Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi
Novel mutant alleles of an ethylene receptor Solanum lycopersicum ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (SlETR1) gene, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, were isolated from the Micro-Tom mutant library by TILLING in our previous study. They displayed different levels of impaired fruit ripening phenotype, suggesting that these alleles could be a valuable breeding material for improving shelf life of tomato fruit. To conduct practical use of the Sletr1 alleles in tomato breeding, genetic complementation analysis by transformation of genes carrying each allele is required. In this study, we generated and characterized transgenic lines over-expressing Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. All transgenic lines displayed ethylene insensitive phenotype and ripening inhibition, indicating that Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 associate with the ethylene insensitive phenotype. The level of ethylene sensitivity in the seedling was different between Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 transgenic lines, whereas no apparent difference was observed in fruit ripening phenotype. These results suggested that it is difficult to fine-tune the extent of ripening by transgenic approach even if the weaker allele (Sletr1-2) was used. Our present and previous studies indicate that the Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING could be an efficient tool for exploring genetic variations of important agronomic traits in tomato breeding.
Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi
Novel mutant alleles of an ethylene receptor Solanum lycopersicum ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (SlETR1) gene, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, were isolated from the Micro-Tom mutant library by TILLING in our previous study. They displayed different levels of impaired fruit ripening phenotype, suggesting that these alleles could be a valuable breeding material for improving shelf life of tomato fruit. To conduct practical use of the Sletr1 alleles in tomato breeding, genetic complementation analysis by transformation of genes carrying each allele is required. In this study, we generated and characterized transgenic lines over-expressing Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. All transgenic lines displayed ethylene insensitive phenotype and ripening inhibition, indicating that Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 associate with the ethylene insensitive phenotype. The level of ethylene sensitivity in the seedling was different between Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 transgenic lines, whereas no apparent difference was observed in fruit ripening phenotype. These results suggested that it is difficult to fine-tune the extent of ripening by transgenic approach even if the weaker allele (Sletr1-2) was used. Our present and previous studies indicate that the Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING could be an efficient tool for exploring genetic variations of important agronomic traits in tomato breeding. PMID:23136532
G. F. Monakhos
Full Text Available The results of tomato lines resistance test to tomato spotted wilt virus and its comparison to molecular marker SCAR Sw421 genotyping data is shown. A molecular marker SCAR Sw421 analysis allowed identifying homozygous and heterozygous tomato genotypes possessing Sw5 alleles in segregating populations. Selected tomato lines possessing dominant homozygous alleles of Sw5 gene represent a tomato germplasm resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus and would be useful for following crop improvement.
Koornneef, Maarten; Hanhart, Corrie; Jongsma, Maarten; Toma, Ingrid; Weide, Rob; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques
A tomato genotype, superior in regenerating plants from cell cultures, was obtained by transferring regeneration capacity from Lycopersicon peruvianum into L. esculentum by classical breeding. This genotype, MsK93, greatly facilitates genetic manipulation of tomato, as was demonstrated by successful
Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.
Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,
Bauchet, Guillaume; Grenier, Stéphane; Samson, Nicolas; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Causse, Mathilde
A panel of 300 tomato accessions including breeding materials was built and characterized with >11,000 SNP. A population structure in six subgroups was identified. Strong heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium and recombination landscape among groups and chromosomes was shown. GWAS identified several associations for fruit weight, earliness and plant growth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a method of choice in quantitative trait dissection. First limited to highly polymorphic and outcrossing species, it is now applied in horticultural crops, notably in tomato. Until now GWAS in tomato has been performed on panels of heirloom and wild accessions. Using modern breeding materials would be of direct interest for breeding purpose. To implement GWAS on a large panel of 300 tomato accessions including 168 breeding lines, this study assessed the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium decay and revealed the population structure and performed GWA experiment. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses were based on molecular markers (>11,000 SNP) covering the whole genome. Six genetic subgroups were revealed and associated to traits of agronomical interest, such as fruit weight and disease resistance. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium highlighted the heterogeneity of its decay among genetic subgroups. Haplotype definition allowed a fine characterization of the groups and their recombination landscape revealing the patterns of admixture along the genome. Selection footprints showed results in congruence with introgressions. Taken together, all these elements refined our knowledge of the genetic material included in this panel and allowed the identification of several associations for fruit weight, plant growth and earliness, deciphering the genetic architecture of these complex traits and identifying several new loci useful for tomato breeding.
Feb 28, 2011 ... In this study, molecular screening was done on some tomato germplasm to detect markers for the gene that confers resistance ... Genetic resistance in tomato to the pest is efficient in reducing their populations .... fresh leaves of tomato plants following the protocol of Egnin et al. (1998). PCR was carried out ...
Full Text Available Tomato as a highly nutritious vegetable crop is widely grown in the world. Hybrid seed is preferably used for tomato production. Identification of superior hybrid combination is one of the most important steps in the hybrid breeding programs. Breeding of high yielding hybrids is expensive and involves testing large numbers of hybrid combinations in multi-environment trials. Successful prediction of heterosis from the genetic similarity of their parents based on molecular markers has been reported in several crops and can be very helpful in hybrid breeding. The present study was carried out to evaluate genetic divergent among tomato lines and to assess the relationship between genetic distance and heterosis among them. Thirty genotypes were examined for DNA polymorphism, using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. A total of 165 polymorphic variants were generated and genetic distances ranged from 0.04 to 0.23. Our result indicated that AFLP markers were successful in identification of polymorphism and genetic distances among tomato lines, but correlation of genetic distance based on AFLPs with mid-parent heterosis of yield, fruit weight, fruit number and fruit durability time was low and not useful for predicting heterosis in tomato genotypes.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is an important vegetable crop in Mexico. Recently, a phytoplasma associated with leaf yellowing and curling, severe stunting and little leaf in tomato plant was identified as Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (16SrIII group). DNAs extracted from tomato leaves with symptoms were examined for ...
Full Text Available Five local tomato populations and fourteen heirloom cultivars were analyzed in this study. The analyzed genotypes represent a part of tomato collection of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The following fruit and plant traits were analyzed: growth type, fruit color, fruit shape index, fruit weight, number of locules and dry matter content. Cluster analysis was performed so as to group the analyzed genotypes by homology and divergence. The aim of this article was to determine the importance of heirloom cultivars and local populations as sources of genetic variability in tomato breeding process.
Barone, A.; Frusciante, L.
Since the 1980s, the use of molecular markers has been suggested to improve the efficiency of releasing resistant varieties, thus overcoming difficulties met with classical breeding. For tomato, a high-density molecular map is available in which more than 40 resistance genes are localized. Markers linked to these genes can be used to speed up gene transfer and pyramiding. Suitable PCR markers targeting resistance genes were constructed directly on the sequences of resistance genes or on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) tightly linked to them, and used to select resistant genotypes in backcross schemes. In some cases, the BC 5 generation was reached, and genotypes that cumulated two homozygous resistant genes were also obtained. These results supported the feasibility of using marker-assisted selection (MAS) in tomato and reinforcing the potential of this approach for other genes, which is today also driven by the development of new techniques and increasing knowledge about the tomato genome. (author)
In this thesis various fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies are described to support genome projects, plant breeding and phylogenetic analysis on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, 2n=24). Its genome is 980 Mb and only 30 % are single copy sequences, which are mostly found in the
Tomato is one of the crops in which genetic resistance has specially been effective against root-knot nematodes. In this study, molecular screening was done on some tomato germplasm to detect markers for the gene that confers resistance (Mi) with specific primer (Mi23/F//Mi23/R). The cultivars; VFNT, FLA 505-BL 1172, ...
locus. Six of 20 loci showed ratios of Ka/Ks ≥ 0.9. Conclusion Array-based SFP discovery was an efficient method to identify a large number of molecular markers for genetics and breeding in elite tomato germplasm. Patterns of sequence variation across five major tomato groups provided insight into to the effect of human selection on genetic variation.
Some progress has been made in recent years in germplasm characterization and the development of molecular markers for genome analysis. A genetic linkage map based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers has been constructed for Guinea and water yams. These linkage maps were used to scan ...
Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium forming a white to gray colonies. The cultures developed black acervuli around the center of the colony. Conidia were hyaline, aseptate, and fusiform or rarely cylindrical. Appressoria were smooth, simple, clavate to ovate, and variedfrom light to dark brown. Pathogenicity tests with representative isolates were conducted on symptomless, detached tomato fruits. All tested isolates caused anthracnose lesions on tomato fruit after 7 days of incubation. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by reisolationfrom inoculated tomato fruits. PCR analysis (using species-specific primer pair, CaInt2/ITS4 of genomic DNA from tomato isolates resulted in an amplification product of 490 bp, specific for C. acutatum, further confirming the identity of the pathogen. Based onmorphological and molecular characteristics, the isolates from tomato fruit were determined as C. acutatum.
Timilsina, Sujan; Abrahamian, Peter; Potnis, Neha; Minsavage, Gerald V; White, Frank F; Staskawicz, Brian J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Vallad, Gary E; Goss, Erica M
Bacterial disease management is a challenge for modern agriculture due to rapid changes in pathogen populations. Genome sequences for hosts and pathogens provide detailed information that facilitates effector-based breeding strategies. Tomato genotypes have gene-for-gene resistance to the bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas perforans. The bacterial spot populations in Florida shifted from tomato race 3 to 4, such that the corresponding tomato resistance gene no longer recognizes the effector protein AvrXv3. Genome sequencing showed variation in effector profiles among race 4 strains collected in 2006 and 2012 and compared with a race 3 strain collected in 1991. We examined variation in putative targets of resistance among Florida strains of X. perforans collected from 1991 to 2006. Consistent with race change, avrXv3 was present in race 3 strains but nonfunctional in race 4 strains due to multiple independent mutations. Effectors xopJ4 and avrBs2 were unchanged in all strains. The effector avrBsT was absent in race 3 strains collected in the 1990s but present in race 3 strains collected in 2006 and nearly all race 4 strains. These changes in effector profiles suggest that xopJ4 and avrBsT are currently the best targets for resistance breeding against bacterial spot in tomato.
A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate ten (10) tomato varieties and breeding lines against tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease in Ghana. The research was undertaken at the research farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were evaluated in the field under natural whitefly inoculation in insect-proof cages. The field trial was done in the dry season from October, 2010 to February, 2011 and wet season from March, 2011 to July, 2011. Plants in the fields and in the cage exhibited varied symptoms such as leaf curling, leaf yellowing and reduced leaf sizes. Assessment of disease incidence and symptom severity using a four point scale (0-4) showed that, in the field there was higher disease incidence in the dry season as compared to the wet season. This was attributed to the higher number of whiteflies in the dry season as demonstrated through a whitefly population survey conducted in the field. Differences among means for disease incidence and whitefly surveys on the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were statistically significant (p≤ 0.05). Wild Tomato (Solanum pimpinellifollium) and two hybrids, Wosowoso x Wild Tomato and Cherry Red x Wild Tomato exhibited signs of resistance in the field and did not show any symptoms of TYLCV disease symptoms. All the commercial varieties were highly susceptible and showed severe symptoms. Evaluation of fruit yield in the field revealed that the commercial variety Tomato Advanta had the heaviest fruit weight (42 g/ fruit) whilst Wosowoso had the highest total fruit yield (5.74 t/ha) in the wet season. Wild Tomato and the hybrids produced higher number of fruits compared to the commercial varieties. There were highly significant differences in the means of number of fruits, fruit weight (g) and total fruit yield (t/ha) among the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines in both the wet and dry seasons
Aug 19, 2011 ... (2001) found new AFLP markers in interspe- cific crosses of wheat, and Marfil et al. (2006) also detected new RAPD and AFLP markers in interspecific hybrids of potatoes, a crop that has a high degree of homosequential- ity and is very close to tomatoes. A different degree of DNA methylation in the hybrid ...
Sim, S-C; Robbins, M D; Van Deynze, A; Michel, A P; Francis, D M
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has undergone intensive selection during and following domestication. We investigated population structure and genetic differentiation within a collection of 70 tomato lines representing contemporary (processing and fresh-market) varieties, vintage varieties and landraces. The model-based Bayesian clustering software, STRUCTURE, was used to detect subpopulations. Six independent analyses were conducted using all marker data (173 markers) and five subsets of markers based on marker type (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, simple sequence repeats and insertion/deletions) and location (exon and intron sequences) within genes. All of these analyses consistently separated four groups predefined by market niche and age into distinct subpopulations. Furthermore, we detected at least two subpopulations within the processing varieties. These subpopulations correspond to historical patterns of breeding conducted for specific production environments. We found no subpopulation within fresh-market varieties, vintage varieties and landraces when using all marker data. High levels of admixture were shown in several varieties representing a transition in the demarcation between processing and fresh-market breeding. The genetic clustering detected by using the STRUCTURE software was confirmed by two statistics, pairwise F(st) (θ) and Nei's standard genetic distance. We also identified a total of 19 loci under positive selection between processing, fresh-market and vintage germplasm by using an F(st)-outlier method based on the deviation from the expected distribution of F(st) and heterozygosity. The markers and genome locations we identified are consistent with known patterns of selection and linkage to traits that differentiate the market classes. These results demonstrate how human selection through breeding has shaped genetic variation within cultivated tomato.
Shi, Jiahui; Yang, Bin; Feng, Pan; Li, Duo; Zhu, Jiajin
As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning the functional characteristics of tomatoes using space mutation breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-colon cancer effect of tomatoes M1 and M2 using space mutation breeding. In the present study, obvious anti-cancer activity was shown with tomato juice of M1 and M2 and their parent CK treatment in colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HT-29 in cell growth inhibition. In addition, SW480 cells were more sensitive to M1 and M2 than HT-29 cells in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, M1 and M2 induced cell cycle arrest both in G0-G1 and G2/M phases. These data suggest that consumption of tomato using space mutation breeding may provide benefits to inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, tomato production using space mutation breeding may be a good candidate for development as a dietary supplement in drug therapy for colon cancer.
R. K. Rechets
Full Text Available The market of Moldova has a large assortment of seed of foreign selection, such as large-fruited tomatoes, cherry and cocktail tomato. Therefore, it is necessary to launch the breeding program for hybrid development of local origin tomato typed, such as ‘Cherry’ and ‘Cocktail’ with a different form, mass and fruit color. Initially, 15 parental forms of tomato were studied for the main economically valuable traits in the open field condition. Phenotypic variation in tomato varieties and breeding accession was identified depending on the terms of cultivation. Such varieties and lines of tomato as ‘Trapesa’, ‘Rosovaya Kapelka’, ‘Seniyorita’, ‘Ocharovaniye’, ‘L. 46/06’, ‘L. 49/09’, ‘L 295/09,’ ‘L. 336/11’, ‘L. 354/11’, ‘L. 357/11’, ‘L. 388/09 (nor’, ‘L.498 (released by TARI, ‘Tigris’, ‘Vishnya Zheltaya’ (released by OOO ‘Gavrish’, ‘Denezhnoye Derevo’ (national breeding program were used as the initial breeding material. Totally, 15 breeding accessions were used for the study, where all of them differed in the type of bush (determinate and indeterminate; a vegetation period (ultra-early, early, middle, late; a form (roundish, oval; a fruit color (red, pink, black, orange, tiger and with a NOR gene; a fruit weight (from 10 g and above; a structure of brush (dense, loose. Lines and varieties of tomato of different terms of ripening characterized by the shortened internode, high fruit setting on the bush, high content of biologically active substances, and complex resistance to diseases were used to breed tomato hybrids of ‘cherry’ and ‘cocktail’ types with different fruit form and color.
Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.
Bucheli, P; Voirol, E; de la Torre, R; López, J; Rytz, A; Tanksley, S D; Pétiard, V
A methodology for flavor and composition assessment of processed tomato juice samples was developed using a wide range of commercial processing tomato varieties (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in Spain and the United States. Fruitiness intensity was found by a trained panel to best describe overall tomato flavor. For two consecutive years, fruitiness intensity was significantly dependent on growing location and variety, and it was consistently linked to increased levels of glucose and reducing sugars and decreased glutamic acid content. Using the same procedure on a population of 176 breeding lines derived from the wild species of Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium, it was shown that tomato fruitiness intensity was significantly correlated to reducing sugars/glutamic acid ratio and glucose and glutamic acid contents. The definition of markers for tomato flavor of processed juice can provide the tomato breeder and processor with reliable analytical tools that can be applied in a straightforward way for the identification of raw materials that can be processed into juice with predictably high or low fruitiness.
Aug 26, 2016 ... Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531, S2002LRK, Rosario, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Cátedra de Genética, ...
Lapade, A.G.; Nazarea, T.Y.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Marbella, L.J.; Nato, A.Q.; Coloma, C.B. Jr.; Asencion, A.B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon (Philippines)
This paper summarizes the status of biotechnology with emphasis on molecular techniques for plant breeding in the Philippines. Several molecular and in-vitro culture techniques are integrated in plant breeding for crop improvement at PNRI, UPLB, IRRI and PhilRice. At IRRI, PCR techniques, RFLP and RAPD, PCR techniques, RFLP and RAPD were developed to establish high density molecular maps, determine breadth and diversity of germplasm and characterize alien introgression. The molecular maps have identified DNA sequence of resistance genes of HYVs and NPTs to abiotic and biotic stresses, the major achievement is the development of high density molecular maps in rice with at least 2000 markers. The biotechnology program at PhilRice for varietal improvement includes: (1) utilization of molecular marker technology such gene mapping of desired traits in rice, analysis of genetic relationships of germplasm materials and breeding lines through DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity studies and development and application of marker aided selection for disease resistance (RTD and BLB); (2) application of in-vitro techniques in the development of lines with tolerance to adverse conditions; (3) molecular cloning of important genes for RTD resistance; (4) genetic transformation for male sterility and resistance to sheath blight and stem borers; and (5) transfer of disease resistance from wild species to cultivated varieties. In IPB, molecular markers:microsatellites or SSR, AFLP and RGA are being used for mapping and diversity studies in coconut, mango, banana, mungbean, corn and tomato. Mutation breeding at PNRI using gamma radiation has resulted in the development of crop varieties with desirable traits. The use of AFLP coupled to PCR is being used to study polymorphism in plant variants of radiation-induced mutants of rice, pineapple and ornamentals. (author)
Gonzalez, Maria C.; Caballero, Alberto; Mukandama, Jean Pierre; Mohamed Ali, Mansoor; Suarez, Lorenzo; Fuentes, Jorge L
Induced mutation have been mostly used in the improvement of different crops. This papers shows the main results of Breeding Tomato Programme. It was possible to select some promising lines with a good behavior under hidric stress
Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...
Shenge, K.C.; Stephan, D.; Mabagala, R. B.
Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is an emerging disease of tomato in Tanzania. Following reports of outbreaks of the disease in many locations in Tanzania, 56 isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato were collected from four tomato- producing areas and characterized using patho...
Ma, San-Yuan; Xia, Qing-You
Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the Chinese people and has become an important cultural feature of China. As China is the long-lasting center of silk production, genetic breeding of silkworm was highly developed historically, and has formed a comprehensive system for breeding and preservation of new varieties. However, silkworm breeding reached a bottleneck recently, because most of the traditional genetic resources have been utilized and silkworm strains have become homogeneous. Meanwhile, sericulture in China meets huge challenges in the 21 st century. In recent years, with the development and rapid application of molecular biology, genomics, transgene and genome editing, silkworm genetic breeding has entered a new era. In this review, we summarize the development of silkworm genetic breeding, especially the progress and perspective of transgene and genome editing in genetic engineering of silkworms. We also discuss the future development of silkworm genetic breeding.
Živković Svetlana; Stojanović Saša; Ivanović Žarko; Trkulja Nenad; Dolovac Nenad; Aleksić Goran; Balaž Jelica
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...
Ilahy, Riadh; Piro, Gabriella; Tlili, Imen; Riahi, Anissa; Sihem, Rabaoui; Ouerghi, Imen; Hdider, Chafik; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore
This study investigates the antioxidant components [lycopene, total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (AsA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA)] as well as antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions (AAHF and AALF) of peel, pulp and seed fractions isolated from red-ripe berries of the ordinary tomato cultivar Rio Grande and the two high-lycopene tomato breeding lines HLT-F61 and HLT-F62 simultaneously grown in an open-field of Northern Tunisia. Significant differences (p tomato berries had the highest AsA content (345 mg per kg fw and 115 mg per kg fw, respectively), while no significant difference was found in the seed fraction between HLT-F62 and Rio Grande. The HLT-F62 pulp fraction showed the highest content of AsA (186 mg per kg fw) and DHA (151 mg per kg fw) among all the assayed cultivars. Except for the peel fraction, where HLT-F61 had similar AAHF values to HLT-F62, the high-lycopene line HLT-F61 showed higher AAHF values than HLT-F62 and Rio Grande. Regardless of the fraction, the highest AALF values were recorded in HLT-F61 berries. Thus, both HLT tomato lines are promising for the introduction, as advanced hybrids, in either fresh market or processing industry.
Dirk-Jan de Koning
Full Text Available Livestock genomics is aimed at dissecting the genetic control of variation in economically important trait, such as disease resistance and product yield/quality. Unraveling the genetic control of such complex traits remains very challenging but farm animals are now well placed to bridge the gap between human biology and traditional model species. Livestock species share with model species the benefits of controlled breeding, while their biology is often much closer to that of humans. Livestock genetics can exploit the abundant genetic variation between divergent breeds as well as segregating variation within breeds, thus getting the best of both worlds. Large numbers of QTL have been detected for a variety of traits but for only a handful has the functional DNA mutation been discovered. The main challenge is how to exploit this information for sustainable animal breeding. The proposed applications for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS vary from selecting on individual known mutations to using genome-wide SNP data for genome-wide selection. Molecular markers are also important tools to assess genetic variation within and between populations. Sustainable animal breeding should meet the needs of the current generation without compromising the needs of future generations. This contribution will discuss the status of molecular genetics in livestock and how this could support sustainable animal breeding.
Full Text Available Fusarium species are causal agents of fungal diseases occurring frequently in numerous agriculturally important plants, including potato, garlic and are one of the common pathogens of tomato, causing root rot in the west part of Iran. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium species from infected tomatoes based on the morphological and molecular characteristics. Twenty-five isolates of Fusarium were obtained from infected root of tomato plants collected from the fields in different regions of western Iran. Based on morphological features, the strains were classified into four following Fusarium species: F. oxysporum, F. redolens, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. The phylogenetic trees based on tef1 and tub2 dataset clearly distinguished closely related species. All of the isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy tomato seedlings in the greenhouse. This is the first report on molecular identification of Fusarium species isolated from tomato plants cultivated in Iran.
Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki
In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561
Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and ...
Together with these trait-associated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance to fusarium wilt and ascochyta blight in chickpea and resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut. These trait-associated robust markers along with ...
The rice semidwarfing gene, sd1, also known as the “green revolution gene”, has been studied intensively due to its contribution to the increase of crop production. Although sd1 breeding was extensively applied since the 1960s, the recent advances in the molecular basis of this gene allowed designing a more precise ...
Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Tuliem, Hanoi (Viet Nam)
The molecular markers have been effectively applied in mutation breeding, recently. The studies have been mainly looked for the differences at genome structure level between original variety and mutant lines. Many genes have been identified and tagged with various kinds of molecular markers. Studies on gene tagging can provide the information on the number of genes controlling characters and the map location of those genes. The mapped genes have been used to pyramid into crops via marker aided selection (MAS). Many genes were cloned from different creatures, some genes controlling good agronomic traits. In Vietnam, many crops have been released and popularly grown by the farmers, via mutation breeding. However, almost all of the mutation breeding varieties only selected based on morphological parameters which much depended on the environmental conditions, plant physiological status and stage of gene expression. In order to resolve the limitations when using traditional methods, we have planned to apply the molecular techniques to characterize the mutant genotypes obtained in mutation breeding. In this study, we carried out to analyze mutant genotypes of soybean, green pea and map TGMS gene in mutant rice line using molecular techniques. Three markers were mainly used to comprise RFLP, AFLP, and RAPD. RFLP and AFLP markers were used to map TGMS gene that located in genome of the TGMS-1 mutant rice line, and RAPD markers helped to analyze the mutant genome of soybean and green pea lines. Based on the result of study, we concluded that the TGMS gene located on chromosome 2. Application of molecular markers to crop breeding is a necessary and effective approach in Vietnam. (M. Suetake)
Full Text Available This study investigates the antioxidant components (total carotenoids, lycopene, β-carotene, total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and total vitamin C as well as the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities (HAA and LAA of tomato genotypes consisting of one ordinary cultivar Rio Grande and the two high-lycopene breeding lines HLT-F71 and HLT-F72. The correlation of nutritional value to L∗, a∗, b∗ colour indexes and a∗/b∗ ratio was also investigated in whole and fresh cut tomato fruits. Except for β-carotene content, significant differences were found among cultivars for antioxidants. The berries of both HLT-lines recorded higher antioxidant contents, HAA and LAA (TEAC and FRAP assays than Rio Grande. Under controlled conditions, HLT-F72 reached the highest levels of total carotenoids (165.5 mg β-ca Eq per kg fw, lycopene (150.1 mg per kg fw and total phenolics (549.7 mg GAE per kg fw. However, HLT-F72 exhibited the highest levels of ascorbic acid (193.3 mg per kg fw, total vitamin C (271.6 mg per kg fw and flavonoids (450.5 mg RE per kg fw. Line HLT-F71 showed the highest HAA (148.0 µM Trolox per 100 g fw and 4.2 mM FRAP per g fw and LAA values (258.5 µM Trolox per 100 g fw and 3.2 mM FRAP per g fw respectively. Colour readings in red ripe fresh cut tomato berries particularly a∗, b∗ and the ratio a∗/b∗ could represent an indicator not only for lycopene but also for other phytochemicals and resulting antioxidant activities. HLT-Lines may serve as a starting point for the development of semi-determinate growth habit tomato cultivars with higher functional quality.
Blanca, José; Montero-Pau, Javier; Sauvage, Christopher; Bauchet, Guillaume; Illa, Eudald; Díez, María José; Francis, David; Causse, Mathilde; van der Knaap, Esther; Cañizares, Joaquín
Domestication modifies the genomic variation of species. Quantifying this variation provides insights into the domestication process, facilitates the management of resources used by breeders and germplasm centers, and enables the design of experiments to associate traits with genes. We described and analyzed the genetic diversity of 1,008 tomato accessions including Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum (SLL), S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (SLC), and S. pimpinellifolium (SP) that were genotyped using 7,720 SNPs. Additionally, we explored the allelic frequency of six loci affecting fruit weight and shape to infer patterns of selection. Our results revealed a pattern of variation that strongly supported a two-step domestication process, occasional hybridization in the wild, and differentiation through human selection. These interpretations were consistent with the observed allele frequencies for the six loci affecting fruit weight and shape. Fruit weight was strongly selected in SLC in the Andean region of Ecuador and Northern Peru prior to the domestication of tomato in Mesoamerica. Alleles affecting fruit shape were differentially selected among SLL genetic subgroups. Our results also clarified the biological status of SLC. True SLC was phylogenetically positioned between SP and SLL and its fruit morphology was diverse. SLC and "cherry tomato" are not synonymous terms. The morphologically-based term "cherry tomato" included some SLC, contemporary varieties, as well as many admixtures between SP and SLL. Contemporary SLL showed a moderate increase in nucleotide diversity, when compared with vintage groups. This study presents a broad and detailed representation of the genomic variation in tomato. Tomato domestication seems to have followed a two step-process; a first domestication in South America and a second step in Mesoamerica. The distribution of fruit weight and shape alleles supports that domestication of SLC occurred in the Andean region. Our results also
Blanca, José; Montero-Pau, Javier; Sauvage, Christopher; Bauchet, Guillaume; Illa, Eudald; Díez, María José; Francis, David; Causse, Mathilde; Cañizares, Joaquín
[EN] Background: Domestication modifies the genomic variation of species. Quantifying this variation provides insights into the domestication process, facilitates the management of resources used by breeders and germplasm centers, and enables the design of experiments to associate traits with genes. We described and analyzed the genetic diversity of 1,008 tomato accessions including Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum (SLL), S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (SLC), and S. pimpin...
Keoboonrueng, S.; Charaensatapon, R.; Panichsukpatana, C.; Jatisation, J.
Cotyledons of half month and one month-old seedlings of tomato varieties Sida, SVRDC 4, Sidatip 2 and VF 137 irradiated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy were cultured on most suitable medium found, MS supplemented with 0.01 mg/1 NAA and 2.0 mg/1 BAP. Sometimes calli and multiple shoots derived from normal seedlings were irradiated with gamma rays at the doses of 5 and 8 Gy, respectively. Plantlets from in vitro culture were screened in the greenhouse by soaking roots in bacterial suspension at transplanting time or by pouring bacterial suspension on injured roots at 2-3 wk. after transplant. The concentration of bacterial suspension was 10 5 -10 7 cells/ml. Total of 2541 tomato plantlets were screened and only 11 plants survived. They were, 5 plants from non-irradiated Sida, 1 and 2 plants from 5 and 10 Gy Sida, respectively, 2 plants from 5 Gy Sidatip 2 and single plant from non-irradiated VF 137. Most of the surviving plants were susceptible to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and only fruits from one Sida plant irradiated with 10 Gy could be harvested. Plants from these seeds will be further selected
Ю. В. Коломієць
Full Text Available Purpose. Assessing under in vitro conditions the degree of resistance to agents of bacterial diseases of tomato varieties which are included into the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine in 2015. Defining integrated biochemical indices of the quality of tomato fruits with different resistance to agents of bacterial diseases. Methods. In the course of performance biotechnological methods were used to select callus cells with increased resistance to the agents of bacterial diseases, biochemical ones – determine qualitative and quantitative indicators of the tomato fruit quality, statistical ones – analyse experimental data. Results. Studied tomato varieties of Ukrainian breeding had different resistance to warm cells of agents of bacterial speck, bacterial black spot and to exopolysaccharides of bacterial canker agents. ‘Chaika’, ‘Klondaik’, ‘Zoreslav’, ‘Flandriia’, ‘Legin’, ‘Oberig’, ‘Atlasnyi’, ‘Gospodar’ and ‘Kimmeriiets’ tomato varieties were distinguished by high palatability traits and quality. Conclusions. It was found that tomato varieties ‘Chaika’, ‘Klondaik’ and ‘Zoreslav’ are resistant to bacterial canker, bacterial speck and bacterial black spot; ‘Flandriia’ and ‘Legin’ – to bacterial black spot, ‘Oberig’, ‘Atlasnyi’, ‘Gospodar’ and ‘Kimmeriiets’ – to bacterial speck.
Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong
Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887
In this thesis research on the physiological and molecular aspects of pathogenesis in the interaction between tomato and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke (syn. Fulvia fulva [Cooke] Cif) is described. This plant-fungus interaction is envisaged to be based
The E8 gene is related to ethylene biosynthesis in plants. To explore the effect of the expression pattern of the E8 gene on different E8 promoters, the molecular evolution of E8 promoters was investigated. A total of 16 E8 promoters were cloned from 16 accessions of seven tomato species, and were further analysed.
Kooman - Gersmann, M.
The interaction between the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum and tomato has been used as a model system to study the molecular basis of gene-for-gene relationships. C. fulvum is a specialized, biotrophic pathogen, which causes leaf mold on
Hussain, S.S.; Rivandi, A.; Rivandi, A.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.em Thell.) is the first important and strategic cereal crop for the majority of world,s populations. It is the most important staple food of about two billion people (36% of the world population). Due to industrialization, erosion, urbanization, compaction, and the increase in acidity as a result of fertilization, there is a decrease in the available space for agriculture. Environmental conditions such as increased salinity, drought, and freezing cause adverse effects on the growth and productivity of cereal crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Though grown under a wide range of climates and soils, wheat is best adapted to temperate regions. Whether the cropping occurs in the temperate areas or the tropics, both types of environments are affected by global warming and the destabilizing effects that it causes, none more serious than the attendant increased variability in rainfall and temperature. Due to the limited insight into the physiological basis of drought tolerance in wheat, a better understanding of some of the mechanisms that enable the plants to adapt to stress and maintain growth during stress periods would help in breeding for drought tolerance. On the other hand, understanding the genetic and genome organization using molecular markers is of great value for plant breeding purposes. (author)
Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M
RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.
Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.
Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular...... markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...... was the topic of a recent European plant breeding workshop. The participants evaluated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use of molecular markers and we formalized their inputs into breeder’s perspectives and perspectives seen from the organic sector’s standpoint. Clear strengths were...
Mar 5, 2014 ... Gossypium hirsutum is the most cultivated species in many countries. Breeding for high cotton yield is still the primary goal of cotton breeding programs, but improving fibre quality has become increasingly important. The enhancement of fibre quality traits like fibre length, strength, and fibre fineness is an.
The ability of plant to sustain itself in limited water conditions is crucial in the world of agriculture. To breed for drought tolerance in wheat, it is essential to clearly understand drought tolerant mechanisms. Conventional breeding is time consuming and labor intensive being inefficient with low heritability traits like drought ...
The Chinese Erhualian is one of the most prolific pig breeds in the world, but it is in danger of being replaced by other exotic pig breeds because of its slow growth rate and high fat content in the body. To obtain some genetic information for conservation, we analysed the Erhualian pigs by using a PCR-RFLP for the ...
Idris, A M; Brown, J K
ABSTRACT The biological and molecular properties of Sinaloa tomato leaf curl virus (STLCV) were investigated in line with the hypothesis that STLCV is a previously uncharacterized, whitefly-transmitted geminivirus from North America. STLCV causes yellow leaf curl symptoms in tomato and yellow-green foliar mottle in pepper. Five species belonging to two plant families were STLCV experimental hosts. STLCV had a persistent relationship with its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci. Polymerase chain reaction fragments of STLCV common region (CR) sequences of the A or B genomic components and the viral coat protein gene (AV1) were molecularly cloned and sequenced. The STLCV A- and B-component CR sequences (174 nucleotides each) shared 97.9% identity and contained identical cis elements putatively involved in transcriptional regulation and an origin of replication (the AC cleavage site within the loop of the hairpin structure and two direct repeat sequences thought to constitute the Rep binding motif), which collectively are diagnostic for subgroup III geminiviruses. The STLCV CR sequence shared 23.1 to 77.6% identity with CR sequences of representative geminiviridae, indicating the STLCV CR sequence is unique. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of CR or AV1 sequences of STLCV and the respective sequences of 31 familial members supported the placement of STLCV as a unique bipartite, subgroup III virus most closely related to other viruses from the Western Hemisphere. STLCV is provisionally described as a new species within the genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae.
