particles usually clustered in the vesicles, including single particle (SP), double particles clustering (DPC), triple particles clustering (TPC). In the immunogold labeling negative staining against proteins of TZSV, the antibodies against Gn protein were stained more strongly than the N protein. Ultrathin section and high pressure freeze (HPF)-electron microscopy preparations revealed that TSWV particles were distributed in the cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), filamentous inclusions (FI) and Golgi bodies in the mesophyll cells. The TSWV particles clustered as multiple particles clustering (MPC) and distributed in globular viroplasm or cisternae of ER in the top leaf cell. TZSV particles were distributed more abundantly in the swollen membrane of ER in the mesophyll cell than those in the phloem parenchyma cells and were not observed in the top leaf cell. However, TZSV virions were mainly present as single particle in the cytoplasm, with few clustering as MPC. In this study, we identified TSWV and TZSV particles had the distinct cellular distribution patterns in the cytoplasm from different tissues and host plants. This is the first report of specific clustering characteristics of tospoviruses particles as well as the cellular distribution of TSWV particles in the FI and globular viroplasm where as TZSV particles inside the membrane of ER. These results indicated that

  14. Molecular characterization of Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is an important vegetable crop in Mexico. Recently, a phytoplasma associated with leaf yellowing and curling, severe stunting and little leaf in tomato plant was identified as Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (16SrIII group). DNAs extracted from tomato leaves with symptoms were examined for ...

  15. Silencing of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (SlPLC2) reduces plant susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonorazky, Gabriela; Guzzo, María Carla; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Laxalt, Ana María

    2016-12-01

    The tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene family is composed of six members, named SlPLC1 to SlPLC6, differentially regulated on pathogen attack. We have previously shown that the fungal elicitor xylanase induces a raise of SlPLC2 and SlPLC5 transcripts and that SlPLC2, but not SlPLC5, is required for xylanase-induced expression of defense-related genes. In this work we studied the role of SlPLC2 in the interaction between tomato and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Inoculation of tomato leaves with B. cinerea increases SlPLC2 transcript levels. We knocked-down the expression of SlPLC2 by virus-induced gene silencing and plant defense responses were analyzed upon B. cinerea inoculation. SlPLC2 silenced plants developed smaller necrotic lesions concomitantly with less proliferation of the fungus. Silencing of SlPLC2 resulted as well in a reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Upon B. cinerea inoculation, transcript levels of the salicylic acid (SA)-defense pathway marker gene SlPR1a were diminished in SlPLC2 silenced plants compared to non-silenced infected plants, while transcripts of the jasmonic acid (JA)-defense gene markers Proteinase Inhibitor I and II (SlPI-I and SlPI-II) were increased. This implies that SlPLC2 participates in plant susceptibility to B. cinerea. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of the moisture of gamma irradiated tomato-seeds on the plant growth sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumala Dewi.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of 2 Krad gamma irradiated dry seeds fruit and tomato seedlings has been carried out. The effect was observed on the time of flowering and fruit bearing, fruits number, fruits weight and time of harvesting. (author)

  17. EFFECT OF SILICON, NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM IN THE INCIDENCE OF TOMATO PIN WORM IN INDUSTRIAL TOMATO PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Cristina dos Santos2*

    2013-12-01

    of two stems per plant. It was observed a decrease in the number of pinworm leaf mines with an increase in silicon and potassium doses and an increase in the number of mines with an increase on nitrogen doses.

  18. Tomato plants transformed with the inhibitor-of-virus-replication gene are partially resistant to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad; David, Dalia Rav; Leibman, Diana; Gal-On, Amit; Vunsh, Ron; Czosnek, Henryk; Elad, Yigal

    2010-03-01

    Tomato plants transformed with a cDNA clone encoding the inhibitor-of-virus-replication (IVR) gene were partially resistant to Botrytis cinerea. This resistance was observed as a significant reduction in the size of lesions induced by the fungus in transgenic plants compared with the lesions on the nontransgenic control plants. This resistance was weakened when plants were kept at an elevated temperature, 32 degrees C, before inoculation with B. cinerea compared with plants kept at 17 to 22 degrees C prior to inoculation. Resistance correlated with the presence of IVR transcripts, as detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This is one of the few cases in which a gene associated with resistance to a virus also seems to be involved in resistance to a fungal disease.

  19. Comparison of defence responses to Botrytis cinerea infection in tomato plants propagated in vitro and grown in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Patykowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Defence reactions: O2 - generation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities after B. cinerea infection in tomato plants propagated in vitro and grown in vivo have been compared. Infection resulted in rapid O2 - generation. Superoxide dismutase activity increase was slower than O2 - response. In plants propagated in vitro catalase and guaiacol peroxidase activities after infection were induced less strongly than in plants grown in vivo. K2HPO4 pretreatment of plants grown in vitro enhanced significantly the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase after infection. Slight restriction of B. cinerea infection development in in vitro propagated plants pretreated with K2HP04 was observed.

  20. Comparative effects of partial root-zone irrigation and deficit irrigation on phosphorus uptake in tomato plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2012-01-01

    The comparative effects of partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) and deficit irrigation (DI) on phosphorus (P) uptake in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. The results showed that PRI treatment improved water-use efficiency (WUE) compared...... to the DI treatment. PRI-treated plants accumulated significantly higher amounts of P in their shoots than DI plants under organic maize straw N fertilisation, whereas similar levels of shoot P accumulation were observed under mineral N fertilisation. Thus, the form of N fertiliser, and thereby...... the different plant N status, affected the accumulation of P in shoots, as reflected by a higher plant N:P ratio following mineral N fertilisation than after organic N fertilisation. Compared to the DI treatment, PRI significantly increased both the physiological and agronomic efficiencies of P-use under...

  1. Improved plant nitrogen nutrition contributes to higher water use efficiency in tomatoes under alternate partial root-zone irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    nutrition and distribution in the canopy may indicate that PRI plants have a greater photosynthetic capacity than DI plants; this is confirmed by the observed positive linear relationship between specific leaf N content and δ13C. It is concluded that PRI improves N nutrition and optimises N distribution......Comparative effects of partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) and deficit irrigation (DI) on stomatal conductance (gs), nitrogen accumulation and distribution in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. Results showed that both PRI and DI saved 25......% water and led to 10.0% and 17.5% decreases in dry biomass, respectively, compared with the fully irrigated (FI) controls. Consequently, water use efficiency (WUE) was increased by 18.6% and 10.8% in the PRI and DI plants, respectively. The highest WUE in the PRI plants was associated with the highest...

  2. Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-01-01

    Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.

  3. Alternative control of early blight of tomato using plant extracts from Acacia nilotica, Achillea fragrantissima and Calotropis procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria A.M. BAKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo antifungal potential of extracts of three wild medicinal plants, (Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk. Sch.Bip. and Calotropis procera (Aiton W. T. Aiton was examined against Alternaria solani, the causal agent of the early blight of tomato. Aqueous or ethanol extracts of all tested plants reduced the mycelial growth and conidium germination of A. solani in vitro. Ethanol extracts were more effective against the pathogen than the aqueous extracts. Extract of C. procera exhibited more antifungal potential against the pathogen than other plant extracts. Observations by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic alterations in the morphology and ultrastructure of A. solani when treated with the ethanol extract of C. procera at a concentration of 20%. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of many bioactive constituents in the extracts which were in greater amounts in C. procera than the other two plants. In a plot experiment, both types of extracts from C. procera reduced disease severity. Tomato fruit yield was increased after the treatment with the plant extracts.

  4. Safety culture in nuclear power plants. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    As a consequence of the INSAG-4 report on 'safety culture', published by the IAEA in 1991, the Federal Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (KSA) decided to hold a one-day seminar as a first step in this field. The KSA is an advisory body of the Federal Government and the Federal Department of Transport and Energy (EVED). It comments on applications for licenses, observes the operation of nuclear power plants, assists with the preparation of regulations, monitors the progress of research in the field of nuclear safety, and makes proposals for research tasks. The objective of this seminar was to familiarise the participants with the principles of 'safety culture', with the experiences made in Switzerland and abroad with existing concepts, as well as to eliminate existing prejudices. The main points dealt with at this seminar were: - safety culture from the point of view of operators, - safety culture from the point of view of the authorities, - safety culture: collaboration between power plants, the authorities and research organisations, - trends and developments in the field of safety culture. Invitations to attend this seminar were extended to the management boards of companies operating Swiss nuclear power plants, and to representatives of the Swiss authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants. All these organisations were represented by a large number of executive and specialist staff. We would like to express our sincerest thanks to the Head of the Federal Department of Transport and Energy for his kind patronage of this seminar. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Infestation of Tomato Plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition. PMID:24710393

  6. Direct and indirect impacts of infestation of tomato plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.

  7. Role of dioxygenase α-DOX2 and SA in basal response and in hexanoic acid-induced resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Carlos; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; López-Cruz, Jaime; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea requires complex interplay between hormonal signalling. In this study, we explored the involvement of new oxylipins in the tomato basal and induced response to this necrotroph through the functional analysis of the tomato α-dioxygenase2 (α-DOX2)-deficient mutant divaricata. We also investigated the role of SA in the defence response against this necrotrophic fungus using SA-deficient tomato nahG plants. The plants lacking dioxigenase α-DOX2, which catalyses oxylipins production from fatty acids, were more susceptible to Botrytis, and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was impaired; hence α-DOX2 is required for both tomato defence and the enhanced protection conferred by natural inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) against B. cinerea. The divaricata plants accumulated less pathogen-induced callose and presented lower levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) upon infection if compared to the wild type. Glutathion-S-transferase (GST) gene expression decreased and ROS production significantly increased in Botrytis-infected divaricata plants. These results indicate that absence of α-DOX2 influences the hormonal changes, oxidative burst and callose deposition that occur upon Botrytis infection in tomato. The study of SA-deficient nahG tomato plants showed that the plants with low SA levels displayed increased resistance to Botrytis, but were unable to display Hx-IR. This supports the involvement of SA in Hx-IR. NaghG plants displayed reduced callose and ROS accumulation upon infection and an increased GST expression. This reflects a positive relationship between SA and these defensive mechanisms in tomato. Finally, Hx boosted the pathogen-induced callose in nahG plants, suggesting that this priming mechanism is SA-independent. Our results support the involvement of the oxylipins pathway and SA in tomato response to Botrytis, probably through complex crosstalk of

  8. Role of tomato lipoxygenase D in wound-induced jasmonate biosynthesis and plant immunity to insect herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhua Yan

    Full Text Available In response to insect attack and mechanical wounding, plants activate the expression of genes involved in various defense-related processes. A fascinating feature of these inducible defenses is their occurrence both locally at the wounding site and systemically in undamaged leaves throughout the plant. Wound-inducible proteinase inhibitors (PIs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum provide an attractive model to understand the signal transduction events leading from localized injury to the systemic expression of defense-related genes. Among the identified intercellular molecules in regulating systemic wound response of tomato are the peptide signal systemin and the oxylipin signal jasmonic acid (JA. The systemin/JA signaling pathway provides a unique opportunity to investigate, in a single experimental system, the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate plant systemic immunity. Here we describe the characterization of the tomato suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses8 (spr8 mutant, which was isolated as a suppressor of (prosystemin-mediated signaling. spr8 plants exhibit a series of JA-dependent immune deficiencies, including the inability to express wound-responsive genes, abnormal development of glandular trichomes, and severely compromised resistance to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera and Botrytis cinerea. Map-based cloning studies demonstrate that the spr8 mutant phenotype results from a point mutation in the catalytic domain of TomLoxD, a chloroplast-localized lipoxygenase involved in JA biosynthesis. We present evidence that overexpression of TomLoxD leads to elevated wound-induced JA biosynthesis, increased expression of wound-responsive genes and, therefore, enhanced resistance to insect herbivory attack and necrotrophic pathogen infection. These results indicate that TomLoxD is involved in wound-induced JA biosynthesis and highlight the application potential of this gene for crop protection against

  9. Elevated CO2 reduces the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants to Helicoverpa armigera by suppressing the JA signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Guo

    Full Text Available Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO(2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO(2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO(2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO(2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height was also reduced by elevated CO(2. Under ambient CO(2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype plants, but elevated CO(2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO(2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants.

  10. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  11. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters for tomato plants, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    In organic farming, where nutrient management is constrained and sustainability is claimed, bio-effectors pave their way. Considering selected bio-effectors, this study integrates metabolomics to agronomy in depicting induced relevant phenomena. Extracts of three agro-industrial wastes (Lemon processing residues, Fennel processing residues and Brewer's spent grain) are being investigated as sources of bio-effectors for the third trial consequently. Corresponding individual and mixture aqueous extracts are assessed for their synergistic and/or single agronomic and qualitative performances on soil-grown tomato, compared to both a control and humic acid treatments. A metabolomic profiling of tomato fruits via the Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as holistic indicator of fruit quality and extract-induced responses, complements crop productivity and organoleptic/nutritional qualitative analyses. Results are expected to show mainly an enhancement of the fruit qualitative traits, and to confirm partly the previous results of better crop productivity and metabolism enhancement. Waste-derived bio-effectors could be, accordingly, demonstrated as potential candidates of plant-enhancing substances. Keywords: bio-effectors, organic farming, agro-industrial wastes, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), tomato.

  12. Release of lipoxygenase products and monoterpenes by tomato plants as an indicator of Botrytis cinerea-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, R M C; Miebach, M; Kleist, E; van Henten, E J; Wildt, J

    2009-11-01

    Changes in emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from tomato induced by the fungus Botrytis cinerea were studied in plants inoculated by spraying with suspensions containing B. cinerea spores. VOC emissions were analysed using on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with a time resolution of about 1 h, for up to 2 days after spraying. Four phases were delimited according to the starting point and the applied day/night rhythm of the experiments. These phases were used to demonstrate changes in VOC flux caused by B. cinerea infestation. Tomato plants inoculated with B. cinerea emitted a different number and amount of VOCs after inoculation compared to control plants that had been sprayed with a suspension without B. cinerea spores. The changes in emissions were dependent on time after inoculation as well as on the severity of infection. The predominant VOCs emitted after inoculation were volatile products from the lipoxygenase pathway (LOX products). The increased emission of LOX products proved to be a strong indicator of a stress response, indicating that VOC emissions can be used to detect plant stress at an early stage. Besides emission of LOX products, there were also increases in monoterpene emissions. However, neither increased emission of LOX products nor of monoterpenes is specific for B. cinerea attack. The emission of LOX products is also induced by other stresses, and increased emission of monoterpenes seems to be the result of mechanical damage induced by secondary stress impacts on leaves.

  13. Characterization of a New Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Isolates Found in Hippeastrum hybridum (Hort. Plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berniak Hanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV isolates H1 and H2 found in Hippeastrum hybridum plants were characterized based on biological, serological, and molecular properties. Virus isolates showed differences in symptom expression – H1 isolate displayed severe necrotic spots and patterns, whereas mild mosaic symptoms were observed on H2-infected H. hybridum plants. Both TSWV isolates showed comparable reactivity with TSWV-specific antibodies and they induced similar symptoms on herbaceous indicator plants, but some differences between these isolates were detected at the nucleotide sequence level of genomic S and M ssRNAs segment fragments. The nucleotide sequences encoding nucleocapsid (N and nonstructural (NSs and NSm proteins showed 98.2%, 97.5%, and 96.5% identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of N and NSs sequences conducted for tested isolates and 31 TSWV isolates included for comparison revealed that H1 and H2 isolates fell into the same cluster and they were grouped together with isolates found previously in different vegetables, ornamentals, and weeds. When NSm ORF was analyzed, the tested isolates formed a separate cluster: H1 isolate showed the highest affinity with TSWV isolates infecting chrysanthemum and pepper plants, whereas H2 isolate was most closely related to other virus isolates found in sweet pepper and tomatoes. These results indicate that both isolates were reassortants between different virus isolates, and represented two novel genetic patterns of TSWV.

  14. Dark CO2 fixation in leaves of tomato plants grown with ammonium and nitrate at nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, M.; Yamada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The dark (non-photosynthetic) CO 2 fixation was studied in the leaves of ammonium-fed and nitrate-fed tomato plants. The ability to fix 14 CO 2 in the dark of ammonium-fed plants was remarkably lower as compared with nitrate-fed plants, supporting the previous finding that the synthesis of C 4 -compounds from C 3 -compounds was reduced in the leaves of ammonium-fed plants. There was no difference in the activity of PEP carboxylase in extracts prepared from the leaves between both the plants during an early period of the treatment. However, the enzyme activity began to decrease rapidly in ammonium-fed plants 4 days after the treatment. By long-term treatments, the enzyme activity in ammonium-fed plants became half as high as that of nitrate-fed plants. The decreased PEP carboxylase activity in ammonium-fed plants was not associated with the presence of NH 4 -N and the absence of NO 3 -N in the leaf extract, and was not restored by the addition of the leaf extract from nitrate-fed plants. It is concluded that the decreased rate of synthesis of C 4 -compounds from C 3 -compounds in ammonium-fed plants is closely associated with a decrease in the dark fixation involving PEP carboxylase. (orig.)

  15. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 100 years ago, Haberlandt envisioned the concept of plant tissue culture and provided the groundwork for the cultivation of plant cells, tissues and organs in culture. Initially plant tissue cultures arose as a research tool and focused on attempts to culture and study the development of small, isolated cells and segments ...

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals networks of genes activated in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci when fed on tomato plants infected with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daniel K; Chen, Wenbo; Zheng, Yi; Kaur, Navneet; Wintermantel, William M; Simmons, Alvin M; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2018-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci can transmit hundreds of viruses to numerous agricultural crops in the world. Five genera of viruses, including Begomovirus and Crinivirus, are transmitted by B. tabaci. There is little knowledge about the genes involved in virus acquisition and transmission by whiteflies. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach, we evaluated the gene expression profiles of whiteflies (B. tabaci MEAM1) after feeding on tomato infected by a begomovirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), in comparison to a recent study, in which whiteflies were fed on tomato infected by the crinivirus, Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV). The data revealed similar temporal trends in gene expression, but large differences in the number of whitefly genes when fed on TYLCV or ToCV-infected tomato. Transcription factors, cathepsins, receptors, and a hemocyanin gene, which is implicated in mediating antiviral immune responses in other insects and possibly virus transmission, were some of the genes identified. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. ENHANCEMENT OF CULTURE MEDIA FOR PROPIONIBACTERIUM SHERMANII ON THE BASIS OF TOMATO JUICE AS VEGETABLE FILLING

    OpenAIRE

    Volobueva E. S.; Aniskina M. V.; Petenko A. I.; Gneush A. N.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents materials about selection and optimization of the nutrient medium for cultivation of Propionibacterium shermanii. We have shown a high positive effect expressed in the intensive growth of microorganisms of Propionibacterium shermanii on optimized medium with the juice from the tomatoes, as well as replacement of glucose on corn extract, which allows concluding that these components have a positive impact on the accumulation of biomass of Propionibacterium shermanii

  18. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    octadecenoic acid which is proba- bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or conversion was thus further characterized. The endogenous level of.

  19. Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on leaf area index and fruit yield in high-density soilless tomato culture using low node-order pinching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takafumi; Yano, Takayoshi; Sugiura, Makoto; Nagasaki, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF), we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI), fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS), summer-fall (SF), and fall-winter (FW) seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF) with constant electrical conductivity (EC) in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2) · m(-2); the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.

  20. Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on leaf area index and fruit yield in high-density soilless tomato culture using low node-order pinching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Kinoshita

    Full Text Available To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF, we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI, fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS, summer-fall (SF, and fall-winter (FW seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF with constant electrical conductivity (EC in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2 · m(-2; the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.

  1. Tissue-Culture Method of Cloning Rubber Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    Guayule plant, a high-yield rubber plant cloned by tissue-culture method to produce multiple new plants that mature quickly. By adjusting culture medium, excised shoot tip produces up to 50 identical guayule plants. Varying concentration of cytokinin, single excised tip produces either 1 or several (up to 50) new plants.

  2. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-06-01

    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Vincenti, Estefania; Powell, Ann L. T.; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Fruit–pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit–B. cinerea interaction. PMID:23717322

  4. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  5. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Patricia Silva-Beltrán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials.

