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Sample records for tomato fruit surface

  1. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telias, Adriana; White, James R; Pahl, Donna M; Ottesen, Andrea R; Walsh, Christopher S

    2011-04-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water) when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an important step forward towards the development of science

  2. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Andrea R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  3. The deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue

    OpenAIRE

    河野, 又四; 寺下, 隆夫

    1988-01-01

    [Author abstract]Deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits is generally thought to be caused by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue of apparently healthy fruit. Counts of viable airborne microorganisms showed that there were more in plastic greenhouses than in open culure of tomatoes. Altemaria, Aspergillus niger, Asp. oryzae, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Bacillus, Erwinia and Pseudomonas were among t...

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  5. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  6. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  7. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  9. Surface disinfection of tomatoes using the natural plant compound trans-cinnamaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Hendriks, L.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomatoes are particularly vulnerable to microbial spoilage at calyces and wound sites on the fruit surface. Compared to the fruit surface, the calyx carries the major part of the microbial load, consisting of epiphytic bacteria and moulds. Disinfection of tomato fruits, as a means of extending

  10. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium forming a white to gray colonies. The cultures developed black acervuli around the center of the colony. Conidia were hyaline, aseptate, and fusiform or rarely cylindrical. Appressoria were smooth, simple, clavate to ovate, and variedfrom light to dark brown. Pathogenicity tests with representative isolates were conducted on symptomless, detached tomato fruits. All tested isolates caused anthracnose lesions on tomato fruit after 7 days of incubation. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by reisolationfrom inoculated tomato fruits. PCR analysis (using species-specific primer pair, CaInt2/ITS4 of genomic DNA from tomato isolates resulted in an amplification product of 490 bp, specific for C. acutatum, further confirming the identity of the pathogen. Based onmorphological and molecular characteristics, the isolates from tomato fruit were determined as C. acutatum.

  11. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  12. Regulation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dandena

    2012-06-26

    dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) ... disease and insect pest complex, heat stress) are solved ... among which light, temperature, nutrition, hormonal .... Interaction effects of variety and 2, 4-D on number of fruits per flower cluster of tomato plants.

  13. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

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    Svetlana eBaldina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest towards traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate. Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm

  14. Screening of tomato genotypes for resistance to tomato fruit borer (helicoverpa armiger hubner) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.; Ashfaq, M.; Suhail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)

  15. Identification and diversity of Fusarium species isolated from tomato fruits

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    Murad Nur Baiti Abd

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot of tomato is a serious disease caused by Fusarium species. Sampling was conducted throughout Selangor, Malaysia and fungal species identification was conducted based on morphological and gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α sequence analysis. Five species of Fusarium were discovered namely F. oxysporum (including F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Our results provide additional information regarding the diversity of Fusarium species associated with fruit rot disease of tomato.

  16. Effects of fruit thinning, covering of the fruit truss and CO2 enrichment on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] production under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Nomura, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2009-01-01

    Radial fruit cracking (RFC) can contribute to serious economic losses in tomato production under rain shelter in cool uplands. In order to investigate the effects of translocation and distribution of photosynthate to the fruits during the occurrence of RFC, tomato plants were grown under treatments with fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, which regulate the strength of sink and source, and treatments with covering of the fruit truss, which decreases solar radiation incident on the fruit surface. The occurrence of RFC was increased by fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, and decreased by covering of fruit truss. Time course of the percentage of RFC to total harvest showed a remarkable rise toward the end of August and toward the end of October in 2004, when harvested fruit weight was increasing. These finding suggest that RFC is attributed to excessive enlargement of the fruit by promotion of translocation and distribution of photosynthate from leaves (source) to fruits (sink) and the solar radiation incident on the fruits. In addition, the relation between RFC and the generation of a cork layer is considered

  17. Isolation and Properties of Intact Chromoplasts from Tomato Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Norio, Iwatsuki; Ryuichi, Moriyama; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1984-01-01

    Intact chromoplasts were isolated from tomato fruits at different ripening stages by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated chromoplast fractions were contaminated very little by other organelles, although the fraction from fully ripened fruits contained some mitochondria and microbodies. As the transformation of chloroplasts to chromoplasts proceeded, the density of the plastids decreased from 1.096 to 1.075g・cm^ and the decrease was related to a decrease in chlorophyll and an...

  18. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  19. Expression of heterosis in floral traits and fruit size in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was prompted by lack of improved tomato cultivars adapted to the humid tropical. Tomato hybrids were developed by crossing wild and cultivated tomato varieties. The average fruit size of the tomato hybrids generated did not meet the level of acceptability in the local market. A modified three way cross ...

  20. Association mapping of main tomato fruit sugars and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of S. lycopersicum (123 accessions and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS over two years using the mixed linear model (MLM. We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P<0.001 for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  1. Suicidal tomato cells: programmed cell death in suspension-cultured tomato cells and ripening fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening involves a series of highly organised biochemical, physiological and structural changes that are under strict genetic control. The plant hormone ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), in synergy

  2. From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Inès, Zouari; Alessandra, Salvioli; Matteo, Chialva; Mara, Novero; Laura, Miozzi; Gian Carlo, Tenore; Paolo, Bagnaresi; Paola, Bonfante

    2014-01-01

    Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants coloni...

  3. Defense responses in tomato fruit induced by oligandrin against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treat01ent of tomato fruit with oligandrin (10 μg/ml) significantly reduced the incidence and severity of gray mould (caused by Botrytis cinerea). After 5, 7 and 9 days of artificial inoculation, the relative cure effect was 60.5, 52.1 and 48.5%, respectively. The results from bio-assay indicated that the treatment stimulated the ...

  4. The incorporation gene of tomato fruit firmness (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit firmness is a polygenetic trait and depends on firmness components pericarp thickness, firmness of epidermis and firmness of flash. The accumulation of favourable traits ratio for each component (towards the increase of expression the fruit firmness can be increased. This paper deals with aspects of increasing fruit firmness by increasing firmness of epidermis and thickness of pericarp. By using genotypes with rin (ripening inhibitor gene, we were able to accomplish great firmness of fruits, especially firmness of flash. The expression of these traits cause the asynchronization of maturing process so the fruits do not over mature or soften. Genetic effects have been evaluated by researching the average values of fruit firmness in six diallel parent lines (D-150, S-49, S-35, H-52, Kg-z and SP-109 and progeny (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 by applying additive dominant model with three and six parameters (Mather and Jinks, 1982. Mean values of fruit firmness for parents and progeny were significantly different. Firmness of fruits is a trait influenced first of all by additive gene since they were found in all researched combinations. Epystatic gene effect was important in inheriting process for all three two-gene interactions. The stabile duplicate type of epystsase was found, which in this case reduces the unfavourable effects of dominant genes of parents with soft fruits. .

  5. Elastic stresses and plastic deformations in 'Santa Clara' tomato fruits caused by package dependent compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA ADRIANA VARGAS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the fruit compression behavior aiming to develop new tomato packages. Deformations caused by compression forces were observed inside packages and in individual 'Santa Clara' tomato fruit. The forces applied by a transparent acrylic lever to the fruit surface caused pericarp deformation and the flattened area was proportional to the force magnitude. The deformation was associated to the reduction in the gas volume (Vg, caused by expulsion of the air from the loculus cavity and reduction in the intercellular air volume of the pericarp. As ripening advanced, smaller fractions of the Vg reduced by the compressive force were restored after the stress was relieved. The lack of complete Vg restoration was an indication of permanent plastic deformations of the stressed cells. Vg regeneration (elastic recovery was larger in green fruits than in the red ones. The ratio between the applied force and the flattened area (flattening pressure, which depends on cell turgidity, decreased during ripening. Fruit movements associated with its depth in the container were observed during storage in a transparent glass container (495 x 355 x 220 mm. The downward movement of the fruits was larger in the top layers because these movements seem to be driven by a summation of the deformation of many fruits in all layers.

  6. Effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of seeds on physico-chemical properties of glasshouse tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, R.; Rybak, P.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented results of study on the effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of glasshouse tomato seeds, Recento cultivar, on physico-chemical properties of yielded fruits. Tomato fruit resistance to elastic strains was tested in laboratory as well as the extract content and total acidity of fruits were analysed. Positive influence of laser treatment on tested tomato fruit properties was noted

  7. The role of natural antibiotics in storage diseases resistance in irradiated tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaway, N.S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Tomato (lycopersicum esculantum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops in egypt. Fruit rot, mainly due to fungi, are essential obstacles facing the nowadays prejects plannings of the yield production and exportation. Tomato fruits, variety money maker at green mature exposed to acute gamma irradiation doses at 5, 10, 20, 30 and 100 K rad after inoculated with spore suspension of alternaria tenuis , the main casual organism of fruit rot of tomato and control without inoculation. The source of irradiation was cobalt 60. After irradiation , 50 tomato fruits were packed into exporting carton boxes and then were stored at room temperature

  8. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Suzuki

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1 in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  9. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus can be acquired and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) from tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delatte, H.; Dalmon, A.; Rist, D.; Soustrade, I.; Wuster, G.; Lett, J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peterschmitt, M.; Reynaud, B.

    2003-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is an insect pest causing worldwide economic losses, especially as a vector of geminiviruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Currently, imported and exported tomato fruit are not monitored for TYLCV infection because they are not considered to represent a

  11. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Betty K

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We previously indicated the presence of up-regulated transcription factors in ripening tomato fruit by data mining in TIGR Tomato Gene Index. In our in-vitro system, green tomato sepals cultured at 16 to 22°C turn red and swell like ripening tomato fruit while those at 28°C remain green. Results Here, we have further examined regulation of putative developmental genes possibly involved in tomato fruit ripening and development. Using molecular biological methods, we have determined the relative abundance of various transcripts of genes during in vitro sepal ripening and in tomato fruit pericarp at three stages of development. A number of transcripts show similar expression in fruits to RIN and PSY1, ripening-associated genes, and others show quite different expression. Conclusions Our investigation has resulted in confirmation of some of our previous database mining results and has revealed differences in gene expression that may be important for tomato cultivar variation. We present new and intriguing information on genes that should now be studied in a more focused fashion.

  12. Effects of watertable and fertilizer management on susceptibility of tomato fruit to chilling injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, G.T.; Trenholm, L.; Madramootoo, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In a 2-year study (1993-1994), 'New Yorker' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in field lysimeters were subjected to four water table depth (WTD) treatments (0.3, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 m from the soil surface) factorially combined with 5 potassium/calcium fertilization combinations. Mature-green fruit from four replicates of each treatment were stored at 5C for 21 days, and fruit color was monitored with a tristimulus colorimeter. Fruit were subsequently allowed to ripen at 20C for 10 days, at which time chilling injury was assessed on the basis of delayed ripening and area of lesions. Potassium and calcium applied in the field had no effect on chilling tolerance of the fruit. In the drier year (1993), shallower WTD treatments generally yielded fruit that changed color less during chilling and were more chilling-sensitive based on delayed ripening. In the wetter year, differences in color change and chilling tolerance between WTD, if any, were small. Over both years, lesion area varied with WTD, but not in a consistent manner. Based on these results, we suggest that differences in water availability should be considered when studying tomato fruit chilling

  13. Effects of watertable and fertilizer management on susceptibility of tomato fruit to chilling injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, G. T. [McGill University, Sainte Anne-de-Bellevue, Que. (Canada); Trenholm, L.; Madramootoo, C. A.

    1996-05-15

    In a 2-year study (1993-1994), 'New Yorker' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in field lysimeters were subjected to four water table depth (WTD) treatments (0.3, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 m from the soil surface) factorially combined with 5 potassium/calcium fertilization combinations. Mature-green fruit from four replicates of each treatment were stored at 5C for 21 days, and fruit color was monitored with a tristimulus colorimeter. Fruit were subsequently allowed to ripen at 20C for 10 days, at which time chilling injury was assessed on the basis of delayed ripening and area of lesions. Potassium and calcium applied in the field had no effect on chilling tolerance of the fruit. In the drier year (1993), shallower WTD treatments generally yielded fruit that changed color less during chilling and were more chilling-sensitive based on delayed ripening. In the wetter year, differences in color change and chilling tolerance between WTD, if any, were small. Over both years, lesion area varied with WTD, but not in a consistent manner. Based on these results, we suggest that differences in water availability should be considered when studying tomato fruit chilling.

  14. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato.

  15. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen...... consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton...... was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6 f complex in chromorespiration...

  16. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  17. Difference in volatile composition between the pericarp tissue and inner tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have reported the volatile profiles in the whole fruit or pericarp tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit; however, information is limited on the volatile composition in the inner tissue and its contribution to tomato aroma. For this, the pericarps and inner tissues of “Money...

  18. In silico transcriptional regulatory networks involved in tomato fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Arhondakis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37 and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  19. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hossain

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15) were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in co...

  20. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albacete, A.; Cantero-Navarro, E.; Balibrea, M. E.; Grosskinsky, D. K.; de la Cruz Gonzalez, M.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Smigocki, A. C.; Roitsch, Thomas; Pérez-Alfocea, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 20 (2014), s. 6081-6095 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cell wall invertase * cytokinins * fruit * salinity * sink activity * tomato Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  1. The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Vapour on Some Characteristics of Fruit Ripening, Carotenoids and Tomatine Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ripening in normal red-fruited cultivar (Fiorin was delayed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me vapour. A visual scoring system for describing tomato ripening was used. Surface of fruits exposed to JA-Me vapour, increased in yellow and decreased in red as determined by HunterLab colour meter. JA-Me significantly altered the firmness of fruits after 21 days storage. Vapour of JA-Me enhanced the level of β-carotene in outer part (peel with 3 mm pericarp tissue of fruit, while it had no effect in peeled fruit pericarp. JA-Me treatment decreased the level of lycopene in outer part and pericarp tissue, however, in outer part lycopene content decreased at a higher rate than in pericarp. Amount of tomatine in fruits treated with JA-Me had enhanced four-fold in outer part and by 62% in peeled fruit pericarp as compared with the control.

  2. Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdones, Ángela; Tur, Núria; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film-forming dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro-Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre-harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. The application of the FFDs at '3 Leaves' stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer-EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the 'Fruit' stage the pre-harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer-EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non-treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. The application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  4. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C.

    1991-01-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-[U- 14 C]malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification

  5. Enhancing the Health-Promoting Effects of Tomato Fruit for Biofortified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Raiola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.

  6. Multicompartment analysis of the effects of fertilizing nitrogen form, quantity of potassium fertilizer and tomato variety upon tomato-fruit sugar metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masato; Kubo, Yunosuke; Takeba, Tsuyoshi.

    1977-01-01

    Concerning ''streaky decay'' of tomato fruits, the sugar metabolism of tomato fruits has been studied by multicompartment analysis dividing the radioactivity into 14 C-glucose non-absorbing, ethanol soluble, carbonic acid gas and ethanol insoluble compartments. 14 C-glucose was introduced to pieces of tomato fruits about 60 days after fructification. Influence in the stage of 14 C-glucose entry into the tissue was recognized in a tomato variety affected by excess ammonia and a tomato variety affected by potassium shortage on the carbonic acid gas generation portion. The decrease of metabolism turnover from the ethanol soluble to the insoluble compartment was remarkable in the tomato variety so nutritionally treated as to be apt to cause streaky decay and the variety susceptible to it. (Mori, K.)

  7. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  8. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eTakayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle via reactions catalysed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, GABA transaminase (GABA-T and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development.

  9. Ethylene independent induction of lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits by jasmonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jia; Wang, Qiaomei

    2012-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene), which may contribute to the nutrient quality of tomato fruit and its role in chemoprevention. Previous studies have shown that ethylene (ET) plays a central role in promoting fruit ripening. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in controlling lycopene accumulation in tomato fruits was analysed by measuring fruit lycopene content and the expression levels of lycopene biosynthetic genes in JA-deficient mutants (spr2 and def1) and a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys) with increased JA levels and constitutive JA signalling. The lycopene content was significantly decreased in the fruits of spr2 and def1, but was enhanced in 35S::prosys fruits. Simultaneously, the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes followed a similar trend. Lycopene synthesis in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapour-treated fruits showed an inverted U-shaped dose response, which significantly enhanced the fruit lycopene content and restored lycopene accumulation in spr2 and def1 at a concentration of 0.5 µM. The results indicated that JA plays a positive role in lycopene biosynthesis. In addition, the role of ET in JA-induced lycopene accumulation was also examined. Ethylene production in tomato fruits was depressed in spr2 and def1 while it increased in 35S::prosys. However, the exogenous application of MeJA to Never ripe (Nr), the ET-insensitive mutant, significantly promoted lycopene accumulation, as well as the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes. Based on these results, it is proposed that JA might function independently of ethylene to promote lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits. PMID:22945939

  10. BEL1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN 11 regulated chloroplast development and chlorophyll synthesis in tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplast development and chlorophyll content and metabolism in unripe tomato contribute to the growth and development of the fruit, and also the ripe fruit quality, but the mechanism is poorly understood. In this work, seven homeobox-containing transcription factors (TFs) with specific ripening-a...

  11. Effects of differents gamma radiation doses absorbed for postharvest tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Abreu, Toneypson da; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Soares, Antonio G.

    1997-01-01

    Postharvest tomato fuits Santa Cruz were submitted to prestorage gamma irradiation treatment with different doses range zero (unirradiated fruits) to 1000 Gy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postharvest quality parameters: Hunter colour values for light transmittance analysis, pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, maximum firmness and maturity stage. The fruits were stored under (25±1) 0 C with (93±3) relative humidity. The results obtained from the different irradiated treatments showed 600 Gy as the best dose to increase the shelf-life of tomato fruits and to decay its ripening. (author). 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  12. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  13. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... heterosis; LSD, least significant difference; CV, co-variance. ... The North West Frontier Province of the country .... Mean squares for flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and yield per plant.

  14. Influence of electric conductivity management on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dorai , Martine; Papadopoulos , Athanasios; Gosselin , André

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The osmotic and ionic effects of the electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution and its interactions with climatic factors and cultural practices on tomato yield and fruit quality are reviewed. Adjusting the salinity of the nutrient solution allows growers to modify water availability to the crop and hence improve fruit quality. At some point, however, increases in salinity limit marketable yield. Under high ECs, fruit size is inversely related to EC while t...

  15. An iodine supplementation of tomato fruits coated with an edible film of the iodide-doped chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-06-01

    In general, the risk of numerous thyroid cancers inevitably increases among people with iodine deficiencies. An iodide-doped chitosan (CT-I) solution was prepared for dipping tomatoes to coat the fresh surface with an edible film (1.5 μm), thereby providing iodine-rich fruits for daily intake. Characterisation of the thin film was conducted by FTIR and SEM. Stability of the CT-I film was studied via water immersion at various time intervals, and no residual iodide leached out due to intrinsic interactions between the cationic amino group of chitosan and iodide ions. Moreover, the iodide supplement exhibited no effect on the antioxidant activity of tomatoes. The iodine content in the film-coated tomato was determined by ICP-OES. The tomato coating with 1.5% (w/v) CT-I contained approximately 0.4 μg iodide per gram fresh weight. In addition, the freshness and storability of iodine-doped tomatoes were also maintained for shelf-life concerns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of genetic diversity in tomato for fruit morphology, composition and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaif, K.; Amjad, M.; Saeed, A.

    2016-01-01

    Postharvest losses are of great concern in vegetable crops, including tomato, due to their perishable nature. Damage to tomato fruit during transportation is related to its shape besides other factors. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess genetic diversity in the available tomato germplasm (35 genotypes) for fruit morphology, biochemical composition and yield. Considerable variation was observed for all studied traits except number of locules per fruit, TSS and reducing sugars, for which very low range was recorded. While, moderate level of variation existed for stem-end blockiness, blossom-end blockiness and elongated shape which suggested that fruit of most of the varieties could belong to more than one category of fruit shape. Fruit length and diameter had significantly positive correlation with heart shape of tomato, while later was also correlated with blossom-end-blockiness. Heart shape of tomato fruit was also correlated with stem-end blockiness. Yield showed significantly positive correlation with number of inflorescence per plant. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed PC-I to PC-VI had Eigen values >1, which contributed 73.86% of total variability for different traits. The highest factor loading values for blossom-end-blockiness, stem-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape was recorded in PC-6, PC-4, PC-6 and PC-2, respectively. Thirty five genotypes were grouped into three clusters. Higher yield and stem-end-blockiness was observed in genotypes from cluster II, while higher values for blossom-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape were noticed in cluster I followed by cluster III. So, it can be assumed that genotypes in cluster II showed higher yield and also possessed blocky fruit, a desirable character for transportation and processing purpose. Moreover, it is suggested that genotypes of cluster I and cluster II can be crossed to find heterosis for yield and fruit shape related traits. (author)

  17. From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Chialva, Matteo; Novero, Mara; Miozzi, Laura; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-03-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic "signatures": genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions

  18. Solid-State (13)C NMR Delineates the Architectural Design of Biopolymers in Native and Genetically Altered Tomato Fruit Cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Matas, Antonio J; Isaacson, Tal; Kehlet, Cindie; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-01-11

    Plant cuticles on outer fruit and leaf surfaces are natural macromolecular composites of waxes and polyesters that ensure mechanical integrity and mitigate environmental challenges. They also provide renewable raw materials for cosmetics, packaging, and coatings. To delineate the structural framework and flexibility underlying the versatile functions of cutin biopolymers associated with polysaccharide-rich cell-wall matrices, solid-state NMR spectra and spin relaxation times were measured in a tomato fruit model system, including different developmental stages and surface phenotypes. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the cutin ensures compatibility with the underlying polysaccharide cell walls; the hydroxy fatty acid structures of outer epidermal cutin also support deposition of hydrophobic waxes and aromatic moieties while promoting the formation of cell-wall cross-links that rigidify and strengthen the cuticle composite during fruit development. Fruit cutin-deficient tomato mutants with compromised microbial resistance exhibit less efficient local and collective biopolymer motions, stiffening their cuticular surfaces and increasing their susceptibility to fracture.

  19. Control of Black Rot Disease in Tomato Fruits by Using Formulated Ginger Essential oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, I.M.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale) treated by gamma radiation at dose of 10 kGy was selected as an active ingredient for formulation of the biocide. Liquid formulations (emulsifiable concentrates) were prepared using different emulsifiers (Emulgator B.L.M. and tween 80 or tween 20) and additive oil (soybean oil). Physicochemical properties of the formulated oil (spontaneous emulsification, emulsion stability; cold stability and heat stability, viscosity, surface tension and ph) were measured. The formulated oil was tested in vivo to investigate its efficiency for controlling the growth of Alternaria alternata inoculated into tomato fruits. The results indicated that soaking inoculated tomato fruits in the formulated oil (ginger essential oil + soybean oil + emulgator B.L.M. + tween 80) treatment at concentration of 300 ppm for a period of 12 minute was the most effective for controlling the growth of the tested fungus. In addition, the formulated oil had efficiency for controlling the rot development on tomato fruits when applied as therapeutic and protective agents

  20. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Applications on Plant and Fruit Yield in Greenhouse Organic Tomato Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Ulusu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato production is in the first place in Turkey, 34% of total tomato production (3.614.472 tonnes is under greenhouse conditions. The increase in yield in Turkey is due to the spread of undergrowth cultivation besides the use of qualified varieties and seeds. Synthetic fertilizers can’t be used to obtain economic efficiency in underground organic tomato growing Therefore, the application of alternative fertilizers (barn stubble, green manure, organic fertilizer, vermicompost etc. needs to be improved. For this purpose, effect of the eight different fertilizer combination including organic and worm liquid fertilizer, humic acid and mycorrhizae applications on tomato plant and fruit yield were investigated in the study. Negative check without any fertilizer application growing and a positive check; a synthetic liquid fertilizer application was included. Experiment was set up according to completely randomised block design with 3 replications under greenhouse conditions. Tomato fruit length, diameter and weight was determined as fruit yield and fresh and dry weight as plant yield. There was not any statistical difference among fertilizer applications for fruit and plant yield. However, the highest tomato fruit yield was obtained in the treatments of organic (7.17 kg/ plot and worm fertilizers (4,80 kg/ plot in combination with mycorrhizae. The results were similar for fruit diameter and length. Plant fresh and dry weight was between 2.01 to 5.92 and 0.368 to 1.153 kg, respectively. The highest plant weight was belong to mycorrhizae and organic fertilizer application.

  1. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...... polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained...

  2. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman; Chapman, Natalie H; Smith, Rebecca; Poole, Mervin; Adams, Gary; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Sheldon, Judith; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy; Perez, Laura; Samsulrizal, Nurul; Wang, Duoduo; Fisk, Ian D; Yang, Ni; Baxter, Charles; Rickett, Daniel; Fray, Rupert; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Powell, Ann L T; Harding, Stephen E; Craigon, Jim; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Fich, Eric A; Sun, Li; Domozych, David S; Fraser, Paul D; Tucker, Gregory A; Grierson, Don; Seymour, Graham B

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain 'non-ripening mutations' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic Fingerprinting to Assess the Impact of Salinity on Carotenoid Content in Developing Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Van Meulebroek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita. Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS m−1 was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant’s genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant’s salinity response (at the fruit level, whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well.

  5. Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

    2013-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes.

  6. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of [1,4- 14 C]putrescine and [terminal labeled- 3 H]spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase

  7. Growth and proteomic analysis of tomato fruit under partial root-zone drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Milena; Stikić, Radmila; Vucelić-Radović, Biljana; Savić, Sladjana; Jovanović, Zorica; Bertin, Nadia; Faurobert, Mireille

    2012-06-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) on tomato fruit growth and proteome in the pericarp of cultivar Ailsa Craig were investigated. The PRD treatment was 70% of water applied to fully irrigated (FI) plants. PRD reduced the fruit number and slightly increased the fruit diameter, whereas the total fruit fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) per plant did not change. Although the growth rate was higher in FI than in PRD fruits, the longer period of cell expansion resulted in bigger PRD fruits. Proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue at two fruit growth stages (15 and 30 days post-anthesis [dpa]), and submitted to proteomic analysis including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for identification. Proteins related to carbon and amino acid metabolism indicated that slower metabolic flux in PRD fruits may be the cause of a slower growth rate compared to FI fruits. The increase in expression of the proteins related to cell wall, energy, and stress defense could allow PRD fruits to increase the duration of fruit growth compared to FI fruits. Upregulation of some of the antioxidative enzymes during the cell expansion phase of PRD fruits appears to be related to their role in protecting fruits against the mild stress induced by PRD.

  8. The correlation between heat-shock protein accumulation and persistence and chilling tolerance in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabehat, A.; Weiss, D.; Lurie, S.

    1996-01-01

    Heating tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 48 h at 38 degrees C prevented chilling injury from developing after 21 d at 2 degrees C, whereas unheated fruit developed high levels of injury. Although the overall protein pattern as seen by Coomassie blue staining was similar from heated and unheated fruit, some high- and many low-molecular-mass proteins were observed in the heated fruit that were absent or present in reduced amounts in unheated fruit. When fruit were injected with [35S]methionine at harvest and then heated, they accumulated high levels of specific radiolabeled proteins that could still be detected after 21 d at 2 degrees C. If the fruit were held at 20 degrees C after heating, the label in the proteins declined rapidly and these fruit were also sensitive to chilling injury. Hsp70 antibody reacted more strongly with proteins from heated and chilled fruit than with proteins from chilled fruit. Hsp18.1 antibody reacted strongly with proteins from heated fruit but not with those from unheated fruit. A 23-kD protein, highly labeled in heated fruit but not in unheated fruit, had its amino terminus sequenced. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a relationship between the persistence of heat-shock proteins and chilling tolerance in a plant tissue

  9. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Jurick, Wayne M.

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs) in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen in...

  10. Impact of saline-alkali stress on the accumulation of solids in tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, N.E.; Din, J.U.; Kawabata, S

    2014-01-01

    Growing of tomato plants in saline conditions, having high rhizospheric EC, is often reported with high solid content in fruits. However, saline-alkali stress conditions, having high rhizospheric pH as well as high EC, have never been studied to evaluate its impact on the solid content of tomato fruits. In this study, we investigated the impact of saline-alkali stress (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 mM NaHCO/sub 3/) on the accumulation of solids in tomato fruits. Addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) to plants highly increased pH as well as EC of the soil leachate in 90 and 120 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ treatments in comparison to control treatment. Saline-alkali stress treatments did not influence the fruit dry weight, nonetheless, the content of fruit dry matter was increased significantly from 6.5% at control to 8.5% at 90 and 120 mM treatments. The content of soluble sugar was increased to 3% in 90 mM treatment in comparison to control (2%), owing to significant accumulation of hexose as well as sucrose in ripe fruits. In addition to carbohydrates, saline-alkali stress influenced the accumulation of organic acids in fruits, as well. Citric acid, being the major acid, showed positive correlation with the salt concentration, and was significantly high at stress treatments of higher than 30 mM. These results suggested that saline-alkali stress conditions, in spite of high pH, can increase the contents of fruit solids in tomato, as is usually observed in saline stress conditions. (author)

  11. First report of Colletotrichum nigrum causing anthracnose disease on tomato fruit in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose fruit rot is one of the most serious diseases affecting the production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the United States and is typically incited by Colletotrichum coccodes, C. gloeosporioides or C. dematium (Farr and Rossman 2016). During the summer of 2013, symptoms characteris...

  12. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  13. Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation and deficit irrigation (DI) are water-saving irrigation strategies. Here, comparative effects of PRD and DI on fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation treatments had no effect o...

  14. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of plants interact with soil mycorrhizal fungi to facilitate soil nutrient acquisition by the plant and carbon transfer to the fungus. Here we use tomato fruit ripening mutations to demonstrate that this root interaction communicates with and supports genetic mechanisms associated with th...

  15. The influence of organic amendment and nickel pollution on tomato fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Carbonell-Barrachina, A; Gómez, I; Mataix, J

    1999-01-01

    The effects of organic fertilization (sludge application) and/or different levels of Ni pollution on tomato fruit yield, quality, nutrition, and Ni accumulation were investigated. The mass loading of sewage sludge solids used in this study for the amendment of a calcareous soil with low organic matter content was 2% (w/w). A control with no sewage sludge amendment was also included (S). Nickel was added to the sludge amended soil at 0, 60, 120 and 240 mg kg-1 concentrations. Sewage sludge addition to the calcareous soil significantly increased fruit yield but did not adversely affect the quality and nutritional status of the tomato fruit. The results demonstrated that sewage sludge could be successfully used as a horticultural fertilizer. Only the highest addition rate of Ni (240 mg kg-1) to an organic amended calcareous soil had negative effects on fruit yield and quality, and caused a Ni accumulation in fruit that could be considered as a hazard for human health. Thus, no toxic problems will be encountered in tomato fruit due to Ni pollution provided the total Ni (soil Ni plus Ni incorporated with sludge amendment) concentration is kept below the maximum concentration of Ni allowed for agricultural alkaline soils in Spain (112 mg Ni kg-1).

  16. Debranching improves morpho-physiological characters, fruit quality and yield of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, M.M.A.; Razzaque, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers are commercially cultivated tomato with different levels of shoot pruning but this production practice has not been defined clearly. The experiment was conducted under sub-tropical condition to assess the effect of different levels of debranching on morpho-physiological, reproductive and yield contributing characters in determinate tomato cultivar cv. Binatomato-5. The debranching levels were: i) control, ii) only main stem (MS), iii) MS with 2 branches, iv) MS with 3 branches and v) MS with 4 branches. Based on recommended spacing (50 cm * 50 cm), the higher fruit yield plant-1 as well as fruit yield per hectare were observed in more branch bearing plants of the treatment control (MS with 5-6 branches), MS with 3 branches and MS with 4 branches due to production of higher number of fruits plant-1 with being the highest in MS with 3 branches due to increase fruit size. The lowest fruit yield per plant as well as per hectare was observed in uniculm plants due to lower number of fruits per plant. This study suggests that plants that have MS with three branches may be recommended for commercial cultivation of tomato under sub-tropical condition. (author)

  17. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit soluble solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of [ 3 H]-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of [ 14 C]sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of [ 14 C]-(glycosyl)-1'fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of [ 14 C] sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F 2 population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes

  18. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references

  19. Differential gene expression in tomato fruit and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during colonization of the RNAi-SlPH tomato line with reduced fruit acidity and higher pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Sela, Noa; Dubey, Amit K; Kumar, Dilip; Luria, Neta; Ment, Dana; Cohen, Shahar; Schaffer, Arthur A; Prusky, Dov

    2017-08-04

    The destructive phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose disease in fruit. During host colonization, it secretes ammonia, which modulates environmental pH and regulates gene expression, contributing to pathogenicity. However, the effect of host pH environment on pathogen colonization has never been evaluated. Development of an isogenic tomato line with reduced expression of the gene for acidity, SlPH (Solyc10g074790.1.1), enabled this analysis. Total RNA from C. gloeosporioides colonizing wild-type (WT) and RNAi-SlPH tomato lines was sequenced and gene-expression patterns were compared. C. gloeosporioides inoculation of the RNAi-SlPH line with pH 5.96 compared to the WT line with pH 4.2 showed 30% higher colonization and reduced ammonia accumulation. Large-scale comparative transcriptome analysis of the colonized RNAi-SlPH and WT lines revealed their different mechanisms of colonization-pattern activation: whereas the WT tomato upregulated 13-LOX (lipoxygenase), jasmonic acid and glutamate biosynthesis pathways, it downregulated processes related to chlorogenic acid biosynthesis II, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amide biosynthesis; the RNAi-SlPH line upregulated UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis I and free phenylpropanoid acid biosynthesis, but mainly downregulated pathways related to sugar metabolism, such as the glyoxylate cycle and L-arabinose degradation II. Comparison of C. gloeosporioides gene expression during colonization of the WT and RNAi-SlPH lines showed that the fungus upregulates ammonia and nitrogen transport and the gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process during colonization of the WT, while on the RNAi-SlPH tomato, it mainly upregulates the nitrate metabolic process. Modulation of tomato acidity and pH had significant phenotypic effects on C. gloeosporioides development. The fungus showed increased colonization on the neutral RNAi-SlPH fruit, and limited colonization on the WT acidic fruit

  20. Effectiveness of Neutral Electrolyzed Water on Incidence of Fungal Rot on Tomato Fruits ( Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-López, Alfonso; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the effect of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) on the incidence of rot on tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum , Galactomyces geotrichum , and Alternaria sp. at sites with lesions. The inoculated fruits were treated with NEW at 10, 30, and 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine, with copper oxychloride fungicide, and with sterile distilled water (control) for 3, 5, and 10 min. In the experiment with F. oxysporum , 50 to 80% of the control fruits and 50 to 60% of the fruits treated with the fungicide exhibited symptoms of rot at the inoculated sites. The lowest incidence recorded was 30% for fruits treated with NEW at 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine with an immersion time of 5 min. In the experiment with G. geotrichum , incidence of rot on control fruits was 70 to 90%, and for treatment with fungicide rot incidence was 50 to 90%. NEW at 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine significantly reduced incidence of symptomatic fruit: only 30% of the inoculated fruits washed for 5 min had damage from rot. In the experiment with Alternaria sp., 60 to 90% of the fruits in the control group and 60 to 70% of the fruits in the fungicide group were symptomatic. The lowest incidence was recorded for the treatment in which the fruits were submerged in NEW with 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine for 3 min. In this group, 40 to 50% of the fruits exhibited symptoms of rot. These results were obtained 8 days after inoculation. NEW, with 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine, significantly reduced incidence of rot symptoms on fruits inoculated with one of the experimental fungi relative to the control (P ≤ 0.05). NEW at 60 mg liter -1 is effective in the control of fungal rot in tomatoes.

  1. Cytosolic monoterpene biosynthesis is supported by plastid-generated geranyl diphosphate substrate in transgenic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutensohn, Michael; Orlova, Irina; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Sitrit, Yaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2013-08-01

    Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of most monoterpenes, is synthesized in plastids from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate by GPP synthases (GPPSs). In heterodimeric GPPSs, a non-catalytic small subunit (GPPS-SSU) interacts with a catalytic large subunit, such as geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, and determines its product specificity. Here, snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS-SSU was over-expressed in tomato fruits under the control of the fruit ripening-specific polygalacturonase promoter to divert the metabolic flux from carotenoid formation towards GPP and monoterpene biosynthesis. Transgenic tomato fruits produced monoterpenes, including geraniol, geranial, neral, citronellol and citronellal, while exhibiting reduced carotenoid content. Co-expression of the Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase (GES) gene with snapdragon GPPS-SSU led to a more than threefold increase in monoterpene formation in tomato fruits relative to the parental GES line, indicating that the produced GPP can be used by plastidic monoterpene synthases. Co-expression of snapdragon GPPS-SSU with the O. basilicum α-zingiberene synthase (ZIS) gene encoding a cytosolic terpene synthase that has been shown to possess both sesqui- and monoterpene synthase activities resulted in increased levels of ZIS-derived monoterpene products compared to fruits expressing ZIS alone. These results suggest that re-direction of the metabolic flux towards GPP in plastids also increases the cytosolic pool of GPP available for monoterpene synthesis in this compartment via GPP export from plastids. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Organically grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.): bioactive compounds in the fruit and infection with Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Afrah E; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Keutgen, Anna J; Horneburg, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    Tomato fruits are characterized by a good nutritional profile, including different bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid. The objective of this study was to analyze the content of bioactive compounds in the fruit and the infection by Phytophthora infestans of 28 tomato genotypes from organic outdoor production. The relationship between bioactive compounds in the fruit and infection with P. infestans was estimated. Field experiments were carried out in 2004 and 2005 at two locations in central Germany. Significant variation among genotypes, locations and years was observed for the content of lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and the infection level of P. infestans. Antioxidant capacity seemed to be influenced mainly by the phenolics and was highest in small fruits, which were less infected with P. infestans. The large genetic variation among tomato genotypes for the content of bioactive compounds in their fruit allows for selection gains. None of the investigated bioactive compounds can be recommended for the indirect selection for increased field resistance against P. infestans. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballester, A.R.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vos, de C.H.; Lintel Hekkert, B.; Orzaez, D.; Fernandez-Moreno, J.P.; Tripodi, S.; Grandillo, S.; Martin, C.; Heldens, J.; Ykema, M.; Granell, A.; Bovy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines

  4. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9±0.8, 33.3±00.5, and 17.6±0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P<0.05. Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9±0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P<0.05 and the DPPH assays (97.4±0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P<0.05. Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  5. Mode of inheritance for fruit firmness in tomato hybrids of F1 generation (Lycoperscum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sušić Zoran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Present day program for tomato selection are aimed at creating the genotypes with firm fruit. The fruits with this quality surfer from minor injuries while being harvested and transported, which directly affects their better consumption purpose. By crossing seven divergent tomato genotypes that differed among themselves in fruit firmness, and by applying the method of full diallel without reciprocal crossings, we obtained 21 hybrids of F1 generation. Upon analyzing the components of the genetic variance we found out that dominant genes prevailed in inheriting this feature. Considering all the crossing combinations together, it could be concluded that super dominance was the mode of inheritance recorded in Fl generation. The hybrid combination obtained by crossing the two hybrids with the best general combining ability (V-100 x No-10 was characterized by the best specific combining ability. .

  6. Confocal laser scanning microscopy detection of chlorophylls and carotenoids in chloroplasts and chromoplasts of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Lucio; Amenós, Montse; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells are unique among eukaryotic cells because of the presence of plastids, including chloroplasts and chromoplasts. Chloroplasts are found in green tissues and harbor the photosynthetic machinery (including chlorophyll molecules), while chromoplasts are present in non-photosynthetic tissues and accumulate large amounts of carotenoids. During tomato fruit development, chloroplasts are converted into chromoplasts that accumulate high levels of lycopene, a linear carotenoid responsible for the characteristic red color of ripe fruit. Here, we describe a simple and fast method to detect both types of fully differentiated plastids (chloroplasts and chromoplasts), as well as intermediate stages, in fresh tomato fruits. The method is based on the differential autofluorescence of chlorophylls and carotenoids (lycopene) detected by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

  7. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  8. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  9. A role for differential glycoconjugation in the emission of phenylpropanoid volatiles from tomato fruit discovered using a metabolic data fusion approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikunov, Y.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Gonzalez Paramas, A.M.; Hall, R.D.; Bovy, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    A role for differential glycoconjugation in the emission of phenylpropanoid volatiles from ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) upon fruit tissue disruption has been discovered in this study. Application of a multiinstrumental analytical platform for metabolic profiling of fruits from a

  10. Cultivation of Tomato Tissues Capable of Forming Flowers and Fruits in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1998-01-01

    The final phase of this research project was designed to develop a practical method for producing a steady supply of fresh cherry tomato fruits over a period of several months, for possible use as a fresh vegetable supplement to a standard diet of astronauts on extended missions. This effort was successful. We were able to excise immature flowers from Pixie tomato plants grown in a controlled condition room, implant them on artificial media under aseptic conditions, and get them to develop into edible fruits in a little over a month. The medium (Murashige-Skoog) was purchased from Sigma, supplemented with sugar plus a synthetic analog of the plant hormone cytokinin, and adjusted to pH 5.8. A temperature of at least 25 C and visible light helped to produce ripe red fruits within 7 weeks. To ensure a steady supply of such tomatoes, we found it possible to store the explanted flower buds in MS medium at 5 C for at least 6 weeks without significant loss of ability to develop into fruits. This means that many containers could be prepared before launch and put into a refrigerator; a convenient number could then be removed periodically to guarantee a succession of harvests during the life of an extended mission. Details are found in the attached reprints. Subsequent applications for funds for flight or continued research were denied, and the project was terminated.