Through a conventional breeding strategy, introgression of useful alleles for fibre quality from wild species and G. barbadense to G. hirsutum will be the effective way to improve the fibre quality traits. The identification of the stable quantitative trailt loci (QTLs) affecting fiber traits across different generations will be very ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions to initiate conservation programmes need to account for extant variability, diversity loss and cultural and economic aspects. Molecular markers were used to investigate if putative Algarvia animals could be identified for use as progenitors in a breeding programme to recover this nearly extinct breed. Methods 46 individuals phenotypically representative of Algarvia cattle were genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci and compared with 11 Portuguese autochthonous and three imported breeds. Genetic distances and factorial correspondence analyses (FCA were performed to investigate the relationship among Algarvia and related breeds. Assignment tests were done to identify representative individuals of the breed. Y chromosome and mtDNA analyses were used to further characterize Algarvia animals. Gene- and allelic-based conservation analyses were used to determine breed contributions to overall genetic diversity. Results Genetic distance and FCA results confirmed the close relationship between Algarvia and southern Portuguese breeds. Assignment tests without breed information classified 17 Algarvia animals in this cluster with a high probability (q > 0.95. With breed information, 30 cows and three bulls were identified (q > 0.95 that could be used to reconstitute the Algarvia breed. Molecular and morphological results were concordant. These animals showed intermediate levels of genetic diversity (MNA = 6.0 ± 1.6, Rt = 5.7 ± 1.4, Ho = 0.63 ± 0.19 and He = 0.69 ± 0.10 relative to other Portuguese breeds. Evidence of inbreeding was also detected (Fis = 0.083, P st = 0.028, P > 0.05. Algarvia cattle provide an intermediate contribution (CB = 6.18, CW = -0.06 and D1 = 0.50 to the overall gene diversity of Portuguese cattle. Algarvia and seven other autochthonous breeds made no contribution to the overall allelic diversity. Conclusions Molecular analyses complemented previous morphological findings to identify 33 animals that
Berloo, van R.
Molecular markers provide plant breeding with an important and valuable new source of information. Linkage between molecular markers can be translated to genetic linkage maps, which have become an important tool in plant and animal genetics. Linkage between (quantitative) trait-data and
1Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Research Unit, Scientific Research Center, College of Medicine, ... Names of tomato cultivars that were used in this investigation with their source, growth habit, seed type and fruit size and color. Cultivar. Source ... important for breeding purposes, and the utilization of molecular ...
Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero
The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yogendra, K N; Ramanjini Gowda, P H
Breeding for better quality fruits is a major focus for tomatoes, which are continuously subjected to post-harvest losses. Several methods have been used to improve the fruit shelf life of tomatoes, including the use of ripening gene mutants of Solanum lycopersicum. We developed extended shelf-life tomato hybrids with better quality fruits using ripening mutants. Nine tomato crosses were developed using 3 fruit ripening gene mutants of S. lycopersicum [alcobaca (alc), non-ripening, and ripening inhibitor] and 3 agronomically superior Indian cultivars ('Sankranti', 'Vaibhav', and 'Pusaruby') with short shelf life. The hybrid progenies developed from alc x 'Vaibhav' had the highest extended shelf life (up to 40 days) compared with that of other varieties and hybrids. Further, the F(2) progenies of alc x 'Vaibhav' were evaluated for fruit quality traits and yield parameters. A wide range of genetic variability was observed in shelf life (5-106 days) and fruit firmness (0.55-10.65 lbs/cm(2)). The potential polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers underlying shelf life traits were identified in an F(2) mapping population. The marker association with fruit quality traits and yield was confirmed with single-marker analysis and composite interval mapping. The genetic parameters analyzed in the parents and F(1) and F(2) populations indicated that the cross between the cultivar 'Vaibhav' and ripening gene mutant alc yielded fruit with long shelf life and good quality.
Mubarok, Syariful; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Naoya; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi
Mutations in the ethylene receptor gene (SlETR1), Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, are effective in reducing ethylene sensitivity and improving fruit shelf life. In this study the effect of Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 mutations was investigated in F1 hybrid lines. These two mutants and control were crossed with four commercial pure-line tomatoes. The Sletr1-1 mutation showed undesirable pleiotropic effects in the F1 hybrid lines. The Sletr1-2 mutation was effective in improving fruit shelf life of F1 hybrid lines for 4-5 days longer. It was also effective in improving fruit firmness without change in fruit size, ethylene production, respiration rate, and total soluble solids or a great reduction in fruit color, lycopene, and β-carotene, although the titratable acidity was increased by Sletr1-2 mutation. These results indicate that the Sletr1-2 mutant allele has the potential to improve fruit shelf life via incorporation in tomato breeding programs.
Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) was first identified in 2013 as a novel tobamovirus infecting tomatoes in Mexico. In just a few years, ToMMV has been identified in several countries around the world, including the United States. In the present study, we characterized the molecular, serological an...
Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.
Yaro, Mohammed; Munyard, Kylie A; Stear, Michael J; Groth, David M
Global livestock genetic diversity includes all of the species, breeds and strains of domestic animals, and their variations. Although a recent census indicated that there were 40 species and over 8000 breeds of domestic animals; for the purpose of conservation biology the diversity between and within breeds rather than species is regarded to be of crucial importance. This domestic animal genetic diversity has developed through three main evolutionary events, from speciation (about 3 million years ago) through domestication (about 12000 years ago) to specialised breeding (starting about 200 years ago). These events and their impacts on global animal genetic resources have been well documented in the literature. The key importance of global domestic animal resources in terms of economic, scientific and cultural heritage has also been addressed. In spite of their importance, there is a growing number of reports on the alarming erosion of domestic animal genetic resources. This erosion of is happening in spite of several global conservation initiatives designed to mitigate it. Herein we discuss these conservation interventions and highlight their strengths and weaknesses. However, pivotal to the success of these conservation initiatives is the reliability of the genetic assignment of individual members to a target breed. Finally, we discuss the prospect of using improved breed identification methodologies to develop a reliable breed-specific molecular identification tool that is easily applicable to populations of livestock breeds in various ecosystems. These identification tools, when developed, will not only facilitate the regular monitoring of threatened or endangered breed populations, but also enhance the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)
Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)
The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in collaboration with public and private partners, is working on developing and disseminating drought tolerant maize for sub Saharan Africa (SSA) using pedigree selection and molecular breeding. In this paper, we provide an overview of ...
Hyderabad – Parsis worried about the growing pile of bodies in their 'Towers of Silence' can take heart. The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. (CCMB) has decided to take up, on an express basis, the job of breeding vultures, which can later be transported to various parts of the country. Though the problem of ...
Full Text Available Due to their extreme popularity as fresh cut flowers and garden plants, and being used extensively for landscaping, tulips undergone a continuous process of selective breeding. For almost nine decades, classical cytogenetic studies, mainly the chromosome counts, have been an important part in the breeding programme for polyploid tulips. The efficiency of breeding is greatly aided by a thorough knowledge of the occurrence of polyploidy in the plant material. While the traditional cytogenetic approaches are still highly useful in selecting polyploids and aneuploids arising from crosses involving (most often parents of different ploidy or from the material subjected to ploidy manipulation, the new strategies for inducing polyploidy in tulips, either in vivo or in vitro, and advances in molecular cytogenetics are expected to allow a significant increase in breeding efficiency. Together with the shortening of breeding cycle, major genetic improvements could be made for specific traits. In this we review the development of cytogenetic studies in tulips, and the most relevant achievements so far, providing an overview of what we consider to be valuable tools for the processes of selective breeding .
Liu, Jang Ryol; Kwak, Sang Soo; Kwon, Seok Yoon [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)
- tSOD1, cytosolic CuZnSOD cDNA was cloned from tobacco cDNA library by PCR. To develop the under-producing the transgenic plants, the vectors were constructed using by antisense and co-supressing technology. The transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed that over 60% of kanamycin-resistant plants were introduced the foreign gene by PCR and transformed one copy through Southern blot analysis. - In an attempt to identify marker genes for gamma irradiation of plants, expression patterns of diverse genes upon gamma irradiation of young tobacco plants were investigated. With the knowledge of distinctive expression patterns of diverse genes, irradiation-indicating marker plants could be developed by engineering and monitoring multiple radiation-responsive genes. Additionally, a gamma irradiation-responsive NtTMK1 receptor-like kinase gene was molecular biologically characterized. -Uranium reductase gene (Cytochrome C3) and radiation resistance gene (recA) have been cloned from Desulfovibrio and Deinococcus radiodurans. -Two plant transformation vectors (pCYC3 and pDrecA) have been constructed. - Tobacco transgenic plants of have been obtained. 52 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Orzaez, Diego; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tripodi, Pasquale; Grandillo, Silvana; Martin, Cathie; Heldens, Jos; Ykema, Marieke; Granell, Antonio; Bovy, Arnaud
The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines had a homozygous S. chmielewskii introgression on the short arm of chromosome 1, consistent with the position of the y (yellow) mutation known to result in colorless epidermis, and hence pink-colored fruit, when combined with a red flesh. Metabolic analysis showed that pink fruit lack the ripening-dependent accumulation of the yellow-colored flavonoid naringenin chalcone in the fruit peel, while carotenoid levels are not affected. The expression of all genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes involved in the production of the flavonol rutin from naringenin chalcone was down-regulated in pink fruit, suggesting that the candidate gene underlying the pink phenotype encodes a regulatory protein such as a transcription factor rather than a biosynthetic enzyme. Of 26 MYB and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors putatively involved in regulating transcription of genes in the phenylpropanoid and/or flavonoid pathway, only the expression level of the MYB12 gene correlated well with the decrease in the expression of structural flavonoid genes in peel samples of pink- and red-fruited genotypes during ripening. Genetic mapping and segregation analysis showed that MYB12 is located on chromosome 1 and segregates perfectly with the characteristic pink fruit color. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlMYB12 resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of naringenin chalcone, a phenotype consistent with the pink-colored tomato fruit of IL1b. In conclusion, biochemical and molecular data, gene mapping, segregation analysis, and virus-induced gene silencing experiments demonstrate that the MYB12 transcription factor plays an important role in regulating the flavonoid pathway in tomato fruit
Carlos Bernard M. Cerqueira-Silva
Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of passion fruit (Passiflora spp., molecular markers have only recently been utilized in genetic studies of this genus. In addition, both basic genetic researches related to population studies and pre-breeding programs of passion fruit remain scarce for most Passiflora species. Considering the number of Passiflora species and the increasing use of these species as a resource for ornamental, medicinal, and food purposes, the aims of this review are the following: (i to present the current condition of the passion fruit crop; (ii to quantify the applications and effects of using molecular markers in studies of Passiflora; (iii to present the contributions of genetic engineering for passion fruit culture; and (iv to discuss the progress and perspectives of this research. Thus, the present review aims to summarize and discuss the relationship between historical and current progress on the culture, breeding, and molecular genetics of passion fruit.
Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K
The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.
Liu, Jang-Ryol; Min, Sung-Ran; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seok-Yoon; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hye-Sun; In, Dong-Su; Oh, Seung-Chol; Park, Sang- Gyu; Woo, Je-Wook; Kin, Tae-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Sook [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)
To develop the transgenic plants with low level of antioxidant enzyme, transgenic tobacco plants (157 plants) using 8 different plant expression vectors which have APX genes in sense or antisense orientation under the control of CaMV 35S promoter or stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter were developed. The insertion of transgene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. The total APX activities of transgenic plants were enhanced or reduced by introduction of APX gene in plants. To clone the radiation-responsive genes and their promoter from plants, the NeIF2Bb, one of radiation-responsive genes from tobacco plant was characterized using molecular and cell biological tools. Promoter of GST6, a radiation-responsive gene, was cloned using RT-PCR. The GST6 promoter sequence was analyzed, and known sequence motif was searched. To develop the remediation technology of radioactively contaminated soil using transgenic plants uranium reductase and radiation resistance genes have been introduced in tobacco and indian mustard plans. The uranium reductase and radiation resistance (RecA) genes were confirmed in transgenic tobacco and indian mustard plants by PCR analysis. Also, Gene expression of uranium reductase and radiation resistance were confirmed in transgenic indian mustard plants by northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 12 figs. (Author)
Ribeiro, S.G.; Martin, D.P.; Lacorte, C.; Simoes, I.C.; Orlandini, D.R.S.; Inoue-Nagata, A.K.
Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV) is an emerging begomovirus species widely distributed throughout tomato-growing regions of Brazil. ToCMoV appears to have expanded its geographic range recently, invading tomato-growing areas that were free of begomovirus infection before 2004. We have
Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...
Van Damme, Veerle; Gómez-Paniagua, Humberto; de Vicente, M Carmen
Crop genetic resources carry variation useful for overcoming the challenges of modern agriculture. Molecular markers can facilitate the selection of agronomically important traits. The pervasiveness of genomics research has led to an overwhelming number of publications and databases, which are, nevertheless, scattered and hence often difficult for plant breeders to access, particularly those in developing countries. This situation separates them from developed countries, which have better endowed programs for developing varieties. To close this growing knowledge gap, we conducted an intensive literature review and consulted with more than 150 crop experts on the use of molecular markers in the breeding program of 19 food security crops. The result was a list of effectively used and highly reproducible sequence tagged site (STS), simple sequence repeat (SSR), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. However, only 12 food crops had molecular markers suitable for improvement. That is, marker-assisted selection is not yet used for Musa spp., coconut, lentils, millets, pigeonpea, sweet potato, and yam. For the other 12 crops, 214 molecular markers were found to be effectively used in association with 74 different traits. Results were compiled as the GCP Molecular Marker Toolkit, a free online tool that aims to promote the adoption of molecular approaches in breeding activities.
Bagwell, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
This Exploratory LDRD aimed to develop molecular breeding methodology for biofuel algal strain improvement for applications in waste to energy / commodity conversion technologies. Genome shuffling technologies, specifically protoplast fusion, are readily available for the rapid production of genetic hybrids for trait improvement and have been used successfully in bacteria, yeast, plants and animals. However, genome fusion has not been developed for exploiting the remarkable untapped potential of eukaryotic microalgae for large scale integrated bio-conversion and upgrading of waste components to valued commodities, fuel and energy. The proposed molecular breeding technology is effectively sexual reproduction in algae; though compared to traditional breeding, the molecular route is rapid, high-throughput and permits selection / improvement of complex traits which cannot be accomplished by traditional genetics. Genome fusion technologies are the cutting edge of applied biotechnology. The goals of this Exploratory LDRD were to 1) establish reliable methodology for protoplast production among diverse microalgal strains, and 2) demonstrate genome fusion for hybrid strain production using a single gene encoded trait as a proof of the concept.
Vosters, S L; Jewell, C P; Sherman, N A; Einterz, F; Blackman, B K; Moyle, L C
Molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from genetic self-incompatibility to self-compatibility are well documented, but the evolution of other reproductive trait changes that accompany shifts in reproductive strategy (mating system) remains comparatively under-investigated. A notable exception is the transition from exserted styles to styles with recessed positions relative to the anthers in wild tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon). This phenotypic change has been previously attributed to a specific mutation in the promoter of a gene that influences style length (style2.1); however, whether this specific regulatory mutation arose concurrently with the transition from long to short styles, and whether it is causally responsible for this phenotypic transition, has been poorly investigated across this group. To address this gap, we assessed 74 accessions (populations) from 13 species for quantitative genetic variation in floral and reproductive traits as well as the presence/absence of deletions at two different locations (StyleD1 and StyleD2) within the regulatory region upstream of style2.1. We confirmed that the putatively causal deletion variant (a 450-bp deletion at StyleD1) arose within self-compatible lineages. However, the variation and history of both StyleD1 and StyleD2 was more complex than previously inferred. In particular, although StyleD1 was statistically associated with differences in style length and stigma exsertion across all species, we found no evidence for this association within two species polymorphic for the StyleD1 mutation. We conclude that the previous association detected between phenotypic and molecular differences is most likely due to a phylogenetic association rather than a causal mechanistic relationship. Phenotypic variation in style length must therefore be due to other unexamined linked variants in the style2.1 regulatory region. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Comparatively few studies have addressed directly the question of quantifying the benefits to be had from using molecular genetic markers in experimental breeding programmes (e.g. for improved crops and livestock, nor the question of which organisms should be mated with each other to best effect. We argue that this requires in silico modelling, an approach for which there is a large literature in the field of evolutionary computation (EC, but which has not really been applied in this way to experimental breeding programmes. EC seeks to optimise measurable outcomes (phenotypic fitnesses by optimising in silico the mutation, recombination and selection regimes that are used. We review some of the approaches from EC, and compare experimentally, using a biologically relevant in silico landscape, some algorithms that have knowledge of where they are in the (genotypic search space (G-algorithms with some (albeit well-tuned ones that do not (F-algorithms. For the present kinds of landscapes, F- and G-algorithms were broadly comparable in quality and effectiveness, although we recognise that the G-algorithms were not equipped with any 'prior knowledge' of epistatic pathway interactions. This use of algorithms based on machine learning has important implications for the optimisation of experimental breeding programmes in the post-genomic era when we shall potentially have access to the full genome sequence of every organism in a breeding population. The non-proprietary code that we have used is made freely available (via Supplementary information.
O'Hagan, Steve; Knowles, Joshua; Kell, Douglas B.
Comparatively few studies have addressed directly the question of quantifying the benefits to be had from using molecular genetic markers in experimental breeding programmes (e.g. for improved crops and livestock), nor the question of which organisms should be mated with each other to best effect. We argue that this requires in silico modelling, an approach for which there is a large literature in the field of evolutionary computation (EC), but which has not really been applied in this way to experimental breeding programmes. EC seeks to optimise measurable outcomes (phenotypic fitnesses) by optimising in silico the mutation, recombination and selection regimes that are used. We review some of the approaches from EC, and compare experimentally, using a biologically relevant in silico landscape, some algorithms that have knowledge of where they are in the (genotypic) search space (G-algorithms) with some (albeit well-tuned ones) that do not (F-algorithms). For the present kinds of landscapes, F- and G-algorithms were broadly comparable in quality and effectiveness, although we recognise that the G-algorithms were not equipped with any ‘prior knowledge’ of epistatic pathway interactions. This use of algorithms based on machine learning has important implications for the optimisation of experimental breeding programmes in the post-genomic era when we shall potentially have access to the full genome sequence of every organism in a breeding population. The non-proprietary code that we have used is made freely available (via Supplementary information). PMID:23185279
Minssen, Timo; Nordberg, Ana
biological processes are – unlike individual plant varieties – principally patentable under the European Patent Convention (EPC). This decision leaves considerable leeway for patenting novel and inventive plants and products thereof, which have been produced by “conventional” methods including breeding steps...... of the EPC and the Biotech Directive, and the need for legal certainty and harmonization, led the EPO to stay ex officio all the proceedings in which the decision depended entirely on the patentability of a plant or animal obtained by an essentially biological process. Then, on June 29, 2017......, the Administrative Council of the EPO decided to amend Rules 27 and 28 of the Implementing Regulation. According to these amendments products (animals or plants) obtained exclusively from essentially biological process are now effectively excluded from patentability. Notwithstanding that this contradicts the earlier...
Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Ostergard, H.; Vriend, H.; Backes, G.
Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular
Rymelska, N; Borodynko, N; Pospieszny, H; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, B
Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) is an important pathogen infecting many plant species worldwide. The biological and molecular variability of the Polish isolates of TBRV was analyzed. The analysis was performed based on the symptoms induced by various isolates on test plant species as well as on phylogenetic relationships between isolates. Isolates differed in their host range and symptomatology. In addition, genetic variation among isolates was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and confirmed by sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Polish isolates differ from each other and do not form a monophyletic cluster. Finally, we identified and analyzed sequences of defective RNA forms arising from the TBRV genome.
Rabie, M; Ratti, C; Abdel Aleem, E; Fattouh, F
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infections of tomato crops in Egypt were widely spread in 2014. Infected symptomatic tomato plants from different governorates were sampled. TYLCV strains Israel and Mild (TYLCV-IL, TYLCV-Mild) were identified by multiplex and real-time PCR. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the V1 and V2 protein genes, revealed ten TYLCV Egyptian isolates (TYLCV from TY1 to 10). Phylogenetic analysis showed their high degree of relatedness with TYLCV-IL Jordan isolate (98%). Here we have showed the complete nucleotide sequence of the TYLCV Egyptian isolate TY10, sampled from El Beheira. A high degree of similarity to other previously reported Egyptian isolates and isolates from Jordan and Japan reflect the importance of phylogenetic analysis in monitoring virus genetic diversity and possibilities for divergence of more virulent strains or genotypes.
Full Text Available Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints include the small size of flowers that may not synchronize but may self-pollinate, difficulty in distinguishing hybrids from self progenies, extreme (G × E interactive effect, and potential variety mis-identification during vegetative propagation and varietal exchange. To help cane breeders circumvent these constraints, a simple sequence repeats (SSR-based molecular identity database has been developed at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma, LA. Since 2005, approximately 2000 molecular identities have been constructed for clones of sugarcane and related Saccharum species that cover geographical areas including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Thailand, USA (Louisiana, Florida, Texas, and Hawaii, and Venezuela. The molecular identity database is updated annually and has been utilized to: (1 provide molecular descriptors to newly registered cultivars; (2 identify in a timely fashion any mislabeled or unidentifiable clones from cross parents and field evaluation plots; (3 develop de novo clones of energy cane with S. spontaneum cytoplasm; (4 provide clone-specific fingerprint information for assessing cross quality and paternity of polycross; (5 determine genetic relatedness of parental clones; (6 select F1 hybrids from (elite × wild or (wild × elite crosses; and (7 investigate the inheritance of SSR markers in sugarcane. The integration of the molecular identity database into the sugarcane breeding program may improve the overall efficacy of cultivar development and commercialization.
Edwards, J.D.; McCouch, S.R.
A number of molecular marker technologies exist, each with different advantages and disadvantages. When available, genome sequence allows for the development of greater numbers and higher quality molecular markers. When genome sequence is limited in the organism of interest, related species may serve as sources of molecular markers. Some molecular marker technologies combine the discovery and assay of DNA sequence variations, and therefore can be used in species without the need for prior sequence information and up-front investment in marker development. As a prerequisite for marker-assisted selection (MAS), there must be a known association between genetic markers and genes affecting the phenotype to be modified. Comparative databases can facilitate the transfer of knowledge of genetic marker-phenotype association across species so that discoveries in one species may be applied to many others. Further genomics research and reductions in the costs associated with molecular markers will continue to provide new opportunities to employ MAS. (author)
Ghorpade, Prabhakar B; Gupta, Praveen K; Prakash, Vibhu; Cuthbert, Richard J; Kulkarni, Mandar; Prakash, Nikita; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K; Saini, Mohini
During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. Because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, other methods are required for sex identification. Molecular methods for sex identification in birds rely on allelic length or nucleotide sequence discrimination of the chromohelicase-DNA binding (CHD) gene located on male and female chromosomes ZZ and ZW, respectively. We characterized the partial sequences of CHD alleles from Gyps indicus, Gyps bengalensis, Gyps himalayensis and Aegypius monachus and analysed the applicability of five molecular methods of sex identification of 46 individual vultures including 26 known-sex G. bengalensis and G. indicus. The results revealed that W-specific PCR in combination with ZW-common PCR is a quick, accurate and simple method, and is ideal for sex identification of vultures. The method is also suitable to augment ecological studies for identifying sex of these endangered birds during necropsy examinations especially when gonads are not apparent, possibly due to regression during non-breeding seasons.
Hille, J.; Koornneef, M.; Ramanna, M.S.; Zabel, P.
Tomato is a crop plant with a relatively small DNA content per haploid genome and a well developed genetics. Plant regeneration from explants and protoplasts is feasable which led to the development of efficient transformation procedures.
In view of the current data, the isolation of useful
Hille, Jacques; Koornneef, Maarten; Ramanna, M.S.; Zabel, Pim
Tomato is a crop plant with a relatively small DNA content per haploid genome and a well developed genetics. Plant regeneration from explants and protoplasts is feasable which led to the development of efficient transformation procedures. In view of the current data, the isolation of useful mutants
Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is susceptible to many diseases including bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Bacterial speck disease is a serious problem worldwide in tomato production areas where moist conditions and cool temperatures occur. To enhance breeding of speck resistant fresh-market tomato cultivars we identified a race 0 field isolate, NC-C3, of P. s. pv. tomato in North Carolina and used it to screen a collection of heirloom tomato lines for speck resistance in the field. We observed statistically significant variation among the heirloom tomatoes for their response to P. s. pv. tomato NC-C3 with two lines showing resistance approaching a cultivar that expresses the Pto resistance gene, although none of the heirloom lines have Pto. Using an assay that measures microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, we investigated whether the heirloom lines showed differential responsiveness to three bacterial-derived peptide MAMPs: flg22 and flgII-28 (from flagellin and csp22 (from cold shock protein. Significant differences were observed for MAMP responsiveness among the lines, although these differences did not correlate strongly with resistance or susceptibility to bacterial speck disease. The identification of natural variation for MAMP responsiveness opens up the possibility of using a genetic approach to identify the underlying loci and to facilitate breeding of cultivars with enhanced disease resistance. Towards this goal, we discovered that responsiveness to csp22 segregates as a single locus in an F2 population of tomato.
The (CA)n element is responsible for embryo- and endosperm-specific transcription in the napA gene of. Brassica napus (Ellerstrom et al 1996). Its consensus sequence is CAAACAC, and was also found in the E8 promoter of tomato and located from –1777 to –1771 (figure. 2). A 429 bp DNA fragment located from –1702 to ...
Full Text Available Profilin is an actin-binding protein involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells. We previously cloned a profilin gene, designated as LePro1 from tomato pollen. To understand its biological role, in the present study, we investigated the temporal and spatial expression of LePro1 during pollen development and found that the transcript was only detected at late stages during microsporogenesis and pollen maturation. Using antisense RNA, we successfully knocked down the expression of LePro1 in tomato plants using stable transformation, and obtained two antisense lines, A2 and A3 showing significant down-regulation of LePro1 in pollen resulting in poor pollen germination and abnormal pollen tube growth. A disorganized F-actin distribution was observed in the antisense pollen. Down-regulation of LePro1 also appeared to affect hydration of pollen deposited on the stigma and arrested pollen tube elongation in the style, thereby affecting fertilization. Our results suggest that LePro1 in conjunction with perhaps other cytoskeletal proteins, plays a regulatory role in the proper organization of F-actin in tomato pollen tubes through promoting actin assembly. Down-regulation of LePro1 leads to interruption of actin assembly and disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton thus arresting pollen tube growth. Based on the present and previous studies, it is likely that a single transcript of profilin gives rise to multiple forms displaying multifunctionality in tomato pollen.
of the chimeric chalcone synthase-NPTII gene in tobacco cells;. EMBO J. 5 1–8. Kneissl M L and Deikman J 1996 The tomato E8 gene influences ethylene biosynthesis in fruit but not in flowers; Plant Physiol. 112 537–547. Kochieva E Z, Ryzhova N N, Khrapalova I A and Pukhal'skii V. A 2002 Using RAPD for estimating ...
Matsui, Kazuaki; Endo, Ginro
Mercury-resistant (Hg R ) bacteria occur in various bacterial species from a wide variety of environmental sources. Resistance is conferred by a set of operon genes termed the mer operon. Many Hg R bacteria have been isolated from diverse environments and clinical samples, and it is recognized that mer operons are often localized on transposons. Previous research reports have suggested that Hg R transposons participate in the horizontal gene transfer of mer operons among bacteria. This was confirmed by a study that found that mer operons were distributed worldwide in Bacilli with dissemination of TnMERI1-like transposons. In this mini review, possible strategies for transposon-mediated in situ molecular breeding (ISMoB) of Hg R bacteria in their natural habitat are discussed. In ISMoB, the target microorganisms for breeding are indigenous bacteria that are not Hg R but that are dominant and robust in their respective environments. Additionally, we propose a new concept of bioremediation technology for environmental mercury pollution by applying transposon-mediated ISMoB for environmental mercury pollution control.
Full Text Available Submergence or flood is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low-lying countries and crop losses due to waterlogging are considerably high. Plant breeding techniques, conventional or genetic engineering, might be an effective and economic way of developing crops to grow successfully in waterlogged condition. Marker assisted selection (MAS is a new and more effective approach which can identify genomic regions of crops under stress, which could not be done previously. The discovery of comprehensive molecular linkage maps enables us to do the pyramiding of desirable traits to improve in submergence tolerance through MAS. However, because of genetic and environmental interaction, too many genes encoding a trait, and using undesirable populations the mapping of QTL was hampered to ensure proper growth and yield under waterlogged conditions Steady advances in the field of genomics and proteomics over the years will be helpful to increase the breeding programs which will help to accomplish a significant progress in the field crop variety development and also improvement in near future. Waterlogging response of soybean and major cereal crops, as rice, wheat, barley, and maize and discovery of QTL related with tolerance of waterlogging, development of resistant variety, and, in addition, future prospects have also been discussed.
Crossa, José; Campos, Gustavo de Los; Pérez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; Burgueño, Juan; Araus, José Luis; Makumbi, Dan; Singh, Ravi P; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Yan, Jianbing; Arief, Vivi; Banziger, Marianne; Braun, Hans-Joachim
The availability of dense molecular markers has made possible the use of genomic selection (GS) for plant breeding. However, the evaluation of models for GS in real plant populations is very limited. This article evaluates the performance of parametric and semiparametric models for GS using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays) data in which different traits were measured in several environmental conditions. The findings, based on extensive cross-validations, indicate that models including marker information had higher predictive ability than pedigree-based models. In the wheat data set, and relative to a pedigree model, gains in predictive ability due to inclusion of markers ranged from 7.7 to 35.7%. Correlation between observed and predictive values in the maize data set achieved values up to 0.79. Estimates of marker effects were different across environmental conditions, indicating that genotype × environment interaction is an important component of genetic variability. These results indicate that GS in plant breeding can be an effective strategy for selecting among lines whose phenotypes have yet to be observed.
Christensen, Brian; Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Serek, Margrethe; Müller, Renate
Dwarf genotypes of the economically important flowering potted plant Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were developed by molecular breeding. Root inducing (Ri)-lines were regenerated by applying CPPU to the hairy roots, which were produced by inoculating leaf explants with a wild-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in the Ri-lines. Six Ri-lines were characterised in a greenhouse trial revealing that several morphological traits changed with respect to ornamental value such as plant height, number of lateral shoots, leaf size, leaf number, flower size and number of flowers. The Ri-lines differed in their degree of Ri-phenotype, and the internodes of the Ri-lines were clearly shorter, giving a compact growth habit compared to control plants. Time to anthesis was the same in Ri-line 331 as in control plants and delayed by only 3 days in Ri-line 306 as compared to control plants. A compact plant without delayed flowering can be assumed to be valuable for further breeding.
LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE
Full Text Available Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt’s wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, US940480 and US970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. US970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato cDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato cDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more PR genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.
Lopez Kleine, Liliana; Smart, Christine D; Fry, William E; Restrepo, Silvia
Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme CV matt's wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, us 940480 and us 970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. Us 970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato CDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato CDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all-time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more plant resistance genes (PR) genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.
Nagendran, K; Mohankumar, S; Mohammed Faisal, P; Bagewadi, B; Karthikeyan, G
During 2012-2014, mosaic disease on chayote in the farmers field of Kodaikanal region (high altitude zone) of Tamil Nadu was observed. The disease was characterized with severe mosaic, cupping and enation on leaves with reduced fruit size. Disease was found to causes an yield loss of more than 60% with the maximum disease incidence of 100% for the past 5 years consecutively. Preliminary serological and molecular screening indicated the association of begomovirus with the disease. Complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA A revealed the identity of the virus as tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as ToLCNDV from Pakistan infecting tomato. Thus the present finding confirms expansion of new geographical region and host for ToLCNDV causing mosaic disease on chayote from Tamil Nadu. To our knowledge this is the first confirmed report for the occurrence of ToLCNDV on chayote in southern India.
Ruttink, Tom; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Asp, Torben
of SNP markers in selected candidate genes. In parallel, a germplasm collection of 602 Lolium genotypes was established and is being phenotyped for plant architecture, reproductive characteristics, flowering time, and forage quality traits. We will test through association genetics whether phenotypic......To advance the application of molecular breeding in Lolium perenne, we have generated a sequence resource to facilitate gene discovery and SNP marker development. Illumina GAII transcriptome sequencing was performed on meristem-enriched samples of 14 Lolium genotypes. De novo assemblies...... for individual genotypes was carried out with 12-30M paired-end reads per genotype using the CLCBio Genomics Workbench, yielding around 70,000 contigs per genotype. 54% of these contigs have a significant BLAST hit with a predicted Brachypodium gene. Vice versa, for around 60% of the 26,552 predicted...
Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N
In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Ramirez, R; Gonzalez, LM; Chavez, Licet; Camejo, Yanelis; Gonzalez, Maria C; Fernandez, Arais
For the extensive agricultural exploitation of vegetable radio stimulation, it is indispensable to study the genetic stability of treated varieties, having in mind X ray potentialities of inducing not only physiological but genetic changes as well. Therefore, biochemical and molecular markers were employed in tomato plants derived from irradiated seeds at low doses of X rays. For the biochemical analysis, peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases and dismutase superoxide isoenzymes were determined whereas the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular analysis. When comparing the electrophoretic patterns from the control and irradiated treatments applied to the three enzymatic systems, there were not appreciable variations on the number of bands and their intensities, indicating the little variability induced in these systems by the low X ray doses. Also, from the molecular viewpoint, electrophoretic patterns showed a clear amplification of DNA by generating a total of 155 bands in all varieties studied. This molecular marker showed a high monomorphism independently of the treatments applied, with values ranging between 86 and 97 %, indicating that irradiation at low doses did not induce an important genetic variability and confirming its possible practical usefulness for stimulating some physiological processes without causing. (Author)
Fu, Yong-Bi; Yang, Mo-Hua; Zeng, Fangqin; Biligetu, Bill
Molecular plant breeding with the aid of molecular markers has played an important role in modern plant breeding over the last two decades. Many marker-based predictions for quantitative traits have been made to enhance parental selection, but the trait prediction accuracy remains generally low, even with the aid of dense, genome-wide SNP markers. To search for more accurate trait-specific prediction with informative SNP markers, we conducted a literature review on the prediction issues in molecular plant breeding and on the applicability of an RNA-Seq technique for developing function-associated specific trait (FAST) SNP markers. To understand whether and how FAST SNP markers could enhance trait prediction, we also performed a theoretical reasoning on the effectiveness of these markers in a trait-specific prediction, and verified the reasoning through computer simulation. To the end, the search yielded an alternative to regular genomic selection with FAST SNP markers that could be explored to achieve more accurate trait-specific prediction. Continuous search for better alternatives is encouraged to enhance marker-based predictions for an individual quantitative trait in molecular plant breeding.
Full Text Available Molecular plant breeding with the aid of molecular markers has played an important role in modern plant breeding over the last two decades. Many marker-based predictions for quantitative traits have been made to enhance parental selection, but the trait prediction accuracy remains generally low, even with the aid of dense, genome-wide SNP markers. To search for more accurate trait-specific prediction with informative SNP markers, we conducted a literature review on the prediction issues in molecular plant breeding and on the applicability of an RNA-Seq technique for developing function-associated specific trait (FAST SNP markers. To understand whether and how FAST SNP markers could enhance trait prediction, we also performed a theoretical reasoning on the effectiveness of these markers in a trait-specific prediction, and verified the reasoning through computer simulation. To the end, the search yielded an alternative to regular genomic selection with FAST SNP markers that could be explored to achieve more accurate trait-specific prediction. Continuous search for better alternatives is encouraged to enhance marker-based predictions for an individual quantitative trait in molecular plant breeding.
Ramey, Andrew M.; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Heard, Darryl J.
Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.
Several DNA fingerprinting techniques that use arbitrary primers to characterize, scan and tag genomic DNA were optimized and used to study plants and microbial pathogens. The generated arbitrarily amplified DNA (AAD) profiles could be tailored in their complexity and polymorphic content, allowing analysis of closely related organisms, such as vegetatively-propagated horticultural crops or clonal fungal populations. AAD markers were used in cultivar and strain identification, map-based cloning, and marker-assisted breeding, sometimes as sequence-tagged sites. Phenetic analysis using parsimony, cluster, and numerical methods was applied successfully to the identification of genetic relationships in turfgrass species such as bermudagrass, woody plants such as dogwoods, and floricultural species such as petunia and chrysanthemum. AAD profiles were used to measure for the first time a genome-wide mutation rate, directly in a plant. Mutation rates in vegetatively propagated bermudagrass were comparable to those in human, mice, fruit flies, and worms. In combination with established tools used in molecular systematics (e.g. rDNA sequence analysis), AAD markers tracked the introduction of exotic dogwood anthracnose-causing fungi in North America. As part of a breeding effort to combat dogwood diseases, AAD was used in pseudo-testcross mapping of the tree at the intra-specific level. Markers were efficiently generated despite the close relatedness of parental dogwood material. Finally, DNA markers and tags were also generated in soybean, and were used to construct high density maps and walk towards defined genomic regions in the positional cloning of the supernodulation nts-1 symbiotic gene. (author)
Ballester, A.R.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vos, de C.H.; Lintel Hekkert, B.; Orzaez, D.; Fernandez-Moreno, J.P.; Tripodi, S.; Grandillo, S.; Martin, C.; Heldens, J.; Ykema, M.; Granell, A.; Bovy, A.G.
The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines
Guillermo Raúl Pratta
Full Text Available Incorporating wild germplasm such as S. pimpinellifolium is an alternative strategy to prolong tomato fruit shelf life(SL without reducing fruit quality. A set of recombinant inbred lines with discrepant values of SL and weight (FW were derived byantagonistic-divergent selection from an interspecific cross. The general objective of this research was to evaluate Genotype x Year(GY and Marker x Year (MY interaction in these new genetic materials for both traits. Genotype and year principal effects and GYinteraction were statistically significant for SL. Genotype and year principal effects were significant for FW but GY interaction wasnot. The marker principal effect was significant for SL and FW but both year principal effect and MY interaction were not significant.Though SL was highly influenced by year conditions, some genome regions appeared to maintain a stable effect across years ofevaluation. Fruit weight, instead, was more independent of year effect.
as an experimental population, paving the way for investigating their genetic/molecular basis and facilitating breeding for quality-related compounds in tomato fruits.
Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi
Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems.
Tucker, Elise J; Baumann, Ute; Kouidri, Allan; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Baes, Mathieu; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Dong, Chongmei; Wu, Yongzhong; Sandhu, Ajay; Singh, Manjit; Langridge, Peter; Wolters, Petra; Albertsen, Marc C; Cigan, A Mark; Whitford, Ryan
The current rate of yield gain in crops is insufficient to meet the predicted demands. Capturing the yield boost from heterosis is one of the few technologies that offers rapid gain. Hybrids are widely used for cereals, maize and rice, but it has been a challenge to develop a viable hybrid system for bread wheat due to the wheat genome complexity, which is both large and hexaploid. Wheat is our most widely grown crop providing 20% of the calories for humans. Here, we describe the identification of Ms1, a gene proposed for use in large-scale, low-cost production of male-sterile (ms) female lines necessary for hybrid wheat seed production. We show that Ms1 completely restores fertility to ms1d, and encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein, necessary for pollen exine development. This represents a key step towards developing a robust hybridization platform in wheat.Heterosis can rapidly boost yield in crop species but development of hybrid-breeding systems for bread wheat remains a challenge. Here, Tucker et al. describe the molecular identification of the wheat Ms1 gene and discuss its potential for large-scale hybrid seed production in wheat.
Full Text Available Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems.
Lavinscky, M P; Souza, M M; Silva, G S; Melo, C A F
The analysis of meiotic behavior has been widely used in the study of plants as they provide relevant information about the viability of a species. Meiosis boasts a host of highly conserved events and changes in genes that control these events will give rise to irregularities that can alter the normal course of meiosis and may lead to complete sterility of the plant. The recombination of genes that occur in meiosis is an important event to generate variability and has been important in studies for genetic improvement and to create viable hybrids. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in meiosis allows the localization of specific regions, enables to differentiate genomes in a hybrid, permits to observe the pairing of homoeologous chromosomes, and if there was a recombination between the genomes of progenitor species. Furthermore, the GISH allows us to observe the close relationship between the species involved. This article aims to report over meiosis studies on plants and hybrids, the use and importance of molecular cytogenetic in meiotic analysis and contributions of meiotic analysis in breeding programs.
Root knot nematode resistance in tomato is a genetic trait which is determined by a single dominant gene ( Mi ) on chromosome 6 of tomato. Information about the mRNA or protein product is completely lacking, which precludes the cloning of Mi by
Joubès, Jérôme; Phan, Thi-Hai; Just, Daniel; Rothan, Christophe; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raymond, Philippe; Chevalier, Christian
Following fruit set, the early development of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit comprises two distinct phases: a cell division phase and a consecutive phase of cell expansion until the onset of ripening. In this study, we analyzed cytological and molecular changes characterizing these early phases of tomato fruit development. First we investigated the spatial and temporal regulation of the mitotic activity during fruit development. The DNA content of isolated nuclei from the different fruit tissues was determined by flow cytometry analysis. The results confirm the data of mitotic activity measurements and show that cell differentiation, leading to expanded cells, is characterized by endoreduplication. Second, we isolated two cDNAs, named Lyces;CDKA1 (accession no. Y17225) and Lyces;CDKA2 (accession no. Y17226), encoding tomato homologs of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) p34cdc2. Tomato CDKA gene expression was followed at both the transcriptional and translational levels during fruit development. The transcripts for Lyces;CDKA1 and Lyces;CDKA2 and the corresponding CDKA proteins are predominantly accumulated during the phase of cell division between anthesis and 5 d post anthesis (DPA). In whole fruits, the maximum CDK activity was obtained between 5 and 10 DPA. The determination of the kinase activity using protein extracts from the different fruit tissues was in agreement with mitotic activity analysis. It showed the particular disappearance of the activity in the gel tissue as early as 15 DPA. The overall data of CDK activity measurements suggest a strong post-translational regulation of CDK at the temporal and spatial levels during early tomato fruit development. PMID:10557234
Wild tomatoes are tremendous sources of useful traits in tomato breeding, to improve disease resistances, environmental tolerances, and improved agronomic traits such as increased soluble solids. This chapter includes historical and updated information on the phylogenetic relationships of wild tomat...
Tsushima, Daiki; Tsushima, Taro; Sano, Teruo
The dahlia isolate of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) accumulates slowly and induces mild disease symptoms in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) plants in contrast to the intermediate isolate (PSTVd-I). The dahlia isolate (PSTVd-D) differs from PSTVd-I in eight locations: 42 and 43 in the terminal left (TL); 64/65, 311, and 312/313 in the pathogenicity (P); 118 and 126 in the variable (V); and 201 in the terminal right (TR) domains. To investigate the molecular determinants in the PSTVd-D genome responsible for the attenuation of symptom severity and lower replication/accumulation in tomato plants, a series of mutants between PSTVd-D and PSTVd-I were constructed by focusing first on the mutations in the TL and P domains in the left-hand half of the molecule. Then, more detailed analysis was performed on the three mutations at positions 118, 126, and 201 in the V and TR domains. One of these mutations is located around the boundary of the right border of the RY-motif, a predicted recognition site of Virp1, a viroid-binding protein. Of 14 mutants (seven based on PSTVd-D and the other seven based on PSTVd-I) examined, 11 propagated stably and three lost infectivity. Mutations in the TL and P domains (42U, 43C, 310U/C, and U or UU insertion to 311/312 in PSTVd mild types) majorly influenced the expression of mild-like symptoms. In contrast, when each of the mutations at 118, 126, and 201 in the V and TR domains were exchanged independently, they minimally influenced systemic accumulation and symptom expression. Mutants based on PSTVd-D with PSTVd-I-type mutations at nucleotide positions 118, 126, and/or 201 showed mild symptoms similar to PSTVd-D, but their systemic accumulation was a little faster than PSTVd-D. In contrast, mutants based on PSTVd-I with PSTVd-D-type mutations at 118, 126, and/or 201 nucleotide positions showed severe symptoms similar to PSTVd-I, and the systemic accumulation was similar to or a little slower than PSTVd-I. The nucleotide at
Bong Choon Lee
Full Text Available Several tomato production regions in Korea were surveyed for tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD. Tomato leaf samples showing TYLCD-like symptoms were collected from Tongyeong (To, Geoje (Gi, and Gimhae (Gh cities of the southern part of Korea. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV was detected and the full-length genomes of the isolates were sequenced. The TYLCV isolates found in Korea shared high sequence identity (> 99% with TYLCV-IL [JR:Omu:Ng] (AB110217. Phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that they formed two groups (with little genetic variability, and the To, Gj, and Gh isolates belonged to the TYLCV-IL group. An infectious clone of TYLCV-To (JQ013089 was constructed and agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi, Petunia hybrida, Capsicum annuum, and Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Hausumomotaro. Agroinfection with a dimeric infectious clone of TYLCV-To induced severe leaf curling and stunting symptoms in these plants, excluding C. annuum. Tomato plants then developed typical yellow leaf curl symptoms.
Stevens, Wendy Tessman
Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)
Ghorpade, Prabhakar B; Gupta, Praveen K; Prakash, Vibhu; Cuthbert, Richard J; Kulkarni, Mandar; Prakash, Nikita; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K; Saini, Mohini
During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. Because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, o...
Significant advances in the establishment of the methodologies required for the molecular breeding of temperate forage grasses (Lolium and Festuca species) and legumes (Trifolium and Medicago species) are reviewed. Examples of current products and approaches for the application of these methodologies to forage grass and legume improvement are outlined. The plethora of new technologies and tools now available for high-throughput gene discovery and genome-wide expression analysis have opened up opportunities for innovative applications in the identification, functional characterization and use of genes of value in forage production systems and beyond. Selected examples of current work in pasture plant genomics, xenogenomics, symbiogenomics and micro-array-based molecular phenotyping are discussed. (author)
Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X
Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.
Formation , germination and dormancy of seeds are important steps in the life cycle of higher plants. The seed is the generative dispersal unit, which enables plants to spread and survive through periods or seasons of less favourable conditions. In agriculture tomato is
Formation , germination and dormancy of seeds are important steps in the life cycle of higher plants. The seed is the generative dispersal unit, which enables plants to spread and survive through periods or seasons of less favourable conditions. In agriculture tomato is
Roussel, V; Koenig, J; Beckert, M; Balfourier, F
A set of 41 wheat microsatellite markers (WMS), giving 42 polymorphic loci (two loci on each chromosome), was used to describe genetic diversity in a sample of 559 French bread wheat accessions (landraces and registered varieties) cultivated between 1800 and 2000. A total of 609 alleles were detected. Allele number per locus ranged from 3 to 28, with a mean allele number of 14.5. On the average, about 72% of the total number of alleles were observed with a frequency of less than 5% and were considered to be rare alleles. WMS markers used showed different levels of gene diversity: the highest PIC value occurred in the B genome (0.686) compared to 0.641 and 0.659 for the A and D genomes, respectively. When comparing landraces with registered varieties gathered in seven temporal groups, a cluster analysis based on an F(st) matrix provided a clear separation of landraces from the seven variety groups, while a shift was observed between varieties registered before and after 1970. There was a decrease of about 25% in allelic richness between landraces and varieties. In contrast, when considering only registered varieties, changes in diversity related to temporal trends appeared more qualitative than quantitative, except at the end of the 1960s, when a bottleneck might have occurred. New varieties appear to be increasingly similar to each other in relation to allelic composition, while differences between landraces are more and more pronounced over time. Finally, considering a sub-sample of 193 varieties representative of breeding material selected during the twentieth century by the six most important plant breeding companies, few differences in diversity were observed between the different breeding programmes. The observed structure of diversity in French bread wheat collections is discussed in terms of consequences, both for plant breeders and for managers of crop genetic resources.
Wen Xianfang; Zhang Long; Dai Weixu; Li Chunhua
This paper described the status of space mutation breeding in China. It emphasized that since 1978 Chinese space scientists and agricultural biologists have send 50 kg seeds of more than 70 crops including cereals, cotton, oil, vegetable, fruit and pasture to the space using the facilities such as return satellite 9 times, Shenzhou aircraft twice and high balloon 4 times. New varieties of 19 with high yield, high quality and disease-resistance, have been bred though years of breeding at the earth at more than 70 Chinese research institutes in 22 provinces. The new varieties include five rice varieties, two wheat varieties, two cotton varieties, one sweat pepper, one tomato variety, one sesame variety, three water melon varieties, three lotus varieties and one ganoderma lucidum variety. In addition more than 50 new lines and many other germplasm resources have been obtained. Study on space breeding mechanism, such as biological effect of space induction, genetic variation by cell and molecular techniques and simulated study at the earth, has been conducted, and some progresses have been achieved. Many space-breeding bases have been established in some provinces. Space varieties have been extended up to 270000 hectares, and some useful scientific achievements and social economic benefit had been made. The study of Chinese space mutation breeding is going ahead in the world. The paper also introduced the contribution and results made by return satellites of the first three generation in space science. Some basic parameters involved in the study on space mutation breeding of return satellites were listed
Kumar, Arvind; Dixit, Shalabh; Ram, T; Yadaw, R B; Mishra, K K; Mandal, N P
The increased occurrence and severity of drought stress have led to a high yield decline in rice in recent years in drought-affected areas. Drought research at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) over the past decade has concentrated on direct selection for grain yield under drought. This approach has led to the successful development and release of 17 high-yielding drought-tolerant rice varieties in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa. In addition to this, 14 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) showing a large effect against high-yielding drought-susceptible popular varieties were identified using grain yield as a selection criterion. Six of these (qDTY 1.1 , qDTY 2.2 , qDTY 3.1 , qDTY 3.2 , qDTY 6.1 , and qDTY 12.1 ) showed an effect against two or more high-yielding genetic backgrounds in both the lowland and upland ecosystem, indicating their usefulness in increasing the grain yield of rice under drought. The yield of popular rice varieties IR64 and Vandana has been successfully improved through a well-planned marker-assisted backcross breeding approach, and QTL introgression in several other popular varieties is in progress. The identification of large-effect QTLs for grain yield under drought and the higher yield increase under drought obtained through the use of these QTLs (which has not been reported in other cereals) indicate that rice, because of its continuous cultivation in two diverse ecosystems (upland, drought tolerant, and lowland, drought susceptible), has benefited from the existence of larger genetic variability than in other cereals. This can be successfully exploited using marker-assisted breeding. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Sasano, Yu; Kariya, Takahiro; Usugi, Shogo; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Harashima, Satoshi
As yeast is commonly used for RNA production, it is industrially important to breed strains with high RNA contents. The upstream activating factor (UAF) plays an important role in transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a major constituent of intracellular RNA species. Here, we targeted the essential rRNA transcription regulator Rrn5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a component of the UAF complex, and disrupted the genomic RRN5 gene using a helper plasmid carrying an RRN5 gene. Then we isolated nine suppressor mutants (Sup mutants) of RRN5 gene disruption, causing deficiency in rRNA transcription. The Sup mutants had RNA contents of approximately 40% of the wild type level and expansion of rDNA repeats to ca. 400-700 copies. Reintroduction of a functional RRN5 gene into Sup mutants caused a reduction in the number of rDNA repeats to close to the wild type level but did not change RNA content. However, we found that reintroduction of RRN5 into the Sup16 mutant (in which the FOB1 gene encoding the rDNA replication fork barrier site binding protein was disrupted) resulted in a significant increase (17%) in RNA content compared with wild type, although the rDNA repeat copy number was almost identical to the wild type strain. In this case, upregulated transcription of non-transcribed spacers (NTS) occurred, especially in the NTS2 region; this was likely mediated by RNA polymerase II and accounted for the increased RNA content. Thus, we propose a novel breeding strategy for developing high RNA content yeast by harnessing the essential rRNA transcription regulator.
Tomato and pepper are important vegetable crops grown in Nigeria, accounting for 50% of the African production. Pathogen diversity is a prerequisite for breeding resistant cultivars, as a means of improving the production. A survey for virus disease incidence on field grown pepper and tomato was carried out in three state ...
Jun 5, 2017 ... parameters and lycopene contents have shown that the cultivars were of high nutritional quality and can be good sources of raw material for industrial ... of foods such as tomato prevents colon cancer, heart disease and also normalizes ..... properties of F5 Breeding lines Tomatoes. British Journal of Applied ...
Aoki, Koh; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ayako; Kawamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suda, Kunihiro; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Ooga, Kazuhide; Torii, Maiko; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Egusa, Mayumi; Kodama, Motoichiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Kikuchi, Mari; Fukushima, Sumire; Okabe, Akiko; Arie, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Omura, Toshikazu; Ezura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Daisuke
genomics and molecular breeding. Full-length cDNA sequences and their annotations are provided in the database KaFTom http://www.pgb.kazusa.or.jp/kaftom/ via the website of the National Bioresource Project Tomato http://tomato.nbrp.jp.
Erfan, Ahmed M; Selim, Abdullah A; Moursi, Mohamed K; Nasef, Soad A; Abdelwhab, E M
Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is an acute highly contagious disease of ducklings caused by three distinct serotypes of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the RNA family Picornaviridae, where serotype 1 is the most widespread serotype worldwide. To date, little if any is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV outside Asia. The current study describes surveillance on DHV in 46 commercial duck farms in Egypt with a history of high mortality in young ducklings from 3 to 15 day-old from 2012 to 2014. Clinical samples were examined by generic RT-PCR assays followed by partial sequence analysis of the 5'UTR, VP1 and 3D genes of the vaccine strain and 15 field viruses. The overall positive rate was 37% (n=17/46). All duck breeds (Pekin, Muscovy, Mallard and Green Winged) were susceptible to the disease with mortality ranged from 15% to 96.7%. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Egyptian strains cluster in the DHAV serotype 1 with Asian viruses and distinguishable from the vaccine strains. So far, this is the first report on the genetic characterisation of DHAV in Egypt. This study may be useful to better understand the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Karasawa, M; Sudré, C P
Accessions in gene banks need to be characterized and evaluated to determine their genetic diversity. We made a joint diversity analysis of the tomato gene bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Rio de Janeiro state, using the Ward-modified location model. Forty Solanum lycopersicum accessions were characterized and evaluated for 22 morphoagronomic descriptors and 131 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Based on the pseudo-F and pseudo-t(2) criteria, the optimal number of groups was established as five. Variability within groups was high for both continuous and discrete nominal data. The first two canonical variables explained about 90% of the inter-group variability. Care should be taken in using the Ward-modified location model technique to avoid incorporating excessive and unnecessary markers, which could favor molecular markers when compared with morphoagronomic variables. However, the minimum number of markers is germplasm- dependent and must be recalculated for each new divergence analysis.
Full Text Available Domestication of crop plants is the foundation of modern agriculture, which brings forth desirable changes in cultivated species that distinguish them from their wild relatives. This resulted in the origin of crop species at known geographical locations coinciding with the transition of human societies from hunter-gather to agrarian civilizations. Fruit size and shape are very important traits for horticulture industry, as well as for studying the domestication of the horticultural species. In this review, we have summarized the origin of some widely-grown horticultural crops and also the molecular bases of the fruit size and shape changes of the horticultural crops during the domestication, taking tomato as an example.
Rudolf von May
Full Text Available The loss of hearing structures and loss of advertisement calls in many terrestrial breeding frogs (Strabomantidae living at high elevations in South America are common and intriguing phenomena. The Andean frog genus Phrynopus Peters, 1873 has undergone an evolutionary radiation in which most species lack the tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus, yet the phylogenetic relationships among species in this group remain largely unknown. Here, we present an expanded molecular phylogeny of Phrynopus that includes 24 nominal species. Our phylogeny includes Phrynopus peruanus, the type species of the genus, and 10 other species for which genetic data were previously unavailable. We found strong support for monophyly of Phrynopus, and that two nominal species—Phrynopus curator and Phrynopus nicoleae—are junior synonyms of Phrynopus tribulosus. Using X-ray computed tomography (CT imaging, we demonstrate that the absence of external hearing structures is associated with complete loss of the auditory skeletal elements (columella in at least one member of the genus. We mapped the tympanum condition on to a species tree to infer whether the loss of hearing structures took place once or multiple times. We also assessed whether tympanum condition, body size, and body shape are associated with the elevational distribution and habitat use. We identified a single evolutionary transition that involved the loss of both the tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus, which in turn is correlated with the absence of advertisement calls. We also identified several species pairs where one species inhabits the Andean grassland and the other montane forest. When accounting for phylogenetic relatedness among species, we detected a significant pattern of increasing body size with increasing elevation. Additionally, species at higher elevations tend to develop shorter limbs, shorter head, and shorter snout than species living at lower elevations. Our findings strongly suggest
Charles Ojo OLAIYA
Full Text Available Tomatoes are a unique functional food and a natural reservoir of many health promoting nutrients, antioxidants, dietary fibres and chemopreventive nutraceuticals. They are particularly rich in lycopene which has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancers of the prostate and the gastrointestinal tract. As an important vegetable worldwide, tomatoes have drawn the attention of many researchers. Thus, numerous investigations have been conducted and various improvement strategies applied for enhancing the functionality of this medicinal food geared towards disease prevention, global health and well-being. Molecular breeding has produced a number of tomato lines with enhanced levels of lycopene, β-carotene and xanthophylls. Over expression of certain genes have generated tomato fruits with enhanced ascorbic acid levels and folate accumulation up to 25-fold. Plant hormone technology has been used to enhance tomato minerals, antioxidant vitamins, lycopene, β-carotene, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in tomato fruit tissues. Manipulation in soilless culture solutions is valuable for enhancing the antioxidative capacity of tomatoes, vitamin C, flavonoids, lycopene, and β-carotene in fresh fruits. In addition, the spraying of nutrients, such as potassium, in field conditions has a strong stimulatory effect on lycopene contents of tomatoes. Transgenic strategies are also being adopted. These strategies offer a rapid way to introduce desirable traits into the phenotype and differ from other approaches in that novel genetic information is introduced directly into the plant’s genome. An important and current trend in the improvement of functional foods is to shift from enhancing single nutritional compounds towards enhancing multiple nutrients and phytochemicals in order to harness their synergistic interactions. This could be achieved by the use of strategies having pleitropic effects such as bioregulators, multigene
Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .
Li, Q B; Haskell, D W; Guy, C L
Stress 70 molecular chaperones are found in all the major subcellular compartments of plant cells, and they are encoded by a multigene family. Twelve members of this family have been identified in spinach. The expression of the stress 70 molecular chaperones in response to heat shock is well-known and it appears that low temperature exposure can also stimulate their expression. However, it has been difficult to determine which member(s) of the family are specifically responsive to low temperature. This study was initiated to determine the levels of expression of the stress 70 family members and other selected chaperones in response to high and low temperature exposure. During heat shock of spinach, of the 10 stress 70 family members that were examined, all 10 showed increased RNA levels after one hour, and all showed down-regulation at longer durations of high temperature exposure. However, the response to low temperature was quite variable and complex. Some members were induced, some were transiently up-regulated, while others showed sustained up-regulation at a low non-freezing temperature. In comparison, the entirety of the molecular chaperone expression response of cold-sensitive tomato at the same low non-freezing temperature was even more dramatic with 11 of 15 molecular chaperones tested exhibiting elevated expression. The increased chaperone expression is consistent with the hypothesis that the biogenesis or stability of some proteins is compromised at low non-freezing temperatures. In contrast, mild freezing sufficient to cause injury of spinach did not materially activate chaperone expression.
Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard; Batley, Jacqueline; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Maziah, Mahmood; Sabu, Kallevettankuzhy K; Abiri, Rambod; Sakuanrungsirikul, Suchirat; Tan, Soon Guan
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees. (AP) is a hermaphroditic, self-compatible, and habitual inbreeding plant. Its main bioactive component is andrographolide, which is capable of inducing autophagic cell death in some human cancer cells and helps fight HIV/AIDS. Increasing the andrographolide content by investigating the genetic mechanisms controlling its biosynthesis in order to improve and develop high-yielding cultivars are the main breeding targets for AP. However, there might exist some limitations or barriers for crossability within AP accessions. Recently, this problem was addressed in AP by using a combination of crossbreeding and biotechnology-aided genetic methods. This review emphasizes that development of a breeding platform in a hard-to-breed plant, such as AP, requires the involvement of a broad range of methods from classical genetics to molecular breeding. To this end, a phenological stage (for example, flowering and stigma development) can be simplified to a quantitative morphological trait (for example, bud or stigma length) to be used as an index to express the highest level of receptivity in order to manage outcrossing. The outcomes of the basic crossability research can be then employed in diallel mating and crossbreeding. This review explains how genomic data could produce useful information regarding genetic distance and its influence on the crossability of AP accessions. Our review indicates that co-dominant DNA markers, such as microsatellites, are also capable of resolving the evolutionary pathway and cryptic features of plant populations and such information can be used to select the best breeding strategy. This review also highlights the importance of proteomic analysis as a breeding tool. In this regard, protein diversification, as well as the impact of normal and stress-responsive proteins on morphometric and physiological behaviors, could be used in breeding programs. These findings have immense potential for improving
Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S
Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status.
Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie
Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana
This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM, and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA
This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs
Krewer, Cristina da Costa; Spricigo, Dênis Augusto; de Avila Botton, Sônia; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schrank, Irene; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna
Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coco-bacillus and an intracellular opportunistic pathogen which causes pneumonia in foals. It is widely detected in environment and has been isolated from several sources, as soil, feces and gut from health and sick foals. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological status (endemic, sporadic or no infection) of horse breeding farms from Bage County in South of Brazil, using a multiplex PCR. One hundred and eighteen R. equi isolates were identified by biochemical tests and submitted to a specie-specific and vapA multiplex PCR. These isolates were obtained from: three farms where the R. equi infection has been noticed, two farms where the disease has been not reported and one farm where the disease is frequent. All clinical isolates from horse breeding farms where the disease is endemic and/or sporadic were vapA-positive. None environmental isolates were vapA-positive. In three horse breeding farms with sporadic R. equi infection, 11.54% of the isolates from adult horse feces were vapA-positive. The multiplex PCR technique has proven to be effective for the molecular and epidemiological characterization of the R. equi isolates in horse breeding farms. An important finding in this study was the isolation of vapApositive R. equi from adult horse feces, which is an evidence for other routes of dissemination of this pathogen in the farms. PMID:24031201
Maria Manuela Rigano
pyramided lines. Moreover, analyses here carried out suggest the presence in the introgression regions of novel regulatory proteins, such as one Myb4 detected on chromosome 7 and one bHLH detected in chromosome 12. Overall our data indicates that structural and regulatory genes identified in this study might have a key role for the manipulation of the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in tomato fruit.
Carter, Jared D; Pereira, Andy; Dickerman, Allan W; Veilleux, Richard E
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model organism for Solanaceae in both molecular and agronomic research. This project utilized Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and the transposon-tagging construct Activator (Ac)/Dissociator (Ds)-ATag-Bar_gosGFP to produce activation-tagged and knockout mutants in the processing tomato cultivar M82. The construct carried hygromycin resistance (hyg), green fluorescent protein (GFP), and the transposase (TPase) of maize (Zea mays) Activator major transcript X054214.1 on the stable Ac element, along with a 35S enhancer tetramer and glufosinate herbicide resistance (BAR) on the mobile Ds-ATag element. An in vitro propagation strategy was used to produce a population of 25 T0 plants from a single transformed plant regenerated in tissue culture. A T1 population of 11,000 selfed and cv M82 backcrossed progeny was produced from the functional T0 line. This population was screened using glufosinate herbicide, hygromycin leaf painting, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Insertion sites of transposed Ds-ATag elements were identified through thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and resulting product sequences were aligned to the recently published tomato genome. A population of 509 independent, Ds-only transposant lines spanning all 12 tomato chromosomes has been developed. Insertion site analysis demonstrated that more than 80% of these lines harbored Ds insertions conducive to activation tagging. The capacity of the Ds-ATag element to alter transcription was verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in two mutant lines. The transposon-tagged lines have been immortalized in seed stocks and can be accessed through an online database, providing a unique resource for tomato breeding and analysis of gene function in the background of a commercial tomato cultivar.
Scott, G.; Dickinson, Matthew; Shama, G.; Rupar, M.
Postharvest treatment of tomato fruit with high-intensity, pulsed polychromatic light (HIPPL) has previously been shown to induce delayed ripening and disease resistance comparable to that of low-intensity UV-C (LIUV). Little, however, is known of the mechanisms underpinning postharvest HIPPL hormesis in tomato fruit. Expression of genes involved in plant hormone biosynthesis, defence, secondary metabolism and ripening were monitored 24 h post treatment (24 HPT), 10 d post treatment (10 DPT) ...
Wang, Hongbo; Ye, Shengtuo; Mou, Tongmin
The development of hybrid rice is a practical approach for increasing rice production. However, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, causes severe yield loss of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and can threaten food security. Therefore, breeding hybrid rice resistant to BPH is the most effective and economical strategy to maintain high and stable production. Fortunately, numerous BPH resistance genes have been identified, and abundant linkage markers are available for molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs. Hence, we pyramided two BPH resistance genes, Bph14 and Bph15, into a susceptive CMS restorer line Huahui938 and its derived hybrids using MAS to improve the BPH resistance of hybrid rice. Three near-isogenic lines (NILs) with pyramided Bph14 and Bph15 were obtained by molecular marker-assisted backcross (MAB) and phenotypic selection. The genomic components of these NILs were detected using the whole-genome SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism) array, RICE6K, suggesting that the recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery of the NILs was 87.88, 87.70 and 86.62 %, respectively. BPH bioassays showed that the improved NILs and their derived hybrids carrying homozygous Bph14 and Bph15 were resistant to BPH. However, the hybrids with heterozygous Bph14 and Bph15 remained susceptible to BPH. The developed NILs showed no significant differences in major agronomic traits and rice qualities compared with the recurrent parent. Moreover, the improved hybrids derived from the NILs exhibited better agronomic performance and rice quality compared with the controls under natural field conditions. This study demonstrates that it is essential to stack Bph14 and Bph15 into both the maternal and paternal parents for developing BPH-resistant hybrid rice varieties. The SNP array with abundant DNA markers is an efficient tool for analyzing the RPG recovery of progenies and can be used to monitor the donor segments in NILs, thus being extremely important
Potnis, Neha; Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Cowles, Kimberly N.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.; Jones, Jeffrey B.
Salmonella enterica rarely grows on healthy, undamaged plants, but its persistence is influenced by bacterial plant pathogens. The interactions between S. enterica, Xanthomonas perforans (a tomato bacterial spot pathogen), and tomato were characterized. We observed that virulent X. perforans, which establishes disease by suppressing pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity that leads to effector-triggered susceptibility, created a conducive environment for persistence of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere, while activation of effector-triggered immunity by avirulent X. perforans resulted in a dramatic reduction in S. enterica populations. S. enterica populations persisted at ∼10 times higher levels in leaves coinoculated with virulent X. perforans than in those where S. enterica was applied alone. In contrast, S. enterica populations were ∼5 times smaller in leaves coinoculated with avirulent X. perforans than in leaves inoculated with S. enterica alone. Coinoculation with virulent X. perforans increased S. enterica aggregate formation; however, S. enterica was not found in mixed aggregates with X. perforans. Increased aggregate formation by S. enterica may serve as the mechanism of persistence on leaves cocolonized by virulent X. perforans. S. enterica association with stomata was altered by X. perforans; however, it did not result in appreciable populations of S. enterica in the apoplast even in the presence of large virulent X. perforans populations. Gene-for-gene resistance against X. perforans successively restricted S. enterica populations. Given the effect of this interaction, breeding for disease-resistant cultivars may be an effective strategy to limit both plant disease and S. enterica populations and, consequently, human illness. PMID:24632252
Prof. P. Hazra
May 15, 2013 ... additive x additive type non-allelic interaction with negative sign for the characters, which will hinder the pace of progress through ... Key words: Gene action, diallel, generation mean, fruit quality, tomato. INTRODUCTION ... for tomato antioxidant levels either by traditional breeding methods (Ronen et al., ...
Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...
Full Text Available Abstract Tomato is a plant which has highly important nutrition, economic and scientific aspects. Due to its susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses, breeding through genetic engineering of this plant is an effective method for enhancement of its tolerance to stresses. In this experiment, factors influencing the transformation of cultivated tomato, were studied. The high shoot regeneration was observed in Peto earlyCH and Early urbanaY cultivars, respectively and the most transformation rate was obtained in Early urbanaY cultivar. Preculture of explants for 1 day and addition of 100 - 150 µM acetosyringone into inoculation solution had a positive effect on transformation efficency. The optimum inoculation and cocultivation time for explants was 15 minutes and 2 days respectively. Putative transgenic plants were confirmrd using PCR and specific primers of both genes (nptII and codA genes. These plants were transferred to the soil for further molecular and bioassay experiments. Keywords: Agrobacterium, Cocultivation, Preculture, Regeneration, Transformation, Tomato
Batur, Fulya; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom
Focused on the impact of stringent intellectual property mechanisms over the uses of plant agricultural biodiversity in crop improvement, the article delves into a systematic analysis of the relationship between institutional paradigms and their technological contexts of application, identified as mass selection, controlled hybridisation, molecular breeding tools and transgenics. While the strong property paradigm has proven effective in the context of major leaps forward in genetic engineering, it faces a systematic breakdown when extended to mass selection, where innovation often displays a collective nature. However, it also creates partial blockages in those innovation schemes rested between on-farm observation and genetic modification, i.e. conventional plant breeding and upstream molecular biology research tools. Neither overly strong intellectual property rights, nor the absence of well delineated protection have proven an optimal fit for these two intermediary socio-technological systems of cumulative incremental innovation. To address these challenges, the authors look at appropriate institutional alternatives which can create effective incentives for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation and the equitable distribution of technologies in plant improvement, using the flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement, the liability rules set forth in patents or plant variety rights themselves (in the form of farmers', breeders' and research exceptions), and other ad hoc reward regimes.
Chitarra, Walter; Maserti, Biancaelena; Gambino, Giorgio; Guerrieri, Emilio; Balestrini, Raffaella
A multidisciplinary approach, involving eco-physiological, morphometric, biochemical and molecular analyses, has been used to study the impact of two different AM fungi, i.e. Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices, on tomato response to water stress. Overall, results show that AM symbiosis positively affects the tolerance to drought in tomato with a different plant response depending on the involved AM fungal species.
This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.
Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.
A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV)
Uddin, Mohammad M; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Chang, Hye-Sook; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Rahman, Mohammad M; Kohyama, Moeko; Hossain, Mohammad A; Takayama, Kenji; Yamato, Osamu
Canine GM1 gangliosidosis is a fatal disease in the Shiba Inu breed, which is one of the most popular traditional breeds in Japan and is maintained as a standard breed in many countries. Therefore, it is important to control and reduce the prevalence of GM1 gangliosidosis for maintaining the quality of this breed and to ensure supply of healthy dogs to prospective breeders and owners. This molecular epidemiological survey was performed to formulate an effective strategy for the control and prevention of this disease. The survey was carried out among 590 clinically unaffected Shiba Inu dogs from the 8 districts of Japan, and a genotyping test was used to determine nation-wide and regional carrier frequencies. The number and native district of affected dogs identified in 16 years from 1997 to June 2013 were also surveyed retrospectively. Of the 590 dogs examined, 6 dogs (1.02%, 6/590) were carriers: 3 dogs (2.27%, 3/132) from the Kinki district and the other 3 dogs from the Hokkaido, Kanto, and Shikoku districts. The retrospective survey revealed 23 affected dogs, among which, 19 dogs (82.6%) were born within the last 7 years. Of the 23 affected dogs, 12 dogs (52.2%) were from the Kinki district. Pedigree analysis demonstrated that all the affected dogs and carriers with the pedigree information have a close blood relationship. Our results showed that the current carrier frequency for GM1 gangliosidosis is on the average 1.02% in Japan and rather high in the Kinki district, which may be related to the high prevalence observed over the past 16 years in this region. This observation suggests that carrier dogs are distributed all over Japan; however, kennels in the Kinki district may face an increased risk of GM1 gangliosidosis. Therefore, for effective control and prevention of this disease, it is necessary to examine as many breeding dogs as possible from all regions of Japan, especially from kennels located in areas with high prevalence and carrier frequency.
Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.
Abscission, which is the process of organ separation, is a highly regulated process occurring as a final stage of organ development. In the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) system, flower and leaf abscission was induced by flower removal or leaf deblading, leading to auxin depletion which results in in...
Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. Results We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1 derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27 with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47. The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1 and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related
Trujillo-Moya, Carlos; Gisbert, Carmina; Vilanova, Santiago; Nuez, Fernando
Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1) derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27) with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47). The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8) in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1) and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related to regeneration. In this study we have
Govorova, G.F.; Khrustaleva, V.V.; Shcherbakov, V.K.
Studies were carried out for two years on eight mutant lines of currant tomato at the Krymsk Experimental Breeding Station of the N.I. Vavilov All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Plant-Growing (VIR). The station is situated in an area of commercial field tomato growing (Krasnodar region). The mutant lines of currant tomato (VIR specimen No. k-4053) were obtained through chronic gamma-irradiation. A disease resistance evaluation of the mutants was carried out for Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum Rein. and Berth.), for black bacterial spotting (Xanthomonas vesicatoria Dows.), for tobacco mosaic virus Nicotiana 1 Smith), for streak virus (Nicotiana 1), for the combination TMV with X and Y potato viruses, for cucumber virus (Cucumis 1), and also for top rot. Fifty plants of each mutant line were evaluated and checks were made three times in each season. A comparison of the currant tomato mutants with the standard tomato varieties demonstrates the better resistance shown by the mutant germplasm to the main pathogens. The degree to which some currant tomato mutants were affected by Verticillium was lower than that of the most VerticiIlium-resistant samples of tomato evaluated between 1975 and 1981. The mutants of currant tomato should therefore be of interest as germplasm in breeding tomatoes for improved multiple disease resistance
Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Santos, Elisa S. L.; Jesus, Onildo N.; Vieira, João G. P.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Corrêa, Ronan X.; Souza, Anete P.
Passiflora species are distributed throughout Latin America, and Brazil and Colombia serve as the centers of diversity for this genus. We performed cross-species amplification to evaluate 109 microsatellite loci in 14 Passiflora species and estimated the diversity and genetic structure of Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora setaceae and Passiflora edulis. A total of 127 accessions, including 85 accessions of P. edulis, a commercial species, and 42 accessions of 13 wild species, were examined. The cross-species amplification was effective for obtaining microsatellite loci (average cross-amplification of 70%). The average number of alleles per locus (five) was relatively low, and the average diversity ranged from 0.52 in P. cincinnata to 0.32 in P. setacea. The Bayesian analyses indicated that the P. cincinnata and P. setacea accessions were distributed into two groups, and the P. edulis accessions were distributed into five groups. Private alleles were identified, and suggestions for core collections are presented. Further collections are necessary, and the information generated may be useful for breeding and conservation. PMID:25514245
Husseneder, Claudia; Powell, Janine E; Grace, J Kenneth; Vargo, Edward L; Matsuura, Kenji
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is an invasive species that originated in China and has been introduced to Hawaii and the U.S. mainland. Colonies are headed either by a pair of reproductives (simple families) or by varying numbers of inbreeding reproductives (extended families), and therefore have variable degrees of inbreeding. Worker size also varies among colonies of Formosan termites. We tested whether variation in worker size can be explained by the breeding system. Workers were collected from colonies from three geographically separated populations (China, Hawaii, and Louisiana), and body weight and head size were measured. Microsatellite genotyping was used to establish whether colonies were simple or extended families and to determine the heterozygosity of workers and their degree of inbreeding relative to their colony (F (IC), sensitive to the number of reproductives). All Chinese colonies contained multiple inbreeding neotenics. In Hawaii, 37% of the colonies were simple families and 63% were extended families, both having considerable degrees of inbreeding. In Louisiana, 57% of the colonies were simple families, which were mostly headed by unrelated pairs, and 43% were extended families. In simple families, size and body weight of workers were not associated with F (IC) or heterozygosity. In extended families of two populations, both size parameters were negatively correlated with F (IC); however, heterozygosity was not associated with worker size in any of the populations. This suggests that the number of reproductives within colonies has a stronger influence on worker size than the individuals' genetic diversity in Formosan subterranean termite colonies.
Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. ... This mechanism is an immunological response following bacterial infection and is ... inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are mainly used in the treatment of pain and ...
Full Text Available Tomato breeding lines with fruit colour different from the traditional red colour were studied in order to search for sources of resistance to races R0 and R1 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. As a result of selection of healthy plants with hypersensitive response (HR, the resistance was stabilized and perspective lines gene-carriers of resistance to bacterial speck were chosen. Lines L1078 and L1083 with brown-red (black coloured fruits and line L1130 with purple-red fruits possess a complex resistance to races R0 and R1. It was established that two of the lines with rose-coloured tomato fruits (L1088 and L584 were resistant to race 1 of P. syringae pv. tomato. These lines possessed valuable economic and morphological characters and they could be used in combinative and heterosis breeding for development of resistance to bacterial speck varieties.
Mi, Jiaming; Yang, Dabing; Chen, Yi; Jiang, Jiefeng; Mou, Haipeng; Huang, Junbin; Ouyang, Yidan; Mou, Tongmin
Breeding two-line hybrid rice with disease resistance is an effective approach to stabilize rice yield in commercial rice production of China. We improved the blast and bacterial blight resistance of Guangzhan63-4S, an elite photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterile (P/TGMS) line widely used in two-line hybrid rice, by introducing the R genes Pi2 and Xa7 conferring resistance to rice blast and bacterial blight, respectively. Through the backcrossing and gene pyramiding breeding coupled with molecular marker-assisted selection, a new P/TGMS line Hua1228S carrying Pi2, Xa7, and tms5 was developed. Based on 200,000 SNP markers by next-generation sequencing, Hua1228S covered 87.6% of the recurrent genome, as well as 4.5% of the donor genome from VE6219 and 7.9% from YR7029-39. When infected with seven tested Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains, Hua1228S conferred high resistance (0 level) to six bacterial blight strains. Moreover, Hua1228S showed broad-spectrum resistance to rice blast isolates with a high resistance frequency of 90.91%. High levels of resistance to leaf blast and neck blast were observed under heavy disease pressure in natural field. Importantly, Hua1228S showed identical fertility-sterility alteration pattern to Guangzhan63-4S. Thus, two hybrid combinations Hua Liangyou 2821 and Hua Liangyou 284 derived from Hua1228S exhibited enhanced resistance and higher yield compared with the control variety Feng Liangyou 4. These results indicate that Hua1228S has tremendous potentiality to increase and stabilize the rice yield, through the introgression of two R genes by marker-assisted selection strategy.
Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura
Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies.
Wang, Lin; Li, Qing-Tian; Lei, Qiong; Feng, Chao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Fangfang; Li, Lingzi; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Zhi; Kong, Jin
Water deficit severely reduces apple growth and production, is detrimental to fruit quality and size. This problem is exacerbated as global warming is implicated in producing more severe drought stress. Thus water-efficiency has becomes the major target for apple breeding. A desired apple tree can absorb and transport water efficiently, which not only confers improved drought tolerance, but also guarantees fruit size for higher income returns. Aquaporins, as water channels, control water transportation across membranes and can regulate water flow by changing their amount and activity. The exploration of molecular mechanism of water efficiency and the gene wealth will pave a way for molecular breeding of drought tolerant apple tree. In the current study, we screened out a drought inducible aquaporin gene MdPIP1;3, which specifically enhanced its expression during fruit expansion in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji). It localized on plasma membranes and belonged to PIP1 subfamily. The tolerance to drought stress enhanced in transgenic tomato plants ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3, showing that the rate of losing water in isolated transgenic leaves was slower than wild type, and stomata of transgenic plants closed sensitively to respond to drought compared with wild type. Besides, length and diameter of transgenic tomato fruits increased faster than wild type, and in final, fruit sizes and fresh weights of transgenic tomatoes were bigger than wild type. Specially, in cell levels, fruit cell size from transgenic tomatoes was larger than wild type, showing that cell number per mm 2 in transgenic fruits was less than wild type. Altogether, ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3 enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic tomatoes partially via reduced water loss controlled by stomata closure in leaves. In addition, the transgenic tomato fruits are larger and heavier with larger cells via more efficient water transportation across membranes. Our research will
Mukherjee Sunil K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Begomoviruses have emerged as serious problem for vegetable and fiber crops in the recent past, frequently in tropical and subtropical region of the world. The association of begomovirus with eggplant yellow mosaic disease is hitherto unknown apart from one report from Thailand. A survey in Nagpur, Central India, in 2009-2010 showed severe incidence of eggplant yellow mosaic disease. Here, we have identified and characterized a begomovirus responsible for the newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India. Results The complete DNA-A and DNA-B genomic components of the causative virus were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that it shared highest 97.6% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:Udaipur:Okra:2007] and lowest 87.9% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:NewDelhi:Papaya:2005], while DNA-B showed highest 94.1% identity with ToLCNDV-IN[IN:UD:Ok:07] and lowest 76.2% identity with ToLCNDV-India[India:Lucknow]. Thus, it appears that this begomovirus is a variant of ubiquitous ToLCNDV and hence, we suggest the name ToLCNDV-India[India:Nagpur:Eggplant:2009] for this variant. The pathogenicity of ToLCNDV-IN[IN:Nag:Egg:09] isolate was confirmed by agroinfiltraion and dimeric clones of DNA-A and DNA-B induced characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms in eggplants and leaf curling in tomato plants. Conclusion This is the first report of a ToLCNDV variant moving to a new agriculturally important host, eggplant and causing yellow mosaic disease. This is also a first experimental demonstration of Koch's postulate for a begomovirus associated with eggplant yellow mosaic disease.
Qu, Y. H.; Wei, X. M.; Hou, Y. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Lin, C.
Most seedlings of crops are produced in solar greenhouse or nursery, from which some problems about energy waste and environment pollution arise. This study aims at investigating the characteristics and effect of an environmental friendly type seedling breeding system. The results demonstrate that crops can grow with a short period and little pollution in the new seedling breeding system with total manpower controllable environment that is not influenced by geography, climate and other natural conditions. By multilayer, nonplanar seedling breeding and annual batches arrangement, utilization ratio of unit area land and seedlings yield can be improved for several times and even more than 10 times. Conclusions can be obtained from the tomato seedling breeding experiments: (1) each growth index of tomato seedlings that are under the conditions of 291 μmol/m2 s artificial illumination intensity is remarkably better than those produced in greenhouse with natural lights. (2) The environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled. The segmented temperature changed management can be applied according to the photosynthetic characteristics of plants, and not affected by the outside environment, which makes each growth index of tomato seedling constant in different seasons. The seedlings thus grow strong and can achieve the level of commodity seedlings after 20-30 days. (3) The temperature and humidity environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled according to plants growth demands.
Hoang Thi My Linh; Phan, D. T. Son; Nguyen Thi Vang; Nguyen, T. T. Hien; Le XuanTham
The project was carried out in 2007 with the purpose of consideration for using the two simple and inexpensive molecular techniques to estimate changes in DNA of rice mutant after gamma irradiation. Three rice cultivars: Basmati370, Tam Thom (TT1), IR64 and three gamma irradiated mutants BDS, TDS and VND 95-20 respectively, were used. Suitable DNA extraction procedure was obtained. PCR optimization was conducted on three important factors including: amount of MgCl 2 , DNA concentration and annealing temperature. 2.5 mM of MgCl 2 for RAPD-PCR and 3.75 mM for RAMP-PCR were found the best. 40 ng DNA provided a good amplification for RAMP-PCR; this figure was 50 ng for RAPD-PCR. Annealing temperatures were determined at 36 o C for RAPD primer and at 55±3 o C for Microsatellite primer. Final results showed that, both RAPD-PCR and RAMP-PCR could detect changes in DNA of rice mutants after gamma irradiation compared to their parents. Percentage of DNA changes determined by RAPD-PCR and RAMP-PCR on Basmati370 and its mutant BDS were 11.49% and 21.2% respectively; These on TT1 and TDS were 8.98% and 15.4%; and on IR64 and VND 95-20 were 3.45% and 4.95%. (author)
ACE-Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Peptide Fragments Obtained from Tomato Processing By-Products Fermented Using Bacillus subtilis: Effect of Amino Acid Composition and Peptides Molecular Mass Distribution.
Moayedi, Ali; Mora, Leticia; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Hashemi, Maryam; Safari, Mohammad; Toldrá, Fidel
The effects of amino acid composition and peptide molecular mass on ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of protein fragments obtained from tomato waste fermented using Bacillus subtilis were evaluated. The addition of B. subtilis increased the relative amounts of aromatic and positively-charged amino acids which have been described to influence the biological activities of peptide fragments. IC 50 values of hydrolysates for ACE-inhibitory and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities were found to be 1.5 and 8.2 mg/mL, respectively. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) pattern of the hydrolysate indicated the breakdown of parent proteins to smaller peptides with molecular weights mainly below 1400 Da. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the highest ACE-inhibitory activity was due to peptides showing molecular mass range 500-800 Da, while the most active antioxidant peptides were found to be mainly at the two different peptide weight ranges 500-800 Da and 1200-1500 Da.
octadecenoic acid which is proba- bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or conversion was thus further characterized. The endogenous level of.
Antofie, A.; Lateur, M.; Oger, R.; Patocchi, A.; Durel, C.E.; Weg, van de W.E.
Objective: AppleBreed DataBase (DB) aims to store genotypic and phenotypic data from multiple pedigree verified plant populations (crosses, breeding selections and commercial cultivars) so that they are easily accessible for geneticists and breeders. It will help in elucidating the genetics of
Full Text Available Molecular markers allowed breeders to Mendelize quantitative trait loci (QTL providing another demonstration that quantitative traits are governed by the same principles as single qualitative genes. This research extends the QTL analysis to two and three QTL and tests our ability to Mendelize an oligogenic trait. In tomato, agricultural yield is determined by the weight of the fruits harvested per unit area and the total soluble solids (% Brix–sugars and acids. The current study explores the segregation of multiple independent yield-related QTL that were identified and mapped using introgression lines (IL of Solanum pennellii in cultivated processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. We screened 45 different double and triple IL-QTL combinations for agricultural yield, to identify QTL pyramids that behaved in an additive manner and were suitable substrate for Mendelizing an oligogenic trait. A pyramid of three independent QTL that significantly improved Brix*Yield (BXY - the soluble solids output per unit area compared to M82 was selected. In the progenies of the tri-hybrid we bred using markers a nearly isogenic 'immortalized F2'. While the common mode of QTL-QTL interactions across the 45 IL-QTLs combinations was less than additive, the three QTLs in the selected triple-stack performed in an additive manner which made it an exceptional material for breeding. This study demonstrates that using the phenotypic effect of all 27 possible QTL-alleles combinations it is possible to make reliable predictions about the genotypes that will maximize the yield.
Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster
identifying candidate loci controlling agronomic traits in yam is by the application of the cDNA/AFLP technique, which generates polymorphic transcript derived fragments (TDFs) between the parents of a mapping cross. Once candidate genes have been identified, they can be employed in gene tagging and QTL mapping.
Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing
Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019
Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.
Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not
Jansen, R.M.C.; Miebach, M.; Kleist, E.; Henten, van E.J.; Wildt, J.
Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not
Thomas, Colwyn M; Jones, Jonathan D G
Studies in several plants have shown that Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA can integrate into plant chromosomal DNA by different mechanisms involving single-stranded (ss) or double-stranded (ds) forms. One mechanism requires sequence homology between plant target and ssT-DNA border sequences and another double-strand-break repair in which preexisting chromosomal DSBs "capture" dsT-DNAs. To learn more about T-DNA integration in Solanum lycopersicum we characterised 98 T-DNA/plant DNA junction sequences and show that T-DNA left border (LB) and right border transfer is much more variable than previously reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus tremula. The analysis of seven plant target sequences showed that regions of homology between the T-DNA LB and plant chromosomal DNA plays an important role in T-DNA integration. One T-DNA insertion generated a target sequence duplication that resulted from nucleolytic processing of a LB/plant DNA heteroduplex that generated a DSB in plant chromosomal DNA. One broken end contained a captured T-DNA that served as a template for DNA repair synthesis. We propose that most T-DNA integrations in tomato require sequence homology between the ssT-DNA LB and plant target DNA which results in the generation of DSBs in plant chromosomal DNA.
Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Marmiroli, Marta; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson
Genetic diversity underlies the improvement of crops by plant breeding. Landraces of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) can contain valuable alleles not common in modern germplasms. The aim was to measure genetic diversity present in 47 most common tomato varieties grown in Italy, 35 were varieties used for processing and 12 were landraces considered "salad varieties". Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility that the variety traceability can be extended through the entire production chain. Diversity was measured using 11 microsatellite markers and 94 genotypes. Among the markers used, a total of 48 alleles were detected. A dendrogram based on total microsatellite polymorphism grouped 47 varieties into three major clusters at 0.75 similarity coefficient, differentiating the modern varieties from tomatoes landraces. The DNA markers developed confirmed the possibility to support the genotype identification all along the tomato production chain. The number of alleles and genotypes identified in the present work is the largest considering papers on food traceability.
Mahfouz, Magdy M.
CRISPR/Cas systems confer molecular immunity against phages and conjugative plasmids in prokaryotes. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used to confer interference against eukaryotic viruses. Here, we engineered Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the CRISPR/Cas9 system to confer immunity against the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Targeting the TYLCV genome with Cas9-single guide RNA at the sequences encoding the coat protein (CP) or replicase (Rep) resulted in efficient virus interference, as evidenced by low accumulation of the TYLCV DNA genome in the transgenic plants. The CRISPR/Cas9-based immunity remained active across multiple generations in the N. benthamiana and tomato plants. Together, our results confirmed the efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for stable engineering of TYLCV resistance in N. benthamiana and tomato, and opens the possibilities of engineering virus resistance against single and multiple infectious viruses in other crops.
Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is the most widespread virus species causing Tomato yellow leaf curl disease. Accurate methods for assessment of resistance are requisite in breeding programs. Researchers at the Volcani Center (Israel developed a scale of differential TYLCV reactions in seven non-segregating tomato host lines, with virus responses ranging from susceptible to highly resistant. In the present work, this scale has been evaluated with inoculation and assessment methods routinely used by two different research groups, in Spain and Cuba. Different TYLCV isolates, inoculation methods, plant ages, and environmental conditions were compared. Symptom scores of the tomato lines were generally lower in the conditions assayed in both locations than those originally described. Reaction ranking order of the standard tomato lines was more similar to the original description in the assays carried out in Spain. However, response of the lines to TYLCV obtained in both locations did not correspond to scale grades for most of the conditions. A large difference between symptom scores in the susceptible and the resistant lines was observed, with the range in the resistant lines being narrow. These results indicate that the number of standard lines used could be reduced, selecting the most susceptible and the most resistant lines, and one with intermediate resistance. All the factors evaluated affected symptom development. This highlights the importance of establishing a standard inoculation method, experimental conditions, evaluation period and appropriate resistance evaluation criteria, to ensure precise evaluation of genotype responses.
Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.
Oct 20, 2014 ... very first challenge before scientists working on tomato functional biology is to exploit this high-quality reference sequence for tapping of the ... and exploitation of the genomic diversity present in Solanum genus, in general, and ..... associated with this tool retain its labour-intensive nature, ineffectiveness for ...
Gorbatenko, I.Yu.; Khrustaleva, V.V.; Shcherbakov, V.K.
The currant tomato is used in breeding for fruit quality. It contains up to 50 mg% ascorbic acid, a large quantity of sugar and 8-10% of dry matter. The weight of the fruit, however, does not exceed 1.2-1.5 g. The plants have long, spreading and very branchy stems. Gamma ray induced mutants of currant tomato were used, as initial material in breeding for fruit quality in varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting. The research was carried out mainly at the Department of Vegetable Growing Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation Farming. The regional variety Lebyazhinskij (suitable for mechanized harvesting) was adopted as the standard. Its fruits contain: 5.6% dry matter, 2.7% sugars, 0.543% titrated acidity, 26.6 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, 0.425 mg% carotene and 0.35% cellulose. The biochemical characteristics of the tomato mutants are shown. In terms of fruit dry matter, all mutants surpassed the standard. The acidity and the ascorbic acid content varied considerably. Most noteworthy in terms of carotene were the lines GP-5, GP-9 and GP-12. An important factor in the production of tomato paste is the fruit cellulose content. The lowest cellulose content is found in mutant GP-3. As shown, all of the mutants were early ripening. The mutants surpassed the standard in simultaneous fruit ripening. Mutant lines GP-3, GP-6, GP-9 and GP-12 will be used in the breeding programme for improving fruit quality of varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting
Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko
Double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-Seq) enables high-throughput genome-wide genotyping with next-generation sequencing technology. Consequently, this method has become popular in plant genetics and breeding. Although computational in silico prediction of restriction sites from the genome sequence is recognized as an effective approach for choosing the restriction enzymes to be used, few reports have evaluated the in silico predictions in actual experimental data. In this study, we designed and demonstrated a workflow for in silico and empirical ddRAD-Seq analysis in tomato, as follows: (i)in silico prediction of optimum restriction enzymes from the reference genome, (ii) verification of the prediction by actual ddRAD-Seq data of four restriction enzyme combinations, (iii) establishment of a computational data processing pipeline for high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling, and (iv) validation of SNP accuracy by construction of genetic linkage maps. The quality of SNPs based on de novo assembly reference of the ddRAD-Seq reads was comparable with that of SNPs obtained using the published reference genome of tomato. Comparisons of SNP calls in diverse tomato lines revealed that SNP density in the genome influenced the detectability of SNPs by ddRAD-Seq. In silico prediction prior to actual analysis contributed to optimization of the experimental conditions for ddRAD-Seq, e.g. choices of enzymes and plant materials. Following optimization, this ddRAD-Seq pipeline could help accelerate genetics, genomics, and molecular breeding in both model and non-model plants, including crops. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.
Silva, Diego B; Bueno, Vanda H P; Van Loon, Joop J A; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Bento, José Maurício S; Van Lenteren, Joop C
Plants emit volatile compounds in response to insect herbivory, which may play multiple roles as defensive compounds and mediators of interactions with other plants, microorganisms and animals. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) may act as indirect plant defenses by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivore. We report here the first evidence of the attraction of three Neotropical mirid predators (Macrolophus basicornis, Engytatus varians and Campyloneuropsis infumatus) toward plants emitting volatiles induced upon feeding by two tomato pests, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta and the phloem feeder Bemisia tabaci, in olfactometer bioassays. Subsequently, we compared the composition of volatile blends emitted by insect-infested tomato plants by collecting headspace samples and analyzing them with GC-FID and GC-MS. Egg deposition by T. absoluta did not make tomato plants more attractive to the mirid predators than uninfested tomato plants. Macrolophus basicornis is attracted to tomato plants infested with either T. absoluta larvae or by a mixture of B. tabaci eggs, nymphs and adults. Engytatus varians and C. infumatus responded to volatile blends released by tomato plants infested with T. absoluta larvae over uninfested plants. Also, multiple herbivory by T. absoluta and B. tabaci did not increase the attraction of the mirids compared to infestation with T. absoluta alone. Terpenoids represented the most important class of compounds in the volatile blends and there were significant differences between the volatile blends emitted by tomato plants in response to attack by T. absoluta, B. tabaci, or by both insects. We, therefore, conclude that all three mirids use tomato plant volatiles to find T. absoluta larvae. Multiple herbivory did neither increase, nor decrease attraction of C. infumatus, E. varians and M. basicornis. By breeding for higher rates of emission of selected terpenes, increased attractiveness of tomato plants to natural enemies may
Raiola, Assunta; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Calafiore, Roberta; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia
Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension). In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.
Full Text Available Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.
Full Text Available Improving fruit quality has become a major goal in plant breeding. Direct approaches to tackling fruit quality traits specifically linked to consumer preferences and environmental friendliness, such as improved flavor, nutraceutical compounds, and sustainability, have slowly been added to a breeder priority list that already includes traits like productivity, efficiency, and, especially, pest and disease control. Breeders already use molecular genetic tools to improve fruit quality although most advances have been made in producer and industrial quality standards. Furthermore, progress has largely been limited to simple agronomic traits easy-to-observe, whereas the vast majority of quality attributes, specifically those relating to flavor and nutrition, are complex and have mostly been neglected. Fortunately, wild germplasm, which is used for resistance against/tolerance of environmental stresses (including pathogens, is still available and harbors significant genetic variation for taste and health-promoting traits. Similarly, heirloom/traditional varieties could be used to identify which genes contribute to flavor and health quality and, at the same time, serve as a good source of the best alleles for organoleptic quality improvement. Grape (Vitis vinifera L. and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. produce fleshy, berry-type fruits, among the most consumed in the world. Both have undergone important domestication and selection processes, that have dramatically reduced their genetic variability, and strongly standardized fruit traits. Moreover, more and more consumers are asking for sustainable production, incompatible with the wide range of chemical inputs. In the present paper, we review the genetic resources available to tomato/grape breeders, and the recent technological progresses that facilitate the identification of genes/alleles of interest within the natural or generated variability gene pool. These technologies include omics, high
Gascuel, Quentin; Diretto, Gianfranco; Monforte, Antonio J; Fortes, Ana M; Granell, Antonio
Improving fruit quality has become a major goal in plant breeding. Direct approaches to tackling fruit quality traits specifically linked to consumer preferences and environmental friendliness, such as improved flavor, nutraceutical compounds, and sustainability, have slowly been added to a breeder priority list that already includes traits like productivity, efficiency, and, especially, pest and disease control. Breeders already use molecular genetic tools to improve fruit quality although most advances have been made in producer and industrial quality standards. Furthermore, progress has largely been limited to simple agronomic traits easy-to-observe, whereas the vast majority of quality attributes, specifically those relating to flavor and nutrition, are complex and have mostly been neglected. Fortunately, wild germplasm, which is used for resistance against/tolerance of environmental stresses (including pathogens), is still available and harbors significant genetic variation for taste and health-promoting traits. Similarly, heirloom/traditional varieties could be used to identify which genes contribute to flavor and health quality and, at the same time, serve as a good source of the best alleles for organoleptic quality improvement. Grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) and tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) produce fleshy, berry-type fruits, among the most consumed in the world. Both have undergone important domestication and selection processes, that have dramatically reduced their genetic variability, and strongly standardized fruit traits. Moreover, more and more consumers are asking for sustainable production, incompatible with the wide range of chemical inputs. In the present paper, we review the genetic resources available to tomato/grape breeders, and the recent technological progresses that facilitate the identification of genes/alleles of interest within the natural or generated variability gene pool. These technologies include omics, high-throughput phenotyping
Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335
This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.
Slugina, M A; Shchennikova, A V; Kochieva, E Z
Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh tomato fruit represents an ideal system for examining the role of sucrose cleavage enzymes in fruit development, and wild tomato species differing in storage sugars serve as an excellent research material for this purpose. Plant vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in the sink organs. In the present study, we identified complete gene sequences encoding the TAI vacuolar invertase in 11 wild and one cultivated tomato accessions of the Solanum section Lycopersicon. The average level of interspecific polymorphism in TAI genes was 8.58%; however, in the green-fruited tomatoes, the TAI genes contained 100 times more SNPs than those in the red-fruited accessions. The TAI proteins demonstrated 8% variability, whereas the red-fruited species had none. A TAI-based phylogenetic tree revealed two main clusters containing self-compatible and self-incompatible species, which concurs with the previous crossability-based division and demonstrates that the TAI genes reflect the evolutionary relationships between the red- and green-fruited tomatoes. Furthermore, we detected differential expression patterns of the TAI genes in the fruits of wild and cultivated tomatoes, which corresponded to sugar composition. The polymorphism analysis of the TAI acid invertases of Solanum section Lycopersicon species will contribute to the understanding of the genetic potential of TAI genes to impact tomato breeding through genetic engineering of the carbohydrate composition in the fruit.
Lammerts Van Bueren, E.
Organic production and also the attention for plant breeding for organic agriculture is still increasing in Europe. The question often raised is how much does plant breeding for the organic sector differ from modern plant breeding and does a ban on GMO also include refraining from molecular marker
Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Davendra; Naqvi, S. M. K.
GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively. The aims of the study were to characterize the GPR50 gene of sheep and to study the sequence variability of the gene in Indian sheep breeds of two different thermo-varied agroclimatic conditions. Genomic DNA isolation was done and a 791-bp sequence was amplified using self-designed primers and SNP profiling done out of samples of all the breeds to study the relative frequency of SNPs in each of the breed. Five important non-synonymous mutations were observed in the various breeds studied. T698G, G1097A, G1270A, G1318A, and C1334G lead to the following substitution: valine by glycine, arginine by glutamine, threonine by alanine, isoleucine by valine, and serine by cytosine, respectively. Two synonymous mutations (T663G and C888T) were also observed in some of the studied breeds. G1270A and C888T were the most prevalent SNPs observed in nearly all of the breeds. C888T SNPs were observed in higher prevalence in Chokla, Marwari, and Magra in comparison to Gaddi and Bharat Merino. A PolyPhen-2 analysis, which is used to assess the potential damaging nature of an SNP, revealed that mutation T698G and G1270A were benign while G1097A, G1318A, and C1334G were damaging with a score of 0.987, 0.993, and 0.739, respectively. A 3-D homology model of the protein was prepared using c4zwjA (UniProt sequence ID) as a template using the online version of Phyre2
Full Text Available The aims of this study were: to assess the effects of drought stress on germination percentage, germination energy and number of days to complete germination in fifteen tomato populations; to distinguish the treatment that is the most suitable for classifying the tomatoes for their response to early-imposed drought; as well as to distinguish populations which could be used for breeding tolerant varieties. The experiment included control germination assay (distilled water and the increasing (4, 8, and 12%, w/v polyethylene glycol (PEG treatments. Both germination percentage and energy considerably decreased with the increasing PEG treatments, while the observed average increase in the number of days required to complete germination remained statistically insignificant. The differences in germination among the populations were most pronounced in 12% PEG treatment, which is therefore recommended for further research. Several populations are indicated as tolerant; however, tomato drought tolerance exhibited as early as at the germination stage does not necessarily indicate the tolerance in later phases of plant development. The population 105 is recommended for breeding drought tolerant varieties.