  6. Different mechanisms of Trichoderma virens-mediated resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt involve the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of Trichoderma virens (TriV_JSB100) spores or cell-free culture filtrate in the regulation of growth and activation of the defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by the development of a biocontrol-plant-pathogen interaction system. Two-week-old tomato seedlings primed with TriV_JSB100 spores cultured on barley grains (BGS) or with cell-free culture filtrate (CF) were inoculated with Fusarium pathogen under glasshouse conditions; this resulted in significantly lower disease incidence in tomato Oogata-Fukuju plants treated with BGS than in those treated with CF. To dissect the pathways associated with this response, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling in BGS- and CF-induced resistance was evaluated using JA- and SA-impaired tomato lines. We observed that JA-deficient mutant def1 plants were susceptible to Fusarium pathogen when they were treated with BGS. However, wild-type (WT) BGS-treated tomato plants showed a higher JA level and significantly lower disease incidence. SA-deficient mutant NahG plants treated with CF were also found to be susceptible to Fusarium pathogen and displayed low SA levels, whereas WT CF-treated tomato plants exhibited moderately lower disease levels and substantially higher SA levels. Expression of the JA-responsive defensin gene PDF1 was induced in WT tomato plants treated with BGS, whereas the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related protein 1 acidic (PR1a) gene was up-regulated in WT tomato plants treated with CF. These results suggest that TriV_JSB100 BGS and CF differentially induce JA and SA signalling cascades for the elicitation of Fusarium oxysporum resistance in tomato. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Broad-range antagonistic rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia plymuthica suppress Agrobacterium crown gall tumours on tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandurishvili, N; Toklikishvili, N; Ovadis, M; Eliashvili, P; Giorgobiani, N; Keshelava, R; Tediashvili, M; Vainstein, A; Khmel, I; Szegedi, E; Chernin, L

    2011-01-01

    To examine the biocontrol activity of broad-range antagonists Serratia plymuthica IC1270, Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96 and P. fluorescens B-4117 against tumourigenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis. Under greenhouse conditions, the antagonists, applied via root soak prior to injecting Agrobacterium strains into the wounded stems, significantly suppressed tumour development on tomato seedlings. A derivative of P. fluorescens Q8r1-96 tagged with a gfp reporter, as well as P. fluorescens B-4117 and S. plymuthica IC1270 marked with rifampicin resistance, stably persisted in tomato tissues for at least 1 month. Mutants of P. fluorescens Q8r1-96 and S. plymuthica IC1270 deficient in 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol or pyrrolnitrin production, respectively, also proficiently suppressed the tumour development, indicating that these antibiotics are not responsible for the observed biocontrol effect on crown gall disease. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the tested P. fluorescens and S. plymuthica strains inhibited the growth of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis strains in vitro. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the major headspace volatile produced by S. plymuthica IC1270; it strongly suppressed Agrobacterium growth in vitro and was emitted by tomato plants treated with S. plymuthica IC1270. 1-Undecene was the main volatile emitted by the examined P. fluorescens strains, with other volatiles, including DMDS, being detected in only relatively low quantities. S. plymuthica IC1270, P. fluorescens B-4117 and P. fluorescens Q8r1-96 can be used as novel biocontrol agents of pathogenic Agrobacterium. VOCs, and specifically DMDS, might be involved in the suppression of oncogenicity in tomato plants. However, the role of specific volatiles in the biocontrol activity remains to be elucidated. The advantage of applying these antagonists lies in their multiple activities against a

  8. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  9. Bell and banana pepper exhibit mature-plant resistance to tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus transmitted by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kahn, N D; Kennedy, G G

    2009-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) causes annual economic losses in pepper, Capsicum annuum L., across the southern United States and is transmitted by several species of thrips, including the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Reduced virus transmission and symptom severity as plant age increases is known as mature-plant resistance. TSWV transmission to pepper plants was examined in three and four age classes in field and greenhouse trials, respectively. In the field trial, 'Camelot' bell pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca 37, 51, or 65 d postsowing. Two greenhouse trials of Camelot bell and one trial each of 'Bounty' and 'Pageant' banana pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca, 43, 57, 71, or 85; 48, 62, 75, or 90; 42, 56, 70, or 84; and 43, 57, 71, or 85 d postsowing, respectively. Linear and hyperbolic regressions of percentage of infected plants per block on days postsowing indicated mature-plant resistance in all trials. All models were significant, but hyperbolic curves better fit the data than linear models. Hyperbolic models were used to calculate the number of days posttransplant at which a 50% decrease from the predicted percentage of infected plants at transplant age (42 d postsowing) was expected. This was referred to as days posttransplant-50 (DPT50). DPRT50 occurred within 9 days posttransplant age for all trials, indicating that early TSWV management in pepper is critical.

  10. Recognition of the Cladosporium fulvum Ecp2 elicitor in tomato and non-host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, de M.J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Resistance against the tomato fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is often conferred by Hcr9 genes iliomologues of the ~. fulvum resistance gene Cf-~) that are located in the Milky Way cluster on the short arm of Chromosome 1. These Hcr9 genes mediate recognition of matching fungal avirulence gene

  11. Physiological studies on cultivar-specific resistance of tomato plants to Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrastructural and physiological aspects of cultivar-specific resistance of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva) are subject of this thesis.

    The ultrastructural study described in the first paper was meant as an introduction to a

  12. Structure and expression of the tomato spotted wilt virus genome : a plant-infecting bunyavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, R.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes studies which are aimed at the elucidation of the genetic organisation and expression strategy of the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) RNA genome.

    Using specific cDNA clones, corresponding to all three genomic RNA segments, the synthesis of virus specific RNA

  13. Lipopeptides from a novel Bacillus methylotrophicus 39b strain suppress Agrobacterium crown gall tumours on tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha-Gargouri, Olfa; Ben Abdallah, Dorra; Ghorbel, Imen; Charfeddine, Ikram; Jlaiel, Lobna; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Tounsi, Slim

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to characterise the antibacterial activity of a novel Bacillus methylotrophicus strain named 39b against tumourigenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 and B6 strains. It also aims to identify the compound that is responsible for its activity and to evaluate its efficiency to control crown gall disease in tomato plants. B. methylotrophicus strain 39b was found to stop the growth of phytopathogenic A. tumefaciens strains in in vitro experiments. Lipopeptides - surfactins, iturins and fengycins - were detected under various isoforms by mass spectrometry analysis of the methanolic extract. The active principle acting against Agrobacterium strains was isolated from TLC plates and identified by mass spectrometry as surfactin. The strain was effective in reducing the weight and the number of galls induced by A. tumefaciens strains on tomato plants. Total inhibition of gall formation was observed using the antibacterial compounds. B. methylotrophicus strain 39b exhibited antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic A. tumefaciens C58 and B6 both in vitro and in vivo. Lipopeptides are the main compounds that confer the biocontrol ability. This strain has the potential to be developed as a biological control agent for crown gall disease. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-09-04

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN), Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN), and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD), which for the purpose of this work are called "deep learning meta-architectures". We combine each of these meta-architectures with "deep feature extractors" such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet). We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant's surrounding area.

  15. Time‐course of Tomato Whole‐plant Respiration and Fruit and Stem Growth During Prolonged Darkness in Relation to Carbohydrate Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    GARY, C.; BALDET, P.; BERTIN, N.; DEVAUX, C.; TCHAMITCHIAN, M.; RAYMOND, P.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a simple carbon balance model (Seginer et al., 1994, Scientia Horticulturae 60: 55–80) in source‐limiting conditions, the dynamics of growth, respiration and carbohydrate reserves of tomato plants were observed in prolonged darkness. Four days prior to the experiments, plants were exposed to high or low light levels and CO2 concentrations. The concentration of carbohydrates in vegetative organs was 30–50 % lower in plants that were exposed to low carbon assimil...

  16. Impact of application of zinc oxide nanoparticles on callus induction, plant regeneration, element content and antioxidant enzyme activity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharby Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nanomaterials and their potential applications have been given considerable attention by researchers in various fields, especially agricultural biotechnology. However, not much has been done to evaluate the role or effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP in regulating physiological and biochemical processes in response to salt-induced stress. For this purpose, some callus growth traits, plant regeneration rate, mineral element (sodium, potassium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents and changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX in tissues of five tomato cultivars were investigated in a callus culture exposed to elevated concentrations of salt (3.0 and 6.0 g L-1NaCl, and in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 and 30 mg L-1. The relative callus growth rate was inhibited by 3.0 g L-1 NaCl; this was increased dramatically at 6.0 g L-1. Increasing exposure to NaCl was associated with a significantly higher sodium content and SOD and GPX activities. Zinc oxide nanoparticles mitigated the effects of NaCl, and in this application of lower concentrations (15 mg L-1 was more effective than a higher concentration (30 mg L-1. This finding indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles should be investigated further as a potential anti-stress agent in crop production. Different tomato cultivars showed different degrees of tolerance to salinity in the presence of ZnO-NP. The cultivars Edkawy, followed by Sandpoint, were less affected by salt stress than the cultivar Anna Aasa.

  17. Root environment water potential and tomato fruit growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van de P.A.C.M.; Uittien, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Tomato plants were grown in a climate chamber in water culture at standard nutrient solution concentration with electrical conductivity of 2 mS-cm-1. At the start of the development of the fourth cluster the EC was increased to 6, 9 or 12 mS-cm-1, resulting in a water potential of the nutrient

  18. Efficacy of insect-proof nets used in Tunisian tomato greenhouses against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and potential impact on plant growth and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Harbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect-proof screens constitute efficient physical means of protecting horticultural crops against insect pests and their use has become widespread. However, they may have a negative impact on plant growth and fruit quality by modifying climatic parameters of greenhouses. In case of tomato crops, they are used mainly against white flies and the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. In Tunisia, tomato plastic tunnels are often netted following two modalities: i complete netting of the greenhouse under the plastic screen (total netting; or ii netting only doors and lateral aeration windows (partial netting. Weekly monitoring of T. absoluta in two tomato greenhouses with different netting setups using pheromone traps and sampling of leaves and fruits showed no differences in the levels of infestation by the pest with a maximum average values of 6.66 eggs/leaf, 4.16 larvae/leaf and 4.16 mines/leaf. The maximum infestation rate of leaves was 86.66% and that of fruits was 10.83%. No effects of the netting setup used on plant growth parameters were detected. However, the study of fruit quality parameters revealed significant decrease in sugar contents in tomato fruits when using total netting setup (4.26°Brix versus 3.68°Brix. Recommendations regarding the combined use of pheromones traps and insect-proof nets are given and possibilities to enhance the efficiency of nets as physical barrier against T. absoluta are explored.

  19. An efficient in vitro-inoculation method for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abdallat, Ayed M; Al Debei, Hmoud S; Asmar, Heba; Misbeh, Samar; Quraan, Ayat; Kvarnheden, Anders

    2010-04-29

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus. To test the infectivity of TYLCV in tomato plants, an improved protocol for inoculation of in vitro-cultured tomato plants was developed. A TYLCV isolate was cloned, sequenced and used to construct a 1.8-mer infectious clone. Three weeks old microshoots of TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the infectious clone for the TYLCV isolate. After two weeks, the TYLCV symptoms started to appear on the in vitro-inoculated plants and the symptoms became more severe and pronounced eight weeks post-inoculation. The method was used efficiently to uncover the resistance mechanism against TYLCV in Solanum habrochaites accession LA 1777, a wild tomato known for its high resistance to whitefly and TYLCV. The reported in vitro-inoculation method can be used to screen tomato genotypes for their responses to TYLCV under controlled conditions and it will be a useful tool for better understanding of the TYLCV biology in tomato plants.

  20. An efficient in vitro-inoculation method for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbeh Samar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is a member of the family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus. To test the infectivity of TYLCV in tomato plants, an improved protocol for inoculation of in vitro-cultured tomato plants was developed. Results A TYLCV isolate was cloned, sequenced and used to construct a 1.8-mer infectious clone. Three weeks old microshoots of TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the infectious clone for the TYLCV isolate. After two weeks, the TYLCV symptoms started to appear on the in vitro-inoculated plants and the symptoms became more severe and pronounced eight weeks post-inoculation. The method was used efficiently to uncover the resistance mechanism against TYLCV in Solanum habrochaites accession LA 1777, a wild tomato known for its high resistance to whitefly and TYLCV. Conclusions The reported in vitro-inoculation method can be used to screen tomato genotypes for their responses to TYLCV under controlled conditions and it will be a useful tool for better understanding of the TYLCV biology in tomato plants.

  1. STUDY OF OPPORTUNITIES OF USE OF COMPOSTS CUNICOLES FOR THE ABOVEGROUND PRODUCTION OF TOMATO PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the potential valorization of composts exhausted cunicoles for aboveground vegetable plants. In a device complete random block with three repetitions, five composts in a pure state or in mixture and a witness are tested under tomato in seedbed except ground. They got results enable us to confirm that the composts are mature. As a whole, they have availability out of high water and a content of relatively weak air, whereas the substrates containing the peat-compost mixtures have physical properties close to the standards retained in Tunisia. The vegetative behavior of these plants with respect to the variation of the composition and the average size of the particles of the substrates shows a sensitivity of the seedlings to these parameters to the beginning of their growth. Majority of the mixtures containing peat-compost gave seedlings of quality, healthy, and homogeneous. The composts prepare well with a partial use in except ground.

  2. Analysis of small RNA production patterns among the two potato spindle tuber viroid variants in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the production of small RNA (sRNA by viroids upon infecting the plants, the tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Rutgers were inoculated with the variants of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd. After 21-days of postinoculation, total RNA was extracted and subjected for deep-sequencing using Illumina HiSeq platform. The primers were trimmed and only 21- to 24-nt long sRNAs were filtered after quality check of the raw data. The filtered sRNA population was then mapped against both the genomic (+ and antigenomic (− strands of the respective PSTVd variants using standard pattern-matching algorithm. The profiling of viroid derived sRNA (vd-sRNA revealed that the viroids are susceptible to host RNA silencing mechanism. High-throughput sequence data linked to this project have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE69225.

  3. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rockwool (RC and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better. For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  4. Métodos étodos de controle de lepidópteros na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. = Methods for caterpillars’ control in the culture of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Lebedenco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 5 métodos de controle das lagartas que atacam a cultura do tomateiro: método convencional de aplicação de produtos fitossanitários; manejo integrado de pragas (MIP com produtos sintéticos; MIP com o emprego de extrato de Azadirachta indica (Nim à 5%; ensacamento das pencas de tomate e testemunha. Os métodos queutilizaram produtos fitossanitários (convencional e MIP foram eficientes no controle das lagartas do tomateiro e, em conseqüência, promoveram um aumento na produtividade da cultura em 156 e 165% respectivamente, em comparação à testemunha. O número de pulverizações foi reduzido em até 66,7%, quando se adotou o MIP comparado ao convencional. O tratamento MIP-Nim foi significativamente igual à testemunha, denotando não ser eficiente no controle das lagartas broqueadoras. O ensacamento das pencas de frutos de tomate consistiu em uma alternativa promissora na produção de frutos sem a presença de inseticidas.Five methods for the control of caterpillars, which attack the culture of tomato, were analyzed: the conventional method of application of phytosanitary products; the integrated pest management (IPM; the IPM with the use of Azadirachta indica extract at 5% (Neem; the sacking of the tomato fruit immediately after flowering, and the control plants (without any treatment against pest. The methods that used phytosanitary products (conventional and IPM efficiently controlled the caterpillars on the tomato plants and, as a consequence, promoted an increase in the productivity of the culture of 156 and 165% respectively, if compared with the control plants. The number of pulverizations had a reduction of 66.7% when the IPM was used compared to the conventional. The performance of the IPMNeem treatment was significantly the same as the control, denoting poor efficiency in controlling the borer caterpillars. The method of sacking the tomato fruit consisted of a promising alternative in the production without

  5. The Effect of Spectral Quality on Daily Patterns of Gas Exchange, Biomass Gain, and Water-Use-Efficiency in Tomatoes and Lisianthus: An Assessment of Whole Plant Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoue, Jason; Leonardos, Evangelos D; Ma, Xiao; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in light-emitting diode (LED) technology have made them a viable alternative to current lighting systems for both sole and supplemental lighting requirements. Understanding how wavelength specific LED lighting can affect plants is thus an area of great interest. Much research is available on the wavelength specific responses of leaves from multiple crops when exposed to long-term wavelength specific lighting. However, leaf measurements do not always extrapolate linearly to the complexities which are found within a whole plant canopy, namely mutual shading and leaves of different ages. Taken together, both tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) leaves under short-term illumination and lisianthus ( Eustoma grandiflorum ) and tomato whole plant diurnal patterns of plants acclimated to specific lighting indicate wavelength specific responses of both H 2 O and CO 2 gas exchanges involved in the major growth parameters of a plant. Tomato leaves grown under a white light source indicated an increase in transpiration rate and internal CO 2 concentration and a subsequent decrease in water-use-efficiency (WUE) when exposed to a blue LED light source compared to a green LED light source. Interestingly, the maximum photosynthetic rate was observed to be similar. Using plants grown under wavelength specific supplemental lighting in a greenhouse, a decrease in whole plant WUE was seen in both crops under both red-blue (RB) and red-white (RW) LEDs when compared to a high pressure sodium (HPS) light. Whole plant WUE was decreased by 31% under the RB LED treatment for both crops compared to the HPS treatment. Tomato whole plant WUE was decreased by 25% and lisianthus whole plant WUE was decreased by 15% when compared to the HPS treatment when grown under RW LED. The understanding of the effects of wavelength specific lighting on both leaf and whole plant gas exchange has significant implications on basic academic research as well as commercial greenhouse production.

  6. The Effect of Spectral Quality on Daily Patterns of Gas Exchange, Biomass Gain, and Water-Use-Efficiency in Tomatoes and Lisianthus: An Assessment of Whole Plant Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Lanoue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in light-emitting diode (LED technology have made them a viable alternative to current lighting systems for both sole and supplemental lighting requirements. Understanding how wavelength specific LED lighting can affect plants is thus an area of great interest. Much research is available on the wavelength specific responses of leaves from multiple crops when exposed to long-term wavelength specific lighting. However, leaf measurements do not always extrapolate linearly to the complexities which are found within a whole plant canopy, namely mutual shading and leaves of different ages. Taken together, both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum leaves under short-term illumination and lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum and tomato whole plant diurnal patterns of plants acclimated to specific lighting indicate wavelength specific responses of both H2O and CO2 gas exchanges involved in the major growth parameters of a plant. Tomato leaves grown under a white light source indicated an increase in transpiration rate and internal CO2 concentration and a subsequent decrease in water-use-efficiency (WUE when exposed to a blue LED light source compared to a green LED light source. Interestingly, the maximum photosynthetic rate was observed to be similar. Using plants grown under wavelength specific supplemental lighting in a greenhouse, a decrease in whole plant WUE was seen in both crops under both red-blue (RB and red-white (RW LEDs when compared to a high pressure sodium (HPS light. Whole plant WUE was decreased by 31% under the RB LED treatment for both crops compared to the HPS treatment. Tomato whole plant WUE was decreased by 25% and lisianthus whole plant WUE was decreased by 15% when compared to the HPS treatment when grown under RW LED. The understanding of the effects of wavelength specific lighting on both leaf and whole plant gas exchange has significant implications on basic academic research as well as commercial greenhouse production.

  7. The Effect of Spectral Quality on Daily Patterns of Gas Exchange, Biomass Gain, and Water-Use-Efficiency in Tomatoes and Lisianthus: An Assessment of Whole Plant Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoue, Jason; Leonardos, Evangelos D.; Ma, Xiao; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in light-emitting diode (LED) technology have made them a viable alternative to current lighting systems for both sole and supplemental lighting requirements. Understanding how wavelength specific LED lighting can affect plants is thus an area of great interest. Much research is available on the wavelength specific responses of leaves from multiple crops when exposed to long-term wavelength specific lighting. However, leaf measurements do not always extrapolate linearly to the complexities which are found within a whole plant canopy, namely mutual shading and leaves of different ages. Taken together, both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves under short-term illumination and lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) and tomato whole plant diurnal patterns of plants acclimated to specific lighting indicate wavelength specific responses of both H2O and CO2 gas exchanges involved in the major growth parameters of a plant. Tomato leaves grown under a white light source indicated an increase in transpiration rate and internal CO2 concentration and a subsequent decrease in water-use-efficiency (WUE) when exposed to a blue LED light source compared to a green LED light source. Interestingly, the maximum photosynthetic rate was observed to be similar. Using plants grown under wavelength specific supplemental lighting in a greenhouse, a decrease in whole plant WUE was seen in both crops under both red-blue (RB) and red-white (RW) LEDs when compared to a high pressure sodium (HPS) light. Whole plant WUE was decreased by 31% under the RB LED treatment for both crops compared to the HPS treatment. Tomato whole plant WUE was decreased by 25% and lisianthus whole plant WUE was decreased by 15% when compared to the HPS treatment when grown under RW LED. The understanding of the effects of wavelength specific lighting on both leaf and whole plant gas exchange has significant implications on basic academic research as well as commercial greenhouse production. PMID:28676816

  8. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN), Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN), and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD), which for the purpose of this work are called “deep learning meta-architectures”. We combine each of these meta-architectures with “deep feature extractors” such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet). We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant’s surrounding area. PMID:28869539

  9. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Fuentes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN, Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN, and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD, which for the purpose of this work are called “deep learning meta-architectures”. We combine each of these meta-architectures with “deep feature extractors” such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet. We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant’s surrounding area.

  10. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant-pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Development of a vinasse culture medium for plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.L.L.D.; Gollo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Vinasse is the main pollutant (effluent) obtained from the distillation of sugarcane in the production of fuel alcohol. However, this residue is rich in nutrients that are required by plants. We developed a new culture medium using vinasse for the In vitro propagation of an orchid. The vinasse was treated (decanted and filtered), and the nutrients were determined and quantified. Different formulations using vinasse were tested for an In vitro culture. The vinasse dilutions demonstrated a good buffering effect. The ideal vinasse dilution for media formulation was 2.5%. The best KC formulations with vinasse were KCV1 and KCV5. Compared to KC medium, these formulations demonstrated similar results for In vitro multiplication, with the exception of protocorm-like body number, which was inferior in the vinasse formulations. Conversely, for In vitro elongation and rooting, these vinasse media were superior to KC medium. KC medium promotes a low rooting rate (8%) compared to 68 and 100% obtained by KCV1 and KCV5, respectively. Moreover, plantlets cultured on KC medium become protocorm-like body clusters, which impeded the acclimatization of these explants. Plantlets elongated and rooted on KCV1 and KCV5 were successfully acclimatized with a 91% survival rate for both KC vinasse formulations. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal and adds value to what is currently considered a waste product. (author)

  12. Evaluation of influence of fertilizers in radium concentration from tomato culture; Avaliacao da influencia dos fertilizantes nos teores de radio encontrados na cultura do tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Protecao Radiologica Ambiental; Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Alleluia, Irene B. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Meio Ambiente; Perez, Daniel V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Analises de Solos e Plantas

    2001-07-01

    The fertilizer contribution to radio uptake by tomato plants was assessed. Tomato and soil samples from four different plantations were analyzed: two using organic fertilizer and two using phosphate fertilizer. The Ra concentrations in eight of the most used tomato fertilizers were determined. The concentration values ranged from 14 to 221 Bq/kg of Ra-226 and from 25 to 176 Bq/kg of Ra-228. Owing to the low Ra concentration and to the used fertilizer quantities, the fertilizers would not increase significantly the Ra soil concentration. However, the highest soil to plant concentration ratios were found in the plantations using phosphate fertilizers. This outcome pointed out the higher Ra availability in the phosphate fertilizer plantations than in the organic fertilizer plantations, showing a possible positive influence of phosphate fertilizers for the tomato Ra uptake. Due to the phosphate fertilizer used, the dose could increase from 0,05 Sv/year to 0,24 Sv/year. However this increase is not significant face the ingestion average worldwide effective dose. (author)

  13. Establishment of papaya banker plant system for Parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphilidae) against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and other vegetable crops worldwide. To combat this pest, a non-crop banker plant system was evaluated that employs a parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) ...