  11. Respiration climacteric in tomato fruits elucidated by constraint-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Vercambre, Gilles; Le Gall, Sophie; Biais, Benoit; Cabasson, Cécile; Maucourt, Mickaël; Bernillon, Stéphane; Moing, Annick; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Gibon, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Tomato is a model organism to study the development of fleshy fruit including ripening initiation. Unfortunately, few studies deal with the brief phase of accelerated ripening associated with the respiration climacteric because of practical problems involved in measuring fruit respiration. Because constraint-based modelling allows predicting accurate metabolic fluxes, we investigated the respiration and energy dissipation of fruit pericarp at the breaker stage using a detailed stoichiometric model of the respiratory pathway, including alternative oxidase and uncoupling proteins. Assuming steady-state, a metabolic dataset was transformed into constraints to solve the model on a daily basis throughout tomato fruit development. We detected a peak of CO 2 released and an excess of energy dissipated at 40 d post anthesis (DPA) just before the onset of ripening coinciding with the respiration climacteric. We demonstrated the unbalanced carbon allocation with the sharp slowdown of accumulation (for syntheses and storage) and the beginning of the degradation of starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Experiments with fruits harvested from plants cultivated under stress conditions confirmed the concept. We conclude that modelling with an accurate metabolic dataset is an efficient tool to bypass the difficulty of measuring fruit respiration and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ripening. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Active packaging from chitosan-titanium dioxide nanocomposite film for prolonging storage life of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewklin, Patinya; Siripatrawan, Ubonrat; Suwanagul, Anawat; Lee, Youn Suk

    2018-06-01

    The feasibility of active packaging from chitosan (CS) and chitosan containing nanosized titanium dioxide (CT) to maintain quality and extend storage life of climacteric fruit was investigated. The CT nanocomposite film and CS film were fabricated using a solution casting method and used as active packaging to delay ripening process of cherry tomatoes. Changes in firmness, weight loss, a*/b* color, lycopene content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, and concentration of ethylene and carbon dioxide of the tomatoes packaged in CT film, CS film, and control (without CT or CS films) were monitored during storage at 20°C. Classification of fruit quality as a function of different packaging treatments was visualized using linear discriminant analysis. Tomatoes packaged in the CT film evolved lower quality changes than those in the CS film and control. The results suggested that the CT film exhibited ethylene photodegradation activity when exposed to UV light and consequently delayed the ripening process and changes in the quality of the tomatoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Ozonization Duration on the Storage Age of Tomato Fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Isyuniarto

    2007-01-01

    It has been carried out the experiment of giving ozone (ozonization) to tomatoes in the packing of plastic polyethylene (PE). Material used in research was the local fresh tomato of Kaliurang with the diameter of about 5 cm, orange color and mean weighing of 7 gram, while the ozone gas used was the output of Ozonizer portable 25 W made in PTAPB-BATAN Yogyakarta. Tomato is entered into perforated packing of plastic PE with the dimension size of (25 x 40) cm, thickness 0.03 mm and or 0.05 mm and then they were conducted by ozonization with the variation time of 0, 15, 30 and 45 second. Tomato sample control was done after being deposited as long as 5 and 10 days which consists of water contained, texture, dwindle the weight and test the differentiation by panelist to various attribute quality of fruit like color, aroma, texture and entirety. From research result was showed that by using ozone treatment the storage age of tomato can be improved to become 2 times (on the condition of water stage 96.50 (% wb), texture 2.64 N and dwindle the weight 5.99 %) which is done by ozonization as long as 45 second on the packing of plastic PE with thickness of 0.03 mm. (author)

  14. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  15. Integration of tomato reproductive developmental landmarks and expression profiles, and the effect of SUN on fruit shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dongmei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universally accepted landmark stages are necessary to highlight key events in plant reproductive development and to facilitate comparisons among species. Domestication and selection of tomato resulted in many varieties that differ in fruit shape and size. This diversity is useful to unravel underlying molecular and developmental mechanisms that control organ morphology and patterning. The tomato fruit shape gene SUN controls fruit elongation. The most dramatic effect of SUN on fruit shape occurs after pollination and fertilization although a detailed investigation into the timing of the fruit shape change as well as gene expression profiles during critical developmental stages has not been conducted. Results We provide a description of floral and fruit development in a red-fruited closely related wild relative of tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium accession LA1589. We use established and propose new floral and fruit landmarks to present a framework for tomato developmental studies. In addition, gene expression profiles of three key stages in floral and fruit development are presented, namely floral buds 10 days before anthesis (floral landmark 7, anthesis-stage flowers (floral landmark 10 and fruit landmark 1, and 5 days post anthesis fruit (fruit landmark 3. To demonstrate the utility of the landmarks, we characterize the tomato shape gene SUN in fruit development. SUN controls fruit shape predominantly after fertilization and its effect reaches a maximum at 8 days post-anthesis coinciding with fruit landmark 4 representing the globular embryo stage of seed development. The expression profiles of the NILs that differ at sun show that only 34 genes were differentially expressed and most of them at a less than 2-fold difference. Conclusion The landmarks for flower and fruit development in tomato were outlined and integrated with the effect of SUN on fruit shape. Although we did not identify many genes differentially expressed in

  16. Isolation of Chromoplasts and Suborganellar Compartments from Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Cristina; Kuntz, Marcel; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is a model for fruit development and ripening. The isolation of intact plastids from this organism is therefore important for metabolic and proteomic analyses. Pepper, a species from the same family, is also of interest since it allows isolation of intact chromoplasts in large amounts. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation of tomato plastids at three fruit developmental stages, namely, nascent chromoplasts from the mature green stage, chromoplasts from an intermediate stage, and fully differentiated red chromoplasts. The method relies on sucrose density gradient centrifugations. It yields high purity organelles suitable for proteome analyses. Enzymatic and microscopy assays are summarized to assess purity and intactness. A method is also described for subfractionation of pepper chromoplast lipoprotein structures.

  17. Suppressing Type 2C Protein Phosphatases Alters Fruit Ripening and the Stress Response in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yushu; Li, Qian; Jiang, Li; Kai, Wenbin; Liang, Bin; Wang, Juan; Du, Yangwei; Zhai, Xiawan; Wang, Jieling; Zhang, Yingqi; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Lusheng; Leng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Although ABA signaling has been widely studied in Arabidopsis, the roles of core ABA signaling components in fruit remain poorly understood. Herein, we characterize SlPP2C1, a group A type 2C protein phosphatase that negatively regulates ABA signaling and fruit ripening in tomato. The SlPP2C1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm close to AtAHG3/AtPP2CA. The SlPP2C1 gene was expressed in all tomato tissues throughout development, particularly in flowers and fruits, and it was up-regulated by dehydration and ABA treatment. SlPP2C1 expression in fruits was increased at 30 d after full bloom and peaked at the B + 1 stage. Suppression of SlPP2C1 expression significantly accelerated fruit ripening which was associated with higher levels of ABA signaling genes that are reported to alter the expression of fruit ripening genes involved in ethylene release and cell wall catabolism. SlPP2C1-RNAi (RNA interference) led to increased endogenous ABA accumulation and advanced release of ethylene in transgenic fruits compared with wild-type (WT) fruits. SlPP2C1-RNAi also resulted in abnormal flowers and obstructed the normal abscission of pedicels. SlPP2C1-RNAi plants were hypersensitized to ABA, and displayed delayed seed germination and primary root growth, and increased resistance to drought stress compared with WT plants. These results demonstrated that SlPP2C1 is a functional component in the ABA signaling pathway which participates in fruit ripening, ABA responses and drought tolerance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Overexpressing CAPRICE and GLABRA3 did not change the anthocyanin content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takuji; Onishi, Mio; Kunihiro, Asuka; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R3-type MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC) and bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) cooperatively regulate epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are involved in root-hair differentiation, trichome initiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Previously, we showed that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin accumulation in tomato. Introduction of 35S::CPC into tomato significantly inhibits anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledons, leaves and stems. In contrast, introduction of GL3::GL3 strongly enhances anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledons, leaves and stems of tomato. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPC and GL3 on anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermis of tomato fruit. Unlike the results with vegetative tissues, overexpression of CPC and GL3 did not influence anthocyanin biosynthesis in tomato fruit peel.

  19. Effects of different irrigation practices using treated wastewater on tomato yields, quality, water productivity, and soil and fruit mineral contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Azize Dogan; Sahin, Ustun

    2017-11-01

    Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE) in the TWW was significantly higher than in the FW. Although the DI and the PRD practices caused less yields, these practices significantly increased WUE values due to less irrigation water applied. The water-yield linear relationships were statistically significant. TWW significantly increased titratable acidity and vitamin C contents. Reduced irrigation provided significantly lower titratable acidity, vitamin C, and lycopene contents. TWW increased the surface soil and fruit mineral contents in response to FW. Greater increases were observed under FI, and mineral contents declined with reduction in irrigation water. Heavy metal accumulation in soils was within safe limits. However, Cd and Pb contents in fruits exceeded standard limits given by FAO/WHO. Higher metal pollution index values determined for fruits also indicated that TWW application, especially under FI, might cause health risks in long term.

  20. On Plant Detection of Intact Tomato Fruits Using Image Analysis and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated yield estimation of intact fruits prior to harvesting provides various benefits to farmers. Until now, several studies have been conducted to estimate fruit yield using image-processing technologies. However, most of these techniques require thresholds for features such as color, shape and size. In addition, their performance strongly depends on the thresholds used, although optimal thresholds tend to vary with images. Furthermore, most of these techniques have attempted to detect only mature and immature fruits, although the number of young fruits is more important for the prediction of long-term fluctuations in yield. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to accurately detect individual intact tomato fruits including mature, immature and young fruits on a plant using a conventional RGB digital camera in conjunction with machine learning approaches. The developed method did not require an adjustment of threshold values for fruit detection from each image because image segmentation was conducted based on classification models generated in accordance with the color, shape, texture and size of the images. The results of fruit detection in the test images showed that the developed method achieved a recall of 0.80, while the precision was 0.88. The recall values of mature, immature and young fruits were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively.

  1. Feasibility in multispectral imaging for predicting the content of bioactive compounds in intact tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-04-15

    Tomato is an important health-stimulating fruit because of the antioxidant properties of its main bioactive compounds, dominantly lycopene and phenolic compounds. Nowadays, product differentiation in the fruit market requires an accurate evaluation of these value-added compounds. An experiment was conducted to simultaneously and non-destructively measure lycopene and phenolic compounds content in intact tomatoes using multispectral imaging combined with chemometric methods. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN model considerably improved the performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP(2))=0.938 and 0.965, residual predictive deviation (RPD)=4.590 and 9.335 for lycopene and total phenolics content prediction, respectively. It is concluded that multispectral imaging is an attractive alternative to the standard methods for determination of bioactive compounds content in intact tomatoes, providing a useful platform for infield fruit sorting/grading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Neoleucinodes elegantalis in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Helbert S.F.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Araujo, Michel M.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Faria, Jose Tadeu de; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil the tomato-fruit-borer is responsible up to 45% for the loss of the production. The objective of the present report is evaluate the effects of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) on life cycle (eggs and larvae) of Neoleucinodes elegantalis in tomato fruits. The insects were irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 Gy, in a Gammacell 220 source at dose rate of 1.4 kGy/h. Each treatment consists of four repetitions containing 10 insects, totaling 50 insects. After irradiation, the insects were maintained under controlled conditions of 25±3 deg C and relative humidity from 65 to 75%. The evaluations were done daily, counted the number of died insects, eggs and emerged larvae. With the obtained results, we could determine the lethal and sterilizing doses for all phases of cycle life in N. elegantalis for a possible quarantine treatment to export tomato fruits. These results permit conclude that the dose capable to avoid further development of stage of eggs and larvae were doses of 100 and 200 Gy. (author)

  3. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools.

  4. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Balibrea, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization of water and soil has a negative impact on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity by reducing growth of sink organs and by inducing senescence in source leaves. It has been hypothesized that yield stability implies the maintenance or increase of sink activity in the reproductive...... structures, thus contributing to the transport of assimilates from the source leaves through changes in sucrolytic enzymes and their regulation by phytohormones. In this study, classical and functional physiological approaches have been integrated to study the influence of metabolic and hormonal factors...... sucrolytic activities (mainly cwInv and sucrose synthase), sink strength, and fruit weight, whereas the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon had a negative effect in equivalent non-stressed fruits. Fruit yield was increased by both the constitutive expression of CIN1 in the fruits (up to 4-fold) or IPT...

  5. Combination of ozone and packaging treatments maintained the quality and improved the shelf life of tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri; Jayaputra; Sauqi, A.; Sjah, T.; Desiana, R. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is very important vegetable crop but has short shelf life. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ozone and packaging combination treatment on the quality and the storage life of tomato fruit. There were six treatments including: control (without ozone and packaging); without ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; without ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet; with ozone but without packaging; with ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; and with ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet. Each treatment was made into 3 replications. Tomato samples were harvested at turning stage. Ozone treatment was applied for 60 seconds. Tomatoes were then treated with and without packaging. The fruit were then stored at room temperature for up to 12 days. The parameters for assessment were water content, color, texture, weight loss and the population of naturally contamination Escherichia coli. Each parameter was assessed on day 0, 6 and 12 of storage. The results indicated that combination of ozone and packaging treatments significantly affected the physical and biochemical changes (water content, color, texture and weight loss) of the fruit, suppressed the microbiological contamination on the fruit and maintained fruit freshness or quality after 12 days of storage. The combination of ozone and perforated polyethylene packaging treatment was the best treatment to maintain the quality and prolonged the shelf life of tomato fruit to be 12 days at room temperature.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis during Tomato Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Bian, Wuying; Pang, Xin; Yu, Jiahong; Ahammed, Golam J; Zhou, Guozhi; Wang, Rongqing; Ruan, Meiying; Li, Zhimiao; Ye, Qingjing; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in tomato fruit has drawn increasing attention nowadays. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. In qPCR operation, reliability of results largely depends on the choice of appropriate reference genes (RGs). Although tomato is a model for fruit biology study, few RGs for qPCR analysis in tomato fruit had yet been developed. In this study, we initially identified 38 most stably expressed genes based on tomato transcriptome data set, and their expression stabilities were further determined in a set of tomato fruit samples of four different fruit developmental stages (Immature, mature green, breaker, mature red) using qPCR analysis. Two statistical algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder, concordantly determined the superiority of these identified putative RGs. Notably, SlFRG05 (Solyc01g104170), SlFRG12 (Solyc04g009770), SlFRG16 (Solyc10g081190), SlFRG27 (Solyc06g007510), and SlFRG37 (Solyc11g005330) were proved to be suitable RGs for tomato fruit development study. Further analysis using geNorm indicate that the combined use of SlFRG03 (Solyc02g063070) and SlFRG27 would provide more reliable normalization results in qPCR experiments. The identified RGs in this study will be beneficial for future qPCR analysis of tomato fruit developmental study, as well as for the potential identification of optimal normalization controls in other plant species.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis during Tomato Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis in tomato fruit has drawn increasing attention nowadays. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. In qPCR operation, reliability of results largely depends on the choice of appropriate reference genes (RGs. Although tomato is a model for fruit biology study, few RGs for qPCR analysis in tomato fruit had yet been developed. In this study, we initially identified 38 most stably expressed genes based on tomato transcriptome data set, and their expression stabilities were further determined in a set of tomato fruit samples of four different fruit developmental stages (Immature, mature green, breaker, mature red using qPCR analysis. Two statistical algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder, concordantly determined the superiority of these identified putative RGs. Notably, SlFRG05 (Solyc01g104170, SlFRG12 (Solyc04g009770, SlFRG16 (Solyc10g081190, SlFRG27 (Solyc06g007510, and SlFRG37 (Solyc11g005330 were proved to be suitable RGs for tomato fruit development study. Further analysis using geNorm indicate that the combined use of SlFRG03 (Solyc02g063070 and SlFRG27 would provide more reliable normalization results in qPCR experiments. The identified RGs in this study will be beneficial for future qPCR analysis of tomato fruit developmental study, as well as for the potential identification of optimal normalization controls in other plant species.

  8. RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase, the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, leads to parthenocarpic tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Martens, S.; Jonker, H.H.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Angenent, G.C.; Tunen, van A.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits in the absence of functional fertilization, is a desirable trait for several important crop plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Seedless fruits can be of great value for consumers, the processing industry, and breeding companies. In this

  9. Tomato Fruit Chromoplasts Behave as Respiratory Bioenergetic Organelles during Ripening1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages. PMID:25125503

  10. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen inoculation triggered expression of all those genes, with SlCaM2 being the most responsive one to both treatments. Furthermore, all calmodulin genes were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, two signaling molecules involved in plant immunity. In addition to SlCaM2, SlCaM1 was highly responsive to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. However, SlCaM2 exhibited a more rapid and stronger response than SlCaM1. Overexpression of SlCaM2 in tomato fruit enhanced resistance to Botrytis-induced decay, whereas reducing its expression resulted in increased lesion development. These results indicate that calmodulin is a positive regulator of plant defense in fruit by activating defense pathways including salicylate- and jasmonate-signaling pathways, and SlCaM2 is the major calmodulin gene responsible for this event.

  11. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  12. Hot water surface pasteurization for inactivating Salmonella on surfaces of mature green tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella. Commercial washing processes for tomatoes are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove this human pathogen. Our objective was to develop a hot water surface pasteurization pro...

  13. Photosynthetic and Heterotrophic Ferredoxin Isoproteins Are Colocalized in Fruit Plastids of Tomato1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koh; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Wada, Keishiro

    1998-01-01

    Fruit tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) contain both photosynthetic and heterotrophic ferredoxin (FdA and FdE, respectively) isoproteins, irrespective of their photosynthetic competence, but we did not previously determine whether these proteins were colocalized in the same plastids. In isolated fruit chloroplasts and chromoplasts, both FdA and FdE were detected by immunoblotting. Colocalization of FdA and FdE in the same plastids was demonstrated using double-staining immunofluorescence microscopy. We also found that FdA and FdE were colocalized in fruit chloroplasts and chloroamyloplasts irrespective of sink status of the plastid. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that FdA and FdE were randomly distributed within the plastid stroma. To investigate the significance of the heterotrophic Fd in fruit plastids, Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was measured in isolated fruit and leaf plastids. Fruit chloroplasts and chromoplasts showed much higher G6PDH activity than did leaf chloroplasts, suggesting that high G6PDH activity is linked with FdE to maintain nonphotosynthetic production of reducing power. This result suggested that, despite their morphological resemblance, fruit chloroplasts are functionally different from their leaf counterparts. PMID:9765529

  14. Molecular markers detect stable genomic regions underlying tomato fruit shelf life and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Raúl Pratta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating wild germplasm such as S. pimpinellifolium is an alternative strategy to prolong tomato fruit shelf life(SL without reducing fruit quality. A set of recombinant inbred lines with discrepant values of SL and weight (FW were derived byantagonistic-divergent selection from an interspecific cross. The general objective of this research was to evaluate Genotype x Year(GY and Marker x Year (MY interaction in these new genetic materials for both traits. Genotype and year principal effects and GYinteraction were statistically significant for SL. Genotype and year principal effects were significant for FW but GY interaction wasnot. The marker principal effect was significant for SL and FW but both year principal effect and MY interaction were not significant.Though SL was highly influenced by year conditions, some genome regions appeared to maintain a stable effect across years ofevaluation. Fruit weight, instead, was more independent of year effect.

  15. Changes in Polyphenols Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Fruits during Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols of fruits and vegetables form an important part of human dietary compounds. Relatively little is known about accumulation of phenolics during fruits ripening process. The goal of this work was to study the changes in antioxidant activity and in content of 30 polyphenols during ripening of tomato fruits. Five organically and conventionally grown tomato cultivars were investigated at three different ripening stages. Phenolic compounds were extracted with methanol and extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. During ripening, four different changing patterns were observed: (1 high level in green fruits with minimal changes; (2 continuous increase with maximum level in red-ripe fruits; (3 decrease; (4 increase and achieving maximum level at half-ripe stage. Similar change patterns were found for organic and conventional fruits. The accumulation patterns of phenolic compounds were similar in standard-type tomatoes but differed in several cases in cherry-type cultivar. Although contents of some polyphenols decreased during ripening, total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity increased in all studied cultivars and in case of both cultivation modes. The changes in content of phenolic compounds during ripening were greatly influenced by cultivars, but cultivation mode had only minor impact on dynamics in polyphenols contents in tomato fruits.

  16. Association and Genetic Identification of Loci for Four Fruit Traits in Tomato Using InDel Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit weight (FW, soluble solid content (SSC, fruit shape and fruit color are crucial for yield, quality and consumer acceptability. In this study, a 192 accessions tomato association panel comprising a mixture of wild species, cherry tomato, landraces, and modern varieties collected worldwide was genotyped with 547 InDel markers evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes and scored for FW, SSC, fruit shape index (FSI, and color parameters over 2 years with three replications each year. The association panel was sorted into two subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium ranged from 3.0 to 47.2 Mb across 12 chromosomes. A set of 102 markers significantly (p < 1.19–1.30 × 10−4 associated with SSC, FW, fruit shape, and fruit color was identified on 11 of the 12 chromosomes using a mixed linear model. The associations were compared with the known gene/QTLs for the same traits. Genetic analysis using F2 populations detected 14 and 4 markers significantly (p < 0.05 associated with SSC and FW, respectively. Some loci were commonly detected by both association and linkage analysis. Particularly, one novel locus for FW on chromosome 4 detected by association analysis was also identified in F2 populations. The results demonstrated that association mapping using limited number of InDel markers and a relatively small population could not only complement and enhance previous QTL information, but also identify novel loci for marker-assisted selection of fruit traits in tomato.

  17. Ethanol, vinegar and Origanum vulgare oil vapour suppress the development of anthracnose rot in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, Nikos G

    2010-08-15

    Anthracnose rot (Colletotrichum coccodes) development in vitro or in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with absolute ethyl alcohol (AEA), vinegar (VIN), chlorine (CHL) or origanum oil (ORI) and storage at 12 degrees C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. Fruit treated with vapours reduced fungal spore germination/production, but in the case of AEA- and VIN-treated fruits, fungal mycelium development was accelerated. Fruit lesion development was suppressed after fruit exposure to pure (100% v/v) AEA or ORI vapours which were accompanied by increased fruit cracking. Exposure to pure VIN-, CHL- and ORI vapours reduced (up to 92%) spore germination in vitro, but no differences were observed in the AEA treatment. The benefits associated with volatiles-enrichment were maintained in fruit pre-exposed to vapours, resulting in suppression in spore germination and spore production. However, studies performed on fungi grown on Potato Dextrose Agar revealed fewer direct effects of volatiles on fungal colony development and spore germination per se, implying that suppression of pathogen development was due in a large part to the impact of volatiles on fruit-pathogen interactions and/or 'memory' effects on fruit tissue. Work is currently focussing on the mechanisms underlying the impacts of volatiles on fruit quality related attributes. The results of this study indicate that volatiles may be considered as an alternative to the traditional postharvest sanitizing techniques. Each commodity needs to be individually assessed, and the volatile concentration and sanitising technique optimised, before the volatile treatment is used commercially. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enantioselective Degradation and Chiral Stability of Metalaxyl-M in Tomato Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Qi, Yanli; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    Metalaxyl is an important chiral acetanilide fungicide, and the activity almost entirely originates from the R-enantiomer. Racemic metalaxyl has been gradually replaced by the enantiopure R-enantiomer (metalaxyl-M). In this study a chiral residue analysis method for metalaxyl and the metabolite metalaxyl acid was set up based on high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The enantioselective degradation and chiral stability of metalaxyl-M in tomato fruits in two geographically distinct regions of China (Heilongjiang and Hunan Province) were evaluated and the enantioselectivity of metalaxyl acid was also investigated. Tomato plants grew under field conditions with a one-time spray application of metalaxyl-M wettable powder. It was found that R-metalaxyl was not chirally stable and the inactive S-metalaxyl was detected in tomato fruits. At day 40, S-metalaxyl derived from R-metalaxyl accounted for 32% and 26% of the total amount of metalaxyl, respectively. The metabolites R-metalaxyl acid and S-metalaxyl acid were both observed in tomato, and the ratio of S-metalaxyl acid to the sum of S- and R-metalaxyl acid was 36% and 28% at day 40, respectively. For both metalaxyl and metalaxyl acid, the half-life of the S-enantiomer was longer than the R-enantiomer. The results indicated that the enantiomeric conversion should be considered in the bioactivity evaluation and environmental pollution assessment. Chirality 28:382-386, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2010-01-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae...

  20. Effect of Post-Harvest Acetic Acid and Plant Essential Oils on Shelf-Life Extension of Tomato Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Naweto, M.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro effect of different concentrations of acetic acid on linear growth of Alternaria alternate was studied. The causal agent of tomato black rots in contact and fumigation showed that acetic acid inhibit A. alternata growth at 2 ml/L and on 0.8 ml/L in contact and fumigation, respectively. In vivo effect showed that acetic acid at 6 ml/L reduced severity of infection of tomato fruits from 53.5% to 4.8% after 3 weeks of storage in dipping method but at the strongest fumigation methods, acetic acid inhibit tomato fruits rot at 0.4 ml/L after 3 weeks of storage. In vitro effect of camphore (Eucalyptus globulus Labill), caraway (Carium carvum L.) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.) at different concentrations were tested against Alternaria alternata, since caraway oil is the strongest oil effect on fungal growth followed by peppermint and camphore respectively. Similarly in in vivo caraway oil inhibit tomato fruits rots at 6 ml/L followed by peppermint that inhibited tomato rots at 8 ml / L but camphore reduced tomato rots at 8 ml/L from 40% to 8.1%. Accepted April 2013

  1. Nutrient and salinity concentrations effects on quality and storability of cherry tomato fruits grown by hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahirul Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient and salinity concentrations on the quality of deepflow technique hydroponic system cultivated cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Unicorn’. The conditions were: (1 control (NS-1 × nutrient Solution, Electrical Conductivity – EC: 2.5 mS∙cm–1; (2 2 × NS (2 × NS-Double NS, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; (3 NS + 4.23 mM NaCl (NaCl-Sodium Chloride, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; and (4 NS + 13.70 mM Sea Water – SW (EC: 7.5 mS∙cm–1. NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment showed the lowest fresh weight loss. Visual quality as well as shelf life was the longest in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The longest shelf life at 5 °C, 11 °C, and 24 °C were 21, 16, and 8 days, respectively, in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits, which was retained after storage. Moreover, NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment increased the cherry tomato fruit’s quality, especially soluble solids and sugar contents. These results indicate that salinity concentration has effect the soluble solids and sugar of cherry tomato fruits. In addition, nutrient concentration influenced the shelf life and firmness of cherry tomato fruits.

  2. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on health-promoting compounds and organoleptic properties of tomato fruits grown in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yongsong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2014-06-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on the main health-promoting compounds and organoleptic characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits grown in greenhouse. The contents of health-promoting compounds, including lycopene, β-carotene, and ascorbic acid, as well as the flavour, indicated by sugars, titrable acidity, and sugar/acid ratio, were markedly increased in CO2 enrichment fruits. Furthermore, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced other organoleptic characteristics, including colour, firmness, aroma, and sensory attributes in tomato fruits. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment has potential in promoting the nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The study of tomato fruit weight quantitative trait locus and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-yan

    2015-08-01

    The classical research cases, which have greatly promoted the development of genetics in history, can be combined with the content of courses in genetics teaching to train students' ability of scientific thinking and genetic analysis. The localization and clone of gene controlling tomato fruit weight is a pioneer work in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies and represents a complete process of QTL research in plants. Application of this integrated case in genetics teaching, which showed a wonderful process of scientific discovery and the fascination of genetic research, has inspired students' interest in genetics and achieved a good teaching effect.

  4. Herpetomonas spp. isolated from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Clotilde; Fabre, Sandrine; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Dollet, Michel

    2007-05-01

    A flagellate of the family Trypanosomatidae was isolated from fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in southeastern Spain. The isolate was successfully adapted to in vitro culture in monophasic media. The morphology showed the kinetoplast to be positioned towards the middle of the body, and the typical opistomastigote form characteristic of members of the genus Herpetomonas. Amplification of the mini-exon gene was negative, whilst for the 5S ribosomal rRNA gene the result was positive. The DNA sequence was obtained and its alignment with other trypasomatids, obtained using the BLAST algorithm, suggested it was closely related to Herpetomonas samuelpessoai.

  5. Gamma radiation protects fruit quality in tomato by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh Kumar; Sumedha Ahuja; Bhupinder Singh; Anil Dahuja; Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the individual and combined effect of two different electromagnetic energies, i.e., gamma ray viz 0.1, 0.5 and 1 kGy and static magnetic field (50 mT for 1 h) and their combination (0.5 kGy + 50 mT) on the shelf life of tomato and evaluates the biochemical attributes that influence the fruit ripening and fruit quality. Magnetic field application either alone or in combination with gamma irradiation was not effective in delaying the ripening process. Gamma ray exposed fruits at 0.5 and 1 kGy showed an extended shelf life due to delayed fruit ripening and reduced lycopene synthesis and ethylene production. Efficient ROS scavenging ability and consequent reduction in oxidative damage in the irradiated treatment may cause favorable biochemical changes to facilitate delayed ripening of the tomato fruits. (author)

  6. A Post-Harvest Prediction Mass Loss Model for Tomato Fruit Using A Numerical Methodology Centered on Approximation Error Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Bucio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its nutritional and economic value, the tomato is considered one of the main vegetables in terms of production and consumption in the world. For this reason, an important case study is the fruit maturation parametrized by its mass loss in this study. This process develops in the fruit mainly after harvest. Since that parameter affects the economic value of the crop, the scientific community has been progressively approaching the issue. However, there is no a state-of-the-art practical model allowing the prediction of the tomato fruit mass loss yet. This study proposes a prediction model for tomato mass loss in a continuous and definite time-frame using regression methods. The model is based on a combination of adjustment methods such as least squares polynomial regression leading to error estimation, and cross validation techniques. Experimental results from a 50 fruit of tomato sample studied over a 54 days period were compared to results from the model using a second-order polynomial approach found to provide optimal data fit with a resulting efficiency of ~97%. The model also allows the design of precise logistic strategies centered on post-harvest tomato mass loss prediction usable by producers, distributors, and consumers.

  7. The effect of the lenght of storage on the amount of lycopene in the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Uher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We focused on tomatoes for industrial processing due to its economical importance for its lycopene content. The objective of our research is to find the variation of lycopene content in tomato fruits depending upon the length of after harvest storage and thermic treatment, which is inevitable when being industrialy processed. From the point of view of nutritional qualities the most relevant contentual substance of tomatos are carotenoids, included lycopene.At average for tree following experimental years we learnt significant differences regarding the content of lycopene and the length of storage of tomato fruits. Immediately after the harvest and proccesing tomato fruits contained, at average for tree years, 103.24 mg of lycopene. After 14 days the content of lycopene declined to 46.76 mg . kg−1 of fresh mass. After 30 days the average value dropped to 29.26 mg . kg−1. This fact comfirms that boiling respectively thermic treatment increases the content of lycopene in tomato fruits, particulary in our experiment to the value 83.33 mg . kg−1. At varieties Ladislav, Peto 86, Prémium, Salus the content of lycopene has even risen in comparison with its content up to 48 hours after the harvest. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. belongs to the most signifficant vegetable varieties either for its exploitation in processing industry as well as for its nutritional value with extraordinary beneficial effect for human organism.Although the content of lycopene is genetically stable attribute, its content in our experiment ranged from 45.39 mg . kg−1 (Prémium variety to 77.98 mg . kg−1 (Zámčan variety, which are significant differences.

  8. Precursor uptake assays and metabolic analyses in isolated tomato fruit chromoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angaman Djédoux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are the most widespread group of pigments found in nature. In addition to their role in the physiology of the plant, carotenoids also have nutritional relevance as their incorporation in the human diet provides health benefits. In non-photosynthetic tissues, carotenoids are synthesized and stored in specialized plastids called chromoplasts. At present very little is known about the origin of the metabolic precursors and cofactors required to sustain the high rate of carotenoid biosynthesis in these plastids. Recent proteomic data have revealed a number of biochemical and metabolic processes potentially operating in fruit chromoplasts. However, considering that chloroplast to chromoplast differentiation is a very rapid process during fruit ripening, there is the possibility that some of the proteins identified in the proteomic analysis could represent remnants no longer having a functional role in chromoplasts. Therefore, experimental validation is necessary to prove whether these predicted processes are actually operative in chromoplasts. Results A method has been established for high-yield purification of tomato fruit chromoplasts suitable for metabolic studies. Radiolabeled precursors were efficiently incorporated and further metabolized in isolated chromoplast. Analysis of labeled lipophilic compounds has revealed that lipid biosynthesis is a very efficient process in chromoplasts, while the relatively low incorporation levels found in carotenoids suggest that lipid production may represent a competing pathway for carotenoid biosynthesis. Malate and pyruvate are efficiently converted into acetyl-CoA, in agreement with the active operation of the malic enzyme and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the chromoplast. Our results have also shown that isolated chromoplasts can actively sustain anabolic processes without the exogenous supply of ATP, thus suggesting that these organelles may generate this energetic

  9. Precursor uptake assays and metabolic analyses in isolated tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; Petrizzo, Rocco; Hernández-Gras, Francesc; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Pateraki, Irene; Busquets, Montserrat; Boronat, Albert

    2012-01-13

    Carotenoids are the most widespread group of pigments found in nature. In addition to their role in the physiology of the plant, carotenoids also have nutritional relevance as their incorporation in the human diet provides health benefits. In non-photosynthetic tissues, carotenoids are synthesized and stored in specialized plastids called chromoplasts. At present very little is known about the origin of the metabolic precursors and cofactors required to sustain the high rate of carotenoid biosynthesis in these plastids. Recent proteomic data have revealed a number of biochemical and metabolic processes potentially operating in fruit chromoplasts. However, considering that chloroplast to chromoplast differentiation is a very rapid process during fruit ripening, there is the possibility that some of the proteins identified in the proteomic analysis could represent remnants no longer having a functional role in chromoplasts. Therefore, experimental validation is necessary to prove whether these predicted processes are actually operative in chromoplasts. A method has been established for high-yield purification of tomato fruit chromoplasts suitable for metabolic studies. Radiolabeled precursors were efficiently incorporated and further metabolized in isolated chromoplast. Analysis of labeled lipophilic compounds has revealed that lipid biosynthesis is a very efficient process in chromoplasts, while the relatively low incorporation levels found in carotenoids suggest that lipid production may represent a competing pathway for carotenoid biosynthesis. Malate and pyruvate are efficiently converted into acetyl-CoA, in agreement with the active operation of the malic enzyme and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the chromoplast. Our results have also shown that isolated chromoplasts can actively sustain anabolic processes without the exogenous supply of ATP, thus suggesting that these organelles may generate this energetic cofactor in an autonomous way. We have set up a

  10. Effect of Selenium on Control of Postharvest Gray Mold of Tomato Fruit and the Possible Mechanisms Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Linxi; Li, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of Se against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mold control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mold in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mold rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mold disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mold decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae. PMID:26779128

  11. Accumulation of free polyamines enhances the antioxidant response in fruits of grafted tomato plants under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2016-01-15

    Polyamines, small aliphatic polycations, have been suggested to play key roles in a number of biological processes. In this paper, attempts were made to investigate the possibility of improving antioxidant response of tomato fruits in relation with endogenous free polyamines content. We studied the reactive oxygen species and polyamines content, and antioxidant and polyamine-biosynthesis enzyme activities in fruits of ungrafted and grafted tomato plants under moderate water stress. We used a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Josefina) to obtain reciprocal graft, selfgraft and ungraft plants. Fruits contained higher endogenous polyamine content during the course of the experiment relative to the control, coupled with higher arginine decarboxylase and spermine synthase activities in Zarina ungrafted and ZarxJos. In these cultivars, tomato fruits showed a lower reactive oxygen species generation and higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, suggesting that a higher content in polyamines (especially spermine) exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. All of these data suggest that spermine leads to more effective reactive oxygen species scavenging (less tissue damage) in tomato fruits, which may function collectively to enhance dehydration tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of selenium on control of postharvest gray mould of tomato fruit and the possible mechanisms involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of selenium against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mould control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mould in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mould rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mould disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mould decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae.

  13. Assessment of Osmotic Pre-Drying Treatment on Drying Rates of Fresh Tomato Fruits

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    P. A. Idah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of osmotic pre-drying treatments on drying rates of tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum at various drying temperatures. Fresh Roma tomato fruit samples were sliced to a thickness of 5 mm and the seeds were removed. Weight of 300 g was measured for each of the three replicates and immersed in a hypertonic solution of sucrose of different concentrations 40 and 60 oBrix each held for osmotic duration of 1 and 2 hours, drained for 10 min and then dried at 50, 60, and 70 oC in a mechanical dryer. Control samples were also weighed 300 g per replicate and dried at 50, 60, and 70 oC without pre-drying treatment. The initial moisture content of fresh tomato used was 94.5% (wb. Moisture loss of each sample was monitored and recorded hourly until the product has reached the desired final moisture content (≤ 7%.The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan New Multiple range tests (DNMRT to ascertain the level of significance differences between the individual treatments and their interaction at p ≤ 0.05.The results show that at all the drying temperatures used, the control tomato samples exhibited the fastest drying rate with an average of 35.2 g/hr, samples pre-treated at 40 oBrix has an average drying rate of 26.6 g/hr, while samples pre-treated at 60 oBrix has the slowest drying rate of 25.2 g/hr. It was also revealed that samples subjected to 1 hour osmotic time have faster drying rates than those treated for 2 hours osmotic time.

  14. Activity and functional interaction of alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein in mitochondria from tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Sluse

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase (AOX is not limited to plant mitochondria and is widespread among several types of protists. The uncoupling protein (UCP is much more widespread than previously believed, not only in tissues of higher animals but also in plants and in an amoeboid protozoan. The redox energy-dissipating pathway (AOX and the proton electrochemical gradient energy-dissipating pathway (UCP lead to the same final effect, i.e., a decrease in ATP synthesis and an increase in heat production. Studies with green tomato fruit mitochondria show that both proteins are present simultaneously in the membrane. This raises the question of a specific physiological role for each energy-dissipating system and of a possible functional connection between them (shared regulation. Linoleic acid, an abundant free fatty acid in plants which activates UCP, strongly inhibits cyanide-resistant respiration mediated by AOX. Moreover, studies of the evolution of AOX and UCP protein expression and of their activities during post-harvest ripening of tomato fruit show that AOX and plant UCP work sequentially: AOX activity decreases in early post-growing stages and UCP activity is decreased in late ripening stages. Electron partitioning between the alternative oxidase and the cytochrome pathway as well as H+ gradient partitioning between ATP synthase and UCP can be evaluated by the ADP/O method. This method facilitates description of the kinetics of energy-dissipating pathways and of ATP synthase when state 3 respiration is decreased by limitation of oxidizable substrate.

  15. Inhibition of chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in tomato fruits leads to decreased fruit size, but only small changes in carbohydrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obiadalla-Ali, H.; Fernie, A.R.; Lytovchenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    A potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) cDNA coding for the chloroplastic isoform of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (cp-FBPase) was utilized to repress its activity in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using antisense techniques. The patatin B33 promoter was used to ensure fruit specificity of the a...

  16. Fruit quality of tomato ‘giuliana’ treated with products with physiological effects

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    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the effect of strobilurins, boscalid, plant growth regulators and vegetal extracts on the physico-chemical quality of tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana. The fruits from each treatment were selected and separated in 4 repetitions: control, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, pyraclostrobin + boscalid, IBA + GA3 + kinetin, GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine and vegetal extract. The first application was carried out at 30 days after transplant and the following at every 15 days. The evaluations were: weight loss, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA relation, pH, ascorbic acid content, texture, total soluble sugars (TSS, activity of pectin methyl esterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG. The SS content, responsible for fruit flavor, varied accordingly to the treatment, being highest for GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine and lowest for the control. The same occurred regarding the SS/AT relation. The fruits were kept on the shelf for 9 days, at room temperature, being that at the end of this period several treatments still presented fruit in optimal consumption conditions, notably the boscalid treatment, which presented lowest weight loss, followed by pyraclostrobin. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of the treatments did not modify the values for pH, AT and AST of the fruits. The highest PME activity was observed for the treatments with boscalid and the mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin, while the lowest PG activity occurred in the control and the pyraclostrobin treatment, indicating that some products accelerated the process of demethylation of pectins by PME, facilitating the action of PG.

  17. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability.

  18. Identification of microRNA targets in tomato fruit development using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Haarst, van J.C.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Geest, van de H.C.; Bovy, A.G.; Lammers, M.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant development through regulation of gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. Despite the fact that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model system for studying fleshy fruit development and ripening, only a few experimentally

  19. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Investigations into the shelf life and nutritional quality of fresh tomato fruit (solanum Lycopersicon) following two post-harvest treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyimah, L. A

    2013-07-01

    Tomato production in Ghana is characterized by a glut and high post - harvest losses during the major season followed by scarcity and high prices during the off season. This is the result of the absence of a standard method for preservation of fresh fruits. This research was conducted to determine an effective method for the post - harvest treatment of fresh tomato fruits to enhance shelf life while preserving its physiochemical and nutritional properties. Two experiments were conducted, each with a factorial design of 5x2. In experiment one, the fruits were subjected to 0,1,2,3,and 4 kGy gamma radiation and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. In experiment two, CaCl 2 dissolved in distilled water at 0, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% concerntrations were used to coat tomato fruits and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. Gamma radiation at 4kGy extended the shelf life of tomato by 5 and 9 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. The use of CaCl 2 at 2.5% greatly extended the shelf life of tomato by 11days and 18 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. For both treatments, shelf life increased with increasing dose of radiation/ concentraionn of CaCl 2 . Weight loss was higher in control fruits as well as fruits treated with gamma radiation or CaCl 2 coating stored at 28±1°C temperature than treated fruits stored at 10±1°C. Tomato fruits treated with gamma radiation at 1 and 2 kGy and untreated fruits showed an increased in pH and Total Soluble Solids (TSS) which was paralleled by a decrease in Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) as storage period advance at both storage temperatures. However, fruits treated with CaCl 2 at 1.00% had little effect on pH and TTA of tomato during the storage period. Nutritionally, CaCl 2 coating significantly maintained the vitamin C and Iycopene concentrations in tomato fruit more than control and gamma irradiation which reduced vitamin C and Iycopene contents in the fruits significantly

  1. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  2. Pyrophosphate levels strongly influence ascorbate and starch content in tomato fruit

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    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbate (vitamin C deficiency leads to low immunity, scurvy, and other human diseases and is therefore a global health problem. Given that plants are major ascorbate sources for humans, biofortification of this vitamin in our foodstuffs is of considerable importance. Ascorbate is synthetized by a number of alternative pathways: (i from the glycolytic intermediates D-glucose-6P (the key intermediates are GDP-D-mannose and L-galactose, (ii from the breakdown of the cell wall polymer pectin which uses the methyl ester of D-galacturonic acid as precursor and (iii from myo-inositol as precursor via myo-inositol oxygenase. We report here the engineering of fruit-specific overexpression of a bacterial pyrophosphatase, which hydrolyzes the inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi to orthophosphate (Pi. This strategy resulted in increased vitamin C levels up to 2.5 fold in ripe fruit as well as increasing in the major sugars, sucrose and glucose, yet decreasing the level of starch. When considered together, these finding indicate an intimate linkage between ascorbate and sugar biosynthesis in plants. Moreover, the combined data reveal the importance of PPi metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development.