Flores, Pilar; Sánchez, Elena; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar
Traditional varieties constitute a wide source of genetic variation that can be used per se or to obtain new cultivars with high consumer appeal and nutritional value. This work focuses on the carotenoid and chlorophyll profiles and contents of 53 traditional tomato cultivars, paying particular attention to compounds with recognized health-promoting properties. The study includes fruits with different shapes (oblate, slightly flattened, rounded, heart-shaped, long oblong and pyriform), colors (yellow, pink and red) and sizes (very small to very large). In addition, black colored tomato fruits with yellow, pink or red background color were studied. The highest concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene, phytoene and phytofluene were found in pink and red tomatoes, while the highest concentrations of lutein, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and chlorophylls were found in fruits with a dark coloration, regardless of their background coloration. Finally, the highest concentrations of the studied compounds as a whole (except β-carotene) were found in red- and pink-black varieties. Findings will hopefully contribute to recovering many tomato traditional varieties for use, directly in the field or as donor parents for breeding programs, to increase the nutraceutical properties of commercial varieties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available In the last decade, the conservation of local breeds and of their genetic resources has gained more and more importance (Notter, 1999. In fact, the safeguard of animal genetic variability is determinant to maintain ecosystem equilibriums but it is also essential to guarantee future economic potentials of these animal resources. Moreover, biodiversity has a great cultural value and it can be also used for scientific purposes (FAO, 1992.
Kovacs, K.; Fray, R.G.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Graham, N.; Bradley, G.; Seymour, G.B.; Bovy, A.G.; Grierson, D.
Ripening is a tightly controlled and developmentally regulated process involving networks of genes, and metabolites that result in dramatic changes in fruit colour, texture and flavour. Molecular and genetic analysis in tomato has revealed a series of regulatory genes involved in fruit development
Yong Ho Choi
Full Text Available Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4-linked D-glucosamine and Nacetyl- D-glucosamine. There have been many reports on the induced systemic resistance and in vivo antifungal activities of higher molecular weight chitosans with molecular weights over 3,000 amu (atomatic mass unit, but there are few papers on in vivo antifungal activities of low molecular weight chitosans (oligochitosans with molecular weights less than 3,000 amu. In our study, an oligochitosan sample (320?3,000 amu showed a potent 1-day protective activity with control values more than 94% at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml especially against tomato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans under growth chamber conditions. It also displayed a moderate 1-day protective activity with control values of 67?89% at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml against wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. On the other hand, it showed a 16-hr curative activity against red pepper anthracnose, but not against tomato late blight and wheat leaf rust. In field experiments, oligochitosan effectively suppressed the development of late blight on potato and tomato plants with control values of 72% and 48%, respectively. The results strongly indicate that oligochitosan can be used as an eco-friendly organic material for the control of late blight on tomato and potato plants.
Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...
and enhance the design of improved packaging materials for transported tomato fruit. Young's modulus is often useful in relating the mechanical properties of the fruit to its composition and structure. . Medium sized tomatoes subjected to axial loading had both the highest compressive load and stress at yield while the big ...
Full Text Available Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape and colour. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar Heinz 1706 (≈900 Mb and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8-16 hours. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10-35°C, relative humidity 30-90 % and CO2 concentration 200-1500 µmol mol-1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners.
Caracterização de genótipos de tomateiro resistentes a begomovírus por marcador molecular co-dominante ligado ao gene Ty-1 Fingerprinting of tomato genotypes resistant to begomovirus by a codominant molecular marker linked to Ty-1 gene
Daniela Aparecida de Castro Nizio
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar genótipos de tomateiro, quanto à resistência a begomovírus, e caracterizar, por meio do marcador molecular SSR-47, híbridos de tomate de mesa portadores do alelo de resistência ao begomovírus Ty-1, com potencial comercial. Os 24 híbridos experimentais, heterozigotos no loco Ty-1, depois de infectados via enxertia, apresentaram sintomas intermediários, em comparação aos identificados pelas linhagens homozigotas Ty-1/Ty-1 e pelos genótipos suscetíveis Ty-1+/Ty-1+, o que indica a dominância incompleta do alelo Ty-1. Esses híbridos foram considerados como parcialmente tolerantes a begomovírus. Os híbridos experimentais TEX-246, TEX-261, TEX-253, TEX-256, TEX-262, TEX-252, TEX-251 e TEX-268 aliaram médias elevadas de produção total e de massa média dos frutos; e os híbridos TEX-246, TEX-253, TEX-256, TEX-262 e TEX-252 apresentaram valores elevados também para meia-vida da firmeza e foram, portanto, considerados competitivos em comparação aos padrões comerciais usados como testemunhas. O marcador molecular SSR-47 foi eficiente em caracterizar genótipos portadores do alelo Ty-1. A infecção do begomovírus, induzida via enxertia, manifestou sintomas, nos genótipos testados, condizentes com os resultados obtidos com o marcador molecular SSR-47.The objectives of this study were to evaluate tomato genotypes for begomovirus resistance and to assess SSR-47 fingerprinting patterns associated with alleles Ty-1, in hybrids of fresh-market tomato with commercial potential. Twenty-four experimental genotypes, heterozygous at Ty-1 locus, were infected with begomovirus via grafting, and showed intermediate symptoms compared to the ones identified by homozygous Ty-1/Ty-1 lines and by susceptible genotypes Ty-1+/Ty-1+, which indicates the incomplete dominance of the Ty-1 allele. These hybrids were considered to possess partial resistance to begomovirus. The experimental hybrids TEX-246, TEX-261, TEX
Full Text Available To shed unfertilized flowers or ripe fruits, many plant species develop a pedicel abscission zone (AZ, a specialized tissue that develops between the organ and the main body of the plant. Regulation of pedicel abscission is an important agricultural concern because pre-harvest abscission can reduce yields of fruit or grain crops, such as apples, rice, wheat, etc. Tomato has been studied as a model system for abscission, as tomato plants develop a distinct AZ at the midpoint of the pedicel and several tomato mutants, such as jointless, have pedicels that lack an AZ. This mini-review focuses on recent advances in research on the mechanisms regulating tomato pedicel abscission. Molecular genetic studies revealed that three MADS-box transcription factors interactively play a central role in pedicel AZ development. Transcriptome analyses identified activities involved in abscission and also found novel transcription factors that may regulate AZ activities. Another study identified transcription factors mediating abscission pathways from induction signals to activation of cell wall hydrolysis. These recent findings in tomato will enable significant advances in understanding the regulation of abscission in other key agronomic species.
The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics
Flávia Barbosa Abreu
Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.
Introgression of tomato chromosomes into the potato genome : an analysis through molecular marker and in situ hybridisation techniques = [Introgressie van tomatenchromosomen in het aardappelgenoom : een analyse met behulp van moleculaire merker en in situ hybridisatie technieken
Garriga Caldere, F.
Transfer of alien chromosomes and genes across intergeneric boundaries can be useful not only for the introgression of desirable characters but also for fundamental genetic studies. The successful demonstration of hybridisation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) and tomato
A. M. Gadzhieva
Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.
Full Text Available Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction of resistance genes Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 new races have evolved. Here we first determined the virulence spectrum of 133 C. fulvum isolates collected from 22 prefectures in Japan, and subsequently sequenced the avirulence (Avr genes Avr2, Avr4, Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9 to determine the molecular basis of overcoming Cf genes. Twelve races of C. fulvum with a different virulence spectrum were identified, of which races 9, 2.9, 4.9, 4.5.9 and 4.9.11 occur only in Japan. The Avr genes in many of these races contain unique mutations not observed in races identified elsewhere in the world including (i frameshift mutations and (ii transposon insertions in Avr2, (iii point mutations in Avr4 and Avr4E, and (iv deletions of Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9. New races have developed by selection pressure imposed by consecutive introductions of Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 genes in commercially grown tomato cultivars. Our study shows that molecular variations to adapt to different Cf genes in an isolated C. fulvum population in Japan are novel but overall follow similar patterns as those observed in populations from other parts of the world. Implications for breeding of more durable C. fulvum resistant varieties are discussed.
Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not suitable for large sample sizes. In contrast we propose a fast and non-destructive detection method for plant diagnosis using volatiles as an early indicator of plant diseases. This report presents...
Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Martens, S.; Jonker, H.H.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Angenent, G.C.; Tunen, van A.J.; Bovy, A.G.
Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits in the absence of functional fertilization, is a desirable trait for several important crop plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Seedless fruits can be of great value for consumers, the processing industry, and breeding companies. In this
Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...
Zsögön, Agustin; Cermak, Tomas; Voytas, Dan; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira
The ideotype is a theoretical model of an archetypal cultivated plant. Recent progress in genome editing is aiding the pursuit of this ideal in crop breeding. Breeding is relatively straightforward when the traits in question are monogenic in nature and show Mendelian inheritance. Conversely, traits with a diffuse, polygenic basis such as abiotic stress resistance are more difficult to harness. In recent years, many genes have been identified that are important for plant domestication and act by increasing yield, grain or fruit size or altering plant architecture. Here, we propose that (a) key monogenic traits whose physiology has been unveiled can be molecularly tailored to achieve the ideotype; and (b) wild relatives of crops harboring polygenic stress resistance genes or other traits of interest could be de novo domesticated by manipulating monogenic yield-related traits through state-of-the-art gene editing techniques. An overview of the genomic and physiological challenges in the world's main staple crops is provided. We focus on tomato and its wild Solanum (section Lycopersicon) relatives as a suitable model for molecular design in the pursuit of the ideotype for elite cultivars and to test de novo domestication of wild relatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE; Radu Lucian PÂNZARU
Tomatoes are one of the most representative vegetable species cultivated in our country. This allegation is based on the essential elements of tomatoes culture respectively area cultivated, total production and average yield per hectare - indicators for 2007-2009 reached average levels of 48.8 thousand hectares and 736.9 thousand tonnes respectively 15101kg / ha. Presentation of food helps establish balance of the demand and supply component parts total as follows: production, imports, export...
Famah Sourassou, Nazer; Hanna, Rachid; Zannou, Ignace; Breeuwer, Johannes A J; de Moraes, Gilberto; Sabelis, Maurice W
Surveys were conducted in Brazil, Benin and Tanzania to collect predatory mites as candidates for control of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer, a serious pest of coconut fruits. At all locations surveyed, one of the most dominant predators on infested coconut fruits was identified as Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot, based on morphological similarity with regard to taxonomically relevant characters. However, scrutiny of our own and published descriptions suggests that consistent morphological differences may exist between the Benin population and those from the other geographic origins. In this study, we combined three methods to assess whether these populations belong to one species or a few distinct, yet closely related species. First, multivariate analysis of 32 morphological characters showed that the Benin population differed from the other three populations. Second, DNA sequence analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) showed the same difference between these populations. Third, cross-breeding between populations was unsuccessful in all combinations. These data provide evidence for the existence of cryptic species. Subsequent morphological research showed that the Benin population can be distinguished from the others by a new character (not included in the multivariate analysis), viz. the number of teeth on the fixed digit of the female chelicera.
AIDA M. GADZHIEVA
Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.
Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tzfadia, Oren; Forment, Javier; Presa, Silvia; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Orzaez, Diego; Aharoni, Aspah; Granell, Antonio
The identification and characterization of new tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants affected in fruit pigmentation and nutritional content can provide valuable insights into the underlying biology, as well as a source of new alleles for breeding programs. To date, all characterized pink-pigmented tomato fruit mutants appear to result from low SlMYB12 transcript levels in the fruit skin. Two new mutant lines displaying a pink fruit phenotype (pf1 and pf2) were characterized in this study. In the pf mutants, SlMYB12 transcripts accumulated to wild-type levels but exhibited the same truncation, which resulted in the absence of the essential MYB activation domain coding region. Allelism and complementation tests revealed that both pf mutants were allelic to the y locus and showed the same recessive null allele in homozygosis: Δy A set of molecular and metabolic effects, reminiscent of those observed in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myb11 myb12 myb111 triple mutant, were found in the tomato Δy mutants. To our knowledge, these have not been described previously, and our data support the idea of their being null mutants, in contrast to previously described transcriptional hypomorphic pink fruit lines. We detected a reduction in the expression of several flavonol glycosides and some associated glycosyl transferases. Transcriptome analysis further revealed that the effects of the pf mutations extended beyond the flavonoid pathway into the interface between primary and secondary metabolism. Finally, screening for Myb-binding sites in the candidate gene promoter sequences revealed that 141 of the 152 co-down-regulated genes may be direct targets of SlMYB12 regulation. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Aug 19, 2011 ... from Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Cerril- los, Salta, Argentina) and obtained a hybrid with a longer. SL than the cultivated parent and other commercial varieties. This hybrid was similar to the wild parent and even to het- erozygotes for the nor and rin genes, respectively, but its. Keywords.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron (Fe deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Iron biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in crops. In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize (Zea mays L. lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. Low and High. Our objective was to confirm and validate the in vitro results and approach. Also, to compare the capacities of our two maize hybrid varieties to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb synthesis and to improve the Fe status of Fe deficient broiler chickens. Methods We compared the Fe-bioavailability between these two maize varieties with the presence or absence of added Fe in the maize based-diets. Diets were made with 75% (w/w maize of either low or high Fe-bioavailability maize, with or without Fe (ferric citrate. Chicks (Gallus gallus were fed the diets for 6 wk. Hb, liver ferritin and Fe related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME and total body Hb Fe values were used to estimate Fe bioavailability from the diets. Results DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin expressions were higher (P Conclusions We conclude that the High Fe-bioavailability maize contains more bioavailable Fe than the Low Fe-bioavailability maize, presumably due to a more favorable matrix for absorption. Maize shows promise for Fe biofortification; therefore, human trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of consuming the high bioavailable Fe maize to reduce Fe deficiency.
Background Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Iron biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in crops. In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize (Zea mays L.) lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. Low and High). Our objective was to confirm and validate the in vitro results and approach. Also, to compare the capacities of our two maize hybrid varieties to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis and to improve the Fe status of Fe deficient broiler chickens. Methods We compared the Fe-bioavailability between these two maize varieties with the presence or absence of added Fe in the maize based-diets. Diets were made with 75% (w/w) maize of either low or high Fe-bioavailability maize, with or without Fe (ferric citrate). Chicks (Gallus gallus) were fed the diets for 6 wk. Hb, liver ferritin and Fe related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME) and total body Hb Fe values were used to estimate Fe bioavailability from the diets. Results DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin expressions were higher (P maize contains more bioavailable Fe than the Low Fe-bioavailability maize, presumably due to a more favorable matrix for absorption. Maize shows promise for Fe biofortification; therefore, human trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of consuming the high bioavailable Fe maize to reduce Fe deficiency. PMID:23286295
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/bakedtilapiawithtomatoes.html Baked Tilapia with Tomatoes To use the sharing features on ... and economical. Ingredients Nonstick vegetable oil spray 4 tilapia fillets 4 medium tomatoes, peeled and chopped 2 ...
S. Grljušić; M. Tucak; T. Čupić; S. Popović
The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the fora...
Solanum pimpinellifolium, a wild relative of cultivated tomato, offers a wealth of breeding potential for several desirable traits such as tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we report the genome and annotation of S. pimpinellifolium LA0480. The LA0480 genome size (811 Mb) and the number of annotated genes (25,970) are within the range observed for other sequenced tomato species. We developed and utilized the Dragon Eukaryotic Analyses Platform (DEAP) to functionally annotate the LA0480 protein-coding genes. Additionally, we used DEAP to compare protein function between S. pimpinellifolium and cultivated tomato. Our data suggest enrichment in genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Moreover, we present phenotypic data from one field experiment that demonstrate a greater salinity tolerance for fruit- and yield-related traits in S. pimpinellifolium compared with cultivated tomato. To understand the genomic basis for these differences in S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum, we analyzed 15 genes that have previously been shown to mediate salinity tolerance in plants. We show that S. pimpinellifolium has a higher copy number of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase and phosphatase genes, which are both key enzymes in the production of inositol and its derivatives. Moreover, our analysis indicates that changes occurring in the inositol phosphate pathway may contribute to the observed higher salinity tolerance in LA0480. Altogether, our work provides essential resources to understand and unlock the genetic and breeding potential of S. pimpinellifolium, and to discover the genomic basis underlying its environmental robustness.
Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements
Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.
Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more
Corrado, Giandomenico; Piffanelli, Pietro; Caramante, Martina; Coppola, Mariangela; Rao, Rosa
The tomato (Solanum lycopersium L.) is the most widely grown vegetable in the world. It was domesticated in Latin America and Italy and Spain are considered secondary centers of diversification. This food crop has experienced severe genetic bottlenecks and modern breeding activities have been characterized by trait introgression from wild species and divergence in different market classes. With the aim to examine patterns of polymorphism, characterize population structure and identify putative loci under positive selection, we genotyped 214 tomato accessions (which include cultivated landraces, commercial varieties and wild relatives) using a custom-made Illumina SNP-panel. Most of the 175 successfully scored SNP loci were found to be polymorphic. Population structure analysis and estimates of genetic differentiation indicated that landraces constitute distinct sub-populations. Furthermore, contemporary varieties could be separated in groups (processing, fresh and cherry) that are consistent with the recent breeding aimed at market-class specialization. In addition, at the 95% confidence level, we identified 30, 34 and 37 loci under positive selection between landraces and each of the groups of commercial variety (cherry, processing and fresh market, respectively). Their number and genomic locations imply the presence of some extended regions with high genetic variation between landraces and contemporary varieties. Our work provides knowledge concerning the level and distribution of genetic variation within cultivated tomato landraces and increases our understanding of the genetic subdivision of contemporary varieties. The data indicate that adaptation and selection have led to a genomic signature in cultivated landraces and that the subpopulation structure of contemporary varieties is shaped by directed breeding and largely of recent origin. The genomic characterization presented here is an essential step towards a future exploitation of the available tomato
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained from...
Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...
Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.
This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are
Morales-Contreras, Blanca Elizabeth; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan Carlos; Wicker, Louise; Ochoa-Martínez, Luz Araceli; Morales-Castro, Juliana
Husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. var. Rendidora) waste was evaluated as a source of specialized pectin, and pectin extracted from this waste was characterized physicochemically. Fruit was blanched for 10 or 15 min and extracted in 0.1 N HCl for 15 to 25 min. Extracted pectin was subjected to physicochemical analysis. For all extraction conditions, the percentage of anhydrogalacturonic acid exceeded 60%, indicating that husk tomato was a good source of pectin. The degree of esterification of pectin molecules was 63% to 91%. The amount of extracted pectin decreased with increasing extraction time. The apparent viscosity of husk tomato pectin showed the characteristic behavior of pseudoplastic fluids. Neutral sugars were identified, and the amounts of 6 sugars (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and xylose) were quantified. Sugars identified in husk tomato pectin and present in the Rhamnogalacturonan I region, arabinose, galactose, and rhamnose suggest a highly branched structure, which will influence its future applications. Molecular weight values were 542 to 699 kDa, exceeding molecular weight values reported for commercial citrus pectins from 134 to 480 kDa. The extraction process significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the physicochemical properties of pectin. Up to 19.8% from the total amount of pectin in the husk tomato was extracted by 10 min of blanching and 20 min of a more heat treatment. Our findings indicate that husk tomato can be a good alternative source of pectin having highly distinctive physicochemical characteristics. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter
, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While......, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....
Adilson de Castro Antônio
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of resistance by antixenosis in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum to tomato leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae]. Evaluations were performed for tomato plants of the generations P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 and RC2. The measured characteristic in the parents, BGH-1497 (P2 male and 'Santa Clara' (P1 female, and in the F1, F2, RC1 and RC2 generations was the number of eggs per plant. This number was converted to the oviposition nonpreference index. The inheritance of antixenosis resistance of genotype BGH-1497 is ruled by a gene of greater effect and polygenes in epistatic interactions, with a phenotypic proportion of 13:3 between susceptible and resistant genotypes, respectively.
Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL is a major limiting disease in tomato production in Morocco. Commercial and locally produced Moroccan composts and peat were found to reduce Fusarium wilt in tomato plants. We explored the presence of Trichoderma strains in these materials, and in six soils sampled in the North West of Morocco, where a low incidence of Fusarium wilt had been previously observed. The most abundant Trichoderma-like fungus was selected from each soil, compost or peat sample. Twelve Trichoderma strains were isolated and identified molecularly. Trichoderma asperellum CT9 and Trichoderma virens ST11 showed the greatest overall antagonistic activity against FOL, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Pythium ultimum. The three strains evaluated in in planta tests, CT9, ST11 and T. virens ST10, reduced tomato Fusarium wilt, and strain ST11 also promoted growth of tomato plants.
Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 ...
Genomic prediction is meant for estimating the breeding value using molecular marker data which has turned out to be a powerful tool for efficient utilization of germplasm resources and rapid improvement of cultivars. Model-based techniques have been widely used for prediction of breeding values of genotypes from ...
Full Text Available A diet rich in vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of many diseases related to aging and modern lifestyle. Over the past several decades, many researches have pointed out the direct relation between the intake of bioactive compounds present in tomato and a reduced risk of suffering different types of cancer. These bioactive constituents comprise phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The direct intake of these chemoprotective molecules seems to show higher efficiencies when they are ingested in its natural biological matrix than when they are ingested isolated or in dietary supplements. Consequently, there is a growing trend for improvement of the contents of these bioactive compounds in foods. The control of growing environment and processing conditions can ensure the maximum potential accumulation or moderate the loss of bioactive compounds, but the best results are obtained developing new varieties via plant breeding. The modification of single steps of metabolic pathways or their regulation via conventional breeding or genetic engineering has offered excellent results in crops such as tomato. In this review, we analyse the potential of tomato as source of the bioactive constituents with cancer-preventive properties and the result of modern breeding programs as a strategy to increase the levels of these compounds in the diet.
Bässler, Olivia Y; Weiss, Julia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lehmann, Karola; Scheler, Christian; Dölle, Sabine; Schwarz, Dietmar; Franken, Philipp; George, Eckhard; Worm, Margitta; Weckwerth, Wolfram
Tomato fruit and seed allergens were detected by IgE-immunoblotting using sera from 18 adult tomato-sensitized patients selected based on a positive history skin prick test (SPT) and specific Immunglobulin (Ig) E-levels. Isolated tomato seed total protein showed high SPT activity comparable or even higher than tomato fruit protein. For the molecular characterization of tomato seed allergens, a multidimensional protein fractionation strategy and LC-MS/MS was used. Two legumin- and vicilin-proteins were purified and showed strong IgE-reactivity in immunoblots. Individual patient sera exhibited varying IgE-sensitivity against the purified proteins. In silico structural modeling indicates high homology between epitopes of known walnut allergens and the detected IgE-crossreactive tomato proteins.
Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.
Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert
Classification of cattle breeds contributes to our understanding of the history of cattle and is essential for an effective conservation of genetic diversity. Here we review the various classifications over the last two centuries and compare the most recent classifications with genetic data....... This is largely in agreement with the breed clusters indicated by a biochemical and molecular genetic analysis, which reflect either groups of breeds with a common geographic origin or single breeds that have expanded by export and/or crossbreeding. We propose that this information is also relevant for managing...
Rajbir, S. Sangwan
Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.
Martínez, C A; Khare, K; Elzo, M A
The aim of this paper was to develop statistical models to estimate individual breed composition based on the previously proposed idea of regressing discrete random variables corresponding to counts of reference alleles of biallelic molecular markers located across the genome on the allele frequencies of each marker in the pure (base) breeds. Some of the existing regression-based methods do not guarantee that estimators of breed composition will lie in the appropriate parameter space, and none of them account for uncertainty about allele frequencies in the pure breeds, that is, uncertainty about the design matrix. To overcome these limitations, we proposed two Bayesian generalized linear models. For each individual, both models assume that the counts of the reference allele at each marker locus follow independent Binomial distributions, use the logit link and pose a Dirichlet prior over the vector of regression coefficients (which corresponds to breed composition). This prior guarantees that point estimators of breed composition such as the posterior mean pertain to the appropriate space. The difference between these models is that model termed BIBI does not account for uncertainty about the design matrix, while model termed BIBI2 accounts for such an uncertainty by assigning independent Beta priors to the entries of this matrix. We implemented these models in a data set from the University of Florida's multibreed Angus-Brahman population. Posterior means were used as point estimators of breed composition. In addition, the ordinary least squares estimator proposed by Kuehn et al. () (OLSK) was also computed. BIBI and BIBI2 estimated breed composition more accurately than OLSK, and BIBI2 had a 7.69% improvement in accuracy as compared to BIBI. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Parnell, Tracy L; Suslow, Trevor V; Harris, Linda J
This guide includes advice on selecting tomatoes for the home garden as well as from the market; safety tips for handling fresh tomatoes; and recommended methods for storing, freezing, drying, and canning. Also includes recipes for Tomato-Green Chili Salsa and Tomato-Tomato Paste Salsa.
California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...
Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.
This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual
Walter D Koenig
Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.
Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho
Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.
effects on the nutritional composition of these vegetables. Healthy looking and physically damaged tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. Fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger) isolated from samples of “esa” were inoculated into the healthy looking vegetables. Using standard.
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main tomato breeding objectives is to improve fruit organoleptic quality. However, this task is made somewhat challenging by the complex nature of sensory traits and the lack of efficient selection criteria. Sensory quality depends on numerous factors, including fruit colour, texture, aroma, and composition in primary and secondary metabolites. It is also influenced by genotypic differences, the nutritional regime of plants, stage of ripening at harvest and environmental conditions. In this study, agronomic, biochemical and sensory characterization was performed on six Italian heirlooms grown in different environmental conditions. Result We identified a number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes. PCA analysis was used to highlight some biochemical, sensory and agronomic discriminating traits: this statistical test allowed us to identify which sensory attributes are more closely linked to environmental conditions and those, instead, linked to the genetic constitution of tomato. Sweetness, sourness, saltiness and tomato flavour are not only grouped in the same PCA factor, but also result in a clear discrimination of tomato ecotypes in the three different fields. The three different traditional varieties cluster on the basis of attributes like juiciness, granulosity, hardness and equatorial diameter, and are therefore more closely related to the genetic background of the cultivar. Conclusion This finding suggests that a different method should be undertaken to improve sensory traits related to taste perception and texture. Our results might be used to ascertain in what direction to steer breeding in order to improve the flavour characteristics of tomato ecotypes.
Zhang, Huan; Hu, Zhangjian; Lei, Cui; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Jiao; Shao, Shujun; Li, Xin; Xia, Xiaojian; Cai, Xinzhong; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine H; Shi, Kai
Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that is an important signaling molecule. Although it has recently been implicated in plant defenses to pathogen infection, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Using surface plasmon resonance and gene silencing approaches, we showed that the tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) PSK receptor PSKR1, rather than PSKR2, functioned as the major PSK receptor in immune responses. Silencing of PSK signaling genes rendered tomato more susceptible to infection by the economically important necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea Analysis of tomato mutants defective in either defense hormone biosynthesis or signaling demonstrated that PSK-induced immunity required auxin biosynthesis and associated defense pathways. Here, using aequorin-expressing tomato plants, we provide evidence that PSK perception by tomato PSKR1 elevated cytosolic [Ca 2+ ], leading to auxin-dependent immune responses via enhanced binding activity between calmodulins and the auxin biosynthetic YUCs. Thus, our data demonstrate that PSK acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern and is perceived mainly by PSKR1, which increases cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] and activates auxin-mediated pathways that enhance immunity of tomato plants to B. cinerea . © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in temperature occur naturally during plant growth and reproduction. However, in the hot summers this variation may become stressful and damaging for the molecular mechanisms involved in proper cell growth, impairing thus plant development and particularly fruit-set in many crop plants. Tolerance to such a stress can be achieved by constitutive gene expression or by rapid changes in gene expression, which ultimately leads to protection against thermal damage. We have used cDNA-AFLP and microarray analyses to compare the early response of the tomato meiotic anther transcriptome to moderate heat stress conditions (32°C in a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype. In the light of the expected global temperature increases, elucidating such protective mechanisms and identifying candidate tolerance genes can be used to improve breeding strategies for crop tolerance to heat stress. Results The cDNA-AFLP analysis shows that 30 h of moderate heat stress (MHS alter the expression of approximately 1% of the studied transcript-derived fragments in a heat-sensitive genotype. The major effect is gene down-regulation after the first 2 h of stress. The microarray analysis subsequently applied to elucidate early responses of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype, also shows about 1% of the genes having significant changes in expression after the 2 h of stress. The tolerant genotype not only reacts with moderate transcriptomic changes but also exhibits constitutively higher expression levels of genes involved in protection and thermotolerance. Conclusion In contrast to the heat-sensitive genotype, the heat-tolerant genotype exhibits moderate transcriptional changes under moderate heat stress. Moreover, the heat-tolerant genotype also shows a different constitutive gene expression profile compared to the heat-sensitive genotype, indicating genetic differences in adaptation to increased temperatures. In
Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M
Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Takayama, Mariko; Koike, Satoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Matsukura, Chiaki; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can accumulate relatively high levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during fruit development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying GABA accumulation and its physiological function in tomato fruits remain elusive. We previously identified three tomato genes (SlGAD1, SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), likely the key enzyme for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato plants in which each SlGAD was suppressed and those in which all three SlGADs were simultaneously suppressed. A significant decrease in GABA levels, i.e. 50-81% compared with wild-type (WT) levels, was observed in mature green (MG) fruits of the SlGAD2-suppressed lines, while a more drastic reduction (up to <10% of WT levels) was observed in the SlGAD3- and triple SlGAD-suppressed lines. These findings suggest that both SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 expression are crucial for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. The importance of SlGAD3 expression was also confirmed by generating transgenic tomato plants that over-expressed SlGAD3. The MG and red fruits of the over-expressing transgenic lines contained higher levels of GABA (2.7- to 5.2-fold) than those of the WT. We also determined that strong down-regulation of the SlGADs had little effect on overall plant growth, fruit development or primary fruit metabolism under normal growth conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gogoi, Anupam; Sarmah, Nomi; Kaldis, Athanasios; Perdikis, Dionysios; Voloudakis, Andreas
Exogenously applied double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules onto tomato leaves, moved rapidly from local to systemic leaves and were uptaken by agricultural pests namely aphids, whiteflies and mites. Four small interfering RNAs, deriving from the applied dsRNA, were molecularly detected in plants, aphids and mites but not in whiteflies. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) acts as the elicitor molecule of the RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi), the endogenous and evolutionary conserved surveillance system present in all eukaryotes. DsRNAs and their subsequent degradation products, namely the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), act in a sequence-specific manner to control gene expression. Exogenous application of dsRNAs onto plants elicits resistance against plant viruses. In the present work, exogenously applied dsRNA molecules, derived from Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) HC-Pro region, onto tomato plants were detected in aphids (Myzus persicae), whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and mites (Tetranychus urticae) that were fed on treated as well as systemic tomato leaves. Furthermore, four siRNAs, deriving from the dsRNA applied, were detected in tomato and the agricultural pests fed on treated tomato plants. More specifically, dsRNA was detected in agricultural pests at 3 and 10 dpt (days post treatment) in dsRNA-treated leaves and at 14 dpt in systemic leaves. In addition, using stem-loop RT-PCR, siRNAs were detected in agricultural pests at 3 and 10 dpt in aphids and mites. Surprisingly, in whiteflies carrying the applied dsRNA, siRNAs were not molecularly detected. Our results showed that, upon exogenous application of dsRNAs molecules, these moved rapidly within tomato and were uptaken by agricultural pests fed on treated tomato. As a result, this non-transgenic method has the potential to control important crop pests via RNA silencing of vital genes of the respective pests.
Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.
Full Text Available Beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are widespread in nature. Among them, the symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is of major importance, commonly improving host nutrition and tolerance against environmental and biotic challenges. This manuscript addresses the main metabolic changes that take place in a well established symbiosis between tomato and two common arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae. Principal component analysis of metabolites, determined by non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, showed a strong metabolic rearrangement in mycorrhizal roots. There was generally a negative impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on amino-acid content, mainly on those involved in phenylpropanoids biosynthesis. On the other hand, clusters of compounds, which accumulate more in the mycorrhizal roots than in the non-mycorrhizal roots, contain many intermediaries in amino-acid and sugar metabolism and the oxylipin pathway. The metabolic reprogramming also affected other pathways from the secondary metabolism, mainly phenyl alcohols (lignins and lignans and vitamins. The results showed that source metabolites of these pathways decreased in mycorrhizal roots, whilst the products derived from -linolenic and amino acids presented higher concentrations in AMF-colonized roots. Mycorrhization, therefore, increased the flux into those pathways. Venn-diagram analysis showed that there are many induced signals shared by both mycorrhizal interactions, pointing to general mycorrhiza-associated changes in the tomato metabolome. Moreover, fungus-specific fingerprints were also found, suggesting that specific molecular alterations may underlie the reported functional diversity of the symbiosis. Since most positively regulated pathways were related to stress response mechanisms, their potential contribution to improved host stress tolerance is discussed.
Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...