  14. Global analysis of the HrpL regulon in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 reveals new regulon members with diverse functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is required for virulence in the gram-negative plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The alternative sigma factor HrpL directly regulates expression of T3SS genes via a consensus promoter sequence, often designated as the “hrp promoter.” Although...

  15. Retention of the ability to synthesize HIV-1 and HBV antigens in generations of tomato plants transgenic for the TBI-HBS gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    In development of new types of edible vaccines on the basis of transgenic plants, the ability of the latter to retain the synthesis of foreign antibodies in a series of generations is of great importance. For this purpose, the goal of this study was to investigate the ability of transgenic tomato pl...

  16. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  17. The nucleoprotein of Tomato spotted wilt virus as protein tag for easy purification and enhanced production of recombinant proteins in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacorte, C.C.; Ribeiro, S.G.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Upon infection, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) that consist of nucleoprotein (N) and viral RNA. These aggregates result from the homopolymerization of the N protein, and are highly stable in plant cells. These properties feature the N protein as a

  18. [Double-antisense ACC oxidase and ACC synthase fusion gene introduced into tomato by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analysis the ethylene production of transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ai Sheng; Yao, Quan Hong; Li, Xian; Fan, Hui Qin; Peng, Ri He

    2003-12-01

    The tomato fruit-specific promoter 2A11 was amplified from tomato genomic DNA using PCR techniques. Total RNA was isolated from ripen fruit of tomato, then ACC oxidase gene and ACC synthase gene were obtained using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The fusion encoding ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene was obtained through ACC oxidase gene and ACC synthase gene ligation. The fusion gene was then inserted into a plant binary vector pYPX145 in an inverted orientation. Finally, the binary plant expression vector pOSACC was constructed in which the double-antisense fusion gene was controlled by fruit-specific 2A11 promoter. By using hypocotyls and cotyledon petioles as explants, the unit of double-antisense fusion gene was successfully introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cultivar "Hezuo 903" by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. 105 transgenic plants were obtained through 200 mg/L kanamycin selection and GUS assay. Two lines of DR-1 and DR-2 were obtained through selecting the characteristics of prolonged shelf life and agriculture. The transgenic plants showed the characteristics of prolonged shelf life over 50 d. The amount of ethylene released from DR-1 and DR-2 fruits were reduced significantly to about 9.5% of that released by non-transformed controls.

  19. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  20. [Issues of large scale tissue culture of medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai

    2014-09-01

    In order to increase the yield and quality of the medicinal plant and enhance the competitive power of industry of medicinal plant in our country, this paper analyzed the status, problem and countermeasure of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. Although the biotechnology is one of the most efficient and promising means in production of medicinal plant, it still has problems such as stability of the material, safety of the transgenic medicinal plant and optimization of cultured condition. Establishing perfect evaluation system according to the characteristic of the medicinal plant is the key measures to assure the sustainable development of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale.

  1. Multi-residue determination of plant growth regulators in apples and tomatoes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Wang, Suli; You, Xiangwei; Dong, Jiannan; Han, Lijun; Liu, Fengmao

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and rapid multi-residue analytical method for plant growth regulators (PGRs) (i.e., chlormequat, mepiquat, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, ethephon and flumetralin) in apples and tomatoes was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A homogenised sample was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water (90:10, v/v) and adjusted to pH <3 with formic acid. Primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent was used to clean up the sample. The determination was performed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyser. Under the optimised method, the results showed that, except for ethephon, the recoveries were 81.8-98.1% in apples and tomatoes at the spiked concentrations of 0.005 to 2 mg/kg, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 11.7%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were lower than their maximum residue limits (MRLs). The procedure was concluded as a practical method to determine the PGR residues in fruit and vegetables and is also suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the amounts of samples for routine monitoring. The analytical method described herein demonstrates a strong potential for its application in the field of PGR multi-residue analysis to help assure food safety. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Temperature stress differentially modulates transcription in meiotic anthers of heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzotti Mario

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in temperature occur naturally during plant growth and reproduction. However, in the hot summers this variation may become stressful and damaging for the molecular mechanisms involved in proper cell growth, impairing thus plant development and particularly fruit-set in many crop plants. Tolerance to such a stress can be achieved by constitutive gene expression or by rapid changes in gene expression, which ultimately leads to protection against thermal damage. We have used cDNA-AFLP and microarray analyses to compare the early response of the tomato meiotic anther transcriptome to moderate heat stress conditions (32°C in a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype. In the light of the expected global temperature increases, elucidating such protective mechanisms and identifying candidate tolerance genes can be used to improve breeding strategies for crop tolerance to heat stress. Results The cDNA-AFLP analysis shows that 30 h of moderate heat stress (MHS alter the expression of approximately 1% of the studied transcript-derived fragments in a heat-sensitive genotype. The major effect is gene down-regulation after the first 2 h of stress. The microarray analysis subsequently applied to elucidate early responses of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype, also shows about 1% of the genes having significant changes in expression after the 2 h of stress. The tolerant genotype not only reacts with moderate transcriptomic changes but also exhibits constitutively higher expression levels of genes involved in protection and thermotolerance. Conclusion In contrast to the heat-sensitive genotype, the heat-tolerant genotype exhibits moderate transcriptional changes under moderate heat stress. Moreover, the heat-tolerant genotype also shows a different constitutive gene expression profile compared to the heat-sensitive genotype, indicating genetic differences in adaptation to increased temperatures. In

  3. Influence of plant genotype on the cultivable fungi associated to tomato rhizosphere and roots in different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Anna; Lazzari, Alexandra; Prigione, Valeria; Voyron, Samuele; Spadaro, Davide; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere and root-associated microbiota are crucial in determining plant health and in increasing productivity of agricultural crops. To date, research has mainly focused on the bacterial dimension of the microbiota. However, interest in the mycobiota is increasing, since fungi play a key role in soil ecosystems. We examined the effect of plant genotype, soil, and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) on the cultivable component of rhizosphere and root-associated mycobiota of tomato. Resistant and susceptible varieties were cultivated on two different soils (A and B), under glasshouse conditions. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological and molecular approaches. Differences were found between the rhizosphere and the roots, which in general displayed a lower number of species. The structure of the mycobiota was significantly affected by the soil type in the rhizosphere as well as by the plant genotype within the roots (NPERMANOVA, p fungi. Overall, the results indicated that i) soil type and plant genotype affect the fungal communities; ii) plant roots select few species from the rhizosphere; and iii) the fungal community structure is influenced by Fol. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accuracy analysis of a multi-view stereo approach for phenotyping of tomato plants at the organ level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Johann Christian; Paulus, Stefan; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2015-04-24

    Accessing a plant's 3D geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping during the last few years. Close-up laser scanning is an established method to acquire 3D plant shapes in real time with high detail, but it is stationary and has high investment costs. 3D reconstruction from images using structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) is a flexible cost-effective method, but requires post-processing procedures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential measuring accuracy of an SfM- and MVS-based photogrammetric method for the task of organ-level plant phenotyping. For this, reference data are provided by a high-accuracy close-up laser scanner. Using both methods, point clouds of several tomato plants were reconstructed at six following days. The parameters leaf area, main stem height and convex hull of the complete plant were extracted from the 3D point clouds and compared to the reference data regarding accuracy and correlation. These parameters were chosen regarding the demands of current phenotyping scenarios. The study shows that the photogrammetric approach is highly suitable for the presented monitoring scenario, yielding high correlations to the reference measurements. This cost-effective 3D reconstruction method depicts an alternative to an expensive laser scanner in the studied scenarios with potential for automated procedures.

  5. Jasmonic acid influences mycorrhizal colonization in tomato plants by modifying the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Sartorius, Miriam; Martínez de la Vega, Octavio; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2008-06-01

    The role of jasmonic acid (JA) on mycorrhizal colonization by Glomus fasciculatum in tomato plants was examined using mutant plants overexpressing prosystemin (PS) or affected in the synthesis of JA (suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses 2, spr2). The degree of mycorrhizal colonization was determined by measuring frequency (F%) and intensity (M%) of colonization and arbuscule abundance (A%). Gene expression and biochemical analyses were also performed in roots to detect changes in carbon (C) partitioning. Colonization was similar in mycorrhizal PS and wild-type roots, except for a higher A% in the former. Conversely, colonization was severely reduced in roots of spr2 mutants. No association was found between levels of expression of genes coding for systemic wound responsive proteins (or SWRPs) and other defense-related proteins in roots and mycorrhization levels in these plants. On the other hand, the degree of mycorrhizal colonization correlated with changes in the transcriptional regulation of a number of genes involved in sucrose hydrolysis and transport, cell wall invertase activity and mycorrhizal-specific fatty acid content in roots. The results obtained suggest that one of the mechanisms by which JA might operate to modulate the mycorrhization process could be through its influence on the regulation of C partitioning in the plant. The significant colonization increase observed in mycorrhizal spr2 plants supplied with exogenous methyl jasmonate supports its role as a positive regulator of the symbiosis.

  6. Analysis of N and K in the sap of petioles and in foliage fabrics of tomato plants under hydropony conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cordero, O. F.

    2001-01-01

    The foliage analyses give information about the nutritional state of the plant in the past, this is that it should have lapsed time enough so that the changes are manifested in the composition of fabrics of the foliage. A nutritional pursuit, based on variations in the concentration of elements in the sap of the plant could indicate that this is nutritionally happening in the plant in the moment. This can be a tool to predict symptoms caused by nutritional anomalies in an immediate form, being able to correct more quickly the problem and to reduce the time of exhibition from the plant to the nutritional tension. The nitrogen (N) and the potassium (K) are two elements that the tomato plants require in big quantities, therefore in search of validating new methodologies, this work had as objectives: 1) To determine the utility of the levels of N and K obtained in sap analysis as a tool for the detection of nutritional lacks and as an indicator of the concentration of N and K in the nutritious solution. 2) To compare the results of analysis of sap of petioles with the routine analyses of fabric to foliate. (Author) [es

  7. Characterization of gold nanoparticle uptake by tomato plants using enzymatic extraction followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongbo; Zhang, Weilan; Xue, Runmiao; Ma, Xingmao; Stephan, Chady; Shi, Honglan

    2015-03-03

    Plant uptake and accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) represent an important pathway for potential human expose to NPs. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the uptake of accumulation of NPs in plant tissues and their unique physical and chemical properties within plant tissues. Current technologies are limited in revealing the unique characteristics of NPs after they enter plant tissues. An enzymatic digestion method, followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) analysis, was developed for simultaneous determination of gold NP (AuNP) size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved Au concentration in tomato plant tissues. The experimental results showed that Macerozyme R-10 enzyme was capable of extracting AuNPs from tomato plants without causing dissolution or aggregation of AuNPs. The detection limit for quantification of AuNP size was 20 nm, and the AuNP particle concentration detection limit was 1000 NPs/mL. The particle concentration recoveries of spiked AuNPs were high (79-96%) in quality control samples. The developed SP-ICP-MS method was able to accurately measure AuNP size, size distribution, and particle concentration in the plant matrix. The dosing study indicated that tomato can uptake AuNPs as intact particles without alternating the AuNP properties.

  8. LeMYC2 acts as a negative regulator of blue light mediated photomorphogenic growth, and promotes the growth of adult tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis ZBF1/MYC2bHLH transcription factor is a repressor of photomorphogenesis, and acts as a point of cross talk in light, abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. MYC2 also functions as a positive regulator of lateral root development and flowering time under long day conditions. However, the function of MYC2 in growth and development remains unknown in crop plants. Results Here, we report the functional analyses of LeMYC2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The amino acid sequence of LeMYC2 showed extensive homology with Arabidopsis MYC2, containing the conserved bHLH domain. To study the function of LeMYC2 in tomato, overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) LeMYC2 tomato transgenic plants were generated. Examination of seedling morphology, physiological responses and light regulated gene expression has revealed that LeMYC2 works as a negative regulator of blue light mediated photomorphogenesis. Furthermore, LeMYC2 specifically binds to the G-box of LeRBCS-3A promoter. Overexpression of LeMYC2 has led to increased root length with more number of lateral roots. The tomato plants overexpressing LeMYC2 have reduced internode distance with more branches, and display the opposite morphology to RNAi transgenic lines. Furthermore, this study shows that LeMYC2 promotes ABA and JA responsiveness. Conclusions Collectively, this study highlights that working in light, ABA and JA signaling pathways LeMYC2 works as an important regulator for growth and development in tomato plants. PMID:24483714

  9. Cadmium toxicity in cultured tomato cells - Role of ethylene, proteases and oxidative stress in cell death signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Woltering, E.J.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Harren, F.J.M.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the ability of cadmium to induce programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells and to determine the involvement of proteolysis, oxidative stress and ethylene. Tomato suspension cells were exposed to treatments with CdSO4 and cell death was calculated after fluorescein

  10. Optimization of struvite fertilizer formation from baker's yeast wastewater: growth and nutrition of maize and tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ayla; Demir, Sinan; Sayilgan, Emine; Eraslan, Figen; Kucukyumuk, Zeliha

    2014-03-01

    Struvite precipitate obtained from yeast industry anaerobic effluent with high ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) was investigated for fertilizer effect on plant growth and nutrition according to applications of N, nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium (NPK), and control. Optimum struvite formation conditions were determined via Box-Behnken design. Optimum condition was obtained at pH 9.0 and Mg/N/P molar ratio of 1.5:1:1. Under these conditions, heavy metal concentrations in the obtained struvite precipitate (except Cu) were below the detection limits. In addition to high N, P, and Mg content, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that the struvite also included the nutritional elements Ca, K, Na, and Fe. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the complex structures of NaAl(SO4)2(H2O)12, NaMn(2+)Fe2(PO4)3, and (Na2,Ca)O2(Fe,Mn)O.P2O5 in the precipitate. High Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations in the anaerobic effluent reacted with phosphate during struvite precipitation. Different applications and struvite dosages significantly affected fresh and dry weights and nutrient element uptakes by plants (P plants were significantly higher at struvite ×2, ×3, and ×4 dosages compared with NPK application. For adequate nutrition and supply of optimum dry weight, struvite ×2 dosage (5.71 g struvite/kg soil) was found appropriate for both maize and tomato plants.

  11. Biosynthesis of highly enriched 13C-lycopene for human metabolic studies using repeated batch tomato cell culturing with 13C-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy E.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lu, Chi-Hua; Conlon, Lauren E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Clinton, Steven K.; Erdman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    While putative disease-preventing lycopene metabolites are found in both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) products and in their consumers, mammalian lycopene metabolism is poorly understood. Advances in tomato cell culturing techniques offer an economical tool for generation of highly-enriched 13C-lycopene for human bioavailability and metabolism studies. To enhance the 13C-enrichment and yields of labeled lycopene from the hp-1 tomato cell line, cultures were first grown in 13C-glucose media for three serial batches and produced increasing proportions of uniformly labeled lycopene (14.3 +/− 1.2 %, 39.6 +/− 0.5 %, and 48.9 +/− 1.5% with consistent yields (from 5.8 to 9 mg/L). An optimized 9-day-long 13C-loading and 18-day-long labeling strategy developed based on glucose utilization and lycopene yields, yielded 13C-lycopene with 93% 13C isotopic purity, and 55% of isotopomers were uniformly labeled. Furthermore, an optimized acetone and hexane extraction led to a four-fold increase in lycopene recovery from cultures compared to a standard extraction. PMID:23561155

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-05

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm(-1). Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2'-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm(-1), being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tomato plants overexpressing cryptochrome 2 reveal altered expression of energy and stress-related gene products in response to diurnal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Loredana; Carbone, Fabrizio; Bianco, Linda; Giuliano, Giovanni; Facella, Paolo; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2012-05-01

    In order to sense and respond to the fluctuating light conditions, higher plants possess several families of photoreceptors, such as phytochromes (PHYs), cryptochromes (CRYs) and phototropins. CRYs are responsible for photomorphogenesis and play a role in circadian, developmental and adaptive growth regulation of plants. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), CRY2 controls vegetative development, flowering time, fruit antioxidant content as well as the diurnal transcription of several other photoreceptor genes. We applied large-scale molecular approaches to identify altered transcripts and proteins in tomato wild-type (WT) versus a CRY2 overexpressing transgenic genotype, under a diurnal rhythm. Our results showed that tomato CRY2 profoundly affects both gene and protein expression in response to daily light cycle. Particularly altered molecular pathways are related to biotic/abiotic stress, photosynthesis, including components of the light and dark reactions and of starch and sucrose biosynthesis, as well as to secondary metabolism, such as phenylpropanoid, phenolic and flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways. One of the most interesting results is the coordinated up-regulation, in the transgenic genotype, of a consistent number of transcripts and proteins involved in photorespiration and photosynthesis. It is conceivable that light modulates the energetic metabolism of tomato through a fine CRY2-mediated transcriptional control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Modulating plant primary amino acid metabolism as a necrotrophic virulence strategy: the immune-regulatory role of asparagine synthetase in Botrytis cinerea-tomato interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Hamed; De Vleesschauwer, David; Aziz, Aziz; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of the "gray mold" disease on a broad range of hosts. As an archetypal necrotroph, B. cinerea has evolved multiple virulence strategies for inducing cell death in its host. Moreover, progress of B. cinerea colonization is commonly associated with induction of senescence in the host tissue, even in non-invaded regions. In a recent study, we showed that abscisic acid deficiency in the sitiens tomato mutant culminates in an anti-senescence defense mechanism which effectively contributes to resistance against B. cinerea infection. Conversely, in susceptible wild-type tomato a strong induction of senescence could be observed following B. cinerea infection. Building upon this earlier work, we here discuss the immune-regulatory role of a key senescence-associated protein, asparagine synthetase. We found that infection of wild-type tomato leads to a strong transcriptional upregulation of asparagine synthetase, followed by a severe depletion of asparagine titers. In contrast, resistant sitiens plants displayed a strong induction of asparagine throughout the course of infection. We hypothesize that rapid activation of asparagine synthetase in susceptible tomato may play a dual role in promoting Botrytis cinerea pathogenesis by providing a rich source of N for the pathogen, on the one hand, and facilitating pathogen-induced host senescence, on the other.

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-01

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2‧-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm-1, being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  16. The Influence of the Plant Growth Regulator Maleic Hydrazide on Egyptian Broomrape Early Developmental Stages and Its Control Efficacy in Tomato under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Venezian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes (Phelipanche spp. and Orobanche spp. are holoparasitic plants that cause tremendous losses of agricultural crops worldwide. Broomrape control is extremely difficult and only amino acid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides present an acceptable control level. It is expected that broomrape resistance to these herbicides is not long in coming. Our objective was to develop a broomrape control system in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. based on the plant growth regulator maleic hydrazide (MH. Petri-dish and polyethylene-bag system experiments revealed that MH has a slight inhibitory effect on Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination but is a potent inhibitor of the first stages of parasitism, namely attachment and the tubercle stage. MH phytotoxicity toward tomato and its P. aegyptiaca-control efficacy were tested in greenhouse experiments. MH was applied at 25, 50, 75, 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1 to tomato foliage grown in P. aegyptiaca-infested soil at 200 growing degree days (GDD and again at 400 GDD. The treatments had no influence on tomato foliage or root dry weight. The total number of P. aegyptiaca attachments counted on the roots of the treated plants was significantly lower at 75 g a.i. ha-1 and also at higher MH rates. Phelipanche aegyptiaca biomass was close to zero at rates of 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1 MH. Field experiments were conducted to optimize the rate, timing and number of MH applications. Two application sequences gave superior results, both with five split applications applied at 100, 200, 400, 700, and 1000 GDD: (a constant rate of 400 g a.i. ha-1; (b first two applications at 270 g a.i. ha-1 and the next three applications at 540 g a.i. ha-1. Based on the results of this study, MH was registered for use in Israel in 2013 with the specified protocol and today, it is widely used by most Israeli tomato growers.

  17. [Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system.

  18. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirschmann (Tylenchida: Meloidoginidae) Infection in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, J. P.; Dolinski, C.; Souza, R. M.; Lewis, E. E.