  3. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. I. Identification of metabolites of putrescine and spermidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of [1,4- 14 C]putrescine and [terminal methylene- 3 H]spermidine was studied in the fruit pericarp (breaker stage) discs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv Rutgers, and the metabolites identified by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolism of both putrescine and spermidine was relatively slow; in 24 hours about 15% of each amine was metabolized. The 14 C label from putrescine was incorporated into spermidine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid, and a polar fraction eluting with sugars and organic acids. In the presence of gabaculine, a specific inhibitor of GABA:pyruvate transminase, the label going into glutamic acid, sugars and organic acids decreased by 80% while that in GABA increased about twofold, indicating that the transamination reaction is probably a major fate of GABA produced from putrescine in vivo. [ 3 H]Spermidine was catabolized into putrescine and β-alanine. The conversion of putrescine into GABA, and that of spermidine into putrescine, suggests the presence of polyamine oxidizing enzymes in tomato pericarp tissues. The possible pathways of putrescine and spermidine metabolism are discussed

  4. Responses of wild husk tomato, Physalis angulata L. to growth regulators and gamma rays on chlorophyll content and fruit yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava, R.P.; Raghava, Nisha

    1994-01-01

    Effect of different growth regulators and gamma rays on the total chlorophyll content and fruit yield were studied in wild species of husk tomato and concluded that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) 200 and kinetin (KIN) 10 ppm showed remarkable enhancement in both total chlorophyll content and fruit yield, while maleic hydrazide (MH) 100, 200 ppm and coumarin (COU) in all the treatments enhanced total chlorophyll content. Gamma ray treatments significantly enhanced both the parameters. Amongst all the treatments maximum fruit yield was in 20 kR of gamma rays. (author). 31 refs., 1 tab

  5. Exploring a Tomato Landraces Collection for Fruit-Related Traits by the Aid of a High-Throughput Genomic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Adriana; Ruggieri, Valentino; Parisi, Mario; Festa, Giovanna; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Picarella, Maurizio Enea; Mazzucato, Andrea; Barone, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    During its evolution and domestication Solanum lycopersicum has undergone various genetic 'bottlenecks' and extreme inbreeding of limited genotypes. In Europe the tomato found a secondary centre for diversification, which resulted in a wide array of fruit shape variation given rise to a range of landraces that have been cultivated for centuries. Landraces represent a reservoir of genetic diversity especially for traits such as abiotic stress resistance and high fruit quality. Information about the variation present among tomato landrace populations is still limited. A collection of 123 genotypes from different geographical areas was established with the aim of capturing a wide diversity. Eighteen morphological traits were evaluated, mainly related to the fruit. About 45% of morphological variation was attributed to fruit shape, as estimated by the principal component analysis, and the dendrogram of relatedness divided the population in subgroups mainly on the basis of fruit weight and locule number. Genotyping was carried out using the tomato array platform SolCAP able to interrogate 7,720 SNPs. In the whole collection 87.1% markers were polymorphic but they decreased to 44-54% when considering groups of genotypes with different origin. The neighbour-joining tree analysis clustered the 123 genotypes into two main branches. The STRUCTURE analysis with K = 3 also divided the population on the basis of fruit size. A genomic-wide association strategy revealed 36 novel markers associated to the variation of 15 traits. The markers were mapped on the tomato chromosomes together with 98 candidate genes for the traits analyzed. Six regions were evidenced in which candidate genes co-localized with 19 associated SNPs. In addition, 17 associated SNPs were localized in genomic regions lacking candidate genes. The identification of these markers demonstrated that novel variability was captured in our germoplasm collection. They might also provide a viable indirect selection tool

  6. Exploring a Tomato Landraces Collection for Fruit-Related Traits by the Aid of a High-Throughput Genomic Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sacco

    Full Text Available During its evolution and domestication Solanum lycopersicum has undergone various genetic 'bottlenecks' and extreme inbreeding of limited genotypes. In Europe the tomato found a secondary centre for diversification, which resulted in a wide array of fruit shape variation given rise to a range of landraces that have been cultivated for centuries. Landraces represent a reservoir of genetic diversity especially for traits such as abiotic stress resistance and high fruit quality. Information about the variation present among tomato landrace populations is still limited. A collection of 123 genotypes from different geographical areas was established with the aim of capturing a wide diversity. Eighteen morphological traits were evaluated, mainly related to the fruit. About 45% of morphological variation was attributed to fruit shape, as estimated by the principal component analysis, and the dendrogram of relatedness divided the population in subgroups mainly on the basis of fruit weight and locule number. Genotyping was carried out using the tomato array platform SolCAP able to interrogate 7,720 SNPs. In the whole collection 87.1% markers were polymorphic but they decreased to 44-54% when considering groups of genotypes with different origin. The neighbour-joining tree analysis clustered the 123 genotypes into two main branches. The STRUCTURE analysis with K = 3 also divided the population on the basis of fruit size. A genomic-wide association strategy revealed 36 novel markers associated to the variation of 15 traits. The markers were mapped on the tomato chromosomes together with 98 candidate genes for the traits analyzed. Six regions were evidenced in which candidate genes co-localized with 19 associated SNPs. In addition, 17 associated SNPs were localized in genomic regions lacking candidate genes. The identification of these markers demonstrated that novel variability was captured in our germoplasm collection. They might also provide a viable

  7. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  8. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-30

    During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Using immunoprecipitated (IPed) DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites) in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes during ripening. Moreover, the binding of RIN to its own

  9. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  10. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  11. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rockwool (RC and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better. For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  12. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing; Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Rockwool (RC) and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC) has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC) cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better). For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER) of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  13. Tomato second cycle hybrids as a source of genetic variability for fruit quality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira da Costa JH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and molecular variability in a F2 generation derived from a SCH (Second Cycle Hybrid in order to detect QTLs for some fruit traits of tomato. Genome coverage at different levels was achieved by three types of molecular markers (polypeptides, sequence-related amplified polymorphism-SRAP and amplified restriction fragment polymorphism - AFLP. Different degrees of polymorphism were detected by SRAP and AFLP at the DNA structure level and also by polypeptides at the DNA expression level. The first two markers, associated with phenotypic variation, detected QTLs involved in important agronomic traits such as fruit shelf life, soluble solids content, pH, and titratable acidity. New gene blocks originated by recombination during the first cycle of crossing were detected. This study confirmed that the observed phenotypic differences represent a new gene rearrangement and that these new gene blocks are responsible for the presence of the genetic variability detected for these traits.

  14. The identification of a gene (Cwp1), silenced during Solanum evolution, which causes cuticle microfissuring and dehydration when expressed in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovav, Ran; Chehanovsky, Noam; Moy, Michal; Jetter, Reinhard; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2007-11-01

    One of the most intriguing phenomena of fleshy fruit is the ability to maintain high water content at maturity, even following harvest. This is accomplished by a fruit cuticle that is highly impermeable to water diffusion. In this paper, we report on a novel genotype of tomato, developed via introgression from the wild species Solanum habrochaites, which is characterized by microfissuring of the fruit cuticle and dehydration of the mature fruit. The microfissure/dehydration phenotype is inherited as a single gene, termed Cwp1 (cuticular water permeability). The gene was fine mapped, and its identity was determined by map-based cloning and differential expression analysis in near-isogenic lines. Causality of the Cwp1 gene was shown by the heterologous transgenic expression of the gene in the cultivated tomato, which caused a microfissured fruit cuticle leading to dehydrated fruit. Cwp1 encodes for a protein of unidentified function in the DUF833 domain family. The gene is expressed in the fruit epidermis of the dehydrating genotype harbouring the wild-species introgression, but not in the cultivated tomato. It is expressed only in the primitive green-fruited wild tomato species, but is not expressed in the cultivated Solanum lycopersicum and the closely related Solanum cheesmaniae and Solanum pimpinellifolium, indicating a pre-adaptive role for Cwp1 silencing in the evolution and domestication of the cultivated tomato.

  15. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with FST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  16. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2010-04-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F(ST) > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.

  17. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Enciso-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam. and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt. are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32 and tree tomatoes (n = 30 through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII in other Solanaceae (Asterid species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41 for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F ST > 0.90, which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.

  18. Effects of total integrated solar radiation on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] cultivation under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yanase, S.; Enya, T.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of radial fruit cracking in tomato cultivation under rain shelter in the cool uplands in Gifu Prefecture. The effect of total integrated radiation using two types of training methods was determined over a three-year period. The percentage of refused radial fruit cracking associated with increased total integrated solar radiation from the young fruit stage to the mature green stage. Fruit cracking occurred in the training method which foliage and fruits received a large amount of light-interception. Also, as for fruits that undergo vigorous enlargement, the frequency of the radial fruit cracking increased

  19. Metabolic engineering of monoterpene biosynthesis in tomato fruits via introduction of the non-canonical substrate neryl diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutensohn, Michael; Nguyen, Thuong T H; McMahon, Richard D; Kaplan, Ian; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Recently it was shown that monoterpenes in tomato trichomes (Solanum lycopersicum) are synthesized by phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1) from the non-canonical substrate neryl diphosphate (NPP), the cis-isomer of geranyl diphosphate (GPP). As PHS1 accepts both NPP and GPP substrates forming different monoterpenes, it was overexpressed in tomato fruits to test if NPP is also available in a tissue highly active in carotenoid production. However, transgenic fruits overexpressing PHS1 produced only small amounts of GPP-derived PHS1 monoterpene products, indicating the absence of endogenous NPP. Therefore, NPP formation was achieved by diverting the metabolic flux from carotenoids via expression of tomato neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1). NDPS1 transgenic fruits produced NPP-derived monoterpenes, including nerol, neral and geranial, while displaying reduced lycopene content. NDPS1 co-expression with PHS1 resulted in a monoterpene blend, including β-phellandrene, similar to that produced from NPP by PHS1 in vitro and in trichomes. Unexpectedly, PHS1×NDPS1 fruits showed recovery of lycopene levels compared to NDPS1 fruits, suggesting that redirection of metabolic flux is only partially responsible for the reduction in carotenoids. In vitro assays demonstrated that NPP serves as an inhibitor of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, thus its consumption by PHS1 leads to recovery of lycopene levels. Monoterpenes produced in PHS1×NDPS1 fruits contributed to direct plant defense negatively affecting feeding behavior of the herbivore Helicoverpa zea and displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. These results show that NPP-derived terpenoids can be produced in plant tissues; however, NPP has to be consumed to avoid negative impacts on plant metabolism. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Availability of Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING in molecular breeding of tomato fruit shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Novel mutant alleles of an ethylene receptor Solanum lycopersicum ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (SlETR1) gene, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, were isolated from the Micro-Tom mutant library by TILLING in our previous study. They displayed different levels of impaired fruit ripening phenotype, suggesting that these alleles could be a valuable breeding material for improving shelf life of tomato fruit. To conduct practical use of the Sletr1 alleles in tomato breeding, genetic complementation analysis by transformation of genes carrying each allele is required. In this study, we generated and characterized transgenic lines over-expressing Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. All transgenic lines displayed ethylene insensitive phenotype and ripening inhibition, indicating that Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 associate with the ethylene insensitive phenotype. The level of ethylene sensitivity in the seedling was different between Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 transgenic lines, whereas no apparent difference was observed in fruit ripening phenotype. These results suggested that it is difficult to fine-tune the extent of ripening by transgenic approach even if the weaker allele (Sletr1-2) was used. Our present and previous studies indicate that the Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING could be an efficient tool for exploring genetic variations of important agronomic traits in tomato breeding.

  1. Availability of Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING in molecular breeding of tomato fruit shelf-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Novel mutant alleles of an ethylene receptor Solanum lycopersicum ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (SlETR1) gene, Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, were isolated from the Micro-Tom mutant library by TILLING in our previous study. They displayed different levels of impaired fruit ripening phenotype, suggesting that these alleles could be a valuable breeding material for improving shelf life of tomato fruit. To conduct practical use of the Sletr1 alleles in tomato breeding, genetic complementation analysis by transformation of genes carrying each allele is required. In this study, we generated and characterized transgenic lines over-expressing Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2. All transgenic lines displayed ethylene insensitive phenotype and ripening inhibition, indicating that Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 associate with the ethylene insensitive phenotype. The level of ethylene sensitivity in the seedling was different between Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 transgenic lines, whereas no apparent difference was observed in fruit ripening phenotype. These results suggested that it is difficult to fine-tune the extent of ripening by transgenic approach even if the weaker allele (Sletr1-2) was used. Our present and previous studies indicate that the Micro-Tom mutant library combined with TILLING could be an efficient tool for exploring genetic variations of important agronomic traits in tomato breeding. PMID:23136532

  2. Constitutive Transcription and Stable RNA Accumulation in Plastids during the Conversion of Chloroplasts to Chromoplasts in Ripening Tomato Fruits 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, María Rosa; Carrillo, Néstor

    1992-01-01

    The size distribution of plastid transcripts during chromoplast differentiation in ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruits was determined using northern blot analysis. Hybridization of total cellular RNA from leaves and fruits with several tobacco chloroplast DNA probes showed distinct transcript patterns in chloroplasts and chromoplasts. We also compared transcriptional rates by probing immobilized DNA fragments of small size (representing about 85% of the plastid genome) with run-on transcripts from tomato plastids. The relative rates of transcription of the various DNA regions were very similar in chloro- and chromoplasts. Parallel determination of the steady-state levels of plastid RNA showed no strict correlation between synthesis rate and RNA accumulation. Differences in the relative abundance of transcripts between chloro- and chromoplasts were not very pronounced and were limited to a small number of genes. The results indicate that the conversion of chloroplasts to chromoplasts at the onset of tomato fruit ripening proceeds with no important variations in the relative transcription rates and with only moderate changes in the relative stability of plastid-encoded transcripts. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:16653091

  3. An ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit is involved in ATP synthesis in tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, Irini; Renato, Marta; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín; Boronat, Albert

    2013-04-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic plastids specialized in the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. During fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts in a process characterized by the degradation of the thylakoid membranes, and by the active synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. This transition renders chromoplasts unable to photochemically synthesize ATP, and therefore these organelles need to obtain the ATP required for anabolic processes through alternative sources. It is widely accepted that the ATP used for biosynthetic processes in non-photosynthetic plastids is imported from the cytosol or is obtained through glycolysis. In this work, however, we show that isolated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit chromoplasts are able to synthesize ATP de novo through a respiratory pathway using NADPH as an electron donor. We also report the involvement of a plastidial ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit induced during ripening, which lacks the regulatory dithiol domain present in plant and algae chloroplast γ-subunits. Silencing of this atypical γ-subunit during fruit ripening impairs the capacity of isolated chromoplast to synthesize ATP de novo. We propose that the replacement of the γ-subunit present in tomato leaf and green fruit chloroplasts by the atypical γ-subunit lacking the dithiol domain during fruit ripening reflects evolutionary changes, which allow the operation of chromoplast ATP synthase under the particular physiological conditions found in this organelle. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. In vitro food production for isolated closed environments: formation of ripe tomato fruits from excised flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, P B; K-Sawhney, R; Galston, A W

    1997-01-01

    Excised preanthesis flower buds of young Pixie Hybrid tomato plants develop into red ripe fruits in aseptic culture on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium with 3% sucrose at pH 5.8. The addition of certain synthetic auxins (IAA, NAA, IBA), auxin precursors (ISA), or cytokinins (KIN, IPA, ZEA, BAP) to the medium improved the percentage of buds developing into fruits, the weight of the ripe fruits, or both. The best results were obtained by an auxin-cytokinin combination of 10 microM IBA with 1 microM BAP. Storage of the excised buds at low temperature (6 degrees C) for up to 4 weeks before transfer to 27 degrees C caused only minimal deterioration in size and number of the fruit crop. Extension of low-temperature storage to 8 weeks produced smaller fruits that took longer to develop. This system could produce fresh, ripe small tomatoes on a sustained basis for up to 2 months for an isolated environment such as a space vehicle or submarine.

  5. Imaging for carbon translocation to a fruit of tomato with carbon-11-labeled carbon dioxide and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, N.; Suzui, N.; Ishii, S.; Fujimaki, S.; Ishioka, N.; Kikuchi, K.; Watanbe, H.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon kinetics in the fruit is an agricultural issue on the growth and development of the fruit to be harvested. Particularly, photo-assimilate translocation and distribution are important topics for understanding the mechanism. In the present work, carbon-11 ( 11 C) labeled photo-assimilate translocation into fruits of tomato has been imaged using carbon-11-labeled carbon dioxide and the positron emission tomography (PET). Dynamic PET data of gradual increasing of 11 C activity and its distribution is acquired quantitatively in intact plant body. This indicates that the three dimensional photo-assimilate translocation into the fruits is imaged successfully and carbon kinetics is analyzed to understand the plant physiology and nutrition. (authors)

  6. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention - Project Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Meaghan S; Ransley, Joan K; Greenwood, Darren C; Clarke, Graham P; Conner, Mark T; Jupp, Jennifer; Cade, Janet E

    2009-06-16

    The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3) their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group), consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET), and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2) and 18 month follow-up (Year 4). The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato) to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297.

  7. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Meaghan S; Ransley, Joan K; Greenwood, Darren C; Clarke, Graham P; Conner, Mark T; Jupp, Jennifer; Cade, Janet E

    2009-01-01

    Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3) their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group), consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET), and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2) and 18 month follow-up (Year 4). The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato) to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297 PMID:19531246

  8. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3 their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group, consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET, and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2 and 18 month follow-up (Year 4. The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297

  9. Correlation indices physical space of soil and productivity of fruit tomato industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With mechanization at all stages of crop management, the soil began to receive a higher surface load, which causes changes in its physical properties with possible production impacts. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the variability and spatial correlation of the physical attributes of a Red Latosol with the productivity of industrial tomatoes. For this, a sample mesh was assembled using a global receiver positioning system (GPS, with 84 pairs of spaced apart 80 x 80 m points. After the mesh construction, samples in the 0.00-0.20 m layer were collected in the field to measure the physical attributes of the soil and plant data. The variables measured were: soil density (Ds, soil penetration resistance (PR, soil texture and tomato productivity. The values obtained were analyzed using geostatistics, and were classified according to the degree of spatial dependence. Then, using the ordinary kriging interpolation method and ordinary cokriging, the values for nonsampled sites were estimated, allowing the mapping of isovalues and the definition of management zones in the field. The spatial correlation of the physical attributes with the production components by the ordinary Cokriging method verified spatial correlation only between attributes (soil x soil density and sand content. The use of geostatistics and the construction of the maps by means of kriging and ordinary cokrigation allowed to identify different management zones, that is, the variability of soil attributes and productivity.

  10. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP; water deficit (WD plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  11. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  12. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality. PMID:29051767

  13. A 'Big leaf, big fruit, big substrate' model for experiments on receding horizon optimal control of nutrient supply to greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.; Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Elings, A.

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic model was set up to describe the mineral content, fruit dry matter content, and biomass of greenhouse tomato, for use in an experiment aiming at controlling the fertigation so as to reach the best compromise between disinfection costs of the recycled water and income from fruit fresh

  14. Optothermal transient emission radiometry for studying the changes in epidermal hydration induced during ripening of tomato fruit mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Bicanic, D.; Imhof, R.; Xiao, P.; Harbinson, J.

    2004-10-01

    Optothermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) was used to determine the mean surface hydration and the hydration profile of three mutants (beefsteak, slicing and salad) of harvested tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) that were kept under ambient conditions for as long as 51 days. Maximal sensitivity of OTTER to water in the samples was achieved by using 2.94 μm and 13.1 μm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The surface hydration increases rapidly and reaches a constant level during the remaining period. The hydrolysis of pectic substances that occur in tomatoes while ripening might be a possible cause for the observed change in hydration.

  15. Differential expression of calcium/calmodulin-regulated SlSRs in response to abiotic and biotic stresses in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbao; Peng, Hui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Jurick, Wayne M

    2013-07-01

    Calcium has been shown to enhance stress tolerance, maintain firmness and reduce decay in fruits. Previously we reported that seven tomato SlSRs encode calcium/calmodulin-regulated proteins, and that their expressions are developmentally regulated during fruit development and ripening, and are also responsive to ethylene. To study their expressions in response to stresses encountered during postharvest handling, tomato fruit at the mature-green stage was subjected to chilling and wounding injuries, infected with Botrytis cinerea and treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate. Gene expression studies revealed that the seven SlSRs differentially respond to different stress signals. SlSR2 was the only gene upregulated by all the treatments. SlSR4 acted as a late pathogen-induced gene; it was upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, but downregulated by cold treatment. SlSR3L was cold- and wound-responsive and was also induced by salicylic acid. SlSR1 and SlSR1L were repressed by cold, wounding and pathogen infection, but were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. Overall, results of these expression studies indicate that individual SlSRs have distinct roles in responses to the specific stress signals, and SlSRs may act as a coordinator(s) connecting calcium-mediated signaling with other stress signal transduction pathways during fruit ripening and storage. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p > 0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest.

  17. An InDel in the Promoter of Al-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER9 Selected during Tomato Domestication Determines Fruit Malate Contents and Aluminum Tolerance[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Hu, Tixu; Zhang, Fengxia; Wang, Bing; Li, Changxin; Yang, Tianxia; Li, Hanxia; Lu, Yongen; Ye, Zhibiao

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the mechanism of malate accumulation in plants would contribute to a greater understanding of plant chemistry, which has implications for improving flavor quality in crop species and enhancing human health benefits. However, the regulation of malate metabolism is poorly understood in crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we integrated a metabolite-based genome-wide association study with linkage mapping and gene functional studies to characterize the genetics of malate accumulation in a global collection of tomato accessions with broad genetic diversity. We report that TFM6 (tomato fruit malate 6), which corresponds to Al-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER9 (Sl-ALMT9 in tomato), is the major quantitative trait locus responsible for variation in fruit malate accumulation among tomato genotypes. A 3-bp indel in the promoter region of Sl-ALMT9 was linked to high fruit malate content. Further analysis indicated that this indel disrupts a W-box binding site in the Sl-ALMT9 promoter, which prevents binding of the WRKY transcription repressor Sl-WRKY42, thereby alleviating the repression of Sl-ALMT9 expression and promoting high fruit malate accumulation. Evolutionary analysis revealed that this highly expressed Sl-ALMT9 allele was selected for during tomato domestication. Furthermore, vacuole membrane-localized Sl-ALMT9 increases in abundance following Al treatment, thereby elevating malate transport and enhancing Al resistance. PMID:28814642

  18. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  19. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro eDe Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI from M. circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days. During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC values of 7.5 mg/mL and 10 µL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL and CAR (5 or 2.5 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 µL/mL inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  20. Ozone Effects on Fruit Productivity and Photosynthetic Response of Two Tomato Cultivars in Relation to Stomatal Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    Full Text Available An Open-Top Chamber experiment on two tomato cultivars (cv. Oxheart and cv. San Marzano was carried out in Curno (Northern Italy between June and September 2007. Two ozone treatments were applied for a 3.5 months period: Non-Filtered OTC (NF-OTC, 95% of ambient ozone and Charcoal-Filtered OTC (CF-OTC, 50% of ambient ozone. Diurnal cycles of porometry measurements were performed during the season and allowed to draw a stomatal conductance model for each cultivar in order to calculate the ozone stomatal fluxes taken up by plants. Assessments on fruits yield were performed during the season, taking into account the number of fruits, their fresh weight and their marketability. In addition, measurements on the chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystems were carried out to assess possible negative effects on photosynthetic efficiency. Despite the two cultivars absorbed a similar ozone stomatal dose during the season (with an 8% difference, their responses to ozone treatments were totally divergent in relation to both fruits yield and photosynthetic efficiency. Plants of cv. Oxheart grown in NF-OTCs showed significant yield loss in the total weight of fruits (-35.9% which is exclusively related to a decrease in the number of fruits produced (-35.7% of total fruits; -30.6% of marketable fruits, since mean fresh weight of fruits remained unaffected. Moreover the same plants displayed low values (in comparison to CF-OTCs plants of the photosynthetic efficiency index (PIabs during the most intense period of ozone stress (July occurred in the flowering stage of plants and at the beginning of fructification. Plants of the cv. San Marzano had an opposite response behaviour with an increase of the mean fresh weight of fruits in plants grown in NF-OTC (even if not statistically significant and no difference in the number of fruits produced and in the values of photosynthetic efficiency.

  1. Efficacy of insect-proof nets used in Tunisian tomato greenhouses against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and potential impact on plant growth and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Harbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect-proof screens constitute efficient physical means of protecting horticultural crops against insect pests and their use has become widespread. However, they may have a negative impact on plant growth and fruit quality by modifying climatic parameters of greenhouses. In case of tomato crops, they are used mainly against white flies and the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. In Tunisia, tomato plastic tunnels are often netted following two modalities: i complete netting of the greenhouse under the plastic screen (total netting; or ii netting only doors and lateral aeration windows (partial netting. Weekly monitoring of T. absoluta in two tomato greenhouses with different netting setups using pheromone traps and sampling of leaves and fruits showed no differences in the levels of infestation by the pest with a maximum average values of 6.66 eggs/leaf, 4.16 larvae/leaf and 4.16 mines/leaf. The maximum infestation rate of leaves was 86.66% and that of fruits was 10.83%. No effects of the netting setup used on plant growth parameters were detected. However, the study of fruit quality parameters revealed significant decrease in sugar contents in tomato fruits when using total netting setup (4.26°Brix versus 3.68°Brix. Recommendations regarding the combined use of pheromones traps and insect-proof nets are given and possibilities to enhance the efficiency of nets as physical barrier against T. absoluta are explored.

  2. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Nutritional quality assessment of tomato fruits after exposure to uncoated and citric acid coated cerium oxide nanoparticles, bulk cerium oxide, cerium acetate and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Ana Cecilia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Dominguez, Osvaldo E; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface modification on the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants were cultivated in potting soil amended with bare and citric acid coated nanoceria (nCeO 2, nCeO 2 +CA), cerium acetate (CeAc), bulk cerium oxide (bCeO 2 ) and citric acid (CA) at 0-500 mg kg -1 . Fruits were collected year-round until the harvesting time (210 days). Results showed that nCeO 2 +CA at 62.5, 250 and 500 mg kg -1 reduced dry weight by 54, 57, and 64% and total sugar by 84, 78, and 81%. At 62.5, 125, and 500 mg kg -1 nCeO 2 +CA decreased reducing sugar by 63, 75, and 52%, respectively and at 125 mg kg -1 reduced starch by 78%, compared to control. The bCeO 2 at 250 and 500 mg kg -1 , increased reducing sugar by 67 and 58%. In addition, when compared to controls, nCeO 2 at 500 mg kg -1 reduced B (28%), Fe (78%), Mn (33%), and Ca (59%). At 125 mg kg -1 decreased Al by 24%; while nCeO 2 +CA at 125 and 500 mg kg -1 increased B by 33%. On the other hand, bCeO 2 at 62.5 mg kg -1 increased Ca (267%), but at 250 mg kg -1 reduced Cu (52%), Mn (33%), and Mg (58%). Fruit macromolecules were mainly affected by nCeO 2 +CA, while nutritional elements by nCeO 2 ; however, all Ce treatments altered, in some way, the nutritional quality of tomato fruit. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing effects of uncoated and coated nanoceria on tomato fruit quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Diversity for chemical composition in a collection of different varietal types of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.), an Andean exotic fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Quezada, Pablo G; Raigón, María D; Riofrío-Cuenca, Tania; García-Martínez, María D; Plazas, Mariola; Burneo, Juan I; Figueroa, Jorge G; Vilanova, Santiago; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-02-15

    We evaluated 23 tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) accessions from five cultivar groups and one wild relative (Solanum cajanumense) for 26 composition traits. For all traits we found highly significant differences (Ptree tomato. Fruit in the anthocyanin pigmented (purple) group had a carotenoid content similar to that in the yellow-orange cultivar groups. Total phenolic content was significantly correlated (r=0.8607) with antioxidant activity. Analyses of mineral content showed that tree tomato is a good source of K, Mg, and Cu. Multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed that an important diversity exists within each cultivar group. The results we have obtained indicate that the high diversity found within the tree tomato could be exploited for selection and breeding for developing the tree tomato as a commercial crop. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of tomato aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 for the detection of aldehydes in fruit distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömmel, Jan; Tarkowski, Petr; Kopečný, David; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Plant NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 1.2.1.19) belong to the family 10 of aldehyde dehydrogenases. They participate in the metabolism of polyamines or osmoprotectants. The enzymes are characterized by their broad substrate specificity covering ω-aminoaldehydes, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aldehydes. The isoenzyme 1 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlAMADH1) oxidizes aliphatic aldehydes very efficiently and converts also furfural, its derivatives or benzaldehyde, which are present at low concentrations in alcoholic distillates such as fruit brandy. In this work, SlAMADH1 was examined as a bioanalytical tool for their detection. These aldehydes arise from fermentation processes or thermal degradation of sugars and their presence is related to health complications after consumption including nausea, emesis, sweating, decrease in blood pressure, hangover headache, among others. Sixteen samples of slivovitz (plum brandy) from local producers in Moravia, Czech Republic, were analyzed for their aldehyde content using a spectrophotometric activity assay with SlAMADH1. In all cases, there were oxidative responses observed when monitoring NADH production in the enzymatic reaction. Aldehydes in the distillate samples were also subjected to a standard determination using reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection after a derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Results obtained by both methods were found to correlate well for a majority of the analyzed samples. The possible applicability of SlAMADH1 for the evaluation of aldehyde content in food and beverages has now been demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies in tomato fruit of the genotype MT-Rg1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla L. González-Aguilera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful. Tomato is the model of choice to study fleshy fruit development. The miniature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cultivar Micro-Tom (MT is considered a model system for tomato genetics and functional genomics. A new genotype, containing the Rg1 allele, improves tomato in vitro regeneration. In this work, we evaluated the expression stability of four tomato reference genes, namely CAC, SAND, Expressed and ACTIN2. We showed that the genes CAC and Exp are the best reference genes of the four we tested during fruit development in the MT-Rg1 genotype. Furthermore, we validated the reference genes by showing that the expression profiles of the transcription factors FRUITFULL1 (FUL1 and APETALA2c (AP2c during fruit development are comparable to previous reports using other tomato cultivars.

  7. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Biocontrol of Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit by use of marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Bao, Yihong; Shen, Danhong; Feng, Wu; Yu, Ting; Zhang, Jia; Zheng, Xiao Dong

    2008-04-30

    The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman isolated from the south of East China Sea was evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest decay of cherry tomatoes caused by Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that washed cell suspension of R. paludigenum provided better control of A. alternata than any other treatment, while the autoclaved cell culture failed to provide protection against the pathogen. The concentration of antagonist had significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in vivo: when the concentration of the washed yeast cell suspension was used at 1 x 10(9)cells/ml, the percentage rate of black rot of cherry tomato fruit was only 37%, which was remarkably lower than that treated with water (the control) after 5days of incubation at 25 degrees C. Furthermore, a great biocontrol efficacy of R. paludigenum was observed when it was applied prior to inoculation with A. alternata: the longer the incubation time of R. paludigenum, the lower disease incidence would be. However, there was little efficacy when R. paludigenum was applied after A. alternata inoculation. In addition, on the wounds of cherry tomato, it was observed that R. paludigenum grew rapidly increasing 50-fold during the first 12h at 25 degrees C. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report concerning that the marine yeast R. paludigenum could be used as a biocontrol agent of postharvest fungal disease.

  9. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  10. An ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit is involved in ATP synthesis in tomato fruit chromoplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pateraki, Irini; Renato, Marta; Azcõn-Bieto, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic plastids specialized in the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. During fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts in a process characterized by the degradation of the thylakoid membranes, and by the active...... synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. This transition renders chromoplasts unable to photochemically synthesize ATP, and therefore these organelles need to obtain the ATP required for anabolic processes through alternative sources. It is widely accepted that the ATP used for biosynthetic processes...... in non-photosynthetic plastids is imported from the cytosol or is obtained through glycolysis. In this work, however, we show that isolated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit chromoplasts are able to synthesize ATP de novo through a respiratory pathway using NADPH as an electron donor. We also report...

  11. Nature of gene action for fruit quality characters of tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. P. Hazra

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... additive x additive type non-allelic interaction with negative sign for the characters, which will hinder ..... artificial gene dosage series in tomato to study the mechanisms by ... physical properties affected by food processing.

  12. Optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defez Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic engineering of parthenocarpy confers to horticultural plants the ability to produce fruits under environmental conditions that curtail fruit productivity and quality. The DefH9-iaaM transgene, whose predicted action is to confer auxin synthesis specifically in the placenta, ovules and derived tissues, has been shown to confer parthenocarpy to several plant species (tobacco, eggplant, tomato and varieties. Results UC82 tomato plants, a typical cultivar used by the processing industry, transgenic for the DefH9-iaaM gene produce parthenocarpic fruits that are malformed. UC82 plants transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM, a DefH9-iaaM derivative gene modified in its 5'ULR by replacing 53 nucleotides immediately upstream of the AUG initiation codon with an 87 nucleotides-long sequence derived from the rolA intron sequence, produce parthenocarpic fruits of high quality. In an in vitro translation system, the iaaM mRNA, modified in its 5'ULR is translated 3–4 times less efficiently than the original transcript. An optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy correlates with a reduced transgene mRNA steady state level in DefH9-RI-iaaM flower buds in comparison to DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Consistent with the known function of the iaaM gene, flower buds transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene contain ten times more IAA than control untransformed flower buds, but five times less than DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Conclusions By using an auxin biosynthesis transgene downregulated at the post-transcriptional level, an optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy has been achieved in a genetic background not suitable for the original transgene. Thus, the method allows the generation of a wider range of expressivity of the desired trait in transgenic plants.

  13. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination.

  14. Development of an irrigation control device based on solar radiation and its adaptability for cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, M.; Shibuya, K.; Kubai, K.; Komatsu, H.; Hosokawa, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2009-01-01

    An irrigation control device based on solar radiation was developed to allow automatic irrigation management for high soluble solid tomato fruit production in root zone restriction culture. Its adaptability for long-term cultivation (planting carried out in early September and harvesting ending in late June) of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture was examined. The following results were obtained: 1. The control device was composed of generally available electronic parts. A change of setting was possible for the irrigation starting point, the irrigation time period, and the once amount of irrigation. For the first irrigation of the day, one of two irrigation control modes can be chosen; the first determines irrigation dependent on the solar radiation after the irrigated time of the previous day. The second mode irrigates at a set time. 2. The correlation between the total integrated solar radiation and the evapotranspiration rate of tomato plants were investigated. Positive correlations were observed for each month from October to June. Moreover, total integrated solar radiation per unit evapotranspiration was different for each month. 3. In long-term cultivation of tomato fruit using this device, the marketable yield of high soluble solid tomato fruit (more than Brix 8%) was 9.7t/10a. 4. This device exhibited the necessary adaptability for use in long-term cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture, by changing the set value of the irrigation starting point and the irrigation time period in accordance with the growth period

  15. Perfusion chromatography separation of the tomato fruit-specific pectin methylesterase from a semipurified commercial enzyme preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, B J

    2001-08-01

    A rapid and simple method was developed, using perfusion chromatography media, to separate the fruit-specific pectin methylesterase (PME) isoform from the depolymerizing enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) and other contaminating pectinases present in a commercial tomato enzyme preparation. Pectinase activities were adsorbed onto a Poros HS (a strong cation exchanger) column in 20 M HEPES buffer at pH 7.5. The fruit-specific PME was eluted from the column with 80 mM NaCl, followed by a step to 300 mM NaCl to elute PG activity. Rechromatography of the PME activity peak with a linear gradient further resolved two PME isoenzymes and removed residual traces of PG activity. The PG activity peak was further treated with lectin affinity chromatography to provide purified PG enzyme, which was separated from a salt-dependent PME (tentatively identified as a "ubiquitous-type" isoform), and a pectin acetylesterase. The later enzyme has not been reported previously in tomato. This method provides monocomponent enzymes that will be useful for studying enzyme mechanisms and for modifying pectin structure and functional properties.

  16. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  17. Effect of methyl salicylate in combination with 1-methylcyclopropene on postharvest quality and decay caused by Botrytis cinerea in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Dedong; Li, Fujun; Zhang, Xinhua; Shu, Pan; Cui, Xixi; Dong, Lulu; Ren, Chuntao; Meng, Demei; Li, Jian

    2018-01-20

    Postharvest diseases result in major losses in fruits. Tomato is susceptible to postharvest rot caused by Botrytis cinerea and is regarded as a good model system to study postharvest disease and quality deterioration in fruit. To develop a safe and effective technique to alleviate disease and maintain fruit quality, the effects of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) either separately or combined on quality and gray mold caused by B. cinerea in tomato fruit were investigated. The results showed that application of MeSA (0.05 mmol L -1 ) delayed fruit ripening and reduced gray mold. Compared with MeSA treatment, 1-MCP (0.5 µL L -1 ) effectively delayed fruit ripening. Further, MeSA combined with 1-MCP treatment was more effective in inhibiting fungal decay during storage than MeSA treatment alone. The combined treatment not only enhanced pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) expression, activities of defense enzymes and total phenolic content but also inhibited the increase in electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content. The combined treatment was also more effective in retaining firmness, color change and titratable acidity content than MeSA treatment alone. MeSA combined with 1-MCP treatment was a useful technique to maintain quality and alleviate gray mold in postharvest tomato fruit during storage. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  19. NAC-NOR mutations in tomato Penjar accessions attenuate multiple metabolic processes and prolong the fruit shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Tamboli, Vajir; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2018-09-01

    Several Penjar accessions of tomato grown in the Mediterranean exhibit prolonged shelf life and harbor alcobaca mutation. To uncover the metabolic basis underlying shelf life, we compared four Penjar accessions to Ailsa Craig. Three accessions bore alcobaca mutation, whereas the fourth was a novel NAC-NOR allele. Cuticle composition of Penjars varied widely during fruit ripening. All Penjars exhibited delayed ripening, prolonged on-vine and off-vine shelf life, low ethylene emission, and carotenoid levels. Metabolic profiling revealed shifts in Krebs cycle intermediates, amino acids, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels indicating the attenuation of respiration in Penjars during post-harvest storage. Penjar fruits also showed concerted downregulation of several cell-wall modifying genes and related metabolites. The high ABA and sucrose levels at the onset of senescence in Penjar fruits likely contribute to reduced water loss. Our analyses reveal that the attenuation of various metabolic processes by NAC-NOR mutation likely prolongs the shelf life of Penjar fruits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synergistic Effects of l-Arginine and Methyl Salicylate on Alleviating Postharvest Disease Caused by Botrysis cinerea in Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Min, Dedong; Li, Fujun; Ji, Nana; Meng, Demei; Li, Ling

    2017-06-21

    The effects of l-arginine (Arg, 1 mM) and/or methyl salicylate (MeSA, 0.05 mM) treatment on gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea in tomato fruit were studied. Results indicated that Arg or MeSA alleviated the incidence and severity of fruit disease caused by B. cinerea, and that both Arg and MeSA (Arg + MeSA) further inhibited the development of fruit decay. Treatment with Arg + MeSA not only enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase but also promoted the expression levels of pathogenesis-related protein 1 gene and the activities of defense-related enzymes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, β-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase during most of the storage periods, which were associated with lower disease incidence and disease index. In addition, the combined treatment elevated the levels of total phenolics, polyamines, especially putrescine, and nitric oxide. These observations suggest that treatment of fruit with Arg + MeSA is an effective and promising way to alleviate postharvest decays on a commercial scale.

  1. The influence of different electrical conductivity values in a simplified recirculating soilless system on inner and outer fruit quality characteristics of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Sandra; Schnitzler, Wilfried H; Grassmann, Johanna; Woitke, Markus

    2006-01-25

    Irrigation with saline water affects tomato fruit quality. While total fruit yield decreases with salinity, inner quality characterized by taste and health-promoting compounds can be improved. For a detailed description of this relationship, the influence of three different salt levels [electrical conductivity (EC) 3, 6.5, and 10] in hydroponically grown tomatoes was investigated. Rising salinity levels in the nutrient solution significantly increased vitamin C, lycopene, and beta-carotene in fresh fruits up to 35%. The phenol concentration was tendentiously enhanced, and the antioxidative capacity of phenols and carotenoids increased on a fresh weight basis. Additionally, the higher EC values caused an increase of total soluble solids and organic acids, parameters determining the taste of tomatoes. Total fruit yield, single fruit weight, and firmness significantly decreased with rising EC levels. Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between the EC level and the dependent variables single fruit weight, total soluble solids, titrable acids, lycopene, and antioxidative capacities of carotenoids and phenols, whereas vitamin C and phenols correlated best with truss number, and beta-carotene correlated best with temperature. Only pressure firmness showed no correlation with any of the measured parameters. As all desirable characteristics in the freshly produced tomato increased when exposed to salinity, salinity itself constitutes an alternative method of quality improvement. Moreover, it can compensate for the loss of yield by the higher inner quality due to changing demands by the market and the consumer. This investigation is to our knowledge the first comprehensive overview regarding parameters of outer quality (yield and firmness), taste (total soluble solids and acids), nutritional value (vitamin C, carotenoids, and phenolics), as well as antioxidative capacity in tomatoes grown under saline conditions.