The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the
Full Text Available Research in the field of structure, function and polymorphism of cereal storage and functional proteins has important value in cereal breeding. Beside of emergence of new molecular markers in last decade, special classes of protein markers are still the first choice in conventional breeding programmes. Wheat storage proteins, high molecular weight glutenins (HMW GS represent only 10% of total endosperm proteins, but their composition has a major effect on visco-elastic properties of dough. Second routinely applied marker test in cereal breeding are secaline subunits coded by Sec-1 locus. Their presence in bread wheat genome are marker for IB, 1R substitution or 1BL/1RS translocation which has serious defects in bread making quality such as high dough stickiness and low loaf volume. Composition of HMW GS and the presence of 1BL/1RS traslocation in 93 bread wheat cultivars breed in period 1990-2000. at the Research Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad was detected by SDS-PAG electrophoresis. Eleven alleles were scored, 3 at the Glu-A1, 5 at the Glu-B1, and 3 at the Glu-D1. 1BL/1RS translocation was present in 28 cultivars. Since more than one-third of analyzed cultivars possess high Glu-1 quality score and that 1BL/1RS traslocation presence express retrograde trend it could be conclude that the significant bread-making oriented genetic potential is present. .
Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter
Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...
José Fernando Jurca Grigolli
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize 50 tomato genotypes of the Vegetable Genebank of the FederalUniversity of Viçosa. They were evaluated together with the controls Débora, Fanny and Santa Clara, in a randomized block designwith two replications. The experiment was conducted in a research field of the UFV, from February to May 2007. We evaluated thedisease severity, which is the percentage of diseased leaf area. The severity values were transformed into area under the diseaseprogress curve (AUDPC, improving the result visualization. The analysis of variance and grouping of AUDPC means by the Scott-Knott test at 5 % significance were performed. The accessions BGH-2081, BGH-2034, BGH-700, BGH-2057, BGH-2035, BGH-2054, BGH-2018, BGH-2065, BGH-2008, and BGH-2032 had a lower mean AUDPC than the controls and are therefore indicatedfor future breeding programs.
Preston, G M
Abstract Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and the closely related pathovar P. s. pv. maculicola have been the focus of intensive research in recent years, not only because of the diseases they cause on tomato and crucifers, but because strains such as P. s. pv. tomato DC3000 and P. s. pv. maculicola ES4326 are pathogens of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Consequently, both P. s. pv. tomato and P. s. pv. maculicola have been widely used to study the molecular mechanisms of host responses to infection. Analyses of the molecular basis of pathogenesis in P. s. pv. tomato reveal a complex and intimate interaction between bacteria and plant cells that depends on the coordinated expression of multiple pathogenicity and virulence factors. These include toxins, extracellular proteins and polysaccharides, and the translocation of proteins into plant cells by the type III (Hrp) secretion system. The contribution of individual virulence factors to parasitism and disease development varies significantly between strains. Application of functional genomics and cell biology to both pathogen and host within the P. s. pv. tomato/A. thaliana pathosystem provides a unique opportunity to unravel the molecular interactions underlying plant pathogenesis. Taxonomic relationship: Bacteria; Proteobacteria; gamma subdivision; Pseudomonadaceae/Moraxellaceae group; Pseudomonadaceae family; Pseudomonas genus; Pseudomonas syringae species; tomato pathovar. Microbiological properties: Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, polar flagella, oxidase negative, arginine dihydrolase negative, DNA 58-60 mol% GC, elicits the hypersensitive response on tobacco. Primarily studied as the causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato and as a model pathogen of A. thaliana, although it has been isolated from a wide range of crop and weed species. Disease symptoms: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum): Brown-black leaf spots sometimes surrounded by chlorotic margin; dark superficial specks on green fruit
The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of high-yielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is ...
Nov 6, 2013 ... crops for higher yield and stress tolerance. The completion of genome and expressed sequence tag. (EST) sequencing and gene discovery projects for several crop species like rice, Arabidopsis, sorghum, maize and soybean based on first-generation Sanger sequencing methods have generated a wealth ...
Nov 6, 2013 ... elevation of greenhouse CO2 and/or O2 gas concentration in the subtropics is assumed to create global drought stress and subsequent threat to sustainable crop farming in agriculture. In coming years, the drought, flooding, land degradation, high CO2/O2 concentration and extreme temperature (heat/cold) ...
Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...
Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE
Full Text Available Tomatoes are one of the most representative vegetable species cultivated in our country. This allegation is based on the essential elements of tomatoes culture respectively area cultivated, total production and average yield per hectare - indicators for 2007-2009 reached average levels of 48.8 thousand hectares and 736.9 thousand tonnes respectively 15101kg / ha. Presentation of food helps establish balance of the demand and supply component parts total as follows: production, imports, exports (on request food consumption and losses (on request. It is worth noting that in Romania, unlike global and continental do not appear reports for stocks, industrial raw materials, feed consumption, and other uses. Based on the total volume of supply and demand it could be determining the national balance sheet for the product.
Pailles, Yveline; Ho, Shwen; Pires, Inês S; Tester, Mark; Negrão, Sónia; Schmöckel, Sandra M
Endemic flora of the Galapagos Islands has adapted to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. The wild tomato species from the Galapagos Islands, Solanum cheesmaniae and S. galapagense , are tolerant to various stresses, and can be crossed with cultivated tomato. However, information about genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations is necessary to use these resources efficiently in plant breeding. In this study, we analyzed 3,974 polymorphic SNP markers, obtained through the genotyping-by-sequencing technique, DArTseq, to elucidate the genetic diversity and population structure of 67 accessions of Galapagos tomatoes (compared to two S. lycopersicum varieties and one S. pimpinellifolium accession). Two clustering methods, Principal Component Analysis and STRUCTURE, showed clear distinction between the two species and a subdivision in the S. cheesmaniae group corresponding to geographical origin and age of the islands. High genetic variation among the accessions within each species was suggested by the AMOVA. High diversity in the S. cheesmaniae group and its correlation with the islands of origin were also suggested. This indicates a possible influence of the movement of the islands, from west to east, on the gene flow. Additionally, the absence of S. galapagense populations in the eastern islands points to the species divergence occurring after the eastern islands became isolated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the population structure of the Galapagos tomatoes collection partially explains the evolutionary history of both species, knowledge that facilitates exploitation of their genetic potential for the identification of novel alleles contributing to stress tolerance.
Bracuto, Valentina; Appiano, Michela; Zheng, Zheng; Wolters, Anne-Marie A.; Yan, Zhe; Ricciardi, Luigi; Visser, Richard G. F.; Pavan, Stefano; Bai, Yuling
Specific syntaxins, such as Arabidopsis AtPEN1 and its barley ortholog ROR2, play a major role in plant defense against powdery mildews. Indeed, the impairment of these genes results in increased fungal penetration in both host and non-host interactions. In this study, a genome-wide survey allowed the identification of 21 tomato syntaxins. Two of them, named SlPEN1a and SlPEN1b, are closely related to AtPEN1. RNAi-based silencing of SlPEN1a in a tomato line carrying a loss-of-function mutation of the susceptibility gene SlMLO1 led to compromised resistance toward the tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici. Moreover, it resulted in a significant increase in the penetration rate of the non-adapted powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Codon-based evolutionary analysis and multiple alignments allowed the detection of amino acid residues that are under purifying selection and are specifically conserved in syntaxins involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. Our findings provide both insights on the evolution of syntaxins and information about their function which is of interest for future studies on plant–pathogen interactions and tomato breeding. PMID:28979270
Full Text Available Specific syntaxins, such as Arabidopsis AtPEN1 and its barley ortholog ROR2, play a major role in plant defense against powdery mildews. Indeed, the impairment of these genes results in increased fungal penetration in both host and non-host interactions. In this study, a genome-wide survey allowed the identification of 21 tomato syntaxins. Two of them, named SlPEN1a and SlPEN1b, are closely related to AtPEN1. RNAi-based silencing of SlPEN1a in a tomato line carrying a loss-of-function mutation of the susceptibility gene SlMLO1 led to compromised resistance toward the tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici. Moreover, it resulted in a significant increase in the penetration rate of the non-adapted powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Codon-based evolutionary analysis and multiple alignments allowed the detection of amino acid residues that are under purifying selection and are specifically conserved in syntaxins involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. Our findings provide both insights on the evolution of syntaxins and information about their function which is of interest for future studies on plant–pathogen interactions and tomato breeding.
Endemic flora of the Galapagos Islands has adapted to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. The wild tomato species from the Galapagos Islands, Solanum cheesmaniae and S. galapagense, are tolerant to various stresses, and can be crossed with cultivated tomato. However, information about genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations is necessary to use these resources efficiently in plant breeding. In this study, we analyzed 3,974 polymorphic SNP markers, obtained through the genotyping-by-sequencing technique, DArTseq, to elucidate the genetic diversity and population structure of 67 accessions of Galapagos tomatoes (compared to two S. lycopersicum varieties and one S. pimpinellifolium accession). Two clustering methods, Principal Component Analysis and STRUCTURE, showed clear distinction between the two species and a subdivision in the S. cheesmaniae group corresponding to geographical origin and age of the islands. High genetic variation among the accessions within each species was suggested by the AMOVA. High diversity in the S. cheesmaniae group and its correlation with the islands of origin were also suggested. This indicates a possible influence of the movement of the islands, from west to east, on the gene flow. Additionally, the absence of S. galapagense populations in the eastern islands points to the species divergence occurring after the eastern islands became isolated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the population structure of the Galapagos tomatoes collection partially explains the evolutionary history of both species, knowledge that facilitates exploitation of their genetic potential for the identification of novel alleles contributing to stress tolerance.
HUGO CESAR RODRIGUES MOREIRA CATÃO
Full Text Available Early blight (caused by Alternaria tomatophila is a major disease of tomato with no resistant cultivars. Thus, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and productive genotypes for the development of new cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the productive potential of cherry tomato genotypes grown in the summer / fall, the severity of early blight on leaves and the incidence of disease in fruits. The treatments consisted of Carolina tomato genotypes, Cereja Vermelho, CH 152 and CLN1561A. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with six replications, and the experimental plot had 16 plants. The following characteristics were evaluated: area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, average number of microinjuries on the fruits (MF, average number of fruits per bunch (NFC, average number of bunches per plant (NCP, average number of fruits per plant (NFP, average yield, number of fruits with incidence of early blight per plant (NFI and the severity of early blight in leaves (%. The cherry tomato genotype CH152 showed tolerance to early blight with a smaller area under the disease progress curve, lower severity and fruits with incidence of A. tomatophila were not observed in this genotype. The CH152 had the highest number of fruits per bunch, greater number of bunches per plant, higher number of fruits per plant and higher productivity. This line has great potential of being integrated into breeding programs.
Koval, Tomáš; Dohnálek, Jan; Lipovová, P.; Podzimek, T.; Matoušek, Jaroslav
Roč. 16, 1a (2009), b33 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /7./. 12.03.2009-14.03.2009, Nové Hrady] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : X-ray diffraction * tomato nuclease Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry
Goldsbrough, P.; Gupta, S.; Huang, B.; Scheller, H.
Tomato cells that are exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals synthesize phytochelatins (PCs), a family of peptides that bind heavy metals and are structurally related to glutathione (GSH). PCs have the structure (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl) glycine; for PCs, n=2-10; GSH, n=1. GSH levels decline rapidly in tomato cells exposed to Cd 2+ . Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, prevents sustained synthesis of PC. However the addition of GSH to the medium of BSO-treated cells restores PC production. In vivo labeling studies indicate that 35 [S]-cysteine is incorporated into PC via GSH, rather than being added directly to GSH or pre-formed PC. Initial synthesis of PCs is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Tomato cell cultures that are tolerant of high levels of Cd 2+ contain large amounts of PCs. However, when sensitive and tolerant cells that have been grown in the absence of Cd 2+ are exposed to relatively low concentrations of Cd 2+ , they synthesize PCs at similar rates. These and other results suggest that, although PCs are necessary, increased PC synthesis is not sufficient for expression of the Cd 2+ tolerant phenotype
Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...
Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain
Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)
Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656
Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the
The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...
Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Myers, J.R.
This book provides readers with a thorough review of the latest efforts by crop breeders and geneticists to develop improved varieties for organic production. The book opens with chapters looking at breeding efforts that focus on specific valuable traits such as quality, pest and disease resistance
Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,
The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great
This third issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional (Afra) training course on 'molecular characterization of genetic biodiversity in traditional and neglected crops selected for improvement through mutation techniques' and seminar on 'mutation techniques and biotechnology for tropical and subtropical plant improvement in Asia and Pacific regions'. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized
Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.
Full Text Available The 7B-1 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Rutgers is a male-sterile mutant with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, which makes it a potential candidate for hybrid seed breeding and stress engineering. To underline the molecular mechanism regulating the male-sterility in 7B-1, transcriptomic profiles of the 7B-1 male-sterile and wild type (WT anthers were studied using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. In total, 768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, including 132 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated transcripts. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis of DEGs suggested a general impact of the 7B-1 mutation on metabolic processes, such as proteolysis and carbohydrate catabolic process. Sixteen candidates with key roles in regulation of anther development were subjected to further analysis using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Cytological studies showed several defects associated with anther development in the 7B-1 mutant, including unsynchronized anther maturation, dysfunctional meiosis, arrested microspores, defect in callose degradation and abnormal tapetum development. TUNEL assay showed a defect in programmed cell death (PCD of tapetal cells in 7B-1 anthers. The present study provides insights into the transcriptome of the 7B-1 mutant. We identified several genes with altered expression level in 7B-1 (including beta-1,3 glucanase, GA2oxs, cystatin, cysteine protease, pectinesterase, TA29, and actin that could potentially regulate anther developmental processes, such as meiosis, tapetum development, and cell-wall formation/degradation.
Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates of horse breeding farms from an endemic region in South of Brazil by multiplex PCR PCR multiplex para caracterização molecular de isolados de Rhodococcus equi provenientes de haras de uma região endêmica no Sul do Brasil
Cristina da Costa Krewer
Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coco-bacillus and an intracellular opportunistic pathogen which causes pneumonia in foals. It is widely detected in environment and has been isolated from several sources, as soil, feces and gut from health and sick foals. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological status (endemic, sporadic or no infection of horse breeding farms from Bage County in South of Brazil, using a multiplex PCR. One hundred and eighteen R. equi isolates were identified by biochemical tests and submitted to a specie-specific and vapA multiplex PCR. These isolates were obtained from: three farms where the R. equi infection has been noticed, two farms where the disease has been not reported and one farm where the disease is frequent. All clinical isolates from horse breeding farms where the disease is endemic and/or sporadic were vapA-positive. None environmental isolates were vapA-positive. In three horse breeding farms with sporadic R. equi infection, 11.54% of the isolates from adult horse feces were vapA-positive. The multiplex PCR technique has proven to be effective for the molecular and epidemiological characterization of the R. equi isolates in horse breeding farms. An important finding in this study was the isolation of vapA-positive R. equi from adult horse feces, which is an evidence for other routes of dissemination of this pathogen in the farms.Rhodococcus equi é um coco-bacilo gram positivo que causa pneumonia em potros. Trata-se de um patógeno oportunista amplamente detectado no ambiente e isolado de várias fontes, como solo, fezes e intestino de potros doentes e sadios. O presente estudo visa caracterizar a situação epidemiológica de criatórios eqüinos da região de Bagé, RS, Brasil, pela técnica de PCR multiplex. Cento e dezoito isolados de R. equi foram identificados por testes bioquímicos e, posteriormente, submetidos a um PCR multiplex para caracterização da espécie e da presença do
This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities
Yu, Qing-Hui; Wang, Baike; Li, Ning; Tang, Yaping; Yang, Shengbao; Yang, Tao; Xu, Juan; Guo, Chunmiao; Yan, Peng; Wang, Qiang; Asmutola, Patiguli
Quickly and precisely gain genetically enhanced breeding elites with value-adding performance traits is desired by the crop breeders all the time. The present of gene editing technologies, especially the CRISPR/Cas9 system with the capacities of efficiency, versatility and multiplexing provides a reasonable expectation towards breeding goals. For exploiting possible application to accelerate the speed of process at breeding by CRISPR/Cas9 technology, in this study, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system transformation method was used for obtaining tomato ALC gene mutagenesis and replacement, in absence and presence of the homologous repair template. The average mutation frequency (72.73%) and low replacement efficiency (7.69%) were achieved in T 0 transgenic plants respectively. None of homozygous mutation was detected in T 0 transgenic plants, but one plant carry the heterozygous genes (Cas9/*-ALC/alc) was stably transmitted to T 1 generations for segregation and genotyping. Finally, the desired alc homozygous mutants without T-DNA insertion (*/*-alc/alc) in T 1 generations were acquired and further confirmed by genotype and phenotype characterization, with highlight of excellent storage performance, thus the recessive homozygous breeding elites with the character of long-shelf life were generated. Our results support that CRISPR/Cas9-induced gene replacement via HDR provides a valuable method for breeding elite innovation in tomato.
Pérez-de-Castro, A M; Vilanova, S; Cañizares, J; Pascual, L; Blanca, J M; Díez, M J; Prohens, J; Picó, B
Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, 'breeding by design', or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the 'superdomestication' of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits.
Canama, Alma O.; Galvez, Hayde F.; Tongson, Eden Jane U.; Quilloy, Reynaldo B.; Hautea, Desiree M.
Tomato (L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide for the fresh vegetable market and food processing industry. With the completion of the genome-sequencing projects in various crops, the major challenge will be determine the gene function. One approach is to generate and to analyze mutant phenotypes. The paper reports the generation of gamma-irradiated and ethy methane sulfonate (EMS)-treated mutant populations, identification and phenotypic characterization of dominant and visible mutations in tomato mutant lines. Mutant populations of tomato H7996 were created using physical (cobalt 60 gamma ray) and chemical EMS mutagens. Generally, based on high-throughput phenotypic characterization, mutations were observed on the plant habit, size, morphology, leaf and flower color and morphology and fruit characteristics. Specifically, the most common dominant and visible mutations noted in the M 1 generation were monopodial, compact, short internodes, multi-branch plant type, light yellow and ghost leaf coloration, tiny and long pedicel leaf morphology and small or short plant size. In the M2 generation, homogeneous and segregating M 2 families were selected to constitute the core set of visible tomato mutants. Initial bacterial wilt resistance (BWR) gene knockouts were also identified. The mutant lines will be used as a rich source of genetic materials for breeding and functional genomics of tomato. (author)
Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Del Giudice, Rita; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Monti, Daria Maria
UVA radiations contribute up to 95% of the total UV exposure and are known to induce cell damage, leading to apoptosis. Since the benefic effects of ascorbic acid on human health are well known, a new tomato genotype (named DHO4), highly rich in ascorbic acid, has been recently obtained. Here, we compared the effects of ascorbic acid and hydrophilic DHO4 extracts in protecting human keratinocytes exposed to UVA stress. Keratinocytes were pre-incubated with ascorbic acid or with extracts from the ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype and irradiated with UVA light. Then, ROS production, intracellular GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were quantified. Western blots were carried out to evaluate mitogen-activated protein kinases cascade, activation of caspase-3 and inflammation levels. We demonstrated that ROS, GSH and lipid peroxidation levels were not altered in cell exposed to UVA stress when cells were pre-treated with ascorbic acid or with tomato extracts. In addition, no evidence of apoptosis and inflammation were observed in irradiated pre-treated cells. Altogether, we demonstrated the ability of an ascorbic acid enriched tomato genotype to counteract UVA-oxidative stress on human keratinocytes. This protective effect is due to the high concentration of vitamin C that acts as free radical scavenger. This novel tomato genotype may be used as genetic material in breeding schemes to produce improved varieties with higher antioxidant levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This research set out to identify fungi associated with physically damaged tomato and pepper and verify their effects on the nutritional composition of these vegetables. Healthy looking and physically damaged tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. Fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ...
Hansen, Linn U; Chiu, Mei-Chen M
The fruit of the tomato plant is composed of elongated tomato cells filled with organelles called chromoplasts (plastids). These plastids scattered throughout the cell are rich in nutrients, particularly protein (33%) and lipids (20%). They can be released from the cells by rupture of their cell membranes and then isolated. Plastids and their cell contents can be utilized by the food-processing industry for the preparation of special food products. This study was designed to examine the macronutrient content of isolated tomato plastids and, therefore, determine its potential nutritional value. Use of tomato plastids in pasta sauces and rice dishes, salsa, and extrusion products would increase the nutritional value of the product. Because glucose has been removed in the process of plastid isolation, tomato plastids are useful in the diets of diabetics and cardiovascular patients, as well as for patients in need of weight reduction. Composition comparison of tomato plastid is made with tomato paste, from which glucose has not been removed. Many people require low-sugar products for medical reasons (diabetics and those with cardiovascular disease) and others for weight loss. Therefore, tomato chromoplasts having high protein and lipid contents and low sugar content may be useful in meeting these particular human needs.
A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...
This paper is a study of the potentials of tomato production as a viable source of economic empowerment. An empirical survey was undertaken through oral interviews in Kano to identify farmers' revenues, and agricultural development thereby assessing the connection between tomato production and economic reliance.
Jun 27, 2011 ... In order to clarify carbohydrate content and enzymes activities involved in sugar metabolism in tomato seedling leaves and yield and fruit quality under low night temperature and subsequent recovery, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) were grown in different climatic controlled-.
randomized complete block with three replications. More studies were carried out in farmers' fields to assess the influence of poor management of post-harvested tomato fields as host to crop pest. In the field experiment tomato plants' vegetative and reproductive parameter data were collected. They were then subjected to ...
Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.
... 1 tsp garlic powder 1/4 tsp ground black pepper 2 Tbsp fresh basil, rinsed and chopped (or 2 tsp dried) Directions Combine tomatoes and red peppers in a blender or food processor. Puree until smooth. Put tomato mixture in a medium saucepan, and bring to ...
Physicochemical characteristics of osmotically dehydrated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under different common drying methods. JAV Famurewa, AO Raji. Abstract. This study investigated the effect of different common drying methods on the chemical composition of osmotically dehydrated tomato. The quality of ...
Cotyledons of tomato seedlings that germinated in a 20 µM AlK(SO4)2 solution remained chlorotic while those germinated in an aluminum free medium were normal (green) in color. Previously, we have reported the effect of aluminum toxicity on root proteome in tomato seedlings (Zhou et al. J Exp Bot, 20...
Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Yao, Quan-Hong; Peng, Ri-He; Li, Xian; Han, Pei-Lai; Fan, Hui-Qin
RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent trigger for specific gene silencing of expression in a number of organisms and is an efficient way of shutting down gene expression. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of ACC to ethylene, a plant growth regulator that plays an important role in the tomato ripening process. In this research, to produce double-stranded (ds)RNA of tomato ACC oxidase, we linked the sense and antisense configurations of DNA fragments with 1,002-bp or 7-nt artificially synthesized fragments, respectively, and then placed these under the control of a modified cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The dsRNA expression unit was successfully introduced into tomato cultivar Hezuo 906 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Molecular analysis of 183 transgenic plants revealed that the dsRNA unit was integrated into the tomato genome. With respect to the construct with the 1,002-bp linker, the severity of phenotypes indicated that 72.3% of the transformed plants had non-RNA interference, about 18.1% had semi-RNA interference, and only 9.6% had full-RNA interference. However when the construct with the 7-nt linker was used for transformation, the results were 13.0%, 18.0%, and 69.0%, respectively, indicating that the short linker was more efficient in RNAi of transgenic tomato plants. When we applied this fast way of shutting down the ACC oxidase gene, transgenic tomato plants were produced that had fruit which released traces of ethylene and had a prolonged shelf life of more than 120 days. The RNA and protein analyses indicated that there was non-RNA interference, semi-RNA interference and full-RNA interference of ACC oxidase in the transgenic tomato plants.
松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光
Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...
The Lycopene content of selected tomato based products, fruits and vegetables, commonly consumed in South Western Nigeria were determined using theoretical and experimental method. The lycopene content in tomato pastes ranged from 50.97±1.08 mg/kg in vitali tomato paste to 68.12±1.44 mg/kg in Gino tomato paste ...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing tomato crop insurance provisions. 457.160... tomato crop insurance provisions. The Processing Tomato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and... polices: Processing Tomato Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...
Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions. X Wang, H Mao, X Han, J Yin. Abstract. To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is required. Tomato samples were collected based on the fruit ...
Retno Sri Iswari
Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.
Vachev, T; Ivanova, D; Minkov, I; Tsagris, M; Gozmanova, M
Viroids, small RNA pathogens capable of infecting flowering plants, coexist in the field with parasitic plants that infest many crops. The ability of viroids to be exchanged between host and parasitic plants and spread in the latter has not yet been investigated. We studied the interaction between the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and Branched bromrape (Orobanche ramosa) using the tomato, Solanum lycopersicon, as a common host. We report the long distance trafficking of PSTVd RNA via the phloem from tomato to O. ramosa, but not vice versa. Furthermore, we identify O. ramosa as a novel host with the ability to facilitate the replication and processing of PSTVd. Finally, molecular variants of PSTVd with single nucleotide substitutions that replicate with different efficiencies in tomato were isolated from O. ramosa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.
Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E
Rates of death and growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto raw whole and into chopped tomatoes stored at 10 and 21 degrees C were not influenced by prior treatment of tomatoes with chlorine or packaging under an atmosphere of 3% O2 and 97% N2. Growth of the pathogen occurred in whole tomatoes held at 21 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, while death occurred in chopped tomatoes stored at these temperatures. Likewise, growth patterns of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and yeasts and molds on whole and chopped tomatoes were essentially unaffected by chlorine and modified atmosphere packaging treatments. Populations of L. monocytogenes inoculated into commercially processed tomato juice and sauce and held at 5 degrees C remained constant for 14 days. A gradual decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes cells was observed in juice and sauce held at 21 degrees C. In contrast, the organism died rapidly when suspended in commercial tomato ketchup at 5 and 21 degrees C. Unlike low-acid raw salad vegetables such as lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and cauliflower on which we have observed L. monocytogenes grow at refrigeration temperatures, tomatoes are not a good growth substrate for the organism. Nevertheless, L. monocytogens can remain viable on raw whole and chopped tomatoes and in commercial tomato juice and sauce for periods extending beyond their normal shelf-life expectancy.
Tomatoes have been implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks due to possible contamination through bacterial infiltration into tomatoes during post-harvest handling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tomato variety, dump tank water to tomato pulp temperature differential, and...
Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.
Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.
The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)
Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko
Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388
Zhu, Yaozhou; Sims, Charles A; Klee, Harry J; Sarnoski, Paul J
The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor of a premium Florida tomato variety that has significant potential for producing a high quality processed juice product. A high-quality Florida plum tomato variety (Garden Gem), and a typical grocery-store plum tomato variety (Roma) were thermally processed into tomato juices without any additives. The 2 pilot products and a popular commercially available tomato juice (low sodium with sugar and flavor added) were compared using sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Flavor compounds in these products were identified using dynamic headspace purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS) by MS library match and retention index and were semi-quantitated using internal standards. Color, uniformity, overall liking, tomato flavor, sweetness and texture were rated using a hedonic scale. Analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis were used to analyze both sensory and flavor data. Among the 3 products, Garden Gem juice was rated significantly (P sweetness by the 119 consumer panelists in both seasons. Garden Gem juice was found to contain higher levels of 3 sweet/fruity related aroma compounds: 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, linalool, and β-ionone. The commercial tomato juice contained a high level of the Maillard reaction-related notes furfural, dimethyl sulfide, and the least amount of green-related notes (hexanal, E-2-hexenal and Z-2-heptenal). The flavor profile of the Roma tomato juice was similar to Garden Gem juice except it contained substantially lower amounts of hexanal and 2-isobutylthiazole. The compound β-ionone (fruity note) was not detected in either the commercial or Roma juice. This proof of concept study demonstrates that high flavor quality tomatoes can be used to create better tasting processed tomato products. The study also demonstrates how sensory preference can confer a potential market advantage over existing commercial products. The Garden Gem
This year seems to be very promising for the Plant Breeding and Genetic sub-Programme. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database (MVD) was transferred to the web site and is now available through Internet under the following URL: http://www-mvd.iaea.org. The idea to collect and transfer information on crop varieties developed with the use of mutation techniques to plant breeders ws conceived at almost the same time as the establishment of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section (PBG), Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first classified list of induced mutant varieties was presented by Sigurbjoernsson at the Pullman Symposium, and published in 1969. Since the first issue of the MBNL (May, 1972) information on newly released mutant varieties was published at the end of each issue under the title 'List of Mutant Varieties'. The full list of 2252 mutant varieties has been published in the Mutation Breeding Review No. 12 (December 2000) to close this period of collecting data on mutant varieties. Such condensed but full information on mutant varieties should help geneticists, molecular biologists and plant breeders to asses the value of mutation techniques in germplasm enhancement, and stimulate the use of induced variation
Walter, Achim; Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland
improvement programmes, in particular, where breeding populations and cultivars are characterized by high genetic diversity and substantial genotype × environment interactions, precise and efficient phenotyping is essential to meet future challenges imposed by climate change, growing demand and declining....... Conclusions Progress in cutting-edge molecular breeding tools is beginning to be matched by progress in automated non-destructive imaging methods. Joint application of precise phenotyping machinery and molecular tools in optimized breeding schemes will improve forage and turf breeding in the near future...
Domesticated species form a treasure-trove for molecular characterization of Mendelian traits by exploiting the specific genetic structure of these species in across-breed genome wide association studies
Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.A.M.
Domesticated species have been important models for understanding phenotypic consequences of selection and genetics in the past 150 years. Among the most famous examples, is the work by Charles Darwin on the breeding of fancy pigeons that formed one of the pillars of his theory of evolution. Unknown
Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik
Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome.
Full Text Available Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. A mutational hotspot was found in the type III-secreted effector gene hopM1. These mutations abolish the cell death triggering activity of the full-length protein indicating strong selection for loss of function of this effector, which was previously considered a virulence factor. Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. Interestingly, the ancestral allele of this MAMP induces a stronger tomato immune response than the derived alleles. The ancestral allele has largely disappeared from today's Pto populations suggesting that flagellin-triggered immunity limits pathogen fitness even in highly virulent pathogens. An additional non-synonymous mutation was identified in flg22 in South American isolates. Therefore, MAMPs are more variable than expected differing even between otherwise almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain.
A. M. Gadzhieva; G. I. Kasianov
Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environm...
J. J. T. GAMA
Full Text Available
Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.
Meot-Duros, Laetitia; Le Floch, Gaëtan; Meot, Benoit; Letousey, Patricia; Jacob, Bruno; Barbier, Georges
Composed of a marine plant, Zostera sp., eelgrass slabs are a novel organic substrate for soilless cultures used in tomato production. The benefit of using eelgrass slabs for growing tomatoes was assessed by comparing it with coconut fiber slabs in regard to contamination by Pythium spp. and to the antioxidant properties of tomato fruits. First, tomato root contamination by Pythium spp. was studied by direct plate counting, and a molecular comparison of fungal and oomycete communities was conducted using PCR-DHPLC. Second, the antioxidant properties of tomato fruits were analyzed by measuring total phenol and carotenoid contents and by evaluating radical scavenging activity. Compared to plants grown on coconut fiber slabs, those on eelgrass slabs presented a lower rate of Pythium spp. root contamination. Moreover, culture on eelgrass slabs produced fruits with better radical scavenging activity and higher total phenol content compared to controls. Carotenoid content was not affected by the type of substrate. This study highlights the value of detrital leaves of Zostera sp. as a substrate for soilless culture that reduces root contamination and also promotes the production of tomato fruits with better nutritional value.
Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.
There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified
Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades
In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the
Roselló, Salvador; Adalid, Ana Maria; Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Nuez, Fernando
Tomatoes are an important source of antioxidants (carotenoids, vitamin C, etc.) owing to their high level of consumption. There is great interest in developing cultivars with increased levels of lycopene, β-carotene or L-ascorbic acid. There is necessary to survey new sources of variation. In this study, the potential of improvement for each character in tomato breeding programmes, in a single or joint approach, and the nature of genotype (G), environment (E) and G × E interaction effects in the expression of these characters were investigated. The content of lycopene, β-carotene and ascorbic acid determined was very high in some phenotypes (up to 281, 35 and 346 mg kg(-1) respectively). The important differences in the three environments studied (with some stressing conditions in several situations) had a remarkable influence in the phenotypic expression of the functional characters evaluated. Nevertheless, the major contribution came from the genotypic effect along with a considerable G × E interaction. The joint accumulation of lycopene and β-carotene has a high genetic component. It is possible to select elite genotypes with high content of both carotenoids in tomato breeding programmes but multi-environment trials are recommended. The improvement of ascorbic acid content is more difficult because the interference of uncontrolled factors mask the real genetic potential. Among the accessions evaluated, there are four accessions with an amazing genetic potential for functional properties that can be used as donor parents in tomato breeding programmes or for direct consumption in quality markets. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Gray leaf spot disease caused by Stemphylium lycopersici is a major disease in cultivated tomato plants and threatens tomato-growing areas worldwide. Sm is a single dominant gene that confers resistance to tomato gray leaf spot disease agent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, resistant (cv. Motelle, containing the Sm gene and susceptible (cv. Moneymaker plants were inoculated with virulent Stemphylium lycopersici isolate at a time point at which both cultivars showed a strong response to S. lycopersici infection. Transcriptome analyses were performed in both cultivars using RNA-seq. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs was higher in Motelle than Moneymaker. Functional classification revealed that most DEGs were involved in plant–pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, regulation of autophagy, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and α-linolenic acid metabolism. Moreover, the genes that were significantly up-regulated in Sm tomatoes were involved in plant–pathogen interaction pathways. A total of 26 genes were selected for confirmation of differentially expressed levels by quantitative real-time PCR. This knowledge will yield new insights into the molecular mechanism of Sm responses to S. lycopersici infection.