    2007-01-01

    Some studies suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) affect plant-parasitic nematode populations. Here, the effects of live and dead IJ of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora JPM4, H. baujardi LPP7, Steinernema feltiae SN and S. carpocapsae All were evaluated against eggs and J2 of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. According to treatment, 100 IJ were applied with 350 eggs, 350 J2 or 175 eggs + 175 J2 to tomato plants. Bioassays were conducted in March to May and repeated in September to November 2005. Both experiments lasted 9 weeks, and the variable evaluated was number of galls per plant. When eggs were used for infections in the first trial, plants exhibited lower gall number compared to control when live and dead H. baujardi IJ and live S. feltiae IJ were added (9.7, 4.5, 7.3 and 85.7 galls, respectively). In the second trial, live S. feltiae and S. carpocapasae IJ influenced gall formation compared to control (14.33, 14.57 and 168.02 galls, respectively). When J2 were used for infections, plants with live H. baujardi IJ presented less galls when compared to control in both trials (38.3 and 355.7 galls in the first trial and 145.2 and 326.2 in the second one, respectively). Infection with a mixture of J2 and eggs resulted in fewer galls than when live S. feltiae IJ were present in both trials, compared to control (38.3 and 44.2 galls vs. 275.3 and 192.2 galls, respectively). We conclude that H. baujardi and S. feltiae apparently may be inhibiting egg hatching and J2 infection. PMID:19259509

  19. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory: photosynthetic photon fluxes affect the accumulation of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Eiji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m(-2) s(-)1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity.

  20. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses.

  1. A Primary Screening and Applying of Plant Volatiles as Repellents to Control Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenxiao; Han, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yubo; Qin, Yuchuan

    2016-02-01

    With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P  0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective.

  2. Effects of silver sulfide nanomaterials on mycorrhizal colonization of tomato plants and soil microbial communities in biosolid-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Jonathan D; Kirby, Jason K; Creamer, Courtney; McLaughlin, Mike J; Fiebiger, Cathy; Wright, Claire; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Bertsch, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    We investigated effects of Ag2S engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated Ag ENMs (PVP-Ag), and Ag(+) on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), their colonization of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and overall microbial community structure in biosolids-amended soil. Concentration-dependent uptake was measured in all treatments. Plants exposed to 100 mg kg(-1) PVP-Ag ENMs and 100 mg kg(-1) Ag(+) exhibited reduced biomass and greatly reduced mycorrhizal colonization. Bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were inhibited by all treatment classes, with the largest reductions measured in 100 mg kg(-1) PVP-Ag ENMs and 100 mg kg(-1) Ag(+). Overall, Ag2S ENMs were less toxic to plants, less disruptive to plant-mycorrhizal symbiosis, and less inhibitory to the soil microbial community than PVP-Ag ENMs or Ag(+). However, significant effects were observed at 1 mg kg(-1) Ag2S ENMs, suggesting that the potential exists for microbial communities and the ecosystem services they provide to be disrupted by environmentally relevant concentrations of Ag2S ENMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biochar and flyash inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria act as potential biofertilizer for luxuriant growth and yield of tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripti; Kumar, Adarsh; Usmani, Zeba; Kumar, Vipin; Anshumali

    2017-04-01

    Overuse of agrochemical fertilizers alarmingly causes deterioration in soil health and soil-flora. Persistence of these agrochemicals exerts detrimental effects on environment, potentially inducing toxic effects on human health, thus pronouncing an urgent need for a safer substitute. The present study investigates the potential use of agricultural and industrial wastes as carrier materials, viz. biochar and flyash, respectively, for preparation of bioformulations (or biofertilizers) using two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Bacillus sp. strain A30 and Burkholderia sp. strain L2, and its effect on growth of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato). The viability of strains was determined based on colony forming units (cfu) count of each bioformulation at an interval of 60 days for a period of 240 days. Seeds were coated with different carrier based bioformulations and pot experiment(s) were carried out to access its effects on plant growth parameters. Biochar based bioformulations showed higher cfu count and maximum viability for strain L2 (10 7  cfu g -1 ) at 240 days of storage. Maximum percentage of seed germination was also observed in biochar inoculated with strain L2. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth parameters (dry and fresh biomass, length, number of flowers) were ascertained from the pot experiment and amongst all bioformulations, biochar inoculated with strain L2 performed consistently thriving results for tomato yield. Furthermore, post-harvest study of this bioformulation treated soil improved physico-chemical properties and dehydrogenase activity as compared to pre-plantation soil status. Overall, we show that prepared biochar based bioformulation using Burkholderia sp. L2 as inoculum can tremendously enhance the productivity of tomato, soil fertility, and can also act as a sustainable substitute for chemical fertilizers. In addition, mixture of biochar and flyash inoculated with strain L2 also showed noteworthy results for the

  4. Absence of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase BCSOD1 reduces Botrytis cinerea virulence in Arabidopsis and tomato plants, revealing interplay among reactive oxygen species, callose and signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cruz, Jaime; Óscar, Crespo-Salvador; Emma, Fernández-Crespo; Pilar, García-Agustín; Carmen, González-Bosch

    2017-01-01

    Plants activate responses against pathogens, including the oxidative burst. Necrotrophic pathogens can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that benefit the colonization process. Previously, we have demonstrated that tomato plants challenged with Botrytis cinerea accumulate ROS and callose, together with the induction of genes involved in defence, signalling and oxidative metabolism. Here, we studied the infection phenotype of the Δbcsod1 strain in both tomato and Arabidopsis plants. This mutant lacks bcsod1, which encodes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). This enzyme catalyses the conversion of superoxide ion ( O2-) into hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). ROS play a protective role and act as signals in plants. Δbcsod1 displayed reduced virulence compared with wild-type B05.10 in both species. Plants infected with Δbcsod1 accumulated less H 2 O 2 and more O2- than those infected with B05.10, which is associated with an increase in the defensive polymer callose. This supports a major role of fungal SOD in H 2 O 2 production during the plant-pathogen interaction. The early induction of the callose synthase gene PMR4 suggested that changes in ROS altered plant defensive responses at the transcriptional level. The metabolites and genes involved in signalling and in response to oxidative stress were differentially expressed on Δbcsod1 infection, supporting the notion that plants perceive changes in ROS balance and activate defence responses. A higher O 2 - /H 2 O 2 ratio seems to be beneficial for plant protection against this necrotroph. Our results highlight the relevance of callose and the oxylipin 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in the response to changes in the oxidative environment, and clarify the mechanisms that underlie the responses to Botrytis in Arabidopsis and tomato plants. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  6. Ecotoxicology evaluation of watery extracts of plants on seeds of radish, lettuce and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisleidy Águila Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of watery extracts of Nicotiana acuminata, Piper aduncum L. and Crotalaria juncea was evaluated on the germination and the elongación of the roots of seeds of Raphanus sativus (radish, Lactuca sativa L (lettuce and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato. The extracts were produced at medium scale in the laboratory of formulation of the Faculty of Química- Pharmacy of the “Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas” . It was demonstrated upon concluding the work that the lettuce was the most sensitive species for this type of study. It was concluded that the extracts could be poured to the means to minor concentrations that 0.01% with a margin of security that they are not going to affect the processes of germination and elongacion of the roots. It was determined that one could use the alone rehearsal using the seeds of lettuce like species of rehearsal.

  7. The influence of various doses of phosphorus and of the addition of calcium or potassium fertilization upon the yield of tomatoes in Wrocław hydroponic culture using two intensities of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out with phosphate fertilization of tomatoes in hydroponic culture. It has been proved that an additional dose of phosphorus given during the second cluster bloom, caused an yield increase. The optimal dose is 12 g of superphosphate (16% P2O5 per plant. The "green back" symptoms did not appear in these conditions. The parallel additional applying of calcium or potassium gave a decrease of the yield. When the light intensity was lowered to about 50%, the yield has decreased by half. In these conditions an additional applying of calcium (0,4 g CaCO3 and phosphorus (1g superphosphate annulated the negative influence of the low light intensity.

  8. The Role of Endogenous Strigolactones and Their Interaction with ABA during the Infection Process of the Parasitic WeedPhelipanche ramosain Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Floková, Kristýna; Bouwmeester, Harro; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    The root parasitic plant species Phelipanche ramosa , branched broomrape, causes severe damage to economically important crops such as tomato. Its seed germination is triggered by host-derived signals upon which it invades the host root. In tomato, strigolactones (SLs) are the main germination stimulants for P. ramosa . Therefore, the development of low SL-producing lines may be an approach to combat the parasitic weed problem. However, since SLs are also a plant hormone controlling many aspects of plant development, SL deficiency may also have an effect on post-germination stages of the infection process, during the parasite-host interaction. In this study, we show that SL-deficient tomato plants ( Solanum lycopersicum; SlCCD8 RNAi lines), infected with pre-germinated P. ramosa seeds, display an increased infection level and faster development of the parasite, which suggests a positive role for SLs in the host defense against parasitic plant invasion. Furthermore, we show that SL-deficient tomato plants lose their characteristic SL-deficient phenotype during an infection with P. ramosa through a reduction in the number of internodes and the number and length of secondary branches. Infection with P. ramosa resulted in increased levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in the leaves and roots of both wild type and SL-deficient lines. Upon parasite infection, the level of the conjugate ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) also increased in leaves of both wild type and SL-deficient lines and in roots of one SL-deficient line. The uninfected SL-deficient lines had a higher leaf ABA-GE level than the wild type. Despite the high levels of ABA, stomatal aperture and water loss rate were not affected by parasite infection in the SL-deficient line, while in wild type tomato stomatal aperture and water loss increased upon infection. Future studies are needed to further underpin the role that SLs play in the interaction of hosts with parasitic plants and which other plant hormones interact with

  9. Reaction of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum], cucumber [Cucumis sativus] and eggplant [Solanum melongena] cultured under the film altered the ratio of red and far-red photon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Y.; Hayashi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of covering films which altered the ratio of red (R 600-700nm) and far-red (FR 700-800nm) photon flux to control succulent growth of seedlings on character of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings Were determined. Also the effects on growth and yield of eggplant cultured in plastic greenhouse covered with the same films were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) The stem length of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film which intercepted far-red photon flux in the greenhouse got shorter than for cheesecloth (1.00) which had sane level of photosynthetic photon flux transmittance, especially evident on eggplant. There was no difference in the number of leaves on these seedlings between tested film and the cheesecloth, but the top and root dry weight of these seedlings cultured under tested film got lighter than the one using cheesecloth. The leaves got smaller in eggplant too. 2) The stem of eggplant cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film got shorter and thicker than the control PVC film; but there was no difference on the yield. But eggplant cultured under the low R/FR ratio (0.66) film which intercepted red photon flux grew similarly as control, but its yield decreased

  10. Assessment of microbial diversity under arid plants by culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of microbial diversity under arid plants by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... In this work, microbial community structure of two distinct arid plants like ker (Capparis deciduas) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was assessed and defined by ...

  11. Caracterização e avaliação de substratos para o cultivo do tomateiro fora do solo Evaluation of substrates for growing tomatoes in soilless culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Andriolo

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes materiais foram avaliados quanto ao seu potencial de uso como substrato para o cultivo do tomateiro. Os experimentos foram realizados no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em Santa Maria-RS e os materiais avaliados foram: húmus proveniente da minhocultura, casca de arroz e substrato comercial (Plantmax Folhosas. O substrato comercial foi comparado no seu estado original correspondente a primeira utilização e também na sua segunda utilização com a mesma cultura. A casca de arroz foi comparada no seu estado puro e também em mistura com solo da região na proporção de 50% de cada componente. A caracterização física foi efetuada pela determinação da densidade e da massa úmida e pelo cálculo do volume retido e da capacidade máxima de retenção de água. A avaliação qualitativa dos substratos foi realizada por meio de avaliações do crescimento e produção de frutos de dois cultivos de tomateiro, respectivamente no outonoinverno e primaveraverão do ano de 1997. O húmus apresentou características físicas similares ao substrato comercial, enquanto que a casca de arroz reteve volume de água aproximadamente 50% inferior aos outros dois substratos avaliados. Porém, essa diferença diminuiu quando a casca de arroz foi misturada com o solo. O crescimento das plantas na casca de arroz foi inferior e a produção de frutos atingiu apenas 56% daquela obtida nos outros substratos. Tanto a mistura de casca de arroz e solo como os outros substratos avaliados se mostraram apropriados para o cultivo do tomateiro fora do solo.Three different organic materials were tested at the UFSM, Santa Maria, Brazil, as substrate for growing tomatoes in soilless culture. Humus originated from the digestion of organic materials by earthworms, rice husk, and a commercial substrate "Plantmax Folhosas" were used. Two successive cycles of tomato plants were evaluated, by replacing old plants with young ones after the first cycle of the

  12. Tomato Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase Inhibits Cell Death Induced by Bax and Oxidative Stresses in Yeast and Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaorong; Vaghchhipawala, Zarir; Li, Wei; Asard, Han; Dickman, Martin B.

    2004-01-01

    Using a conditional life or death screen in yeast, we have isolated a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) gene encoding a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (LePHGPx). The protein displayed reduced glutathione-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxide peroxidase activity, but differs from counterpart mammalian enzymes that instead contain an active seleno-Cys. LePHGPx functioned as a cytoprotector in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), preventing Bax, hydrogen peroxide, and heat stress induced cell death, while also delaying yeast senescence. When tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves were exposed to lethal levels of salt and heat stress, features associated with mammalian apoptosis were observed. Importantly, transient expression of LePHGPx protected tobacco leaves from salt and heat stress and suppressed the apoptotic-like features. As has been reported, conditional expression of Bax was lethal in tobacco, resulting in tissue collapse and membrane permeability to Evans blue. When LePHGPx was coexpressed with Bax, little cell death and no vital staining were observed. Moreover, stable expression of LePHGPx in tobacco conferred protection against the fungal phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, our data indicated that LePHGPx can protect plant tissue from a variety of stresses. Moreover, functional screens in yeast are a viable tool for the identification of plant genes that regulate cell death. PMID:15235116

  13. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases.

  14. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  15. Characterization of tomato growth and fruit quality under foliar ammonium sprays

    OpenAIRE

    Souri Mohammad Kazem; Dehnavard Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of foliar application of ammonium sulfate on growth and fruit quality of tomato plants under hydroponic culture system. Over four months of tomato plant growth, plants were sprayed once per week with different concentrations of ammonium sulfate (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM), as well as with 50 mM every second day. Foliar application of ammonium sulfate led to reductions in many growth and quality parameters, and higher ammonium concentrations exerted grea...

  16. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. p22 of Tomato chlorosis virus, an RNA silencing suppressor, is naturally expressed in the infected plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in the genus Crinivirus of the family Closteroviridae, is an economically important emerging disease of tomato worldwide. This whitefly-transmitted virus is difficult to control. The best strategy in viral disease management is through the use of a resistant cultivar....

  18. Phenotyping large tomato plants in the greenhouse usig a 3D light-field camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Hofstee, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenotyping is an emerging science that links genomics with functional plant characteristics. The recent availability of extremely fast high-throughput genotyping technologies has invoked high-throughput phenotyping to become a major bottleneck in the plant breeding programs. As a consequence

  19. The role of silicon in plant tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Growth and morphogenesis of in vitro cultures of plant cells, tissues, and organs are greatly influenced by the composition of the culture medium. Mineral nutrients are necessary for the growth and development of plants. Several morpho-physiological disorders such as hooked leaves, hyperhydricity, fasciation, and shoot tip necrosis are often associated with the concentration of inorganic nutrient in the tissue culture medium. Silicon (Si) is the most abundant mineral element in the soil. The ...

  20. Development of germ-free plants and tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venketeswaran, S.

    1973-01-01

    The botanical program is reported for experiments performed at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. Papers prepared during this program are listed. The studies reported include: tissues cultured on various mediums, nutritional studies, preparation of plant cultures for Apollo 15, and pine tissue cultures.

  1. Production of recombinant proteins in suspension-cultured plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasson, Carole; Michel, Rémy; Lienard, David; Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Sourrouille, Christophe; de March, Ghislaine Grenier; Gomord, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Plants have emerged in the past decade as a suitable alternative to the current production systems for recombinant pharmaceutical proteins and, today their potential for low-cost production of high quality, much safer and biologically active mammalian proteins is largely documented. Among various plant expression systems being explored, genetically modified suspension-cultured plant cells offer a promising system for production of biopharmaceuticals. Indeed, when compared to other plant-based production platforms that have been explored, suspension-cultured plant cells have the advantage of being totally devoid of problems associated with the vagaries of weather, pest, soil and gene flow in the environment. Because of short growth cycles, the timescale needed for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell culture can be counted in days or weeks after transformation compared to months needed for the production in transgenic plants. Moreover, recovery and purification of recombinant proteins from plant biomass is an expensive and technically challenging business that may amount to 80-94% of the final product cost. One additional advantage of plant cell culture is that the recombinant protein fused with a signal sequence can be expressed and secreted into the culture medium, and therefore recovered and purified in the absence of large quantities of contaminating proteins. Consequently, the downstream processing of proteins extracted from plant cell culture medium is less expensive, which may/does balance the higher costs of fermentation. When needed for clinical use, recombinant proteins are easily produced in suspension-cultured plant cells under certified, controllable and sterile conditions that offer improved safety and provide advantages for good manufacturing practices and regulatory compliance. In this chapter, we present basic protocols for rapid generation of transgenic suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum, Oriza sativa and Arabidopis

  2. Factors which affect the amount of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylcholine, and phosphorylethanolamine in xylem exudate of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B A; Tolbert, N E

    1983-10-01

    Phosphate in the xylem exudate of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants was 70 to 98% inorganic phosphate (Pi), 2 to 30% P-choline, and less than 1% P-ethanolamine. Upon adding (32)Pi to the nutrient, Pi in xylem exudate had the same specific activity within 4 hours. P-choline and P-ethanolamine reached the same specific activity only after 96 hours. The amount of Pi in xylem exudate was dependent on Pi concentration in the nutrient and decreased from 1700 to 170 micromolar when Pi in the nutrient decreased from 50 to 2 micromolar. The flux of 0.4 nmoles organic phosphate per minute per gram fresh weight root into the xylem exudate was not affected by the Pi concentration in the nutrient solution unless it was below 1 micromolar. During 7 days of Pi starvation, Pi in the xylem exudate decreased from 1400 to 130 micromolar while concentrations of the two phosphate esters remained unchanged.The concentration of phosphate esters in the xylem exudate was increased by addition of choline or ethanolamine to the nutrient solution, but Pi remained unchanged. Upon adding [(14)C]choline to the nutrient, 10 times more [(14)C]P-choline than [(14)C]choline was in the xylem exudate and 85 to 90% of the ester phosphate was P-choline. When [(14)C]ethanolamine was added, [(14)C]P-ethanolamine and [(14)C]ethanolamine in the xylem sap were equal in amount. P-choline and P-ethanolamine accumulated in leaves of whole plants at the same time and the same proportion as observed for their flux into the xylem exudate. No relationship between the transport of P-choline and Pi in the xylem was established. Rather, the amount of choline in xylem exudate and its incorporation into phosphatidylcholine in the leaf suggest that the root is a site of synthesis of P-choline and P-ethanolamine for phospholipid synthesis in tomato leaves.

  3. Alleviation of salt stress by enterobacter sp. EJ01 in tomato and Arabidopsis is accompanied by up-regulation of conserved salinity responsive factors in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-02-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways.

  4. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis ACBP3 enhances NPR1-dependent plant resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi; Chye, Mee-Len

    2011-08-01

    ACBP3 is one of six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes, designated ACBP1 to ACBP6, that encode acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-binding proteins (ACBPs). These ACBPs bind long-chain acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids and are involved in diverse cellular functions, including acyl-CoA homeostasis, development, and stress tolerance. Recombinant ACBP3 binds polyunsaturated acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids in vitro. Here, we show that ACBP3 plays a role in the plant defense response to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. ACBP3 mRNA was up-regulated upon pathogen infection and treatments using pathogen elicitors and defense-related phytohormones. Transgenic Arabidopsis ACBP3 overexpressors (ACBP3-OEs) showed constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PR1, PR2, and PR5), cell death, and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in leaves. Consequently, ACBP3-OEs displayed enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen P. syringae DC3000. In contrast, the acbp3 T-DNA insertional mutant was more susceptible and exhibited lower PR gene transcript levels upon infection. Using the ACBP3 OE-1 line in combination with nonexpressor of PR genes1 (npr1-5) or coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1-2), we concluded that the enhanced PR gene expression and P. syringae DC3000 resistance in the ACBP3-OEs are dependent on the NPR1-mediated, but not the COI1-mediated, signaling pathway. Given that ACBP3-OEs showed greater susceptibility to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea while the acbp3 mutant was less susceptible, we suggest that ACBP3 plays a role in the plant defense response against biotrophic pathogens that is distinct from necrotrophic pathogens. ACBP3 function in plant defense was supported further by bioinformatics data showing up-regulation of many biotic and abiotic stress-related genes in ACBP3 OE-1 in comparison with the wild type.