  2. The relationship between anatomical and morphological characteristics of green tomato fruit and their susceptibility to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Horodecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies carried out in 1983-1985 was to determine the relationships between the degree of susceptibility of green tomato fruit to late blight and several of the anatomical and morphological features of these fruits. It was found that in the studied material representing a wide range of susceptibility (from various degrees of resistance to susceptible the extent of infection was dependent on the covering layer thickness (with cuticle and number of hairs on the skin.

  3. Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel

    2009-05-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition.

  4. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  5. Overexpression of the class D MADS-box gene Sl-AGL11 impacts fleshy tissue differentiation and structure in tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADS-box transcription factors are key elements of the genetic networks controlling flower and fruit development. Among these, the class D clade are involved in seed, ovule, and funiculus development. The tomato genome comprises two class D genes, Sl-AGL11 and Sl-MBP3, both displaying high expressio...

  6. Effect of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate pre-treatment on the volatile profile in tomato fruit subjected to chilling temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato fruits exposed to chilling temperatures suffer aroma loss prior to visual chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were reported to alleviate the development of visual CI, however, it is unknown if the treatments alleviate internal CI in t...

  7. Ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3, an aquaporin gene, increased fruit size and enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Qing-Tian; Lei, Qiong; Feng, Chao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Fangfang; Li, Lingzi; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Zhi; Kong, Jin

    2017-12-19

    Water deficit severely reduces apple growth and production, is detrimental to fruit quality and size. This problem is exacerbated as global warming is implicated in producing more severe drought stress. Thus water-efficiency has becomes the major target for apple breeding. A desired apple tree can absorb and transport water efficiently, which not only confers improved drought tolerance, but also guarantees fruit size for higher income returns. Aquaporins, as water channels, control water transportation across membranes and can regulate water flow by changing their amount and activity. The exploration of molecular mechanism of water efficiency and the gene wealth will pave a way for molecular breeding of drought tolerant apple tree. In the current study, we screened out a drought inducible aquaporin gene MdPIP1;3, which specifically enhanced its expression during fruit expansion in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji). It localized on plasma membranes and belonged to PIP1 subfamily. The tolerance to drought stress enhanced in transgenic tomato plants ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3, showing that the rate of losing water in isolated transgenic leaves was slower than wild type, and stomata of transgenic plants closed sensitively to respond to drought compared with wild type. Besides, length and diameter of transgenic tomato fruits increased faster than wild type, and in final, fruit sizes and fresh weights of transgenic tomatoes were bigger than wild type. Specially, in cell levels, fruit cell size from transgenic tomatoes was larger than wild type, showing that cell number per mm 2 in transgenic fruits was less than wild type. Altogether, ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3 enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic tomatoes partially via reduced water loss controlled by stomata closure in leaves. In addition, the transgenic tomato fruits are larger and heavier with larger cells via more efficient water transportation across membranes. Our research will

  8. Suppression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, which encodes a key enzyme in abscisic acid biosynthesis, alters fruit texture in transgenic tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), β-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-β-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp).

  9. Suppression of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase, Which Encodes a Key Enzyme in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis, Alters Fruit Texture in Transgenic Tomato1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), β-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-β-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp). PMID:22108525

  10. Pigments analysis on skin tomato fruits during ripening by mean fluorescence techniques; Analisi mediante utilizzo di tecniche di fluorescenza dei pigmenti presenti sulla superficie di bacche di pomodoro durante la maturazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, A; Fantoni, R [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Different spectroscopic techniques, based on visible fluorescence emission upon excitation in the same spectral region or in the ultraviolet, have been utilized to characterize tomato fruit ripening stages in order to analyze surface pigments which correspond to optimal conditions for fruit harvesting. The main fluorescence spectral features belonging to antochyanin, flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll a after excitation of skin tomato pigments at different laser wavelength have been identified. For tomato ripening stage LIF detection, the {lambda}{sub e}xc266nm was established as the optimal laser wavelength. [Italian] Mediante diverse tecniche spettroscopiche, basate sulla emissione di fluorescenza visibile a seguito di eccitazione nella stessa regione o nell'ultravioletto, e' stato condotto uno studio su bacche di pomodoro a diversi stadi di maturazione Lo scopo del lavoro e' quello di potere attribuire, attraverso l'analisi degli spettri di fluorescenza dei pigmenti superficiali presenti nel frutto, lo stadio ottimale di maturazione al momento della raccolta. I risultati ottenuti hanno permesso di distinguere spettri di fluorescenza attribuiti ai principali gruppi di pigmenti fluorescenti presenti nella superficie esterna del pomodoro: antociani, flavonoidi, carotenoidi e clorofilla a.

  11. Pigments analysis on skin tomato fruits during ripening by mean fluorescence techniques; Analisi mediante utilizzo di tecniche di fluorescenza dei pigmenti presenti sulla superficie di bacche di pomodoro durante la maturazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, A.; Fantoni, R. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Different spectroscopic techniques, based on visible fluorescence emission upon excitation in the same spectral region or in the ultraviolet, have been utilized to characterize tomato fruit ripening stages in order to analyze surface pigments which correspond to optimal conditions for fruit harvesting. The main fluorescence spectral features belonging to antochyanin, flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll a after excitation of skin tomato pigments at different laser wavelength have been identified. For tomato ripening stage LIF detection, the {lambda}{sub e}xc266nm was established as the optimal laser wavelength. [Italian] Mediante diverse tecniche spettroscopiche, basate sulla emissione di fluorescenza visibile a seguito di eccitazione nella stessa regione o nell'ultravioletto, e' stato condotto uno studio su bacche di pomodoro a diversi stadi di maturazione Lo scopo del lavoro e' quello di potere attribuire, attraverso l'analisi degli spettri di fluorescenza dei pigmenti superficiali presenti nel frutto, lo stadio ottimale di maturazione al momento della raccolta. I risultati ottenuti hanno permesso di distinguere spettri di fluorescenza attribuiti ai principali gruppi di pigmenti fluorescenti presenti nella superficie esterna del pomodoro: antociani, flavonoidi, carotenoidi e clorofilla a.

  12. Overexpression of petunia chalcone isomerase in tomato results in fruit containing increased levels of flavonols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, S.R.; Collins, G.J.; Robinson, S.; Hughes, S.G.; Bovy, A.G.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Tunen, van A.J.; Verhoeven, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Tomatoes are an excellent source of the carotenoid lycopene, a compound that is thought to be protective against prostate cancer. They also contain small amounts of flavonoids in their peel (|[sim]|5–10 mg/kg fresh weight), mainly naringenin chalcone and the flavonol rutin, a quercetin glycoside.

  13. Screening of Carotenoids in Tomato Fruits by Using Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Caretti, Fulvia; Ventura, Salvatore; Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; Venditti, Alessandro; Curini, Roberta

    2015-08-26

    This paper presents an analytical strategy for a large-scale screening of carotenoids in tomato fruits by exploiting the potentialities of the triple quadrupole-linear ion trap hybrid mass spectrometer (QqQLIT). The method involves separation on C30 reversed-phase column and identification by means of diode array detection (DAD) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The authentic standards of six model compounds were used to optimize the separative conditions and to predict the chromatographic behavior of untargeted carotenoids. An information dependent acquisition (IDA) was performed with (i) enhanced-mass scan (EMS) as the survey scan, (ii) enhanced-resolution (ER) scan to obtain the exact mass of the precursor ions (16-35 ppm), and (iii) enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan to obtain structural information. LC-DAD-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) chromatograms were also acquired for the identification of targeted carotenoids occurring at low concentrations; for the first time, the relative abundance between the MRM transitions (ion ratio) was used as an extra tool for the MS distinction of structural isomers and the related families of geometrical isomers. The whole analytical strategy was high-throughput, because a great number of experimental data could be acquired with few analytical steps, and cost-effective, because only few standards were used; when applied to characterize some tomato varieties ('Tangerine', 'Pachino', 'Datterino', and 'Camone') and passata of 'San Marzano' tomatoes, our method succeeded in identifying up to 44 carotenoids in the 'Tangerine'" variety.

  14. Expression Study of LeGAPDH, LeACO1, LeACS1A, and LeACS2 in Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijar Riza Anugerah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a climacteric fruit, which is characterized by ripening-related increase of respiration and elevated ethylene synthesis. Ethylene is the key hormone in ripening process of climacteric fruits. The objective of this research is to study the expression of three ethylene synthesis genes: LeACO1, LeACS1A, LeACS2, and a housekeeping gene LeGAPDH in ripening tomato fruit. Specific primers have been designed to amplify complementary DNA fragment of LeGAPDH (143 bp, LeACO1 (240 bp, LeACS1A (169 bp, and LeACS2 (148 bp using polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide BLAST results of the complementary DNA fragments show high similarity with LeGAPDH (NM_001247874.1, LeACO1 (NM_001247095.1, LeACS1A (NM_001246993.1, LeACS2 (NM_001247249.1, respectively. Expression study showed that LeACO1, LeACS1A, LeACS2, and LeGAPDH genes were expressed in ripening tomato fruit. Isolation methods, reference sequences, and primers used in this study can be used in future experiments to study expression of genes responsible for ethylene synthesis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and to design better strategy for controlling fruit ripening in agroindustry.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of NP24-I, an isoform of a thaumatin-like protein from ripe tomato fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Raka; Chakrabarti, Chandana, E-mail: chandana.chakrabarti@saha.ac.in [Crystallography and Molecular Biology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2005-08-01

    A thaumatin-like antifungal protein, NP24-I, has been isolated from ripe tomato fruits. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method and data were collected to 2.45 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. NP24 is a 24 kDa (207-amino-acid) antifungal thaumatin-like protein (TLP) found in tomato fruits. An isoform of the protein, NP24-I, is reported to play a possible role in ripening of the fruit in addition to its antifungal properties. The protein has been isolated and purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.01, c = 62.90 Å and one molecule per asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data were processed to a resolution of 2.45 Å and the structure was solved by molecular replacement.

  16. Variations on a theme in fruit development: the PLE lineage of MADS-box genes in tomato (TAGL1) and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, Danielle C; Batson, Megan K; Pan, Irvin L

    2017-08-01

    This article focuses on the role of TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE 1 (TAGL1) on a wide range of ripening functions in tomato. We also examine orthologs of this gene in related species that produce different fruit types and discuss some evolutionary implications. TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE 1 (TAGL1) is a MADS-box transcription factor gene that belongs to the PLENA (PLE) lineage within the AGAMOUS (AG) clade. The most well-studied genes in this lineage are the SHATTERPROOF (SHP) genes in Arabidopsis, known to be involved in dehiscence zone formation during silique development. In tomato, TAGL1 has been shown to control several aspects of tomato fruit ripening. Most notably, carotenoid synthesis seems to be controlled by TAGL1, likely via the ethylene synthesis and signaling pathway and in combination with RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). In addition, TAGL1 regulates genes involved in cell cycle regulation, flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis, and cuticle development. We discuss many of the genes in these different pathways that are likely controlled by TAGL1, directly or indirectly. We also examine the relationship of TAGL1 with known and putative interaction partners. PLE lineage genes have also been examined in other species such as Antirrhinum, Petunia, and Nicotiana and provide an interesting example of conservation and diversification of function in species that produce very different types of fleshy and dry fruits. The control of lignification may be a common mechanism for this group of genes. Lastly, we discuss future work needed to elucidate the TAGL1 regulatory pathway in tomato and to help better understand the functional diversification of genes in this lineage in related species.

  17. Induced resistance in tomato fruit by γ-aminobutyric acid for the control of alternaria rot caused by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiali; Sun, Cui; Zhang, Yangyang; Fu, Da; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2017-04-15

    The study investigated the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the control of alternaria rot in tomato fruit and the possible mechanism involved. Our results showed exogenous GABA could stimulate remarkable resistance to the alternaria rot, while it had no direct antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, along with the expression of these corresponding genes, were significantly induced in the GABA treatment. The obtained data suggested GABA induced resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen A. alternata, at least in part by activating antioxidant enzymes, restricting the levels of cell death caused by reactive oxygen species. Meanwhile, the key enzyme genes of GABA shunt, GABA transaminase and succinic-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, were found up-regulated in the GABA treatment. The activation of the GABA shunt might play a vital role in the resistance mechanism underpinning GABA-induced plant immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of post-infiltration soil aeration at different growth stages of sub-surface trickle-irrigated tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zong-xia; Niu, Wen-Quan; Wang, Jing-wei

    2016-07-01

    Sensitivity to low rhizosphere soil aeration may change over time and therefore plant response may also depend on different growth stages of a crop. This study quantified effects of soil aeration during 5 different periods, on growth and yield of trickle-irrigated potted single tomato plants. Irrigation levels were 0.6 to 0.7 (low level) or 0.7 to 0.8 (high level) of total water holding capacity of the pots. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 l of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Fresh fruit yield, above ground plant dry weight, plant height, and leaf area index response to these treatments were measured. For all these 4 response variables, means of post-infiltration aeration between 58 to 85 days after sowing were 13.4, 43.5, 13.7, and 37.7% higher than those for the non-aerated pots, respectively. The results indicated that: post-infiltration soil aeration can positively impact the yield and growth of sub-surface trickle-irrigated potted tomato plants; positive effects on plant growth can be obtained with aeration during the whole growth period or with aeration for partial periods; positive growth effects of partial periods of aeration appears to persist and result in yield benefit.

  19. Ventomod: a dynamic model for leaf to fruit transfer of radionuclides in processing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) following a direct contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Strebl, F.; Carini, F.; Gerzabek, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results on the calibration and validation of a model (Ventomod) for leaf to fruit transfer of 134 Cs, 85 Sr and 65 Zn in processing tomato plants after leaf contamination. Several models (e.g FARMLAND) that deal specifically with the transfer of radionuclides to fruits are adaptations of models that were developed for agricultural crops such as leafy green vegetables. 'Ventomod' represents a dynamic evaluation model exclusively built for the short-term behaviour of radionuclide depositions. It forecasts the level of radionuclide contamination in ripe processing tomato fruits following an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. A validation of the developed model by data sets from an independent experiment showed that the model successfully reproduced the observed radionuclide distribution and dynamics in tomato fruits. The level of uncertainty was within the normal range of similar assessment models. Fo a more general use of this model further testing with independent data sets from experiments obtained under different environmental conditions and data from other horticulturally important plant species would be desirable

  20. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit ripening. Slices excised from mature green fruits produced highest amount of carbon dioxide as compared to more advanced stages of ripening. JA-Me in O,1 % and 1,0% concentrations increased significantly CO2 evolution in green fruits, while in light yellow and yellow fruits only higher concentration of JA-Me stimulated carbon dioxide production.

  1. Potential Use of a Weak Ethylene Receptor Mutant, Sletr1-2, as Breeding Material To Extend Fruit Shelf Life of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarok, Syariful; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Naoya; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-16

    Mutations in the ethylene receptor gene (SlETR1), Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2, are effective in reducing ethylene sensitivity and improving fruit shelf life. In this study the effect of Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 mutations was investigated in F1 hybrid lines. These two mutants and control were crossed with four commercial pure-line tomatoes. The Sletr1-1 mutation showed undesirable pleiotropic effects in the F1 hybrid lines. The Sletr1-2 mutation was effective in improving fruit shelf life of F1 hybrid lines for 4-5 days longer. It was also effective in improving fruit firmness without change in fruit size, ethylene production, respiration rate, and total soluble solids or a great reduction in fruit color, lycopene, and β-carotene, although the titratable acidity was increased by Sletr1-2 mutation. These results indicate that the Sletr1-2 mutant allele has the potential to improve fruit shelf life via incorporation in tomato breeding programs.

  2. The surface properties of biopolymer-coated fruit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cristina Moncayo Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation concerns have led to research and development regarding biodegradable materials from biopolymers, leading to new formulations for edible films and coatings for preserving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Determining fruit skin surface properties for a given coating solution has led to predicting coating efficiency. Wetting was studied by considering spreading, adhesion and cohesion and measuring the contact angle, thus optimising the coating formulation in terms of biopolymer, plasticiser, surfactant, antimicrobial and antioxidant concentration. This work reviews the equations for determining fruit surface properties by using polar and dispersive interaction calculations and by determining the contact angle.

  3. Potential pollinators of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), in open crops and the effect of a solitary bee in fruit set and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O R; Bartelli, B F; Nogueira-Ferreira, F H

    2014-06-01

    We identified native bees that are floral visitors and potential pollinators of tomato in Cerrado areas, described the foraging behavior of these species, and verified the influence of the visitation of a solitary bee on the quantity and quality of fruits. Three areas of tomato crops, located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were sampled between March and November 2012. We collected 185 bees belonging to 13 species. Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant. Ten species performed buzz pollination. Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Paratrigona lineata (Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) could also act as pollinators. The fruit set and number of seeds obtained from the pollination treatment by E. analis were higher than those in the control group. Our results allowed the identification of potential tomato pollinators in Cerrado areas and also contributed information regarding the impact of a single species (E. analis) on fruit set and quality. Although most of the visiting bees show the ability for tomato pollination, there is an absence of adequate management techniques, and its usage is difficult with the aim of increasing the crop production, which is the case for E. analis. Species such as Melipona quinquefasciata, P. lineata, and A. mellifera, which are easy to handle, are not used for pollination services. Finally, it is suggested that a combination of different bee species that are able to pollinate the tomato is necessary to prevent the super-exploitation of only a single species for pollination services and to guarantee the occurrence of potential pollinators in the crop area.

  4. Inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of a Pseudomonas strain QBA5 against gray mold on tomato leaves and fruits caused by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pan; Qin, Jiaxing; Li, Delong; Zhou, Shanyue

    2018-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold disease on various hosts, which results in serious economic losses. Over the past several decades, many kinds of fungicides have been used to successfully control the disease. Meanwhile, the uses of fungicides lead to environmental pollution as well as a potential threat to the human health by the chemical residues in tomato fruit. Also, the gray mold disease is difficult to control with fungicides. Therefore, exploring alternative measures such as biological controls could be the best choice to control the disease and alleviate damages caused by fungicides. In this study, we isolated and identified a novel Pseudomonas strain termed as QBA5 from healthy tomato plant based on the morphological, biochemical characteristics and molecular detection. The antifungal activity assays revealed that, in the presence of QBA5, conidia germination, germ tube elongation and mycelial growth of B. cinerea were significantly inhibited. Most importantly, QBA5 exerted a significant preventive effectiveness against gray mold on tomato fruits and plants. The possible mechanism of QBA5 involved in the inhibition of B. cinerea was investigated. It revealed that the conidia plasma membrane of B. cinerea was severely damaged by QBA5. Further, four different antifungal compounds in the supernatant of QBA5 were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Overall, the data indicate that there is a considerable potential for QBA5 to reduce the damage caused by gray mold disease on tomato.

  5. Inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of a Pseudomonas strain QBA5 against gray mold on tomato leaves and fruits caused by Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Gao

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold disease on various hosts, which results in serious economic losses. Over the past several decades, many kinds of fungicides have been used to successfully control the disease. Meanwhile, the uses of fungicides lead to environmental pollution as well as a potential threat to the human health by the chemical residues in tomato fruit. Also, the gray mold disease is difficult to control with fungicides. Therefore, exploring alternative measures such as biological controls could be the best choice to control the disease and alleviate damages caused by fungicides. In this study, we isolated and identified a novel Pseudomonas strain termed as QBA5 from healthy tomato plant based on the morphological, biochemical characteristics and molecular detection. The antifungal activity assays revealed that, in the presence of QBA5, conidia germination, germ tube elongation and mycelial growth of B. cinerea were significantly inhibited. Most importantly, QBA5 exerted a significant preventive effectiveness against gray mold on tomato fruits and plants. The possible mechanism of QBA5 involved in the inhibition of B. cinerea was investigated. It revealed that the conidia plasma membrane of B. cinerea was severely damaged by QBA5. Further, four different antifungal compounds in the supernatant of QBA5 were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC. Overall, the data indicate that there is a considerable potential for QBA5 to reduce the damage caused by gray mold disease on tomato.

  6. Chloroplast to chromoplast transition in tomato fruit: spectral confocal microscopy analyses of carotenoids and chlorophylls in isolated plastids and time-lapse recording on intact live tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Bian, Wanping; Barsan, Cristina; Jauneau, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Latché, Alain; Li, Zhengguo; Chervin, Christian

    2011-08-01

    There are several studies suggesting that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplasts arise from chloroplasts, but there is still no report showing the fluorescence of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in an intermediate plastid, and no video showing this transition phase. Pigment fluorescence within individual plastids, isolated from tomato fruit using sucrose gradients, was observed at different ripening stages, and an in situ real-time recording of pigment fluorescence was performed on live tomato fruit slices. At the mature green and red stages, homogenous fractions of chloroplasts and chromoplasts were obtained, respectively. At the breaker stage, spectral confocal microscopy showed that intermediate plastids contained both chlorophylls and carotenoids. Furthermore, an in situ real-time recording (a) showed that the chloroplast to chromoplast transition was synchronous for all plastids of a single cell; and (b) confirmed that all chromoplasts derived from pre-existing chloroplasts. These results give details of the early steps of tomato chromoplast biogenesis from chloroplasts, with the formation of intermediate plastids containing both carotenoids and chlorophylls. They provide information at the sub-cellular level on the synchronism of plastid transition and pigment changes.

  7. Genetic regulation and structural changes during tomato fruit development and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo ePesaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are an important evolutionary acquisition of angiosperms, which afford protection for seeds and ensure their optimal dispersal in the environment. Fruits can be divided into dry or fleshy. Dry fruits are the more ancient and provide for mechanical seed dispersal. In contrast, fleshy fruits develop soft tissues in which flavour compounds and pigments accumulate during the ripening process. These serve to attract animals that eat them and disseminate the indigestible seeds. Fruit maturation is accompanied by several striking cytological modifications. In particular, plastids undergo significant structural alterations, including the dedifferentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts. Chloroplast biogenesis, their remodeling in response to environmental constraints and their conversion into alternative plastid types are known to require communication between plastids and the nucleus in order to coordinate the expression of their respective genomes. In this review, we discuss the role of plastid modifications in the context of fruit maturation and ripening, and consider the possible involvement of organelle-nucleus crosstalk via retrograde (plastid to nucleus and anterograde (nucleus to plastid signaling in the process.

  8. Whole surface image reconstruction for machine vision inspection of fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. Y.; Lefcourt, A. M.; Kim, M. S.; Lo, Y. M.

    2007-09-01

    Automated imaging systems offer the potential to inspect the quality and safety of fruits and vegetables consumed by the public. Current automated inspection systems allow fruit such as apples to be sorted for quality issues including color and size by looking at a portion of the surface of each fruit. However, to inspect for defects and contamination, the whole surface of each fruit must be imaged. The goal of this project was to develop an effective and economical method for whole surface imaging of apples using mirrors and a single camera. Challenges include mapping the concave stem and calyx regions. To allow the entire surface of an apple to be imaged, apples were suspended or rolled above the mirrors using two parallel music wires. A camera above the apples captured 90 images per sec (640 by 480 pixels). Single or multiple flat or concave mirrors were mounted around the apple in various configurations to maximize surface imaging. Data suggest that the use of two flat mirrors provides inadequate coverage of a fruit but using two parabolic concave mirrors allows the entire surface to be mapped. Parabolic concave mirrors magnify images, which results in greater pixel resolution and reduced distortion. This result suggests that a single camera with two parabolic concave mirrors can be a cost-effective method for whole surface imaging.

  9. Flowering and fruiting intensity of small - sized tomato, due to the regulation of the quantity of light reaching the plant top

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobromilska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in 2001-2003 in a high unheated plastic tunnel. The influence of reduction of leaves and application of reflection matter on flowering and fruiting of small-sized tomato was studied. The experiment focused on the following factors: methods of increasing the amount of light in plant tops (reflection matter, cutting leaves, reflection matter + cutting leaves and cultivars of small sized tomato ('Conchita F1', 'Picolino F1'. The cutting of leaves and reflection matter mulching resulted in the increase of the intensity of radiation reaching plant tops and the reflected radiation. The above measures increasing the light access to plant tops significantly increased the number of flowers, germs and fruits. The reflection matter mulching along with cutting leaves resulted in the substantial growth of early yield of small-sized tomato. The 'Conchita F1' cultivar set a relatively greater number of flowers and fruits on a plant and in cluster than 'Picolino F1'.

  10. Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

  11. Raman Spectra from Pesticides on the Surface of Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P X; Zhou Xiaofang; Cheng, Andrew Y S; Fang Yan

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectra of several vegetables and fruits were studied by micro-Raman spectrometer (514.5 nm) and Near-infrared Fourier Transform Raman spectrometer (FTRaman). It is shown that at 514.5 nm excitation, most of the spectra are from that of carotene with some very strong fluorescence in some cases. While at 1064 nm wavelength excitation, the spectra from the different samples demonstrate different characteristic Raman spectra without fluorescence. We discuss the spectroscopic difference by the two excitation wavelengths, and the application of Raman spectra for detection of pesticides left on the surface of vegetables and fruits. Raman spectra of fruits and pesticides were successfully recorded, and using the FT-Raman spectra the pesticides left on the surface of the fruits can be detected conveniently

  12. Quantifying lycopene synthesis and chlorophyll breakdown in tomato fruit using remittance VIS spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Farneti, B.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Algarra Alarcon, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of chlorophyll breakdown and lycopene synthesis at a quantitative level in Solanum lycopersicum fruit. To accomplish this, a kinetic model is proposed describing the transition from chloro- to chromoplast. Remittance VIS spectroscopy was used

  13. Fruit removal of a wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, by birds, bats and non-flying mammals in an urban Brazilian environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.

  14. The dominant allele Aft induces a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catola, Stefano; Castagna, Antonella; Santin, Marco; Calvenzani, Valentina; Petroni, Katia; Mazzucato, Andrea; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-08-01

    The introgression of the A ft allele into domesticated tomato induced a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation, while the hp - 1 allele negatively influenced the response of flavonoid biosynthesis to UV-B. Introgression of the dominant allele Anthocyanin fruit (Aft) from Solanum chilense induces anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. UV-B radiation can influence plant secondary metabolism regulating the expression of several genes, among which those involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Here, we investigated whether post-harvest UV-B treatment could up-regulate flavonoid production in tomato fruits and whether the Aft allele could affect flavonoid biosynthesis under UV-B radiation. Mature green fruits of an anthocyanin-rich tomato mutant line (SA206) and of its wild-type reference, cv. Roma, were daily subjected to post-harvest UV-B treatment until full ripening. Up-regulation of CHS and CHI transcription by UV-B treatment induced flavonoid accumulation in the peel of cv. Roma. Conversely, UV-B decreased the total flavonoid content and CHS transcript levels in the SA206 peel. SA206 being a double mutant containing also hp-1 allele, we investigated also the behavior of hp-1 fruit. The decreased peel flavonoid accumulation and gene transcription in response to UV-B suggest that hp-1 allele is involved in the marked down-regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis observed in SA206 fruit. Interestingly, in SA206, UV-B radiation promoted the synthesis of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin by increasing F3'5'H and DFR transcription, but it decreased rutin production, suggesting a switch from flavonols to anthocyanins. Finally, although UV-B radiation does not reach the inner fruit tissues, it down-regulated flavonoid biosynthesis in the flesh of both genotypes. This study provides, for the first time, evidence that the presence of the functional Aft allele, under UV-B radiation, redirects

  15. Characterization of a New Pink-Fruited Tomato Mutant Results in the Identification of a Null Allele of the SlMYB12 Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tzfadia, Oren; Forment, Javier; Presa, Silvia; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Orzaez, Diego; Aharoni, Aspah; Granell, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The identification and characterization of new tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants affected in fruit pigmentation and nutritional content can provide valuable insights into the underlying biology, as well as a source of new alleles for breeding programs. To date, all characterized pink-pigmented tomato fruit mutants appear to result from low SlMYB12 transcript levels in the fruit skin. Two new mutant lines displaying a pink fruit phenotype (pf1 and pf2) were characterized in this study. In the pf mutants, SlMYB12 transcripts accumulated to wild-type levels but exhibited the same truncation, which resulted in the absence of the essential MYB activation domain coding region. Allelism and complementation tests revealed that both pf mutants were allelic to the y locus and showed the same recessive null allele in homozygosis: Δy A set of molecular and metabolic effects, reminiscent of those observed in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myb11 myb12 myb111 triple mutant, were found in the tomato Δy mutants. To our knowledge, these have not been described previously, and our data support the idea of their being null mutants, in contrast to previously described transcriptional hypomorphic pink fruit lines. We detected a reduction in the expression of several flavonol glycosides and some associated glycosyl transferases. Transcriptome analysis further revealed that the effects of the pf mutations extended beyond the flavonoid pathway into the interface between primary and secondary metabolism. Finally, screening for Myb-binding sites in the candidate gene promoter sequences revealed that 141 of the 152 co-down-regulated genes may be direct targets of SlMYB12 regulation. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Detection of the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa by a tomato cell surface receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegenauer, Volker; Fürst, Ursula; Kaiser, Bettina; Smoker, Matthew; Zipfel, Cyril; Felix, Georg; Stahl, Mark; Albert, Markus

    2016-07-29

    Parasitic plants are a constraint on agriculture worldwide. Cuscuta reflexa is a stem holoparasite that infests most dicotyledonous plants. One exception is tomato, which is resistant to C. reflexa We discovered that tomato responds to a small peptide factor occurring in Cuscuta spp. with immune responses typically activated after perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns. We identified the cell surface receptor-like protein CUSCUTA RECEPTOR 1 (CuRe1) as essential for the perception of this parasite-associated molecular pattern. CuRe1 is sufficient to confer responsiveness to the Cuscuta factor and increased resistance to parasitic C. reflexa when heterologously expressed in otherwise susceptible host plants. Our findings reveal that plants recognize parasitic plants in a manner similar to perception of microbial pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Estimation of fruit quality parameters for tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav. interspecific segregating in response to Antracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fernando Viera Arroyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav. in Ecuador, performs a severe reduction in yield and production of tree tomato and it is mostly attributed to the attack of anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds. We assessed an improved tree tomato genotypes, derived from the crossing [(S. betaceum unilobum x x S. betaceum] x S. betaceum, showing some degree of resistance to generate an alternative of sustainable management to this disease on a site with a high degree of infection in commercial ecotypes (Pelileo- Province of Tungurahua, Ecuador. Significantly differences among the analyzed groups were found in fruit and flesh color, as well as in quantitative variables such as yield. Two groups (G1 and G5 were noted for their low incidence of anthracnose, although they showed less progress in terms of productive variables. A selection index based on z-scores, allowed identifying superior individuals in terms of resistance to the disease and fruit quality. The genetic component of phenotypic variables showed that most of the observed variability is due to the genotypes and not to the environmental variability.

  18. Fruit metabolite networks in engineered and non-engineered tomato genotypes reveal fluidity in a hormone and agroecosystem specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Tahira; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Teasdale, John R; Kramer, Matthew; Bunce, Jim; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    Metabolomics provides a view of endogenous metabolic patterns not only during plant growth, development and senescence but also in response to genetic events, environment and disease. The effects of the field environment on plant hormone-specific metabolite profiles are largely unknown. Few studies have analyzed useful phenotypes generated by introducing single or multiple gene events alongside the non-engineered wild type control at field scale to determine the robustness of the genetic trait and its modulation in the metabolome as a function of specific agroecosystem environments. We evaluated the influence of genetic background (high polyamine lines; low methyl jasmonate line; low ethylene line; and isogenic genotypes carrying double transgenic events) and environments (hairy vetch, rye, plastic black mulch and bare soil mulching systems) on the metabolomic profile of isogenic reverse genetic mutations and selected mulch based cropping systems in tomato fruit. Net photosynthesis and fruit yield were also determined. NMR spectroscopy was used for quantifying metabolites that are central to primary metabolism. We analyzed both the first moment (means) of metabolic response to genotypes and agroecosystems by traditional univariate/multivariate methods, and the second moment (covariances) of responses by creating networks that depicted changes in correlations of paired metabolites. This particular approach is novel and was necessary because our experimental material yielded highly variable metabolic responses that could not be easily understood using the traditional analytical approaches for first moment statistics. High endogenous spermidine and spermine content exhibited strong effects on amino acids, Krebs cycle intermediates and energy molecules (ADP + ATP) in ripening fruits of plants grown under different agroecosystem environments. The metabolic response to high polyamine genotypes was similar to the response to hairy vetch cover crop mulch; supported by

  19. Calidad postcosecha de tomates almacenados en atmósferas controladas Postharvest quality of tomato fruits stored under controlled atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla A. Gómez

    2002-03-01

    maturity stages and, at the same time, affecting their quality. The effects of controlled atmospheres were studied (low oxygen concentrations and free of carbon dioxide and ethylene, on color, firmness and the main components of tomato fruit taste, cv. Diva. On April 1998, fruits harvested at the turning stage (USDA in INTA Balcarce (Argentina were stored in 3 L hermetic flasks at 12ºC during 36 days. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replications. Each flask containing four fruits was considered as the experimental unit. Treatments were four, a flow through system of: a 1%, b 3%, c 5% and d 21% (check of oxygen balanced with nitrogen to 100%. Color, measured with a colorimeter, changed more slowly and firmness remained higher with decreasing oxygen concentrations. The final color of fruits at 5% O2 was the same as those from check fruits. Fruits from the treatment 3% reached the optimum color only when transferred to 20ºC, while those stored at 1% did not reach a normal color. On the other side, and in all the treatments, soluble solids and titratable acidity were lower and pH was higher than those at the beginning. Color and firmness preferred by the consumers (Color index » 12 and firmness » 65 KPa were reached after 7-day storage at 21% O2, 12 days at 5%, 14 days at 3% and 21 days at 1% according to decreasing values of the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. This would indicate that fruits externally alike could have different organoleptic properties. Effects observed could be related to both the low oxygen levels and the absence of ethylene.

  20. Herança do formato do fruto em tomateiro do grupo cereja Inheritance of fruit shape in cherry tomato group

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    Gabriel Mascarenhas Maciel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O formato dos frutos do tomateiro é resultado da ação de diversos loci gênicos que podem atuar de diversas formas: isoladamente, com efeitos pleiotrópicos ou interagindo entre si ou com genes responsáveis pelo peso do fruto. Em função disto, o estudo da herança desta característica, importante para o melhoramento da espécie, torna-se complexa e de difícil execução. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido no Setor de Olericultura e Experimentação da Universidade José do Rosário Vellano (UNIFENAS, de Julho/2003 a Março/2005 com o objetivo de determinar a herança da forma do fruto em tomateiro do grupo cereja. Foram utilizados dois genótipos selvagens e contrastantes quanto à forma do fruto: fruto comprido (FC e fruto redondo (FR. Cruzamentos recíprocos e retrocruzamentos foram efetuados sendo a forma do fruto, avaliada nas gerações oriundas desses cruzamentos. Todas as plantas da geração F1 produziram frutos redondos. Em F2, 111 plantas produziram frutos redondos e 47 plantas produziram frutos compridos. No retrocruzamento (F1 x FC 47 plantas produziram frutos redondos e 42 plantas produziram frutos compridos. Estes resultados, analisados pelo teste de x2 confirmaram segregação mendeliana 3:1 e 1:1 respectivamente. Concluiuse que o formato dos frutos estudados tem herança monogênica. O alelo que condiciona a forma redonda do fruto tem dominância completa sobre o alelo que confere a forma alongada com possível atuação do locus sun.The tomato fruit shape is a result of action of various gene loci that can act in several ways: alone, with pleiotropic effects or interacting with each other or with genes responsible for the fruit weight. According to this, the study of the inheritance of this characteristic, very important for the improvement of the species, is complex and difficult to implement. This work was carried out at the Horticultural and Experimentation Section of José do Rosário Vellano University, during the

  1. Preparation of 2H- and 3H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-[ 2 H 3 ]-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10 5 Bq per mg of [ 3 H]-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C 18 reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented

  2. Three-year comparative study of polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars grown under organic and conventional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Dea; Matt, Darja; Pedastsaar, Priit; Bender, Ingrid; Kazimierczak, Renata; Roasto, Mati; Kaart, Tanel; Luik, Anne; Püssa, Tõnu

    2014-06-04

    In the present study, four tomato cultivars were grown under organic and conventional conditions in separate unheated greenhouses in three consecutive years. The objective was to assess the influence of the cultivation system on the content of individual polyphenols, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes. The fruits were analyzed for total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant capacity by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Individual phenolic compounds were analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Among 30 identified and quantified polyphenols, significantly higher contents of apigenin acetylhexoside, caffeic acid hexoside I, and phloretin dihexoside were found in all organic samples. The content of polyphenols was more dependent on year and cultivar than on cultivation conditions. Generally, the cultivation system had minor impact on polyphenols content, and only a few compounds were influenced by the mode of cultivation in all tested cultivars during all three years.

  3. Resíduos de agrotóxicos em frutos de tomate Pesticide residues in tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Maria Segura Zavatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de agrotóxicos em culturas de tomates tem causado preocupações quanto à provável contaminação do produto final. Este trabalho teve como objetivo monitorar, por dois anos consecutivos, em quatro propriedades de uma área altamente tecnificada, o uso de agrotóxicos em tomate irrigado durante seu desenvolvimento, quantificar os resíduos dos principais princípios ativos utilizados, e avaliar o grau de contaminação dos frutos colhidos. Foram analisados metamidofós, clorpirifós, captan, clorotalonil, endosulfan, lambda-cialotrina, e cobre. Para avaliar o grau de contaminação dos frutos foi validado um método de análise de resíduos múltiplos capaz de quantificar esses compostos. Os resíduos encontrados foram de fungicidas e inseticidas aplicados nas fases de frutificação e maturação: captan, 0,35 mg/kg, na Fazenda 2; clorotalonil, 0,16 mg/kg e 0,95 mg/kg, nas Fazendas 1 e 2, respectivamente; lambda-cialotrina, 0,03 mg/kg, na Fazenda 2; cobre, 2,03 mg/kg, 3,75 mg/kg e 1,44mg/kg, nas Fazendas 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente, e 0,95 mg/kg, 1,70 mg/kg e 2,31 mg/kg, na Fazenda 4. Não ocorreram resíduos dos inseticidas organofosforados, aplicados principalmente durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. Não houve contaminação dos tomates pelos agrotóxicos analisados. Os resíduos que devem ser monitorados são os dos agrotóxicos aplicados na fase de maturação da cultura.The intensive use of pesticide in tomato crops have been causing concern about a possible contamination of the final product. This work aimed at monitoring, for two years, in four farms located in a high technology area, the use of pesticides in irrigated tomato crops, quantifying the main active ingredient residues and evaluating the contamination level of the fruits. The components analised were: methamidophos, chlorpyrifos, captan, chlorothalonil, endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin and copper oxychloride. In order to evaluate the contamination

  4. Silencing ß1,2-xylosyltransferase in transgenic tomato fruits reveals xylose as constitutive component of IgE binding epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Elisabeth Paulus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Complex plant N-glycans containing β1,2-xylose and core α1,3-fucose are regarded as the major class of the so-called ‘carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants’ reactive with IgE antibodies in sera of many allergic patients, but their clinical relevance is still under debate. Plant glycosyltransferases, β1,2-xylosyltransferase (XylT and core α1,3-fucosyltransferase (FucT are responsible for the transfer of β1,2-linked xylose and core α1,3-linked fucose residues to N-glycans of glycoproteins, respectively. To test the clinical relevance of ß 1,2-xylose containing epitopes, expression of the tomato β1,2-xylosyltransferase was down-regulated by RNA interference (RNAi in transgenic plants. Fruits harvested from these transgenic plants were analysed for accumulation of XylT mRNA, abundance of ß1,2-xylose epitopes and their allergenic potential. Based on qPCR analysis XylT mRNA levels were reduced up to 10-fold in independent transgenic lines as compared to untransformed control, whereas no xylosylated N-glycans could be revealed by MS analysis. Immunoblotting using anti-xylose-specific IgG antibodies revealed a strong reduction of ß1,2-xylose containing epitopes. Incubating protein extracts from untransformed controls and XylT_RNAi plants with sera from tomato allergic patients showed a patient-specific reduction in IgE binding, indicating a reduced allergenic potential of XylT_RNAi tomato fruits, in vitro. To elucidate the clinical relevance of ß1,2-xylose containing complex N-glycans skin prick tests were performed demonstrating a reduced responsiveness of tomato allergic patients, in vivo. This study provides strong evidence for the clinical relevance of ß1,2-xylose containing epitopes in vivo.

  5. Sugar and acid interconversion in tomato fruits based on biopsy sampling of locule gel and pericarp tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Woltering, E.J.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with quantifying sugar and acids levels important for the perceived taste of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). Sugar and acids levels were measured repeatedly on the same tomato using tissue samples obtained with a biopsy needle in combination with HPLC protocols. Biopsies of

  6. Residual impact of methyl salicylate fumigation at the breaker stage on C6 volatile biopathway in red tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor, which is comprised of aroma and taste, is an important tomato characteristic. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), acting as a critical mobile signal, plays an important role in tomato stress responses and ripening processes. However, less is studied on the impact of its application at early ripening s...

  7. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or .... stored at -20°C. Enzymatic in vitro synthesis of radiolabeled ..... with nematicidal activity from Culture of basidiomycetes.