Full Text Available Tomatoes are parasitized by a number of pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causal agent of fusarium wilt. Fresh vegetable fruits can be contaminated with variousfungi that produce mycotoxins, which is an important issue for human health. The objective of this paper was to isolate, determine, and identify causal organisms of tomato wilt and fruit rot, based on the pathogens morphological and molecular characteristics. Samples ofdiseased plants showing symptoms of tomato wilt were collected from different localities in the production region of Vojvodina. Fruits with symptoms of fusarium rot were collected from storage and warehouses. The isolation and morphological determination of the fungus were performed on PDA and Czapek’s nutrient media. Isolates from diseased plants growing in field,designated as TFW1-TFW12 and seven isolates from diseased tomato fruits (TFM1-TFM7 were chosen for further investigation. For identification of the fungal solates, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also used. The EF1/EF2 primer pair was used for molecular identification of Fusarium sp. Nine analyzed samples were found to contain DNA fragments 700 bp in size.
de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Carnés, Jerónimo; García-Abujeta, José Luís; García-Endrino, Ana; Muñoz-Palomino, Elena; Huertas, Angel Julio; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Ferrer, Angel
Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A, 10 individuals sensitized to tomato, reporting reactions by contact or inhalation to Cannabis; group B, 14 individuals sensitized to tomato, without reactions to Cannabis; group C, 8 individuals not sensitized to tomato and without reactions to Cannabis. Sensitivity to Cannabis, tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects (and 1 negative) had positive skin tests to C. sativa leaves and hashish. Specific IgE to C. sativa and peach peel was more common than to tomato. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. vulgaris extracts inhibited most of the bands present in C. sativa. P. hybrida inhibited only the high-molecular-weight bands. Sensitization to C. sativa with or without symptoms is frequent among patients in Spain sensitized to tomato. C. sativa leaves are a potential allergenic source and their allergens may cross-react with other allergenic sources from plants (fruit peels and pollen). (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek
In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.
Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.
The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)
Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...
This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions
This report discusses the clonal planting stock offers many advantages to the forest products industry. Advanced-generation breeding strategies should be designed to maximize within-family variance and at the same time allow the capture of heterosis. Certainly there may be a conflict in the choice of breeding strategy based on the trait of interest. It may be that the majority of the traits express heterosis due to overdominance. Alternatively, disease resistance is expressed as the lack of a specific metabolite or infection court then the homozygous recessive genotype may be the most desirable. Nonetheless, as the forest products industry begins to utilize the economic advantages of clonal forestry, breeding strategies will have to be optimized for these commercial plant materials. Here, molecular markers can be used to characterize the nature of heterosis and therefore define the appropriate breeding strategy.
Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan
Plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection in plots and only for some, often disease-resistance-related traits, uses genetic markers. The more recently developed concept of genomic selection, using a black box approach with no need of prior knowledge about the effect or function of individual markers, has also been proposed as a great opportunity for plant breeding. Several empirical and theoretical studies have focused on the possibility to implement this as a novel molecular method across various species. Although we do not question the potential of genomic selection in general, in this Opinion, we emphasize that genomic selection approaches from dairy cattle breeding cannot be easily applied to complex plant breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Kaile; van Tuinen, Ageeth; van Kan, Jan A L; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Jacobsen, Evert; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling
Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, attacks many crops including potato and tomato. Major genes for complete resistance to B. cinerea are not known in plants, but a few quantitative trait loci have been described in tomato. Loss of function of particular susceptibility (S) genes appears to provide a new source of resistance to B. cinerea in Arabidopsis. In this study, orthologs of Arabidopsis S genes (DND1, DMR6, DMR1 and PMR4) were silenced by RNAi in potato and tomato (only for DND1). DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato plants showed significantly reduced diameters of B. cinerea lesions as compared to control plants, at all-time points analysed. Reduced lesion diameter was also observed on leaves of DMR6 silenced potato plants but only at 3 days post inoculation (dpi). The DMR1 and PMR4 silenced potato transformants were as susceptible as the control cv Desiree. Microscopic analysis was performed to observe B. cinerea infection progress in DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato leaves. A significantly lower number of B. cinerea conidia remained attached to the leaf surface of DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato plants and the hyphal growth of germlings was hampered. This is the first report of a cytological investigation of Botrytis development on DND1-silenced crop plants. Silencing of DND1 led to reduced susceptibility to Botrytis, which was associated with impediment of conidial germination and attachment as well as hyphal growth. Our results provide new insights regarding the use of S genes in resistance breeding.
The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using
Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Maher, M.J.
In the last two decades, tomato fruit yields in Ireland have increased by 100% to about 375 tonnes per hectare for long-season crops. This represents a very considereable increase in the intensity of growing and may have implications for fruit quality. For this reason, the inter-relationship between crop production, yield, quality and composition of tomato fruit from high-yielding, intensive growing systems was evaluated by the authors (a food technologist and a crop production specialist, re...
Parasitic root-knot nematodes are a threat to tomato production. In this study, the effect of Procarvian carpensis manure at a rate of 5tons/ha and the balanced NPK inorganic fertilizer at a rate of 100kg/ha on the growth performance of the tomato genotype “Duluti” on a highly root-knot nematode soil was evaluated. The field ...
Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...
Full Text Available Natural biodiversity is an underexploited sustainable resource that can enrich the genetic basis of cultivated plants with novel alleles that improve productivity and adaptation. We evaluated the progress in breeding for increased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum yield using genotypes carrying a pyramid of three independent yield-promoting genomic regions introduced from the drought-tolerant green-fruited wild species Solanum pennellii. Yield of hybrids parented by the pyramided genotypes was more than 50% higher than that of a control market leader variety under both wet and dry field conditions that received 10% of the irrigation water. This demonstration of the breaking of agricultural yield barriers provides the rationale for implementing similar strategies for other agricultural organisms that are important for global food security.
Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth
This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR
In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was evaluated the initial material of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in accordance with the degree of accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 as well as there were revealed the sources for selection breeding with the minimal accumulation of radionuclides. In course of the study there were presented the parameters of adaptive ability, ecological stability and radionuclide content in varieties (Dokhodnyj; Talalikhin; Fakel; F1 Sozvezdie) and parthenocarpic lines of tomato. Research results showed the substantial variability in accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 by various varieties and lines. Hybrid F1 Sozvesdie, Talalikhin variety and parthenocarpic lines 1 and 7 proved the ability to accumulate minimal amount of radionuclides. It was not proposed to cultivate at the contaminated areas the tomato variety Fakel. As a result of study there was created a hybrid F1 Sozvesdie. Its cultivation on the contaminated areas made it possible to obtain ecologically safe products
Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M
The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools.
Sikder, S.; Biswas, P.; Hazra, P.; Akhtar, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Badigannavar, A.M.; D'Souza, S.F.
Induction of mutation by gamma rays, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and their combined treatments was studied in three widely divergent genotypes of tomato, EC620176, EC620177 and Patharkutchi. A steady reduction in germination percentage, seedling height and pollen fertility occurred in M1 generation with the increasing doses / concentrations of mutagens. Combination of gamma radiation and EMS caused more damage followed by EMS treatment and gamma radiation alone in M1 generation. The LD 50 dose for EC620176, EC620177 and Patharkutchi corresponded to 67.3 Gy, 290.9 Gy and 303.8 Gy gamma radiation, and 0.10%, 0.17 % and 0.38 % EMS treatment, respectively. Highest mutation frequency was resulted by gamma radiation followed by the combined mutagens and EMS treatment. Genotype and mutagen, both, influenced the production of mutants. Mutagenic efficiency of lower doses/concentrations was more compared to higher doses in producing desirable mutants. Mutagenic effectiveness of gamma radiation was the highest followed by sole EMS and combined mutagens. Gamma irradiation (50-150 Gy) was most efficient followed by 0.05-0.10 % EMS and their combination treatment in inducing wide array of macromutation in tomato. Five putative mutants with exerted stigma flower, dark green fruit, dwarf plant having pyriform fruit from Patharkutchi, multiparous cyme from EC620177 and chlorophyll deficient mutant from EC620176 that could be isolated in M2 generation hold promise for their utilization in tomato breeding programme. (author)
Davis, Joel; Yu, Daozhan; Evans, Wendy; Gokirmak, Tufan; Chetelat, Roger T; Stotz, Henrik U
Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the necrotrophic ascomycete and causal agent of gray mold, Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to this fungal pathogen is elevated in wild relatives of tomato, including Solanum lycopersicoides. An introgression line population (IL) containing chromosomal segments of S. lycopersicoides within the background of tomato cv. VF36 was used to screen the genome for foliar resistance and susceptibility to B. cinerea. Based on this screen, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, five for resistance and two for susceptibility. Four resistance QTL decreased infection frequency while the fifth reduced lesion diameter. One susceptibility QTL increased infection frequency whereas the other increased lesion diameter. Overlapping chromosomal segments provided strong evidence for partial resistance on chromosomes 1 and 9 and for elevated susceptibility on chromosome 11. Segregation analysis confirmed the major resistance QTL on the long arm of chromosome 1 and susceptibility on chromosome 11. Linkage of partial resistance to chromosome 9 could not be confirmed. The usefulness of these data for resistance breeding and for map-based cloning of foliar resistance to B. cinerea is discussed.
Diana M Horvath
Full Text Available We investigated whether lines of transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum expressing the Bs2 resistance gene from pepper, a close relative of tomato, demonstrate improved resistance to bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas species in replicated multi-year field trials under commercial type growing conditions. We report that the presence of the Bs2 gene in the highly susceptible VF 36 background reduced disease to extremely low levels, and VF 36-Bs2 plants displayed the lowest disease severity amongst all tomato varieties tested, including commercial and breeding lines with host resistance. Yields of marketable fruit from transgenic lines were typically 2.5 times that of the non-transformed parent line, but varied between 1.5 and 11.5 fold depending on weather conditions and disease pressure. Trials were conducted without application of any copper-based bactericides, presently in wide use despite negative impacts on the environment. This is the first demonstration of effective field resistance in a transgenic genotype based on a plant R gene and provides an opportunity for control of a devastating pathogen while eliminating ineffective copper pesticides.
Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Espino, A.; Botella, M.; Alfaro-Fernández, A.; Font, M.I.
In October 2006, tomato plants with torrado disease were sampled in Spain. In a sample of cv. Mariana, originating from Gran Canaria, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV, genus Torradovirus) was detected (isolate GCN06; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010). In 2013, the sample was further analysed using
Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of
The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives
Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi
The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.
. Perhaps as a consequence, long-distance migratory songbirds are declining rapidly compared to their sedentary counterparts. To understand what is driving these declines in European-Afrotropical migratory bird populations we need to understand the full annual migration cycle of these birds. Recent...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire......) in the period 2009-2015. We found that populations used the same migration routes and staging sites, but segregated spatially at the main non-breeding grounds in southern Africa. This finding suggest a far more complex migration pattern than what has recently been described for European-Afrotropical migrants...
These last six months, the Plant Breeding and Genetics (PBG) Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division (NAFA/AGE) implemented five Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) and one Consultants Meeting for a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Molecular tools for quality improvement in vegetatively propagated crops including banana and cassava' (8-11 November 2004, Vienna). Other salient points were the training courses we implemented this semester in the framework of different Technical Cooperation (TC) projects.Details about these activities inside this Newsletter
Oct 8, 2012 ... university teaching hospital based in southern. Nigeria. Journal of Asian Scientific Research,. 1(1), 7-17. Karami, M., Rezainezhad, Y., Afijumi, M. and Shriatmadari, H. (2007), The cumulative and remain effects of municipal sewage sludge on the concentrations of lrad and cadmium in soil and yield of wheat ...
Adalid, Ana Maria; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Roselló, Salvador; Maquieira, Angel; Nuez, Fernando
In this study, the major carotenoids (beta-carotene and lycopene) present in tomato fruits were analyzed by CEC with a methacrylate ester-based monolithic column. The effects of the porogenic solvent ratio, and the hydrophobicity of bulk monomer employed were examined on carotenoids separations. A fast separation of these analytes was achieved in less than 5.0 min in a mobile phase containing 35% THF, 30% ACN, 30% methanol, and 5% of a 5 mM Tris aqueous buffer, pH 8, with lauryl methacrylate-based monoliths. The CEC method was evaluated in terms of detection limit and reproducibility (retention time, area, and column preparation) with values below 1.6 microg/mL and 7.2%, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of both carotenoids in fruits of several tomato-related species and its usefulness to analyze large series of samples for nutritional quality screening trials in tomato breeding programs is demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first work that exploits the powerful and user-friendly monolithic technology for quality breeding and germplasm evaluation program purposes.
During the last hundred years the fancying and breeding of exhibition poultry became very popular as free time activity. Certain breeding standards were set, and the aim of actual breeding endeavours is to meet these standards through selective breeding. Not only were serious defects established as standard qualities (e.g. domestic ducks with feather crests, rumplessness, and ear-tufts in the domestic fowl), but certain distinctive marks were changed into excessive formations (e.g. pigeon breeds with large, cauliflower-like wattles, or enlarged crops and severe behaviour changes). Accurate analysis of such breeding efforts shows that these breeds are to be called defective and abnormal in the sense of section 11b of the German protection of animals legislation. Whether an increased embryonic mortality, especially during the hatching period, constitutes a condemnable state of cruelty against is recently being discussed. Criticised are also standard features which handicap, in varying degrees, certain functional systems of the natural behaviour patterns. Section 11b of the German protection of animal legislation in its present wording is definitely no sufficient mean to control the contemporary excess in breeding of domestic animals.
M. I. Fedorova
Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed.
registration in the Republic of Serbia and one in the EU. While addressing many challenges in breeding, especially resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, in addition to classical breeding, it is necessary to apply the cytogenetic and molecular analysis to increase the efficiency of producing competitive rapeseed genotypes.
Dwivedi, Sangam L; Britt, Anne B; Tripathi, Leena; Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro
The discovery of haploids in higher plants led to the use of doubled haploid (DH) technology in plant breeding. This article provides the state of the art on DH technology including the induction and identification of haploids, what factors influence haploid induction, molecular basis of microspore embryogenesis, the genetics underpinnings of haploid induction and its use in plant breeding, particularly to fix traits and unlock genetic variation. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been used to induce haploids that are thereafter chromosome doubled to produce DH. Various heritable factors contribute to the successful induction of haploids, whose genetics is that of a quantitative trait. Genomic regions associated with in vitro and in vivo DH production were noted in various crops with the aid of DNA markers. It seems that F2 plants are the most suitable for the induction of DH lines than F1 plants. Identifying putative haploids is a key issue in haploid breeding. DH technology in Brassicas and cereals, such as barley, maize, rice, rye and wheat, has been improved and used routinely in cultivar development, while in other food staples such as pulses and root crops the technology has not reached to the stage leading to its application in plant breeding. The centromere-mediated haploid induction system has been used in Arabidopsis, but not yet in crops. Most food staples are derived from genomic resources-rich crops, including those with sequenced reference genomes. The integration of genomic resources with DH technology provides new opportunities for the improving selection methods, maximizing selection gains and accelerate cultivar development. Marker-aided breeding and DH technology have been used to improve host plant resistance in barley, rice, and wheat. Multinational seed companies are using DH technology in large-scale production of inbred lines for further development of hybrid cultivars, particularly in maize. The public sector provides support to
Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Přikrylová, P.; Gazdová, J.; Vlasák, Josef; Niedermeierová, Hana
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2008), s. 453-461 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/05/2092 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : transgenic plants * trnasgenic potato * transgenic tomato Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2008
The general introduction reviews the progress in tomato genome mapping using classical genetics, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics, emphasising the great potential of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) techniques.
Chapter 2 describes how to
Humplík, Jan; Turečková, Veronika; Fellner, Martin; Bergougnoux, V.
Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), č. článku e1039213. ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis seedlings * blue-light * phytochromes * germination * metabolism * dormancy * barley * seeds * abscisic acid * blue-light * etiolated growth * photomorphogenesis * tomato Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert
During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumpt...
Iquebal, Mir Asif; Sarika; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Arora, Vasu; Dixit, Sat Pal; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh
Identification of true to breed type animal for conservation purpose is imperative. Breed dilution is one of the major problems in sustainability except cases of commercial crossbreeding under controlled condition. Breed descriptor has been developed to identify breed but such descriptors cover only "pure breed" or true to the breed type animals excluding undefined or admixture population. Moreover, in case of semen, ova, embryo and breed product, the breed cannot be identified due to lack of visible phenotypic descriptors. Advent of molecular markers like microsatellite and SNP have revolutionized breed identification from even small biological tissue or germplasm. Microsatellite DNA marker based breed assignments has been reported in various domestic animals. Such methods have limitations viz. non availability of allele data in public domain, thus each time all reference breed has to be genotyped which is neither logical nor economical. Even if such data is available but computational methods needs expertise of data analysis and interpretation. We found Bayesian Networks as best classifier with highest accuracy of 98.7% using 51850 reference allele data generated by 25 microsatellite loci on 22 goat breed population of India. The FST values in the study were seen to be low ranging from 0.051 to 0.297 and overall genetic differentiation of 13.8%, suggesting more number of loci needed for higher accuracy. We report here world's first model webserver for breed identification using microsatellite DNA markers freely accessible at http://cabin.iasri.res.in/gomi/. Higher number of loci is required due to less differentiable population and large number of breeds taken in this study. This server will reduce the cost with computational ease. This methodology can be a model for various other domestic animal species as a valuable tool for conservation and breed improvement programmes.
Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide molecular marker data to predict the genetic value of selection candidates in breeding programs. In plant breeding, the ability to produce large numbers of progeny per cross allows GS to be conducted within each family. However, this approach requires phenotyp...
Elferink, Martin G.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Vereijken, Addie; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Groenen, Martien A. M.
Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chicken breeds (67 in total) using a high-density (58 K) SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations. PMID:22384281
May 18, 2009 ... Genetic characterization of two Sudanese goat breeds. (Capra hircus) using RAPD molecular markers. Eisa El Gaali* and Mona Satti. Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Center for Research, Ministry of Science and. Technology, P. O. Box 2404, Khartoum, Sudan. Accepted 2 ...
Plants defend themselves against potential pathogens via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this PAMP triggered immunity (PTI) are largely unknown. In this study, we show that tomato HP1/DDB1, coding for a key component of ...
Han, Sanghyun; Micallef, Shirley A
Foodborne illness-causing enteric bacteria are able to colonize plant surfaces without causing infection. We lack an understanding of how epiphytic persistence of enteric bacteria occurs on plants, possibly as an adaptive transit strategy to maximize chances of reentering herbivorous hosts. We used tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars that have exhibited differential susceptibilities to Salmonella enterica colonization to investigate the influence of plant surface compounds and exudates on enteric bacterial populations. Tomato fruit, shoot, and root exudates collected at different developmental stages supported growth of S. enterica to various degrees in a cultivar- and plant organ-dependent manner. S. enterica growth in fruit exudates of various cultivars correlated with epiphytic growth data (R(2) = 0.504; P = 0.006), providing evidence that plant surface compounds drive bacterial colonization success. Chemical profiling of tomato surface compounds with gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) provided valuable information about the metabolic environment on fruit, shoot, and root surfaces. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed quantitative differences in phytocompounds among cultivars and changes over a developmental course and by plant organ (P enterica growth, while fatty acids, including palmitic and oleic acids, were negatively correlated. We demonstrate that the plant surface metabolite landscape has a significant impact on S. enterica growth and colonization efficiency. This environmental metabolomics approach provides an avenue to understand interactions between human pathogens and plants that could lead to strategies to identify or breed crop cultivars for microbiologically safer produce. In recent years, fresh produce has emerged as a leading food vehicle for enteric pathogens. Salmonella-contaminated tomatoes represent a recurrent human pathogen-plant commodity pair. We demonstrate that Salmonella can utilize
Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A
Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period
Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth
Full Text Available The family of aquaporins, also called water channels or major intrinsic proteins, is characterized by six transmembrane domains that together facilitate the transport of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all domains of life, but show their highest diversity in plants. Numerous studies identified aquaporins as important targets for improving plant performance under drought stress. The phylogeny of aquaporins is well established based on model species like Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be used as a template to investigate aquaporins in other species. In this study we comprehensively identified aquaporin encoding genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, which is an important vegetable crop and also serves as a model for fleshy fruit development. We found 47 aquaporin genes in the tomato genome and analyzed their structural features. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences the aquaporin genes were assigned to five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs and their substrate specificity was assessed on the basis of key amino acid residues. As ESTs were available for 32 genes, expression of these genes was analyzed in 13 different tissues and developmental stages of tomato. We detected tissue-specific and development-specific expression of tomato aquaporin genes, which is a first step towards revealing the contribution of aquaporins to water and solute transport in leaves and during fruit development.
Reuscher, Stefan; Akiyama, Masahito; Mori, Chiharu; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Shiratake, Katsuhiro
The family of aquaporins, also called water channels or major intrinsic proteins, is characterized by six transmembrane domains that together facilitate the transport of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all domains of life, but show their highest diversity in plants. Numerous studies identified aquaporins as important targets for improving plant performance under drought stress. The phylogeny of aquaporins is well established based on model species like Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be used as a template to investigate aquaporins in other species. In this study we comprehensively identified aquaporin encoding genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which is an important vegetable crop and also serves as a model for fleshy fruit development. We found 47 aquaporin genes in the tomato genome and analyzed their structural features. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences the aquaporin genes were assigned to five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs) and their substrate specificity was assessed on the basis of key amino acid residues. As ESTs were available for 32 genes, expression of these genes was analyzed in 13 different tissues and developmental stages of tomato. We detected tissue-specific and development-specific expression of tomato aquaporin genes, which is a first step towards revealing the contribution of aquaporins to water and solute transport in leaves and during fruit development.
Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most destructive pathogens causing foot rot disease on tomato. In this study, the molecular and cellular changes of a partially resistant (Sunny 6066 and a susceptible (Rio Grande tomato cultivar after infection with necrotrophic soil-borne fungus R. solani were compared. The expression of defense-related genes such as chitinase (LOC544149 and peroxidase (CEVI-1 in infected tomato cultivars was investigated using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. This method revealed elevated levels of expression for both genes in the partially resistant cultivar compared to the susceptible cultivar. One of the most prominent facets of basal plant defense responses is the formation of physical barriers at sites of attempted fungal penetration. These structures are produced around the sites of potential pathogen ingress to prevent pathogen progress in plant tissues. We investigated formation of lignin, as one of the most important structural barriers affecting plant resistance, using thioglycolic acid assay. A correlation was found between lignification and higher level of resistance in Sunny 6066 compared to Rio Grande cultivar. These findings suggest the involvement of chitinase, peroxidase, and lignin formation in defense responses of tomato plants against R. solani as a destructive pathogen.
Geng, Liang; Qian, Li-Xin; Shao, Ruo-Xuan; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei
Background Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide, and over 75% of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insect vectors. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus, which is the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The circulation of TYLCV in the insect involves complex insect-virus interactions, whereas the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain ambiguou...
The farmers carry out neither on-farm nor off-farm storage of the fresh tomato fruits. The major postharvest problems of the farmers are the need for permanent purchasing outlets and the stabilization of the unit price per box of tomato. This calls for a significant look at the distribution system for tomatoes. JOURNAL OF THE ...
Baldina, Svetlana; Picarella, Maurizio E.; Troise, Antonio D.; Pucci, Anna; Ruggieri, Valentino; Ferracane, Rosalia; Barone, Amalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Mazzucato, Andrea
Increased interest toward traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to
Lycopene of tomato wastes was extracted and determination. The level of tomato lycopene was 145.50 ppm. An aliquots of the concentrated tomato lycopene, represent 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm; grade lycopene (200 ppm) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 200 ppm) were investigated by the 1,1- ...
from tomato production (r= 0.334) and strategies adopted for increased in tomato production. (P≤ 0.01). The study therefore recommended the need for the provision of adequate training, necessary incentives, provision of infrastructural facilitates and improved variety of tomato to farmers as a panacea for sustainable and ...
Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...
Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra
The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity
Alireza Mohammadi HAJIABADI
Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Qazvin province in the North of Iran, to determine the incidence of tomato viruses including: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV, Tomato aspermy virus (TAV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Beet curly top virus (BCTV, and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. A total of 742 tomato symptomatic samples were collected during the summer of 2007 in five regions of Qazvin province (Qazvin, Takestan, Boeen-Zahra, Alborz and Abiyek and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. TSWV was detected in Alborz (4.4 % and Abiyek (3.57% regions but TMV and CMV were detected in all five regions. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses were recorded in Alborz (40.7 % and Takestan (11.1 %, respectively. The presence of these viruses was also evaluated in the weed hosts as natural sources of plant viruses. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses in weed hosts were recorded in Boeen-Zahra (25.6 % and Qazvin (12.8 %, respectively. TSWV was not detected in weeds. Transmission tests demonstrated that Thrips tabaci acts as TSWV carrier and Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii were CMV carriers. Seed transmission tests were positive for TMV (13 tomato seedlings from 100 seedlings, but no TSWV transmission was observed through the seeds of infected tomato fruits.
population of tomato soil treated with different concentration of benomyl and pseudomonads to benomyl in culture medium and in tomato soils. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of samples and treatment with benomyl. Soil samples were collected from a vegetable farm in which tomato had been cropped for two ...
The paper examined the socio-economic characteristics of wholesale tomato marketers with a view to identifying the marketing channels of tomato fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. Information was randomly collected with the aid of a well structured ...
Identidade molecular dos fitoplasmas associados aos enfezamentos do tomateiro e da berinjela com base na análise do gene 16S rDNA Molecular identity of the phytoplasma associated to stunting of tomato and eggplant on the basis of analyses of the 16S rDNA
Ana Paula de Oliveira Amaral Mello
Full Text Available Doenças de hortaliças de ocorrência no território brasileiro e em outras áreas do mundo têm sido associadas a diversos fitoplasmas. Na região de Piracicaba-SP e Bragança Paulista-SP, em plantas de tomate e berinjela foram observados sintomas típicos de enfezamento caracterizados por porte reduzido, clorose foliar, superbrotamento de ramos, desenvolvimento anormal do cálice, encurtamento de entre-nós, redução no tamanho de folhas, flores e frutos. Através de duplo PCR, utilizando os iniciadores R16 mF1/mR2 e R16 F2n/R2, fragmentos de DNA de 1,2 kb foram amplificados de amostras sintomáticas, demonstrando a presença de fitoplasma nos tecidos das plantas. O uso de iniciadores específicos demonstrou que estes fitoplasmas eram afiliados ao grupo 16SrIII. Análises de RFLP, usando as enzimas de restrição AluI, HpaII, KpnI, MboI, MseI e RsaI confirmaram que os fitoplasmas detectados eram representantes do grupo 16SrIII. Os fragmentos de DNA amplificados foram clonados em Escherichia coli, sequenciados e comparados, por homologia de seqüência, entre si e com outros fitoplasmas do grupo 16SrIII. Um índice de similaridade de seqüência acima de 95% foi encontrado quando seqüências dos fitoplasmas detectados em tomate e berinjela foram comparadas com aquelas de outros representantes do grupo 16SrIII. Um índice de 98-99% foi obtido quando seqüências dos fitoplasmas encontrados em tomate e berinjela foram comparadas entre si. Estes resultados evidenciaram que o enfezamento do tomateiro e da berinjela podem estar associados a um mesmo fitoplasma, com base na análise de seqüências do gene do 16S rDNA.Vegetable diseases occurring in the Brazilian territory and around the world have been associated with various phytoplasmas. In the region of Piracicaba-SP and Bragança-SP, in eggplant and tomato plants typical symptoms of stunting characterized by reduced canopy, leaf yellowing, proliferation of shoots, calix malformation
A review of genetic studies related to the breeding of improved cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) indicated that it was possible to modify the following over a wide range: duration of the rosette stage, stem length, branching habit, degree of spininess, head number, head size, flower morphology, mating system, seed size, hull thickness and thereby oil and protein contents, and fatty acid composition of the oil. Safflower breeders have concentrated most of their efforts on identifying and evaluating the great range of variability in cultivated safflower and its closely related wild species, and not on exploring means to increase variability. Limited experiments with gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate indicated that additional variability could be induced. Mutagenic agents should be used to obtain the following: resistance to foliar diseases where resistant germplasm is not available, increased levels of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, resistance to dodder and orobanche, resistance to insect pests, earlier maturity, and additional modifications in the fatty acid composition of the oil. (author)
Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.
Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.
Acosta-Quezada, Pablo G; Raigón, María D; Riofrío-Cuenca, Tania; García-Martínez, María D; Plazas, Mariola; Burneo, Juan I; Figueroa, Jorge G; Vilanova, Santiago; Prohens, Jaime
We evaluated 23 tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) accessions from five cultivar groups and one wild relative (Solanum cajanumense) for 26 composition traits. For all traits we found highly significant differences (Pcomposition traits was matched by a high diversity within each of the cultivar groups. We found that sucrose and citric acid were the most important soluble sugar and organic acid, respectively, in tree tomato. Fruit in the anthocyanin pigmented (purple) group had a carotenoid content similar to that in the yellow-orange cultivar groups. Total phenolic content was significantly correlated (r=0.8607) with antioxidant activity. Analyses of mineral content showed that tree tomato is a good source of K, Mg, and Cu. Multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed that an important diversity exists within each cultivar group. The results we have obtained indicate that the high diversity found within the tree tomato could be exploited for selection and breeding for developing the tree tomato as a commercial crop. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.
Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST
The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes. Fresh fully ripen tomatoes were washed and cut in thin slices with sterilized stainless steel knife and divided into two lots, one was taken as control and other was dipped in 3% potassium meta bisulfite solution for 5 minutes. The samples were spread over stainless steel trays covered with muslin cloth and kept in solar dehydrator for 5 days at 55 +- 2 deg. C. The physicochemical analyses were carried out in both dried and fresh (control) tomatoes. They were also analyzed microbiologically for bacterial and fugal count. Results showed that sun dried tomatoes are microbiologically safe. The values of moisture content and vitamin C of fresh and sun dried tomatoes statistically differ from each others at probability level of 5 %. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. In fresh tomatoes it was 32.5 mg/100 g which is reduced to 24.6 mg/100 g after sun drying and further reduced to 15.86 mg/100 g during three months storage. The moisture content of the fresh tomatoes was 94.4% which decreased to 8.15% after drying, and then slowly increased to 9.95% in the three months storage. Statistically no major difference was found in the other nutrients during storage, which indicates that sun drying is nutritionally and microbiologically safe and can be used to preserve tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables for off season use. (author)
Davuluri, Ganga Rao; van Tuinen, Ageeth; Fraser, Paul D; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Newman, Robert; Burgess, Diane; Brummell, David A; King, Stephen R; Palys, Joe; Uhlig, John; Bramley, Peter M; Pennings, Henk M J; Bowler, Chris
Tomatoes are a principal dietary source of carotenoids and flavonoids, both of which are highly beneficial for human health. Overexpression of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes or transcription factors have resulted in tomatoes with improved carotenoid or flavonoid content, but never with both. We attempted to increase tomato fruit nutritional value by suppressing an endogenous photomorphogenesis regulatory gene, DET1, using fruit-specific promoters combined with RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Molecular analysis indicated that DET1 transcripts were indeed specifically degraded in transgenic fruits. Both carotenoid and flavonoid contents were increased significantly, whereas other parameters of fruit quality were largely unchanged. These results demonstrate that manipulation of a plant regulatory gene can simultaneously influence the production of several phytonutrients generated from independent biosynthetic pathways, and provide a novel example of the use of organ-specific gene silencing to improve the nutritional value of plant-derived products.
Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.
The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...
Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.
Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)
Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: email@example.com [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)
Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
California Natural Resource Agency — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.
This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted
This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects
This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs
California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants
Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural phenotypic variability present in the germplasm of cultivated plants can be linked to molecular polymorphisms using association genetics. However it is necessary to consider the genetic structure of the germplasm used to avoid false association. The knowledge of genetic structure of plant populations can help in inferring plant evolutionary history. In this context, we genotyped 360 wild, feral and cultivated accessions with 20 simple sequence repeat markers and investigated the extent and structure of the genetic variation. The study focused on the red fruited tomato clade involved in the domestication of tomato and confirmed the admixture status of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme. We used a nested sample strategy to set-up core collection maximizing the genetic diversity with a minimum of individuals. Results Molecular diversity was considerably lower in S. lycopersicum i.e. the domesticated form. Model-based analysis showed that the 144 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions were structured into two groups: one close to the domesticated group and one resulting from the admixture of the S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium genomes. SSR genotyping also indicates that domesticated and wild tomatoes have evolved as a species complex with intensive level of hybridization. We compiled genotypic and phenotypic data to identify sub-samples of 8, 24, 32 and 64 cherry tomato accessions that captured most of the genetic and morphological diversity present in the entire S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme collection. Conclusion The extent and structure of allelic variation is discussed in relation to historical events like domestication and modern selection. The potential use of the admixed group of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme for association genetics studies is also discussed. Nested core collections sampled to represent tomato diversity will be useful in diversity studies. Molecular and
The most important event related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months was the 2nd FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on 'Mutant Germplasm Characterization using Molecular Markers' which was held at Seibersdorf, 4-29 November 2002. In addition to basic molecular and marker techniques, which were also a subject of the first training course last year, fluorescence in situ hybridisation methods were included in the teaching and demonstration programme. As we informed you in the last edition of this Newsletter, a laboratory manual was published with detailed protocols on molecular markers techniques entitled 'Mutant germplasm characterization using molecular markers. A Manual'. (IAEA Training Course Series No. 19). (available for free distribution under conditions provided on page 11 of this Newsletter). We have also finished editing a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A Manual.' This book was prepared in close collaboration with EU COST 851 activities. Ken Kasha (Canada), Brian Forster (UK) and lwona Szarejko (Poland) helped to edit more than 40 protocols for doubled haploid production in at least 23 crop species. The preparation of this manual reflects our our interest in the development and application of this technology for crop improvement. Two CRPs and numerous Technical Co-operation projects greatly contributed to the development of doubled haploid methods and also to implementation of this technology in crop improvement programmes of many countries. Numerous other important activities have been undertaken by the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme during the last 6 months. A consultants meeting on 'Low cost technology in plant tissue culture' was held in Vienna and its results will be summarized in the form of an IAEA-TECDOC which is now in the final stage of preparation. In addition to the implementation of five Co-ordinated Research Projects, nine workshops and national or regional
Full Text Available Stigma is a crucial structure of female reproductive organ in plants. Stigma color is usually regarded as an important trait in variety identification in some species, but the molecular mechanism of stigma color formation remains elusive. Here, we characterized a tomato mutant, yellow stigma (ys, that shows yellow rather than typical green color in the stigma. Analysis of pigment contents revealed that the level of flavonoid naringenin chalcone was increased in the ys stigma, possibly as a result of higher accumulation of p-coumaric acid, suggesting that naringenin chalcone might play a vital role in yellow color control in tomato stigma. To understand the genes and gene networks that regulate tomato stigma color, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq analyses were performed to compare the transcriptomes of stigmas between ys mutant and wild-type (WT. We obtained 507 differentially expressed genes, in which, 84 and 423 genes were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated in the ys mutant, respectively. Two cytochrome P450 genes, SlC3H1 and SlC3H2 which encode p-coumarate 3-hydroxylases, and six peroxidase genes were identified to be dramatically inhibited in the yellow stigma. Further bioinformatic and biochemical analyses implied that the repression of the two SlC3Hs and six PODs may indirectly lead to higher naringenin chalcone level through inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, thereby contributing to yellow coloration in tomato stigma. Thus, our data suggest that two SlC3Hs and six PODs are involved in yellow stigma formation. This study provides valuable information for dissecting the molecular mechanism of stigma color control in tomato.Statement: This study reveals that two cytochrome P450s (SlC3H1 and SlC3H2 and six peroxidases potentially regulate the yellow stigma formation by indirectly enhancing biosynthesis of yellow-colored naringenin chalcone in the stigma of tomato.
Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.
Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.
Lim, Wansang; Miller, Rebecca; Park, Jungeun; Park, Sunghun
Tomatoes have ameliorative effects on cardiovascular disease and cancer. In this study, metabolic engineering of flavonoids was utilized to improve the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing flavonol and anthocyanin content. Total flavonol content was significantly increased in both the peel and flesh using the onion chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene. The Delila (Del) and Rosea1 (Ros1) genes from the snapdragon Antirrhinum majus were concomitantly expressed to produce an anthocyanin-rich tomato which was purple in color. Sensory evaluation by a panel of 81 untrained consumers revealed no significant difference in liking of color or texture between CHI, Del/Ros1, and wild-type tomatoes. Consumers reported marginal but significantly higher preference for the flavor and overall liking of CHI tomatoes over Del/Ros1 and wild-type tomatoes. This study is the first to report the results of sensory tests of transgenic tomatoes by a consumer panel representing the general consuming public. Transgenic procedures were used to increase the flavonol and anthocyanin contents of tomatoes. An untrained consumer panel scored flavor and overall liking of the 2 transgenic tomatoes higher than wild-type tomatoes and reported no difference in liking of texture or color between the 3 tomatoes. After participating in the sensory study, 14% of the panelists changed their attitudes positively toward transgenic vegetables and 96% of the consumers on the panel reported that they would buy transgenic food if they believed that it would promote health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René
During the production of tomato seeds, green tomatoes are normally discarded before seed extraction irrespective of their maturity stage. Studies indicate that seeds from green tomatoes may reach be able to reach full germination capacity. Thus the potential of multispectral imaging for non......-destructive discrimination of seeds based on their germination capacity was investigated. A total of 840 seeds extracted from green and red tomatoes were divided into two sets; a training set and a test set consisting of 648 and 192 seeds respectively. Each set consisted of 96 seeds from green tomatoes. The multispectral......, respectively. Similarly, dead seeds were predicted with 98% of accuracy. Results also showed that 23 and 14 seeds from green tomatoes in the training and test sets respectively were viable, while only one viable seed in the test set was misclassified. The results indicate that green tomatoes might be mature...
Li, Lihua; Cheng, Xudong; Ling, Hong-Qing
Tomato is a model plant for studying molecular mechanisms of iron uptake and metabolism in strategy I plants (dicots and non-graminaceous monocots). Reduction of ferric to ferrous iron on the root surface is an obligatory process for iron acquisition from soil in these plants. LeFRO1 encoding an Fe(III)-chelate reductase protein was isolated from the tomato genome. We show that expression of LeFRO1 in yeast increases Fe(III)-chelate reductase activity. In a transient expression analysis we found that LeFRO1 protein was targeted on the plasma membrane. LeFRO1 transcript was detected in roots, leaves, cotyledons, flowers and young fruits by RT-PCR analysis. Abundance of LeFRO1 mRNA was much lower in young fruits than in other tissues. The transcription intensity of LeFRO1 in roots is dependent on the iron status whereas it is constitutively expressed in leaves. These results indicate that LeFRO1 is required in roots and shoots as well as in reproductive organs for iron homeostasis and that its transcription in roots and shoots is regulated by different control mechanisms. The expression of LeFRO1 was disrupted in the iron-inefficient mutants chloronerva and T3238 fer, indicating that FER and CHLN genes are involved in the regulation of LeFRO1 expression in tomato roots. The differential expression of LeFRO1 and LeIRT1 (an iron-regulated metal transporter gene in tomato) in roots of T3238 fer under iron-deficient and -sufficient conditions suggests that the FER gene may regulate expression of LeFRO1 more directly than that of LeIRT1 in tomato roots.
Blanca, Jose; Cañizares, Joaquín; Cordero, Laura; Pascual, Laura; Diez, María José; Nuez, Fernando
Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, is divided into two widely distributed varieties: the cultivated S. lycopersicum var. lycopersicum, and the weedy S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme. Solanum pimpinellifolium is the most closely related wild species of tomato.The roles of S. pimpinellifolium and S. l. cerasiforme during the domestication of tomato are still under debate. Some authors consider S. l. cerasiforme to be the ancestor, whereas others think that S. l. cerasiforme is an admixture of S. pimpinellifolium and the cultivated S. l. lycopersicum. It is also not clear whether the domestication occurred in the Andean region or in Mesoamerica. We characterized 272 accessions (63 S. pimpinellifolium, 106 S. l. cerasiforme, 95 S. l. lycopersicum and 8 derived from hybridization processes) were morphologically and genetically using the SolCap platform (7,414 SNPs). The two species were distinguished in a PCA analysis and displayed a rich geographic structure. Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and S. l. lycopersicum were also differentiated in the PCA and Structure analyses, which supports maintaining them as different varieties. Solanum pimpinellifolium and the Andean S. l. cerasiforme were more diverse than the non-Andean S. lycopersicum. Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme was morphologically and molecularly intermediate between S. pimpinellifolium and tomato. Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, with the exception of several Ecuadorian and Mexican accessions, is composed of the products of admixture processes according to the Structure analysis. The non-admixtured S. l. cerasiforme might be similar to the ancestral cultivars from which the cultivated tomato originated, and presents remarkable morphological diversity, including fruits of up to 6 cm in diameter. The data obtained would fit a model in which a pre-domestication took place in the Andean region, with the domestication being completed in Mesoamerica. Subsequently, the Spaniards took plants from
Full Text Available Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, is divided into two widely distributed varieties: the cultivated S. lycopersicum var. lycopersicum, and the weedy S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme. Solanum pimpinellifolium is the most closely related wild species of tomato.The roles of S. pimpinellifolium and S. l. cerasiforme during the domestication of tomato are still under debate. Some authors consider S. l. cerasiforme to be the ancestor, whereas others think that S. l. cerasiforme is an admixture of S. pimpinellifolium and the cultivated S. l. lycopersicum. It is also not clear whether the domestication occurred in the Andean region or in Mesoamerica. We characterized 272 accessions (63 S. pimpinellifolium, 106 S. l. cerasiforme, 95 S. l. lycopersicum and 8 derived from hybridization processes were morphologically and genetically using the SolCap platform (7,414 SNPs. The two species were distinguished in a PCA analysis and displayed a rich geographic structure. Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and S. l. lycopersicum were also differentiated in the PCA and Structure analyses, which supports maintaining them as different varieties. Solanum pimpinellifolium and the Andean S. l. cerasiforme were more diverse than the non-Andean S. lycopersicum. Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme was morphologically and molecularly intermediate between S. pimpinellifolium and tomato. Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, with the exception of several Ecuadorian and Mexican accessions, is composed of the products of admixture processes according to the Structure analysis. The non-admixtured S. l. cerasiforme might be similar to the ancestral cultivars from which the cultivated tomato originated, and presents remarkable morphological diversity, including fruits of up to 6 cm in diameter. The data obtained would fit a model in which a pre-domestication took place in the Andean region, with the domestication being completed in Mesoamerica. Subsequently, the Spaniards took
Lebret, Bénédicte; Pugliese, Carolina; Bozzi, Riccardo; Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Prevolnik Povše, Maja; Tomažin, Urška; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta
Emerging non-destructive technologies are of interest in meat sector science and industry since they allow the characterization of products and quality control throughout processing. Three diff erent new technologies described in this paper will be considered in the TREASURE project for the evaluation and prediction of quality of pork and processed products: molecular biomarkers, near-infra red spectroscopy (NIRS), and computed tomography (CT). Molecular biomarkers are single genes, or a set ...
Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.
Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.
A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. This plant showed symptoms locally known as `marchitez disease¿: severe leaf necrosis, beginning at the base of the leaflets, and necrotic rings on the fruits. A virus was isolated from the infected plant consisting of
Ney Sussumu Sakiyama
Full Text Available Over the past three decades, molecular marker studies reached extraordinary advances, especially for sequencing and bioinformatics techniques. Marker-assisted selection became part of the breeding program routines of important seed companies, in order to accelerate and optimize the cultivar developing processes. Private seed companies increasingly use marker-assisted selection, especially for the species of great importance to the seed market, e.g. corn, soybean, cotton, and sunflower. In the Brazilian public institutions few breeding programs use it efficiently. The possible reasons are: lack of know-how, lack of appropriate laboratories, few validated markers, high cost, and lack of urgency in obtaining cultivars. In this article we analyze the use and the constraints of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs of Brazilian public institutes
The Wadden Sea region is one of the most important breeding areas in Western Europe for coastal breeding bird species. It is expected that management of salt marshes is important for successful conservation of breeding bird populations but the impact of management on the habitat quality for breeding birds is still not fully understood. In this study the effects of management on the three crucial habitat characteristics for breeding birds were studied on mainland salt marshes: effects of manag...
Cuccurullo, G; Giordano, L
Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling. (paper)
Dec 29, 2014 ... 1Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang, P. O. Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon. ... eriodictyol, dicaffeoylquinic acid, naringenin and naringenin-chalcone-hexose significantly (P<0.05) ... tomato fruits prevent the over ripening when they are still attached to the mother plant.
Fortunately, we don’t have to think about this when we are standing in the supermarket after a busy day. We adjust our grip without effort, making sure we don’t squish an overripe tomato, while we firmly grasp a hard green one. This is actually a complex task in which humans are surprisingly
ABSTRACT. In this study, the effects of the combined treatment of salinity and ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the germination of tomato seeds in Petri-dishes were compared to sole salinity. The treatments consisted of seven concentrations of sodium chloride. (NaCL): 0 (control), 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ...
Nitrogen determination on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings by color image analysis (RGB). Adán Mercado-Luna, Enrique Rico-García, Alfredo Lara-Herrera, Genaro Soto-Zarazúa, Rosalía Ocampo-Velázquez, Ramón Guevara-González, Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz, Irineo Torres-Pacheco ...
Jun 7, 2012 ... Analysis of calcium content, hormones and degrading enzymes in tomato pedicel explants during calcium- inhibited abscission. Agric. Sci. China, 5:556-563. Tagawa T, Bonner J (1957). Mechanical properties of the Avena coleoptile as related to auxin and toionic interactions. Plant Physiol. 32: 207-212.
Mar 29, 2010 ... Costa MGC, Nogueira FTS, Otoni WC, Brommonschenkel SH (2000). Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of tomato processing cultivars. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal. 12(2):. 107-118. Doyle JJ, Doyle JI (1990) Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissues. Focus 12: 13-15. Fillatti JJ ...
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pomace powder (TPP) may be a preventive agent by virtue of its known antioxidant property. The possible protective role of TPP against cisplatin-induced alteration of the microanatomy of rat brain was investigated. Thirty rats were divided equally into five groups: control, propylene glycol ...
In the present study tomato lines carrying unstable alleles of the loci yv or sulfurea were characterized. In addition, we aimed at the isolation of an endogenous transposable element supposedly active in the unstable lines. Since the unstable loci were not cloned, we
The need to reduce the negative impact of synthetic nematicides on the environment necessitated the search for bio-pesticides. This study was conducted to evaluate the nematicidal potential of chromatographic fractions from Mangifera indica on tomato in the screenhouse and field. M. indica bark was extracted with ...
Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...
1973-01-01Around 1960 some disorders which initially were considered to be of a physiological nature were found in tomato plants grown in glasshouses in the Netherlands. One complex of symptoms was a brown rot of the lateral roots and the tap root, often followed by decomposition of the stem base
Ouden, den F.W.C.
The effect of some physical processes and enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical properties of tomato suspensions was studied.
Concentration degree has a large effect on the apparent viscosity and the storage modulus of suspensions after being diluted to a standardized water
Jul 12, 2010 ... In vitro culture response was assessed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. c. v. Omdurman) for optimum callus induction and plantlet regeneration. Callus induction was achieved within seven to ten days directly on the cut surfaces of both hypocotyls and cotyledon explants cultured on Murashige and.
Melgarejo, T A; Alminaite, A; Fribourg, C; Spetz, C; Valkonen, J P T
Two isolates (SL1 and SL6) of Peru tomato virus (PTV, genus Potyvirus) were obtained from cocona plants (Solanum sessiliflorum) growing in Tingo María, the jungle of the Amazon basin in Peru. One PTV isolate (TM) was isolated from a tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) growing in Huaral at the Peruvian coast. The three PTV isolates were readily transmissible by Myzus persicae. Isolate SL1, but not SL6, caused chlorotic lesions in inoculated leaves of Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Isolate TM differed from SL1 and SL6 in causing more severe mosaic symptoms in tomato, and vein necrosis in the leaves of cocona. Pepper cv. Avelar (Capsicum annuum) showed resistance to the PTV isolates SL1 and SL6 but not TM. The 5'- and 3'-proximal sequences of the three PTV isolates were cloned, sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of four PTV isolates from pepper, the only host from which PTV isolates have been previously characterised at the molecular level. Phylogenetic analyses on the P1 protein and coat protein amino acid sequences indicated, in accordance with the phenotypic data from indicator hosts, that the PTV isolates from cocona represented a distinguishable strain. In contrast, the PTV isolates from tomato and pepper were not grouped according to the host. Inclusion of the sequence data from the three PTV isolates of this study in a phylogenetic analysis with other PTV isolates and other potyviruses strengthen the membership of PTV in the so-called "PVY subgroup" of Potyvirus. This subgroup of closely related potyvirus species was also distinguishable from other potyviruses by their more uniform sizes of the protein-encoding regions within the polyprotein.
Full Text Available Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key factor in type 2 diabetes. A vicious cycle involving pro-inflammatory mediators between adipocytes and macrophages is a common cause of chronic inflammation in the adipose tissue. Tomato is one of the most popular vegetables and is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of tomato on diabetes is unclear. In this study, we focused on anti-inflammatory compounds in tomato. We found that the extract of tomato reduced plasma glucose and inflammatory markers in mice. We screened anti-inflammatory fractions in tomato using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, and active compounds were estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry over a wide range. Surprisingly, a large number of compounds including oxylipin and coumarin derivatives were estimated as anti-inflammatory compounds. Especially, 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid and daphnetin suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and inhibitor of kappa B α protein degradation. These findings suggest that tomato containing diverse anti-inflammatory compounds ameliorates chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue.
Mohri, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Haruya; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Shingo; Waki, Naoko; Aizawa, Koichi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Ara, Takeshi; Matsumura, Yasuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo
Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key factor in type 2 diabetes. A vicious cycle involving pro-inflammatory mediators between adipocytes and macrophages is a common cause of chronic inflammation in the adipose tissue. Tomato is one of the most popular vegetables and is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of tomato on diabetes is unclear. In this study, we focused on anti-inflammatory compounds in tomato. We found that the extract of tomato reduced plasma glucose and inflammatory markers in mice. We screened anti-inflammatory fractions in tomato using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, and active compounds were estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry over a wide range. Surprisingly, a large number of compounds including oxylipin and coumarin derivatives were estimated as anti-inflammatory compounds. Especially, 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid and daphnetin suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and inhibitor of kappa B α protein degradation. These findings suggest that tomato containing diverse anti-inflammatory compounds ameliorates chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue.
There have been a number of important events related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months. The joint FAO/IAEA RCMs on 'Molecular characterization of mutated genes controlling important traits for seed crop improvement' and 'Mutational analysis of root characters in annual food plants related to plant performance' were held in June, in Krakow, Poland. It was the third RCM of the CRP on crop plant genomics and the second in the CRP on root systems. More than 40 scientists from twenty countries participated in the meeting. Significant progress was achieved in presented projects of diverse areas of both CRPs. Although genomics and root genetics are methodologically among the most rapidly developing disciplines, the participants successfully tried to follow the latest developments. The Consultants Meeting on 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' was also held in June, in Vienna. Physical mapping technologies provide new tools for the rapid advancement of breeding programs and are highly applicable to neglected crops in developing countries. Furthermore, they open new opportunities for developing modern approaches to plant improvement research. Consultants recommended the organization of a Co-ordinated Research Project dealing with application of these new technologies to breeding programmes with the use of induced mutations for crop improvement. It is expected that the new CRP will be initiated this year. In close collaboration with EU COST 851 'Gametic cells and molecular breeding for crop improvement' project we started with preparation and editing of a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A manual'. More than 40 manuscripts were collected, reviewed by a team of EU COST 851 experts and are now in the final editing phase. Similarly, we finished editorial work on publishing the training material from the FAO/IAEA Training
Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.
Phan, Thanh D; Bo, Wen; West, Gill; Lycett, Grantley W; Tucker, Gregory A
Pectinesterase (PE; E.C. 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme responsible for the demethylation of galacturonyl residues in high-molecular-weight pectin and is believed to play an important role in cell wall metabolism. In this study, Pmeu1, a ubiquitously expressed PE gene, has been characterized by antisense suppression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Transgenic tomato plants showed reduced PE activity levels in both green fruit and leaf tissue to around 65% and 25% of that found in wild-type plants, respectively. Pmeu1 was observed to encode a salt-dependent PE isoform that correlated with PE1 as previously described in fruit tissue. Silencing of Pmeu1 did not result in any detectable phenotype within the leaf tissue despite the gene product representing the major isoform in this tissue. In comparison, silencing in fruit resulted in an enhancement to the rate of softening during ripening. The role of PMEU1 in fruit ripening is discussed.
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Thakurgaon, Bangladesh during October 2009 to March 2010 to observe the effect of sowing dates on yield of tomato genotypes. Three sowing dates viz. October 1, October 15 and October 30 were considered as factor A and tomato variety viz., BARI Tomato-2, BARI Tomato-3, BARI Tomato-4, BARI Tomato-9 and BARI Hybrid Tomato-4 considered as factor B. The experiment was laid out in RCBD (Factorial with three replications. Early flowering (52.40 days as well as early fruit harvesting (119.13 days was occurred in October 1 sowing, where as sowing on October 30 resulted in delayed flowering (71.73 days and fruit harvesting (140.67 days, respectively. Number of fruits per plant was also the highest (27.40 in October 1 sowing and the lowest (13.73 was in October 30 sowing. Seed sowing of October 1 was found better in respect of yield (74.75 tha-1 compared to October 15 (58.55 tha-1 and October 30 (24.60 tha-1 sowing. Among the variety, BARI Tomat-2 produced the highest (68.12 tha-1 marketable yield followed by BARI Tomato-9 (56.16 tha-1 and BARI Tomato-3 while BARI Tomato-4 gave the lowest (36.91 tha-1 marketable yield.
Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L
We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.
Two separate experiments were conducted to determine the effects of recurrent irradiation and cross fertilization on the improvement of fruit quality and plant architecture of two tomato species (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) in Ghana. In the first experiment, a variant line of the wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) (SP 300/220.127.116.11) previously obtained through irradiation with gamma rays at 300 Gy was re-irradiated with gamma rays at 150 Gy and 300 Gy using gamma irradiation. The second experiment involved hybridization of the same variant line (SP 300/18.104.22.168) with five cultivars of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L). Progeny were assessed in both M1 and M2 generations for the first experiment but only at the F 2 generation for the second experiment. Significant variations were observed in number of days to first flowering and 50% fruiting. Fruit size increased from 1.36 g and 1.67 g to 1.77 g and 2.66 g in the M 1 and M 2 generations respectively following re-irradiation at 300 Gy. Three 150 Gy treated plants at the M 1 generation and two 300 Gy treated plants at the M 2 generations exhibited erect growth habit compared to the parental line (SP 300/22.214.171.124) which was sprawling. A variant line among the 300 Gy treated plants had a fused fruit of fruit weight of 3.57 g with four locules. Also, hybridization involving five cultivars of the cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicon L.) as female parents and the variant line (SP 300/126.96.36.199) generated variability in several traits including plant architecture, days to flowering and fruiting, fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit in the F 2 generation. Variations in style-length, number of locules, fruit shape and colour were also observed among the plants in the F 2 generation. Generally, significant improvements were obtained with respect to plant architecture (that is reduced plant height), earliness and fruit quality (that is fruit size and colour). Although no
Full Text Available Number and population size of local chicken breeds in Italy is considered to be critical. Molecular data can be used to provide reliable insight into the diversity of chicken breeds. The first aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genetic origin of five Italian local chicken breeds (Ancona, Livorno, Modenese, Romagnola and Valdarnese bianca based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA information. Secondly, the extent of the genetic diversity, population structure and the genetic relationships among these chicken populations, by using 27 microsatellite markers, were assessed. To achieve these targets, a 506 bp fragment of the D-loop region was sequenced in 50 chickens of the five breeds. Eighteen variable sites were observed which defined 12 haplotypes. They were assigned to three clades and two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 90% of the haplotypes are related to clade E, which has been described to originate from the Indian subcontinent. For the microsatellite analysis, 137 individual blood samples from the five Italian breeds were included. A total of 147 alleles were detected at 27 microsatellite loci. The five Italian breeds showed a slightly higher degree of inbreeding (FIS=0.08 than the commercial populations that served as reference. Structure analysis showed a separation of the Italian breeds from the reference populations. A further sub-clustering allowed discriminating among the five different Italian breeds. This research provides insight into population structure, relatedness and variability of the five studied breeds.
Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,
Mnr J F Kluyts
production and marketing system, identification of sources of income and expense in commercial herds, determination of ..... decreasing marginal returns with an increase in the scale of the enterprise and thus, if operating at an optimum, the farm could ..... Training and Accreditation School Handbook. Anim. Genet. Breed.
... traits influencing income and expense, derivation of economic values, choice of selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. The modelling methods to derive economic weights can be divided into simulation, dynamic programming and profit functions. Keywords: Beef cattle, Breeding objectives ...
Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...
Liu Luxiang; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Gu Jiayu; Zhao Shirong
Space breeding is a novel effective approach to crop mutational improvement, which was firstly founded by the chinese scientists in 1987. A national collaborative research network has been established and significant achievements have been made during the past twenty years. More than forty new mutant varieties derived from space mutagenesis in rice, wheat, cotton, sweet pepper, tomato, sesame and alfalfa have been developed, officially released and put into production. A series of useful rare mutant germplasms which might make a great breakthrough in crop grain yield and/or quality improvement have been obtained. Technique innovations in space breeding and ground simulation of space environmental factors have been made good progresses. Intellective property right protection and industrialization of space mutation techniques and mutant varieties, exploration of the mechanism of space mutation induction have also been stably advanced. In this paper, the main achievements of crop space breeding in the past twenty years had been reviewed. The perspective development strategies of space breeding were also discussed. (authors)
Singh, Dharmendra K; Calviño, Mauricio; Brauer, Elizabeth K; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Strickler, Susan; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Stratmann, Johannes W; Popescu, George V; Mueller, Lukas A; Popescu, Sorina C
Protein kinase-driven phosphorylation constitutes the core of cellular signaling. Kinase components of signal transduction pathways are often targeted for inactivation by pathogens. The study of kinases and immune signal transduction in the model crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) would benefit from the availability of community-wide resources for large scale and systems-level experimentation. Here, we defined the tomato kinome and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the tomato kinome and 15 other plant species. We constructed a tomato kinase library (TOKN 1.0) of over 300 full-length open reading frames (ORF) cloned into a recombination-based vector. We developed a high-throughput pipeline to isolate and transform tomato protoplasts. A subset of the TOKN 1.0 library kinases were expressed in planta, were purified, and were used to generate a functional tomato protein microarray. All resources created were utilized to test known and novel associations between tomato kinases and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effectors in a large-scale format. Bsk7 was identified as a component of the plant immune response and a candidate effector target. These resources will enable comprehensive investigations of signaling pathways and host-pathogen interactions in tomato and other Solanaceae spp.
This year significant progress was made on the discovery of mutations using next generation sequencing for different crops, including rice and banana. Also, a program for the development of molecular markers for important traits has been initiated to translate the molecular knowledge on mutant traits into applications for plant breeding and to enable wider utilization of available useful mutant germplasm by Member States. A semi-dwarf mutant trait in sorghum was chosen in the pilot phase. In October 2016, a film crew visited the Agency’s Laboratories in Seibersdorf, including PBGL, in the context of a National Geographics project on the application of nuclear technologies to help address global challenges such as food, agriculture and climate change. In December 2016 a 22-minute documentary was aired on the National Geographics Channel in Belgium, the Netherlands and France highlighting the work at PBGL and the contribution of plant mutation breeding to food security and climate-smart agriculture.
Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba
Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.
Riley, D G; Pappu, H R
Four studies were conducted in Georgia during spring 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 to evaluate various management tactics for reducing thrips and thrips-vectored tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and their interactions relative to fruit yield. Populations of thrips vectors of TSWV, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were determined using flower and sticky trap samples. The management practices evaluated were host plant resistance, insecticide treatments, and silver or metallic reflective mulch. Averaged over all tests, the TSWV-resistant tomato 'BHN444' on silver mulch treatment had the largest effect in terms of reducing thrips and spotted wilt and increasing marketable yield. Of the insecticide treatments tested, the imidacloprid soil treatment followed by early applications of a thrips-effective foliar insecticide treatment provided significant increase in yield over other treatments. Tomato yield was negatively correlated with the number of F. fusca and percentage of TSWV incidence. F. occidentalis per blossom was positively correlated with percentage of TSWV incidence, but not with yield. No significant interactions were observed between cultivar reflective mulch main plot treatments and insecticide subplot treatments; thus, treatment seemed to be additive in reducing the economic impact of thrips-vectored TSWV. Control tactics that manage thrips early in the growing season significantly increased tomato yield in years when the incidence of TSWV was high (>17%).
Mouekouba, Liana Dalcantara Ongouya; Zhang, Lili; Guan, Xin; Chen, Xiuling; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Junfeng; Li, Jingfu; Yang, Yijun; Wang, Aoxue
Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST), second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(-)) and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4). Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis) to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase) and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.
Joachim W Bargsten
Full Text Available As part of large protein complexes, Snf2 family ATPases are responsible for energy supply during chromatin remodeling, but the precise mechanism of action of many of these proteins is largely unknown. They influence many processes in plants, such as the response to environmental stress. This analysis is the first comprehensive study of Snf2 family ATPases in plants. We here present a comparative analysis of 1159 candidate plant Snf2 genes in 33 complete and annotated plant genomes, including two green algae. The number of Snf2 ATPases shows considerable variation across plant genomes (17-63 genes. The DRD1, Rad5/16 and Snf2 subfamily members occur most often. Detailed analysis of the plant-specific DRD1 subfamily in related plant genomes shows the occurrence of a complex series of evolutionary events. Notably tomato carries unexpected gene expansions of DRD1 gene members. Most of these genes are expressed in tomato, although at low levels and with distinct tissue or organ specificity. In contrast, the Snf2 subfamily genes tend to be expressed constitutively in tomato. The results underpin and extend the Snf2 subfamily classification, which could help to determine the various functional roles of Snf2 ATPases and to target environmental stress tolerance and yield in future breeding.
Bargsten, Joachim W; Folta, Adam; Mlynárová, Ludmila; Nap, Jan-Peter
As part of large protein complexes, Snf2 family ATPases are responsible for energy supply during chromatin remodeling, but the precise mechanism of action of many of these proteins is largely unknown. They influence many processes in plants, such as the response to environmental stress. This analysis is the first comprehensive study of Snf2 family ATPases in plants. We here present a comparative analysis of 1159 candidate plant Snf2 genes in 33 complete and annotated plant genomes, including two green algae. The number of Snf2 ATPases shows considerable variation across plant genomes (17-63 genes). The DRD1, Rad5/16 and Snf2 subfamily members occur most often. Detailed analysis of the plant-specific DRD1 subfamily in related plant genomes shows the occurrence of a complex series of evolutionary events. Notably tomato carries unexpected gene expansions of DRD1 gene members. Most of these genes are expressed in tomato, although at low levels and with distinct tissue or organ specificity. In contrast, the Snf2 subfamily genes tend to be expressed constitutively in tomato. The results underpin and extend the Snf2 subfamily classification, which could help to determine the various functional roles of Snf2 ATPases and to target environmental stress tolerance and yield in future breeding.
Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.
In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation
The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)
Mnari-Hattab, M.; Zammouri, S.; Pellegrin, Frédéric; Gauthier, Nathalie
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease (TYLCVD) is the main limiting factor for tomato production in the Mediterranean Basin, and particularly in Tunisia where climatic and crop production conditions, as well as the occurrence of many weeds, provide suitable conditions for the presence and spread of TYLCVD all year round. In Tunisia, epidemics in tomato-growing regions have been associated with two begomoviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus ...
Li, Dawei; Xu, Lihong; Tan, Chengxiang; Goodman, Erik D.; Fu, Daichang; Xin, Longjiao
This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment) for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms. PMID:25675284
Seedlings of the Louisiana tomato cultivar ''Pelican'' were irradiated in the cotyledonary stage with 10,000 roentgen (R) of gamma radiation from 60 Co at 1.67 R/min by Dr. Milton J. Constantin, Comparative Animal Research Laboratory operated by the University of Tennessee for the Atomic Energy Commission. From these irradiated plants one dwarf and six stamenless mutants were selected and propagated. In 1973 to 1974 a genetic study was conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of these mutant characters. Also a combining ability study was conducted to determine the potential value of the dwarf mutant as a parent in the production of F 1 hybrid seed. The results of the genetic study showed that the induced dwarf character was simply inherited and recessive. Results indicate that this gene is probably located at a locus different from that of genes controlling dwarfism in other tomato lines. The combining ability study showed that this dwarf mutant is of little value as a breeding parent. The genetic study of the stamenless lines showed this character to be simply inherited and recessive. It was also shown that the gene controlling male sterility is located at the same locus in the lines L 39 and L 43, and it is assumed that the same locus is involved in all six lines. The stamenless lines have, as far as has been observed, retained the good combining ability of the original parent cultivar ''Pelican''
Álvarez Gil, Marta A.; Fernández, Ana Fita; Ruiz Sánchez, María del C.; Bolarín Jiménez, María del C.
The scarce exploitation of genotypic variability present in plant roots is an attractive breeding choice with regard to abiotic stresses and supports the objective of this work, which is to identify genotypic variation in root system traits of tomato genotypes (Solanum sp.). Thus, five tomato genotypes were studied: the commercial hybrid cultivar Jaguar (S. lycopersicum), Pera, Volgogradiskij and PE-47 entry (S. pennellii), which were collected in Peru, and the interspecific hybrid PeraxPE-47. Plants were grown in hydroponics for 26 days since germination; their roots were extracted and images were digitalized on scanner to evaluate total length, average diameter, the projected area and root length, following the categories per diameter of the whole root system through software Win Rhizo Pro 2003. The dry mass of roots and aerial parts was also recorded. Results indicated that genotypes differed in morphology, length according to diameter, root system spatial configuration and biomass, mainly with respect to the wild salinity resistant species PE-47. The interspecific hybrid PxPE-47 could be used as a rootstock to increase salt tolerance of susceptible cultivars. (author)
Full Text Available This study aims to comprehensively study the effects of Ca2+ on the SA-induced resistance Botrytis cinerea in tomato through proteomics analysis. A proteomic approach was used to uncover the inducible proteins of tomato in the susceptible tomato cultivars ‘L402’ against Botrytis cinerea after salicylic acid (SA and a combination treatment of CaCl2 and SA. The results showed that the use of combination treatment of CaCl2 and SA significantly enhanced tomato resistance against Botrytis cinerea. In total, 46 differentially expressed protein spots from 2-DE gel maps were detected, of which 41 were identified by mass spectrometry. All the identified proteins were categorized into eight groups according to their putative functions: defense response (14.00%, antioxidative protein (9.75%, photosynthesis (24.39%, molecular chaperone (4.88%, energy (17.01%, metabolism (21.95%, protein synthesis (4.88% and signal transduction (0.2%. Of the proteins in the eight function groups, the effect of stress/defense and reactive oxygen species on Ca2+-regulated SA-induced resistance may be the most important one in induced resistance by RT-PCR. The expression level of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs and chitinase was upregulated by a combination treatment of CaCl2 and SA. The characterization of these proteins greatly helped to reveal the induced proteins involved in the regulation of Ca2+ on SA-induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. In the combination treatment of CaCl2 and SA, the defense response and antioxidative protein were clearly upregulated much more than SA alone or the control treatment by the method of proteomics and RT-PCR. The present findings suggest that susceptible tomato cultivars treated by the combination treatment of CaCl2 and SA might possess a more sensitive SA signaling system or effective pathway than SA treatment alone. In addition, results indicated that SA could coordinate other cellular activities linked with photosynthesis and
Windig Jack J
Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.
Warrilow, A G; Turner, R J; Jones, M G
The pectinesterases in tomato pericarp were fractionated by cation exchange into four forms (A-D). Form A was the most abundant and C the second most abundant. Forms A-C were further purified by gel filtration, and antibodies were raised against A and C. Comparison of the different forms by dot blots and Western blots showed that although all three forms shared common immunological characteristics, there were also differences in their behaviour, indicative of structural differences. Form A had an N-terminal sequence identical to that published previously for the major pectinesterase in tomato fruit. In contrast, form C had a completely novel N-terminal sequence. Form A was absent from hypocotyls and roots. Forms B and C were present in comparable amounts in hypocotyls, while from C predominated in roots.