  6. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  7. Organic fertilizer and its effects on the growth and development of tomato crop (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Luna Murillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are one of the alternatives in the group of products used in sustainable agri-culture, mainly what is obtained from organic sources of recyclable nature as compost and vermicompost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of organic fertilizers on the growth and development of tomato plants. The treatments were vermicompost, water hyacinth, and the combination 50 % vermicompost and 50 % water hyacinth control, using a completely randomized design with five replicates. The work was conducted at the Experimental Center La Playita, belonging to the Technical University of Cotopaxi La Maná extension and plant height, number of fruits, fruit diameter, fruit weight was measured. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers in tomato plant height stimulated with 114.64 cm, number of fruits with 4.08 fruits, fruit diameter with 7.96 mm and weight of 226.50 g fruits, tomato plants

  8. An introduction to plant cell culture: the future ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Vargas, Víctor M; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture (PTC) techniques were developed and established as an experimental necessity for solving important fundamental questions in plant biology, but they currently represent very useful biotechnological tools for a series of important applications such as commercial micropropagation of different plant species, generation of disease-free plant materials, production of haploid and doublehaploid plants, induction of epigenetic or genetic variation for the isolation of variant plants, obtention of novel hybrid plants through the rescue of hybrid embryos or somatic cell fusion from intra- or intergeneric sources, conservation of valuable plant germplasm, and is the keystone for genetic engineering of plants to produce disease and pest resistant varieties, to engineer metabolic pathways with the aim of producing specific secondary metabolites or as an alternative for biopharming. Some other miscellaneous applications involve the utilization of in vitro cultures to test toxic compounds and the possibilities of removing them (bioremediation), interaction of root cultures with nematodes or mycorrhiza, or the use of shoot cultures to maintain plant viruses. With the increased worldwide demand for biofuels, it seems that PTC will certainly be fundamental for engineering different plants species in order to increase the diversity of biofuel options, lower the price marketing, and enhance the production efficiency. Several aspects and applications of PTC such as those mentioned above are the focus of this edition.

  9. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Favaro, Carla F; Azevedo, Kamila E X; Landi, Carolina H; Maluta, Nathalie K P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Lopes, Joao R S

    2016-08-11

    Virus infection frequently modifies plant phenotypes, leading to changes in behaviour and performance of their insect vectors in a way that transmission is enhanced, although this may not always be the case. Here, we investigated Bemisia tabaci response to tomato plants infected by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a non-circulative-transmitted crinivirus, and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), a circulative-transmitted begomovirus. Moreover, we examined the role of visual and olfactory cues in host plant selection by both viruliferous and non-viruliferous B. tabaci. Visual cues alone were assessed as targets for whitefly landing by placing leaves underneath a Plexiglas plate. A dual-choice arena was used to assess whitefly response to virus-infected and mock-inoculated tomato leaves under light and dark conditions. Thereafter, we tested the whitefly response to volatiles using an active air-flow Y-tube olfactometer, and chemically characterized the blends using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Visual stimuli tests showed that whiteflies, irrespective of their infectious status, always preferred to land on virus-infected rather than on mock-inoculated leaves. Furthermore, whiteflies had no preference for either virus-infected or mock-inoculated leaves under dark conditions, but preferred virus-infected leaves in the presence of light. ToSRV-infection promoted a sharp decline in the concentration of some tomato volatiles, while an increase in the emission of some terpenes after ToCV infection was found. ToSRV-viruliferous whiteflies preferred volatiles emitted from mock-inoculated plants, a conducive behaviour to enhance virus spread, while volatiles from ToCV-infected plants were avoided by non-viruliferous whiteflies, a behaviour that is likely detrimental to the secondary spread of the virus. In conclusion, the circulative persistent begomovirus, ToSRV, seems to have evolved together with its vector B. tabaci to optimise its own spread. However

  10. Therapeutically important proteins from in vitro plant tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Pauline M

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells cultured in liquid medium in bioreactors are now being used commercially to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. The emergence of in vitro plant cell culture as a production vehicle reflects the importance of key biosafety and biocontainment concerns affecting the competitiveness of alternative systems such as mammalian cell culture and agriculture. Food plant species are particularly attractive as hosts for in vitro protein production: the risk of transgene escape and food chain contamination is eliminated using containment facilities, while regulatory approval for oral delivery of drugs may be easier than if non-edible species were used. As in whole plants, proteolysis in cultured plant cells can lead to significant degradation of foreign proteins after synthesis; however, substantial progress has been made to counter the destructive effects of proteases in plant systems. Although protein secretion into the culture medium is advantageous for product recovery and purification, measures are often required to minimise extracellular protease activity and product losses due to irreversible surface adsorption. Disposable plastic bioreactors, which are being used increasingly in mammalian cell bioprocessing, are also being adopted for plant cell culture to allow rapid scale-up and generation of saleable product. This review examines a range of technical and regulatory issues affecting the choice of industrial production platform for foreign proteins, and assesses progress in the development of in vitro plant systems for biopharmaceutical production.

  11. Biochemical and molecular study of genetic stability in tomatoes plants rom seeds treated with low doses of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R; Gonzalez, LM; Chavez, Licet; Camejo, Yanelis; Gonzalez, Maria C; Fernandez, Arais

    2008-01-01

    For the extensive agricultural exploitation of vegetable radio stimulation, it is indispensable to study the genetic stability of treated varieties, having in mind X ray potentialities of inducing not only physiological but genetic changes as well. Therefore, biochemical and molecular markers were employed in tomato plants derived from irradiated seeds at low doses of X rays. For the biochemical analysis, peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases and dismutase superoxide isoenzymes were determined whereas the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular analysis. When comparing the electrophoretic patterns from the control and irradiated treatments applied to the three enzymatic systems, there were not appreciable variations on the number of bands and their intensities, indicating the little variability induced in these systems by the low X ray doses. Also, from the molecular viewpoint, electrophoretic patterns showed a clear amplification of DNA by generating a total of 155 bands in all varieties studied. This molecular marker showed a high monomorphism independently of the treatments applied, with values ranging between 86 and 97 %, indicating that irradiation at low doses did not induce an important genetic variability and confirming its possible practical usefulness for stimulating some physiological processes without causing. (Author)

  12. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  13. Potato purple top phytoplasma-induced disruption of gibberellin homeostasis in tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhabiting, cell wall-less bacteria that cause numerous plant diseases worldwide. Plants infected by phytoplasmas often exhibit various symptoms indicative of hormonal imbalance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of potato purple top (PPT) phytoplasma infect...

  14. The influence of ethephon application to processing tomato plants on yield structure in relation to weather conditions during the growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrszczyk Elżbieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethephon application (Agrostym 480 SL on the yield and yield structure of five processing tomato cultivars (Rumba, Hubal, Sokal F1 , Mieszko F1 and Polset F1 . The experiment was carried out in the open field in the years 2009-2011 in Mydlniki near Kraków, Poland. Two weeks before harvesting, half of the plants of each cultivar were treated with Agrostym 480 SL (3 dm3 ha-1 and the other half were left as a control without spraying. Marketable yield included properly shaped and welldeveloped light red and red fruits. Non-marketable yield included pink and turning fruits, mature green and breaker fruits, and diseased fruits. A generalized linear model (GLM for Poisson distribution with the log link function was used to determine the relationship between the years of the study and cultivar and selected values of the yield structure. The yield structure of tomato depended significantly on the weather conditions during the growing period in different years of the study, on the cultivar, and on the use of ethephon. Ethephon had a particularly beneficial effect on yield structure in the years with an unfavourable distribution of precipitation. Ethephon application in the years 2009 and 2010 had a beneficial effect on the health of tomato plants.

  15. Histopathology of the larval midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner fed on Bacillus thuringiensis crystals and Bt-tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abd El-Ghany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The histopathological effects of the spore-crystal complex of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt isolate, as well as Cry 2Ab gene expressed in transgenic tomato plants on the midgut of 4th instar larva of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea has been investigated using the transmission electron microscope (TEM. Remarkable ultrastructural changes were observed in the columnar and goblet cells of the larval midgut after feeding on either transgenic tomato leaves, or spore-crystal complex of Bt. The effects observed included breakdown of microvilli of epithelial cells, increase in the electron density of the cytoplasm and vacuolation associated with different sizes of lysosomes; interruption of the goblet cells and distorted goblet cavities which lost their cytoplasmic projections; destruction of the mitochondria which lost their cristae; degeneration of the endoplasmic reticulum; collapse of the nucleus associated with rupture of nuclear envelope and clumped chromatin. Feeding the larvae on transgenic Bt-tomato plants caused in addition to the aforementioned changes severe vacuolation and degeneration of the nucleus in both columnar and goblet cells and the nuclear membrane was broken into electron dense ring spheres.

  16. Morpho-histological analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. plants after treatment with juglone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Milewska-Hendel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Juglone is a substance that limits plant growth and has a toxic effect on plant development. In this study, we analyzed the influence of juglone at two different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−4 M, which were applied to different parts of Solanum lycopersicum L. plants (root system, stem after decapitation, and surface of a younger leaf or after autografting for a short period of time (7 days, on the morphology and histology of stems. At a lower concentration, juglone had positive effects on plant growth, which resulted in an increase in interfascicular cambial cell divisions, faster development of a continuous cambium layer along the stem circumference, and development of fibers. Additionally, under the influence of juglone, the number of developing leaves increased and adventitious roots developed. The results are discussed based on the current literature concerning the reaction of plants to juglone and to stress conditions.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on plant tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hell, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    A short review is done of the biological effects of ionizing radiations on plant tissues kept in culture, from the work of Gladys King, in 1949, with X-ray irradiated tobacco. The role of plant hormones is discussed in the processes of growth inhibition and growth restoration of irradiated tissues, as well as morphogenesis. Radioresistance of cells kept in culture and the use of ionizing radiations as mutagens are also commented. Some aspects of the biological effects of ionizing radiations that need to be investigated are discussed, and the problem of genome instability of plant tissues kept in culture is pointed out. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Gi Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer.

  19. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer.

  20. Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles to enhance S. lycopersicum (tomato) plant growth and their biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankramma, K.; Yallappa, S.; Shivanna, M. B.; Manjanna, J.

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate magnetic iron (III) oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) uptake by the Solanum lycopersicum ( S. lycopersicum) plant. The S. lycopersicum seeds were coated with Fe2O3 NPs and allowed to germinate in moistened sand bed. The seedlings are observed for 20 days, and then, it was post-treated using different amounts of Fe2O3 NPs in hydroponic solution for 10 days. The plant was allowed to grow in green house for 3 months, and uptake of NPs through roots and translocation into different parts was studied. For this, we have segmented the plants and incubated with 10 % NaOH solution. It is found that the NPs are deposited preferentially in root hairs, root tips followed by nodal and middle zone of plant. The iron present in the whole plant was quantitatively estimated by treating dry biomass of the plant in acid. The Fe2+/Fetotal increased with increasing concentration of NPs and >45 % ferrous iron suggests the biomineralization of NPs due to rich phytochemicals in plants. We believe that the present study is useful to build a base line data for novel applications in agri-nanotechnology.

  1. PECULIARITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANT CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. NOSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available metabolites formation in plant cell cultures of Panax spp., (ginsenosides; Dioscorea deltoidea (steroid glycosides; Ajuga reptans, Serratula coronata, Rhaponticum carthamoides (ecdisteroids; Polyscias spp., (triterpene glycosides, Taxus spp. (taxoids, Stevia rebaudiana (diterpene steviol-glycosides, Stephania glabra (alkaloids. They are some regular trends of secondary metabolites synthesis in the plant cell culture:It can be noted the stable synthesis of the compound promoting cell proliferation. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea were demonstrated to accumulate only furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Furostanol glycoside content of Dioscorea strain DM-0.5 was up to 6 - 12% by dry biomass.Panax ginseng and P. japonicus plant cell cultures synthesize as minimum seven triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides, the productivity of these compounds was up to 6.0 - 8.0% on dry biomass.By contrast, the detectable synthesis of diterpene steviol-glycosides in cultivated cells of Stevia rebaudiana initiated in the mixotrophic cultures during chloroplast formation only.Despite these differences, or mainly due to them, plant cell cultures have become an attractive source of phytochemicals in alternative to collecting wild plants. It provides a guideline to bioreactor-based production of isoprenoids using undifferentiated plant cell cultures

  2. Overexpression of plum auxin receptor PslTIR1 in tomato alters plant growth, fruit development and fruit shelf-life characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, I; Sherif, S; El Kayal, W; Jones, B; Li, Z; Sullivan, A J; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2016-02-29

    TIR1-like proteins are F-box auxin receptors. Auxin binding to the F-box receptor proteins promotes the formation of SCF(TIR1) ubiquitin ligase complex that targets the auxin repressors, Aux/IAAs, for degradation via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway. The release of auxin response factors (ARFs) from their Aux/IAA partners allows ARFs to mediate auxin-responsive changes in downstream gene transcription. In an attempt to understand the potential role of auxin during fruit development, a plum auxin receptor, PslTIR1, has previously been characterized at the cellular, biochemical and molecular levels, but the biological significance of this protein is still lacking. In the present study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used as a model to investigate the phenotypic and molecular changes associated with the overexpression of PslTIR1. The findings of the present study highlighted the critical role of PslTIR1 as positive regulator of auxin-signalling in coordinating the development of leaves and fruits. This was manifested by the entire leaf morphology of transgenic tomato plants compared to the wild-type compound leaf patterning. Moreover, transgenic plants produced parthenocarpic fruits, a characteristic property of auxin hypersensitivity. The autocatalytic ethylene production associated with the ripening of climacteric fruits was not significantly altered in transgenic tomato fruits. Nevertheless, the fruit shelf-life characteristics were affected by transgene presence, mainly through enhancing fruit softening rate. The short shelf-life of transgenic tomatoes was associated with dramatic upregulation of several genes encoding proteins involved in cell-wall degradation, which determine fruit softening and subsequent fruit shelf-life. The present study sheds light into the involvement of PslTIR1 in regulating leaf morphology, fruit development and fruit softening-associated ripening, but not autocatalytic ethylene production. The results demonstrate that auxin

  3. Transcriptomics of the interaction between the monopartite phloem-limited geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and Solanum lycopersicum highlights a role for plant hormones, autophagy and plant immune system fine tuning during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miozzi

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV, a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed.

  4. Role of Oxalis corniculata L. as plant virus reservoir with special regard to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV-RB strain occurrence in rock-wool cultivation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodi, Anna Maria

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The creeping wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata L. in Central Europe occurs mainly in anthropogenic areas, where it grows in parks and landfill sites or in protected cultivation sites like greenhouses and nurseries. In Hungary O. corniculata has been spreading since the 19th century. In glass- and greenhouses it is the only weed species that was able to settle and flourish on hydroponic rock-wool and coconut fibre growing media. Among virus pathogens of forced tomato (LYPES and paprika crops (CPSAN in Hungary the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV has become an important one, severely affecting the plants and on occasions causing 100% yield losses. The spread of the virus was largely assisted by its effective vector the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Initially the control of the disease was based on the control of the thrips, later, virus-resistant varieties were introduced. This however proved insufficient to fight the disease as it was discovered, quite recently, that in certain white pepper (CPSAN varieties the virus was able to break up the resistance. According to data of the year 2012, those varieties that were considered resistant, showed up to 50% virus infection. Considering the wide spread of O. corniculata and increasing occurrence of the resistance-breaking TSWV isolates, surveys in greenhouses were conducted to examine whether the weed could serve as reservoir for TSWV. Samples were collected of the virus infected crop plants and O. corniculata growing in the same coconut fibre cubes. The samples were examined using test-plants, serological and RT-PCR methods. In result it was found that the symptoms were indeed caused by resistance-breaking TSWV isolates. However, no virus was found in the suspected O. corniculata samples. Therefore it was concluded that in this particular case the O. corniculata cannot be considered reservoir for the virus, in the hydroponic culture.

  5. Effect of shading on tomato plants grow under greenhouse Efeito do sombreamento sobre o crescimento do tomateiro em cultivo protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Sandri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, to determine the effect of shading on tomato plants grown in a greenhouse. Sowing was done on July 4th and planting on August 27th, 2000, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2, using an organic commercial rooting medium. Water and nutrients were supplied on a daily basis using a nutrient solution. Two polyethylene tunnels (2.20 m height, 5 m width, 15 m length were used. In the first plastic tunnel, used as control, the transmissivity of global radiation was 83% and plants were conducted as a commercial crop. In the second tunnel, plants were grown under a 52% shading screen. Plant growth and development were measured at 19; 26; 33; 40; 47; 54; 61; 75 and 89 days after beginning of anthesis. Daily average solar radiation in the first tunnel from planting time to the end of the experiment was 12.4 MJ m-2 day-1, whereas in the shaded tunnel it was 5.0 MJ m-2 day-1. Number of fruits per square meter did not differ significantly between the unshaded control and shaded tomato plants. At the last harvest, dry mass from unshaded and shaded plants differed significantly, with values of 974.9 g m-2 and 762.5 g m-2 for total dry mass, 550.1 g m-2 and 419.74 g m-2 for fruits, and 424.75 g m-2 and 342.74 g m-2 for vegetative organs, respectively. Total plant growth was reduced to 21.7% by shading, but plants continued to grow, in spite of the radiation level below the trophic limit of 8.4 MJ m-2 day-1. To establish the climatic suitability of horticultural crops in different regions, it should be advisable to take in account other variables than solar radiation.O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, para determinar o efeito do sombreamento sobre o crescimento do tomateiro em cultivo protegido. A semeadura foi feita em 04/07/00 e o plantio em 27/08, na densidade de 3,3 plantas m-2, empregando substrato comercial orgânico. A

  6. Addition of plant-growth-promoting Bacillus subtilis PTS-394 on tomato rhizosphere has no durable impact on composition of root microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Junqing; Yu, Xiang; Liang, Xuejie; Liu, Yongfeng; Borriss, Rainer; Liu, Youzhou

    2017-06-05

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are increasingly used in agriculture to promote plant growth and to protect against plant pathogens. Unfortunately, hitherto the impact of Bacillus inoculants on the indigenous plant microbiota has been investigated exclusively for the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and was limited to prokaryotes, whilst eukaryotic member of this community, e.g. fungi, were not considered. The root-colonizing Bacillus subtilis PTS-394 supported growth of tomato plants and suppressed soil-borne diseases. Roche 454 pyrosequencing revealed that PTS-394 has only a transient impact on the microbiota community of the tomato rhizosphere. The impact on eukaryota could last up to 14 days, while that on bacterial communities lasted for 3 days only. Ecological adaptation and microbial community-preserving capacity are important criteria when assessing suitability of bio-inoculants for commercial development. As shown here, B. subtilis PTS-394 is acting as an environmentally compatible plant protective agent without permanent effects on rhizosphere microbial community.

  7. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  9. Plant regeneration in wheat mature embryo culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Haliloğlu

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... medium and same amount (8 mg/l) of 2,4-D and dicamba, respectively except for non-endosperm sup- ported mature embryos and hormones, there was no plant regeneration in method #12 in which dicamba was used as auxine. Filippov et al. (2006) obtained the best plant regeneration in 10 mg/l doses of ...

  10. Effect of Post-Harvest Acetic Acid and Plant Essential Oils on Shelf-Life Extension of Tomato Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Naweto, M.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro effect of different concentrations of acetic acid on linear growth of Alternaria alternate was studied. The causal agent of tomato black rots in contact and fumigation showed that acetic acid inhibit A. alternata growth at 2 ml/L and on 0.8 ml/L in contact and fumigation, respectively. In vivo effect showed that acetic acid at 6 ml/L reduced severity of infection of tomato fruits from 53.5% to 4.8% after 3 weeks of storage in dipping method but at the strongest fumigation methods, acetic acid inhibit tomato fruits rot at 0.4 ml/L after 3 weeks of storage. In vitro effect of camphore (Eucalyptus globulus Labill), caraway (Carium carvum L.) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.) at different concentrations were tested against Alternaria alternata, since caraway oil is the strongest oil effect on fungal growth followed by peppermint and camphore respectively. Similarly in in vivo caraway oil inhibit tomato fruits rots at 6 ml/L followed by peppermint that inhibited tomato rots at 8 ml / L but camphore reduced tomato rots at 8 ml/L from 40% to 8.1%. Accepted April 2013

  11. Plant Materials are Sustainable Substrates Supporting New Technologies of Plant-Only-Based Culture Media for in vitro Culturing of the Plant Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Elhussein F; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Daanaa, Hassan-Sibroe A; Abdou, Mennatullah; Morsi, Ahmed T; Abdelfadeel, Mohamed R; Elsawey, Hend; Nemr, Rahma; El-Tahan, Mahmoud; Hamza, Mervat A; Abbas, Mohamed; Youssef, Hanan H; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Amer, Wafaa M; Fayez, Mohamed; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2018-03-29

    In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures. These culture media were as sufficient as artificial culture media for the cultivation and recovery of the in situ rhizobacteria of barley (Hordeum murinum L.). Based on culture-dependent (CFU plate counting) and culture-independent analyses (qPCR), mowed turfgrass, in particular, supported the highest culturable population of barley endophytes, representing >16% of the total bacterial number quantified with qPCR. This accurately reflected the endophytic community composition, in terms of diversity indices (S', H', and D') based on PCR-DGGE, and clustered the plant culture media together with the qPCR root populations away from the artificial culture media. Despite the promiscuous nature of the plant materials tested to culture the plant microbiome, our results indicated that plant materials of a homologous nature to the tested host plant, at least at the family level, and/or of the same environment were more likely to be selected. Plant-only-based culture media require further refinements in order to provide selectivity for the in vitro growth of members of the plant microbiome, particularly difficult-to-culture bacteria. This will provide insights into their hidden roles in the environment and support future culturomic studies.