  8. High-resolution mapping of a fruit firmness-related quantitative trait locus in tomato reveals epistatic interactions associated with a complex combinatorial locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Natalie H; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Lynn, James; Graham, Neil; Smith, Rebecca; Sun, Guiping; Walley, Peter G; Poole, Mervin; Causse, Mathilde; King, Graham J; Baxter, Charles; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-08-01

    Fruit firmness in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is determined by a number of factors including cell wall structure, turgor, and cuticle properties. Firmness is a complex polygenic trait involving the coregulation of many genes and has proved especially challenging to unravel. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fruit firmness was mapped to tomato chromosome 2 using the Zamir Solanum pennellii interspecific introgression lines (ILs) and fine-mapped in a population consisting of 7,500 F2 and F3 lines from IL 2-3 and IL 2-4. This firmness QTL contained five distinct subpeaks, Fir(s.p.)QTL2.1 to Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5, and an effect on a distal region of IL 2-4 that was nonoverlapping with IL 2-3. All these effects were located within an 8.6-Mb region. Using genetic markers, each subpeak within this combinatorial locus was mapped to a physical location within the genome, and an ethylene response factor (ERF) underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.2 and a region containing three pectin methylesterase (PME) genes underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5 were nominated as QTL candidate genes. Statistical models used to explain the observed variability between lines indicated that these candidates and the nonoverlapping portion of IL 2-4 were sufficient to account for the majority of the fruit firmness effects. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of each candidate gene. ERF showed increased expression associated with soft fruit texture in the mapping population. In contrast, PME expression was tightly linked with firm fruit texture. Analysis of a range of recombinant lines revealed evidence for an epistatic interaction that was associated with this combinatorial locus.

  9. A new tomato NAC (NAM/ATAF1/2/CUC2) transcription factor, SlNAC4, functions as a positive regulator of fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Zhou, Shuang; Tu, Yun; Wang, Yi; Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a complicated development process affected by both endogenous hormonal and genetic regulators and external signals. Although the role of NOR, a member of the NAC domain family, in mediating tomato fruit ripening has been established, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To explore further the role of NAC transcription factors in fruit ripening, we characterized a new tomato NAC domain protein, named SlNAC4, which shows high accumulation in sepal and at the onset of fruit ripening. Various stress treatments including wounding, NaCl, dehydration and low temperature significantly increased the expression of SlNAC4. Reduced expression of SlNAC4 by RNA interference (RNAi) in tomato resulted in delayed fruit ripening, suppressed Chl breakdown and decreased ethylene synthesis mediated mainly through reduced expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes of system-2, and reduced carotenoids by alteration of the carotenoid pathway flux. Transgenic tomato fruits also displayed significant down-regulation of multiple ripening-associated genes, indicating that SlNAC4 functions as a positive regulator of fruit ripening by affecting ethylene synthesis and carotenoid accumulation. Moreover, we also noted that SlNAC4 could not be induced by ethylene and may function upstream of the ripening regulator RIN and positively regulate its expression. Yeast two-hybrid assay further revealed that SlNAC4 could interact with both RIN and NOR protein. These results suggested that ethylene-dependent and -independent processes are regulated by SlNAC4 in the fruit ripening regulatory network.

  10. Overexpressing CAPRICE and GLABRA3 did not change the anthocyanin content of tomato (solanum lycopersicum) fruit peel

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Takuji; Onishi, Mio; Kunihiro, Asuka; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R3-type MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC) and bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) cooperatively regulate epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are involved in root-hair differentiation, trichome initiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Previously, we showed that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin accumulation in tomato. Introduction of 35S::CPC into tomato significantly inhibits anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledo...

  11. [Efficacy of disinfection treatments using essential oils and ultrasound on tomato fruits inoculated with Escherichia coli and impact on antioxidant activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Guevara, María L; Luna Guevara, Juan J; Ruiz Espinosa, Héctor; Leyva Abascal, Lucero; Díaz González, Carolina B

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce often harbors a great number of microorganisms; hence, its growing demand may constitute a risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of several disinfection procedures against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) inoculated on tomato fruits and the conservation of the antioxidant properties of these disinfected fruits. Fruits were immersed for 5 or 10min in oregano or thyme essential oil dispersions (5, 10ppm), with or without ultrasound treatment. Antioxidant activity of disinfected fruits was determined as the ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and was reported as percentage of inhibition (%I). The most efficient disinfectant treatments showing significant differences (p≤.05) between the reductions log10 CFU/g (S) of ETEC were those using 10ppm oregano for 10min, with S=3.05 in individual treatments and S=4.03 in mixed treatments. The highest %I was obtained with individual sonication treatments (69.52 and 72.48), while in combined treatments the %I values increased with thyme oil 5ppm and ultrasound for 5min (51.27%) and 10min (53.31%). Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Degradation Kinetic of Tomato Paste Color in Heat Processing and Modeling of These Changes by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganjeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is an important qualitative factor in tomato products such as tomato paste which is affected by heat processing. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the degradation kinetics of tomato paste color during heat processing by Arrhenius equation and modeling of these changes by response surface methodology (RSM. Considering this purpose, tomato paste was processed at three temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 °C for 25-100 minutes and by three main color indices including L, a and b, a/b ratio, total color difference (TCD, Saturation index (SI and hue angle (HU was analyzed. Degradation kinetics of these parameters was evaluated by Arrhenius equation and their changing trends were modeled by RSM. All parameters except TCA (zero order followed a first order reaction. The b index by highest and TCA and a/b by least activation energies had the maximum and minimum sensitivity to the temperature changes, respectively. Also, TCD and b had the maximum and minimum changing rates, respectively. All responses were influenced by independent parameters (the influence of temperature was more than time and RSM was capable of modeling and predicting these responses. In general, Arrhenius equation was appropriate to evaluate degradation kinetics of tomato paste color changes and RSM was able to estimate independent and interaction effects of time and temperature so that quadratic models were capable to predict these changes by a high accuracy (R2 > 0.95.

  13. Salicylic-Acid-Induced Chilling- and Oxidative-Stress Tolerance in Relation to Gibberellin Homeostasis, C-Repeat/Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding Factor Pathway, and Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in Cold-Stored Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Zhao, Jinhong; Nie, Ying; Fan, Bei; Wu, Shujuan; Zhang, Yu; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin; Zhao, Ruirui; Tang, Xuanming

    2016-11-02

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on gibberellin (GA) homeostasis, C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) pathway, and antioxidant enzyme systems linked to chilling- and oxidative-stress tolerance in tomato fruit were investigated. Mature green tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Moneymaker) were treated with 0, 0.5, and 1 mM SA solution for 15 min before storage at 4 °C for 28 days. In comparison to 0 or 0.5 mM SA, 1 mM SA significantly decreased the chilling injury (CI) index in tomato fruit. In the SA-treated fruit, the upregulation of GA biosynthetic gene (GA3ox1) expression was followed by gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) surge and DELLA protein degradation. CBF1 participated in the SA-modulated tolerance and stimulated the expression of GA catabolic gene (GA2ox1). Furthermore, 1 mM SA enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes and, thus, reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation. Our findings suggest that SA might protect tomato fruit from CI and oxidative damage through regulating GA metabolism, CBF1 gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  14. CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST TOMATO ROT BY SPORE SUSPENSION AND ANTIFUNGAL METABOLITES OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momein H. El-Katatny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rot of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum fruits caused by several fungal pathogens is a detrimental disease leading to substantial yield loses worldwide. Alternaria isolates were the most common fungal species isolated from healthy or rotten fruits. Trichoderma harzianum spore suspension and culture filtrate were tested for their antagonistic activity on controlling tomato fruit rot. T. harzianum isolates suppressed or interfered with the growth of different postharvest tomato fungal pathogens albeit at different degrees. Their culture filtrate inhibited pathogen spore germination possibly due to the released extracellular diffusible metabolite(s. Besides, aberrant morphology of conidia was observed with deformation of hyphal tips. Furthermore, the resulting mycelia appeared desiccated with coagulated protoplasm leading to complete collapse of protoplasm in presence of T. harzianum culture filtrate. Application of T. harzianum spores to tomato fruits decreased disease severity significantly with the most profound effect at higher spore concentrations (108 cells per ml. Similarly, culture filtrate of T. harzianum prevented pathogen spore germination on the surface of tomato fruits leading to decreased incidence of rot symptoms at high culture filtrate concentrations. This work provides strong evidence that T. harzianum is a competent antagonist and its spore suspension and culture filtrate can be used efficiently to control postharvest tomato rot.

  15. Tomato type and post-treatment water rinse affect efficacy of acid washes against Salmonella enterica inoculated on stem scars of tomatoes and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Gurtler, Joshua B; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

    2018-09-02

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of post-treatment rinsing with water on the inactivation efficacy of acid treatments against Salmonella inoculated onto stem scar areas of two types of tomatoes. In addition, impact on fruit quality was investigated during 21 days post-treatment storage at 10 °C. A four-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica (S. Montevideo, S. Newport, S. Saintpaul, and S. Typhimurium) was inoculated onto stem scar areas of grape and large round tomatoes. The inoculated fruits were then treated for 2 min with the following solutions: water, 2% lactic acid +2% acetic acid +2% levulinic acid, 1.7% lactic acid +1.7% acetic acid +1.7% levulinic acid, and 3% lactic acid +3% acetic acid. After treatments, half of the fruits were rinsed with water while another half were not rinsed. Non-inoculated grape tomatoes for quality analysis were treated with the same solutions with and without subsequent water rinse. Results demonstrated that the acid combinations reduced populations of Salmonella enterica on the stem scar area of grape tomatoes by 1.52-1.90 log CFU/fruit, compared with the non-treated control while water wash and rinse removed the bacterium by only 0.23-0.30 log CFU/fruit. On the stem scar of large round tomatoes, the same acid treatments achieved 3.54 log CFU/fruit reduction of the pathogen. The varying response to the acid washes between grape and large round tomatoes seems to be related to the differences in surface characteristics of stem scar areas observed with SEM. Rinsing with water after acid combination treatments did not significantly affect the efficacy of the treatments in either grape or large round tomatoes. Acidic off-odor was detected on fruits treated with acid combination without water rinse 1 day after treatment while water rinse eliminated the off-odor. The acid treatments with and without water rinse did not consistently affect appearance, color, firmness, or lycopene or ascorbic acid contents of

  16. Plastid Transcriptomics and Translatomics of Tomato Fruit Development and Chloroplast-to-Chromoplast Differentiation: Chromoplast Gene Expression Largely Serves the Production of a Single Protein[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlau, Sabine; Bock, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Plastid genes are expressed at high levels in photosynthetically active chloroplasts but are generally believed to be drastically downregulated in nongreen plastids. The genome-wide changes in the expression patterns of plastid genes during the development of nongreen plastid types as well as the contributions of transcriptional versus translational regulation are largely unknown. We report here a systematic transcriptomics and translatomics analysis of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plastid genome during fruit development and chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion. At the level of RNA accumulation, most but not all plastid genes are strongly downregulated in fruits compared with leaves. By contrast, chloroplast-to-chromoplast differentiation during fruit ripening is surprisingly not accompanied by large changes in plastid RNA accumulation. However, most plastid genes are translationally downregulated during chromoplast development. Both transcriptional and translational downregulation are more pronounced for photosynthesis-related genes than for genes involved in gene expression, indicating that some low-level plastid gene expression must be sustained in chromoplasts. High-level expression during chromoplast development identifies accD, the only plastid-encoded gene involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, as the target gene for which gene expression activity in chromoplasts is maintained. In addition, we have determined the developmental patterns of plastid RNA polymerase activities, intron splicing, and RNA editing and report specific developmental changes in the splicing and editing patterns of plastid transcripts. PMID:18441214

  17. Methyl salicylate-induced arginine catabolism is associated with up-regulation of polyamine and nitric oxide levels and improves chilling tolerance in cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Shen, Lin; Li, Fujun; Meng, Demei; Sheng, Jiping

    2011-09-14

    The effects of methyl salicylate (MeSA) on chilling injury (CI) and gene expression levels, enzyme activities, and metabolites related to arginine catabolism in cherry tomato fruit were investigated. Freshly harvested fruits were treated with 0.05 mM MeSA vapor at 20 °C for 12 h and then stored at 2 °C for up to 28 days. MeSA reduced CI and enhanced the accumulation of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, which was associated with increased gene expression levels and activities of arginase, arginine decarboxylase, and ornithine decarboxylase at most sampling times. MeSA also increased nitric oxide synthase activity, which at least partly contributed to the increased nitric oxide content. The results indicate that MeSA activates the different pathways of arginine catabolism in cold-stored fruit and that the reduction in CI by MeSA may be due to the coordinated metabolism of arginine and the increase in polyamines and nitric oxide levels.

  18. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metals and metalloids in fruits of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and their cultivation soils in the Basque Country: concentrations and accumulation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Trebolazabala, Josu; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-04-15

    The concentrations of several elements (Al, Fe, As, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn) were measured in soils and the edible part of different vegetables (tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum "Raf") peppers (Capsicum annuum), chards (Betavulgaris var. cicla), artichokes (Cynarascholymus)) and fruits (Raspberries (Rubusidaeus)) from 13 orchards in the Basque Country affected by different pollution sources. Multivariate analysis of data was used to look for possible correlations between metals in soil and metals in the edible part of the plant. Only manganese showed a correlation significantly different from zero. The metal concentrations found in the edible part were always below the upper limits recommended by the European legislation in force. The Bioaccumulation Index was used to investigate how efficient the plant is to uptake an element from the cultivation soil and to preserve its edible part from the element. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Research on functional diversity of microorganisms on jujube fruit surface in storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yuexia

    2009-10-01

    Disease during storage caused by microbial infection is a serious problem of jujube fruits. The aim of the study was to characterize the microbial diversity in stored jujube fruits. I used Biolog in experiment. The types of micro-plates were Filamentous Fungi micro-plate and Economicmicro-plate. There was much difference in microbial functional diversity on the surface of stored jujube fruit. The microbial functional diversity of stored 30 days was richer than it of stored 15 days. The diversity, homogeneity and average well color development of jujube used by fruit perservatives were lower than it not used by fruit preservatives. There were six kinds of the characteristic carbon. Our study firstly showed microbial diversity on the surface of stored jujube fruit. Biolog could be applied in the research on microbial functional diversity of fruit surface.

  1. The regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening revealed by analyses of direct targets of the tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The developmental process of ripening is unique to fleshy fruits and a key factor in fruit quality. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, is required for broad aspects of ripening, including ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways. However, our knowledge of direct RIN target genes has been limited, considering the broad effects of RIN on ripening. In a recent work published in The Plant Cell, we identified 241 direct RIN target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) and transcriptome analysis. Functional classification of the targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of many biological processes including well-known ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production and lycopene accumulation. In addition, we found that ethylene is required for the full expression of RIN and several RIN-targeting transcription factor genes at the ripening stage. Here, based on our recently published findings and additional data, we discuss the ripening processes regulated by RIN and the interplay between RIN and ethylene. PMID:23518588

  2. Yield and fruit quality of industrial tomato under saline irrigation Rendimento e qualidade de fruto do tomate tipo industrial sob irrigação salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness. Few researches have evaluated the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 dS m-1 and two equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on yield and quality of fruits of industrial tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seedlings were transplanted in rhizotrons and grown under plastic covering until fruit ripening. Volume of water for daily irrigations was determined by the difference between the applied and drained volume in the previous irrigation. Unitary increase of water salinity above 1 dS m-1 reduced the commercial and total yield by 11.9 and 11.0%, respectively, and increased the concentration of soluble solids and the titratable acidity of the fruits by 13.9 and 9.4%, respectively. The increase of the proportion of sodium reduced the total and marketable yield, the number of marketable fruits and pulp yield. Water of moderate salinity, with low concentration of sodium, can be used in the irrigation of the industrial tomato, without significant yield losses.O tomate para processamento industrial é a hortaliça mais importante da agroindústria brasileira. Poucas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas para avaliar a tolerância da cultura ao estresse salino. Neste estudo, foram testados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 dS m-1 e duas proporções equivalentes de Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0,5 e 7:1:0,5 sobre a produção e a qualidade dos frutos de tomateiro tipo industrial, cultivar IPA 6. As mudas foram transplantadas em rhizotrons e o cultivo foi conduzido sob cobertura plástica até a maturação dos frutos. O volume de água necessário para irrigações diárias foi determinado pela diferença entre o volume aplicado e o drenado na irrigação anterior. O aumento unitário da salinidade da água acima de 1 dS m-1

  3. Changes in antioxidant and metabolite profiles during production of tomato paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Vos, de C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tomato products and especially concentrated tomato paste are important sources of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. Tomato fruit contain well-known antioxidants such as vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids. The industrial processing of this fruit into tomato paste

  4. MODEL-ASSISTED ESTIMATION OF THE GENETIC VARIABILITY IN PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS RELATED TO TOMATO FRUIT GROWTH UNDER CONTRASTED WATER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Constantinescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major abiotic stres threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding Drought stress is a major abiotic stress threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding mechanisms governing water and carbon accumulations and identifying genes, QTLs and phenotypes, that will enable trade-offs between fruit growth and quality under Water Deficit (WD condition is a crucial challenge for breeders and growers. In the present work, 117 recombinant inbred lines of a population of Solanum lycopersicum were phenotyped under control and WD conditions. Plant water status, fruit growth and composition were measured and data were used to calibrate a process-based model describing water and carbon fluxes in a growing fruit as a function of plant and environment. Eight genotype-dependent model parameters were estimated using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm in order to minimize the prediction errors of fruit dry and fresh mass throughout fruit development. WD increased the fruit dry matter content (up to 85 % and decreased its fresh weight (up to 60 %, big fruit size genotypes being the most sensitive. The mean normalized root mean squared errors of the predictions ranged between 16-18 % in the population. Variability in model genotypic parameters allowed us to explore diverse genetic strategies in response to WD. An interesting group of genotypes could be discriminated in which i the low loss of fresh mass under WD was associated with high active uptake of sugars and low value of the maximum cell wall extensibility, and ii the high dry matter content in control treatment (C was associated with a slow decrease of mass flow. Using 501 SNP markers genotyped across the genome, a QTL analysis of model parameters allowed to detect three main QTLs related to xylem and phloem conductivities, on chromosomes 2, 4 and 8. The model was then applied to design ideotypes with high dry matter

  5. Ethylene and cold participate in the regulation of LeCBF1 gene expression in postharvest tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Danying; Shen, Lin; Fan, Bei; Yu, Mengmeng; Zheng, Yang; Lv, Shengnan; Sheng, Jiping

    2009-10-20

    C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) is a transcription factor regulating cold response in plants, of which little is known in fruits. We showed a double-peak expression pattern of Lycopersicon esculentum putative transcriptional activator CBF1 (LeCBF1) in mature green fruit. The peaks appeared at 2 and 16 h after subjection to cold storage (2 degrees C). The second peak was coincident with, and thus caused by a peak in endogenous ethylene production. We showed that LeCBF1 expression was regulated by exogenous ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene, and was not expressed without cold induction. LeCBF1 expression was different in the five maturation stages of fruits, but expression peaked at 2 h at all stages.

  6. Differentiated surface fungal communities at point of harvest on apple fruits from rural and peri-urban orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Youming; Nie, Jiyun; Li, Zhixia; Li, Haifei; Wu, Yonglong; Dong, Yafeng; Zhang, Jianyi

    2018-01-01

    The diverse fungal communities that colonize fruit surfaces are closely associated with fruit development, preservation and quality control. However, the overall fungi adhering to the fruit surface and the inference of environmental factors are still unknown. Here, we characterized the fungal signatures on apple surfaces by sequencing internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. We collected the surface fungal communities from apple fruits cultivated in rural and peri-urban orchards. A total ...

  7. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil; Negrã o, Só nia; Essack, Magbubah; Morton, Mitchell J. L.; Bougouffa, Salim; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tester, Mark A.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  8. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  9. Effects of the moisture of gamma irradiated tomato-seeds on the plant growth sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumala Dewi.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of 2 Krad gamma irradiated dry seeds fruit and tomato seedlings has been carried out. The effect was observed on the time of flowering and fruit bearing, fruits number, fruits weight and time of harvesting. (author)

  10. Induction of multiple shoots from leaf segments, in vitro-flowering and fruiting of a dwarf tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kokkirala Venugopal; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Pavan, Umate; Sree, Telakalapalli Jaya; Rao, Alleni V; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2005-08-01

    Multiple shoots were induced from leaf explants of Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar MicroTom, within 20-25d, on MS medium supplemented with 8.9 microM benzylaminopurine (BAP)+1.14 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). For rooting, elongated microshoots were excised and transferred onto MS medium supplemented with 4.9 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Well-developed roots and flower raceme were obtained on d 7 and 13, respectively, upon transfer of the microshoots onto rooting medium. The flowers self-fertilized in vitro and produced mature fruits in additional 15-17d of culture.

  11. Production and quality of tomato fruits under organic management Produção e qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora S Toledo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information about the production and quality of tomato cultivars under organic management and the conditions of climate and soil from the north region of Minas Gerais State, Brasil, are scarce. Thus, this research was carried out to evaluate the production and quality of tomato cultivars under organic management, in this region. The treatments consisted of four open pollination tomato cultivars (Chadwick Cherry, Pitanga vermelha, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Kada and five hybrid cultivars (Marguerita, Nicolas, Ellen, Magestade and Dominador. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replications. The experiment was carried out using organic fertilization in the initial preparation of the area, compost and rock phosphate and sprays with Bordeaux mixture, neem oil and fertilizer. The marketable yield varied from 12.3 t ha-1 to 23.9 t ha-1. The hybrid Marguerita presented higher marketable production (23.9 t ha-1. The cultivars Chadwick Cherry and Pitanga Vermelha reached similar production as most cultivars and larger proportions of marketable and giant fruits, and therefore, better market quality. All the cultivars presented low potassium and manganese levels in foliar tissue suggesting an evaluation after various organic manuring cycles and better nutrition conditions are necessary to permit the comparison of the performance of cultivars in this system.Informações sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico, nas condições de clima e solo do Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, são escassas. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção e qualidade de frutos de cultivares de tomateiro, sob manejo orgânico, em Montes Claros-MG. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro cultivares de tomate de polinização livre (Chadwick Cherry, Pitanga Vermelha, Santa Clara e Santa Cruz Kada e cinco cultivares híbridos (Marguerita, Nícolas, Ellen, Majestade e Dominador. Foi utilizado o

  12. Effect of goat manure on some soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeniyi, S.O.; Awodun, M.A.; Akanni, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment were conducted at Akure, Negeria, in a rainforest zone of Southwest Nigeria to study the effect of goat manure (droppings) on some soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient status, growth and yied of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five levels of manure (0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha) were applied on the soil surface to two crops of tomato at each of two sites, namely, Federal College of Agriculture and Federal University of Technology. Soils were deficient in organic matter (OM), total N, exchangeable Ca and available P. Soil OM, total N, available P and moisture content increased with the level of manure, while soil bulk density decreased. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, growth and fruit yield of tomato were significantly increased by goat manure treatments. Leaf K, Ca and Mg, plant height, number of branches, leaf area, root length, number of fruits and fruit diameter increased with the level of manure, However, the 25 t/ha manure gave optimum values of number and weight of fruits. The mean fruit yields recorded for 0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha goat manure were 15.0, 19.7, 23.7, 24.3 and 22.3 t/ha, respectively. It is concluded that goat manure is suitable for impoving soil physical and chemical properties and growth and yield of tomato.(Author)

  13. Pemanfaatan Buah Pepaya (Carica Papaya L.,) dan Tomat (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.,) dalam Pembuatan Fruit Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli, Redi; Hamzah, Faizah

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed was to got exact formulation of combination of papaya fruit puree and tomato puree in the manufacture of fruit leather. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used against fruit leather were PT1 (papaya fruit puree 65%, tomato puree 35%), PT2 (papaya fruit puree 55%, tomato puree 45%), PT3 (papaya fruit puree 50%, tomato puree 50%), PT4 (45% papaya fruit puree, tomato puree 55%) and PT5 (35% papaya fruit puree...

  14. Dissecting a QTL into Candidate Genes Highlighted the Key Role of Pectinesterases in Regulating the Ascorbic Acid Content in Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Ruggieri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ( is a crucial component of the human diet because of its high nutritional value and the antioxidant content of its fruit. As a member of the Solanaceae family, it is considered a model species for genomic studies in this family, especially since its genome has been completely sequenced. Among genomic resources available, introgression lines represent a valuable tool to mine the genetic diversity present in wild species. One introgression line, IL12-4, was previously selected for high ascorbic acid (AsA content, and a transcriptomic analysis indicated the involvement of genes controlling pectin degradation in AsA accumulation. In this study the integration of data from different “omics” platforms has been exploited to identify candidate genes that increase AsA belonging to the wild region 12-4. Thirty-two genes potentially involved in pathways controlling AsA levels were analyzed with bioinformatic tools. Two hundred-fifty nonsynonymous polymorphisms were detected in their coding regions, and 11.6% revealed deleterious effects on predicted protein function. To reduce the number of genes that had to be functionally validated, introgression sublines of the region 12–4 were selected using species-specific polymorphic markers between the two species. Four sublines were obtained and we demonstrated that a subregion of around 1 Mbp includes 12 candidate genes potentially involved in AsA accumulation. Among these, only five exhibited structural deleterious variants, and one of the 12 was differentially expressed between the two species. We have highlighted the role of three polymorphic pectinesterases and inhibitors of pectinesterases that merit further investigation.

  15. Plastid and Stromule Morphogenesis in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    PYKE, KEVIN A.; HOWELLS, CAROLINE A.

    2002-01-01

    By using green fluorescent protein targeted to the plastid organelle in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the morphology of plastids and their associated stromules in epidermal cells and trichomes from stems and petioles and in the chromoplasts of pericarp cells in the tomato fruit has been revealed. A novel characteristic of tomato stromules is the presence of extensive bead‐like structures along the stromules that are often observed as free vesicles, distinct from and apparently unconnected to the plastid body. Interconnections between the red pigmented chromoplast bodies are common in fruit pericarp cells suggesting that chromoplasts could form a complex network in this cell type. The potential implications for carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruit and for vesicles originating from beaded stromules as a secretory mechanism for plastids in glandular trichomes of tomato is discussed. PMID:12466096

  16. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  17. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  18. Estimativa indireta de teores de licopeno em frutos de genótipos de tomateiro via análise colorimétrica Indirect estimation of lycopene concentration in fruits of tomato genotypes via chromaticity values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Carvalho

    2005-07-01

    licopeno foi correlacionada com os resultados das relações a*/b* e (a*/b*², sendo que os valores de cromaticidade da polpa homogeneizada apresentaram novamente as mais elevadas correlações. Estes resultados confirmam que é possível estimar indiretamente e com relativa precisão, o teor de licopeno em frutos do tomateiro a partir de valores de cromaticidade. Esta metodologia pode ser empregada para seleção de genótipos com maiores teores de licopeno, de maneira mais simplificada, evitando o dispêndio e os problemas de descarte dos solventes orgânicos utilizados nos métodos espectrofotométricos.Lycopene (C40H56 is a red carotenoid pigment, which naturally accumulates in flowers, fruits and roots of some vegetable and fruit crops. The unique properties of the lycopene molecule make this pigment one of the most powerful antioxidants available. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruits and processed tomato products are the main sources of lycopene in the human diet. There is a growing amount of experimental data indicating that lycopene intake is associated with decreased risk of many types of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancers in humans. In addition, lycopene concentration is associated with improved visual perception of tomato products. Therefore, there is a strong demand to increase the total amount of lycopene in tomato cultivars for either fresh market or processing. The development of cultivars for improved lycopene content is dependent upon the availability of simple yet accurate methodologies to quantify this carotene in tomato fruits and processed tomato products. The main objective of this work was to estimate the degree of correlation between the total lycopene content in tomato fruits measured spectrophotometrically and the chromaticity values (L*, a* and b* obtained using a tristimulus colorimeter. Colorimetric readings were taken using three sampling strategies: (1 external fruit wall; (2 internal fruit wall and (3 the

  19. Desarrollo de una metodología de infestación artificial de plantas de tomate con el pasador del fruto Development of an artificial infestation methodology of tomato plants with the fruit borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Enrique Casas Leal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño de bloques completos al azar se confinaron en jaulas (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.8 m dos plantas de tomate (S. lycopersicum cv. Maravilla, podadas a dos tallos, con hembras de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (una, dos, cuatro y seis adultos, y el testigo. Los tratamientos se repitieron cuatro veces. Se evaluaron por planta las variables frutos afectados por pasador (% y número promedio de orificios de entrada del pasador por fruto. Se presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos solo para la variable frutos afectados por pasador (%. Con la introducción de una hembra en el interior de la jaula se incrementaron en 5.29% los frutos afectados. Para obtener pérdida de frutos similar a la que se presenta en lotes comerciales muy susceptibles (50-60% se requirió la introducción de seis hembras en la jaula.Two tomato plants (S. lycopersicum cv. Maravilla pruned to two stems with females of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (one, two, four, six adults, and the control were enclosed in cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.8 m under the randomized complete block design. The treatments were replicated four times. The variables fruit by fruit borer (% and mean number of entrance holes of fruit borer per fruit were evaluated per plant. Only the variable affected fruit by fruit borer (% presented significant differences between treatments. The affected fruits were increased in 5.29% by every female introduced into the cage. If it is needed to get fruits losses similar to those seen in very susceptible commercial plots (50-60% six female must be introduced into the cage.

  20. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-05

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm(-1). Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2'-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm(-1), being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of visible/near infrared spectroscopy to quality control of fresh fruits and vegetables in large-scale mass distribution channels: a preliminary test on carrots and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, Roberto; Giovenzana, Valentina; Tugnolo, Alessio; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    The market for fruits and vegetables is mainly controlled by the mass distribution channel (MDC). MDC buyers do not have useful instruments to rapidly evaluate the quality of the products. Decisions by the buyers are driven primarily by pricing strategies rather than product quality. Simple, rapid and easy-to-use methods for objectively evaluating the quality of postharvest products are needed. The present study aimed to use visible and near-infrared (vis/NIR) spectroscopy to estimate some qualitative parameters of two low-price products (carrots and tomatoes) of various brands, as well as evaluate the applicability of this technique for use in stores. A non-destructive optical system (vis/NIR spectrophotometer with a reflection probe, spectral range 450-1650 nm) was tested. The differences in quality among carrots and tomatoes purchased from 13 stores on various dates were examined. The reference quality parameters (firmness, water content, soluble solids content, pH and colour) were correlated with the spectral readings. The models derived from the optical data gave positive results, in particular for the prediction of the soluble solids content and the colour, with better results for tomatoes than for carrots. The application of optical techniques may help MDC buyers to monitor the quality of postharvest products, leading to an effective optimization of the entire supply chain. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Correlations between yield and fruit quality characteristics of fresh market tomatoes Correlações entre caracteres de produção e qualidade de frutos de tomate de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia M de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental correlations were estimated for all possible pairs among eleven characters of tomatoes. Fifteen treatments including five parents and ten hybrids of Instituto Agronômico (IAC tomato breeding program were evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design, with tree replications in Itatiba, São Paulo state, Brazil, during 2005/2006. The following traits were evaluated: fruit yield per plant (FP, fruit number per plant (FN, average fruit weight (FW, cluster number per plant (CN, fruit number per cluster (FC, number of locules per fruit (NL, fruit length (FL, fruit width (WI, fruit wall thickness (FT, total soluble solids (SS, and total titratable acidity (TA. The genotypic (rG, phenotypic (rF and environmental correlations (rA for two pairs of plant traits were estimated using the Genes© program. High similarity was found among the estimates of genotypic and phenotypic correlations. Positive and high phenotypic and genotypic correlations were observed between FP and the traits FN, FW and FT, and these associations contributed for yield increasing. FW and FT contributed to yield increase and should be considered together as primary yield components in tomato. Positive values of the genotypic and phenotypic correlations revealed that FP influenced FN with high direct effect and significant positive correlation. These traits may be included as the main selection criteria for tomato yield improvement.Correlações fenotípica, genotípica e ambiental foram estimadas entre todos os possíveis pares de onze caracteres de tomate de mesa. Quinze tratamentos, incluindo cinco parentais e dez híbridos do programa de melhoramento de tomate do Instituto Agronômico (IAC foram testados no delineamento em blocos casualizados completos, em Itatiba-SP, em 2005/2006. Os seguintes caracteres foram avaliados: produção (FP, número (FN e peso médio do fruto (FW, número de pencas por planta (CN, número de

  4. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Pei; Ren, Jie; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Dai, Sheng-Jie; Leng, Ping

    2011-11-01

    In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf.

  6. Characterization and evaluation of some lines from cherry tomatoes lycopersicon esculentum mill. Var. Cerasiforme (dunal) and their ability for micropropagation in in vitro conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dedejski, George

    2012-01-01

    Tomato production in the Republic of Macedonia is present on more than 5700 hectares, being the leading vegetable crop in the region of Strumica. Cherry tomato however, is poorly present at our fields, mainly due to the traditional habits of the consumers and the commercial tomato producers to grow tomato varieties with large fruit. Cherry tomato - Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) is a tomato variety with small fruit, with different shapes and colors and it is used ma...

  7. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  8. YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum) IN MUBI, ADAMAWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    fruits and can be taken raw or cooked (Adams et al.,. 1978). It was believed to have been originated from ... European literatures appeared as herbal swelling fruit used for cooking (Olayinka and Adebayo, 1985). Over ... largest consumers of tomato paste all over the world. Production indices of tomato in Nigeria as reported ...

  9. In vivo and in vitro production of some genotypes of cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Dedejski, George

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomato is a variety that is poorly present at Macedonian fields, mainly due to the traditional habits of the consumers and the commercial tomato producers to grow tomato varieties with large fruit. Cherry tomato - Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) is a tomato variety with small fruit, while having different shapes and colors, and it is used mainly for fresh consumption. The features of this variety are portrayed its sweetness and aroma, which further enriche the ta...

  10. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamyansurehn, D [Institut Fiziki i Matematiki Akademii Nauk Mongol' skoj Narodnoj Respubliki, Ulan Bator; Voloozh, D

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit.

  12. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhamyansurehn, D.; Voloozh, D.

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit. (author)

  13. Ensacamento de frutos do tomateiro visando ao controle de pragas e à redução de defensivos Paper bags for pest control and pesticide use reduction on tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luis Jordão

    2002-06-01

    absoluta on bunches of tomatoes. Five treatments were set up: paper bags carrying deodorant tablets, paper bags with garlic cloves, paper bags containing no repellent, control without repellent and control with the insecticide methamidophos. The results were assessed by the number of caterpillars found on the fruits. Fruits protected in wax-paper bags and fruits exposed directly to methamidophos during application were compared in regard to the maximum tolerable residue. The use of paper bags reduced the number of caterpillars of N. elegantalis and H. zea per fruit. Pesticide residues on fruits without bags were six times higher than the maximum tolerable. Fruits within paper bags presented residue levels three times lower than the maximum. The use of paper bags for protection of tomato fruits did not alter fruit characteristics. Considering the costs, the use of paper bags for tomato cropping requires higher initial investment, but it supplies a differential market with higher prices.

  14. EFFECTIVE COMPLEX PROCESSING OF RAW TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDA M. GADZHIEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  15. The effects of surface-applied jasmonic and salicylic acids on caterpillar growth and damage to tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron L. Iverson; Louis R. Iverson; Steve Eshita

    2001-01-01

    We tested the role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in altering the tomato plant's defense against herbivory by tobacco hornworm. Treatments of SA or JA were topically applied to tomato plants, hornworm consumption was allowed to proceed for 12 days, and harvest analyses were performed Measurements taken included a subjective plant rating (1-10 score...

  16. Sistemas de tutoramento e condução do tomateiro visando produção de frutos para consumo in natura Tomato plant staking and training systems for fresh fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. Marim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de tutoramento e condução influem no desenvolvimento da planta do tomateiro e na qualidade do fruto produzido. Para avaliar a influência de três sistemas de tutoramento e dois de condução da planta do tomateiro na produção classificada de frutos comercializáveis, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, de agosto a dezembro/1999 (exp. 1 e de 2000 (exp. 2 em Viçosa (MG. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, no esquema fatorial 3x2, tutoramento e condução, respectivamente. Avaliaram-se os seguintes métodos de tutoramento: T1, tradicional (V invertido, T2, triangular e T3, vertical e duas formas de condução, com uma e duas hastes por planta. Independentemente do tratamento, as plantas foram podadas acima do sexto cacho. Observaram-se diferenças entre os sistemas de tutoramento, condução e entre os anos de cultivo em relação às características avaliadas, sendo que ocorreu interação entre estes efeitos apenas para as características produção de frutos comercializáveis e produção total. O tutoramento vertical proporcionou aumento na produção de frutos de tamanho grande e diminuição na produção de frutos de tamanho médio e frutos não comercializáveis, quando comparado com os outros métodos de tutoramento. Independentemente do sistema de tutoramento, o tomateiro cultivado com uma haste produziu mais frutos de tamanho grande, de maior valor comercial, enquanto as plantas conduzidas com duas hastes produziram mais frutos de tamanho médio e pequeno.The main reason for staking and training tomato plants is to keep plants and fruits off the ground to reduce losses and to improve the quality of the production. To evaluate the influence of three plant staking and two training systems of the tomato production for fresh market, two experiments were conducted during the period of August 1999 (exp.1 and 2000 (exp.2 in Viçosa, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block

  17. The effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Genyuan; Wang Huaguo; Qi Mengwen; Wang Fujun; Zhou Changjiu

    1994-01-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with 14 C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with 14 C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit

  18. The effect of commercial processing procedures on {sup 14}C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyuan, Peng; Huaguo, Wang; Mengwen, Qi; Fujun, Wang; Changjiu, Zhou [Laboratory for the Application of Nuclear Techniques, Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    1994-06-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with {sup 14}C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with {sup 14}C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit.

  19. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  20. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  1. Round fruit shape in WI7239 cucumber is controlled by two interacting quantitative trait loci with one putatively encoding a tomato SUN homolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit size and shape is an important quality trait in cucumber breeding, yet its genetic basis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping on round fruit shape in cucumber with F2 and F2:3 segregating populations from the cross between WI7238 (long fruit) and WI7239 (ro...

  2. Drip and Surface Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop Using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellouli, H.J.; Askri, H.; Mougou, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nations in the arid and semi-arid regions, especially the Arab countries, will have to take up an important challenge at the beginning of the 21 st century: increasing food production in order to realise food security for growing population, wile optimising the use of limited water resources. Using and adapting management techniques like the drip irrigation system could obtain the later. This would allow reduction in water losses by bare soil evaporation and deep percolation. Consequently improved water use efficiency could be realised. In this way, this work was conducted as a contribution on the Tunisian national programs on the optimisation of the water use. By mean a field study at Cherfech Experimental Station (30 km from Tunis), the effect of the irrigation system on the water use efficiency (WUE)-by a season tomato crop-was monitored by comparing three treatments receiving equivalent quantities of fertiliser: Fertigation, Drip irrigation and Furrow irrigation. Irrigation was scheduled by mean calculation of the water requirement based on the agro meteorological data, the plant physiological stage and the soil water characteristics (Clay Loam). The plant water consumption (ETR) was determined by using soil water balance method, where rainfall and amount of irrigation water readily measured

  3. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of e...

  4. AtPDS over-expression in tomato: exposing unique patterns of carotenoid self-regulation and an alternative strategy for the enhancement of fruit carotenoid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regulation of plant carotenogenesis is an active research area for both biological discovery and practical implementation. In tomato, we demonstrate additional bottlenecks exist in the poly-cis-transformation of phytoene to lycopene in the context of ripening-induced PSY1 expression and activity...