  12. Changes in gene expression during programmed cell death in tomato cell suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.; Orzaez, D.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Woltering, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes involved in plant programmed cell death (PCD), changes in gene expression during PCD in a model system of suspension-cultured tomato cells were studied. In this system, cell death is triggered by treatment with camptothecin, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I. Cell death was

  13. Influência de doses reduzidas do glyphosate no tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Influence of reduced glyphosate rates on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Fiqueredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum é cultivado em todas as regiões do Brasil devido à ampla utilização na culinária, tanto in natura quanto industrializado. A deriva do glyphosate vem sendo citada como um dos fatores que interferem negativamente sobre as culturas hortícolas, cultivadas nas adjacências das lavouras de arroz. Objetivou-se com esse verificar os efeitos de doses reduzidas do glyphosate sobre a cultura do tomateiro. O glyphosate foi aplicado a 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90% da dose de 1.260 g ha-1, aos 30, 50 e 70 dias após o transplante (DAT da cultura. As variáveis analisadas foram fitotoxicidade, altura e número de cachos florais, flores e frutos por planta. Os dados experimentais foram submetidos à análise da variância e, sendo significativos, os efeitos de época de aplicação foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, e os efeitos do fator dose, analisados por regressão. A aplicação do glyphosate, a partir de 378 g ha-1, afetou o desenvolvimento do tomateiro, independentemente do estádio de desenvolvimento.Tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum is grown in all regions in Brazil since it is widely used in cooking, processed or fresh. Glyphosate drift has been found rcited as one of the factors interfering negatively in vegetables cultivated in areas adjacent to rice plantations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduced rates of glyphosate on tomato plants, applied at of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90% of the commercial dose (1.260 g ha-1 30, 50 and 70 days after transplanting (DAT the tomato plants. The variables analyzed were: phytotoxicity, plant height, number of flowering clusters, and flower and fruits/plant. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, the Tukey test and regression. Glyphosate application at rates higher than 378 g ha-1 affected the growth of the tomato plants negatively, regardless of their development stage.

  14. Regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation Studies in Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Miller)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖKTEM, Hüseyin Avni; BÜLBÜL, Yeter; ÖKTEM, Emre; YÜCEL, Meral

    2014-01-01

    An optimized regeneration protocol and a suitable transformation technique is a necessity in obtaining transgenic plants in a given plant species. This work summarizes a simple culture method to obtain rooted plants from leaf pieces of two tomato cul-tivars (ES58 and WC156) within 3-4 months. Here, we also present our preliminary results on transformation experiments carried out with 8-day-old cotyledon explants and Agrobacterium tumefaciensEHA105 strain.

  15. Plant tissue culture study on two different races of purslane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed on two races of purslane; agronomic purslane and wild one. All the explants were cultured on MS basal medium supplement with 30 g/l sucrose, 8 g/l agar and different plant growth regulator. Petioles, shoot tips and leaves of wild purslane and also leaves of agronomic purslane were cultured in ...

  16. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser, and proline (Pro as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  17. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Bilal, Saqib

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser), and proline (Pro)) as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA) and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA) contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid) during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way. PMID:28321368

  18. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example ofBacillus amyloliquefaciensRWL-1 andFusarium oxysporumf. sp.lycopersiciin tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Bilal, Saqib; Asaf, Sajjad; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici . The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser), and proline (Pro)) as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA) and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA) contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid) during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  19. In vitro plant regeneration from embryogenic cell suspension culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... plasts in A. adsurgens (Luo and Jia, 1998a, b). There are only few reports available on plant regeneration systems via somatic embryogenesis (Luo et al., 1999; Hou and. Jia, 2004). Here, we report a protocol for plant regenera- tion from embryogenic cell suspension culture of endemic. A. chrysochlorus.

  20. Plant regeneration system from cotyledons-derived calluses cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... culture techniques. Previous plants regenerations of the genus Stylosanthes were described, in which, in vitro regeneration of 25 species have been reported (Flick et al., 1984) in ... generation system which might provide a good experi- ..... Sharp WR, Ammirato PV, Yamada Y. (eds) Handbook of Plant Cell.

  1. Plant Regeneration Through Tissue Culture Of Pear Millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. 1. 2,5), MS(5) and N6(1.100.25) culture media, calli embryogenic potential and fertile plants regeneration were conserved for more than 12 months. Characteristics of regenerated plants were similar to control. It appears that dissected shoot ...

  2. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt

    -style. Clonostachys rosea occurs naturally world-wide and is capable of colonizing many different habitats. The fungus is primarily known as a versatile biological control agent. However, it has also been reported as a plant endophyte in, e.g., soybean, red clover and cacao. The C. rosea isolate IK726 efficiently...

  3. Exploring the resistance against root parasitic plants in Arabidopsis and tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Root parasitic plant species such as broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) and witchweeds (Striga spp.) are notorious agricultural weeds. They cause damage to crops by depriving them of water, nutrients and assimilates via a vascular connection. The difficulty in controlling root parasitic

  4. A comparison between leaf dielectric properties of stressed and unstressed tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Emmerik, T.H.M.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.; Judge, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf dielectric properties influence microwave scattering from a vegetation canopy. The dielectric properties of leaves are primarily a function of leaf water content. Understanding the effect of water stress on leaf dielectric properties will give insight in how plant dynamics change as a result of

  5. Plant cell tissue culture: A potential source of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Dougall, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Higher plants produce many industrially important products. Among these are drugs and medicinal chemicals, essential oils and flavors, vegetable oils and fats, fine and specialty chemicals, and even some commodity chemicals. Although, currently, whole-plant extraction is the primary means of harvesting these materials, the advent of plant cell tissue culture could be a much more effective method of producing many types of phytochemicals. The use of immobilized plant cells in an advanced bioreactor configuration with excretion of the product into the reactor medium may represent the most straightforward way of commercializing such techniques for lower-value chemicals. Important research and development opportunities in this area include screening for plant cultures for nonmedical, lower-value chemicals; understanding and controlling plant cell physiology and biochemistry; optimizing effective immobilization methods; developing more efficient bioreactor concepts; and perfecting product extraction and purification techniques. 62 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Safety culture in the maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Safety culture is the complexity of beliefs, shared values and behaviour reflected in making decisions and performing work in a nuclear power plant or nuclear facility. The definition of safety culture and the related concepts presented in the IAEA literature are widely known to experts. Since the publication of Safety Culture, issued by the IAEA as INSAG-4 in 1991, the IAEA has produced a number of publications on strengthening the safety culture in organizations that operate nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities. However, until now the focus has been primarily on the area of operations. Apart from operations, maintenance in plants and nuclear facilities is an aspect that deserves special attention, as maintenance activities can have both a direct and an indirect effect on equipment reliability. Adverse safety effects can arise, depending upon the level of skill of the personnel involved, safety awareness and the complexity of the work process. Any delayed effects resulting from challenges to maintenance can cause interruptions in operation, and hence affect the safety of a plant or facility. Building upon earlier IAEA publications on this topic, this Safety Report reviews how challenges to the maintenance of nuclear power plants can affect safety culture. It also highlights indications of a weakening safety culture. The challenges described are in areas such as maintenance management; human resources management; plant condition assessment and the business environment. The steps that some Member States have taken to address safety culture aspects are detailed and singled out as good practices, with a view to disseminating and exchanging experiences and lessons learned. Although this report is primarily directed at plant maintenance organizations, the subject matter is applicable to a wider audience, including plant contracting organizations and regulatory authorities

  7. Tritiated water uptake kinetics in tissue-free water and organically-bound fractions of tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    The kinetics of tritiated water (HTO) vapour uptake into tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) fractions of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Vendor, were investigated under controlled growing conditions. Most uptake data fitted a first-order kinetic model, C t = C ∞ (1-e -kt ), where C t is the tritium concentration at time t, Ca the steady-state concentration and k the uptake rate constant. During atmospheric-HTO exposure with clean-water irrigation in open pots the TFWT k values were 0.024 ± 0.023 h -1 for new foliage, 0.104 ± 0.067 h -1 for old foliage and 0.042 ± to 0.136 h -1 for new green fruit. OBT uptake rate constants were 20 percent less for new foliage and 76 percent less for new green fruit. Under steady-state conditions the ratio of tritium specific activities of TWFT to atmospheric HTO were 0.43 in new foliage, 0.46 in old foliage and 0.19 in green fruit. Within the plant, OBT and TFWT ratios were 0.70 for new foliage, 0.63 for old foliage (maximum) and between 0.72 and 1.92 for green fruit. The greater than unity tritium specific activity ratios in green fruit were not attributed to tritium enrichment but rather to the translocation of foliar OBT to the growing fruit which contained lower specific activity TFWT derived from soil water

  8. TOMATOES BALANCE SHEET IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE; Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes are one of the most representative vegetable species cultivated in our country. This allegation is based on the essential elements of tomatoes culture respectively area cultivated, total production and average yield per hectare - indicators for 2007-2009 reached average levels of 48.8 thousand hectares and 736.9 thousand tonnes respectively 15101kg / ha. Presentation of food helps establish balance of the demand and supply component parts total as follows: production, imports, export...

  9. Engineered drought tolerance in tomato plants is reflected in chlorophyll fluorescence emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, Kumud; Iannacone, R.; Petrozza, A.; Mishra, Anamika; Armentano, N.; La Vecchia, G.; Trtílek, M.; Cellini, F.; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 182, SI (2012), s. 79-86 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08055; GA MŠk 2B06068; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * Drought * High-throughput screening * Solanum lycopersicum * Transcription factor * Transgenic plant Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.922, year: 2012

  10. Effect of utilization of tomato extract and foliar fertilizer as media on shoots multiplication of banana cv Ambon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidhari, L. A.; Purwanto, E.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    The good quality banana seeds are still difficult to obtain. There are two ways to provide seeds, namely conventional and tissue culture (in vitro). Tomato extract contains natural ZPT or phytohormone which can be utilized in modification of banana tissue culture media. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of media types and tomato extracts in various concentrations for multiplication of banana cv. Ambon in vitro. The study was conducted from October - December 2016 at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of Horticulture Seed Center, Salaman, Magelang. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with two treatment factors. The firs factor was media type with the addition of foliar fertilizer, the second factor was modification of tomato extract with 4 levels. The results showed that the different of the treated media treatment did not affect the emerge of leaf and leaf length, the number of roots and root length. The emerge of the leaves of all treatments occurred at 6 days after planting with the highest average length was obtained in MS treatment with a combination of tomato extract 50 ml/l (10.3 cm). The use of MS medium with a combination of tomato extract 50 ml/l generated the average root number 15.5 with a root lengths 7.5 cm. Substitution of MS medium with tomato extract and foliar fertilizer did not show better results compared to the use of MS media in the multiplication of banana shoots in tissue culture.

  11. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  12. Stress in plants cultured in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Plants subjected to stress display various defense mechanisms. On base of these mechanisms, stress-protective measures can be developed. This paper deals with protection brought about by putrescine. An in vitro system to impose drought stress was developed and the protective effect of putrescine on

  13. Modulating plant primary amino acid metabolism as a necrotrophic virulence strategy: The immune-regulatory role of asparagine synthetase in Botrytis cinerea-tomato interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Seifi, Hamed Soren; De Vleesschauwer, David; Aziz, Aziz; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of the “gray mold” disease on a broad range of hosts. As an archetypal necrotroph, B. cinerea has evolved multiple virulence strategies for inducing cell death in its host. Moreover, progress of B. cinerea colonization is commonly associated with induction of senescence in the host tissue, even in non-invaded regions. In a recent study, we showed that abscisic acid deficiency in the sitiens tomato mutant culminates in an anti-sene...

  14. Effect of plant diversification on abundance of South American tomato pinworm and predators in two cropping systems Efeito da diversificação de plantas na abundância da traça-do-tomateiro e predadores em dois sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that the diversification of the agroecosystem may reduce insect pest infestation using the strategy of companion planting. We studied the effect of the presence of coriander and Gallant soldier as companion plants in the tomato crop under organic and conventional management on abundance of the tomato pests and predators. The experiment was carried out under field conditions, at Distrito Federal, Brazil, from July to October, 2004. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement [Three crop diversification levels: tomato in monoculture, tomato intercropped with coriander, and tomato intercropped with coriander and Gallant soldier; and two cropping systems: organic and conventional]. Each plot had 80 plants of the tomato and the pest-insects and predaceous arthropods were collected every week in five tomato plants/plot. Tuta absoluta (Meyr. was the commonest pest species in both cropping systems. The tomato intercropped with coriander and Gallant soldier in organic cropping system had lower abundance and higher diversity of pests, and higher abundance and diversity of predaceous arthropods, mainly at 80 days after the tomato transplanting, coinciding with the population peak of T. absoluta (eggs and adults. The more abundant predators were spiders, lady beetles and ants. The spiders were abundant and uniformly distributed in both systems. The lady beetles appeared lately in the organic system, at the flowering season of the coriander. The ants were more abundant in the conventional systems.Vários estudos têm demonstrado que a diversificação do agroecossistema pode reduzir a infestação por insetos-praga pelo uso da estratégia do estabelecimento de plantas companheiras. Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito da presença do coentro e botão-de-ouro como plantas companheiras na cultura do tomate sob manejo orgânico e convencional, na abundância das pragas

  15. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  16. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  17. [Abnormal floral meristem development in transgenic tomato plants do not depend on the expression of genes encoding defense-related PR-proteins and antimicrobial peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliluev, M R; Chaban, I A; Kononenko, N V; Baranova, E N; Dolgov, S V; Kharchenko, P N; Poliakov, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the morphological and cytoembryological analyses of the tomato plants transformed with the genes encoding chitin-binding proteins (ac and RS-intron-Shir) from Amaranthus caudatus L. andA. retroflexus L., respectively, as well as the gene amp2 encoding hevein-like antimicrobial peptides from Stellaria media L., have been performed. The transgenic lines were adapted to soil and grown the greenhouse. The analysis of putative transgenic tomato plants revealed several lines that did not differ phenotypically from the wild type plants and three lines with disruption in differentiation of the inflorescence shoot and the flower, as well as the fruit formation (modified plants of each line were transformed with a single gene as noted before). Abnormalities in the development of the generative organs were maintained for at least six vegetative generations. These transgenic plants were shown to be defective in the mail gametophyte formation, fertilization, and, consequently, led to parthenocarpic fruits. The detailed analysis of growing ovules in the abnormal transgenic plants showed that the replacement tissue was formed and proliferated instead of unfertilized embryo sac. The structure of the replacement tissue differed from both embryonic and endosperm tissue of the normal ovule. The formation of the replacement tissue occurred due to continuing proliferation of the endothelial cells that lost their ability for differentiation. The final step in the development of the replacement tissue was its death, which resulted in the cell lysis. The expression of the genes used was confirmed by RT-PCR in all three lines with abnormal phenotype, as well as in several lines that did not phenotypically differ from the untransformed control. This suggests that abnormalities in the organs of the generative sphere in the transgenic plants do not depend on the expression of the foreign genes that were introduced in the tomato genome. Here, we argue that agrobacterial

  18. Induction of Defense-Related Responses in Cf9 Tomato Cells by the AVR9 Elicitor Peptide of Cladosporium fulvum Is Developmentally Regulated1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honée, Guy; Buitink, Julia; Jabs, Thorsten; De Kloe, José; Sijbolts, Fred; Apotheker, Marion; Weide, Rob; Sijen, Titia; Stuiver, Maarten; De Wit, Pierre J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The AVR9 elicitor from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum induces defense-related responses, including cell death, specifically in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene. To study biochemical mechanisms of resistance in detail, suspension cultures of tomato cells that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene were initiated. Treatment of cells with various elicitors, except AVR9, induced an oxidative burst, ion fluxes, and expression of defense-related genes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Cf9 tomato leaf discs with Avr9-containing constructs resulted efficiently in transgenic callus formation. Although transgenic callus tissue showed normal regeneration capacity, transgenic plants expressing both the Cf-9 and the Avr9 genes were never obtained. Transgenic F1 seedlings that were generated from crosses between tomato plants expressing the Avr9 gene and wild-type Cf9 plants died within a few weeks. However, callus cultures that were initiated on cotyledons from these seedlings could be maintained for at least 3 months and developed similarly to callus cultures that contained only the Cf-9 or the Avr9 gene. It is concluded, therefore, that induction of defense responses in Cf9 tomato cells by the AVR9 elicitor is developmentally regulated and is absent in callus tissue and cell-suspension cultures, which consists of undifferentiated cells. These results are significant for the use of suspension-cultured cells to investigate signal transduction cascades. PMID:9662523

  19. Foliar extracts from transgenic tomato plants expressing the structural polyprotein, P1-2A, and protease, 3C, from foot-and-mouth disease virus elicit a protective response in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Baoqin; Wang, Wenxiu; Fang, Yuzhen; Jiang, Shoutian; Lv, Jianliang; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yuan; Xie, Qingge

    2008-01-15

    The expression of recombinant antigens in transgenic plants is increasingly used as an alternative method of producing experimental immunogens. In this report, we describe the production of transgenic tomato plants that express the structural polyprotein, P1-2A, and protease, 3C, from foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV). P1-2A3C was inserted into the plant binary vector, pBin438, and transformed into tomato plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, GV3101. The presence of P1-2A3C was confirmed by PCR, transcription was verified by RT-PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by sandwich-ELISA and Western blot analyses. Guinea pigs immunized intramuscularly with foliar extracts from P1-2A3C-transgenic tomato plants were found to develop a virus-specific antibody response against FMDV. Vaccinated guinea pigs were fully protected against a challenge infection, while guinea pigs injected with untransformed plant extracts failed to elicit an antibody response and were not protected against challenge. These results demonstrate that transgenic tomato plants expressing the FMDV structural polyprotein, P1-2A, and the protease, 3C, can be used as a source of recombinant antigen for vaccine production.

  20. Nitrogen and water inputs to tomato plant do not trigger bottom-up effects on a leafminer parasitoid through host and non-host exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Zappalà, Lucia; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Bearez, Philippe; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Bottom-up and top-down forces are major components of biological control against pests in an agro-ecosystem. Understanding the multi-trophic interactions between plants and secondary consumers would help optimize pest control strategies. We manipulated nitrogen and/or water inputs to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to test whether these manipulations could trigger bottom-up effects on the parasitoid Necremnus tutae via host (Tuta absoluta) and/or non-host (Bemisia tabaci) exposures, and compared the control efficacy of N. tutae on T. absoluta in the presence and absence of B. tabaci. The results showed no cascading effects of plant nitrogen and/or water inputs on N. tutae via either host or non-host exposure. The bottom-up force was mitigated by chewing or sap-feeding insect consumers at the second energy level. By contrast, the top-down force on T. absoluta from parasitoids was enhanced by an additionally provided non-host, which could produce alternative food sources extending N. tutae longevity and enhancing the fitness of its offspring. Our results provided evidence for the combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches in tomato integrated pest management programs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Recruitment of the host plant heat shock protein 70 by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein is required for virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovits, Rena; Moshe, Adi; Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other monopartite begomoviruses. We have previously shown that TYLCV CP specifically interacts with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of the virus insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. Here we demonstrate that during the development of tomato plant infection with TYLCV, a significant amount of HSP70 shifts from a soluble form into insoluble aggregates. CP and HSP70 co-localize in these aggregates, first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus of cells associated with the vascular system. CP-HSP70 interaction was demonstrated by co-immunopreciptation in cytoplasmic - but not in nuclear extracts from leaf and stem. Inhibition of HSP70 expression by quercetin caused a decrease in the amount of nuclear CP aggregates and a re-localization of a GFP-CP fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HSP70 inactivation resulted in a decrease of TYLCV DNA levels, demonstrating the role of HSP70 in TYLCV multiplication in planta. The current study reveals for the first time the involvement of plant HSP70 in TYLCV CP intracellular movement. As described earlier, nuclear aggregates contained TYLCV DNA-CP complexes and infectious virions. Showing that HSP70 localizes in these large nuclear aggregates infers that these structures operate as nuclear virus factories.

  2. The Role of Silicon in Plant Tissue Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyyakkannu eSivanesan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and morphogenesis of in vitro cultures of plant cells, tissues and organs are greatly influenced by the composition of the culture medium. Mineral nutrients are necessary for the growth and development of plants. Several morpho-physiological disorders such as hooked leaves, hyperhydricity, fasciation and shoot tip necrosis are often associated with the concentration of inorganic nutrient in the tissue culture medium. Silicon (Si is the most abundant mineral element in the soil. The application of Si has been demonstrated to be beneficial for growth, development and yield of various plants and to alleviate various stresses including nutrient imbalance. Addition of Si to the tissue culture medium improves organogenesis, embryogenesis, growth traits, morphological, anatomical and physiological characteristics of leaves, enhances tolerance to low temperature and salinity, protects cells and against metal toxicity, prevents oxidative phenolic browning and reduces the incidence of hyperhydricity in various plants. Therefore, Si possesses considerable potential for application in a wide range of plant tissue culture studies such as cryopreservation, organogenesis, micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis and secondary metabolites production.

  3. The role of silicon in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Growth and morphogenesis of in vitro cultures of plant cells, tissues, and organs are greatly influenced by the composition of the culture medium. Mineral nutrients are necessary for the growth and development of plants. Several morpho-physiological disorders such as hooked leaves, hyperhydricity, fasciation, and shoot tip necrosis are often associated with the concentration of inorganic nutrient in the tissue culture medium. Silicon (Si) is the most abundant mineral element in the soil. The application of Si has been demonstrated to be beneficial for growth, development and yield of various plants and to alleviate various stresses including nutrient imbalance. Addition of Si to the tissue culture medium improves organogenesis, embryogenesis, growth traits, morphological, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of leaves, enhances tolerance to low temperature and salinity, protects cells and against metal toxicity, prevents oxidative phenolic browning and reduces the incidence of hyperhydricity in various plants. Therefore, Si possesses considerable potential for application in a wide range of plant tissue culture studies such as cryopreservation, organogenesis, micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis and secondary metabolites production.

  4. Gravity, chromosomes, and organized development in aseptically cultured plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the PCR experiment are: to test the hypothesis that microgravity will in fact affect the pattern and developmental progression of embryogenically competent plant cells from one well-defined, critical stage to another; to determine the effects of microgravity in growth and differentiation of embryogenic carrot cells grown in cell culture; to determine whether microgravity or the space environment fosters an instability of the differentiated state; and to determine whether mitosis and chromosome behavior are adversely affected by microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: special embryogenically competent carrot cell cultures will be grown in cell culture chambers provided by NASDA; four cell culture chambers will be used to grow cells in liquid medium; two dishes (plant cell culture dishes) will be used to grow cells on a semi-solid agar support; progression to later embryonic stages will be induced in space via crew intervention and by media manipulation in the case of liquid grown cell cultures; progression to later stages in case of semi-solid cultures will not need crew intervention; embryo stages will be fixed at a specific interval (day 6) in flight only in the case of liquid-grown cultures; and some living cells and somatic embryos will be returned for continued post-flight development and 'grown-out.' These will derive from the semi-solid grown cultures.

  5. Resistência à traça-do-tomateiro em plantas com altos teores de acilaçúcares nas folhas Resistance to the South American tomato pinworm in tomato plants with high foliar acylsugar contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro C Gonçalves Neto

    2010-06-01

    in 1980 and today it is among the major pests of tomato in Brazil. The control of this pest has been done primarily with the use of insecticides, and three sprays per week may be necessary in extreme cases. Wild tomato accessions such as S. pennellii LA-716 possess high levels of insect resistance, mediated by high foliar contents of acylsugars. The objectives of this study were obtain improved tomato genotypes with high contents of leaf acylsugars, and to assess their levels of resistance to the South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta. These genotypes were obtained from segregating (F2 populations from the cross between AF-8665 (an elite low AS tomato line and lines BPX370E-30-275-11-7, BPX370E-30-275-11-8, BPX370E-30-380-68-6 and BPX370E-30-380-68-8 (pre-commercial high AS inbreds derived from an original interspecific cross between S. lycopersicum x S. pennellii LA-716. F2 plants selected for high AS contents were cloned and subsequently tested for pinworm resistance. The high AS genotypes showed smaller ovoposition counts and lower plant damage levels than low AS genotypes (commercial or not. Even though high AS genotypes were generally more resistant to the South American tomato pinworm than low AS genotypes, their actual levels of resistance may be background-dependent: high AS clones with BPX-410H background had slightly higher levels of resistance than high AS clones with BPX-370G background. Clones BPX-410H-01pl#281, BPX-410H-04pl#348 and BPX-410H-04pl#481 had the highest levels of pinworm resistance, and were recommended for further use in breeding programs.

  6. In vitro propagation of plant virus using different forms of plant tissue culture and modes of culture operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sharon M-H; Doran, Pauline M

    2009-09-10

    Plant virus accumulation was investigated in vitro using three different forms of plant tissue culture. Suspended cells, hairy roots and shooty teratomas of Nicotiana benthamiana were infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using the same initial virus:biomass ratio. Viral infection did not affect tissue growth or morphology in any of the three culture systems. Average maximum virus concentrations in hairy roots and shooty teratomas were similar and about an order of magnitude higher than in suspended cells. Hairy roots were considered the preferred host because of their morphological stability in liquid medium and relative ease of culture. The average maximum virus concentration in the hairy roots was 0.82+/-0.14 mg g(-1) dry weight; viral coat protein represented a maximum of approximately 6% of total soluble protein in the biomass. Virus accumulation in hairy roots was investigated further using different modes of semi-continuous culture operation aimed at prolonging the root growth phase and providing nutrient supplementation; however, virus concentrations in the roots were not enhanced compared with simple batch culture. The relative infectivity of virus in the biomass declined by 80-90% during all the cultures tested, irrespective of the form of plant tissue used or mode of culture operation. Hairy root cultures inoculated with a transgenic TMV-based vector in batch culture accumulated green fluorescent protein (GFP); however, maximum GFP concentrations in the biomass were relatively low at 39 microg g(-1) dry weight, probably due to genetic instability of the vector. This work highlights the advantages of using hairy roots for in vitro propagation of TMV compared with shooty teratomas and suspended plant cells, and demonstrates that batch root culture is more effective than semi-continuous operations for accumulation of high virus concentrations in the biomass.

  7. TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population of tomato soil treated with different concentration of benomyl and pseudomonads to benomyl in culture medium and in tomato soils. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of samples and treatment with benomyl. Soil samples were collected from a vegetable farm in which tomato had been cropped for two ...

  8. Silencing of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (SlPLC2) reduces plant susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonorazky, Gabriela; Guzzo, María Carla; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.; Laxalt, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    The tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene family is composed of six members, named SlPLC1 to SlPLC6, differentially regulated on pathogen attack. We have previously shown that the fungal elicitor xylanase induces a raise of SlPLC2 and SlPLC5

  9. Plant water relations as affected by osmotic potential of the nutrient solution and potential transpiration in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that water flow into tomato fruits is affected similarly by osmotic potential of the nutrient solution and potential transpiration (shoot environment) via their effects on stem water potential, was tested through experiments carried out in two glasshouses where climate was controlled

  10. Blue and red LED lighting effects on plant biomass, stomatal conductance, and metabolite content in nine tomato genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouzounis, T.; Heuvelink, E.; Ji, Y.; Schouten, H.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    A collection of nine tomato genotypes was chosen based on their diversity, phylogeny, availability of genome information, and agronomic traits. The objective of the study was to characterize the effect of red and blue LED (light-emitting diode) lighting on physiological, morphological,

  11. Fish culture using cooling water from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Special problems associated with the use of heated effluents from thermal power plants in aquaculture include fluctuating temperatures, chemicals added to cooling water, gas supersaturation, and inflexibility in the effluent temperature, in many cases obviating a continuous one year culture cycle. In Sweden, salmonids are the preferred cultural species as long as water temperatures do not exceed 20 deg C during the summer. A pilot fish farm is now using cooling water from he Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. An additional concern in this case will be the accumulation of radioisotopes. (E.C.B.)

  12. Molecular marker screening of tomato, (solanum lycopersicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... In this study, molecular screening was done on some tomato germplasm to detect markers for the gene that confers resistance ... Genetic resistance in tomato to the pest is efficient in reducing their populations .... fresh leaves of tomato plants following the protocol of Egnin et al. (1998). PCR was carried out ...

  13. Evaluating the Ability of some Medicinal Plants for Controlling Rhizopus (Rhizopu snigricans and Black Spot Rot (Alternaria alternate as Postharvest Diseases in Tomato Produced under Conventional and Organic Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Seyyedi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction After crops harvesting, conditions and durations of storage are considered as the most crucial factors formaintaining the nutritional value and quality of agro-horticultural products such as tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill. and its waste reduction. However, the rhizopus rot (Rhizopus stolonifer and black spot rot (Alternaria alternate are the most important postharvest diseases in tomato during storage. In other word, among the factors reducing quality of the postharvest tomato, Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb. (Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternate (Fr.:Fr. Keissl. f. sp. lycopersici paly a special role in the contaminated tomato fruits that can affect its taste, firmness and stiffness. In recent years, due to the problems and threats arising from the use of chemical fungicides in agricultural systems, principled management of alternative biological approaches for reducing the postharvest contamination in tomato, especially during storage, is emphasized more than ever. Considering these conditions, the current study was aimed to investigate the effects of some medicinal plants including thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L., peppermint (Mentha piperita L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules L., caster bean (Ricinus communis L. and tomato in their ability to control the rhizopus (Rhizopus nigricans and black spot rot (Alternaria alternate in tomato production under conventional and organic cropping systems. Materials and methods The experiment was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during theyear of 2010. A completely randomized design was used based on factorial arrangement with three replications and 14 treatments. Two cropping production systems (conventional and organic and seven medicinal plants (thyme, pennyroyal, peppermint, eucalyptus, caster bean, tomato and control were the first and the second experimental factors, respectively. After collecting plant samples

  14. Effect of plant resistance and BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251) on Meloidogyne incognita in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Ariadna; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of combining resistant tomato with BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251, Pl251) against Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse over 2 years. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of the fungus, the percentage of fungal egg and juvenile parasitism, cardinal temperatures and the effect of water potential on mycelial growth and the soil receptivity to Pl251 were determined in vitro. Plant resistance was the only factor that suppressed nematode and crop yield losses. Percentage of egg parasitism in plots treated with BioAct WG was less than 2.6%. However, under in vitro conditions, Pl251 showed protease, lipase and chitinase activities and parasitised 94.5% of eggs, but no juveniles. Cardinal temperatures were 14.2, 24-26 and 35.4 °C. The maximum Pl251 mycelial growth was at -0.25 MPa and 25 °C. Soil temperatures and water potential in the greenhouse were in the range of the fungus. However, soil receptivity was lower in greenhouse soil, irrespective of sterilisation, than in sterilised sand. Plant resistance was the only factor able to suppress nematode densities, disease severity and yield losses, and to protect the following cucumber crop. Environmental factors involved in soil receptivity could have negatively affected fungus effectiveness. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  16. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  17. Root and leaf abscisic acid concentration impact on gas exchange in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants subjected to partial root-zone drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valerio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a deficit irrigation technique with great potential for water saving. A split-root experiment was conducted on tomato in controlled environment in order to test the response of two long-time storage cultivars to PRD. Ponderosa tomato, a cultivar with yellow fruits, was compared to Giallo tondo di Auletta, a local cultivar from southern Campania (Italy. Plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments: plants receiving an amount of water equivalent to 100% of plant evapotranspiration (V100; plants in which 50% of the amount of water given to V100 was supplied (V50; and plants where one root compartment was irrigated at 50% of water requirements and the other compartment was allowed to dry, and thereafter every side was rewetted alternatively (PRD. The highest levels of leaf abscisic acid (ABA [on average equal to 104 ng g–1 fresh weight FW] were measured in PRD and V50, at 70 days after transplantation. Root ABA concentration in both PRD and V50 reached mean values of 149 ng g–1 FW. There were differences for the irrigation regime in root ABA biosynthesis and accumulation under partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation (V50. Assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in relation to the irrigation regime by 22, 36 and 12%, respectively, in PRD, V50 and V100 at 50 days after transplantation. Ponderosa variety accumulated 20% more dry matter than Auletta and significant differences were observed in leaf area. In both PRD and V50 of the two varieties, it was possible to save on average 46% of water. Our results indicate that there is still space to optimise the PRD strategy, to further improve the cumulative physiological effects of the root-sourced signaling system.

  18. Growing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    randomized complete block with three replications. More studies were carried out in farmers' fields to assess the influence of poor management of post-harvested tomato fields as host to crop pest. In the field experiment tomato plants' vegetative and reproductive parameter data were collected. They were then subjected to ...

  19. Cloning and transformation of INDUCER of CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1) in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X H; Juan, J X; Gao, Z L; Zhang, Y; Li, W Y; Jiang, X M

    2015-10-27

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) is sensitive to cold, and low field temperatures can result in shortened growth periods and decreased crop yield. Transcription of CRT/DRE-binding factor (CBF) is regulated by INDUCER of CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1). CBF activates many downstream genes that confer cold tolerance on plants. ICE1 has been used in genetic engineering to improve cold-resistance in several plant species. Here, ICE1 in a plant expression vector was used to transform a tissue-cultured rhubarb tomato variety using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic and control plants were compared at 4°C for 0, 24, and 72 h. We measured leaf physiological indicators related to cold resistance, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline (Pro) contents, and peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities. At 72 h, the MDA content in transgenic plants was significantly lower than in control plants, indicating a lower membrane lipid injury. The Pro contents and the CAT and POD activities in the transgenic plants increased significantly compared with those of the control plants. For Pro, the increase continued over the prolonged stress exposure, while CAT and POD activities reached peak levels at 24 h. These results are consistent with the roles of Pro, CAT, and POD in defending the integrity of plant cells. Our study not only improves the cold resistance of tomato, but also provides the foundation for further research on the role of ICE1 as a transcription factor in plant cold resistance.

  20. Sphagnum growth in floating cultures: Effect of planting design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish rapid and stable Sphagnum growth, capitulum culture of a selected strain of S. palustre was carried out using a floating culture method. Four planting treatments were tested at mountain and urban sites in Kumamoto Prefecture on Kyushu Island, south-west Japan. Capitula were planted in colonies of different sizes on 30 cm square floating rafts, but with strict control of the number (75–77 of capitula per raft. The initial cover of live green Sphagnum ranged from 15 to 20 %. Growth of the colonies was followed throughout the growing season (April to November of 2008. After three months, green coverage rates reached 40–50 % in all planting treatments. At the end of the growing season, the highest Sphagnum cover (almost 90 % at the urban site was recorded in the planting treatment with eleven re-introduced colonies of seven capitula (‘11×7cap’, while the highest capitulum number and biomass (dry weight gain occurred in the ‘4×19cap’ planting treatment. Average stem elongation ranged from 5 cm to 7 cm in the ‘77×1cap’ and ‘4×19cap’planting treatments, respectively, indicating that the larger sized colony grew longer stems. However, contrary to expectation, the ‘4×19cap’planting treatment - which had the largest colony size - did not deliver the highest number of newly formed side shoots.

  1. Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Merging biotechnology with biological control: Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi. T. Dubois, C. S. Gold, D. Coyne, P. Paparu, E. Mukwaba, S. Athman, S. Kapinduand E. Adipala1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Southern and Eastern Africa Regional Centre, Namulonge. P.O. Box ...

  2. Plant Tissue Culture - Historical Developments and Applied Aspects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 8. Plant Tissue Culture - Historical Developments and Applied Aspects. H R Dagla. General Article Volume 17 Issue 8 August 2012 pp 759-767. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Differential Expression of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs in Infected Commercial and Experimental Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Neena; Koundal, Vikas; Williams, Sarah; Pappu, Hanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. Principal Findings Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s) RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1) higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. Significance Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsiRNAs in antiviral

  4. Differential expression of tomato spotted wilt virus-derived viral small RNAs in infected commercial and experimental host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Mitter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1 higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. SIGNIFICANCE: Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsi

  5. Mutation breeding for tomato bacterial with disease resistance through in vitro techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keoboonrueng, S.; Charaensatapon, R.; Panichsukpatana, C.; Jatisation, J.

    1994-01-01

    Cotyledons of half month and one month-old seedlings of tomato varieties Sida, SVRDC 4, Sidatip 2 and VF 137 irradiated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy were cultured on most suitable medium found, MS supplemented with 0.01 mg/1 NAA and 2.0 mg/1 BAP. Sometimes calli and multiple shoots derived from normal seedlings were irradiated with gamma rays at the doses of 5 and 8 Gy, respectively. Plantlets from in vitro culture were screened in the greenhouse by soaking roots in bacterial suspension at transplanting time or by pouring bacterial suspension on injured roots at 2-3 wk. after transplant. The concentration of bacterial suspension was 10 5 -10 7 cells/ml. Total of 2541 tomato plantlets were screened and only 11 plants survived. They were, 5 plants from non-irradiated Sida, 1 and 2 plants from 5 and 10 Gy Sida, respectively, 2 plants from 5 Gy Sidatip 2 and single plant from non-irradiated VF 137. Most of the surviving plants were susceptible to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and only fruits from one Sida plant irradiated with 10 Gy could be harvested. Plants from these seeds will be further selected

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Plant Hormones, Auxins, in Biotechnologically Cultured Products of Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    HIDEYO, SUZUKI; CHUZO, SUGA; TEIJIRO, MORIMOTO; MASATOSHI, HARADA; National Institute Hygienic Sciences; Bioscience Research Laboratory, Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd.; Bioscience Research Laboratory, Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd.; National Institute Hygienic Sciences

    1991-01-01

    The biotechnologically cultured cells of Coptis plant and Lithospermum plant were analyzed for the residual levels of plant hormones, especially of auxins, 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA). The procedures of clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reversed-phase column were studied. 0.1 n sodium hydroxide extracts of samples were successively partitioned between water and ether. Two solvent mixtures of water-acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid ...

  7. Metal uptake of tomato and alfalfa plants as affected by water source, salinity, and Cd and Zn levels under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Mamoun A; Marschner, Bernd; Heinze, Stefanie

    2015-12-01

    Irrigation with wastewater is a promising option to improve crop yields and to reduce pressure on freshwater sources. However, heavy metal concentrations in wastewater may cause health concerns. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in order to determine cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sandy soil and plant tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A 2 × 2 × 4 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement was utilized. Two water sources, fresh (FW) or treated wastewater (TWW), at two salinity levels (1 and 3 dS m(-1)) containing different levels of Cd and Zn were used. Samples were collected after a 90-day growth period. It was observed that the growth of both plants was depressed at the highest metal level (L3). Metal accumulation in plant parts increased with the increase of metal concentration and salinity in irrigation water. At low salinity, water source was the main factor which controlled metal accumulation, whereas, at high salinity, chloride appeared to be the principal factor controlling metal uptake regardless of water source. Metal translocation from roots to shoots increased in TWW-irrigated plants, even in the controls. Tomatoes accumulated Cd up to and above critical levels safe for human consumption, even though Cd concentration in irrigation water did not exceed the current recommended values. Therefore, food production in sandy soils may well pose a health hazard when irrigated with TWW containing heavy metals. Complexation with dissolved organic compounds (DOC) in TWW may be to be the principal factor responsible for increased metal uptake and transfer at low salinity, thereby increasing the risk of heavy metal contamination of food and forage crops.

  8. Analysis of tomato plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene family suggests a mycorrhiza-mediated regulatory mechanism conserved in diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junli; Liu, Jianjian; Chen, Aiqun; Ji, Minjie; Chen, Jiadong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Mian; Qu, Hongye; Xu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In plants, the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (HA) is considered to play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and respoding to environment stresses. Multiple paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of HA have been identified and characterized in several model plants, while limited information of the HA gene family is available to date for tomato. Here, we describe the molecular and expression features of eight HA-encoding genes (SlHA1-8) from tomato. All these genes are interrupted by multiple introns with conserved positions. SlHA1, 2, and 4 were widely expressed in all tissues, while SlHA5, 6, and 7 were almost only expressed in flowers. SlHA8, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal or nutrient-/salt-stress growth conditions, was strongly activated in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal-colonized roots. Extreme lack of SlHA8 expression in M161, a mutant defective to AM fungal colonization, provided genetic evidence towards the dependence of its expression on AM symbiosis. A 1521-bp SlHA8 promoter could direct the GUS reporter expression specifically in colonized cells of transgenic tobacco, soybean, and rice mycorrhizal roots. Promoter deletion assay revealed a 223-bp promoter fragment of SlHA8 containing a variant of AM-specific cis-element MYCS (vMYCS) sufficient to confer the AM-induced activity. Targeted deletion of this motif in the corresponding promoter region causes complete abolishment of GUS staining in mycorrhizal roots. Together, these results lend cogent evidence towards the evolutionary conservation of a potential regulatory mechanism mediating the activation of AM-responsive HA genes in diverse mycorrhizal plant species.

  9. Virus Elimination from Ornamental Plants Using in vitro Culture Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are responsible for numerous epidemics in different crops in all parts of the world.As a consequence of their presence great economic losses are being incurred. In addition tothe development of sensitive techniques for detection, identification and characterization ofviruses, substantial attention has also been paid to biotechnological methods for their eliminationfrom plants. In this review article, the following biotechnological in vitro culture techniquesfor virus elimination from ornamental plants are presented: meristem culture, thermotherapy,chemotherapy, cryotherapy or a combination of these methods. The plant species,as well as the type of virus determine the choice of a most suitable method. The state ofthe art in investigation of virus elimination from Impatiens sp. in Serbia is summarized.

  10. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  11. Tomato CRY1a plays a critical role in the regulation of phytohormone homeostasis, plant development, and carotenoid metabolism in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Chao; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Wang, Guo-Ting; Xu, Chang-Jie; Chen, Kun-Song; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2018-02-01

    Blue light photoreceptors, cryptochromes (CRYs), regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, our knowledge of CRYs is predominantly based on model plant Arabidopsis at early growth stage. In this study, we elucidated functions of CRY1a gene in mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants by using cry1a mutants and CRY1a-overexpressing lines (OE-CRY1a-1 and OE-CRY1a-2). In comparison with wild-type plants, cry1a mutants are relatively tall, accumulate low biomass, and bear more fruits, whereas OE-CRY1a plants are short stature, and they not only flower lately but also bear less fruits. RNA-seq, qRT-PCR, and LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that biosynthesis of gibberellin, cytokinin, and jasmonic acid was down-regulated by CRY1a. Furthermore, DNA replication was drastically inhibited in leaves of OE-CRY1a lines, but promoted in cry1a mutants with concomitant changes in the expression of cell cycle genes. However, CRY1a positively regulated levels of soluble sugars, phytofluene, phytoene, lycopene, and ß-carotene in the fruits. The results indicate the important role of CRY1a in plant growth and have implications for molecular interventions of CRY1a aimed at improving agronomic traits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Biofunctionalized Plants as Diverse Biomaterials for Human Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Gianluca; Gershlak, Joshua; Adamski, Michal; Lee, Jae-Sung; Matsumoto, Shion; Le, Hau D; Binder, Bernard; Wirth, John; Gaudette, Glenn; Murphy, William L

    2017-04-01

    The commercial success of tissue engineering products requires efficacy, cost effectiveness, and the possibility of scaleup. Advances in tissue engineering require increased sophistication in the design of biomaterials, often challenging the current manufacturing techniques. Interestingly, several of the properties that are desirable for biomaterial design are embodied in the structure and function of plants. This study demonstrates that decellularized plant tissues can be used as adaptable scaffolds for culture of human cells. With simple biofunctionalization technique, it is possible to enable adhesion of human cells on a diverse set of plant tissues. The elevated hydrophilicity and excellent water transport abilities of plant tissues allow cell expansion over prolonged periods of culture. Moreover, cells are able to conform to the microstructure of the plant frameworks, resulting in cell alignment and pattern registration. In conclusion, the current study shows that it is feasible to use plant tissues as an alternative feedstock of scaffolds for mammalian cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Physiological and biochemical responses to the exogenous application of proline of tomato plants irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kahlaoui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In scope of crop salinity tolerance, an experiment was carried out in a field using saline water (6.57 dS m−1 and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI on two tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rio Grande and Heinz-2274 in a salty clay soil. Exogenous application of proline was done by foliar spray at two concentrations: 10 and 20 mg L−1, with a control (saline water without proline, during the flowering stage. Significant higher increases in proline and total soluble protein contents, glutamine synthetase (GS, EC6.3.1.2 activities and decreases in proline oxidase (l-proline: O2 Oxidoreductase, EC1.4.3.1 activities were detected in both tomato cultivars when irrigated with saline water (6.57 dS m−1 and exogenously applied by the lower concentration of proline. Taking in consideration the obtained results, it was concluded that the foliar spray of low concentration of proline can increase the tolerance of both cultivars of tomato to salinity under field conditions.