  5. The Control of Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shirdel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape would have irreversible effects on tomatoes in all growth stages and the damage would be unrecoverable. In order to chemically control Orobanche spp with consumption of bio-fertilizer in tomato cultivation, an experiment as factorial based on complete randomized blocks design in three replications and 12 plots was carried out at a farm which is located in Mahabad city (Iran. In this experiment, the experimental factors were including: A- sulfosulfuron 35 g/ha in three levels (application, at 40 days after transplanting of seedlings, application at 60 days and after sample transplanting without any chemical spraying, B and C: bio- fertilizers, Barvar -2 and Nitrajin in two levels (application and non-application of bio-fertilizer, were taken place. The results showed that Sulfosulfuron treatment at the rate of 35 gr/ha, with- twice application of 40 and 60 days after transplanting of seedlings decreased the biomass of Orobanche aegyptiaca in surface level and also it was possible to decrease the biomass per tomato bush and Orobanche aegyptiaca biomass to amount of 75%, 57% and 60% respectively compare to the main treatment without applying any kind of spray application. The applied bio-fertilizer-2 decreased the amount of fruit and economical function of tomato. The applying phosphate biofertilizer-2 resulted in a decrease in economical function of Lycopersicum esculentum and number of ripen fruits. However none of the applied treatment was influential on diameter and weight of ripen fruits.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  7. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  8. Eclosion time and larval behavior of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae Tempo de eclosão e comportamento de larvas da broca-pequena-do-tomateiro, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro E. Eiras

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In several regions of Brazil, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée is one of the most serious tomato pests. The moth lays eggs on the calyx or developing fruit, and shortly after eclosion larvae penetrate into the fruit, where they remain until pupation. Once larvae have entered the fruits, insecticides and biological control agents are relatively ineffective. Because N. elegantalis is most susceptible to conventional treatments when the larvae are outside the host tissues (or fruit, it would be advantageous to know the time required for egg development and the length of time that the larvae spend on the surface of the fruit. To answer these questions detailed behavioral studies were untaken. Eggs were collected from the field and maintained in an environmental chamber at 20°C, 75 ± 5% R.H., and a 12L:12D photoperiod. The time of egg eclosion was recorded with a video camera, whereas larval behavior and time required to enter the fruit were determined by direct observations. The majority of eggs (93% hatched within the first two hours after the beginning of photophase. Larvae spent 51.1 ± 31.1 (mean ± SEM min on the surface of the fruits. Once a suitable site was identified, larvae required an additional 23.8 ± 19.4 min to completely enter the fruit. Eighty-six percent of the larvae were successful in penetrating the fruit. Of the larvae that bored into the fruit, 42% selected the upper portion, 18% selected the middle portion, and 40% selected the lower portion.Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée é uma das pragas mais sérias do tomate em várias regiões do Brasil. A fêmea deposita seus ovos no cálice ou nos frutos em desenvolvimento, e logo após a eclosão a larva penetra no fruto, onde permanece até a pupação. Depois que a larva entra no fruto, inseticidas e agentes de controle biológico são relativamente ineficazes. Como N. elegantalis é mais suscetível a métodos de controle quando a larva encontra-se no exterior do hospedeiro

  9. Determinação em tempo real da magnitude de danos físicos por impacto em linhas de beneficiamento e em condições de laboratório e seus efeitos na qualidade de tomate Real time determination of physical impact damage in packing lines and under laboratory conditions and its effects in tomato fruits quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomate de mesa é uma das principais hortaliças consumidas no Brasil e apresenta elevados índices de perdas pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a magnitude dos impactos verificados em linhas de beneficiamento para tomate de mesa, bem como determinar, em laboratório, as alterações na qualidade de tomates submetidos a danos físicos controlados em diferentes superfícies. Para a avaliação dos pontos críticos e registro da magnitude dos impactos, foi usada uma esfera instrumentada. Os pontos críticos de transferência demonstraram valores de aceleração entre 30 e 129 G (m s-2. Os testes laboratoriais evidenciaram que superfícies acolchoadas reduziram em até 31% a magnitude de impacto. A incidência de danos físicos internos foi crescente e atingiu 79% em superfícies rígidas para a maior altura de queda livre. Por outro lado, observou-se redução na incidência de danos físicos nos frutos quando superfícies protetoras foram utilizadas, verificando-se na altura de 10 cm um limite mínimo de 5% de danos severos, enquanto para superfície rígida o mínimo correspondeu a 10%. As variáveis de qualidade foram alteradas, verificando-se maior perda de massa, maiores valores de acidez total, menores valores de ácido ascórbico e sólidos solúveis para maiores alturas de queda livre sobre superfícies rígidas.Tomatoes are one of the most important vegetable crops grown in Brazil and are among the crops that have one of the highest post-harvest losses indexes in the country. The present work aimed at evaluating impact damage observed in packing lines of fresh tomatoes as well as to determine, under laboratory conditions, quality alterations of tomato fruits submitted to impact damage in different surface types. Critical points evaluation was accomplished using an instrumented sphere. Critical transference points found showed variations in acceleration levels from 30 to 129 G (m s-2. Tests carried out under laboratory

  10. Optimization of process parameters for the inactivation of Lactobacillus sporogenes in tomato paste with ultrasound and {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Shengying [College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Wushan, Guangzhou, GD 510640 (China)], E-mail: yesy@scau.edu.cn; Qiu Yuanxin; Song Xianliang; Luo Shucan [College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Wushan, Guangzhou, GD 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The processing parameters for ultrasound and {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation were optimized for their ability to inactivate Lactobacillus sporogenes in tomato paste using a systematic experimental design based on response surface methodology. Ultrasonic power, ultrasonic processing time and irradiation dose were explored and a central composite rotation design was adopted as the experimental plan, and a least-squares regression model was obtained. The significant influential factors for the inactivation rate of L. sporogenes were obtained from the quadratic model and the t-test analyses for each process parameter. Confirmation of the experimental results indicated that the proposed model was reasonably accurate and could be used to describe the efficacy of the treatments for inactivating L. sporogenes within the limits of the factors studied. The optimized processing parameters were found to be an ultrasonic power of 120 W with a processing time of 25 min and an irradiation dose of 6.5 kGy. These were measured under the constraints of parameter limitation, based on the Monte Carlo searching method and the quadratic model of the response surface methodology, including the a/b value of the Hunter color scale of tomato paste. Nevertheless, the ultrasound treatment prior to irradiation for the inactivation of L. sporogenes in tomato paste was unsuitable for reducing the irradiation dose.

  11. Effect of soil surface management on radiocesium concentrations in apple orchard and fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaba, Shinnosuke; Matsuoka, Kaori; Abe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of soil surface management on radiocesium accumulation in an apple orchard in Fukushima Prefecture over 4 years after Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in mid-March 2011. Different types of soil surface management such as clean cultivation, intertillage management, intertillage with bark compost application, sod culture, and zeolite application were employed. The radiocesium concentrations in soil were higher in the surface layer (0–5 cm) than in the other layers. The radiocesium concentration in the surface layer soil with sod culture in 2014 increased non-significantly compared with that observed in 2011. The radiocesium concentration in the mid-layer soil (5–15 cm) managed with intertillage was higher than that in soil managed using other types of management. The radiocesium amount in the organic matter on the soil surface was the highest in sod culture, and was significantly lower in the management with intertillage. The radiocesium concentration in fruit decreased exponentially during the 4 years in each types of soil surface management. The decrease in radiocesium concentration showed similar trends with each type of soil surface management, even if the concentration in each soil layer varied according to the management applied. Furthermore, intertillage with bark compost application did not affect the radiocesium concentration in fruit. These results suggest that the soil surface management type that affected the radiocesium distribution in the soil or the compost application with conventional practice did not affect its concentration in fruit of apple trees for at least 4 years since the nuclear power plant accident, at a radiocesium deposition level similar to that recorded in Fukushima City. (author)

  12. Diversity for chemical composition in a collection of different varietal types of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.), an Andean exotic fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-Quezada, P.G.; Raigón Jiménez, Mª Dolores; Riofrío-Cuenca, Tania; García Martínez, María Dolores; Plazas Ávila, María de la O; Burneo, J.I.; Figueroa, Jorge G.; Vilanova Navarro, Santiago; Prohens Tomás, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    [EN] We evaluated 23 tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) accessions from five cultivar groups and one wild relative (Solanum cajanumense) for 26 composition traits. For all traits we found highly significant differences (P < 0.001) among the materials studied. The high diversity found within S. betaceum for composition traits was matched by a high diversity within each of the cultivar groups. We found that sucrose and citric acid were the most important soluble sugar and organic acid, respectively...

  13. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  14. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Bell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a two-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms and leaves, irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment.

  15. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  16. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  17. Diversity among Modern Tomato Genotypes at Different Levels in Fresh-Market Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bhattarai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated tomato has been in existence for about 400 years and breeding activities have been conducted for only eight decades. However, more than 10,000 tomato cultivars have already been developed. Ninety-one tomato genotypes were characterized for twenty-one morphological traits using developmental, vegetative, and fruit traits. Correlation, principal component, and cluster analysis between the traits were carried out. Higher correlations between fruit traits including fruit shape, fruit size, and fruit types were observed. These correlations indicate that specific fruit types require specific traits like branched inflorescence and a greater number of fruits per inflorescence are beneficial only for smaller fruit sizes like cherry and grape tomatoes. Contrastingly, traits like determinate growth habit and fruit maturity are preferred in all fruit types of tomato for better cultivation practices and longer production duration and hence showed lower correlations. Principal component analysis clustered tomato genotypes into three main clusters with multiple subgroups. Similar tomato genotypes were placed into one or more clusters confirming the results from correlation analysis. Involvement of private breeding programs in cultivar development has increased the competition on introgression of novel and desired traits across new cultivars. Understanding the diversity present in modern cultivars and potential traits identification in related wild species can enhance tomato diversity and improve quality and production.

  18. Influencia de genes exóticos sobre la vida en estantería y el peso del fruto de tomate Influence of exotic genes on tomato fruit shelf life and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Pereira da Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Una característica importante en tomate cultivado (Solanum lycopersicum es la vida en estantería de los frutos (VE, que puede ser incrementada por incorporación de genes exóticos. Esta alternativa, sin embargo, implica una reducción en el peso (Pe. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la herencia de ambos caracteres en un cruzamiento interespecífico, para aplicar luego esta información básica al delineamiento de estrategias de mejoramiento genético. Se utilizaron la cultivar Caimanta, la accesión exótica LA722 (S. pimpinellifolium y las generaciones F1, F2, BC I.1 (F1 x LA722 y BC I.2 (Caimanta x F1. Se calcularon el grado de dominancia (d/a, la heredabilidad en sentido amplio (H² y la heredabilidad en sentido estricto (h² para Pe y VE, así como las correlaciones fenotípica (r f y genética (r g entre ellos. El d/a fue -1 y -0,86; H², 0,35 y 0,45; y h², 0 y 0,52, para Pe y VE respectivamente. La r f fue 0,36 (p Fruit shelf life (SL is an important trait in the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum that might be increased by introgressing exotic genes. However, this approach causes a reduction in fruit weight (W. The objective of this research was to analyse the inheritance patterns of both traits in an interspecific cross, in order to subsequently design the appropriate breeding strategy. Plant material included cv. Caimanta, accession LA722 of the exotic S. pimpinellifolium, and their F1, F2, BC I.1 (F1 x LA722 and BC I.2 (Caimanta x F1 generations. The genetic parameters, degree of dominance (d/a, broad sense heritability (H², and narrow sense heritability (h² were estimated for SL and W, and the phenotypic (r p and the genetic (r g correlations among them were calculated. The d/a were -1 and -0.86, H² were 0.35 and 0.45, and h² were 0 and 0.52, for W and SL respectively. The r p was 0.36 (p < 0.01 and r g was - 0.86. Genetic variance was generated for both fruit weight and shelf life from this interspecific tomato

  19. EVALUATING THE FRUIT PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF CHERRY TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DEL TOMATE CEREZA Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The greatest genetic diversity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. in terms of fruit quality characteristics such as flavor, aroma, color, and lycopene and b-carotene contents is found in wild species. This study evaluated the agronomic characteristics and fruit quality of 30 cherry tomato introductions of the germplasm bank of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira in trials conducted at the Montelindo experimental farm of the Universidad de Caldas (1010 m above sea level, average temperature 22.8 °C, average annual rainfall 2200 mm, 76% relative humidity. A 5 x 6 rectangular lattice experimental design was used with 30 treatments (introductions and a commercial control (Sweet Million, 4 replicates/treatment, and 5 plants/replicate as experimental unit. The descriptors used were those suggested by the former International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, now Bioversity International. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's means test using the SAS program. In addition, principal component and cluster dendrogram analyses using the SAS Princom and Cluster procedure (SAS Institute, Cary, NC were performed. Six principal components accounted for 80.39% of the morphological variability of the introductions evaluated. The most promising materials in terms of average fruit weight, yield per plant and per hectare, and soluble solids, vitamin C and lycopene contents were IAC1624, IAC391, IAC3652, LA2131, IAC424, IAC1621, IAC426, LA1480 and IAC1688. The broad phenotypic variability observed in the evaluated introductions favors the potential selection and breeding of tomato for traits associated with fruit production and quality.Resumen. La mayor diversidad genética del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en términos de características de calidad del fruto como sabor, aroma, coloración y contenidos de licopeno y b-caroteno se encuentra en especies silvestres. Este estudio evaluó las características agronómicas y

  20. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  1. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and composition of chromoplasts from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Linn U; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2005-08-24

    The fruit of the tomato plant is composed of elongated tomato cells filled with organelles called chromoplasts (plastids). These plastids scattered throughout the cell are rich in nutrients, particularly protein (33%) and lipids (20%). They can be released from the cells by rupture of their cell membranes and then isolated. Plastids and their cell contents can be utilized by the food-processing industry for the preparation of special food products. This study was designed to examine the macronutrient content of isolated tomato plastids and, therefore, determine its potential nutritional value. Use of tomato plastids in pasta sauces and rice dishes, salsa, and extrusion products would increase the nutritional value of the product. Because glucose has been removed in the process of plastid isolation, tomato plastids are useful in the diets of diabetics and cardiovascular patients, as well as for patients in need of weight reduction. Composition comparison of tomato plastid is made with tomato paste, from which glucose has not been removed. Many people require low-sugar products for medical reasons (diabetics and those with cardiovascular disease) and others for weight loss. Therefore, tomato chromoplasts having high protein and lipid contents and low sugar content may be useful in meeting these particular human needs.

  3. Growth and Yield Components of Tomato as Influenced by Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield of tomato, and later application in the growing stages favours fruit development, thus nitrogen has a dramatic effect on tomato growth and development ..... CRBD design in factorial experiment using SAS analytical Software. ..... with relatively fertile soil experimental conditions there is no existence of joint factor.

  4. field reactions of interspecific hybrids of tomato (solanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Leaf spot is a major disease of tomato causing reduction in fruit yield under humid environments. It's control using some of the major systemic fungicides available is environmentally unfriendly and costly. Heterosis known to increase productivity in crops was used to assess improvement in tomato yield and ...

  5. Two Members of the Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter Family, SlALMT4 and SlALMT5, are Expressed during Fruit Development, and the Overexpression of SlALMT5 Alters Organic Acid Contents in Seeds in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Nakano, Ryohei; Ushijima, Koichiro; Kubo, Yasutaka; Mori, Izumi C; Higashiizumi, Emi; Galis, Ivan; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-11-01

    The aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) family of proteins transports malate and/or inorganic anions across plant membranes. To demonstrate the possible role of ALMT genes in tomato fruit development, we focused on SlALMT4 and SlALMT5, the two major genes expressed during fruit development. Predicted proteins were classified into clade 2 of the family, many members of which localize to endomembranes. Tissue-specific gene expression was determined using transgenic tomato expressing the β-glucuronidase reporter gene controlled by their own promoters. Both the genes were expressed in vascular bundles connecting to developing seeds in fruit and in the embryo of mature seeds. Further, SlALMT5 was expressed in embryo in developing seeds in fruit. Subcellular localization of both proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was established by transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein fusions in plant protoplasts. SlALMT5 probably localized to other endomembranes as well. Localization of SlALMT5 to the ER was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The transport function of both SlALMT proteins was investigated electrophysiologically in Xenopus oocytes. SlALMT5 transported malate and inorganic anions such as nitrate and chloride, but not citrate. SlALMT4 also transported malate, but the results were less consistent perhaps because it did not localize strongly to the plasma membrane. To elucidate the physiological role of SlALMT5 further, we overexpressed SlALMT5 in tomato. Compared with the wild type, overexpressors exhibited higher malate and citrate contents in mature seeds, but not in fruit. We conclude that the malate transport function of SlALMT5 expressed in developing fruit influences the organic acid contents in mature seeds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  7. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of charantin from Momordica charantia fruits using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ahamad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae fruits are well known for their beneficial effects in diabetes that are often attributed to its bioactive component charantin. Objective: The aim of the present study is to develop and optimize an efficient protocol for the extraction of charantin from M. charantia fruits. Materials and Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM was used for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE conditions. RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD, and the studied variables included solid to solvent ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time. Results: The optimal conditions predicted by the BBD were: UAE with methanol: Water (80:20, v/v at 46°C for 120 min with solid to solvent ratio of 1:26 w/v, under which the yield of charantin was 3.18 mg/g. Confirmation trials under slightly adjusted conditions yielded 3.12 ± 0.14 mg/g of charantin on dry weight basis of fruits. The result of UAE was also compared with Soxhlet extraction method and UAE was found 2.74-fold more efficient than the Soxhlet extraction for extracting charantin. Conclusions:A facile UAE protocol for a high extraction yield of charantin was developed and validated.

  8. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of charantin from Momordica charantia fruits using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Javed; Amin, Saima; Mir, Showkat R

    2015-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are well known for their beneficial effects in diabetes that are often attributed to its bioactive component charantin. The aim of the present study is to develop and optimize an efficient protocol for the extraction of charantin from M. charantia fruits. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions. RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), and the studied variables included solid to solvent ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The optimal conditions predicted by the BBD were: UAE with methanol: Water (80:20, v/v) at 46°C for 120 min with solid to solvent ratio of 1:26 w/v, under which the yield of charantin was 3.18 mg/g. Confirmation trials under slightly adjusted conditions yielded 3.12 ± 0.14 mg/g of charantin on dry weight basis of fruits. The result of UAE was also compared with Soxhlet extraction method and UAE was found 2.74-fold more efficient than the Soxhlet extraction for extracting charantin. A facile UAE protocol for a high extraction yield of charantin was developed and validated.

  9. Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical

  10. The potential of endomycorrhizal fungi in controlling tomato bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... The impact of colonization by three mycorrhizal fungi on tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia ... Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) were tested. (Glomus ...... management of fruits and vegetables. Vol.

  11. Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de tomate cv. Andréa tratados com etileno Postharvest quality of tomato fruits cv. Andréa treated with ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Andreuccetti

    2007-03-01

    extremely desirable. The present work was carried out aiming to evaluate postharvest quality of roma-type tomatoes treated with ethylene. 'Andréa' tomatoes were harvested in commercial fields at the mature-green stage, were graded for size and color, and treated with ethylene (100 µL L-1 for 48 hours at 20º±1ºC and relative humidity of 90±5%. The experiments were carried out using a completely randomized design with four treatments and fifteen replicates (n=10. After ethylene application, tomatoes were stored at two temperatures. One lot remained at 20º±1ºC and another one was kept at 12.5º±1ºC and relative humidity of 90±5%. Control fruits were kept in the same storage conditions of temperature and relative humidity. For each maturity color change, the following analyses were carried out: color indexes (L *, a* and the b * and its relations, water loss (%, soluble solids (ºBrix, titratable acidity (g 100g-1, and ascorbic acid (mg 100g-1. Ethylene application promoted color uniformity in treated fruits. However, there were no significant changes in the other postharvest variables evaluated. Fruits stored at 20ºC showed 2.6% of mass loss during storage. Brix/titratable ratio showed slight variation throughout the experiment. Control fruits stored at 20ºC changed external color earlier than other treatments in the beginning of the trial, showing no significant difference after that. Postharvest ethylene application was not an efficient technique to hasten ripening of 'Andréa' tomatoes.

  12. LICOPENE AND Β-CAROTENE IN TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kondratieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high antioxidant activity in tomato fruits is caused not only by sufficient content of vitamin C and polyphenols but also the carotenoids and the fat soluble antioxidants. Lycopene and beta-carotene are the main fat-soluble antioxidants, the consumption of which influences positively on human’s health. It is known that tomato fruits are the source of lycopene for human diet, providing up to 85% of the total lycopene in food. The breeding program for tomato cultivars with high content of carotenoids is a very important task for breeders. In our study the content of betacarotene and lycopene was assessed in 18 tomato accessions with red, pink, yellow and orange fruits obtained in Solanaceae Breeding Laboratory at VNIISSOK. All plants were grown in experimental open field in Odintsovo region, Moscow oblast, VNIISSOK. It was revealed that the typical concentration ratio of lycopene to beta-carotene for pink and red fruits was 1.5 to 10.25, but for yellow and orange fruits was 0 to 0.63. Highest ratio was observed in red fruits in line 230-16. The highest lycopene content was found in red fruits of tree type tomato lines 198-16 and 86F1 (11.5 and 8.7 g/100g. respectively. The highest content of betacarotene was in yellow fruits of line 53-16 F1 (4.1 mg/100g and orange fruits of line 184-16 (6.2 mg/100g. All studied accessions with orange fruits had the higher content of beta-carotene than in standard and highest content of lycopene in this group of accessions. Thus, these fruits had the high nutritional value. The balanced content of lycopene and beta-carotene and low acidity in pink and yellow-orange tomato fruits makes these cultivars the most valuable for children’s diet and people with problems of digestive system.

  13. Isolation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch – A response surface methodology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yee Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work studied the extraction of Nano Crystalline Cellulose (NCC from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB, with aid of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Particle size analysis using Malvern Zetasizer had confirmed the extracted NCC fall within the desired nano scaled range. The impact of three input parameters, namely concentration of NaOH solution during alkaline treatment, concentration of H2SO4 solution during acid hydrolysis, and duration for acid hydrolysis on NCC particle were investigated. From ANOVA study, it had suggested that the current RSM model is significant to interpret the interaction among the all three input parameters.

  14. CHEMICAL ESSAY ON TOMATO FRUIT BORER Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guennée, 1854 ENSAIO PARA O CONTROLE QUÍMICO DA BROCA PEQUENA Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guennée 1854 (Pyralidae Lepidoptera DO TOMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciso Albuquerque de Farias

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A trial was carried out in Goiânia-Go, Brazil, to verify the effect of several insecticides on tomato fruit borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenné, 1854. The treatments and active ingredient per hectare were: 1-cypermethrin, 130 g; 2-diclorvos, 312.5 g; 3- diazinon 250 g; 4- diazinon 30 g and 5- cartap 312.5 g. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four replications being each plot constituted of two rows with 10 plants. The insecticides were applied four times at seven days intervals. The results showed that all the treatments were efficient to control the tomato fruit borer. The best results were obtained with cartap, 90.9% of the control, followed by cypermethrin with 88.2% of control.

    Para controle da broca pequena do fruto do tomate Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guennée, 1854, foi realizado no campo experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, um experimento em tomateiro, cultivar Kadá, visando a avaliar em campo a eficiência dos inseticidas: cypermethrin (Polydial 20 CE – 130 g. i.a./ha; diclorvos (Nuvan 1000 CE - 312,5 g. i.a./ha; diazinon (Diazinon 40 PM 250 g. i.a,/ha; diazinon (Diazinon 600 CE 300 g. i.a/ha, comparados com cartap (Cartap BR 500 - 312,5 g. i.a. e uma testemunha. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída de duas linhas com dez plantas. Foram realizadas quatro aplicações, sendo uma a cada semana, a partir do surgimento dos primeiros frutos. A avaliação dos resultados foi realizada por ocasião da primeira produção, quando todos os frutos das parcelas foram colhidos para se detectar quantos estavam brocados. Os resultados obtidos no presente experimento mostraram que houve diferença estatística significativa entre os produtos

  15. Isolation, identification, and biocontrol of antagonistic bacterium against Botrytis cinerea after tomato harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Shi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tomato is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Decay after harvest is a major issue in the development of tomato industry. Currently, the most effective method for controlling decay after harvest is storage of tomato at low temperature combined with usage of chemical bactericide; however, long-term usage of chemical bactericide not only causes pathogen resistance but also is harmful for human health and environment. Biocontrol method for the management of disease after tomato harvest has great practical significance. In this study, antagonistic bacterium B-6-1 strain was isolated from the surface of tomato and identified as Enterobacter cowanii based on morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical features combined with sequence analysis of 16SrDNA and ropB gene and construction of dendrogram. Effects of different concentrations of antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii suspension on antifungal activity after tomato harvest were analyzed by mycelium growth rate method. Results revealed that antifungal activity was also enhanced with increasing concentrations of antagonistic bacterium; inhibitory rates of 1 × 105 colony-forming units (cfu/mL antagonistic bacterial solution on Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria tenuissima, and Botrytis cinerea were 46.31%, 67.48%, and 75.67%, respectively. By using in vivo inoculation method, it was further confirmed that antagonistic bacterium could effectively inhibit the occurrence of B. cinerae after tomato harvest, biocontrol effect of 1 × 109 cfu/mL zymotic fluid reached up to 95.24%, and antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii has biocontrol potential against B. cinerea after harvest of fruits and vegetables.

  16. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: peach fruit as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero-Prado, Pablo; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; Del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Cristina; Val, Jesús; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica 'Calrico') is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic and p-coumaric acids). Trichomes were covered by a thin cuticular layer containing 15% waxes and 19% cutin and were filled by polysaccharide material (63%) containing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The surface free energy, polarity, and work of adhesion of intact and shaved peach surfaces were calculated from contact angle measurements of water, glycerol, and diiodomethane. The removal of the trichomes from the surface increased polarity from 3.8% (intact surface) to 23.6% and decreased the total surface free energy chiefly due to a decrease on its nonpolar component. The extraction of waxes and the removal of trichomes led to higher fruit dehydration rates. However, trichomes were found to have a higher water sorption capacity as compared with isolated cuticles. The results show that the peach surface is composed of two different materials that establish a polarity gradient: the trichome network, which has a higher surface free energy and a higher dispersive component, and the cuticle underneath, which has a lower surface free energy and higher surface polarity. The significance of the data concerning water-plant surface interactions is discussed within a physiological context.

  17. Produção e qualidade de frutos de tomateiro cultivado em substrato com zeólita Yield and fruit quality of tomato grown in substrate with zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto C. de Campos Bernardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção e a qualidade dos frutos de tomateiro cv. Finestra, cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com N, P e K. Os tratamentos utilizados foram quatro doses (20; 40; 80 e 160 g por vaso de zeólitas enriquecidas com H3PO4/apatita, KNO3 e KH2PO4, além de uma testemunha cultivada em solução nutritiva. Foram avaliados a produção de frutos por vaso, firmeza, sólidos totais, pH, acidez titulável e ácido ascórbico dos frutos, dos 80 aos 90 dias de cultivo. O fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita enriquecido com N, P e K comprovou ser uma alternativa para o aumento da produção. As maiores produções foram obtidas nos tratamentos com adição de P e K e nas maiores doses de zeólita (160 e 80 g por vaso. A produção de frutos foi 11 a 17% maior em relação à testemunha cultivada com solução nutritiva. Houve efeitos positivos das zeólitas enriquecidas com fontes de fósforo sobre a firmeza e efeito negativo sobre o pH. A firmeza dos frutos variou 104% entre tratamentos, de 7,06 N (ZNK 160 a 14,38 (ZPK 40. O aumento da disponibilidade de potássio contribuiu para o aumento do teor de ácido ascórbico dos frutos.We evaluated yield and quality of tomato fruits, cv. Finestra, grown in a zeolite substrate enriched with N, P and K. Treatments comprised four levels (20; 40; 80 and 160 g per pot of zeolite enriched with H3PO4/apatite, KNO3 and KH2PO4, and a control grown in a nutrient solution. Fruit production, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were evaluated from 80 to 90 days of plant cultivation. Nutrients supplied through the mineral zeolite enriched with N, P and K was an adequate alternative to increase the production. Higher fruit production was obtained with addition of P and K and higher zeolite dosis (160 and 80 g per pot. Fruit production was 11% and 17% higher when compared to the plants grown in nutritive solution (check treatment. Positive effects

  18. Rapid, accurate and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    OpenAIRE

    Bicanic, D.D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice...

  19. Enhanced flux of substrates into polyamine biosynthesis but not ethylene in tomato fruit engineered with yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Lasanajak; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha; Ravinder Goyal; Tahira Fatima; Avtar K. Handa; Autar K. Mattoo

    2014-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a major substrate in 1-C metabolism is a common precursor in the biosynthetic pathways of polyamines and ethylene, two important plant growth regulators, which exhibit opposing developmental effects, especially during fruit ripening. However, the flux of various substrates including SAM into the two competing pathways in...

  20. Produção do tomateiro em função dos sistemas de condução de plantas Fruits production of tomatoes as a result of plant training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fernando Wamser

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos métodos de tutoramento e de condução de plantas sobre a produtividade e qualidade de frutos em quatro cultivares de tomate. Dois experimentos foram realizados nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06 em Caçador (SC. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação de duas cultivares (Carmen e Débora Max, em 2004/05, e Nemo Netta e San Vito, em 2005/06, quatro métodos de tutoramento (cruzado, mexicano, vertical com bambu e vertical com fitilho e dois métodos de condução de plantas (com uma e duas hastes por planta mantendo o mesmo número de hastes por área, dispostos no delineamento de parcelas sub-subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Não houve interação entre cultivar, método de tutoramento e de condução. O método de tutoramento vertical com bambu foi superior aos demais métodos e todos os métodos de condução vertical foram superiores ao método cruzado na produção total e comercial de frutos. A condução de uma haste por planta obteve maior produção total e comercial de frutos, em relação à condução de duas hastes por planta.The effect of plant staking and training methods was studied on fruit yield and quality of four tomato cultivars. Two experiments were carried out in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, in Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The treatments were a combination of two cultivars (Carmen and Débora Max, in 2004/05, and Nemo Netta and San Vito, in 2005/06, four staking methods (crossed fence, Mexican, vertical staking with bamboo and vertical staking with polypropylene cord and two training methods (one and two stems per plant keeping the same number of stems per area, using the sub subplots experimental design. There was no statistical interaction between cultivars, training methods and among staking methods. The vertical staking with bamboo increased the production of fruits, when compared with other staking methods, and all vertical-staking methods increased

  1. Effects of cutting and maturity on antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits harvested at three different stages of maturity were cut into 7-mm thick slices and stored at 5°C. Intact (control) fruits were stored in the same conditions. The antioxidant activity was

  2. Effects of cutting and maturity on antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the changes in total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits harvested at three different stages of maturity were cut into 7-mm thick slices and stored at 5 °C. Intact fruits were stored in the same conditions as a control. The antioxidant activity was

  3. Differentiated surface fungal communities at point of harvest on apple fruits from rural and peri-urban orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youming; Nie, Jiyun; Li, Zhixia; Li, Haifei; Wu, Yonglong; Dong, Yafeng; Zhang, Jianyi

    2018-02-01

    The diverse fungal communities that colonize fruit surfaces are closely associated with fruit development, preservation and quality control. However, the overall fungi adhering to the fruit surface and the inference of environmental factors are still unknown. Here, we characterized the fungal signatures on apple surfaces by sequencing internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. We collected the surface fungal communities from apple fruits cultivated in rural and peri-urban orchards. A total of 111 fungal genera belonging to 4 phyla were identified, showing remarkable fungal diversity on the apple surface. Comparative analysis of rural samples harboured higher fungal diversity than those from peri-urban orchards. In addition, fungal composition varied significantly across apple samples. At the genus level, the protective genera Coniothyrium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Periconia were enriched in rural samples. The pathogenic genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Tilletiposis were enriched in peri-urban samples. Our findings indicate that rural samples maintained more diverse fungal communities on apple surfaces, whereas peri-urban-planted apple carried potential pathogenic risks. This study sheds light on ways to improve fruit cultivation and disease prevention practices.

  4. Direct surface plasmon resonance immunosensing of pyraclostrobin residues in untreated fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriz, E; García-Fernández, C; Mercader, J V; Abad-Fuentes, A; Escuela, A M; Lechuga, L M

    2012-12-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay for on-line detection of the strobilurin fungicide pyraclostrobin in untreated fruit juices is presented. The analysis of pyraclostrobin residues is accomplished in apple, grape, and cranberry samples by monitoring the recognition events occurring separately in a two-channel home-made SPR biosensor. Covalent coupling of the analyte derivative results in a reversible method, enabling more than 80 measurements on the same sensor surface. Optimization of the immunoassay conditions provides limits of detection as low as 0.16 μg L(-1). The selectivity and reproducibility of the analysis is ensured by studying both non-specific interactions with unrelated compounds and inter-assay coefficients of variation. Excellent recovery ranging from 98 to 103% was achieved by a simple 1:5 dilution of fruit juice with assay buffer before the analysis. The lack of previous cleaning and homogenization procedures reduces the analysis time of a single food sample to only 25 min, including the regeneration cycle.

  5. Greenhouse tomato production with electricity generation by roof-mounted flexible solar panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena-Sanchez, Raul; Callejon-Ferre, Angel Jesus; Perez-Alonso, Jose; Carreno-Ortega, Angel [University of Almeria, Depto. de Ingenieia Rural, Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: acallejo@ual.es

    2012-07-15

    The integration of renewable energy sources into greenhouse crop production in southeastern Spain could provide extra income for growers. Wind energy could be captured by small to medium-sized wind turbines, gas could be produced from biomass, and solar energy could be gathered by solar panels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flexible solar panels, mounted on top of a greenhouse for electricity production, on yield and fruit quality of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv Daniela). This study was undertaken in a commercial raspa y amagado greenhouse, typical of the Almeria region (Spain). Tomato plantlets were planted at a density of 0.75 plants m{sup -2}. The flexible solar panels were mounted on two parts of the roof in different arrangements (T1 and T2), each blacking out 9.8 % of its surface area. A control area (T0 arrangement) was fitted with no panels. No difference was found in terms of total or marketable production under these three arrangements, although fruit mean mass and maximum diameter of T0 were significantly greater than T1 and T2. Fruit in T0 matured earlier with more intense color compared with those in T1 and T2. However, these differences had no effect on price as the tomatoes produced under three conditions fell into the same commercial class (G class; diameter 67-81 mm). Solar panels covering 9.8 % roof area of the greenhouse did not affect yield and price of tomatoes despite of their negative effect on fruit size and color. (author)

  6. Effects of deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying on soil and plant water status, stomatal conductance, plant growth and water use efficiency in tomato during early fruiting stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Shahnazari, Ali; Jacobsen, S.-E.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 'partial root-zone drying' (PRD), compared with full irrigation (FI) and deficit irrigation (DI), on soil and plant water status, plant growth and water use efficiency (WUE) were investigated in potted tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Cedrico) at the early fruiting stage...... system, and the irrigated side of the plants was reversed when volumetric soil water content ( ) of the dry side had decreased to 6%. of FI was about 14%. of DI decreased during the first 4-5 days after the onset of treatment (DAT) and was about 7% and 6% thereafter for DI-70 and DI-50, respectively....... of the wet side in PRD-70 declined during 3-6 DAT and was lower than that of FI by 4-6% thereafter. in both wet and dry sides of PRD-50 was slightly lower than that for PRD-70. After 5 DAT, midday leaf water potential was significantly lower in DI and PRD than in FI plants. FI plants had the highest leaf...

  7. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  8. Airborne soil particulates as vehicles for Salmonella contamination of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Govindaraj Dev; Williams, Robert C; Al Qublan, Hamzeh M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyer, Renee R; Eifert, Joseph D

    2017-02-21

    The presence of dust is ubiquitous in the produce growing environment and its deposition on edible crops could occur. The potential of wind-distributed soil particulate to serve as a vehicle for S. Newport transfer to tomato blossoms and consequently, to fruits, was explored. Blossoms were challenged with previously autoclaved soil containing S. Newport (9.39log CFU/g) by brushing and airborne transfer. One hundred percent of blossoms brushed with S. Newport-contaminated soil tested positive for presence of the pathogen one week after contact (PCompressed air was used to simulate wind currents and direct soil particulates towards blossoms. Airborne soil particulates resulted in contamination of 29% of the blossoms with S. Newport one week after contact. Biophotonic imaging of blossoms post-contact with bioluminescent S. Newport-contaminated airborne soil particulates revealed transfer of the pathogen on petal, stamen and pedicel structures. Both fruits and calyxes that developed from blossoms contaminated with airborne soil particulates were positive for presence of S. Newport in both fruit (66.6%) and calyx (77.7%). Presence of S. Newport in surface-sterilized fruit and calyx tissue tested indicated internalization of the pathogen. These results show that airborne soil particulates could serve as a vehicle for Salmonella. Hence, Salmonella contaminated dust and soil particulate dispersion could contribute to pathogen contamination of fruit, indicating an omnipresent yet relatively unexplored contamination route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. TAI vacuolar invertase orthologs: the interspecific variability in tomato plants (Solanum section Lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugina, M A; Shchennikova, A V; Kochieva, E Z

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh tomato fruit represents an ideal system for examining the role of sucrose cleavage enzymes in fruit development, and wild tomato species differing in storage sugars serve as an excellent research material for this purpose. Plant vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in the sink organs. In the present study, we identified complete gene sequences encoding the TAI vacuolar invertase in 11 wild and one cultivated tomato accessions of the Solanum section Lycopersicon. The average level of interspecific polymorphism in TAI genes was 8.58%; however, in the green-fruited tomatoes, the TAI genes contained 100 times more SNPs than those in the red-fruited accessions. The TAI proteins demonstrated 8% variability, whereas the red-fruited species had none. A TAI-based phylogenetic tree revealed two main clusters containing self-compatible and self-incompatible species, which concurs with the previous crossability-based division and demonstrates that the TAI genes reflect the evolutionary relationships between the red- and green-fruited tomatoes. Furthermore, we detected differential expression patterns of the TAI genes in the fruits of wild and cultivated tomatoes, which corresponded to sugar composition. The polymorphism analysis of the TAI acid invertases of Solanum section Lycopersicon species will contribute to the understanding of the genetic potential of TAI genes to impact tomato breeding through genetic engineering of the carbohydrate composition in the fruit.

  10. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce: Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-04-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  12. Comparative morphological analysis of cherry tomato fruits from three cropping systems Análise morfológica comparativa de frutos tomate cereja provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cachoeira Stertz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet produces market demand are not always followed by research reports showing the impact of novel, intensive cropping systems on the environment, human and animal health, and eventual chemical and structural changes of plants. This work carries a comparative evaluation of the morphology and anatomy of cherry tomato fruits obtained from organic, conventional and hydroponic cropping systems. Fruits were collected at the free market in the greater Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. For each culture method, 50 fruits their weight, diameter and volume measured. For the anatomical analysis, samples of the pericarp of ten fruits were excised and embedded in glycol methacrylate; 6-mm cuts were then obtained, stained with toluidine blue, and mounted on permanent glass slides. The anatomical analysis and illustrations were performed in Olympus and Zeiss photonic microscope. Samples obtained from the organic cropping system presented the highest mass, diameter, volume and density. The pericarp of fruits, obtained from the conventional cropping system presented larger but less abundant cells in comparison to the pericarp of the hydroponic and organic-produced fruits.A ciência agrícola buscou novas formas de cultivo para atender às exigências de mercado e dividiu-se em três grandes vertentes: os sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Todavia, esses avanços nem sempre foram acompanhados por pesquisas que objetivassem apontar o impacto de uma nova técnica agrícola sobre o ambiente, a saúde humana e animal e aos próprios vegetais em seus aspectos químicos e estruturais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo comparativo da morfo-anatomia do fruto do Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Duval A. Gray, cultivado nos sistemas orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Os frutos foram coletados no comércio varejista da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Para cada cultivo foram analisados 50 frutos. Cada

  13. A simulation model of distributions of radiational flux at leaf surfaces in crowns of fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-model was constructed for estimating distributions with time of radiational fluxes at leaf surfaces throughout fruit tree canopies in which leaves did not distribute uniformely in three dimensional space. Several assumptions were set up to construct the model for approximation of using solid geometry. For irregular distribution of leaf area in three dimensional space data were used in the simulation as number of leaves per internal cubic bloc of a cubic grid (n-divided per side). Several main parameters used were peculiar to fruit species which contain parameters (λ, ν) of Beta function to calculate both probability density function of leaf area distribution with respect to inclination angle and leaf extinction coefficient for parallel beam by leaves parameters (A, R i ) to calculate stem extinction coefficient for parallel beam, and parameters (D i ) to calculate leaf extinction coefficient of downward transmission and downward reflection. With these data and parameters solid geometry and Lambert-Beer's law constituted this model

  14. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  15. Genetic difference in macro-element mineral concentrations among 52 historically important tomato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit quality and yield are highly dependent on adequate uptake of nutrients. Potassium, magnesium and calcium are essential elements that influence fruit quality traits such as color, uniformity of ripening, hollow fruit, fruit shape, firmness, and acidity. Sodium is n...

  16. [Effects of different patterns surface mulching on soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in an apple orchard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Hao, Ming-De; She, Xiao-Yan

    2010-02-01

    Taking a nine-year-old Fuji apple orchard in Loess Plateau as test object, this paper studied the effects of different patterns surface mulching (clean tillage, grass cover, plastic film mulch, straw mulch, and gravel mulch) on the soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in this orchard. Grass cover induced the lowest differentiation of soil moisture profile, while gravel mulch induced the highest one. In treatment gravel mulch, the soil moisture content in apple trees root zone was the highest, which meant that there was more water available to apple trees. Surface mulching had significant effects on soil temperature, and generally resulted in a decrease in the maximum soil temperature. The exception was treatment plastic film mulch, in which, the soil temperature in summer exceeded the maximum allowable temperature for continuous root growth and physiological function. With the exception of treatment plastic film mulch, surface mulching increased the soil CO2 flux, which was the highest in treatment grass cover. Surface mulching also affected the proportion of various branch types and fruit yield. The proportion of medium-sized branches and fruit yield were the highest in treatment gravel mulch, while the fruit yield was the lowest in treatment grass cover. Factor analysis indicated that among the test surface mulching patterns, gravel mulch was most suitable for the apple orchards in gully region of Loess Plateau.

  17. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  18. Genetic diversity among some productive genotypes of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... weight, cluster VIII had highest number of locules per fruit, fruit yield per plant and yield per hectare and cluster XVII was .... Cluster means for yield and quality contributing characters of 60 genotypes of tomato. Cluster lycopene β- ..... Sharma JP, Singh AK, Satesh K, Sanjeev K. (2009). Identification of.

  19. High pigment tomato mutants - more than just lycopene (a review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, I.; Vos, de C.H.; Tadmor, Y.; Bovy, A.G.; Lieberman, M.; Oren-Shamir, M.; Segev, O.; Kolotilin, I.; Keller, M.; Ovadia, R.; Meir, A.; Bino, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit constitutes a major component of our diet, providing fiber, vitamins, minerals, and many phytonutrients that promote good health. Fleshy fruits such as tomatoes already contain high levels of several of these ingredients. Nevertheless, efforts have been invested in increasing and diversifying

  20. Mutation effect of ion implantation on tomato breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Baoshan; Ling Haiqiu; Mao Peihong; Jin Xiang; Zeng Xianxian

    2003-01-01

    The mutation effects of N + ion implantation on cultivated tomato, Catchup type and Eatable type were studied. The result show that the mutation ranges of single-fruit weight and fruit number per plant were increased and their mutation frequencies were high, however the effect of ion implantation on germination rate of seed and quality of fruit was very weak. Using doses of 4 x 10 16 and 6 x 10 16 N + /cm 2 , the yield was greatly improved. The optimum mutation dosage was slightly different for seed of 2 tomato lines

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on storage time of tomatoes in three different stages of ripending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbek, N.; Ozbilgin, S.; Aysan, P.; Celen, H.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of g-irradiation on storage time of tomatoes was studied and tomatoes of Diego variety in three different stages of ripening were used for the experiment. Green-mature tomatoes were treated with 100 and 200 krad, pink (half-mature) tomatoes were treated with 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 krad doses of gamma rays respectively. After irradiation the tomatoes were stored in a room where the temperature was kept at 22 C with a humidity of 65%. During storage period color changes, softening, spoilage and molding of the fruits were controlled daily, weight loss measurements and all necessary chemical analysis were made periodically. (author)

  2. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  3. Salinity and ripening on/off the plant effects on lycopene synthesis and chlorophyll breakdown in hybrid Raf tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-González, María J.; Schouten, Rob E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Cruz Sánchez-Guerrero, M.; Medrano, Evangelina; Rio-Celestino, del Mercedes; Lorenzo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiology of fruit colour in tomato as affected by salinity and ripening on and off the plant. Chlorophyll and lycopene levels were repeatedly measured in ninety Raf tomatoes over a period of eight days using remittance spectroscopy. Fruits were

  4. Effects of cutting and maturity on lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomatoes during storage at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Dekker, M.; Linssen, R.F.A.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits at different stages of maturity were cut into 7 mm slices and stored at temperatures varying from 2°C to 16°C. To assess the effect of cutting, intact fruit were stored in an additional experiment

  5. Effect of Temperature, Time, and Material Thickness on the Dehydration Process of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. K. Correia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature, time, and thickness of tomatoes fruits during adiabatic drying process. Dehydration, a simple and inexpensive process compared to other conservation methods, is widely used in the food industry in order to ensure a long shelf life for the product due to the low water activity. This study aimed to obtain the best processing conditions to avoid losses and keep product quality. Factorial design and surface response methodology were applied to fit predictive mathematical models. In the dehydration of tomatoes through the adiabatic process, temperature, time, and sample thickness, which greatly contribute to the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product, were evaluated. The optimum drying conditions were 60°C with the lowest thickness level and shorter time.