  14. Tomato plants use non-enzymatic antioxidant pathways to cope with moderate UV-A/B irradiation: A contribution to the use of UV-A/B in horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz-Ponte, N; Mendes, R J; Sario, S; Ferreira de Oliveira, J M P; Melo, P; Santos, C

    2018-02-01

    Plants developed receptors for solar UV-A/B radiation, which regulate a complex network of functions through the plant's life cycle. However, greenhouse grown crops, like tomato, are exposed to strongly reduced UV radiation, contrarily to their open-field counterparts. A new paradigm of modern horticulture is to supplement adequate levels of UV to greenhouse cultures, inducing a positive mild stress necessary to stimulate oxidative stress pathways and antioxidant mechanisms. Protected cultures of Solanum (cv MicroTom) were supplemented with moderate UV-A (1h and 4h) and UV-B (1min and 5min) doses during the flowering/fruiting period. After 30days, flowering/fruit ripening synchronization were enhanced, paralleled by the upregulation of blue/UV-A and UV-B receptors' genes cry1a and uvr8. UV-B caused moreover an increase in the expression of hy5, of HY5 repressor cop1 and of a repressor of COP1, uvr8. While all UV-A/B conditions increased SOD activity, increases of the generated H 2 O 2 , as well as lipid peroxidation and cell mebrane disruption, were minimal. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes downstream from SOD (CAT, APX, GPX) was not significant. These results suggest that the major antioxidant pathways involve phenylpropanoid compounds, which also have an important role in UV screening. This hypothesis was confirmed by the increase of phenolic compounds and by the upregulation of chs and fls, coding for CHS and FLS enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid synthesis. Overall, all doses of UV-A or UV-B were beneficial to flowering/fruiting but lower UV-A/B doses induced lower redox disorders and were more effective in the fruiting process/synchronization. Considering the benefits observed on flowering/fruiting, with minimal impacts in the vegetative part, we demonstrate that both UV-A/B could be used in protected tomato horticulture systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. How plant architecture affects light absorption and photosynthesis in tomato: towards an ideotype for plant architecture using a functional-structural plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarlikioti, V.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims - Manipulation of plant structure can strongly affect light distribution in the canopy and photosynthesis. The aim of this paper is to find a plant ideotype for optimization of light absorption and canopy photosynthesis. Using a static functional structural plant model (FSPM), a

  16. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control without application of sludge nor nitrogen fertilization, a treatment without sludge, but nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, applied at before sowing of wheat and five treatments where, respectively 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons sludge ha-1. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results showed that all the yield components of wheat and yield of white head cabbage and tomato increased significantly with increasing rates of sewage sludge as compared to control. As a result, 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge application could be recommended the suitable dose for the rotation of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato in soil and climatic conditions of Bafra Plain.

  17. Polarity establishment, morphogenesis, and cultured plant cells in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1989-01-01

    Plant development entails an orderly progression of cellular events both in terms of time and geometry. There is only circumstantial evidence that, in the controlled environment of the higher plant embryo sac, gravity may play a role in embryo development. It is still not known whether or not normal embryo development and differentiation in higher plants can be expected to take place reliably and efficiently in the micro g space environment. It seems essential that more attention be given to studying aspects of reproductive biology in order to be confident that plants will survive seed to seed to seed in a space environment. Until the time arrives when successive generations of plants can be grown, the best that can be done is utilize the most appropriate systems and begin, piece meal, to accumulate information on important aspects of plant reproduction. Cultured plant cells can play an important role in these activities since they can be grown so as to be morphogenetically competent, and thus can simulate those embryogenic events more usually identified with fertilized eggs in the embryo sac of the ovule in the ovary. Also, they can be manipulated with relative ease. The extreme plasticity of such demonstrably totipotent cell systems provides a means to test environmental effects such as micro g on a potentially free-running entity. The successful manipulation and management of plant cells and propagules in space also has significance for exploitation of biotechnologies in space since such systems, perforce, are an important vehicle whereby many genetic engineering manipulations are achieved.

  18. Cloning of medicinal plants through tissue culture--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Jain, Madhu; Kidwai, N R

    2007-11-01

    In order to have standardized formulations, the chemical constituents from plants and their parts are required to be uniform both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, an ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass cloning through plant tissue culture strategy. A good number of medicinal plants have been reported to regenerate in vitro from their various parts, but a critical evaluation of such reports reveals that only a few complete medicinal plants have been regenerated and still fewer have actually been grown in soil, while their micropropagation on a mass scale has rarely been achieved, particularly in those medicinal plants where conventional propagation is inadequate, like, the mass clonal propagation of Dioscorea floribunda leading to its successful field trials. Such facts make it imperative to document the factual position of micropropagation of medicinal plants bringing out the advancements made along with the short falls, in this important area. The present review deals with the futuristic view on the said subject restricted to higher plants.

  19. Glutathione transferase supergene family in tomato: Salt stress-regulated expression of representative genes from distinct GST classes in plants primed with salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Jolán; Horváth, Edit; Váry, Zsolt; Gallé, Ágnes; Bela, Krisztina; Brunner, Szilvia; Tari, Irma

    2014-05-01

    A family tree of the multifunctional proteins, glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) was created in Solanum lycopersicum based on homology to known Arabidopsis GSTs. The involvement of selected SlGSTs was studied in salt stress response of tomato primed with salicylic acid (SA) or in un-primed plants by real-time qPCR. Selected tau GSTs (SlGSTU23, SlGSTU26) were up-regulated in the leaves, while GSTs from lambda, theta, dehydroascorbate reductase and zeta classes (SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2, SlDHAR5, SlGSTZ2) in the root tissues under salt stress. Priming with SA exhibited a concentration dependency; SA mitigated the salt stress injury and caused characteristic changes in the expression pattern of SlGSTs only at 10(-4) M concentration. SlGSTF4 displayed a significant up-regulation in the leaves, while the abundance of SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2 and SlGSTZ2 transcripts were enhanced in the roots of plants primed with high SA concentration. Unexpectedly, under high salinity the SlDHAR2 expression decreased in primed roots as compared to the salt-stressed plants, however, the up-regulation of SlDHAR5 isoenzyme contributed to the maintenance of DHAR activity in roots primed with high SA. The members of lambda, theta and zeta class GSTs have a specific role in salt stress acclimation of tomato, while SlGSTU26 and SlGSTF4, the enzymes with high glutathione conjugating activity, characterize a successful priming in both roots and leaves. In contrast to low concentration, high SA concentration induced those GSTs in primed roots, which were up-regulated under salt stress. Our data indicate that induction of GSTs provide a flexible tool in maintaining redox homeostasis during unfavourable conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Future perspectives of in vitro culture and plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2015-01-01

    fragments from parental plants in respect to identification of desired characteristics in offspring or among hybrid plants. Phylogeny-assisted breeding and knowledge about genetic relationships support the ability to develop new hybrids. Finally, chemical and radiation induced mutagenesis are established...... the plant species itself or from closely related species. Finally, techniques involving transgenic approaches in the breeding process, but not in the end product can be mentioned, i.e., RNA-dependent DNA methylation which is based on transcriptional gene silencing by methylation of promoter sequences......Conventional breeding and plant improvement increasingly become inadequate to keep up with progression and high quality demands. Thus biotechnological techniques are more and more adopted. Initially, biotechnological tools have supported conventional breeding by in vitro culture techniques...

  1. Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-04-21

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed.

  2. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  3. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mozzetti Monterumici

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP, the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed.

  4. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Cheol eSong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 M and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through SA, JA, and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  5. Tomato Productivity and Quality in Aquaponics: Comparison of Three Hydroponic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zala Schmautz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics (AP is a food production system that combines hydroponic (HP crop production with recirculating aquaculture. Different types of hydroponic systems have been used for growing crops in aquaponics. However, very few studies have compared their suitability and efficiency in an aquaponic context. The study presented here compares tomato yield, morphological (external and biochemical (internal fruit quality, and overall tomato plant vitality from three different HP systems (nutrient film technique, drip irrigation system, and floating raft culture and examines the distribution of nutrients in different parts of the tomato plant. Three replicate AP systems were set up, each incorporating the three different HP systems coupled with a separate recirculating aquaculture unit growing Nile tilapia. The results showed that the choice of the cultivation system had little influence on most of the above-mentioned properties. Tomato fruit mineral content was found to be in similar range for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn as reported in the literature. Yield and fruit quality were similar in all three systems. However, the drip irrigation system did perform slightly better. The slightly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC of the fruits grown in AP in comparison to commercially produced and supermarket derived tomatoes might indicate a potential for producing fruits with higher health value for humans.

  6. Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hanan H; Hamza, Mervat A; Fayez, Mohamed; Mourad, Elhussein F; Saleh, Mohamed Y; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Suker, Ragab M; Eltahlawy, Asmaa A; Nemr, Rahma A; El-Tahan, Mahmod; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2016-03-01

    Our previous publications and the data presented here provide evidences on the ability of plant-based culture media to optimize the cultivability of rhizobacteria and to support their recovery from plant-soil environments. Compared to the tested chemically-synthetic culture media (e.g. nutrient agar and N-deficient combined-carbon sources media), slurry homogenates, crude saps, juices and powders of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and succulent plants (Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens) were rich enough to support growth of rhizobacteria. Representative isolates of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited good growth on agar plates of such plant-based culture media. Cell growth and biomass production in liquid batch cultures were comparable to those reported with the synthetic culture media. In addition, the tested plant-based culture media efficiently recovered populations of rhizobacteria associated to plant roots. Culturable populations of >10(6)-10(8) cfu g(-1) were recovered from the ecto- and endo-rhizospheres of tested host plants. More than 100 endophytic culture-dependent isolates were secured and subjected to morphophysiological identification. Factor and cluster analyses indicated the unique community structure, on species, genera, class and phyla levels, of the culturable population recovered with plant-based culture media, being distinct from that obtained with the chemically-synthetic culture media. Proteobacteria were the dominant (78.8%) on plant-based agar culture medium compared to only 31% on nutrient agar, while Firmicutes prevailed on nutrient agar (69%) compared to the plant-based agar culture media (18.2%). Bacteroidetes, represented by Chryseobacterium indologenes, was only reported (3%) among the culturable rhizobacteria community of the plant-based agar culture medium.

  7. Isolation, culture, and plant regeneration from leaf protoplasts of Passiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Michael R; Anthony, Paul; Power, J Brian; Lowe, Kenneth C

    2006-01-01

    The family Passifloraceae contains many species exploited in the food, pharmaceutical, and ornamental plant industries. The routine culture of isolated protoplasts (naked cells) followed by reproducible plant regeneration, is crucial to the genetic improvement of Passiflora spp. by somatic cell technologies. Such procedures include somatic hybridization by protoplast fusion to generate novel hybrid plants, and gene introduction by transformation. Seedling leaves are a convenient source of totipotent protoplasts. The protoplast-to-plant system developed for Passiflora edulis fv. flavicarpa is summarized in this chapter. The procedure involves enzymatic degradation of leaf tissue using commercially-available Macerozyme R10, Cellulase R10, and Driselase. Isolated protoplasts are cultured in Kao and Michayluk medium, semi-solidified with agarose. The medium containing the suspended protoplasts is dispensed as droplets or thin layers and bathed in liquid medium of the same composition. Shoot regeneration involves transfer of protoplast-derived tissues to Murashige and Skoog-based medium. The protocols developed for P. edulis are applicable to other Passiflora spp. and will underpin the future biotechnological exploitation of a range of species in this important plant family.

  8. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Small RNAs were involved in homozygous state-associated silencing of a marker gene (Neomycin phosphotransferase II: nptII) in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Pan, Yu; Chen, Xuqing; Chen, Guoping; Hu, Zongli

    2013-07-01

    Homozygous state-associated co-suppression is not a very common phenomenon. In our experiments, two transgenic plants 3A29 and 1195A were constructed by being transformed with the constructs pBIN-353A and pBIN119A containing nptII gene as a marker respectively. The homozygous progeny from these two independent transgenic lines 3A29 and 1195A, displayed kanamycin-sensitivity and produced a short main root without any lateral roots as untransformed control (wild-type) seedlings when germinated on kanamycin media. For the seedlings derived from putative hemizygous plants, the percentage of the seedlings showing normal growth on kanamycin media was about 50% and lower than the expected percentage (75%). Southern analysis of the genomic DNA confirmed that the homozygous and hemizygous plants derived from the same lines contained the same multiple nptII transgenes, which were located on the same site of chromosome. Northern analysis suggested that the marker nptII gene was expressed in the primary and the hemizygous transformants, but it was silenced in the homozygous transgenic plants. Further Northern analysis indicated that antisense and sense small nptII-derived RNAs were present in the transgenic plants and the blotting signal of nptII-derived small RNA was much higher in the homozygous transgenic plants than that of hemizygous transgenic plants. Additionally, read-through transcripts from the TRAMP gene to the nptII gene were detected. These results suggest that the read-through transcripts may be involved in homozygous state-associated silencing of the nptII transgene in transgenic tomato plants and a certain threshold level of the nptII-derived small RNAs is required for the homozygous state-associated co-suppression of the nptII transgene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in the effects of flooding the soil early and late in the photoperiod on the water relations of pot-grown tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Amico, J; Torrecillas, A; Rodríguez, P; Morales, D; Sánchez-Blanco, M J.

    2001-02-05

    The water relations of potted tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv INCA 9(1)) submitted to two flooding/recovery cycles imposed at the beginning and at the end of photoperiod were studied under controlled conditions. In both experiments, flooding induced stomatal closure due to leaf dehydration linked to a lowered root hydraulic permeability. Thus, during the early hours of flooding there was an effective negative hydraulic message from O(2) deficient roots. However, when the soil was drained stomata did not re-open until some time after leaf water potential and leaf turgor potential returned to normal, supporting the view that chemical messages predominate. Flooding imposed at the end of photoperiod induced a delay in g(l), Psi(l), and Psi(p,) recovery.

  11. Managing Phytophthora crown and root rot on tomato by pre-plant treatments with biocontrol agents, resistance inducers, organic and mineral fertilizers under nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna GILARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the efficacy of spray programmes based on biocontrol agents, phosphite-based fertilizers and a chemical inducer of resistance (acibenzolar-S-methyl, phosethyl-Al to control crown and root rot of tomato incited by Phytophthora nicotianae. The best disease control, under high disease pressure resulting from artificial inoculation, was obtained with three pre-plant leaf sprays at 7 d intervals with acibenzolar-S-methyl and with two mineral phosphite-based fertilizers. The disease reduction achieved was similar to that obtained with a single application of azoxystrobin and metalaxyl-M. Phosetyl-Al and the biocontrol agents Glomus spp. + Bacillus megaterium + Trichoderma, B. subtilis QST713, B. velezensis IT45 and the mixture T. asperellum ICC012 + T. gamsii ICC080 provided a partial disease control. Brassica carinata pellets did not control the disease.

  12. Health risk assessment of heavy metals contamination in tomato and green pepper plants grown in soils amended with phosphogypsum waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Al-Khashman, Omar

    2015-04-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste produced by the phosphate fertilizer industry that has relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V, and Zn). The present study was conducted to investigate heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables (tomatoes and green peppers) and to evaluate the possible health risks associated with the consumption of vegetables grown in PG-amended soils. The enrichment factor values indicated that Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and V were depleted to minimally enriched, and Cd was moderately enriched. The pollution load index values indicated that the PG-amended soils were strongly polluted with Cd, moderately polluted with Cr and Ni, and slightly polluted with Pb, Cu, Zn and V. The geo-accumulation index values indicated that the PG-amended soils were uncontaminated with Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and moderately contaminated with Cd. The trace metal transfer for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations was below what are considered as acceptable limits ( Pb > Cd > Cr. The biological absorption coefficients in plants are, in order of highest to lowest, Pb > Zn > Cd > Cr, which suggests that Pb is more bioavailable to plants than Cd, Cr, and Zn. Furthermore, this study highlights that both adults and children consuming vegetables (e.g., tomatoes and green peppers) grown in PG-amended soils ingest significant amounts of the metals studied. However, the daily intake of metals (DIM) and the health risk index (HRI) values are contaminated soils, which were not included in this study.

  13. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeats, Trevor H; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Viart, Hélène M-F; Clausen, Mads H; Stark, Ruth E; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2014-03-01

    The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin, a polyester of hydroxy fatty acids; however, despite its ubiquity, the details of cutin polymeric structure and the mechanisms of its formation and remodeling are not well understood. We recently reported that cutin polymerization in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit occurs via transesterification of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here, we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin synthases within the large GDSL superfamily. We demonstrate that members of this ancient and conserved family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins act as polyester synthases with negligible hydrolytic activity. Moreover, solution-state NMR analysis indicates that CD1 catalyzes the formation of primarily linear cutin oligomeric products in vitro. These results reveal a conserved mechanism of cutin polyester synthesis in land plants, and suggest that elaborations of the linear polymer, such as branching or cross-linking, may require additional, as yet unknown, factors. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Antidiabetic II drug metformin in plants: uptake and translocation to edible parts of cereals, oily seeds, beans, tomato, squash, carrots, and potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Trine; Lillo, Cathrine

    2012-07-18

    Residues of pharmaceuticals present in wastewater and sewage sludge are of concern due to their transfer to aquatic and terrestrial food chains and possible adverse effects on nontargeted organisms. In the present work, uptake and translocation of metformin, an antidiabetic II medicine, by edible plant species cultivated in agricultural soil have been investigated in greenhouse experiment. Metformin demonstrated a high uptake and translocation to oily seeds of rape ( Brassica napus cv. Sheik and Brassica rapa cv. Valo); expressed as an average bioconcentration factor (BCF, plant concentration over initial concentration in soil, both in dry weight), BCF values as high as 21.72 were measured. In comparison, BCFs for grains of the cereals wheat, barley, and oat were in the range of 0.29-1.35. Uptake and translocation to fruits and vegetables of tomato (BCFs 0.02-0.06), squash (BCFs 0.12-0.18), and bean (BCF 0.88) were also low compared to rape. BCFs for carrot, potato, and leaf forage B. napus cv. Sola were similar (BCF 1-4). Guanylurea, a known degradation product of metformin by microorganisms in activated sludge, was found in barley grains, bean pods, potato peel, and small potatoes. The mechanisms for transport of metformin and guanidine in plants are still unknown, whereas organic cation transporters (OCTs) in mammals are known to actively transport such compounds and may guide the way for further understanding of mechanisms also in plants.

  15. First report of southern Tomato virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Espino, A.; Botella, M.; Alfaro-Fernández, A.; Font, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2006, tomato plants with torrado disease were sampled in Spain. In a sample of cv. Mariana, originating from Gran Canaria, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV, genus Torradovirus) was detected (isolate GCN06; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010). In 2013, the sample was further analysed using

  16. Produtividade do tomateiro em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com espécies aromáticas e medicinais Yield of tomato in monocrop and intercropping with aromatics plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    environmental risks. The intercropping has been used as a form to reduce these risks. In this work the yield of tomato in sole crop and intercropping with Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum and Ruta graveolens was evaluated. The monocrop of tomato and its intercropping was evaluated with aromatic plants in a complete randomized design, with five treatments and four blocks. We evaluated height, canopy area, production, yield and land equivalent ratio. On the population density adopted, the F. vulgare (fennel presented greater height and canopy area, and caused significant reduction on total production of tomato, from 12.23 kg, in monocrop, to 7.88 kg, when intercropped with fennel. However, intercropping with fennel contributed to a lesser loose caused by fruits borer (24%. The greatest loose caused by fruits borer occurred in monocropping and in intercropping with M. piperita (peppermint. Intercropping with Ruta graveolens (rue resulted significant increase of commercial production of fruits, about 26%. The relative yield of tomato was greater in intercropping with rue (13.6 t ha-1, followed by intercropping with peppermint (9.8 t ha-1 and with O. basilicum (basil (9.1 t ha-1, and lesser on intercropping with fennel (6.4 t ha-1. These results showed that the intercropping with rue was more advantageous than others producing more fruits. Among the studied aromatic plants, basil presented the highest yield (96.5 t ha-1. The tomato intercropping with aromatic cultures permits better use of land and higher yield, mainly when intercropping with rue. All aromat