  6. Resíduos de frutos de pequi no controle do nematóide das galhas em tomateiro Pequi fruit waste in the control of root-knot nematodes in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson B Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    ão indicativos de fitotoxicidade.The exocarp and external mesocarp of pequi fruit are discarded during the extraction of internal mesocarp which is the commercial part used as food. The objective of this research was to study the use of aqueous extract and of pequi ground-powder to the control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica. From ground pequi fruit exocarp and external mesocarp were obtained the aquaeous extract and powder. Five doses of aquaeous extract (0.0; 2.5; 5; 10 or 20% were evaluated on root-knot nematode J2 (second stage juvenile hatching and mortality. The assays were carried out in entirely randomized design with 10 replications. The hatching assay was set in Petri plates with 800 nematode eggs and 10 mL of different doses of extract. During 14 days we counted the number of hatched juveniles under optical microscope. The mortality assay of root-knot nematode was evaluated putting 100 µL of each dose of extract plus 20 µL of supension containing 20 J2 in each cell Elisa plate. After 24 h was counted the number of live and dead juveniles. The pequi powder was tested in tomato plants in greenhouse in four doses (0; 7.5; 15 or 30 g/4 kg of soil in randomized blocks design with 10 replications per treatment. The pequi powder was incorporated to the soil seven days before transplanting and nematode eggs inoculation was carried out after transplanting. After 40 days we evaluated the number of galls, egg masses, eggs/root and J2 per 200 cm³ soil and the tomato shoot dry weight and height. The aquaeous extract reduced J2 hatching and increased J2 mortality. The increased application of powder doses reduced the number of galls, egg masses and eggs of root-knot nematodes per root system and the tomato shoot dry weight being a good indication of phytotoxicity.

  7. Surface survival and internalization of salmonella through natural cracks on developing cantaloupe fruits, alone or in the presence of the melon wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Gautam

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of foodborne illness attributed to the consumption of Salmonella-tainted cantaloupe have occurred repeatedly, but understanding of the ecology of Salmonella on cantaloupe fruit surfaces is limited. We investigated the interactions between Salmonella enterica Poona, the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia tracheiphila, and cantaloupe fruit. Fruit surfaces were inoculated at the natural cracking stage by spreading S. enterica and E. tracheiphila, 20 µl at 107 cfu/ml, independently or together, over a 2×2 cm rind area containing a crack. Microbial and microscopic analyses were performed at 0, 9 and 24 days post inoculation (DPI. Even at 24 DPI (fruit maturity S. enterica was detected on 14% and 40% of the fruit inoculated with S. enterica alone and the two-pathogen mixture, respectively. However, the population of S. enterica declined gradually after initial inoculation. E. tracheiphila, inoculated alone or together with Salmonella, caused watersoaked lesions on cantaloupe fruit; but we could not conclude in this study that S. enterica survival on the fruit surface was enhanced by the presence of those lesions. Of fruit inoculated with E. tracheiphila alone and sampled at 24 DPI, 61% had watersoaked lesions on the surface. In nearly half of those symptomatic fruits the watersoaking extended into the sub-rind mesocarp, and E. tracheiphila was recovered from that tissue in 50% of the symptomatic fruit. In this work, E. tracheiphila internalized through natural cracks on developing fruits. S. enterica was never detected in the fruit interior (ca. 2-3 mm below rind surface under the limited conditions of our experiments, but the possibility that it, or other human pathogens that contaminate fresh produce, might also do so should be investigated under a wider range of conditions and produce types.

  8. Zesty Tomato Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/zestytomatosoup.html Zesty Tomato Soup To use the sharing features on this page, ... Number of Servings: 4 Not your traditional tomato soup, this quick-cooking dish can be a side ...

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes. Fresh fully ripen tomatoes were washed and cut in thin slices with sterilized stainless steel knife and divided into two lots, one was taken as control and other was dipped in 3% potassium meta bisulfite solution for 5 minutes. The samples were spread over stainless steel trays covered with muslin cloth and kept in solar dehydrator for 5 days at 55 +- 2 deg. C. The physicochemical analyses were carried out in both dried and fresh (control) tomatoes. They were also analyzed microbiologically for bacterial and fugal count. Results showed that sun dried tomatoes are microbiologically safe. The values of moisture content and vitamin C of fresh and sun dried tomatoes statistically differ from each others at probability level of 5 %. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. In fresh tomatoes it was 32.5 mg/100 g which is reduced to 24.6 mg/100 g after sun drying and further reduced to 15.86 mg/100 g during three months storage. The moisture content of the fresh tomatoes was 94.4% which decreased to 8.15% after drying, and then slowly increased to 9.95% in the three months storage. Statistically no major difference was found in the other nutrients during storage, which indicates that sun drying is nutritionally and microbiologically safe and can be used to preserve tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables for off season use. (author)

  10. Organic fertilizer and its effects on the growth and development of tomato crop (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Luna Murillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are one of the alternatives in the group of products used in sustainable agri-culture, mainly what is obtained from organic sources of recyclable nature as compost and vermicompost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of organic fertilizers on the growth and development of tomato plants. The treatments were vermicompost, water hyacinth, and the combination 50 % vermicompost and 50 % water hyacinth control, using a completely randomized design with five replicates. The work was conducted at the Experimental Center La Playita, belonging to the Technical University of Cotopaxi La Maná extension and plant height, number of fruits, fruit diameter, fruit weight was measured. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers in tomato plant height stimulated with 114.64 cm, number of fruits with 4.08 fruits, fruit diameter with 7.96 mm and weight of 226.50 g fruits, tomato plants

  11. Chemical and physical characterization of fruits of different tomato accessions in the greenhouse. = Caracterização química e física de frutos de diferentes acessos de tomateiro em casa de vegetação.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataiza de Andrade Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon is cultivated on a large scale in Brazil and worldwide. Due to the fact that it has a relatively short cycle and higher yields, the tomato crop has good economic prospects and the cultivated area is increasing dayle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of fruits of different tomato accessions in the greenhouse conditions in Boa Vista-RR. The following accessions were evaluated: 18 (cherry tomato, 209 (cherry tomato,243 (CNPH 738, 101 (tomato Santa Cruz - KADA, 102 (tomato Yoshimatsu, and 246 (CNPH 0171. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The fruit at the point of harvest, were collected properly identified and evaluated for the following characteristics: vitamin C content, pH, acidity, soluble solids, soluble solids /acidity, fresh, transverse and longitudinal diameter of the fruit, the pericarp thickness and dry matter content. The data were subjected to variance analysis and means were compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Except for the variable content of soluble solids, the other variables showed statistical differences. All accesses have attributes suitable for eating raw. With the exception of access 101 and 102 due to high pH (Access 101 and low dry matter content (access 101 and 102, others have attributes suitable for industrial processing.=O tomate (Solanum lycopersicon é cultivado em grande escala na agricultura brasileira sendo uma das culturasmais difundidas em todo mundo. Por se tratar de uma cultura de ciclo relativamente curto e de altos rendimentos, a culturado tomate tem boas perspectivas econômicas e a área cultivada vem aumentando a cada dia. Objetivou-se com este trabalhoavaliar as características físicas e químicas de frutos de diferentes acessos de tomateiro nas condições de casa de vegetação emBoa Vista-RR. Foram avaliados seis acessos, sendo: 18 (tomate cereja

  12. Pepino mosaic virus, a first report of a virus infecting tomato in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV occurring in tomato plants grown in plastic greenhouses in a Mediterranean city in Syria. One tomato fruit from sixty samples tested positive for this virus by DAS-ELISA. Biotest assay, RT-PCR, and sequencing confirmed the presence of PepMV. The highest sequence identity of the Syrian isolate was with the EU-tomato strains of PepMV.

  13. Seleção de atrativos alimentares e toxicidade de inseticidas para o manejo da broca-pequena-do-tomateiro Selection of attractive food sources and toxicity of insecticides in tomato fruit borer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria de França

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência alimentar, o limiar de ingestão e efeito tóxico inseticidas associados atrativos, em adultos Neoleucinodes elegantalis. Foram testados os atrativos: melado e mel a 10%, extrato hexânico de frutos verdes de tomate a 0,4%, sacarose a 5%, suco de laranja e suco de uva a 30%, vinagre de vinho tinto a 10% e proteína hidrolisada a 5%. Com base no teste de preferência alimentar, foram selecionados os atrativos sacarose, melado, mel e suco de laranja, para determinar o limiar de concentração capaz de estimular a alimentação de adultos de N. elegantalis. Foi testado o efeito tóxico de inseticidas associados ao mel a 10%. A sacarose e o mel apresentaram o melhor resultado em relação ao número de pousos e ao tempo de pouso e de alimentação de adultos de N. elegantalis. Os inseticidas não afetaram negativamente a atração pelo alimento dos adultos de N. elegantalis. Carbaril, cartape, deltametrina, fenpropatrina, indoxacarbe, lambda-cialotrina e lufenurom provocaram 100% de mortalidade em adultos (machos + fêmeas, após 24 horas de exposição, e mostraram-se promissores para o uso em iscas tóxicas.This work aimed at evaluating the food preference, threshold of intake and toxic effect insecticides associated with attractive sources on adults Neoleucinodes elegantalis. The following attractive food sources were tested: molasses and honey at 10%, hexanic extract of green tomato fruits at 0.4%, sucrose at 5%, orange and grape juice at 30%, red wine vinegar at 10%, and hydrolyzed protein at 5% concentration. Based on the food preference test, sucrose, molasses, honey, and orange juice were selected to determine the threshold concentration capable of stimulating feeding in N. elegantalis adults. The toxic effect of insecticides added to honey at 10% was also tested. Sucrose and honey had the best results in terms of number of landings, landing time, and feeding time of adults of N

  14. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  15. Assessment of changes in optical properties of fresh-cut tomato using video image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Theije, A.; Hogenkamp, M.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Belissimo) at different stages of maturity were sliced in 7-mm thick transverse slices and stored at 5 °C. In a second experiment, slices obtained from fruit at the light-red stage were stored at temperatures from 5 to 13 °C. Intact control fruit were stored

  16. Transgenic overexpression of expansin influences particle size distribution and improves viscosity of tomato juice and paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalamaki, M.S.; Powell, A.L.T.; Struijs, K.; Labavitch, J.M.; Reid, D.S.; Bennett, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Suppression of the expression of a ripening-related expansin gene, LeExp1, in tomato enhanced fruit firmness and overexpression of LeExp1 resulted in increased fruit softening. Because of the incompletely understood relationship between fresh fruit texture and the consistency of processed products,

  17. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  18. Ultrasonic Extraction of Antioxidants from Chinese Sumac (Rhus typhina L.) Fruit Using Response Surface Methodology and Their Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Jixiang; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Donghui; Fang, Fang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influen...

  19. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  20. Rapid, accurate and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such

  1. Application of Kubelka - Munk analysis to the study of translucency in fresh-cut tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lana, M.M.; Hogenkamp, M.; Koehorst, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the development of translucency in fresh-cut tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum cv. Belissimo) during refrigerated storage, two experiments were conducted. In the first one, tomato slices obtained from fruits at breaker and at red stage were stored at 5 ± 0.5 °C and monitored at

  2. A Tomato necrotic dwarf virus isolate from Datura with poor transmissibility by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato necrotic dwarf virus (ToNDV); genus Torradovirus, is a whitefly-transmitted virus that caused significant losses for tomato production in the Imperial Valley of California during the 1980s. The virus causes severe stunting, dwarfing of leaves, foliar and fruit necrosis, and greatly reduced f...

  3. Consumer Preferences for Fresh Tomato at the European Scale: A Common Segmentation on Taste and Firmness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causse, M.; Friguet, C.; Coiret, C.; Lepicier, M.; Navez, B.; Lee, van der M.K.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Sinesio, F.; Moneta, E.; Grandillo, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In

  4. Susceptibility of the Tomato Mutant High Pigment-2dg (hp-2dg) to Orobanche spp. Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Raez, J.A.; Charnikhova, T.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Kohlen, W.; Bino, R.J.; Levin, I.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of natural products with potential health benefits has been continuously growing, and enhanced pigmentation is of major economic importance in fruits and vegetables. The tomato hp-2dg is an important mutant line that has been introgressed into commercial tomato cultivars marketed as

  5. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P conveyors. After conveying uninoculated tomatoes over contaminated foam rollers, 96% of the 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at >100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P < 0.05). Adding peroxyacetic acid or chlorine to the wash water significantly decreased cross-contamination during tomato conveying, with chlorine less effective in controlling Salmonella on foam compared with plastic and brush rollers.

  6. Biological control of fusarium wilt of tomato by antagonist fungi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Key words: Biological control, fusarium wilt, tomato, antagonist fungi, cyanobacteria. INTRODUCTION ... severely affected by wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. ..... Changing options for the control of deciduous fruit.

  7. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Properties of Flavonoids Determine Their Abilities to Extend the Shelf Life of Tomato1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; De Stefano, Rosalba; Robine, Marie; Butelli, Eugenio; Bulling, Katharina; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Martin, Cathie; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan

    2015-01-01

    The shelf life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is determined by the processes of overripening and susceptibility to pathogens. Postharvest shelf life is one of the most important traits for commercially grown tomatoes. We compared the shelf life of tomato fruit that accumulate different flavonoids and found that delayed overripening is associated with increased total antioxidant capacity caused by the accumulation of flavonoids in the fruit. However, reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen of tomato, is conferred by specific flavonoids only. We demonstrate an association between flavonoid structure, selective scavenging ability for different free radicals, and reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how flavonoids influence the shelf life, information that could be used to improve the shelf life of tomato and, potentially, other soft fruit. PMID:26082399

  8. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Properties of Flavonoids Determine Their Abilities to Extend the Shelf Life of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; De Stefano, Rosalba; Robine, Marie; Butelli, Eugenio; Bulling, Katharina; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Martin, Cathie; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan

    2015-11-01

    The shelf life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is determined by the processes of overripening and susceptibility to pathogens. Postharvest shelf life is one of the most important traits for commercially grown tomatoes. We compared the shelf life of tomato fruit that accumulate different flavonoids and found that delayed overripening is associated with increased total antioxidant capacity caused by the accumulation of flavonoids in the fruit. However, reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen of tomato, is conferred by specific flavonoids only. We demonstrate an association between flavonoid structure, selective scavenging ability for different free radicals, and reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how flavonoids influence the shelf life, information that could be used to improve the shelf life of tomato and, potentially, other soft fruit. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  10. Organic production of tomatoes in the amazon region by plants grafted on wild Solanum rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida de Paula Farias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of organically grown tomatoes in the Amazonian region of Brazil is difficult due to inherent phytosanitary issues. The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the productivity of grafted tomato plants (Solanumlycopersicum cv. Santa Adélia grown organically in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, and to assess scion/rootstock compatibility under organic growth conditions. The Solanum species employed as rootstocks were S. gilo (jiló, S. lycocarpum (jurubebão, S. stramonifolium (jurubeba vermelha and S. viarum (joá, while the susceptible S.lycopersicum cultivar Santa Adélia was the scion. Ungrafted tomato plants and tomato grafted on tomato rootstock were employed as controls. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with six treatments and five repetitions of five plants each. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the significance of differences between treatments were determined using the Tukey test (P<0.05. All ungrafted tomato plants and those comprising tomato grafted on S.lycopersicum rootstock became infected by brown rot and perished. The total numbers of fruits, numbers of marketable fruits, mean masses of fruits, total productivities and productivities of marketable fruits associated with tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks were significantly higher (P<0.05 than the equivalent values obtained with tomato grafted on S. viarum rootstock. S. gilo exhibited the best compatibility index (1.11 of all rootstock/scion combinations studied. It is concluded that tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks represent viable alternatives for the production of organic tomatoes in the Amazon region.

  11. Ethylene perception is required for the expression of tomato ripening-related genes and associated physiological changes even at advanced stages of ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Prisca) with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a potent inhibitor of ethylene action, delayed colour development, softening, and ethylene production in tomato fruit harvested at the mature green breaker, and orange stages. 1-MCP treatment also

  12. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Khattak, A. M.; Ali, M.; Ullah, K.

    2015-01-01

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  13. Correlation indices physical space of soil and productivity of fruit tomato industry = Correlação espacial de atributos físicos do solo e produtividade de tomate industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes de Oliveira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With mechanization at all stages of crop management, the soil began to receive a higher surface load, which causes changes in its physical properties with possible production impacts. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the variability and spatial correlation of the physical attributes of a Red Latosol with the productivity of industrial tomatoes. For this, a sample mesh was assembled using a global receiver positioning system (GPS, with 84 pairs of spaced apart 80 x 80 m points. After the mesh construction, samples in the 0.00-0.20 m layer were collected in the field to measure the physical attributes of the soil and plant data. The variables measured were: soil density (Ds, soil penetration resistance (PR, soil texture and tomato productivity. The values obtained were analyzed using geostatistics, and were classified according to the degree of spatial dependence. Then, using the ordinary kriging interpolation method and ordinary cokriging, the values for nonsampled sites were estimated, allowing the mapping of isovalues and the definition of management zones in the field. The spatial correlation of the physical attributes with the production components by the ordinary Cokriging method verified spatial correlation only between attributes (soil x soil density and sand content. The use of geostatistics and the construction of the maps by means of kriging and ordinary cokrigation allowed to identify different management zones, that is, the variability of soil attributes and productivity. = Com a mecanização em todas as etapas de manejo das culturas, o solo passou a receber maior carga superficial, o que provoca mudanças em suas propriedades físicas, com possíveis reflexos na produção. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a variabilidade e a correlação espacial dos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho com a produtividade de tomate industrial. Para isso, montou-se uma malha amostral utilizando um receptor global

  14. Robust Tomato Recognition for Robotic Harvesting Using Feature Images Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshen Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of mature fruits in a complex agricultural environment is still a challenge for an autonomous harvesting robot due to various disturbances existing in the background of the image. The bottleneck to robust fruit recognition is reducing influence from two main disturbances: illumination and overlapping. In order to recognize the tomato in the tree canopy using a low-cost camera, a robust tomato recognition algorithm based on multiple feature images and image fusion was studied in this paper. Firstly, two novel feature images, the  a*-component image and the I-component image, were extracted from the L*a*b* color space and luminance, in-phase, quadrature-phase (YIQ color space, respectively. Secondly, wavelet transformation was adopted to fuse the two feature images at the pixel level, which combined the feature information of the two source images. Thirdly, in order to segment the target tomato from the background, an adaptive threshold algorithm was used to get the optimal threshold. The final segmentation result was processed by morphology operation to reduce a small amount of noise. In the detection tests, 93% target tomatoes were recognized out of 200 overall samples. It indicates that the proposed tomato recognition method is available for robotic tomato harvesting in the uncontrolled environment with low cost.

  15. Robust Tomato Recognition for Robotic Harvesting Using Feature Images Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanshen; Gong, Liang; Huang, Yixiang; Liu, Chengliang

    2016-01-29

    Automatic recognition of mature fruits in a complex agricultural environment is still a challenge for an autonomous harvesting robot due to various disturbances existing in the background of the image. The bottleneck to robust fruit recognition is reducing influence from two main disturbances: illumination and overlapping. In order to recognize the tomato in the tree canopy using a low-cost camera, a robust tomato recognition algorithm based on multiple feature images and image fusion was studied in this paper. Firstly, two novel feature images, the  a*-component image and the I-component image, were extracted from the L*a*b* color space and luminance, in-phase, quadrature-phase (YIQ) color space, respectively. Secondly, wavelet transformation was adopted to fuse the two feature images at the pixel level, which combined the feature information of the two source images. Thirdly, in order to segment the target tomato from the background, an adaptive threshold algorithm was used to get the optimal threshold. The final segmentation result was processed by morphology operation to reduce a small amount of noise. In the detection tests, 93% target tomatoes were recognized out of 200 overall samples. It indicates that the proposed tomato recognition method is available for robotic tomato harvesting in the uncontrolled environment with low cost.

  16. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  17. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Dental Enamel Surface Submitted to Fruit Juice Plus Soymilk by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Salmos Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper aimed to analyze the in vitro industrialized fruit juices effect plus soy to establish the erosive potential of these solutions. Materials and Methods. Seventy bovine incisors were selected after being evaluated under stereomicroscope. Their crowns were prepared and randomly divided into 7 groups, using microhardness with allocation criteria. The crowns were submitted to the fruit juice plus soy during 15 days, twice a day. The pH values, acid titration, and Knoop microhardness were recorded and the specimens were evaluated using X-ray microfluorescence (µXRF. Results. The pH average for all juices and after 3 days was significantly below the critical value for dental erosion. In average, the pH value decreases 14% comparing initial time and pH after 3 days. Comparing before and after, there was a 49% microhardness decrease measured in groups (p<0.05. Groups G1, G2, G5, and G6 are above this average. The analysis by μXRF showed a decrease of approximately 7% Ca and 4% P on bovine crowns surface. Florida (FL statistical analysis showed a statistically significant 1 difference between groups. Thus, a tooth chance to suffer demineralization due to industrialized fruit juices plus soy is real.

  19. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  20. Response surface optimisation of extraction of antioxidants from strawberry fruit, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential of the fruit extract in cooked chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayati; Debnath, Moumita; Saha, Arnab; Ghosh, Tanaya; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2011-08-15

    Strawberries contain high levels of antioxidants and have beneficial effects against oxidative stress-mediated diseases, such as cancer. They contain multiple phenolic compounds, which contribute to their biological properties. Hence, a study was carried out to optimise the extraction of antioxidants and evaluate the antioxidant potential of strawberry fruit extract (SE) in cooked chicken patties during refrigerated storage. The activity of SE was compared with that of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). The effect of solvent type (MeOH and EtOH), concentration (0-70%) of EtOH in the system, temperature (30-60 °C), and time (30-150 min) on DPPH•-scavenging activity of SE was investigated. Response surface methodology was used to estimate the optimum extraction conditions for each parameter. The maximum predicted DPPH• scavenging under the optimised conditions (100% MeOH, 30 °C, 150 min) was 43% at 1 mg SE mL⁻¹. Freshly prepared chicken patties were treated with 5% and 10% SE and 2% BHT, and stored aerobically at 4 °C for 6 days. SE had no influence (P extraction of compounds from strawberry that had the scavenging activity. The study shows that the extraction of natural antioxidants from strawberry can be improved by optimising several key extraction parameters. SE also acted as an effective antioxidant and suppressed lipid peroxidation in cooked chicken patties. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effectiveness of incorporating citric acid in cassava starch edible coatings to preserve quality of Martha tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, I.; Oktaningrum, G. N.; Endrasari, R.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato as an agricultural product is extremely perishable. Coatings of tomatoes with edible starch extend quality and storage life of the fruits. Incorporation of citric acid as antimicrobial agent in the edible starch coatings is expected to preserve the quality of tomatoes during storage. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of citric acid incorporated in cassava starch coating to preserve quality of tomatoes. The edible coatings formula consisted of cassava starch solutions (1; 2; 3%), citric acid (0.5; 1.0%) and glycerol (10%). Tomatoes were dipped to the coating solution for 10 seconds, then air-dried and stored at room temperature during 18 days. All the treatments were carried out in triplicates. Experimental data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA. The results showed that coating treatments did not affect the weight loss, moisture content, color characteristic, carotene and vitamin C content on Martha tomatoes. The low concentration of starch coating on Martha tomatoes are indicated to be the reason why there was no significant difference between coated and coated tomatoes for some parameters. However, incorporating citric acid in cassava starch-based coatings could prevent tomato fruits from firmness reduction and spoilage during storage.

  2. Investigating radiostimulation effects of tomatoes, pepper and aubergines productivity improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, Khr.; Mal'tseva, S.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents results of a study on the stimulating effect of ionizing radiation with low doses on tomatoes, pepper, and eggplants with a view to determining optimal radiation doses and possible practical applications of this method. The tomato varieties used were those most common in Bulgaria. It was found that (a) presowing irradiation of tomato, pepper, and eggplant seeds (graded by moisture content) with low doses of gamma rays from Co 60 had a strong stimulating effect; (b) radiation did not cause any changes in chemical composition or palatability; (c) irradiated variants produced more fruits per plant; and (d) the optimal doses are 1500-2500 r for tomatoes, 1200-1800 r for pepper, and 1500-3000 r for eggplants. (E.T.)

  3. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  4. Investigating the Tolerance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Cultivars to Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers in Khorassan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the tolerance of tomato cultivars to Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers., an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and 3 replications in mazrae Nemoune Astan Quds Razavi in Mashhad, Iran, 2012. Treatment were 11 varieties (Peto early CH, Sterling (Karon, Khorram, Petorak, DNP 3005, PS 6515, SPEEDY, IDEN, VADI STAR, FIRINZEH and DNP 3001 which were transplanted in the field along with broomrape. Sampling was done at two stages: 1- after appearance and establishment of broomrape on tomato root where the dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and tomato dry weight were measured and 2- at the end of growing season where tomato fruit weight and its yield were determined. Result indicated that Sterling and Khorram cultivars did have the least broomrape dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and while produced highest plant dry weight, fruit and yield as compared to the other cultivars. Thus, may be considered as tolerant cultivars. Petorak and DNP 3001 on the other hand, presented the most broomrape dry weight, stem number and node number on tomato root. However, Petorak, Peto early CH and FIRINZEH cultivars produced the least plant weight, fruit and yield and thus, they can be called the sensitive cultivars. DNP 3001 being highly attacked by broomrape produced increased fruit yield and therefore compensated its ill effects.

  5. Characteristics of the tomato chromoplast revealed by proteomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barsan, Cristina; Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Rombaldi, César Valmor; Egea, Isabel; Rossignol, Michel; Kuntz, Marcel; Zouine, Mohamed; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic specialized plastids that are important in ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) since, among other functions, they are the site of accumulation of coloured compounds. Analysis of the proteome of red fruit chromoplasts revealed the presence of 988 proteins corresponding to 802 Arabidopsis unigenes, among which 209 had not been listed so far in plastidial databanks. These data revealed several features of the chromoplast. Proteins of lipid metabolism ...

  6. Biochemical characteristics of mutant lines of currant tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, I.Yu.; Khrustaleva, V.V.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The currant tomato is used in breeding for fruit quality. It contains up to 50 mg% ascorbic acid, a large quantity of sugar and 8-10% of dry matter. The weight of the fruit, however, does not exceed 1.2-1.5 g. The plants have long, spreading and very branchy stems. Gamma ray induced mutants of currant tomato were used, as initial material in breeding for fruit quality in varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting. The research was carried out mainly at the Department of Vegetable Growing Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation Farming. The regional variety Lebyazhinskij (suitable for mechanized harvesting) was adopted as the standard. Its fruits contain: 5.6% dry matter, 2.7% sugars, 0.543% titrated acidity, 26.6 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, 0.425 mg% carotene and 0.35% cellulose. The biochemical characteristics of the tomato mutants are shown. In terms of fruit dry matter, all mutants surpassed the standard. The acidity and the ascorbic acid content varied considerably. Most noteworthy in terms of carotene were the lines GP-5, GP-9 and GP-12. An important factor in the production of tomato paste is the fruit cellulose content. The lowest cellulose content is found in mutant GP-3. As shown, all of the mutants were early ripening. The mutants surpassed the standard in simultaneous fruit ripening. Mutant lines GP-3, GP-6, GP-9 and GP-12 will be used in the breeding programme for improving fruit quality of varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting

  7. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  8. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar eSchwarz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape and colour. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar Heinz 1706 (≈900 Mb and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8-16 hours. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10-35°C, relative humidity 30-90 % and CO2 concentration 200-1500 µmol mol-1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners.

  9. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Dietmar; Thompson, Andrew J.; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape, and color. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar “Heinz 1706” (≈900 Mb), and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb) were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8 and 16 h. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10–35°C, relative humidity 30–90%, and, CO2 concentration 200–1500 μmol mol−1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume, and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners. PMID:25477888

  10. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom.

  11. Spreading, Infestation and Damage Rates and Adult Population Monitoring of Tomato Leaf Miner [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] on Open Field Tomato Grown in the South Marmara Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Gürsel; GÖKSEL, Pınar; DURA, Onur; HANTAŞ, Cemil

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine spreading, infestation and fruit damage rates and adult population monitoring of Tomato leaf miner, (Tuta absoluta, Meyrick) on open field tomato grown in the South Marmara Region (Bilecik, Bursa, Kocaeli, Sakarya and Yalova provinces) of Turkey in 2011-2012. As result of spreading studies carried out according to systematic sampling method, it was determined that all tomato locations in every province were infested by this pest. Infestation rate...

  12. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... 1Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School .... Due to its position at the crossroads of Sanger's sequencing .... replacement for the microarray-based expression profiling. .... during RNA fragmentation step prior to library construction, ...... tomato pollen as a test case.

  13. Organic fertilization in cherry tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janini Tatiane Lima Souza Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is highly demanding with regard to mineral nutrients. The use of animal manure shows to be an efficient and sustainable fertilization way for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of cattle manure in the vegetative and reproductive growth of cherry tomato. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Plant Science Department of Universidade Federal de Vicosa, using a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and 4 replications, besides 1 control treatment using chemical fertilizer as a source of NPK. After 45 days from the beginning of the experiment, the number of leaves, flowers, and fruits, the dry mass of leaves, stem, flowers, fruits, and roots, the stem length, and the root volume were evaluated. The nutrient content in leaves, stem, and roots was also evaluated. Plants grown with chemical fertilizer obtained a lower average for all phytotechnical variables analyzed. The number of leaves and fruits, and the production of dry matter of leaves, fruits, and stems showed an upward linear response with an increase in manure doses. The Ca, Mg, and S leaf contents were higher in the treatment with chemical fertilization.

  14. The zeatin content of tomatoes as a function of the degree of ripeness, irradiation and storage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.; Voeroes, Zs.

    1975-01-01

    The zeatin content of the San Marzano variety tomatoes was studied as a function of their degree of ripeness (fruitlet, green fruit, pink fruit, red fruit), storage time (at 20-23 deg C and 40-50% RH) and radiation treatment (4 krad). The zeatin content of tomatoes determined by thin-layer chromatography decreased with the advancement of ripening. The zeatin content of freshly picked pink tomatoes increased immediately upon radiation treatment with 4 krad. After 9 day storage the zeatin content of both irradiated and untreated tomato samples decreased during the 9-day storage time. On the 9th day the zeatin content of the irradiated tomatoes was 20% higher than that of the untreated ones. (F.J.)

  15. Assessment of pesticide residues in tomatoes and watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in selected fruits from major markets in Dar es Salaam city. Samples of tomatoes and watermelons were analysed for eighteen organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane: ...

  16. Purification, product characterization and kinetic properties of soluble tomato lipoxygenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Suurmeijer, C.N.S.P.; Pérez-Gilabert, M.; Hijden, H.T.W.M. van der; Veldink, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Soluble lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.12) from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, var. Trust) was purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS-PAGE, and the products and kinetics of the enzyme were studied in order to clarify the contradictory results that were obtained with a less purified

  17. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes and Watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35061 Dar es Salaam, ... 50% of the tomatoes and watermelons indicating risks and concerns for public health. The ... Keywords: Pesticides, Fruits, Food, Contamination, Tanzania .... 197. 314. 258. 125. 286. 210. 65. 171. 47. 244. 134. 351. 322. 439. 404. 496.

  18. 'Omics' approaches in tomato aimed at identifying candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetables in the world with significant importance for human health and nutrition. This species has long served as model system for plant genetics, development, physiology, pathology, and fleshy fruit ripening, resulting in the accumulation of many genetic and ...

  19. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  20. Effects of Different Systemic Insecticides in Carotenoid Content, Antibacterial Activity and Morphological Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var Diamante)

    OpenAIRE

    LEXTER R. NATIVIDAD; Maria Fatima T. Astrero; Lenard T. Basinga; Maria Karysa G. Calang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different systemic insecticides in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Diamante). The study also assessed different systemic insecticides used in other plants in their effectiveness and suitability to tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content and antibacterial activity of each insecticide. Morphological characteristics such as the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant were also observed. Moreover, ...

  1. Evaluation of some varieties and breeding lines of tomato (Lycopersison sp) against tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the Greater Accra Region (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusi-Adjei, R.

    2011-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate ten (10) tomato varieties and breeding lines against tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease in Ghana. The research was undertaken at the research farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were evaluated in the field under natural whitefly inoculation in insect-proof cages. The field trial was done in the dry season from October, 2010 to February, 2011 and wet season from March, 2011 to July, 2011. Plants in the fields and in the cage exhibited varied symptoms such as leaf curling, leaf yellowing and reduced leaf sizes. Assessment of disease incidence and symptom severity using a four point scale (0-4) showed that, in the field there was higher disease incidence in the dry season as compared to the wet season. This was attributed to the higher number of whiteflies in the dry season as demonstrated through a whitefly population survey conducted in the field. Differences among means for disease incidence and whitefly surveys on the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were statistically significant (p≤ 0.05). Wild Tomato (Solanum pimpinellifollium) and two hybrids, Wosowoso x Wild Tomato and Cherry Red x Wild Tomato exhibited signs of resistance in the field and did not show any symptoms of TYLCV disease symptoms. All the commercial varieties were highly susceptible and showed severe symptoms. Evaluation of fruit yield in the field revealed that the commercial variety Tomato Advanta had the heaviest fruit weight (42 g/ fruit) whilst Wosowoso had the highest total fruit yield (5.74 t/ha) in the wet season. Wild Tomato and the hybrids produced higher number of fruits compared to the commercial varieties. There were highly significant differences in the means of number of fruits, fruit weight (g) and total fruit yield (t/ha) among the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines in both the wet and dry seasons

  2. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing on Phenolic Profile and Antiplatelet Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. Methods: It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Results: Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Conclusions: Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  3. The induction mutation effects of "6"0Co gamma radiation on physiological growth of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusti Ngurah Sutapa; I Gde Antha Kasmawan

    2016-01-01

    Almost all types of cuisine in Indonesia are using tomatoes as the base material of manufacture. The nutritional value contained in tomatoes is also quite high, because there is a number of vitamin content required by the human body. In addition, the tomatoes in plants featured national horticultural commodity and priority on a number of provinces in Indonesia. So many benefits of tomatoes indicates that the productivity of tomatoes should be improved. One improvement in terms of quality can be done by means of mutation induction with gamma radiation of Co-60. Induction of mutations are genetic changes caused by human effort, one of them is by using radioactive materials. Gamma rays of Co-60 from the IRPASENA facility was exposed to tomato seeds at doses of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy. And then measurements were conducted on the physiological growth of leaf width, plant height, number of fruit and wet weight of tomatoes from week 1 until harvest. The results showed a growth curve of tomato is in accordance with sigmoidal plant physiological growth curve. Optimal physiological growth of tomato plants was obtained at dose of gamma radiation of 100 Gy. At this optimal dose physiological growth of tomato plants is the best (superior) than in doses below and above 100 Gy and control. (author)

  4. Principal component analysis of tomato genotypes based on some morphological and biochemical quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glogovac Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates variability of tomato genotypes based on morphological and biochemical fruit traits. Experimental material is a part of tomato genetic collection from Institute of Filed and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Serbia. Genotypes were analyzed for fruit mass, locule number, index of fruit shape, fruit colour, dry matter content, total sugars, total acidity, lycopene and vitamin C. Minimum, maximum and average values and main indicators of variability (CV and σ were calculated. Principal component analysis was performed to determinate variability source structure. Four principal components, which contribute 93.75% of the total variability, were selected for analysis. The first principal component is defined by vitamin C, locule number and index of fruit shape. The second component is determined by dry matter content, and total acidity, the third by lycopene, fruit mass and fruit colour. Total sugars had the greatest part in the fourth component.

  5. A genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and its application to photorespiratory metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, H.; Cheung, C.Y. Maurice; Poolman, M.G.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; van Riel, N.A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has been studied extensively due to its high economic value in the market, and high content in health-promoting antioxidant compounds. Tomato is also considered as an excellent model organism for studying the development and metabolism of fleshy fruits. However, the

  6. Biological control of Botrytis gray mould on tomato cultivated in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, F; Fiume, G

    2006-01-01

    .8 cm (towards T. harzianum). T. harzianum grew quickly and after 5 days the medium surface was completely colonized covering the B. cinerea colony. The laboratory tests were confirmed in greenhouse trials. Trichodex at 400 g/hL gave the best results, decreasing the disease over 50% compared to untreated control and over 70% compared to chemical control. After fruit setting, T. harzianum was the best in the control of Botrytis gray mould, allowing to avoid the use of the chemical fungicides that can be applied only up to the fruit setting, obtaining high quality tomato fruits.

  7. Population Modeling Approach to Optimize Crop Harvest Strategy. The Case of Field Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh T; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Tran, Thi L H; Quyen, Nguyen T; Van de Poel, Bram; Mata, Clara I; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to develop a population model based approach to optimize fruit harvesting strategies with regard to fruit quality and its derived economic value. This approach was applied to the case of tomato fruit harvesting under Vietnamese conditions. Fruit growth and development of tomato (cv. "Savior") was monitored in terms of fruit size and color during both the Vietnamese winter and summer growing seasons. A kinetic tomato fruit growth model was applied to quantify biological fruit-to-fruit variation in terms of their physiological maturation. This model was successfully calibrated. Finally, the model was extended to translate the fruit-to-fruit variation at harvest into the economic value of the harvested crop. It can be concluded that a model based approach to the optimization of harvest date and harvest frequency with regard to economic value of the crop as such is feasible. This approach allows growers to optimize their harvesting strategy by harvesting the crop at more uniform maturity stages meeting the stringent retail demands for homogeneous high quality product. The total farm profit would still depend on the impact a change in harvesting strategy might have on related expenditures. This model based harvest optimisation approach can be easily transferred to other fruit and vegetable crops improving homogeneity of the postharvest product streams.

  8. The effect of water stress and salinity on growth and physiology of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids like lycopene are important pigments found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants. They are responsible for the bright colors of fruits and vegetables and perform various functions in photosynthesis. Our research has shown that the application of moderate salt stress on tomato plants can enhance lycopene and potentially other antioxidant concentrations in fruits. The increase in lycopene in response to salt stress in the tomato fruits varied from 20% to 80%. Although the specific biological mechanisms involved in increasing fruit lycopene deposition has not been clearly elucidated, evidence suggests that increasing antioxidant concentrations is a primary physiological response of the plant to salt stress. Additionally drought stress during cultivation increased the antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit while maintaining the lycopene concentration. In addition, the effects of silicium were investigated, added to the nutrient solution either at low concentration or at an increased concentration. The present study clearly indicates that an enhanced silicium supply to tomato increases markedly the lycopene contents, irrespective of the salinity status in the tomato fruit.

  9. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tomatoes. (a) Identity—(1) Description. (i) Canned tomatoes is the food prepared from mature tomatoes...). Without shifting the tomatoes, so incline the sieve as to facilitate drainage of the liquid. Two minutes...

  10. PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE CHERRY TOMATO GENOTYPE GROUP BEFORE INFECTION BY Alternaria tomatophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO CESAR RODRIGUES MOREIRA CATÃO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight (caused by Alternaria tomatophila is a major disease of tomato with no resistant cultivars. Thus, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and productive genotypes for the development of new cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the productive potential of cherry tomato genotypes grown in the summer / fall, the severity of early blight on leaves and the incidence of disease in fruits. The treatments consisted of Carolina tomato genotypes, Cereja Vermelho, CH 152 and CLN1561A. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with six replications, and the experimental plot had 16 plants. The following characteristics were evaluated: area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, average number of microinjuries on the fruits (MF, average number of fruits per bunch (NFC, average number of bunches per plant (NCP, average number of fruits per plant (NFP, average yield, number of fruits with incidence of early blight per plant (NFI and the severity of early blight in leaves (%. The cherry tomato genotype CH152 showed tolerance to early blight with a smaller area under the disease progress curve, lower severity and fruits with incidence of A. tomatophila were not observed in this genotype. The CH152 had the highest number of fruits per bunch, greater number of bunches per plant, higher number of fruits per plant and higher productivity. This line has great potential of being integrated into breeding programs.

  11. McWRI1, a transcription factor of the AP2/SHEN family, regulates the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the apple fruit surface under low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qianlong; Zhang, Kezhong; Yang, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes of plant and organ surfaces play an important role in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stress and extending the freshness, storage time and shelf life in the post-harvest agricultural products. WRI1, a transcription factor of AP2/SHEN families, had been found to trigger the related genes taking part in the biosynthesis of seed oil in many plants. But whether WRI1 is involved in the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the Malus fruits surface has been unclear. We investigated the changes of wax composition and structure, the related genes and WRI1 expression on Malus asiatica Nakai and sieversii fruits with the low temperature treatments, found that low temperature induced the up-regulated expression of McWRI1, which promoted gene expression of McKCS, McLACs and McWAX in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, resulting in the accumulation of alkanes component and alteration of wax structure on the fruit surface. Corresponding results were verified in McWRI1 silenced by VIGS, and WRI1 silenced down-regulated the related genes on two kinds of fruits, it caused the diversity alteration in content of some alkanes, fatty acid and ester component in two kinds of fruits. We further conducted Y1H assay to find that McWRI1 transcription factor activated the promoter of McKCS, McLAC and McWAX to regulate their expression. These results demonstrated that McWRI1 is involved in regulating the genes related synthesis of very long chain fatty acid on surface of apple fruits in storage process, providing a highlight for improvement of the modified atmosphere storage of apple fruits. PMID:29073205

  12. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  13. Evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate cultivado y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto. Evaluation of segregating populations from crosses between cultivated tomato and PI134418 wild accession of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum with resistance to the fruit borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin F. Restrepo S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la evaluación de poblaciones segregantes producidas a partir de cruzamientos entre tomate S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla y la accesión silvestre PI134418 de S. habrochaites var. glabratum resistente al pasador del fruto N. elegantalis. Se encontró que hay dominancia de los alelos que disminuyen la expresión del caraacute;cter peso promedio de fruto. El método del retrocruzamiento resultó maacute;s eficiente que el de la autofecundación, para contrarrestar la dominancia de los alelos que codifican por el tamaño pequeño del fruto. Los tricomas y el número promedio de frutos por racimo no ejercieron ningún efecto sobre el ataque de los frutos por parte del pasador; mientras que el peso promedio de fruto sí tuvo efecto importante sobre dicho ataque, de tal manera que el insecto tiende a producir mayor daño a medida que se incrementa el peso promedio de fruto. Las poblaciones RC1 y RC2 se comportaron como las típicas segregantes para los caracteres evaluados y exhibieron amplia variabilidad en los mismos. El método del retrocruzamiento fue efectivo para romper la asociación negativa entre el peso promedio de fruto y la resistencia al insecto. El peso promedio de algunos de los frutos en los recombinantes RC2 fluctuó entre 45.1 y 68.6 g y mostraron resistencia al pasador.Evaluation of segregating populations from crosses between cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum L. cv. maravilla and PI134418 wild accession of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum with resistance to the fruit borer N. elegantalis was made. There was dominance of alleles that decrease the expression of the character mean fruit weight. The backcrossing method was more efficient than selfing in order to counteract the dominance of alleles that encode by small fruit size. The thrichomes and the mean number of fruit per bunch did not produce any effect on the fruit attack by the fruit borer; while that mean fruit weight had important effect on this attack

  14. Alcobaça allele and genotypic backgrounds affect yield and fruit shelf life of tomato hybrids O alelo alcobaça e o background genotípico afetam a produtividade e a conservação de híbridos de tomateiro

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    Túlio José Mendes Dias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest shelf life of tomato fruit may be increased by deploying mutant alleles which affect the natural ripening process and/or by a favorable genotypic background. Among the several ripening mutant genes, alcobaça (alc has proved to be highly efficient in increasing shelf life of commercial tomato fruits, especially in heterozygosis, a state at which no limiting deleterious effects upon fruit color occur. The effects of heterozygosity in the alcobaça locus (alc+/alc on yield and fruit quality traits of tomato hybrids with three genotypic backgrounds. We evaluated three pairs of hybrids obtained from crosses between the near-isogenic pollen source lines Flora-Dade (alc+/alc+ and TOM-559 (alc/alc, and three maternal lines (Stevens, NC-8276 and Piedmont. The six treatments were factorial combinations of two different status in the alc locus (alc+/alc and alc+/alc+ versus three different genotypic backgrounds (maternal lines. Fruits were harvested at the breaker stage of maturation and stored in shelves at 21ºC for 14 days. Yield and fruit quality traits were then evaluated. Regardless of the background, the alc allele in heterozygosis (alc+/alc did not interfere with the total yield, commercial yield, average mass per fruit, average mass per commercial fruit, fruit shape, or with fruit peduncular scar diameter. The alc+/alc genotype reduced the rate of firmness loss and delayed evolution of the red color of the fruit, thus contributing to an increase of the post-harvest shelf life for all three genotypic backgrounds.A vida de prateleira dos frutos de tomate pode ser extendida, seja empregando-se alelos mutantes que afetam o processo natural de amadurecimento, seja por meio de background genotípico favorável. O alelo alcobaça (alc em heterozigose tem-se mostrado bastante eficiente no sentido de prolongar o período de conservação dos frutos em pós-colheita, sem que ocorra prejuízo na coloração. Avaliaram-se os efeitos do alelo

  15. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber’s surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber’s surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment

  16. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman [Department of Food Science, School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber’s surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber’s surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment.

  17. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber's surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber's surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber's surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber's surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment.

  18. PINK TOMATO CETUS F1 – PROSPECTS OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Barbaritskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink tomato due to their high taste quality is particularly important crop for consumers in Russia. Pink tomato seeds become more popular in the market every year. Breeders have accomplished to combine high fruit taste quality with good transportation abilities and fruit denseness. One of the latest breeding achievement is Cetus F1. A successful combination of good fruit taste with transportability and yield makes this variety a potential leader in Russian market. This is confirmed by growers' trials in various regions of South of Russia. 

  19. Investigations of radiation stimulation of tomatoes, onions and radishes in climatic chamber and field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimon, J.; Pal, I.

    1974-01-01

    The results of three years' experiments with presowing irradiation of tomato, radish, and onion seeds are reported. The main criteria used, were the following: plant height, change in flowering time, number of natured fruits per plant, total carbohydrate content in ripe fruits and of vitamin C level in natured fruits for tomatoes; tuber weight, weight of leaves, total weight, dry matter formation, and contents of carbohydrates and vitamin C for radish; and appearance of flower ''arrows'', yield, and dry matter content for onions. (E.T.)

  20. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents, 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass, fruit shelf life, shape and percentsoluble solids. Additive genetic effects were generally more important than non-additive effects for all traits evaluated. The TOM-542 and TOM-734 lines, from group I, and the TOM-720 line, from group II, presented high general combining ability (GCA estimates for most of the traits of importance for saladette tomatoes, and were therefore considered suitable parents of hybrids of this class. Higher fruit shelf life of TOM-723 as a parental line compared with TOM-720 (Group II, was mainly attributed to the presence in the former of the norA allele, which controls longer fruit shelf life. F1 hybrids (TOM-542 x TOM-720, (TOM-580 x TOM-720, (TOM-734 x TOM-720, and (TOM-727 x TOM-720 showed good performance and fruit quality and thus constitute possible commercial varieties.

  1. Greenhouse Tomato Producers’ Views on Soilless Agriculture in Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gözener

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato comes as the most commonly produced, consumed and subject for trading in the world. Alongside fresh consumption, on the other hand it forms the most significant raw material source of food industry, especially for tomato paste, frozen and dried vegetable-fruit and canned food industry. Turkey's greenhouse vegetable production field for 2016 year is 675173 decars and Antalya forms 51% of this field. Tomato forms 61.72% of Antalya's greenhouse production. The main material of the research consists of interviews made with producers resided in 5 villages/towns, where greenhouse tomato production is carried out densely in Antalya city, Alanya district. In 48 villages and towns, greenhouse tomato production is carried out, according to the official records. In the chosen areas, 365 producers exist. 20% of these producers (73 form the sample size. In the research, it was determined that the producers' average agricultural land possession is 9.13 decars and in 40.53% of these areas they grew tomatoes. None of these producers are engaged in contractual growing. All of the yield is produced for the edible (as table-top item. After the harvest, all of the products are sold in the wholesales market in county and city. 7.89% of the producers have no information on soilless agriculture, as 10.52% of them think that it has no advantages and 73.36% of them recommend traditional agriculture.

  2. Sprinkler and drip irrigation in the organic tomato for single crops and when intercropped with coriander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Aparecido Marouelli

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of both sprinkler and drip irrigation systems on the organic production of the tomato, cultivar Duradouro, when cultivated both as a single crop and intercropped with coriander. The experiment was carried out in the Distrito Federal, Brazil, using a randomized block design with six replications and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for the treatments. There was no significant interaction between the factors of irrigation system and cropping system. The productivity and mass of the tomato fruits were not affected by the treatments, but for the coriander, productivity was higher under the sprinkler system. Drip irrigation hindered the development of late blight (Phytophthora infestans and reduced the percentage of rotten fruit, whereas the incidence of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica and infestation by the tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta were higher under the sprinkler system. The volume of soil exploited by the roots of tomato plants was higher with the sprinkler system, while the water productivity index with the drip system was 47% higher than with the sprinkler system. Firmer fruits were produced under drip irrigation. The cultivation system had a significant effect on the occurrence of insect pests, with the tomato intercropped with coriander showing a lower percentage of damaged fruit due to the Tomato Leafminer and to Spodoptera eridania.

  3. Changes in antioxidant and phyto chemical properties of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) under ambient condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, G.K.; Kumar, R.; Rai, P.K.; Rai, M.; Rai, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Duration of storage increased TSS and pH of tomato juice, while ascorbic acid content decreased gradually during storage. Carotenoids content increased approximately 3.5 times during storage in tomato because of advancement of ripening stage. During ripening chlorophyll gradually degrades and the carotenoid synthesis is enhanced. Increased levels of lycopene in tomato during storage might also be due to ripening of tomato fruits. The spoilage in fruits gradually increased in all cultivars with the advancement of storage period. Spoilage of fruits started on sixth day of storage in all cultivars except Avinash-2. The average shelf life of tomato fruits ranged from 6-12 days among cultivars based on 40% spoilage. The lowest shelf life of 6 days was noted in H-86 and highest of 12 days in Avinash-2. It was concluded that the tomato harvested at breaker stage may be utilized for almost one week along with increased contents of carotenoids and lycopene compensated for the decreased levels of acidity and ascorbic acid contents. (author)

  4. Manipulating Sensory and Phytochemical Profiles of Greenhouse Tomatoes Using Environmentally Relevant Doses of Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakovich, Michael P; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Mitchell, Cary A

    2016-09-14

    Fruits harvested from off-season, greenhouse-grown tomato plants have a poor reputation compared to their in-season, garden-grown counterparts. Presently, there is a gap in knowledge with regard to the role of UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) in determining greenhouse tomato quality. Knowing that UV-B is a powerful elicitor of secondary metabolism and not transmitted through greenhouse glass and some greenhouse plastics, we tested the hypothesis that supplemental UV-B radiation in the greenhouse will impart quality attributes typically associated with garden-grown tomatoes. Environmentally relevant doses of supplemental UV-B radiation did not strongly affect antioxidant compounds of fruits, although the flavonol quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) significantly increased in response to UV-B. Physicochemical metrics of fruit quality attributes and consumer sensory panels were used to determine if any such differences altered consumer perception of tomato quality. Supplemental UV-A radiation (315-400 nm) pre-harvest treatments enhanced sensory perception of aroma, acidity, and overall approval, suggesting a compelling opportunity to environmentally enhance the flavor of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. The expression of the genes COP1 and HY5 were indicative of adaptation to UV radiation, which explains the lack of marked effects reported in these studies. To our knowledge, these studies represent the first reported use of environmentally relevant doses of UV radiation throughout the reproductive portion of the tomato plant life cycle to positively enhance the sensory and chemical properties of fruits.

  5. Impact of substrate on soilless tomato cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Suvo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four different media based hydroponics on plant growth, yield and nutritional values at Biochemistry laboratory of Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU, Bangladesh during November 2014 to April 2015. Tomato plants were grown in closed soilless system where Hoagland solution as nutrient solution and jute fiber, cotton (jhut, coconut husk as substrate. Among four types of media, the media composed with Hoagland solution and jute fiber showed good impact on growth and nutritional values than the other three media (media of Hoagland solution with coconut husk, Hoagland solution with cotton and only Hoagland solution. It was revealed that the highest plant height, yield, vitamin C, fruit protein, fat and fiber content of all were related to media combination of jute fiber and Hoagland solution. Among all the verities, the highest plant height (106 cm, yield (5.3 kg plant-1, fruit Vitamin C content (64.54 mg 100 g-1, fruit protein (17.67 %, fat (5.2% and fiber (7.9% content was recorded from Patharkuchi tomato variety.

  6. Vermicompost Improves Tomato Yield and Quality and the Biochemical Properties of Soils with Different Tomato Planting History in a Greenhouse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xin; Zhao, Fengyan; Zhang, Guoxian; Zhang, Yongyong; Yang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    A greenhouse pot test was conducted to study the impacts of replacing mineral fertilizer with organic fertilizers for one full growing period on soil fertility, tomato yield and quality using soils with different tomato planting history. Four types of fertilization regimes were compared: (1) conventional fertilizer with urea, (2) chicken manure compost, (3) vermicompost, and (4) no fertilizer. The effects on plant growth, yield and fruit quality and soil properties (including microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, [Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text]-N, soil water-soluble organic carbon, soil pH and electrical conductivity) were investigated in samples collected from the experimental soils at different tomato growth stages. The main results showed that: (1) vermicompost and chicken manure compost more effectively promoted plant growth, including stem diameter and plant height compared with other fertilizer treatments, in all three types of soil; (2) vermicompost improved fruit quality in each type of soil, and increased the sugar/acid ratio, and decreased nitrate concentration in fresh fruit compared with the CK treatment; (3) vermicompost led to greater improvements in fruit yield (74%), vitamin C (47%), and soluble sugar (71%) in soils with no tomato planting history compared with those in soils with long tomato planting history; and (4) vermicompost led to greater improvements in soil quality than chicken manure compost, including higher pH (averaged 7.37 vs. averaged 7.23) and lower soil electrical conductivity (averaged 204.1 vs. averaged 234.6 μS/cm) at the end of experiment in each type of soil. We conclude that vermicompost can be recommended as a fertilizer to improve tomato fruit quality and yield and soil quality, particularly for soils with no tomato planting history.

  7. Quality perception of organically grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK Ng’ang’a

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the major organic tomato producing countries for local and export marketing. These tomatoes are produced in parts of Austria especially around Vienna where their production system has to meet stringent organic quality standards in both local and international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and are normally formulated without famers’ participation so may not be wholly representative of the farmers’ quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore to determine the Austrian organic tomatoes growers’ perception and practice of quality and challenges. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic tomatoes farmers in Vienna, Austria. Findings suggest that quality of organic tomatoes is mainly perceived in terms of both informal values (big fruit size, long shelf life, food security and amount of income received from tomato sales as well as formal norms (non- application of chemicals, human health, damage free, sweet taste, red colour, and juiciness. There were no gendered differences in quality perception among the growers. High costs of production inputs were identified as the main challenge to attaining quality in organic tomatoes. Following these findings, there is need for effective participation of growers in formulation of standards as well as subsidizing of production inputs by the government. The Austrian tomato growers as well as local and international retailers should work closely to increase the price received by the Austrian organic tomato growers so that it more adequately covers their production costs.

  8. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60 Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  9. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  10. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  11. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) hosts robust phyllosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities when grown in soil amended with various organic and synthetic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sarah M; Walsh, Christopher S; Wallis, Anna E; Ottesen, Andrea R; Brown, Eric W; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-12-15

    Due to the intimate association between plants and their microbial symbionts, an examination of the influence of agricultural practices on phytobiome structure and diversity could foster a more comprehensive understanding of plant health and produce safety. Indeed, the impact of upstream crop producti006Fn practices cannot be overstated in their role in assuring an abundant and safe food supply. To assess whether fertilizer type impacted rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial communities associating with tomato plants, the bacterial microbiome of tomato cv. 'BHN602' grown in soils amended with fresh poultry litter, commercially available sterilized poultry litter pellets, vermicompost or synthetic fertilizer was described. Culture independent DNA was extracted from bulk and rhizosphere soils, and washes of tomato blossoms and ripe fruit. PCR amplicons of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced and profiled using the QIIME pipeline. Bulk and rhizosphere soil, and blossom and fruit surfaces all supported distinct bacterial communities according to principal coordinate analysis and ANOSIM (R=0.87, p=0.001 in year 1; R=0.93, p=0.001 in year 2). Use of microbiologically diverse organic fertilizers generally did not influence bacterial diversity, community structure or relative abundance of specific taxa on any plant organ surface. However, statistically significant differences in sand and silt contents of soil (pfertilized plants. Plant anatomy, and other factors related to field location, possibly associated with edaphic and air characteristics, were more influential drivers of different tomato organ microbiomes than were diverse soil amendment applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tomato Productivity and Quality in Aquaponics: Comparison of Three Hydroponic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zala Schmautz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics (AP is a food production system that combines hydroponic (HP crop production with recirculating aquaculture. Different types of hydroponic systems have been used for growing crops in aquaponics. However, very few studies have compared their suitability and efficiency in an aquaponic context. The study presented here compares tomato yield, morphological (external and biochemical (internal fruit quality, and overall tomato plant vitality from three different HP systems (nutrient film technique, drip irrigation system, and floating raft culture and examines the distribution of nutrients in different parts of the tomato plant. Three replicate AP systems were set up, each incorporating the three different HP systems coupled with a separate recirculating aquaculture unit growing Nile tilapia. The results showed that the choice of the cultivation system had little influence on most of the above-mentioned properties. Tomato fruit mineral content was found to be in similar range for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn as reported in the literature. Yield and fruit quality were similar in all three systems. However, the drip irrigation system did perform slightly better. The slightly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC of the fruits grown in AP in comparison to commercially produced and supermarket derived tomatoes might indicate a potential for producing fruits with higher health value for humans.

  13. Silencing of the SlNAP7 gene influences plastid development and lycopene accumulation in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Da-Qi; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Hua-Xue; Luo, Yun-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Ripening is an important stage of fruit development. To screen the genes associated with pigment formation in tomato fruit, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed by using tomato fruit in the green ripe and break ripe stages, and 129 differential genes were obtained. Using redness as a screening marker, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the differential genes was performed with a sprout vacuum-infiltration system (SVI). The results showed that silencing the SlNAP7 gene affected the chloroplast development of tomato leaves, manifesting as a photo-bleaching phenotype, and silenced fruit significantly affected the accumulation of lycopene, manifested as a yellow phenotype. In our study, we found that silencing the SlNAP7 gene downregulates the expression of the POR and PORA genes and destroys the normal development of the chloroplast. The expression of related genes included in the lycopene biosynthesis pathway was not significantly changed, but lycopene accumulation was significantly reduced in tomato fruit. Perhaps it was caused by the destruction of the chromoplast, which leads to the oxidation of lycopene. The results show that the SlNAP7 gene influences chloroplast development and lycopene accumulation in tomato.

  14. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Zhang, Zhanquan; Tian, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    Acidity plays an important role in flavor and overall organoleptic quality of fruit and is mainly due to the presence of organic acids. Understanding the molecular basis of organic acid metabolism is thus of primary importance for fruit quality improvement. Here, we cloned a putative tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter gene ( SlTDT ) from tomato, and submitted it to the NCBI database (GenBank accession number: KC733165). SlTDT protein contained 13 putative transmembrane domains in silico analysis. Confocal microscopic study using green fluorescent fusion proteins revealed that SlTDT was localized on tonoplast. The expression patterns of SlTDT in tomato were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The results indicated that SlTDT expressed in leaves, roots, flowers and fruits at different ripening stages, suggesting SlTDT may be associated with the development of different tissues. To further explore the function of SlTDT , we constructed both overexpression and RNAi vectors and obtained transgenic tomato plants by agrobacterium-mediated method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis showed that overexpression of SlTDT significantly increased malate content, and reduced citrate content in tomato fruit. By contrast, repression of SlTDT in tomato reduced malate content of and increased citrate content. These results indicated that SlTDT played an important role in remobilization of malate and citrate in fruit vacuoles.

  15. Influence of Pollination Technique on Greenhouse Tomato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Nazer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effects of four pollination techniques; Bumblebees (Bombus terrerstris L., plant growth bioregulator (PGB (Parachlorophenoxy acetic acid, hand vibration, and control (natural pollination on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill production in greenhouses. Bumblebees showed no problem in visiting flowers at a temperature range of 17-42°C during the day and 2-14°C at night. Bumblebee pollinated plants produced a yield per plant which was significantly higher than plants treated with PGB, vibration and the control, respectively. Fruit set of tomato flowers over 10 clusters was 99.1, 96.7, 76.7, and 65.7% for bumblebee treatment, PGB application, vibration and the control, respectively. In the bumblebee pollinated flowers, the quality of fruits was superior. The fruits were hard, with more seeds, and had a high specific gravity and better appearance. The average fruit weight was 100.3, 80.5, 84.1, and 70.6 g for the bumblebee, PGB, vibration and the control, respectively. The PGB treatment produced bigger sized but puffy fruits (108.4 ml. While fruit size in the vibration treatment was the highest (126.8 ml, followed by the bumblebee and the control which were 99.3 and 98.5 ml, respectively. Fruit specific gravity in the bumblebee treatment was significantly higher than other treatments, with no significant differences between the PGB and the vibration treatments. The least dense fruits were in the control treatment. Regarding the firmness of fruits, the bumblebee treatment gave the hardest fruits, while the PGB and the vibration treatments were intermediate and the control was the least. Average seed number per fruit was 177.0, 86.5, 61.8, and 89.8 for bumblebee, vibration, PGB and the control, respectively.

  16. Identification and quantification of point sources of surface water contamination in fruit culture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Werd, de H.A.E.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of pesticide concentrations in surface water by the water boards show that they have decreased less than was expected from model calculations. Possibly, the implementation of spray drift reducing techniques is overestimated in the model calculation. The impact of point sources is

  17. POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    commercial food vendors often intentionally use physically damaged tomatoes and ... The production of the bulk of the fresh tomato and. 'tatase' in Nigeria is in ...... mycotoxin contamination of food include but not limited to mycotoxicoses, liver ...

  18. DOLGONOSIK IS A NEW ORIGINAL ORANGE TOMATO VARIETY FOR THE OPEN GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kondratyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of a new determinant tomato variety for open field and greenhouse film with the original small dense fruit, keeping quite well its marketable qualities within 15-20 days after harvest in milk maturity phase is given. The fruits are rounded with sharp elongated spout. Fruits are good for fresh consumption, canning and pickling. Recommended for baby food and food for people with problems of the digestive system.

  19. Heat tolerance in Field Grown Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under Semi Arid Conditions of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kugblenu, Y O; Oppong Danso, E; Ofori, K

    2013-01-01

    One major reason for extremely low production of tomato in Ghana is that the length of the growing season last only for a few months due to the high temperature influx during the remaining months. The temperatures recorded during these months are above the optimum for tomato flowering and fruiting...... and this consequently affects yield. To solve this problem a number management practices may be undertaken such has growing heat tolerant tomato varieties or providing shade to mitigate the devastating effect of high temperatures. Therefore the present study was conducted outside the normal growing season from June...... to October, which has a mean temperature of 23°C. Heat tolerant tomato cultivars were grown from April to July with a mean temperature of 25°C to evaluate their performance under these conditions and to assess the effect of shading on the production of one of the genotypes. Fruiting percentage...

  20. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... compost had greater effect in improving tomato productivity. A decade-long application of composts on loamy sand improved basic chemical and physical properties which were reflected in increased fruit yield in tomato. Since no negative effect of compost was observed, we suggest that sandy soils may serve...... and greenhouse tomato productivity. Disturbed and intact soil samples were taken from a decade-long compost field experiment on loamy sand with three compost types at application rate of 30 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (7.5 ton ha-1 yr-1). The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties. Tomato was planted...

  1. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  2. Comportamento pós-colheita das características químicas, bioquímicas e físicas de frutos de tomateiros heterozigotos nos locos alcobaça e ripening inhibitort Post-harvest behaviour of chemical, biochemical and physical aspects of tomato fruits heterozygous in alcobaça and ripening inhibitor loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Militão dos Santos Junior

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os alelos mutantes alc e rin retardam o processo de amadurecimento do tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., interferindo principalmente na síntese de pigmentos carotenóides e na firmeza dos frutos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar e comparar os efeitos dos alelos mutantes alc e rin, em heterozigose (alc+/alc e rin+/rin sobre características químicas, bioquímicas e físicas de frutos de tomateiro em três estádios de maturação. Os alelos alc e rin em heterozigose não exerceram influência marcante sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais dos frutos nos estádios de maturação apropriados para o consumo. O genótipo rin+/rinatuou mais intensamente no sentido de reduzir os teores de licopeno e, conseqüentemente, promover maior deficiência na coloração vermelha dos frutos quando comparado ao efeito do genótipo alc+/alc. Nos frutos maduros, a atividade da enzima pectinametilesterase sofreu maior redução pela ação do genótipo rin+/rin. O genótipo alc+/alc foi mais eficiente em reduzir a atividade da poligalacturonase. No estádio breaker, não houve influência dos alelos em heterozigose sobre os teores de celulose, hemicelulose e pectina dos frutos. No estádio intermediário, o genótipo rin+/rin promoveu redução na fração hemicelulose. No estádio maduro, o alelo rin em heterozigose promoveu redução significativa nos teores de celulose e pectina do material da parede celular.The ripening mutants alc and rin delay tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ripening and affect synthesis of carotenoids pigments and fruit firmness. This paper reports on the comparative effects of heterozygous alc and rin genotipes (alc+/alc and rin+/rin on chemical, biochemical and physical aspects of tomato fruit during three ripening stages. Neither alc+/alc nor rin+/rin influenced total solids contents in the intermediary or fully ripe stages. The genotype rin+/rin brought about a more marked reduction in lycopene than alc

  3. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccurullo, G; Giordano, L

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling. (paper)

  4. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  5. Effect of Stages of Maturity and Ripening Conditions on the Biochemical Characteristics of Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Moneruzzaman; A. B.M.S. Hossain; W. Sani; M. Saifuddin

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the biochemical characteristics of tomato in different maturity stages and ripening conditions. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits (cv. Ruma VF) were harvested at the three maturity stages viz., mature green, half ripen and full ripen and stored at three condition control (without covering), straw covering and CaC2 + straw covering. At that time ascorbic acid, pH, titrable acidity, sugar (reducing, non-reducing sugar and total) percent...

  6. Commercial plant-probiotic microorganisms for sustainable organic tomato production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco, Marco; Giovannetti, Giusto; Picard, Christine; Baruffa, Elisa; Brondolo, Anna; Sabbioni, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Selected plant-probiotic microorganisms, produced by the company CCS Aosta at a commercial scale, are being tested in the Italian Padana plain in open field conditions for their ability to provide adequate crop nutrition and to ensure durable soil fertility for organic tomato production. In this three-years-long project the QLIF-WP333 research team will investigate the potential of soil probiotics management as a tool to improve the quality of tomato fruits and the sustainability of organic t...

  7. Effect of ionizing radiations on the shelf-life of tomatoes as a function of their ripeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.; Vas, K.

    1974-01-01

    San Marzano tomatoes in three different stages of ripening were treated with 1, 4, 16, 64 and 256 krad doses of gamma rays. Storage temperature was 6-8 0 C, relative humidity 75-85%. Radiation treatment of green and red tomatoes is inexpedient, because the former do not meet the organoleptic requirements while the storage life of the latter is not substantially extended. The spoilage of pink-coloured tomatoes could be delayed by radiation doses of 4,16 and 64 krad, respectively, but higher doses had an unfavourable effect. The rate of weight loss of tomatoes in different stages of maturity can be reduced by irradiation. Radiation treatment softened the texture of the tomato as an immediate effect, but during further storage, this effect diminished. On the basis of spoilage studies irradiation of tomato fruits in the pink-coloured stage of ripeness seems to be promising. (F.J.)

  8. Qualidade de sabor de tomates dos tipos salada e cereja e sua relação com caracteres morfoagronômicos dos frutos Taste quality of salad and cherry tomatoes and their relationship with the morphoagronomic characteristics of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moreira Sobreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutos no estádio vermelho maduro de trinta e três acessos de tomate do banco de germoplasma do CCA-UFES, sendo 15 do "tipo Cereja" e 18 do "tipo Salada", foram caracterizados com base nos seguintes descritores morfoagronômicos: peso médio do fruto; comprimento médio do fruto; diâmetro médio do fruto; diâmetro da cicatriz peduncular; espessura do mesocarpo do fruto; teor de sólidos solúveis e pH do fruto. Com base nas variáveis teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS e pH do fruto, calculou-se a variável sabor, por meio da relação TSS/pH². Foram realizadas análises de variâncias e análises de correlações simples e parciais, determinando a distribuição dos acessos quanto às classes de sabor. Com base nas distribuições de frequências, formaram-se quatro classes para essa variável, sendo que, a maior parcela (33% dos acessos "tipo Salada" alocaram-se na classe mais baixa (0,05-0,12 ºBrix.pH-2, correspondendo a frutos de sabor menos desejável, enquanto a maior parcela (30% dos acessos "tipo Cereja", alocaram-se em classe imediatamente superior (0,13-0,20 ºBrix.pH-2. Os dados demonstram a possibilidade de se obter ganhos genéticos para sabor concomitantemente ao peso, comprimento e espessura do mesocarpo dos frutos.Fruits in the ripe red stage of thirty three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. accessions from CCA-UFES germplasm collection, being 15 "Cherry type" and 18 "Salad type", were characterized based on the following morphooagronomic descriptors: average fruit weight; average fruit length; average fruit diameter; peduncle scar diameter; fruit mesocarp thickness; soluble solids and fruit pH. Based on the data from the soluble solids and fruit pH, the flavor variable was calculated by the ratio TSS/pH². Variance analysis and simple and partial correlations were calculated, and the accessions were clustered in flavor classes. Based on the statistical model of distribution of frequencies, four classes were formed for

  9. Biochemical fate of N6 substituted purines (cytokinins) in normal ripening and mutant tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The initial rates of disappearance of cytokinins, as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography, for tomatoes which were vacuum infused with benzyladenine and isopentenyladenine were dissimilar between the normal ripening (Ohio CR-6 and Rutgers), ripening inhibited mutant (RIN) and non-ripening mutant (NOR) tomato varieties. Radiolabeled [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolism was followed during a 2 h period utilizing thin layer chromatography and visualization by fluorography. The [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolite patterns were different among the varieties. The [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolite pattern in Ohio CR-6 tomato changed as the fruit ripened

  10. Tomato grading system using machine vision technology and neuro-fuzzy networks (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The quality of agricultural products is associated with their color, size and health, grading of fruits is regarded as an important step in post-harvest processing. In most cases, manual sorting inspections depends on available manpower, time consuming and their accuracy could not be guaranteed. Machine Vision is known to be a useful tool for external features measurement (e.g. size, shape, color and defects and in recent century, Machine Vision technology has been used for shape sorting. The main purpose of this study was to develop new method for tomato grading and sorting using Neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS and to compare the accuracies of the ANFIS predicted results with those suggested by a human expert. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 300 image of tomatoes (Rev ground was randomly harvested, classified in 3 ripeness stage, 3 sizes and 2 health. The grading and sorting mechanism consisted of a lighting chamber (cloudy sky, lighting source and a digital camera connected to a computer. The images were recorded in a special chamber with an indirect radiation (cloudy sky with four florescent lampson each sides and camera lens was entire to lighting chamber by a hole which was only entranced to outer and covered by a camera lens. Three types of features were extracted from final images; Shap, color and texture. To receive these features, we need to have images both in color and binary format in procedure shown in Figure 1. For the first group; characteristics of the images were analysis that could offer information an surface area (S.A., maximum diameter (Dmax, minimum diameter (Dmin and average diameters. Considering to the importance of the color in acceptance of food quality by consumers, the following classification was conducted to estimate the apparent color of the tomato; 1. Classified as red (red > 90% 2. Classified as red light (red or bold pink 60-90% 3. Classified as pink (red 30-60% 4. Classified as Turning

  11. Effect on Quality Characteristics of Tomatoes Grown Under Well-Watered and Drought Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Warinporn; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-07-25

    Tomatoes are one of the most nutritionally and economically important crops in New Zealand and around the world. Tomatoes require large amounts of water to grow well and are adversely affected by drought stress. However, few studies have evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of commercial tomatoes grown under water stress conditions. Four tomato cultivars (Incas, Marmande, Scoresby Dwarf, and Window Box Red) were grown in a greenhouse under well-watered and drought stress conditions and the tomatoes were harvested when ripe. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant contents of the fruits were compared. There were significant differences between cultivars in quality characteristics-such as dry matter, total soluble solids, and pH parameters-but there were no differences in the quality characteristics between the two treatments of the fruits ( p > 0.05); however, there were significant differences ( p < 0.05) in the antioxidant compositions (lycopene, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS) of the fruits of both cultivars and treatments. Overall, these results indicated that tomatoes increased their bioactive compounds without changing any quality characteristics when exposed to water stress conditions.

  12. High species richness of native pollinators in Brazilian tomato crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Silva-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Pollinators provide an essential service to natural ecosystems and agriculture. In tomatoes flowers, anthers are poricidal, pollen may drop from their pore when flowers are shaken by the wind. However, bees that vibrate these anthers increase pollen load on the stigma and in fruit production. The present study aimed to identify the pollinator richness of tomato flowers and investigate their morphological and functional traits related to the plant-pollinator interaction in plantations of Central Brazil. The time of anthesis, flower duration, and the number and viability of pollen grains and ovules were recorded. Floral visitors were observed and collected. Flower buds opened around 6h30 and closed around 18h00. They reopened on the following day at the same time in the morning, lasting on average 48 hours. The highest pollen availability occurred during the first hours of anthesis. Afterwards, the number of pollen grains declined, especially between 10h00 to 12h00, which is consistent with the pollinator visitation pattern. Forty bee species were found in the tomato fields, 30 of which were considered pollinators. We found that during the flowering period, plants offered an enormous amount of pollen to their visitors. These may explain the high richness and amount of bees that visit the tomato flowers in the study areas. The period of pollen availability and depletion throughout the day overlapped with the bees foraging period, suggesting that bees are highly effective in removing pollen grains from anthers. Many of these grains probably land on the stigma of the same flower, leading to self-pollination and subsequent fruit development. Native bees (Exomalopsis spp. are effective pollinators of tomato flowers and are likely to contribute to increasing crop productivity. On the other hand, here tomato flowers offer large amounts of pollen resource to a high richness and amount of bees, showing a strong plant-pollinator interaction in the

  13. High species richness of native pollinators in Brazilian tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Neto, C M; Bergamini, L L; Elias, M A S; Moreira, G L; Morais, J M; Bergamini, B A R; Franceschinelli, E V

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators provide an essential service to natural ecosystems and agriculture. In tomatoes flowers, anthers are poricidal, pollen may drop from their pore when flowers are shaken by the wind. However, bees that vibrate these anthers increase pollen load on the stigma and in fruit production. The present study aimed to identify the pollinator richness of tomato flowers and investigate their morphological and functional traits related to the plant-pollinator interaction in plantations of Central Brazil. The time of anthesis, flower duration, and the number and viability of pollen grains and ovules were recorded. Floral visitors were observed and collected. Flower buds opened around 6h30 and closed around 18h00. They reopened on the following day at the same time in the morning, lasting on average 48 hours. The highest pollen availability occurred during the first hours of anthesis. Afterwards, the number of pollen grains declined, especially between 10h00 to 12h00, which is consistent with the pollinator visitation pattern. Forty bee species were found in the tomato fields, 30 of which were considered pollinators. We found that during the flowering period, plants offered an enormous amount of pollen to their visitors. These may explain the high richness and amount of bees that visit the tomato flowers in the study areas. The period of pollen availability and depletion throughout the day overlapped with the bees foraging period, suggesting that bees are highly effective in removing pollen grains from anthers. Many of these grains probably land on the stigma of the same flower, leading to self-pollination and subsequent fruit development. Native bees (Exomalopsis spp.) are effective pollinators of tomato flowers and are likely to contribute to increasing crop productivity. On the other hand, here tomato flowers offer large amounts of pollen resource to a high richness and amount of bees, showing a strong plant-pollinator interaction in the study agroecosystem.

  14. Comparative evaluation of tomato varieties (Licopersicum esculentum Mill. in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Comparative evaluation of varieties of tomato bred by Kyiv experimental station of the Institute of vege­tables and melons (IVM NAAS of Ukraine with allowance for different fruit shapes. Methods. Field, laboratory, statistical ones. Results. Since varietal characteristics can greatly influence the course of the growth process, the experiment included phenological observations of plants growth and development, biometric measurements of plants and fruits, productivity records, besides, biochemical values of fruits with various shape were defined (flat-round and plum-shaped fruits. Varieties with the highest yield, best biochemical values and earlier fruit ripening were identified. Conclusions. Among the samples of tomato with flat-round fruits, Zoren variety had the shortest time interval from mass germination up to early ripening of fruits, Myroliubivskyi variety – in the group of plum-shaped fruits. In the first group Atlasnyi variety had the highest yield, in the se­cond – Khoriv variety. Atlasnyi (flat-round fruits and Oberig (plum-shaped fruits varieties had the best biochemical values. Varieties with plum-shaped fruits excelled samples with flat-round fruits at biochemical composition.

  15. Effect of drought stress on growth, yield and seed quality of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, M.A.; Ayub, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth is seriously affected by abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity or temperature. Drought is one of the most important limiting factors for agricultural crops and vegetable production in particular all around the world. Drought stress during vegetative or early reproductive growth usually reduces yield by reducing the number of seeds, seed size and seed quality. To assess the effect of drought stress on seed yield, seed quality and growth of tomato, the experiment was conducted in green house in plastic pots at Pen-y-Fridd field station, University of Wales, Bangor, U.K. during 2003-2004. Tomato cv. Moneymaker was used as a test crop. There were four treatments i.e. early stress (when first truss has set the fruits), middle stress (when fruits in first truss were fully matured and started changing their colour), late stress (when fruits on first truss were ripened fully), whereas in control no stress was imposed. Analysis of data regarding various attributes (fruit weight and shoot dry weight per plant, number of seeds per fruit, total number of seeds and seed weight per plant and vigour of seed) showed that drought stress had non-significant effect on vigour, quality and yield of tomato seed. Plant height, number of leaves and number of fruits per plant showed significant results toward drought stress signifying drought effects on growth of tomato. (author)

  16. Flexible tools for gene expression and silencing in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana I; Viron, Nicolas; Alhagdow, Moftah; Karimi, Mansour; Jones, Matthew; Amsellem, Ziva; Sicard, Adrien; Czerednik, Anna; Angenent, Gerco; Grierson, Donald; May, Sean; Seymour, Graham; Eshed, Yuval; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Rothan, Christophe; Hilson, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    As a genetic platform, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) benefits from rich germplasm collections and ease of cultivation and transformation that enable the analysis of biological processes impossible to investigate in other model species. To facilitate the assembly of an open genetic toolbox designed to study Solanaceae, we initiated a joint collection of publicly available gene manipulation tools. We focused on the characterization of promoters expressed at defined time windows during fruit development, for the regulated expression or silencing of genes of interest. Five promoter sequences were captured as entry clones compatible with the versatile MultiSite Gateway format: PPC2, PG, TPRP, and IMA from tomato and CRC from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Corresponding transcriptional fusions were made with the GUS gene, a nuclear-localized GUS-GFP reporter, and the chimeric LhG4 transcription factor. The activity of the promoters during fruit development and in fruit tissues was confirmed in transgenic tomato lines. Novel Gateway destination vectors were generated for the transcription of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) precursors and hairpin RNAs under the control of these promoters, with schemes only involving Gateway BP and LR Clonase reactions. Efficient silencing of the endogenous phytoene desaturase gene was demonstrated in transgenic tomato lines producing a matching amiRNA under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or PPC2 promoter. Lastly, taking advantage of the pOP/LhG4 two-component system, we found that well-characterized flower-specific Arabidopsis promoters drive the expression of reporters in patterns generally compatible with heterologous expression. Tomato lines and plasmids will be distributed through a new Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre service unit dedicated to Solanaceae resources.

  17. PILLARED ZEOLITES AMENDMENTS INFLUENCE FROM POLLUTED SOIL ON HEAVY METALS BIOACCUMULATION IN TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMARANDA MASU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthropic activities, the presence of metals in polluted soils has effects on plants development and metals bioaccumulation into trophic levels. In this paper, were followed experiments regarding the tomatoes development into polluted soils with 43.4 – 58.4 mg Cd/kg d.s. and 500- 633 mg Pb/kg d.s. Nickel, zinc and copper content in soils are in the range of diffuse pollution values. Comparatively, an experiment was realized with polluted soils and amended with pillared zeolites. Pillared zeolites change metals distribution in soil fractions and their solubility. Tomato plants grew onto polluted soils, but did not present fruits. Tomatoes from polluted and amended soils presented fruits and metals in tissues (Zn  Cu  Ni. Zinc concentration was five times greater then Ni. Fruits do not accumulate cadmium and lead.

  18. Optimization of edible coating formulations for improving postharvest quality and shelf life of pear fruit using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandane, A S; Dave, Rudri K; Rao, T V Ramana

    2017-01-01

    The effect of composite edible films containing soy protein isolate (SPI) in combination with additives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and olive oil on 'Babughosha' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 5 °C and 60 ± 10% RH) was evaluated using Response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 30 edible coating formulations comprising of SPI (2-6%, w/v), olive oil (0.7-1.1%, v/v), HPMC (0.1-0.5%, w/v) and potassium sorbate (0-0.4% w/v) were evaluated for optimizing the most suitable combination. Quality parameters like weight loss%, TSS, pH and titrable acidity of the stored pears were selected as response variables for optimization. The optimization procedure was carried out using RSM. It was observed that the response variables were mainly effected by concentration of SPI and olive oil in the formulation. Edible coating comprising of SPI 5%, HPMC 0.40%, olive oil 1% and potassium sorbate 0.22% was found to be most suitable combination for pear fruit with predicted values of response variables indicated as weight loss% 3.50, pH 3.41, TSS 11.13 and TA% 0.513.

  19. Ultrasonic extraction of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruit using response surface methodology and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Donghui; Fang, Fang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wu, Tao

    2014-06-27

    For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v) ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

  20. Ultrasonic Extraction of Antioxidants from Chinese Sumac (Rhus typhina L.